Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.
The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria z ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [Spanish] Los efectos residuales en poblaciones de la 'arana roja', Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranichidae) y de los acaros predadores
Baker, Anne S
Mites and ticks (Acari) have been found in a variety of archaeological situations. Their identification has enabled data on habitat and dietary preferences to be obtained, and these have been used to interpret study sites. Despite this, Acari are not routinely considered in analyses in the way that other environmental components are. Like forensic science, archaeology draws on biological material to rebuild past human activity, and acarology has the potential to provide a much greater amount of evidence to both than is currently the case. As an aid to workers in these fields, an overview is presented of the Acari that have been extracted from archaeological samples, the situations in which they were found and the contribution their presence can make to the interpretation of sites.
The Tuckerellidae is the only a phytophagous family within the Tetranychoidea (Acari) that retains the ancestral prostigmatan condition of three nymphal stages during development; however it is only the female developmental sequence that retains a tritonymphal stage. Adult females develop from a tr...
Because of their small size and tolerance to many of the control procedures used for a wide variety of commodities, Acari species have become one of the fastest, unwanted pest travelers since the beginning of this century. This special issue includes eleven studies on adventive and invasive Acari sp...
There are approximately 55,000 described Acari species, accounting for almost half of all known Arachnida species, but total estimated Acari diversity is reckoned to be far greater. One important source of currently hidden Acari diversity is cryptic speciation, which poses challenges to taxonomists ...
Osperalycus tenerphagus, a new genus and species of Nematalycidae (Acari: Endeostigmata), is described from Ohio, USA, using light microscopy and low temperature scanning electron microscopy. Specimens were extracted from two different loam soils. This genus can be readily distinguished from the oth...
Ermilov, Sergey G.
Abstract A species list of identified oribatid mite taxa (Acari, Oribatida) in the fauna of Vietnam is provided. During 1967–2015, a total of 535 species/subspecies from 222 genera and 81 families was registered. Of these, 194 species/subspecies were described as new for science from Vietnam. PMID:26798306
Mangalaus ikrishianusandhanus n. gen., n. sp., (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyoidea), collected from erineum on the underside of leaves of Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae) is described and illustrated from specimens collected at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) in New Delhi, India....
Clover J.R. (1998) Infestation of the southern alligator lizard (Squamata: Anguidae) by Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) and its susceptibility to Borrelia burgdorferi . Journal of Medical Entomology, 35, 1044–1049.
Klimovičová, Miroslava; Mikula, Peter; Kahure, Njoki; Hromada, Martin
Two new species of quill mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) collected from passeriform and coraciiform birds from Kenya are described : Neoaulonastus apalis sp. nov. from Apalis porphyrolaema Reichenow and Neumann (Passeriformes: Cisticolidae) and Peristerophila upupi sp. nov. from Upupa epops Linnaeus (Coraciiformes: Upupidae). Additionally, 3 new host species: Cisticola hunteri Shelley, 1889; Acrocephalus baeticatus (Vieillot, 1817) and Ploceus xanthops (Hartlaub, 1862) from Kenya and two new localities are recorded for genera: Aulobia Kethley, 1970; Neoaulonastus Skoracki, 2004 and Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1970. The previous and the latest knowledge about syringophilid mites from Kenya is summarized in tabular form.
Han, Jun; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Lee, Sang-Gyeu; Kim, Soon Il; Ahn, Young-Joon
The toxicity of 10 plant essential oils to adults of acaricide-susceptible, chlorfenapyr-resistant (CRT-53), fenpropathrin-resistant (FRT-53), pyridaben-resistant (PRT-53), and abamectin-resistant (ART-53) strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and to female Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined using spray or vapor-phase mortality bioassays. In bioassay with the susceptible adults, lemon eucalyptus (19.3 microg/cm3) was the most toxic oil, followed by peppermint, citronella Java, thyme red, caraway seed, clove leaf, and pennyroyal oils (LC50, 20.6-23.7 microg/cm3). The toxicity of these oils was almost identical against adults from either of the susceptible and resistant strains, even though CRT-53, FRT-53, PRT-53, and ART-53 adults exhibited high levels of resistance to chlorfenapyr (resistance ratio [RR], > 9,140), fenpropathrin (RR, 94), pyridaben (RR, > 390), and abamectin (RR, 85), respectively. Against female N. californicus, lemon eucalyptus (LC50, 21.4 microg/cm3) was the most toxic oil, whereas the LC50 values of the other nine oils ranged from 23.2 to 72.6 microg/cm3. N. californicus was 1-2 times more tolerant than T. urticae to the test essential oils. Thus, these essential oils merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of acaricide-resistant T. urticae populations as fumigants.
Khaustov, Alexander A
Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided.
Martinez, Manuel; Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Arnaiz, Ana; Carrillo, Laura; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel
This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide–acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives. PMID:27775606
Martinez, Manuel; Santamaria, Maria Estrella; Diaz-Mendoza, Mercedes; Arnaiz, Ana; Carrillo, Laura; Ortego, Felix; Diaz, Isabel
This review deals with phytocystatins, focussing on their potential role as defence proteins against phytophagous arthropods. Information about the evolutionary, molecular and biochemical features and inhibitory properties of phytocystatins are presented. Cystatin ability to inhibit heterologous cysteine protease activities is commented on as well as some approaches of tailoring cystatin specificity to enhance their defence function towards pests. A general landscape on the digestive proteases of phytophagous insects and acari and the remarkable plasticity of their digestive physiology after feeding on cystatins are highlighted. Biotechnological approaches to produce recombinant cystatins to be added to artificial diets or to be sprayed as insecticide-acaricide compounds and the of use cystatins as transgenes are discussed. Multiple examples and applications are included to end with some conclusions and future perspectives.
el Kady, G A; Shoukry, A; Ragheb, D A; el Said, A M; Habib, K S; Morsy, T A
Mites are arthropods distinguished from ticks by usually being microscopical in size and have a hypostome unarmed with tooth-like anchoring processes. They are group in a number of suborders, each with super-families and families including many genera of medical and economic importance. In this paper, commensal rodents (Rattus norvegicus, R. r. alexandrinus and R. r. frugivorous) were surveyed in the Suez Canal Zone for their acari ectoparasites. Four species of mites were recovered. In a descending order of mite indices, they were Eulaelaps stabularis (4.83 on 6 rats), Laelaps nuttalli (3.11 on 27 rats), Ornithonyssus bacoti (1.66 on 9 rats) and Dermanyssus gallinae (0.66 on 24 rats). The overall mite indices in the three governorates were 3.66 in Suez, 2.82 in Ismailia and zero in Port Said. The medical and economic importance of the mites were discussed.
et al. 1998). Oliver et al. (1987) described the immature stages of I. affinis and provided distribution, phenology , and host records. Ixodes...Ixodes (Ixodes) scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae): Redescription of all active stages, distribution, hosts, geographical variation , and medical and
Park, Hong-Hyun; Shipp, Les; Buitenhuis, Rosemarije
Predation, development, and oviposition experiments were conducted to evaluate Amblyseius swirskii (Athias-Henriot) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as a potential biological control agent for tomato russet mite, Aculops lycopersici (Massee) (Acari: Eriophyidae), which can be a serious pest of greenhouse tomatoes. Results showed that A. swirskii attacked all developmental stages of A. lycopersici and had a type II functional response at the prey densities tested. The attack rate and handling time estimates from the random predator equation were 0.1289/h and 0.2320 h, respectively, indicating that A. swirskii can consume 103.4 individuals per day. Predation rates of A. swirskii on A. lycopersici in the presence of alternative food sources such as pollen, first-instar thrips, or whitefly eggs were 74, 56, and 76%, respectively, compared with the predation rate on A. lycopersici alone. A. swirskii successfully completed their life cycle on either A. lycopersici or cattail (Typha latifolia L.) pollen. At 25 degrees C and 70% RH, developmental time of female A. swirskii fed on A. lycopersici or on cattail pollen was 4.97 and 6.16 d, respectively. For the first 10 d after molting to the adult stage, A. swirskii fed on A. lycopersici had higher daily oviposition rate (2.0 eggs per day) than on pollen (1.5 eggs per day). From this laboratory study, it can be concluded that A. swirskii has promising traits as a predator against A. lycopersici and that their populations can be maintained using alternative food sources such as cattail pollen. We suggest that the effectiveness of A. swirskii against A. lycopersici under field conditions needs next to be investigated.
Investigations have been conducted in Europe in the last decade in order to find potential agents for biological control of invasive teasels in North America. During surveys conducted in Serbia in May 2007, the new eriophyid mite species Aculops dipsaci n. sp. (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) was ...
The brown dog tick can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acari...
Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) is a polyphagous mite with worldwide distribution and it is also a vector of several plant viruses. In citrus, B. phoenicis transmits Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV), the causal agent of leprosis, a disease that costs millions of dollars/year for ...
Proper identification of mites (Arachnida: Acari) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mite specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clearing, use...
Haitlinger, Ryszard; Łupicki, Dariusz
From 9 specimens of Procyon lotor collected in vicinity of Dobroszyn and Górzyca (Lubuskie province) 61 arthropods of 6 species were obtained: Siphonaptera (one specimen), Acari (3 species), Phthiraptera (one specimen--Trichodectes octomaculatus; new species to fauna of Poland) and one specimen of Psocoptera.
Stored product mites (Acari: Acaridida) can often infest stored products, but currently there is little information regarding efficacy of insecticides or miticides that can be used for control. In this study we evaluated several common insecticides (chlorpyrifos, deltametrhin, beta-cyfluthrin, and a...
Saboori, Alireza; Wohltmann, Andreas; Hakimitabar, Masoud; Shirvani, Asghar
Achaemenothrombium dariusi Saboori, Wohltmann & Hakimitabar sp. nov. (Acari, Prostigmata: Trombidioidea) is described and illustrated from larvae ectoparasitic on Euxoafallax (Eversmann) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Sirch and Cheshmeh Bondar, Kerman province, Iran. It is the third species of this genus, which is recorded only from Iran. The status of this small family is discussed and a key to species of A chaemenothrombium (larvae) is presented.
Xu, Yun; Fan, Qing-Hai; Huang, Jian
A new species Terminalichus sanya Xu & Fan sp. nov. (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) on Terminalia catappa L. (Combretaceae) from China is described and illustrated. The ontogenetic changes in ventral and leg chaetotaxy on the female, deutonymph, protonymph and larva are presented. The generic definition of Terminalichus is updated and a key to the world species is provided.
Bochkov, A V; Fain, A; Skoracki, M
Five new species and two new genera belonging to the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Cheyletoidea) are described from birds that died in the Antwerp Zoo during their quarantine: Charadriaulobia vanelli n. g., n. sp. from Vanellus chilensis (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) in Brazil; Fritschisyringophilus lonchurae n. g., n. sp. from Lonchura punctulata (Passeriformes: Estrildidae) in India; Mironovia coturnae n. sp. from Coturnix coturnix (Galliformes: Phasianidae) in Europe; Syringophiloidus daberti n. sp. from Passerina ciris (Passeriformes: Emberizidae) in Mexico; and S. serini n. sp. from Serinus mozambicus (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) in Central Africa. Charadriaulobia n. g. differs from the closely related Aulobia Kethley, 1970, in both sexes, by the divergent epimeres I; in females, by the absence of protuberances on the hypostomal apex and by the situation of the bases of setae l4 distinctly anterior the bases of setae d4. Fritschisyringophilus n. g. differs from the closely related Syringophiloidus Kethley, 1972, in both sexes, by the presence of setae vs ' on legs II, the absence of setae dT on legs III and IV; in females, by the presence of median hypostomal protuberances and by short setae l1, l2 and l3. The relationships between the Syringophilidae and their hosts are briefly discussed. A list of all known syringophilid genera and their distribution on bird families is provided.
Younis, T A; Fayad, M E; el Hariry, M A; Morsy, T A
From the medical point of view, the relation between man and rodents comes in the priority. Some rodent populations are wild but others are commensal and live in close association with man. They steal his food and conveying many zoonotic diseases. Their arthropod ectoparasites play an important role in conveying or transmitting these zoonotic diseases. Several disorders and diseases of man are tick borne relapsing fever, Rocky mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and many others. Besides numerous species of mites occasionally infest man. They transmit several diseases as Rickettsia tsutsugamushi fever, epidemic haemorrhagic fever, and they cause severe allergic reaction. The results obtained are summarized in the following (1) Six species and subspecies of rodents were detected. In a descending order of abundance, they were (a) Rattus norvegicus, (b) Rattus rattus alexandrinus (c) Rattus rattus frugivorous (d) Acomys cahirinus (e) Gerbillus gerbillus asyutensis (f) Mus m. praetextus. (2) The most common rodent was R. norvegicus and the least common was M. musculus. (3) The collected ticks and mites were 2 genera of tick larvae; Rhipicephalus species and Hyalomma species. The collected mites were Ornithonyssus bacoti and Laelaps nuttali. (4) Most of the tick larvae were collected from wild rodents; Gerbillus g. asyutensis. (5) Most of the mites were collected from commensal rodents particularly R. norvegicus. Descriptive morphology and illustrations were given to the collected rodents and their acari ectoparasites.
Glowska, Eliza; Dragun-Damian, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Gerth, Michael
Wolbachia is the most abundant intracellular bacterial genus infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia have evolved parasitic, mutualistic and commensal relationships with their hosts but in arthropods generally act as reproductive parasites, inducing a wide range of phenotypic effects such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and male-killing. Up to now, the genus has been divided into 14 supergroups successively named A-O. Here, we describe two new Wolbachia supergroups from syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea). These obligatory ectoparasites of birds inhabit the quills of feathers in many avian groups. The species of this family reproduce in a haplodiploid mode sensu arrhenotoky and are usually strongly female-biased. Based on the sequences of four protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA and groEL and coxA) and the 16S rRNA we identified strains of three Wolbachia supergroups (F and two distinct, yet undescribed ones) in five quill mite species. Our results suggest that in some cases the distribution of the bacteria can be better correlated with the mite's bird host rather than with mite taxonomy as such. The discovery of two new Wolbachia supergroups not only broadens the knowledge of the diversity of this bacterium but also raises questions about potential effects induced in quill mites and transmission mechanisms of the endosymbionts in this peculiar bacteria-quill mite-bird system.
Pešić, Vladimir; Smit, Harry
New records of water mites of the family Torrenticolidae (Acari: Hydrachnidia) from streams in two mountain ranges in northern Borneo are presented. Aims of this study were to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the newly collected torrenticolids using molecular methods, and describe all new species. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from 18 torrenticolid specimens and 14 new species are described: Torrenticola (Torrenticola) borneoensis n. sp., T. (T.) kinabaluensis n. sp., T. (T.) sabahensis n. sp., T. (T.) neoindica n. sp., T. (T.) schilthuizeni n. sp., Neoatractides (Allotorrenticola) sundaensis n. sp., N. (Heteratractides) uniscutatus n. sp., Pseudotorrenticola borneoensis n. sp., Monatractides (Monatractides) epiales n. sp., M. (M.) morpheus n. sp., M. (M.) phantasos n. sp., M. (M.) phobetor n. sp., M. (M.) hercules n. sp. and M. (M.) minuta n. sp. Additionally, the first records for Borneo are given for Torrenticola (Megapalpis) cf. pugionirostris (K. Viets, 1939), Monatractides (Monatractides) longiventris (K. Viets, 1939), M. (M.) cf. macroporus (K. Viets, 1935) and M. (M.) oxystomus (K. Viets, 1935). Monatractides tobaensis (K. Viets, 1935) is transferred to the subgenus Vietsclio Pešić & Smit, 2014. A key to the species of Monatractides is presented.
Saeidi, Zarir; Nemati, Alireza; Khalili-Moghadam, Arsalan
Abstract A new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari, Mesostigmata, Laelapidae), Gaeolaelaps izajiensis sp. n. is described based on the morphological characters of adult females which were collected from soil sample in the Izeh and Ghaletol regions of the Khuzestan province, Iran. It can be distinguished from the other members of the genus by some morphological characteristics of dorsal shield, form and reticulation of epigynal shield, the exopodal plates, and the peritremes. PMID:27667922
Khaustov, Alexander A.
Abstract Five species of myrmecophilous microdispid mites (Acari: Microdispidae) are recorded from Western Siberia, Russia. Unguidispus lasii Kurosa, 1979, Unguidispus japonicus Kurosa, 1979, Caesarodispus minutus (Sevastianov, 1981), and Caesarodispus samsinaki (Mahunka, 1967), comb. n. are reported from Russia for the first time. Unguidispus polyctenus (Sevastianov, 1969) and Caesarodispus samsinaki are redescribed. The keys to species of the genera Unguidispus Mahunka, 1970 and Caesarodispus Mahunka, 1977 are provided. PMID:25493064
MENTZ, Márcia Bohrer; TROMBKA, Marcelo; da SILVA, Guilherme Liberato; SILVA, Carlos Eugênio
We report the finding of a female brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) on the scalp of a male patient in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Human parasitism by this tick is rare and has seldomly been reported in the literature, despite its recognized importance since it can act as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii, the agent of spotted fever. PMID:27074329
Nemati, Alireza; Joharchi, Omid; Babaeian, Esmaeil; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J
We describe a new species of mite from Iran--Reticulolaelaps hallidayi Joharchi, Nemati & Babaeian sp. nov. (Acari: Laelapidae). The new species was collected in a nest of Tapinoma sp. (Hymnoptera: Formicidae) in Taleghan city, Alborz Province and in soil in Khuzestan province in southwestern Iran. Reticulolaelapsfaini is reported for the first time from Iran. The genus Reticulolaelaps is redescribed, and Reticulolaelaps lativentris Karg is transferred to Pseudoparasitus Oudemans.
Mites of the family Myocoptidae and Listrophoridae (Acari: Astigmata) are permanent, mono- or oligoxenous ectoparasites of mammals. Only 9 species from 4 genera of Myocoptidae are reported in Poland, as well 6 species from 4 genera of Listrophoridae, which are only a small fraction of huge number of these mites known in the world. This paper summarize known data about morphological features being adaptation of Myocoptidae and Listrophoridae to parasitize fur of mammals.
Carrillo, Daniel; Peña, Jorge E; Hoy, Marjorie A; Frank, J Howard
The red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), is an important pest of palms (Arecaceae) and other species within the Zingiberaceae, Musaceae and Strelitziaceae families. Raoiella indica was discovered in the USA (Palm Beach and Broward counties, Florida) late in 2007, and it subsequently spread to other Florida counties. The predatory mite Amblyseius largoensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been found associated with R. indica in Florida. In order to verify whether A. largoensis can develop and reproduce when feeding exclusively on R. indica, the biology of this predator was evaluated on various food sources, including R. indica. Five diets [R. indica, Tetranychus gloveri Aonidiella orientalis, Nipaecocus nipae, oak (Quercus virginiana) pollen] and a no-food control were tested to determine the predators' development, survivorship, oviposition rate, sex ratio and longevity at 26.5 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 5% RH and a 12:12 L:D photophase. Amblyseius largoensis was able to complete its life cycle and reproduce when fed exclusively on R. indica. The development of immature stages of A. largoensis was faster and fecundity and survivorship were higher when fed on R. indica or T. gloveri compared to the other food sources. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of A. largoensis was significantly higher when fed on R. indica than on other diets. These results suggest that, despite earlier assessments, A. largoensis can play a role in controlling R. indica.
Efficacy of indigenous predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) against the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Acari: Eriophyidae): augmentation and conservation biological control in Israeli citrus orchards.
Maoz, Yonatan; Gal, Shira; Argov, Yael; Domeratzky, Sylvie; Melamed, Eti; Gan-Mor, Samuel; Coll, Moshe; Palevsky, Eric
The citrus rust mite (CRM), Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Acari: Eriophyidae) is a cosmopolitan key pest of citrus, inflicting severe economic damage if not controlled. In Israel, CRM damages all citrus cultivars. International regulation and increasing control failures of CRM led growers to seek sustainable biological control solutions such as acarine biological control agents. Laboratory studies conducted in Israel have indicated that the indigenous predator species Amblyseius swirskii, Iphiseius degenerans, Typhlodromus athiasae and Euseius scutalis (all Acari: Phytoseiidae) can potentially control CRM. Our general objective in the present study was to bridge the gap of knowledge between laboratory studies and the lack of control efficacy of these species in commercial orchards. Predator augmentation in the field showed that although predator populations increased immediately following releases they later decreased and did not affect CRM populations. When A. swirskii augmentation was combined with a series of maize pollen applications, A. swirskii populations were enhanced substantially and continuously but again CRM populations were not affected. Growth chamber studies with CRM-infested seedlings, with or without a maize pollen supplement, indicated that pollen provisioning led to population increase of E. scutalis and A. swirskii but only E. scutalis significantly lowered CRM populations. Control with E. scutalis was confirmed in the field on CRM infested seedlings with pollen provisioned by adjacent flowering Rhodes grass. While experiments in mature citrus orchard showed that pollen supplement usually increased predator populations they also indicated that other factors such as intraguild interactions and pesticide treatments should be taken into account when devising CRM biological control programs.
Lopez, L.; Smith, H. A.; Hoy, M. A.; Cave, R. D.
Amblyseius swirskiiAthias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is a predatory mite used to control thrips (Thysanoptera), whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci Genn., Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), and broad mites (BMs) (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks, Acari: Tarsonemidae). Dispersal of A. swirskii, using the ornamental pepper “Explosive Ember” as a banker plant was evaluated for control of BMs in high-tunnel peppers. Open-canopy plants (5 weeks old) versus closed-canopy plants (10-weeks old) were used to evaluate the effect of plant connectedness in A. swirskii dispersal, in the presence (two females per plant) and absence of BMs. Plots consisted of a single central banker plant and four bell peppers extending linearly north and south. Sets of all treatments were destructively sampled 1, 4, and 7 days after releasing A. swirskii. Within 24 h, A. swirskii dispersed four plants away from the banker plants (1 m), regardless of the state of the canopy. Canopy connectedness did increase the presence of A. swirskii on the crop plants. Predatory mite numbers on closed-canopy treatments doubled within the 7-day sampling period, whereas no significant increase was observed on open-canopy treatments. The presence of BMs had no significant effect on the movement of A. swirskii. The results suggest further experiments with A. swirskii and banker plants for control of BMs is warranted. PMID:28025305
Villanueva, Raul T; Childers, Carl C
Development and reproduction of Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) were evaluated on single food diets of pollen (Malephora crocea Jacquin [ice plant] or Quercus sp. [oak]), spider mites, [Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) or Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae)], or the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Acari: Eriophyidae). Experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber at 28 degrees +/- 1 degrees C, 14:10 (L:D) daylength, and 45% RH. I. quadripilis completed development and laid viable eggs that subsequently hatched on diets of either ice plant or oak pollen or eggs and motile stages of E. banksi. P. citri was acceptable as prey, but survival of larvae to adults was only 36%, whereas survival on E. banksi, ice plant pollen, and oak pollen was 48, 60, and 68%, respectively. The webbing produced by P. citri seemed to inhibit foraging behavior of I. quadripilis larvae and nymphs. Larvae of I. quadripilis developed only to the second nymphal instar on a diet of P. oleivora alone or water alone. Starved I. quadripilis females and deutonymphs were observed preying on the pink citrus rust mite, Aculops pelekassi (Keifer) (Eriophyidae). During 4-min observation trials, two series of I. quadripilis fed on 1.8 +/- 0.47 and 3.5 +/- 0.45 A. pelekassi motile stages after being starved for 6 and 24 h, respectively. I. quadripilis females did not prey on P. oleivora in arenas containing both rust mite species.
Labruna, Marcelo B; Jorge, Rodrigo S P; Sana, Dênis A; Jácomo, Anah Tereza A; Kashivakura, Cyntia K; Furtado, Mariana M; Ferro, Claudia; Perez, Samuel A; Silveira, Leandro; Santos, Tarcísio S; Marques, Samuel R; Morato, Ronaldo G; Nava, Alessandra; Adania, Cristina H; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Gomes, Albério A B; Conforti, Valéria A; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Prada, Cristiana S; Silva, Jean C R; Batista, Adriana F; Marvulo, Maria Fernanda V; Morato, Rose L G; Alho, Cleber J R; Pinter, Adriano; Ferreira, Patrícia M; Ferreira, Fernado; Barros-Battesti, Darci M
The present study reports field data of ticks infesting wild carnivores captured from July 1998 to September 2004 in Brazil. Additional data were obtained from one tick collection and from previous published data of ticks on carnivores in Brazil. During field work, a total of 3437 ticks were collected from 89 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), 58 Chrysocyon brachyurus (maned wolf), 30 Puma concolor (puma), 26 Panthera onca (jaguar), 12 Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), 4 Speothos venaticus (bush dog), 6 Pseudalopex vetulus (hoary fox), 6 Nasua nasua (coati), 6 Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 2 Leopardus tigrinus (oncilla), 1 Leopardus wiedii (margay), 1 Herpailurus yagouaroundi (jaguarundi), 1 Oncifelis colocolo (pampas cat), 1 Eira barbara (tayara), 1 Galictis vittata (grison), 1 Lontra longicaudis (neotropical otter), and 1 Potus flavus (kinkajou). Data obtained from the Acari Collection IBSP included a total of 381 tick specimens collected on 13 C. thous, 8 C. brachyurus, 3 P. concolor, 10 P. onca, 3 P. cancrivorus, 4 N. nasua, 1 L. pardalis, 1 L. wiedii, 4 H. yagouaroundi, 1 Galictis cuja (lesser grison), and 1 L. longicaudis. The only tick-infested carnivore species previously reported in Brazil, for which we do not present any field data are Pseudalopex gymnocercus (pampas fox), Conepatus chinga (Molina's hog-nosed skunk), and Conepatus semistriatus (striped hog-nosed skunk). We report the first tick records in Brazil on two Felidae species (O. colocolo, H. yagouaroundi), two Canidae species (P. vetulus, S. venaticus), one Procyonidae species (P. flavus) and one Mustelidae (E. barbara). Tick infestation remains unreported for 5 of the 26 Carnivora species native in Brazil: Oncifelis geoffroyi (Geoffroy's cat), Atelocynus microtis (short-eared dog), Pteronura brasiliensis (giant otter), Mustela africana (Amazon weasel), and Bassaricyon gabbii (olingo). Our field data comprise 16 tick species represented by the genera Amblyomma (12 species), Ixodes (1
Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different deg...
Mayoral, Jaime G; Barranco, Pablo
Nevada capileirarum n. g., n. sp. (Acari: Microtrombidiidae: Microtrombidiinae) is described from ectoparasitic larvae parasitising two endemic species of Orthoptera (Tettigoniidae), Baetica ustulata (Rambur) and Pycnogaster inermis (Rambur) from the Sierra Nevada mountain range, Granada, Spain. A key to the larvae of microtrombidiine genera with three dorsal scuta and a coxal setal formula of 2-1-1 is presented.
Mayoral, Jaime G; Barranco, Pablo
Alhamitrombium tetraseta n. g., n. sp. (Acari: Eutrombidiidae: Eutrombidiinae) is described from two larvae ectoparasitic on Trymosternus bolivari Mateu (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Almería, Spain. The new genus is distinguished from Hexathrombium Cooreman, 1944 and Beronium Southcott, 1986 on the basis of details of the coxalae. A key to the genera of larval Hexathrombiini is presented.
Mašán, Peter; Özbek, Hasan Hüseyin; Fenďa, Peter
Abstract Pachylaelaps (Pachylaelaps) pyrenaicus sp. n. and Pachylaelaps (Longipachylaelaps) brevipilis sp. n. (Acari, Pachylaelapidae) are described and illustrated based on specimens from litter and soil detritus of forest habitats in Spain (Pyrenees Mts) and Portugal (Serra da Labruja Mts), respectively. An identification key to European species of the genus Pachylaelaps Berlese, 1888 is provided. PMID:27551197
Joharchi, Omid; Halliday, Bruce; Beyzavi, Gholamreza
We describe a new species of mite from Iran - Pronacrolaelaps propomacrus sp. nov. (Acari: Laelapidae). The new species was collected in association with the beetle Propomacrus bimucronatus (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Euchirinae) in holes in the trunk of oak trees. The genus Promacrolaelaps is redescribed and distinguished from the related genus Hypoaspis Canestrini sells. strict.
Ermilov, Sergey G.; Corpuz-Raros, Leonila; Tolstikov, Andrei V.
Abstract Five species of the subgenus Galumna (Galumna) (Acari, Oribatida, Galumnidae) are registered in the Philippine oribatid mite fauna. A new species, Galumna (Galumna) makilingensis sp. n., is described; it is most similar morphologically to Galumna (Galumna) tokyoensis Aoki, 1966, but differs from the latter by the morphology of porose areas Aa and Ap, rostral setae, and length of interlamellar setae. Three species, Galumna (Galumna) crenata Deb & Raychaudhuri, 1975, Galumna (Galumna) cf. exigua Sellnick, 1925 and Galumna (Galumna) khoii Mahunka, 1989, are recorded in the Philippines for the first time. The species Galumna (Galumna) crenata is redescribed. An identification key to the Philippine species of Galumna (Galumna) is given. PMID:25493051
Gonçalves-Souza, Thiago; Giupponi, Alessandro P L; Hernandes, Fabio A
Twelve larvae of unidentified species of Odontacarus Ewing, 1929 (Acari: Leeuwenhoekiidae) were found parasitising an adult male whip spider Charinus brasilianus Weygoldt (Charinidae) in Santa Teresa, mountainous region of Espirito Santo state, southeastern Brazil. These larvae occurred in the intersegmental membrane of prosoma and legs. This is the first report of ectoparasitic mites infecting a charinid whip spider and the first record of leeuwenhoekiid mites parasitising an invertebrate host. We suggest that future studies are essential to understand the reasons why these events of parasitism are so rare in the order Amblypygi.
Lebedeva, Natalia V; Poltavskaya, Marina P
The paper is devoted to the fauna of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) mostly of a plain area of the Southern European Russia. The most updated taxonomic list of oribatid mite taxa compiled from the original authors' data collected after sam- pling soil, nests and plumage of birds, as well as published sources is presented. It includes 256 species of oribatid mites belonging to 72 families. Twenty species and one family of oribatid mites are recorded for the first time at the research territory. The abundance of mites in the soil is also provided for selected species.
Auger, Philippe; Bonafos, Romain; Kreiter, Serge; Delorme, Robert
A field population of Typhlodromus pyri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) tolerant to mancozeb was selected in the laboratory. After 10 mancozeb selections the LC50 value for mancozeb was 73 times higher in the selected-10 strain compared to the standard susceptible strain. A genetic analysis using reciprocal crosses and backcrosses of female F1 progeny found no maternal effect. Resistance in the selected-10 strain was codominant in expression, dominance value was about -0.1. Backcrosses between F1 females and the susceptible strain indicate that the resistance to mancozeb could be principally conferred by a predominant gene, but additional factors would also be involved.
Joharchi, Omid; Mašán, Peter; Babaeian, Esmaeil
The new genus Pedoniphis gen. nov. (Acari: Mesostigmata: Eviphididae) is described from soil detritus in Sabalan Mountains, northwest Iran, with P. persicus sp. nov. as type species. Among known eviphidid genera, the new genus is the most similar to Scamaphis Karg and Scarabacariphis Mašán and it can be distinguished especially by the dorsal chaetotaxy (setae J2 absent, setae J5 rudimentary) and the specific form of the peritrematal-dorsal scutal complex (peritrematal shields reduced; peritremes well developed, fused to lateral margins of dorsal shield).
Darbemamieh, Maryam; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Khanjani, Mohammad; Kaźmierski, Andrzej
In this paper, Neopronematus kamalii Darbemamieh and Hajiqanbar sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Iolinidae), collected from apricot leaves in Kermanshah province, Iran, is described and illustrated. Also, the following species were collected and identified from Kermanshah province, Iran: Neopronematus rapidus (Kuznetzov, 1972), Neopronematus solani Łaniecka and Kaźmierski, 2013; Neopronematus sepasgosariani Sadeghi, Łaniecka and Kaźmierski, 2012; Neopronematus lundqvisti Sadeghi, Łaniecka and Kaźmierski, 2012; and Neopronematus neglectus (Kuznetzov, 1972). Some information about the genus, morphologically close species, remarks and a key to Neopronematus species of the world are given as well.
Zeity, Mahran; Srinivasa, N; Gowda, C Chinnamade
Two species of Tetranychidae (Acari), Oligonychus neotylus sp. nov. from Zea mays and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae) and Tetranychus hirsutus sp. nov. from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Apocynaceae) are described from Karnataka state, south India. Tetranychus bambusae Wang and Ma is recorded for the first time from India and re-described. Four other species are reported for the first time from India viz., Oligonychus coniferarum (McGregor), Oligonychus duncombei Meyer, Tetranychus marianae McGregor and Tetranychus okinawanus Ehara from Cupressus sp., an undetermined grass, Centrosema pubescens and Adenium obesum, respectively.
Skorack, Maciej; Klimovičová, Miroslava; Muchai, Muchane; Hromada, Martin
New taxa of quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae) are described from African barbets and woodpeckers in the Ethiopian region. A new monotypic genus Picineoaulonastus gen. nov. is established for a new species Picineoaulonastus pogoniulus sp. nov., parasitising 2 lybiid species, Pogoniulus bilineatus (Sundevall) (type host) in Kenya and Tanzania and P. pusillus (Dumont) (Piciformes: Lybiidae) in Ethiopia. Additionally, 2 more new syringophilid species are described: Neosyringophilopsis lybidus sp. nov. from P. bilineatus in Kenya, and Syringophiloidus picidus sp. nov. from Dendropicos fuscescens (Vieillot) (Piciformes: Picidae) in Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania.
Horak, Ivan G; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Kariuki, Edward K
A new tick species belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae), namely, Rhipicephalus walkerae n. sp., is described. The male and female of this species are similar to those of several species in the Rhipicephalus appendiculatus group but can be distinguished from them by the very dense pattern of medium-sized punctations covering the conscutum and scutum, long and narrow dorsal prolongation of the spiracular plate, and relatively short dorsal cornua; in addition, the male has long and narrow adanal plates without a posterolateral angle. R. walkerae is known only from Kenya, where the adults were collected from giraffes, Giraffa camelopardalis (L.).
Queiroz, Maria Cristina Vitelli; Sato, Mario Eidi
Phytoseiulus macropilis Banks (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is an effective predator of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). The objectives of this research were to study the stability of fenpropathrin resistance and the cross-resistance relationships with different pyrethroids, and also to evaluate the effect of synergists [piperonyl butoxide (PBO), diethyl maleate (DEM) and S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF)] on fenpropathrin resistant and susceptible strains of this predaceous mite. The stability of fenpropathrin resistance was studied under laboratory conditions, using P. macropilis populations with initial frequencies of 75 and 50% of resistant mites. The percentages of fenpropathrin resistant mites were evaluated monthly for a period of up to 12 months. A trend toward decreased resistance frequencies was observed only during the first 3-4 months. After this initial decrease, the fenpropathrin resistance was shown to be stable, maintaining constant resistance frequencies (around 30%) until the end of the evaluation period. Toxicity tests carried out using fenpropathrin resistant and susceptible strains of P. macropilis indicated strong positive cross-resistance between fenpropathrin and the pyrethroids bifenthrin and deltamethrin. Bioassays with the synergists DEM, DEF and PBO were also performed. The maximum synergism ratio (SR = LC50 without synergist/LC50 with synergist) detected for the three evaluated synergists (PBO, DEM, DEF) was 5.86 (for DEF), indicating low influence of enzyme detoxification processes in fenpropathrin resistance.
Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D
A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.
Seeman, Owen D; Baker, Michelle R
Berzercon ferdinandi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Acari: Mesostigmata: Discozerconidae) is described from carabid beetles in New Zealand. As in all Discozerconidae, Berzercon has large ventrally-directed opisthogastric suckers. However it is distinctive in its long marginal setae, tripartite gnathotectum, fused palp tibia and tarsus, the female's large dome-shaped genital shield and the male's highly modified hypostomal seta h1. This new species also represents the first Heterozerconina from an insect host.
Haitlinger, Ryszard; Piksa, Krzysztof
Spinturnix bechsteini Deunff et al., 2004 (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with Myotis bechsteinii (Kuhl, 1817) (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) is reported for the first time from Poland. The usefulness of some morphological features for differentiating S. bechsteini from other spinturnicid mites belonging to the myoti group was studied. The mite fauna occurring on M. bechsteinii, the only host of S. bechsteini, are very poorly known. In Poland only five species have been found.
Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Khaustov, Alexander; Kamali, Karim
A new species of the genus Parapygmephorus Cross, 1965 (Acari: Heterostigmatina, Neopygmephoridae) is described from Northeastern Iran. A phoretic adult female of Parapygmephorus khorasanicus Hajiqanbar and Khaustov sp. n. was discovered clasping on hairs on the ventral body surface of Halictus quadricinctus (Fabricius, 1776) (Hymenoptera; Halictidae). It is the fifth representative among the known species of the genus Parapygmephorus in the world. Differentiation of new species from other species of the genus is discussed, and a key to known world species is provided.
Farzan, Sadegh; Asadi, Mahdieh; Ueckermann, Edward A; Seeman, Owen D; Beard, Jennifer J
Two new species of Amblypalpus (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tenuipalpidae) are described from Iran: Amblypalpus iraniensis sp. nov., from Wild Almond, Amygdalus scoparia (Rosaceae), and Amblypalpus thymus sp. nov., from Common Thyme, Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae). The new species are classified tentatively in Amblypalpus. The species Priscapalpus thomissus Meyer, 1979 is transferred to Amblypalpus and the genus concept of Priscapalpus is narrowed and therefore redefined. Similarly, we present an expanded concept of Amblypalpus. A key to brevipalpine genera and Amblypalpus species is provided.
Xu, Yun; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang
The genus Prolixus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) was represented by two species from Australian sedges prior to this study. A new species, Prolixus meyerae sp. nov., is here described and illustrated from leaves of Gahnia (Cyperaceae) in Auckland, New Zealand. In this paper, we present the ontogenetic additions in idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy from larva to adult. A key to world species of Prolixus is also proposed.
encephalitis virus complex) viruses by Onithodoros ticks (Acari: Argasidae), Journal of Medical Entomology 41:973 - 977 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...mosquitoes and Ornithodoros ticks were evaluated for their potential to transmit Karshi and Langat (tick-borne encephalitis virus complex) viruses in the...suckling mice. In addition, female O. tartakovskyi transmitted Karshi virus vertically to their progeny. In a continuation of a previous study, O. sonrai
concern (Gratz 1999). Lyme disease, caused by the spirocheteBorrelia burgdorferi , is themost commonly reported vector-borne disease in the United States...105 lence of Ehrlichia, Borrelia , and Rickettsial agents in Am- blyomma americanum collected from nine states within its range. J. Med. Entomol. 43... Borrelia , Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma in- fections inAmblyommaamericanum and Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks from central New Jersey. J. Med
Development and reproduction of Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Acari: Laelapidae) with fungus gnat larvae (Diptera: Sciaridae), potworms (Oligochaeta: Enchytraeidae) or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Acari: Acaridae) as the sole food source.
Cabrera, Ana R; Cloyd, Raymond A; Zaborski, Edmond R
Stratiolaelaps (=Hypoaspis) miles (Berlese) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) is a polyphagous soil-dwelling predatory mite that is widely marketed for use in greenhouse production systems to manage populations of dark-winged fungus gnats, Bradysia spp. (Diptera: Sciaridae) and for supplemental control of thrips. The suggestion by Walter and Campbell (2003, Biol. Control 26: 253-269) that North American commercial cultures of S. miles may actually be S. scimitus was confirmed. The development and reproduction at 21-23 degrees C of S. scimitus provided ad libidum with one of three different prey--the fungus gnat Bradysia aff. coprophila (Lintner), potworms (Enchytraeidae), or Sancassania aff. sphaerogaster (Zachvatkin, 1937) (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae)--were compared. Developmental duration of the egg and non-feeding larval stages were 2.47 and 1.11 days, respectively; mortalities were 8.3 and 5.5%. Stratiolaelaps scimitus failed to develop beyond the protonymphal stage when provided with S. aff. sphaerogaster alone, although some feeding was observed. Development and reproduction of S. scimitus was successful on both fungus gnat larvae and enchytraeids, with no influence of prey on protonymphal duration (4.70 days) and mortality (8.3%), or on deutonymphal duration (4.61 days) and mortality (6.1%). Adult female S. scimitus feeding on potworms, compared to those feeding on fungus gnat larvae, had a significantly shorter pre-oviposition period (2.69 vs. 4.59 days). However, diet did not influence other adult female developmental or reproductive characteristics (oviposition period, 18.6 days; post-oviposition period, 6.2 days; total adult longevity, 27.3 days; total number of eggs, 26.5). S. scimitus reared on potworms tended (p = 0.06) to have a higher intrinsic rate of increase, a higher finite rate of increase and a shorter doubling time (rm = 0.142 day(-1), lambda = 1.153, Dt = 4.85 days) than those reared on fungus gnat larvae (rm = 0.105 day(-1), lambda = 1
Miranda-Miranda, E; Cossio-Bayugar, R; Martínez-Ibañez, F; Casasanero-Orduña, R; Folch-Mallol, J
The purpose of this study was to describe an unreported entomopathogenic fungus that naturally infects the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Engorged female ticks, showed symptoms of fungal infection after controlled tick infestation of cattle. Infected ticks developed a distinctive dark colour, a pale mould grew over the cuticle and the ticks eventually died covered with fungal conidiophores. The responsible fungus was isolated and cultured on mycological medium and submitted to microscopic morphology, biochemical phenotyping and 18S rRNA ribotyping analyses, which identified it as aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus flavus. Spores from the cultured fungus were experimentally sprayed over healthy engorged female ticks, obtaining an 80% prevalence of experimental infection of healthy ticks and their egg masses, the larval progeny after incubation under laboratory conditions was also infected. These results demonstrate that A. flavus is the causative agent of the natural fungal disease of the cattle tick R. microplus described here.
Hartini, Sri; Takaku, Gen
Twelve mite species of the genus Macrocheles (Acari: Macrochelidae) were collected from the body surface of dung beetles in Java, Indonesia. Of these, three species, i.e., Macrocheles jabarensis, M. jonggolensis, and M. sukabumiensis, were described as new to science. Female of M. dispar was redescribed. Two species, i.e., M. baliensis and M. sukaramiensis, were recorded from Java for the first time. The occurrence of five species previously recorded from Java, i.e., M. hallidayi, M. kraepelini, M. limue, M. oigru, and M. merdarius, were reconfirmed. Taxonomic status of M. sp. aff. glaber was not settled in the present study, because we could not obtain the male and immatures which are indispensable for exact identification. In total 15 species of the genus Macrocheles, including 3 species already recorded but not collected in this research (M. crispa, M. krantzi, and M. subbadius), are known from Java up to date.
Rodrigues, J C V; Kitajima, E W; Childers, C C; Chagas, C M
Citrus leprosis is caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV) that is transmitted by mites in the genus Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). This disease directly reduces production and the life span of the citrus plant. The main symptoms of the disease include lesions on fruits, leaves, and twigs or small branches, causing premature fruit drop, defoliation, and death of the twigs or branches leading to serious tree decline. Leprosis is a highly destructive disease of citrus, wherever it occurs. The Brazilian citrus industry spends over 100 million US dollars annually on acaricides to control the vector, Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). This review contains information about the history of the etiology of citrus leprosis, its geographical distribution, host range, the role of the mite vectors, viral morphology and relationships with the infected cell, and transmissibility of the virus by the mite. In addition, data on the mite-virus-plant relationship, disease damage, and strategies for controlling disease spread are presented.
Marques, Sandro; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho
Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-pregui a" (sloth's giant tick) is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae), Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae). Based on the material examined, the states of Rond nia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.
Mietkiewski, R; Bałazy, S
A new entomopathogenic fungus, described here as Neozygites abacaridis n. sp. (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales), has been found on the mites Abacarus hystrix, Aculodes dubius, and A. mckenziei (Acari: Eriophyidae). It differs from other Neozygites species affecting mites by its small, globose primary conidia, short-ovoid, smoky coloured capilliconidia, and very short capillary conidiophores-which are usually not longer than the spore length. This pathogen infected mite individuals in autumn (from mid-August until mid-November) on Lolium perenne, Agrostis stolonifera, and Festuca rubra. It caused 0.5-1% host's mortality in the vicinity of Siedlce (Eastern Poland) and up to 2-8%, on an average in Puszczykowo (Wielkopolski National Park near Poznań), where its prevalence on some plants reached 13%.
Mortazavi, Abdolazim; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza
A new species of mites of the genus Tarsopolipus (Acari: Prostigmata: Podapolipidae) is described from southern Iran. Tarsopolipus husbandi Mortazavi and Hajiqanbar n. sp. is a sub-elytral ectoparasite of the scarabaeid beetle, Scarabaeus (Scarabaeus) acuticollis. The new species is closely related to Tarsopolipus corrugatus Berlese 1911, but is distinguished from it by the following characters. Adult female: presence of vestigial setae v(2) and shorter setae sc(2). Adult male: presence of setae v' on tibia IV and shorter setae sc(2) and c(2). Larval female: shorter cheliceral stylets and longer distance between setae v(1) and ch. Species of Tarsopolipus are currently distributed in Afro-tropical, Palaearctic, and Oriental regions and parasitize species in 3 genera of scarabaeid beetles, i.e., Scarabaeus , Kheper, and Drepanopodes, all belonging to the tribe Scarabaeini.
Venzal, José M; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Mangold, Atilio J; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Lado, Paula; Guglielmone, Alberto A
A new species, Ornithodoros microlophi (Acari: Argasidae), belonging to the subgenus Alectorobius is described from larvae collected on the lizards Microlophus atacamensis (Donoso-Barros, 1966) and Microlophus quadrivittatus (Tschudi, 1845) (Squamata: Tropiduridae) in continental and insular localities from northern Chile. Larvae of O. microlophi can be distinguished from other Neotropical species of the genus Ornithodoros by a combination of the following characters, namely 10 pairs of ventral setae, venter with 6 pairs of sternal setae, dorsal plate pyriform, 19-21 pairs of dorsal setae (typically 20), 13 pairs are dorsolateral and 7 pairs are central, and hypostome with dental formula 4/4 in medial portion and apex pointed. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences suggests that O. microlophi represents an independent lineage within Neotropical species of the Argasidae.
Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Kaszewska, Katarzyna
The paper contains a review of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Three new species are described: Picobia mentalis Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Picus mentalis Temminck, Neopicobia ea Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Celeus flavus (St. Mueller) (type host), C. elegans (St. Mueller), C. torquatus (Boddaert), and Neopicobia freya Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Dryocopus galeatus (Temminck) (type host) and Piculus rubiginosus (Swainson). Additionally, six new host species for Picobia heeri Haller, 1878 and 12 new host species for Picobia dryobatis (Fritsch, 1956) are reported. A complete list of the picobiines parasitising birds of the family Picidae is presented in the tabular form.
Stavrinides, Menelaos C; Daane, Kent M; Lampinen, Bruce D; Mills, Nicholas J
We evaluated the relationships between plant water status and leaf temperature, and between leaf temperature and spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mite (Acari: Phytoseiidae) populations in eight vineyards in California in 2006 and 2007. Temperature of south-facing leaves increased significantly by 0.8°C for every 1.0°C increase in ambient air temperature, and by 5.3°C for every one MPa drop in leaf water potential. Peak population densities of Pacific spider mite, Tetranychus pacificus McGregor, increased significantly with increasing frequency of leaf temperatures above 31°C. In contrast, peak population densities of Willamette spider mite, Eotetranychus willamettei (McGregor), showed no relationship with the frequency of leaf temperatures above 31°C. This differential relationship between the two mite species and high leaf temperatures is consistent with their upper thresholds for development, which are 40°C for T. pacificus and 31°C for E. willamettei, as identified in a previous study. Predatory mite population densities showed no relationship with peak population densities of either spider mite species during the analysis period, but decreased with the frequency of leaf temperatures above 31°C. In addition, predatory mite population densities were significantly higher on south-facing than interior leaves after adjusting for the effect of leaf temperature. These results help to explain why outbreaks of T. pacificus occur in warmer or water-stressed vineyards, whereas E. willamettei develops higher populations in cooler or well-irrigated vineyards. In addition, these results suggest that regulated deficit irrigation should be implemented with caution, especially in those vineyards with a high risk of T. pacificus outbreaks.
Barbosa, Marina F C; de Moraes, Gilberto J
Laelapidae and Rhodacaridae are important families of edaphic predatory mites and species of these families have been considered for use in biological control programs of soil pests. Mites of Cohort Astigmatina (Acari: Sarcoptiformes) have been largely used as factitious prey in the mass rearing of various edaphic or plant-inhabiting predatory mites. Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley) (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) (widely commercialized for the control of fungus gnats and thrips) and Protogamasellopsis zaheri Abo-Shnaf, Castilho and Moraes (Mesostigmata: Rhodacaridae) (not available commercially but promising for the control of thrips and nematodes) are known to be reared on Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Astigmatina: Acaridae), but the possibility to find a perhaps more efficient prey has not been evaluated. The objective of this paper was to evaluate different astigmatid species as prey for these predators. S. scimitus and P. zaheri oviposited on all evaluated astigmatids and the acarid mites T. putrescentiae and Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Tropeau) were the most suitable prey; to confirm the effect of prey on oviposition rates, pregnant females of the predators were kept under starvation conditions and oviposition was negligible or null. Survivorship was always higher than 78 % and was not influenced by prey species or starvation.
The new eriophyid mite species Aculops dipsaci n. sp. (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) collected from Dipsacus laciniatus L. (Dipsacaceae) in northern Serbia is described and illustrated. Differential diagnosis is provided in comparison with Aculops salixis Xue, Song and Hong. This is the first e...
Evaluation of corn plant as potential banker plant for supporting predatory gall Midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in greenhouse vegetable production
The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important and highly polyphagous pests of vegetables and other crops worldwide. In this study, several experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to evaluate whether corn plant ...
Twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari:Tetranychidae), and hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Schrank) (Homoptera:Aphidiae), are the most important arthropod pests of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) in the Northern Hemisphere. A potential barrier for greater adoption of conservation biological c...
Vatankhah, Farzaneh; Nemati, Alireza; Esfandiari, Mehdi; Shishehbor, Parviz
A new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari, Mesostigmata, Laelapidae) is described based on morphological characters of adult females collected from nest of Formica sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in the Shahrekord Region, Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. A key for the identification of species of Gaeolaelaps with short peritremes is presented.
Noei, Javad; Saboori, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Jalil
Diplothrombium sahragardi sp. nov. and Diplothrombium ostovani sp. nov. (Acari: Johnstonianidae) collected from soil samples (off host) in a forest near Asalem city (Iran) are described. Another species of this family Johnstoniana parva Wendt, Wohltmann, Eggers and Otto, 1994 is reported for the first time from Iran. A larva-based key to Diplothrombium is provided.
Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Aydın, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin
Acaricidal effects of three Labiatae essential oils extracted from ariel parts of Thymus sipyleus Boiss. subsp. sipyleus, Mentha longifolia L., and Dorystoechas hastata Boiss. & Heldr. ex Bentham on 10-day-old Rhipicephalus turanicus Pom. (Acari: Ixodidae) larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 1-0.1% (1.0, 0.5, 0.25, and 0.1% w/v). Results showed that all essential oils had very similar activity, producing complete mortality (100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-day-old R. turanicus tick larvae.
Pešić, Vladimir; Semenchenko, Ksenia
In this study, four water mites of the genus Brachypoda (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Aturidae) are reported from South Korea and the Far East of Russia. Brachypoda (Ocybrachypoda) milicaae sp. n. (South Korea), B. (Ocybrachypoda) sokolowi sp. n. (Russia) and B. (Eubrachypoda) rossica sp. n. (Russia) are described as new for science. The latter species is the second representative of the subgenus Eubrachypoda Tuzovskij, 2004, previously known only from Lake Biwa in Japan. A new record of Brachypoda rubidata Kim & Chung, 1996, a species so far known only from a pond in Bosung (South Korea), is given.
Menon, Pratibha; Joshi, Sushila; Ramamurthy, Vilayanoor Venkataraman
A new species of Eriophyidae (Acari: Prostigmata: E riophyoidea) mite, Aceria tripuraensis n. sp., is described from the closed bud galls of Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb. ex Hornem. (Malvaceae) in India. Aceria tripuraensis n. sp. is distinguished by having a prodorsal shield with distinct rounded lobes on the postero-lateral margins and two pairs of submedian lines. The tarsal solenidia with unusual transverse sculptures, are 2.5x longer than the empodia. Twenty Aceria species are now known to inhabit malvaceous plant hosts and those are listed here along with type localities and host plant details. A key to all known species of Aceria recorded from Hibiscus spp. is also provided.
Maegli, Amanda; Loy, J Dustin; Cortinas, Roberto
The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae), is established in southeastern Nebraska yet the prevalence of tick-associated microorganisms is not known. An initial PCR-based analysis for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and Borrelia infection in host-seeking adult ticks collected in southeast Nebraska was conducted. A total of 251 adult ticks collected in six sites in southeast Nebraska were tested. E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia spp. were present, and the prevalence of each was approximately 1.6%. This study demonstrates that Ehrlichia spp. are present in Nebraska lone star tick populations.
Loghmani, Amir; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Talebi, Ali Asghar
Pavania setiformis Loghmani & Hajiqanbar sp. nov. (Acari: Heterostigmatina: Dolichocybidae) associated with Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) vitulus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is described from northeastern Iran. This remarkable new species represents a new setiformis species group characterized by seta-like sc(1), instead of capitate trichobothria. The genus Pavania is thus divided into three species groups: the fusiformis group (15 species), the gymnopleuri group (3 species) and the setiformis group (1 species). We also found P. sabzevarensis Hajiqanbar & Khaustov, 2010 and P. onthophagi Hajiqanbar & Khaustov, 2010 phoretic on Gymnopleurus mopsus (Pallas) and Onthophagus (Euonthophagus) amyntas alces (Fabricius), respectively.
Monteiro, Vaneska B; Lima, Debora B; Gondim, Manoel G C; Siqueira, Herbert A A
Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) is considered a major pest of the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), and the use of pesticides is the current method to control it. However, no standard toxicological tests exist to select and assess the efficiency of molecules against the coconut mite. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology that allows for the evaluation of the relative toxicity of acaricides to A. guerreronis through rapid laboratory procedures. We confined A. guerreronis on arenas made out of coconut leaflets and tested two application methods: immersing the leaf fragments in acaricides and spraying acaricides on the leaf fragments under a Potter spray tower. In the latter application method, we sprayed leaf fragments both populated with and devoid of mites. We evaluated the comparative toxicity of two populations (Itamaracá and Petrolina, Pernambuco, Brazil) by spraying on leaflets without mites and submitted the mortality data to probit analysis after 24 h of exposure. No difference was observed in the LC50, regardless of whether the leaflets were immersed or sprayed with acaricide (abamectin, chlorfenapyr or fenpyroximate). The toxicity of chlorfenapyr and fenpyroximate did not differ, irrespective of whether it was applied directly to the leaflet or to the mite; however, the toxicity of abamectin was higher when applied directly to the mite. Chlorpyrifos and abamectin toxicities were lower for the Petrolina population than for the Itamaracá population. Immersing and spraying coconut leaflets can be used to assess the mortality of A. guerreronis under laboratory conditions.
In the alpine region at Finse, Norway, Phauloppia spp. (Acari, Oribatida) inhabit lichens on top of boulders. Adult mites are about 0.5 mm in length and have a mean weight of ca. 15 µg. Temperatures in the lichens may drop below -35 degrees C in winter and increase to 55 degrees C in the summer. Large seasonal variations were recorded in supercooling points and body fluid osmolality. Mean January values of SCPs and osmolality were -35.3 degrees C and 3756 mOsm, while July values were -9.4 degrees C and 940 mOsm, respectively. Thermal hysteresis proteins were present in both summer and winter acclimated mites. In mid-winter, some of the mites survived more than 49 days in a water vapor saturated atmosphere at -19 degrees C, and more than 42 days enclosed in ice at the same temperature.The mites showed high tolerance to desiccation. Specimens collected in October survived up to 23 days at 22 degrees C and 5% RH. The tolerance to desiccation was lower in specimens collected during the winter. Some mites survived the loss of up to 90% of their total water content and were reactivated when given access to water. Length measurements of individual Phauloppia sp. showed that both male and female mites are clearly divided in two size groups, suggesting that they belong to two closely related species or different populations.
Xia, Bin; Zou, Zhiwen; Li, Pengxin; Lin, Peng
The effect of five constant temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28 and 32°C) on the development, survival and reproduction of Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes fed on Aleuroglyphus ovatus Toupeau (Acari: Acaridae) was examined in the laboratory at 85% relative humidity. Development time of different immature stages decreased with increasing temperature, total egg-to-adult development time varied from 5.0 ± 0.13 to 17.5 ± 0.29 days. The lower thermal threshold for development was 9.7 ± 2.48°C and the thermal constant from egg to adult was 111.1 ± 12.34 degree-days. Pre- and post-oviposition period and female longevity all shortened as temperature increased. The longest oviposition period was observed at 24°C with 20.4 ± 1.13 days. At 20, 24, 28 and 32°C, mated females laid on average 0.7 ± 0.08, 1.5 ± 0.04, 1.6 ± 0.11 and 1.5 ± 0.11 eggs per day, respectively, but no eggs were laid at 16°C. Both the maximum fecundity (30.9 eggs per female) and the highest intrinsic rate of increase (r (m) = 0.166) were obtained at 28°C. The results of this study indicated that a mass rearing of N. barkeri with A. ovatus as prey is feasible at the appropriate temperature.
Allan, Brian F
The increasingly widespread use of prescribed burns to manage oak (Quercus spp.)-hickory (Carya spp.) forests in the Missouri Ozarks, USA, has considerable potential to alter the abundance of Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae), the lone star tick, an important vector of several emerging pathogens. In particular, responses of important tick hosts, primarily white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), to fire management and the resultant changes in the distribution and abundance of A. americanum are largely unknown. Using several large burn units (61-242 ha) within the Ozark ecosystem, I measured the effect of the time elapsed since sites were burned on the density of white-tailed deer and the larval life stage of A. americanum. Larval tick densities were highest in areas that were 2 yr postburn and were > 6 times higher than tick densities in control units. Deer densities were highest in sites that were burned in the same year as this study and decreased significantly with time since burn. These results suggest that intensive use of postburn sites by white-tailed deer may increase the abundance of A. americanum to levels greater than occurs in sites that remain unburned. Thus, fire management, although beneficial in many aspects of ecosystem management, may bear the unintended cost of locally increasing abundance of A. americanum.
Skoracki, Maciej; Hromada, Martin
A fauna of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with African birds is revised. Two new monotypic genera are proposed, Gunabopicobia gen. n. for Picobia zumpti Lawrence, 1959 and Lawrencipicobia gen. n. for Picobia poicephali Skoracki et Dabert, 2002. These new genera differ from other genera of the subfamily by the following features: in females of Gunabopicobia, propodonotal setae vi are situated anterior to the level of setae ve; the narrow lateral propodonotal shields bear bases of setae vi, ve, si and se; the bases of setae 1a-1a are coalesced; the genital setae and the opisthosomal lobes are absent; the leg I with full set of solenidia and apodemes I are devoid of the thorn-like protuberances in the middle part. In females of Lawrencipicobia, the bases of setae 1a-1a are not coalesced; the propodonotal shield is entire; the genital setae are present; legs I are with full set of solenidia. Additionally, two new species belonging to Picobia Haller, 1878 are described, Picobia illadopsae sp. n. parasitising Illadopsis rufipennis (Sharpe) (Passeriformes: Pellorneidae) in Kenya and Picobia phoenicuri sp. n. infecting Phoenicurus moussieri (Olphe-Galliard) in Tunisia. The following species are redescribed, Columbiphilus alectoris (Fain, Bochkov et Mironov, 2000), Lawrencipicobia poicephali (Skoracki et Dabert, 2001) comb. n. and Picobia phoeniculi (Fain, Bochkov et Mironov, 2000). The key to the genera of the Picobiinae is provided.
Lee, K V; Moon, R D; Burkness, E C; Hutchison, W D; Spivak, M
The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) is arguably the most detrimental pest of the European-derived honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Unfortunately, beekeepers lack a standardized sampling plan to make informed treatment decisions. Based on data from 31 commercial apiaries, we developed sampling plans for use by beekeepers and researchers to estimate the density of mites in individual colonies or whole apiaries. Beekeepers can estimate a colony's mite density with chosen level of precision by dislodging mites from approximately to 300 adult bees taken from one brood box frame in the colony, and they can extrapolate to mite density on a colony's adults and pupae combined by doubling the number of mites on adults. For sampling whole apiaries, beekeepers can repeat the process in each of n = 8 colonies, regardless of apiary size. Researchers desiring greater precision can estimate mite density in an individual colony by examining three, 300-bee sample units. Extrapolation to density on adults and pupae may require independent estimates of numbers of adults, of pupae, and of their respective mite densities. Researchers can estimate apiary-level mite density by taking one 300-bee sample unit per colony, but should do so from a variable number of colonies, depending on apiary size. These practical sampling plans will allow beekeepers and researchers to quantify mite infestation levels and enhance understanding and management of V. destructor.
Rulison, Eric L.; Kuczaj, Isis; Pang, Genevieve; Hickling, Graham J.; Tsao, Jean I.; Ginsberg, Howard S.
The nymphal stage of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), is responsible for most transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, to humans in North America. From 2010 to fall of 2012, we compared two commonly used techniques, flagging and dragging, as sampling methods for nymphal I. scapularis at three sites, each with multiple sampling arrays (grids), in the eastern and central United States. Flagging and dragging collected comparable numbers of nymphs, with no consistent differences between methods. Dragging collected more nymphs than flagging in some samples, but these differences were not consistent among sites or sampling years. The ratio of nymphs collected by flagging vs dragging was not significantly related to shrub density, so habitat type did not have a strong effect on the relative efficacy of these methods. Therefore, although dragging collected more ticks in a few cases, the numbers collected by each method were so variable that neither technique had a clear advantage for sampling nymphal I. scapularis.
Sammataro, D; Finley, J; Underwood, R
The effectiveness of oxalic acid (OA) and Sucrocide (S) (AVA Chemical Ventures, L.L.C., Portsmouth, NH) in reducing populations of the varroa mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) in honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) colonies was measured under the desert conditions of Arizona, USA. OA and S were applied three times 7 d apart. A 3.2% solution of OA was applied in sugar syrup via a large volume syringe, trickling 5 ml per space between frames in the colony. S was applied at a concentration of 0.625% (mixed with water), according to the label directions, using a compressed air Chapin sprayer at 20 psi to apply 59 ml per frame space. Varroa mites, collected on a sticky board before, during, and after the treatments, were counted to assess the effectiveness of the treatments. This study showed that a desert climate zone did not confer any positive or negative results on the acaricidal properties of OA. Even with brood present in colonies, significant varroa mite mortality occurred in the OA colonies. In contrast, we found that Sucrocide was not effective as a mite control technique. Despite its ability to increase mite mortality in the short-term, varroa mite populations measured posttreatment were not affected any more by Sucrocide than by no treatment at all.
Kitajima, E W; Rezende, J A M; Rodrigues, J C V
Passion fruit green spot disease was first identified in 1997 after a severe outbreak at Vera Cruz County, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Mature yellow fruits of Passiflora edulis Simms f. flavicarpa Degener showed characteristic green spots, 2-5 mm in diameter and patches of green tissues were present on senescent leaves. The devastating effect to passion flower is caused by necrotic lesions that encircle the stems and kill the plant. In severe cases, entire orchards of a few hectares in size have been completely destroyed. The disease was always preceded by heavy infestations of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). Transmission electron microscopy of affected tissues (fruits, leaves, and stems) consistently revealed the presence of short, bacilliform particles (50-70 nm x 100-120 nm) in the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as the presence of a dense viroplasm in the cytoplasm. This cytopathic effect has been found in several other Brevipalpus-transmitted or associated viruses and is classified as a cytoplasmic type of disease. Experimental reproduction of the leaf and stem symptoms was achieved by transferring B. phoenicis collected from affected field passion flower plants onto healthy plants. The evidence supports a viral etiology for the disease and the agent was named passion fruit green spot virus. Its relationship with other B. phoenicis related viruses continues to be studied. The disease was also found in the Brazilian states of Bahia, Sergipe, Rondonia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and in the Federal District. Use of one or more of the following acaricides (hexythiazox, fenbutatin-oxide, propargite, quinomethionate, or dicofol) has significantly reduced the incidence of the disease.
Mixson, T.R.; Campbell, S.R.; Gill, J.S.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Reichard, M.V.; Schultz, T.L.; Dasch, G.A.
Ambyomma antericanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) is an aggressive tick that feeds on humans during all postembryonic life stages. In many regions of the United States, it is the tick most commonly found attached to humans. Public health interest has grown recently, due to the recognition of new human pathogens transmitted by A. antericanum and the expanding distribution of the tick. A. americanum is a vector of several bacteria pathogenic to humans. Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii cause moderate-to-severe febrile illness. 'Rickettsia amblyommii,' a member of the spotted fever group Rickettsia, also has recently been implicated as a possible human pathogen based on serologic evidence from persons recovering from illness after a tick bite. We have determined the prevalence of infection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, E. ewingii, 'Borrelia lonestari,' and R. amblyommii within A. americanum ticks from 29 sites in nine states. Overall infection prevalences were 4.7% for E. chaffeensis (range, 0-27%), 3.5% for E. ewingii (range, 0-18.6%), 2.5% for B. lonestari (range, 0-12.2%), and 41.2% for R. amblyommii (range, 0-84.0%). In addition, 87 ticks (4.3%) were infected with two or more bacteria. This report documents new distribution records for E. ewingii, B. lonestari, and R. amblyommii and underscores the nonhomogeneous distribution of pathogen foci of infection. Additional surveillance throughout the range of A. antericanum is warranted to increase physician and public awareness of the risk of disease to humans from exposure to the agents transmitted by this tick.
Walton, V M; Dreves, A J; Coop, L B; Jones, G V; Skinkis, P A
Developmental parameters of protogyne Calepitrimerus vitis (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyidae) were determined at 12, 15, 17, 22, 25, 28, 31, and 34 °C to better understand seasonal activity, population growth, and ultimately more effectively manage pest mites in wine grapes. Net reproductive rate (R(o)) was greater than zero at all temperatures with the maximum R(o) (9.72) at 25 °C. The lowest estimated R(o) (0.001) occurred at 34 °C. There was a gradual decrease in mean generation time (T) as temperatures increased from 17 to 31 °C. The shortest and longest generation time was recorded at 31 °C (T = 5.5 d) and 17 °C (T = 17.5 d). Rates of natural increase were lowest at 17°C (0.035) and increased with increasing temperatures, respectively. The peak rate of natural increase value (0.141) was at 25 °C. Estimations for minimum and maximum developmental thresholds were 10.51 and 39.19 °C, respectively, while the optimum developmental temperature was 26.9 °C. The thermal constant for egg to adult development was estimated at 87.7DD. The highest fecundity was observed at 25 °C. These parameters indicated that mites begin feeding at the onset of shoot growth when tissue is most susceptible in spring. Historical weather data showed that vines are in this susceptible growth stage for longer periods in the cool Willamette Valley compared with warmer Umpqua and Applegate/Rogue Valley regions. Estimation of degree-days indicated when deutogyne mites move to overwintering refuge sites. Degree-day accumulations indicated up to 14 generations per growing season.
Heise, Stephanie R; Elshahed, M S; Little, S E
The lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae), is commonly reported from people and animals throughout the eastern U.S. and is associated with transmission of a number of emerging diseases. To better define the microbial communities within lone star ticks, 16S rRNA gene based analysis using bacteria-wide primers, followed by sequencing of individual clones (n = 449) was used to identify the most common bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) present within colony-reared and wild A. americanum. The colony-reared ticks contained primarily sequence affiliated with members of the genus Coxiella (89%; 81/91), common endosymbionts of ticks, and Brevibacterium (11%; 10/91). Similarly, analysis of clones from unfed wild lone star ticks revealed that 96.7% (89/92) of all the OTUs identified were affiliated with Coxiella-like endosymbionts, as compared with only 5.1-11.7% (5/98-9/77) of those identified from wild lone star ticks after feeding. In contrast, the proportion of OTUs identified as Rickettsia sp. in wild-caught ticks increased from 2.2% (2/92) before feeding to as high as 46.8% (36/77) after feeding, and all Rickettsia spp. sequences recovered were most similar to those described from the spotted fever group Rickettsia, specifically R. amblyommii and R. massiliae. Additional characterization of the Rickettsiales tick community by polymerase chain reaction, cloning, and sequencing of 17 kDa and gltA genes confirmed these initial findings and suggested that novel Rickettsia spp. are likely present in these ticks. These data provide insight into the overall, as well as the rickettsial community of wild lone star ticks and may ultimately aid in identification of novel pathogens transmitted by A. americanum.
Szabó, Árpád; Pénzes, Béla; Sipos, Péter; Hegyi, Tamás; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Markó, Viktor
We examined the faunal composition and abundance of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in apple orchards under different pest management systems in Hungary. A total of 30 apple orchards were surveyed, including abandoned and organic orchards and orchards where integrated pest management (IPM) or broad spectrum insecticides (conventional pest management) were applied. A total of 18 phytoseiid species were found in the canopy of apple trees. Species richness was greatest in the organic orchards (mean: 3.3 species/400 leaves) and the least in the conventional orchards (1.4), with IPM (2.1) and abandoned (2.7) orchards showing intermediate values. The phytoseiid community's Rényi diversity displayed a similar pattern. However, the total phytoseiid abundance in the orchards with different pest management systems did not differ, with abundance varying between 1.8 and 2.6 phytoseiids/10 leaves. Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, and Typhlodromus pyri were the three most common species. The relative abundance of A. andersoni increased with the pesticide load of the orchards whereas the relative abundance of E. finlandicus decreased. The abundance of T. pyri did not change in the apple orchards under different pest management strategies; regardless of the type of applied treatment, they only displayed greater abundance in five of the orchards. The remaining 15 phytoseiid species only occurred in small numbers, mostly from the abandoned and organic orchards. We identified a negative correlation between the abundance of T. pyri and the other phytoseiids in the abandoned and organic orchards. However, we did not find any similar link between the abundance of A. andersoni and E. finlandicus.
McCoy, Brandi N.; Raffel, Sandra J.; Lopez, Job E.; Schwan, Tom G.
Ornithodoros hermsi Wheeler (Acari: Argasidae) is the vector of Borrelia hermsii, the primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in North America. This tick is one of the smallest Ornithodoros species involved with the biological transmission of spirochetes; yet, the amount of blood ingested while feeding is unknown. Therefore, we determined the amount of blood O. hermsi ingested during a bloodmeal to establish its potential for spirochete acquisition while feeding on an infected host. Ticks at different developmental stages were weighed before and after feeding and the volume of blood ingested was calculated. Females ingested the most blood, averaging ≈15 µl per meal, but late-stage nymphs took in the most blood in proportion to unfed body weight. A cohort of nymphs was weighed three more times during the 48 h after feeding, which demonstrated that O. hermsi may have excreted coxal fluid ranging from 24 –36% of the bloodmeal weight. We also developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method to determine the number of spirochetes ingested and maintained within the ticks after feeding. The density of spirochetes in ticks having just engorged was slightly less than in the host’s blood. In the first 5 d after feeding, the number of spirochetes within the ticks declined from the number initially ingested but then remained constant through 15 d. These observations establish a basis for future studies to determine the minimum number of spirochetes required in the host’s blood to allow O. hermsi to become persistently infected and transmit during subsequent bloodmeals. PMID:21175068
Izdebska, Joanna N; Fryderyk, Sławomira; Rolbiecki, Leszek
A new species of demodecid mite, Demodex castoris sp. nov. (Acari: Prostigmata: Demodecidae), is described based on adult stages from the skin of the nasal region of the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber Linnaeus, 1758, collected in Poland. This is the first detection of a representative demodecid mite in rodents of the suborder Castorimorpha and also represents the first detection of a skin mite in Eurasian beavers. The new species is a small skin mite (average 173 µm in length) characterized by sexual dimorphism related to body proportions. D. castoris sp. nov. was observed in 4 out of 6 beavers examined (66.6%), with a mean intensity of 10.8 and an intensity range of 2-23 ind. host(-1). This paper also contains a checklist of parasitic arthropods known from Castor spp.
Li, Andrew Y; Davey, Ronald B; Miller, Robert J; Guerrero, Felix D; George, John E
The Santa Luiza strain of the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae), is resistant to both permethrin and amitraz. A study was conducted at the USDA Cattle Fever Tick Research Laboratory in Texas to investigate the genetic basis of permethrin resistance with cross-mating experiments, and to determine the mechanisms of permethrin resistance through synergist bioassays and biochemical analysis of esterase profiles. The Muñoz strain, an acaricide-susceptible reference strain, was used as the susceptible parent and the Santa Luiza strain, originating in Brazil, was used as the resistant parent. The Food and Agriculture Organization larval packet test was used to measure the levels of susceptibility of larvae of the parental strains, F1, backcross, F2, and F3 generations to permethrin. Results of reciprocal crossing experiments suggested that permethrin resistance was inherited as an incomplete recessive trait. There was no significant maternal effect on larval progeny's susceptibility to permethrin in the F1 and subsequent generations. The values of the degree of dominance were estimated at -0.700 and -0.522 for the F1 larvae with resistant and susceptible female parents, respectively. Results of bioassays on larval progeny of the F1 backcrossed with the resistant parent strain and of the F2 generations suggested that one major gene was responsible for permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain. Selection of F3 larvae with either permethrin or amitraz led to significantly increased resistance to both permethrin and amitraz, indicating a close linkage between genes responsible for permethrin and amitraz resistance. The possible involvement of metabolic enzymes in permethrin resistance in the Santa Luiza strain of B. microplus was dismissed by the lack of enhanced synergism by TPP or PBO, as observed in synergist bioassays, as well as by the lack of enhanced esterase activity in the Santa Luiza strain relative to the susceptible
Martins, João R; Monticelli, Elida C; Onofrio, Valéria C; Barros-Battesti, Darcy M; Doyle, Rovaina L
Amblyomma fuscum known only from Brazil has been described as a rare tick species with few reports of its occurrence in South and Southeast region. This is a new records this tick species (9 females) parasitizing lizard (Tupinambis teguixin) at the Municipality of Glorinha, State of Rio Grande do Sul. The females were deposited in the tick collection of Veterinary Research Institute Desiderio Finamor (7 specimens), Eldorado do Sul, RS and in the Acari collection from Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, State of São Paulo (2 specimens). The finding confirms establishment de A. fuscum in the South of Brazil.
Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Mortazavi, Abdolazim
Two new species of Eutarsopolipus Berlese, 1911 (Acari: Heterostigmatina: Podapolipidae), belonging to the myzus species group, are described from the subelytra of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in Iran. Eutarsopolipus anichtchenkoi n. sp. was found on Pterostichus sp. and E. terricolae n. sp. on Scarites terricola Bonelli. This is the first record of the myzus species group from Asia. A key to the adult females of this species group worldwide is provided, and the distribution and host range of all representatives of the group are discussed.
Reeves, Will K; Durden, Lance A; Dasch, Gregory A
Adults and nymphs of Amblyomma exornatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae), an exotic African tick of monitor lizards, were collected from a Gray's monitor lizard, Varanus olivaceus Hallowell, that died in a reptile facility in Alabama. Nine adult ticks were tested by polymerase chain reaction for rickettsial agents. DNA from a novel spotted fever group Rickettsia was amplified and sequenced from one of the nine ticks. The novel Rickettsia was most similar to "Rickettsia anan," which is associated with Amblyomma from Asia. The detection of a spotted fever group Rickettsia in exotic ticks emphasizes the potential threat posed by the importation and propagation of exotic animals in the United States.
Billeter, Sarah A; Miller, Melissa K; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Levy, Michael G
Four hundred and sixty-six questing Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) from Carolina County, VA, and 98 questing A. americanum from Chatham County, NC, were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic spacer region. Two amplicons, approximately 270-280 bp, were detected in two ticks from Virginia. Based upon PCR and sequencing, an adult male and adult female tick harbored DNA sequences closely related to Bartonella tamiae (DQ395180). Bartonella DNA was not detected in A. americanum from North Carolina. Potential transmission of Bartonella spp. by A. americanum should be the focus of future experimental studies.
de Souza, Clarissa Pimentel; Verocai, Guilherme Gomes; de Arruda, Julio Almeida Alencar Matos; Pires, Jeferson Rocha; Takitani, Andréa Yuri; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio
The aim of this paper is to report the first description of gross pathological aspects of otoacariasis due to Edentalges bradypus Fonseca 1954 (Acari; Psoroptidae) infestation in the brown-throated three-toed sloth Bradypus variegatus Schinz, 1825 (Xenarthra; Bradypodidae) in Brazil. Mites were collected from massive skin crusts seen in both external ear canals and around both eyes of an extremely debilitated advanced-aged female sloth brought to the Wildlife Care Section of Universidade Estácio de Sá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Irish, Brian M
Although coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) is the predominant host for Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae), false spider mite infestations do occur on bananas and plantains (Musa spp. Colla). Since its introduction, the banana and plantain industries have been negatively impacted to different degrees by R. indica infestation throughout the Caribbean. Genetic resistance in the host and the proximity of natural sources of mite infestation has been suggested as two of the main factors affecting R. indica densities in Musa spp. plantations. Greenhouse experiments were established to try to determine what effect coconut palm proximities and planting densities had on R. indica populations infesting Musa spp. plants. Trials were carried out using potted Musa spp. and coconut palms plants at two different ratios. In addition, fourteen Musa spp. hybrid accessions were evaluated for their susceptibility/resistance to colonization by R. indica populations. Differences were observed for mite population buildup for both the density and germplasm accession evaluations. These results have potential implications on how this important pest can be managed on essential agricultural commodities such as bananas and plantains.
Zindel, Renate; Ofek, Maya; Minz, Dror; Palevsky, Eric; Zchori-Fein, Einat; Aebi, Alexandre
The biology of many arthropods can only be understood when their associated microbiome is considered. The nutritional requirements of the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini Claparede (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) in the laboratory have been shown to be very easily satisfied, and in the field the mites prefer fungus-infected over uninfected plants. To test whether symbiotic bacteria facilitate the survival of R. robini on a temporarily nutritionally unbalanced diet, we investigated the composition of its microbiome. Using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments, 3 genera were found to dominate the bacterial community: Myroides (41.4%), Serratia (11.4%), and Alcaligenes (4.5%); the latter 2 are known to include chitinase-producing species. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that mite fecundity is significantly higher (2 times) on fungus than on controls (sterilized potato dextrose agar and filter paper). Also, when mite homogenate was applied to a chitin layer, the halo produced through degradation was clearly visible, while the saline control did not produce a halo. We thus concluded that R. robini utilizes fungal chitin, at least to a certain extent, as a food source with the help of its associated bacteria. This information supports the general concept of multigenome organisms and the involvement of bacteria in the mite's nutritional ecology.
Napierała, Agnieszka; Mądra, Anna; Leszczyńska-Deja, Kornelia; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J; Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Błoszyk, Jerzy
Underground nests of Talpa europaea, known as the common mole, are very specific microhabitats, which are also quite often inhabited by various groups of arthropods. Mites from the suborder Uropodina (Acari: Mesostigmata) are only one of them. One could expect that mole nests that are closely located are inhabited by communities of arthropods with similar species composition and structure. However, results of empirical studies clearly show that even nests which are close to each other can be different both in terms of the species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities. So far, little is known about the factors that can cause these differences. The major aim of this study was to identify factors determining species composition, abundance, and community structure of Uropodina communities in mole nests. The study is based on material collected during a long-term investigation conducted in western parts of Poland. The results indicate that the two most important factors influencing species composition and abundance of Uropodina communities in mole nests are nest-building material and depth at which nests are located. Composition of Uropodina communities in nests of moles was also compared with that of other microhabitats (e.g. rotten wood, forest litter, soil) based on data from 4421 samples collected in Poland. Communities of this habitat prove most similar to these of open areas, especially meadows, as well as some forest types.
Rêgo, Adriano S; Teodoro, Adenir V; Maciel, Anilde G S; Sarmento, Renato A
The cassava green mite, Mononychellus tanajoa, is a key pest of cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), and it may be kept in check by naturally occurring predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae. In addition to predatory mites, abiotic factors may also contribute to regulate pest mite populations in the field. Here, we evaluated the population densities of both M. tanajoa and the generalist predatory mite Euseius ho DeLeon (Acari: Phytoseiidae) over the cultivation cycle (11 months) of cassava in four study sites located around the city of Miranda do Norte, Maranhão, Brazil. The abiotic variables rainfall, temperature and relative humidity were also recorded throughout the cultivation cycle of cassava. We determined the relative importance of biotic (density of E. ho) and abiotic (rainfall, temperature and relative humidity) factors to the density of M. tanajoa. The density of M. tanajoa increased whereas the density of E. ho remained constant throughout time. A hierarchical partitioning analysis revealed that most of the variance for the density of M. tanajoa was explained by rainfall and relative humidity followed by E. ho density and temperature. We conclude that abiotic factors, especially rainfall, were the main mechanisms driving M. tanajoa densities.
Szafranek, Piotr; Lewandowski, Mariusz; Kozak, Marcin
Parasitus bituberosus Karg (Acari: Parasitidae) is one of the predatory mite species inhabiting mushroom houses. It is known to accept a wide range of prey, suggesting that it may be a promising candidate for the biological control of key pests of mushroom culture. In our study it did not show any prey preference among four groups of small organisms often occurring in mushroom growth medium, namely rhabditid nematodes, pygmephorid mites, and sciarid and phorid fly larvae. Nevertheless, the type of food these predators fed on affects their development. The shortest egg-to-adult development time was obtained on a nematode diet. On a diet of phorid larvae, mite development stopped at the deutonymph stage; none reached adulthood. All other diets sufficed to reach the adult phase. Female fecundity when fed nematodes and sciarid larvae did not differ, but it was much lower when fed pygmephorid mites. Other life table parameters confirmed that pygmephorid mites constituted the worst diet for P. bituberosus. The highest intrinsic rate of population increase (r m = 0.34) was obtained on the nematode diet; when fed sciarid larvae and pygmephorid mites it was 0.25 and 0.14, respectively. Our study provides good reasons to further test P. bituberosus as biocontrol agent of especially sciarid flies and nematodes, especially when the compost is well colonized by mushroom mycelium (which retards nematode growth).
Erdmann, Georgia; Scheu, Stefan; Maraun, Mark
Most European forests are managed by humans. However, the manner and intensity of management vary. While the effect of forest management on above-ground communities has been investigated in detail, effects on the below-ground fauna remain poorly understood. Oribatid mites are abundant microarthropods in forest soil and important decomposers in terrestrial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the effect of four forest types (i.e., managed coniferous forests; 30 and 70 years old managed beech forests; natural beech forests) on the density, diversity and community structure of oribatid mites (Acari). The study was replicated at three regions in Germany: the Swabian Alb, the Hainich and the Schorfheide. To relate changes in oribatid mite community structure to environmental factors, litter mass, pH, C and N content of litter, fine roots and C content of soil were measured. Density of oribatid mites was highest in the coniferous forests and decreased in the order 30 years old, 70 years old, and natural beech forests. Mass of the litter layer and density of oribatid mites were strongly correlated indicating that the litter layer is an important factor regulating oribatid mite densities. Diversity of oribatid mites was little affected by forest type indicating that they harbor similar numbers of niches. Species composition differed between the forest types, suggesting different types of niches. The community structure of oribatid mites differed more strongly between the three regions than between the forest types indicating that regional factors are more important than effects associated with forest type.
Zhang, Yan-Kai; Chen, Ya-Ting; Yang, Kun; Qiao, Ge-Xia; Hong, Xiao-Yue
Reproductive endosymbionts have been shown to have wide-ranging effects on many aspects of their hosts’ biology. A first step to understanding how these endosymbionts interact with their hosts is to determine their incidences. Here, we screened for four reproductive endosymbionts (Wolbachia, Cardinium, Spiroplasma and Rickettsia) in 28 populations of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) representing 12 species. Each of the four endosymbionts were identified in at least some of the tested specimens, and their infection patterns showed variations at the species-level and population-level, suggesting their distributions can be correlated with both the phylogeny and ecology of the hosts. Co-infections of unrelated bacteria, especially double infections of Wolbachia and Cardinium within the same individuals were common. Spiroplasma and Rickettsia infections were specific to particular host species, respectively. Further, the evolutionary histories of these endosymbionts were inferred by comparing the phylogenies of them and their hosts. These findings can help to clarify the interactions between endosymbionts and arthropods. PMID:27291078
Ermilov, Sergey G; Minor, Maria A
Three new species of oribatid mites of the family Punctoribatidae (Acari, Oribatida) are described from alpine bogs of the Central Otago region in the South Island of New Zealand. Macrogena hexasetosa sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to M. brevisensilla Ermilov & Minor, 2015, however, it differs from the latter by larger body size, the presence of six pairs of genital setae, notogastral and ano-adanal setae of medium size, setiform rostral setae, narrower tutorial cusps, the absence of antero-ventral teeth on genua I, II and femora II, and by the absence of striae on the subcapitular mentum. Porallozetes badamdorji sp. nov. differs from the type species-P. dispar (Hammer, 1973)-by larger body length, the presence of interlamellar setae, short and clavate bothridial setae, anterior notogastral margin, notogastral setae of medium size, semi-oval dorsophragmata, and by the position of notogastral porose areas A2 posteriorly to A1. Safrobates gerdi sp. nov. differs from the type species-S. miniporus Mahunka, 1989-by larger body size, the presence of setiform rostral setae, and by notogastral setae of medium length. Porallozetes and Safrobates are recorded in New Zealand for the first time. Generic diagnoses for Macrogena, Porallozetes and Safrobates are given.
Wright, S A; Tucker, J R; Donohue, A M; Castro, M B; Kelley, K L; Novak, M G; Macedo, P A
Larval and nymphal western blacklegged tick, Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls (Acari: Ixodidae), were collected from birds, rodents, and lizards at Quail Ridge Reserve located in Napa County in northwestern California. Species from three vertebrate classes were sampled simultaneously from two transects during two consecutive spring seasons. Feeding larval and nymphal ticks were removed and preserved for counting, examination and testing for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt & Brenner. Mean infestations with I. pacificus subadults on lizards were 10.0, on birds 2.9, and on rodents 1.3. I. pacificus larvae (204) collected from 10 avian species and (215) collected from two rodent species were tested for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.s. via real-time polymerase chain reaction. Three B. burgdorferi-infected larvae were taken from two Junco hyemalis and two infected larvae from one Neotoma fuscipes Baird. This is the detection of B. burgdorferi ss in an Ixodes pacificus larvae feeding on a Junco hyemalis L., [corrected] in western North America.
Vandervalk, L P; Nasr, M E; Dosdall, L M
Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000 (Acari: Varroidae) is an ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Honey bee colonies require extensive management to prevent mortality caused by varroa mites and the viruses they vector. New miticides (Thymovar and HopGuard) to manage varroa mites were evaluated during the spring and fall treatment windows of the Canadian prairies to determine their effectiveness as part of an integrated management strategy. Thymovar and HopGuard were evaluated alongside the currently used industry standards: Apivar and formic acid. Results demonstrated that Apivar and formic acid remain effective V. destructor management options under spring and fall conditions. Applications of Thymovar during spring were associated with a reduction in brood area, and therefore should be limited to the fall season. The miticide HopGuard was not effective in managing V. destructor, and alteration of the current delivery system is necessary. This study demonstrates the potential for new effective treatment options to supplement currently used V. destructor integrated pest management systems.
Nava, Santiago; Mangold, Atilio J; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Venzal, José M; Oscherov, Elena B; Guglielmone, Alberto A
All parasitic stages of Amblyomma boeroi n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae) are described here from Catagonus wagneri (Rusconi) in Argentina. The diagnostic characters for the male are a combination of orbited eyes, a 2/2 dental formula, coxa IV considerably larger than coxae I-III and with a long, sickle-shaped, medially directed spur arising from its internal margin, a scutum which is light grey to very pale ivory in colour, and the absence of a postanal groove. The diagnostic characters for the females are a combination of orbited eyes, a central pair and two marginal pairs of short, coarse notal setae, a 2/2 dental formula, and the absence of a postanal groove. The nymph has short palpi and a 2/2 dental formula arranged in 6 rows, its eyes are convex and orbited, and it has no postanal groove. The dorsally rectangular basis capituli of the larva, its bulging eyes and slightly sinuous posterior scutal margin all serve to distinguish it from the larva of other species of the genus. The principal host for all parasitic stages is C. wagneri (Artiodactyla: Tayassuidae). Phylogenetically A. boeroi appears to represent an independent lineage within Amblyomma Koch, 1844.
The problem of the unnatural transfer of exotic ticks (Acari: Ixodida) on reptiles (Reptilia) imported to Poland is presented. In the period from 2003 to 2007, 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The reptiles most infested with ticks are imported to Poland from Ghana in Africa, and are the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius. As a result of the investigations, the transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland was confirmed. There were 2104 specimens of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Donitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum (Schulze, 1941), Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma sp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Amblyomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed in the ticks A. flavomaculatum, A. latum and H. aegyptium. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological considerations, and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland.
Bayoumy, Mohamed H; Osman, Mohamed A; Michaud, J P
Physical plant characteristics can influence predator foraging and their behavioral responses to each other. This study examined the searching efficiency and functional response of adult female Stethorus gilvifrons Mulsant foraging for Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on castor bean, common bean, and cucumber leaves. Experiments conducted on leaf discs in arenas for 12 h revealed a type II functional response for S. gilvifrons on all host plants. Per capita searching efficiency and killing power decreased with increasing predator density on all plants, but most notably on common bean, the plant with the highest prey consumption rates, due to greater mutual interference. Attack rates were highest on common bean and lowest on castor bean, whereas handling times were shortest on common bean and longest on cucumber, such that the daily predation rate was maximal on common bean. Host plant interacted with predator and prey densities to affect searching efficiency and functional response, the differences in mite consumption among host plants increasing with predator and prey densities. The waxy layers of castor bean leaves and high trichome counts of cucumber leaves appeared to reduce predator foraging efficiency. Thus, the efficacy of S. gilvifrons against T. urticae is likely to be greatest on plants such as Phaeseolus vulgaris L. that have relatively smooth leaves.
Che Lah, Ernieenor Faraliana; Yaakop, Salmah; Ahamad, Mariana; Md Nor, Shukor
Abstract Blood meal analysis (BMA) from ticks allows for the identification of natural hosts of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). The aim of this study is to identify the blood meal sources of field collected on-host ticks using PCR analysis. DNA of four genera of ticks was isolated and their cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene was amplified to identify host blood meals. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on data of Cyt b sequences using Neighbor Joining (NJ) and Maximum Parsimony (MP) analysis using MEGA 5.05 for the clustering of hosts of tick species. Twenty out of 27 samples showed maximum similarity (99%) with GenBank sequences through a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) while 7 samples only showed a similarity range of between 91–98%. The phylogenetic trees showed that the blood meal samples were derived from small rodents (Leopoldamys sabanus, Rattus tiomanicus and Sundamys muelleri), shrews (Tupaia glis) and mammals (Tapirus indicus and Prionailurus bengalensis), supported by 82–88% bootstrap values. In this study, Cyt b gene as a molecular target produced reliable results and was very significant for the effective identification of ticks’ blood meal. The assay can be used as a tool for identifying unknown blood meals of field collected on-host ticks. PMID:25685009
Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A
The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.
Corn, Joseph L; Berger, Patrick; Mertins, James W
Surveys in 2001, 2005, and 2006 attempted to determine the role of wildlife in maintenance and dissemination of the tropical bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum (F.) (Acari: Ixodidae), in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. Small mammals; birds; white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann); and feral cattle, Bos taurus L., were examined at nine premises, in mountainous rain forest, and in surrounding areas in western St. Croix, an area including and central to all known bont tick-infested premises on the island. Small Asian mongooses, Herpestes javanicus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire), yielded 1,566 ectoparasite specimens, representing five species, and including larvae of a soft tick, Carios puertoricensis (Fox); the tropical horse tick, Anocentor nitens (Neumann); and the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini). Black rats, Rattus rattus L., yielded 144 specimens, representing six ectoparasite species, including C. puertoricensis. Of 25 bird species examined, seven yielded 116 ectoparasite specimens representing at least 14 different species of lice and mites, but no ticks. White-tailed deer and feral cattle yielded only various stages of A. nitens and R. microplus ticks. A. variegatum was not encountered on any potential wildlife host sampled, reflecting its low occurrence in St. Croix during the survey period. One collection of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from a spotted sandpiper, Actitis macularia (L.), and collections of feather mites (Acari: Astigmata: Trouessartiidae) from both bananaquits, Coereba flaveola (L.), and black-faced grassquits, Tiaris bicolor (L.), may represent new, undescribed species.
Bochkov, A V
The external morphological adaptations to parasitism in acariform mites (Acari: Acariformes), permanently parasiting mammals, are briefly summated and analyzed. According to several external morphological criteria (structures of gnathosoma, idiosoma, setation, legs and life cycle), the following six morphoecotypes were established: skin mites (i)-- Cheyletidae, Chirorhynchobiidae, Lobalgidae, Myobiidae, Myocoptidae (the most part), Rhyncoptidae, Psoroptidae; fur mites (ii)--Atopomelidae, Clirodiscidae, Listrophoridae, Myocoptidae (Trichoecius only); skin burrowing mites (iii)--Sarcoptidae; intradermal mites (iv) - sorergatidae and Demodicidae; interstitial mites (v) - pimyodicidae; respiratory mites (vi) - reynetidae, Gastronyssidae, Lemurnyssidae, Pneumocoptidae. In the case of prostigmatic mites, the detailed reconstruction of the origin and evolution of "parasitic" morphoecotypes is possible due to the tentative phylogenetic hypotheses, which were proposed for the infraorder Eleutherengon, a, including the most part of the permanent mammalian parasites among prostigmatic mites (Kethley in Norton, 1993; Bochkov, 2002). The parasitism of Speleognathinae (Ereynetidae) in the mammalian respiratory tract arose independently of the other prostigmats. It is quite possible that these mites switched on mammals from birds, because they are more widely represented on these hosts than on mammals. The prostigmatic parasitism on mammalian skin seems to be originated independently in myobiids, in the five cheyletid tribes, Cheyletiellini, Niheliini, and Teinocheylini, Chelonotini, Cheyletini, and, probably, in a cheyletoid ansector of the sister families Psorergatidae-Demodicidae (Bochkov, Fain, 2001; Bochkov, 2002). Demodicids and psorergatids developed adaptations to parasitism in the skin gland ducts and directly in the epithelial level, respectively in the process of the subsequent specialization. Mites of the family Epimyodicidae belong to the phylogenetic line
Nava, Santiago; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Mangold, Atilio J; Martins, Thiago F; Venzal, José M; Guglielmone, Alberto A
All stages of Amblyomma hadanii n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae) are described from northwestern Argentina. The diagnostic characters for males are a combination of the pattern of scutal ornamentation, basis capituli dorsally rectangular with cornua, coxa I with two subequal spurs (the internal wider, the external longer), coxae II-III with a single spur, coxa IV with a single spur not reaching level of anus, ventral plates irregular in shape (larger and sometimes with a small incision on festoons 4, 5 and 6) and hypostome spatulate with dental formula 3/3 in 7-8 rows. The diagnostic characters for the females are a combination of scutal ornamentation, postero-lateral margins of scutum slightly convex, coxa I with two subequal spurs (the internal wider, the external longer), basis capituli dorsally rectangular, porose areas rounded, genital aperture U-shaped, and hypostome spatulate with dental formula 3/3 in 7-8 rows. Diagnosis of nymphs can be performed by a combination of basis capituli rectangular, scutum with large punctations in the lateral fields and small punctations in the central field, and cervical groove short and ending as a small shallow depression at the eye level. Larvae are diagnosed by the shape of basis capituli, scutum with with posterior margin slightly convex, and legs with coxa I with 2 triangular spur (the external longer than the internal), and with coxae II and III each with 1 triangular spur. The hosts recorded for this new tick species are Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus), horse, cattle, dog and humans. Analyses of a 410 bp fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene and the complete sequence of the nuclear 18S rRNA gene supported the description of A. hadanii as a new species.
Kreipe, Victoria; Corral-Hernández, Elena; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina; Maraun, Mark
Species of the genus Steganacarus are soil-living oribatid mites (Acari, Phthiracaridae) with a ptychoid body. The phylogeny and species status of the species of Steganacarus are not resolved, some authors group all ten German species of Steganacarus within the genus Steganacarus whereas others split them into three subgenera, Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus. Additionally, two species, S. magnus and T. carinatus, comprise morphotypes of questionable species status. We investigated the phylogeny and species status of ten European Steganacarus species, i.e. S. applicatus, S. herculeanus, S. magnus forma magna, S. magnus forma anomala, S. spinosus, Tropacarus brevipilus, T. carinatus forma carinata, T. carinatus forma pulcherrima, Atropacarus striculus and Rhacaplacarus ortizi. We used two molecular markers, a 251 bp fragment of the nuclear gene 28S rDNA (D3) and a 477 bp fragment of the mitochondrial COI region. The phylogeny based on a combined analysis of D3 and COI separated four subgenera (Steganacarus, Tropacarus and Atropacarus, Rhacaplacarus) indicating that they form monophyletic groups. The COI region separated all ten species of the genus Steganacarus and showed variation within some species often correlating with the geographic origin of the species. Resolution of the more conserved D3 region was limited, indicating that radiation events are rather recent. Overall, our results indicate that both genes alone cannot be used for phylogeny and barcoding since variation is too low in D3 and too high in COI. However, when used in combination these genes provide reliable insight into the phylogeny, radiation and species status of taxa of the genus Steganacarus.
Nava, S; Szabó, M P J; Mangold, A J; Guglielmone, A A
The hosts, distribution, intraspecific genetic variation and phylogenetic position of Amblyomma parvum (Acari: Ixodidae) have recently been re-assessed. Data on this tick's hosts and distribution were obtained not only from existing literature but also from unpublished records. Sequences of the ticks' mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used to evaluate genetic variation among specimens of A. parvum from different localities in Argentina and Brazil, and to explore the phylogenetic relationships between this tick and other Amblyomma species. Although several species of domestic and wild mammal act as hosts for adult A. parvum, most collected adults of this species have come from cattle and goats. Caviid rodents of the subfamily Caviinae appear to be the hosts for the immature stages. So far, A. parvum has been detected in 12 Neotropical biogeographical provinces (Chaco, Cerrado, Eastern Central America, Venezuelan Coast, Pantanal, Parana Forest, Caatinga, Chiapas, Venezuelan Llanos, Monte, Western Panamanian Isthmus, and Roraima) but the Chaco province has provided significantly more specimens than any other (P<0.0001). The 16S rDNA sequences showed just 0.0%-1.1% divergence among the Argentinean A. parvum investigated and no more than 0.2% divergence among the Brazilian specimens. The observed divergence between the Argentinean and Brazilian specimens was, however, greater (3.0%-3.7%). Although there is now molecular and morphological evidence to indicate that A. parvum, A. pseudoparvum, A. auricularium and A. pseudoconcolor are members of a natural group, previous subgeneric classifications do not reflect this grouping. The subgeneric status of these tick species therefore needs to be re-evaluated. The 16S-rDNA-based evaluation of divergence indicates that the gene flow between Argentinean and Brazilian 'A. parvum' is very limited and that the Argentinean 'A. parvum' may be a different species to the Brazilian.
Immediato, Davide; Camarda, Antonio; Iatta, Roberta; Puttilli, Maria Rita; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Di Paola, Giancarlo; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae) is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of laying hens worldwide. Chemical control of this mite may result in environmental and food contamination, as well as the development of drug resistance. High virulence of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains isolated from naturally infected hosts or from their environment has been demonstrated toward many arthropod species, including ticks. However, a limited number of studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of D. gallinae s.l. and none of them have employed native strains. This study reports the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against nymphs and adults of D. gallinae. Batches of nymph and adult mites (i.e., n=720 for each stage) for treated groups (TGs) were placed on paper soaked with a 0.1% tween 80 suspension of B. bassiana (CIS, 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) conidia/ml), whilst 240 untreated control mites for each stage (CG) were exposed only to 0.1% tween 80. The mites in TG showed a higher mortality at all stages (p<0.01) when compared to CG, depending on the time of exposure and the conidial concentration. A 100% mortality rate was recorded using a CIS of 10(9) conidia/ml 12 days post infection (DPI) in adults and 14 DPI in nymphs. B. bassiana suspension containing 10(9) conidia/ml was highly virulent towards nymph and adult stages of D. gallinae, therefore representing a possible promising natural product to be used in alternative or in combination to other acaricidal compounds currently used for controlling the red mite.
Wantuch, Holly A; Tarpy, David R
The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to chemical pesticides, which are also known to leave residues in hive products such as wax and honey. Thus there has been increased emphasis on nonchemical integrated pest management control tactics for Varroa. Because mites preferentially reproduce in drone brood (pupal males), we developed a treatment strategy focusing on salvaging parasitized drones while removing mites from them. We removed drone brood from colonies in which there was no acaricidal application and banked them in separate "drone-brood receiving" colonies treated with pesticides to kill mites emerging with drones. We tested 20 colonies divided into three groups: 1) negative control (no mite treatment), 2) positive control (treatment with acaricides), and 3) drone-brood removal and placement into drone-brood receiving colonies. We found that drone-brood trapping significantly lowered mite numbers during the early months of the season, eliminating the need for additional control measures in the spring. However, mite levels in the drone-brood removal group increased later in the summer, suggesting that this benefit does not persist throughout the entire season. Our results suggest that this method of drone-brood trapping can be used as an element of an integrated control strategy to control varroa mites, eliminating a large portion of the Varroa population with limited chemical treatments while retaining the benefits of maintaining adult drones in the population.
Vázquez, Luís; Panadero, Rosario; Dacal, Vicente; Pato, Francisco Javier; López, Ceferino; Díaz, Pablo; Arias, María Sol; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio
During the 2007 and 2008 hunting seasons (April-October) the skin of 367 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.), hunted in different preserves from Galicia (Northwestern Spain), were examined for ticks (Acari: Ixodidae). The overall prevalence of infestation by ticks was 83.1%. The predominant species was Ixodes ricinus (83.1%), whereas a single Dermacentor marginatus specimen appeared in one roe deer. All developmental stages of I. ricinus were found parasitizing roe deer, the adults being the most frequent (82.2%), followed by nymphs (45.6%) and larvae (27.2%). The mean intensity of infestation by I. ricinus was 43.2 ± 49.85; most of them were adults (30.7 ± 31.64) and in a lesser extend nymphs (16.9 ± 24.74) and larvae (10.7 ± 29.90). Ixodes ricinus was present all over the study with percentages that oscillated between 100% in spring and 57.4% in autumn. CHAID algorithm showed the sex of roe deer as the most influential factor in tick prevalence, followed by the climatic area. The different developmental stages of I. ricinus were more frequent in males than in females, and the prevalence of adults and larvae were higher in roe deer from coastal areas than in those from mountainous and central areas, whereas nymphs were more frequent in mountainous areas. Host age and density were not determinants for tick infestation. Our results confirm that roe deer are important hosts for I. ricinus in northwestern Spain, serving as a vehicle for the geographic distribution of these ticks.
Johnson, Tammi L; Graham, Christine B; Boegler, Karen A; Cherry, Cara C; Maes, Sarah E; Pilgard, Mark A; Hojgaard, Andrias; Buttke, Danielle E; Eisen, Rebecca J
Tick-borne pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), also known as the deer tick or blacklegged tick, are increasing in incidence and geographic distribution in the United States. We examined the risk of tick-borne disease exposure in 9 national parks across six Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States and the District of Columbia in 2014 and 2015. To assess the recreational risk to park visitors, we sampled for ticks along frequently used trails and calculated the density of I. scapularis nymphs (DON) and the density of infected nymphs (DIN). We determined the nymphal infection prevalence of I. scapularis with a suite of tick-borne pathogens including Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti Ixodes scapularis nymphs were found in all national park units; DON ranged from 0.40 to 13.73 nymphs per 100 m(2) Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, was found at all sites where I. scapularis was documented; DIN with B. burgdorferi ranged from 0.06 to 5.71 nymphs per 100 m(2) Borrelia miyamotoi and A. phagocytophilum were documented at 60% and 70% of the parks, respectively, while Ba. microti occurred at just 20% of the parks. Ixodes scapularis is well established across much of the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States, and our results are generally consistent with previous studies conducted near the areas we sampled. Newly established I. scapularis populations were documented in two locations: Washington, D.C. (Rock Creek Park) and Greene County, Virginia (Shenandoah National Park). This research demonstrates the potential risk of tick-borne pathogen exposure in national parks and can be used to educate park visitors about the importance of preventative actions to minimize tick exposure.
Ogrzewalska, Maria; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Marcili, Arlei; Nava, Santiago; González-Acuña, Daniel; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Ruiz-Arrondo, Ignacio; Venzal, José M; Mangold, Atilio; Labruna, Marcelo B
The tick Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae) has established populations in Andean and Patagonic environments of South America. For the present study, adults of A. parvitarsum were collected in highland areas (elevation >3500 m) of Argentina and Chile during 2009-2013, and tested by PCR for rickettsial infection in the laboratory, and isolation of rickettsiae in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique. Overall, 51 (62.2%) out of 82 A. parvitarsum adult ticks were infected by spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, which generated DNA sequences 100% identical to each other, and when submitted to BLAST analysis, they were 99.3% identical to corresponding sequence of the ompA gene of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest. Rickettsiae were successfully isolated in Vero cell culture from two ticks, one from Argentina and one from Chile. DNA extracted from the third passage of the isolates of Argentina and Chile were processed by PCR, resulting in partial sequences for three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompB, ompA). These sequences were concatenated and aligned with rickettsial corresponding sequences available in GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the A. pavitarsum rickettsial agent grouped under high bootstrap support in a clade composed by the SFG pathogens R. sibirica, R. africae, R. parkeri, Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, and two unnamed SFG agents of unknown pathogenicty, Rickettsia sp. strain NOD, and Rickettsia sp. strain ApPR. The pathogenic role of this A. parvitarsum rickettsia cannot be discarded, since several species of tick-borne rickettsiae that were considered nonpathogenic for decades are now associated with human infections.
Carmichael, Joseph A; Strauss, Richard E; McIntyre, Nancy E
The ectoparasites of a small mammal community within an intertidal zone in the upper Gulf coast region of Texas were studied to assess the seasonal variation in abundances of the mite Gigantolaelaps mattogrossensis (Fonseca) (Acari: Laelapidae) on the marsh rice rat, Oryzomys palustris (Harlan). Further study into the ecology and dynamics of this parasite-host relationship was deemed to be necessary to expand the understanding of these potential participants in the ecology of Bayou Hantavirus, an important causative agent of Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of five predictor variables on mite abundance: prevalences of hosts, relative humidity, precipitation, temperature, and length of daylight. Mite abundance was modeled as a function of the five variables with analyses of variance and multiple regressions; however, because the predictor variables pertain to the sampling period rather than to the individual rodent host, the effective sample size was small and thus the sums of squares and cross products matrix was singular. We therefore developed and used a new method for estimating regression coefficients based on the "noise-addition method" (random residual variation) combined with a bootstrap step converting the reduced rank data to full rank, providing realistic estimates of confidence intervals for the regression statistics. The population abundances of mites fluctuated significantly across collecting periods. Humidity and precipitation were the most influential variables in explaining the variation in abundances of mites. Model interpretation suggests that G. mattogrossensis is a nidicolous parasite. These results provide a baseline understanding of the seasonal interactions between parasite and host.
Dowling, Ashley P G; Bochkov, Andre V; O'Connor, Barry M
The mesostigmatid genus Andreacarus Radford, 1953 (Acari: Laelapidae), species of which are obligatory parasites of small mammals, is revised. Andreacarus includes 11 species, four species previously recognized and seven new species described from Madagascar hosts: A. brachyuromys sp. n. from Brachyuromys betsileoensis Bartlett, A. eliurus sp. n. from Eliurus species, A. gymnuromys sp. n. from Gymnuromys roberti Major, A. voalavo sp. n. from Voalavo gymnocaudus Carleton & Goodman, A. nesomys sp. n. from Nesomys rufus Peters-all from nesomyid rodents; A. tenrec sp. n. from Tenrec ecaudatus Schreber (Afrosoricida: Tenrecidae); and A. galidia from Galidia elegans I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire (Carnivora: Viverridae). An amended generic diagnosis and key to females are also given. Six species described in Andreacarus from Australian and New Guinean hosts are removed and transferred to the new genus, Juxtalaelaps.
Koc, Samed; Oz, Emre; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Aydin, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin
The acaricidal activity of an essential oil obtained from aerial parts of Origanum bilgeri P.H. Davis (Lamiaceae), an endemic species in Turkey, and its major constituents, carvacrol was evaluated against unfed adults Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from Kepez, Antalya. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by GC/MS. The major compound identified in the oil was carvacrol (93.02%). Generally, tick mortalities to the O. bilgeri distillate and carvacrol increased with concentrations. O. bilgeri oil produced >83% mortality at 48h at a concentration of 0.8% and mortality was higher than 63% at a carvacrol concentration of 0.4%. Our results have shown that O. bilgeri essential oil and its major component, carvacrol, may have potential as acaricidal agents against R. turanicus.
Cargnus, Elena; Zandigiacomo, Pietro
The immature stages of four species of Kampimodromus Nesbitt (Acari: Phytoseiidae) from Italy and Croatia have been studied and identified both at stage and species level. Larval stages of Kampimodromus corylosus Kolodochka and all immature stages of Kampimodromus ericinus Ragusa di Chiara & Tsolakis and Kampimodromus langei Wainstein & Arutunjan are described for the first time. The relative length of the posterior dorsal setae Z4 make the larvae of Kampimodromus aberrans (Oudemans) easy to separate from those of the other three species. Nymphs of each species had similar diagnostics to the adults of the respective species. Ontogeny of the idiosomal and leg setation of the Kampimodromus immatures studied in comparison to the available data from immatures of other phytoseiid species is discussed. The length of seta Z4 in the K. aberrans larva, and the number of setae on leg IV of the deutonymphs of the four Kampimodromus species, are proposed as additional taxonomic traits for Phytoseiidae.
Yunik, Matthew E.M.; Galloway, Terry D.; Lindsay, L. Robbin
Bovine anaplasmosis is the disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma marginale. It can cause production loss and death in cattle and bison. This was a reportable disease in Canada until April 2014. Before then, infected herds were quarantined and culled, removing infected animals. In North America, A. marginale is biologically vectored by hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), Dermacentor variabilis and D. andersoni. Biting flies, particularly horse flies (Diptera: Tabanidae), can also act as mechanical vectors. An outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis, consisting of 14 herds, was detected in southern Manitoba in 2008. This outbreak lasted multiple rounds of testing and culling before eradication in 2011, suggesting local maintenance of the pathogen was occurring. We applied novel approaches to examine the vector ecology of this disease in this region. We did not detect A. marginale by screening of 2056 D. variabilis (2011 and 2012) and 520 horse flies (2011) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PMID:27127345
Silva, Camila de Lima; Graciolli, Gustavo
Acari ectoparasites were collected from bats during 12 months in the Rio Negro farm (19°34'22″S and 56°14'36″W), Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 654 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae were captured. Only 136 bats of nine genera and 11 species were parasitised. Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. The greatest mean intensity was found to Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison on Phyllostomus discolor Wagner (Phyllostomidae) and Periglischrus tonatii Herrin and Tipton associated with Lophostoma silviculum d'Orbigny (Phyllostomidae), which also had the highest prevalence of infestation.
Expression analysis of Drosophila doublesex, transformer-2, intersex, fruitless-like, and vitellogenin homologs in the parahaploid predator Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Acari: Phytoseiidae).
Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A
Characterization and expression analyses are essential to gain insight into sex-determination pathways in members of the Acari. Little is known about sex determination at the molecular level in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Arthropoda: Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae), a parahaploid species. In this study, eight genes previously identified as putative homologs to genes involved in the sex-determination pathway in Drosophila melanogaster were evaluated for sex-specific alternative splicing and sex-biased expression using reverse-transcriptase PCR and quantitative real-time PCR techniques, respectively. The homologs evaluated in M. occidentalis included two doublesex-like genes (Moccdsx1 and Moccdsx2), transformer-2 (Mocctra-2), intersex (Moccix), two fruitless-like genes (MoccBTB1 and MoccBTB2), as well as two vitellogenin-like genes (Moccvg1 and Moccvg2). Single transcripts of equal size were detected in males and females for Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2, Mocctra-2, Moccix, and MoccBTB2, suggesting that their pre-mRNAs do not undergo alternative splicing in a sex-specific manner. Three genes, Moccdsx1, Moccdsx2 and MoccBTB2, displayed male-biased expression relative to females. One gene, Moccix, displayed female-biased expression relative to males. Two genes, Mocctra-2 and MoccBTB1, did not display detectable differences in transcript abundance in males and females. Expression of Moccvg1 and Moccvg2 were detected in females only, and transcript levels were up-regulated in mated females relative to unmated females. To our knowledge, this represents the first attempt to elucidate expression patterns of putative sex-determination genes in an acarine. This study is an initial step towards understanding the sex-determination pathway in the parahaploid M. occidentalis.
Gazim, Zilda Cristiani; Demarchi, Izabel Galhardo; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Amorim, Ana Carolina L; Hovell, Ana Maria C; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Ferreira, Gilberto Alves; de Lima, Edson Luiz; de Cosmo, Fábio Antunes; Cortez, Diogenes Aparício Garcia
Tetradenia riparia (Lamiaceae) is a well-known herbal medicine with a variety of useful properties, including its acaricidal effect. This experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of T. riparia essential oil (EO) against engorged females of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari; Ixodidae). For this purpose, nine serial concentrations (12.50%, 6.25%, 3.75%, 1.80%, 0.90%, 0.45%, 0.22%, 0.11%, and 0.056% w/v) of T. riparia were used for the adult immersion test (AIT). For the larval packet test (LPT), we used 14 serial concentrations (100.00%, 50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25%, 3.65%, 1.82%, 0.91%, 0.45%, 0.228%, 0.114%, 0.057%, 0.028%, and 0.014% w/v). The results for AIT showed 100.00% and 2.05% mortality, 19.00 and 90.20% for the total number of eggs, egg-laying inhibition of 0.00% and 90.20%, hatchability inhibition of 0.00% and 70.23%, and product effectiveness of 100.00% and 2.89%, respectively. The AIT indicated that the LC(50) and LC(99.9), calculated using the Probit test, were for mortality (%) 0.534g/mL (0.436-0.632) and 1.552g/mL (1.183-1.92); for total number of eggs were 0.449g/mL (0.339-0.558) and 1.76g/mL (1.27-2.248); and for hatchability inhibition were 0.114g/mL (0.0-0.31) and 2.462g/mL (1.501-3.422), respectively. Larvae between 14 and 21days old were fasted and placed in each envelope. Bioassays were performed at 27°±1°C, RH⩾80%. Larval mortality was observed 24h after treatment and showed 10.60-100% mortality in the LPT bioassay. The LPT showed that the LC(50) and LC(99.9) were 1.222g/mL (0.655-1.788) and 11.382g/mL (7.84-14.91), respectively. A positive correlation between T. riparia EO concentration and tick control, was observed by the strong acaricidal effects against R. (B.) microplus, and the mortality rate of ticks was dose-dependent. Our results showed that T. riparia is a promising candidate as an acaricide against resistant strains of R. (B.) microplus.
Ahn, Jeong Joon; Son, Youngsoo; He, Yaqian; Lee, Eungul; Park, Yong-Lak
Temperature plays an important role in the growth and development of arthropods, and thus the current trend of climate change will alter their biology and species distribution. We used Chaetodactylus krombeini (Acari: Chaetodactylidae), a cleptoparasitic mite associated with Osmia bees (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), as a model organism to investigate how temperature affects the development and voltinism of C. krombeini in the eastern United States. The effects of temperature on the stage-specific development of C. krombeini were determined at seven constant temperatures (16.1, 20.2, 24.1, 27.5, 30.0, 32.4 and 37.8°C). Parameters for stage-specific development, such as threshold temperatures and thermal constant, were determined by using empirical models. Results of this study showed that C. krombeini eggs developed successfully to adult at all temperatures tested except 37.8°C. The nonlinear and linear empirical models were applied to describe quantitatively the relationship between temperature and development of each C. krombeini stage. The nonlinear Lactin model estimated optimal temperatures as 31.4, 32.9, 32.6 and 32.5°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. In the linear model, the lower threshold temperatures were estimated to be 9.9, 14.7, 13.0 and 12.4°C for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. The thermal constant for each stage completion were 61.5, 28.1, 64.8 and 171.1 degree days for egg, larva, nymph, and egg to adult, respectively. Under the future climate scenarios, the number of generations (i.e., voltinism) would increase more likely by 1.5 to 2.0 times by the year of 2100 according to simulation. The findings herein firstly provided comprehensive data on thermal development of C. krombeini and implications for the management of C. krombeini populations under global warming were discussed. *Scientific Article No. 3278 of the West Virginia Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Morgantown, West Virginia PMID
Luo, Jin; Liu, Guang-Yuan; Chen, Ze; Ren, Qiao-Yun; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jian-Xun; Wang, Hui
Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (H.a. anatolicum) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks are globally distributed ectoparasites with veterinary and medical importance. These ticks not only weaken animals by sucking their blood but also transmit different species of parasitic protozoans. Multiple factors influence these parasitic infections including miRNAs, which are non-coding, small regulatory RNA molecules essential for the complex life cycle of parasites. To identify and characterize miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum, we developed an integrative approach combining deep sequencing, bioinformatics and real-time PCR analysis. Here we report the use of this approach to identify miRNA expression, family distribution, and nucleotide characteristics, and discovered novel miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum. The result showed that miR-1-3p, miR-275-3p, and miR-92a were expressed abundantly. There was a strong bias on miRNA, family members, and nucleotide compositions at certain positions in H.a. anatolicum miRNA. Uracil was the dominant nucleotide, particularly at positions 1, 6, 16, and 18, which were located approximately at the beginning, middle, and end of conserved miRNAs. Analysis of the conserved miRNAs indicated that miRNAs in H.a. anatolicum were concentrated along three diverse phylogenetic branches of bilaterians, insects and coelomates. Two possible roles for the use of miRNA in H.a. anatolicum could be presumed based on its parasitic life cycle: to maintain a large category of miRNA families of different animals, and/or to preserve stringent conserved seed regions with active changes in other places of miRNAs mainly in the middle and the end regions. These might help the parasite to undergo its complex life style in different hosts and adapt more readily to the host changes. The present study represents the first large scale characterization of H.a. anatolicum miRNAs, which could further the understanding of the complex biology of this zoonotic parasite, as well as initiate miRNA studies
Yang, Banghe; Li, Chaopin
Mites of the genus Tyrophagus are economically important polyphagous pest commonly living on stored products and also responsible for allergic reactions to humans. Complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) and the gene features therein are widely used as molecular markers in the study of population genetics, phylogenetics as well as molecular evolution. However, scarcity on the sequence data has greatly impeded the studies in these areas pertaining to the Acari (mites and ticks). Information on the Tyrophagus mitogenomes is quite critical for phylogenetic evaluation and molecular evolution of the mitogenomes within Acariformes. Herein, we reported the complete mitogenome of the allergenic acarid storage mite Tyrophagus longior (Astigmata: Acaridae), an important member of stored food pests, and compared with those of other three acarid mites. The complete mitogenome of T. longior was a circular molecule of 13,271 bp. Unexpectedly, only 19 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs) were present, lacking trnF, trnS1 and trnQ. Furthermore, it also contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) and 2 genes for rRNA (rrnS and rrnL) commonly detected in metazoans. The four mitogenomes displayed similar characteristics with respect to the gene content, nucleotide comparison, and codon usages. Yet, the gene order of T. longior was different from that in other Acari. The J-strands of the four mitogenomes possessed high A+T content (67.4-70.0%), and exhibited positive GC-skews and negative AT-skews. Most inferred tRNAs of T. longior were extremely truncated, lacking either a D- or T-arm, as found in other acarid mites. In T. longior mitogenome the A+T-rich region was just 50 bp in length and can be folded as a stable stem-loop structure, whereas in the region some structures of microsatellite-like (AT)n and palindromic sequences was not present. Besides, reconstructing of the phylogenetic relationship based on concatenated amino acid sequences of 13 PCGs supported that monophyly of the family
Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Skorupski, Maciej; Kavetska, Katarzyna
The fauna of quill mites of the family Syringophilidae Lavoipierre, 1953 (Acari: Prostigmata Cheyletoidea) parasitising birds of the family Rallidae Vigors (Gruiformes) is updated. A new species, Rafapicobia melzeri n. sp. (subfamily Picobiinae), is described from four host species: Rallus aquaticus Linnaeus (type-host) from Germany, Pardirallus sanguinolentus (Swainson) from Chile, Porzana porzana (Linnaeus) from France and P. parva (Scopoli) from Kirghizia. The new species is most similar to R. lepidocolaptesi Skoracki & Solarczyk, 2012 but differs in the absence of agenital plates and the length ratios of setae ag2:g1 and vi:ve:si in females and in the punctate ornament on the hysteronotal and the pygidial shields in males. A key to the species of the genus Rafapicobia is proposed. This is the first record of a representative of the subfamily Picobiinae on gruiform birds. Additionally, new rallid hosts are reported for Charadriphilus ralli Skoracki & Bochkov, 2010 (subfamily Syringophilinae): Gallinula melanops (Vieillot) from Chile, Laterallus melanophaius (Vieillot) from Paraguay, and P. parva (Scopoli) from Kirghizia.
Schulze, Terry L; Jordan, Robert A; Healy, Sean P; Roegner, Vivien E; Meddis, Michael; Jahn, Margaret B; Guthrie, Douglas L
To evaluate their potential importance in the transmission of ixodid tick-borne borrelioses in Monmouth County, NJ, we collected host-seeking Ixodes scapularis Say and Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) adults and nymphs to determine relative encounter frequencies and the infection prevalence of selected Borrelia spp. in their respective tick vectors. We also reviewed records of all ticks submitted for identification by the public in Monmouth County during 2001-2005. Relative abundance of the two species varied markedly among sites. Adult encounter frequencies for the two species were similar; however, A. americanum nymphs were encountered 3 times more frequently than I. scapularis nymphs. Of 435 ticks submitted by the public, 50.1 and 38.9% were I. scapularis and A. americanum, respectively. However, during May through August, the peak Lyme disease transmission season in New Jersey, significantly more submitted ticks were A. americanum (55.9%), compared with I. scapularis (34.1%). Polymerase chain reaction analysis of 94 1. scapularis and 103 A. americanum adults yielded infection prevalences of 31.9% for B. burgdorferi and 5.8% for B. lonestari, respectively. Although the infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi in I. scapularis was considerably higher than the infection prevalence of B. lonestari in A. americanum, the higher encounter frequencies for A. americanum compared with I. scapularis observed in this and other studies may result in increased risk of acquiring exposure to A. americanum-transmitted pathogens. The potential public health implications of these results are discussed.
Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Marciniak, Natalia; Sikora, Bozena
The quill mite fauna of the family Syringophilidae (Acari: Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea) associated with owls (Aves: Strigiformes) is reviewed. A new genus is proposed, Neobubophilus Skoracki & Unsoeld gen. nov. It differs from closely related Bubophilus (Bubophilus Philips and Norton, 1978) by the absence of leg setae vsII in the both sexes. In addition, four new species are described: (1) Neobubophilus cunicularius Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) (Strigidae) from Paraguay; (2) Neobubophilus atheneus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Athene noctua (Scopoli, 1769) and Athene brama (Temminck, 1821) (Strigidae), both from India; (3) Bubophilus tytonus Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Tyto alba affinis (Blyth, 1862) (Tytonidae) from Cameroon, and (4) Megasyringophilus dalmas Skoracki & Unsoeld sp. nov. from Megascops choliba (Vieillot, 1817) (Strigidae) from Venezuela. The following new host species are given: Bubo bubo (Linnaeus, 1758) (Strigidae) from Nepal for Bubophilus ascalaphus (Philips and Norton 1978) and Strix woodfordii (Smith, 1834) (Strigidae) from Tanzania for Bubophilus aluconis (aluconis Nattress and Skoracki 2009). A key for syringophilid genera and species associated with owls is constructed. The host-parasite relationships of syringophilid mites and owls are discussed.
Molecular characterization and evolutionary insights into potential sex-determination genes in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae).
Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A; Kawahara, Akito Y
Little is known about the process of sex determination at the molecular level in species belonging to the subclass Acari, a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The recent sequencing of the transcriptome and genome of the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis allows investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying the biological processes of sex determination in this predator of phytophagous pest mites. We identified four doublesex-and-mab-3-related transcription factor (dmrt) genes, one transformer-2 gene, one intersex gene, and two fruitless-like genes in M. occidentalis. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted to infer the molecular relationships to sequences from species of arthropods, including insects, crustaceans, acarines, and a centipede, using available genomic data. Comparative analyses revealed high sequence identity within functional domains and confirmed that the architecture for certain sex-determination genes is conserved in arthropods. This study provides a framework for identifying potential target genes that could be implicated in the process of sex determination in M. occidentalis and provides insight into the conservation and change of the molecular components of sex determination in arthropods.
Campos, Roseane Nunes de Santana; Nascimento Lima, Cecília Beatriz; Passos Oliveira, Alexandre; Albano Araújo, Ana Paula; Fitzgerald Blank, Arie; Barreto Alves, Péricles; Nascimento Lima, Rafaely; Albano Araújo, Vinícius; Santana, Alisson Silva; Bacci, Leandro
Ticks are arthropods widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, which can transmit infectious agents also responsible for zoonoses. Excessive use of conventional acaricides has resulted in the onset of drug resistance by these parasites, thus the need to use alternative methods for their control. This study evaluated the acaricidal activities of Chrysopogon zizanioides (vetiver) essential oils containing different zizanoic and khuzimol (high and low acidity) acid concentrations on Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). To this aims, toxicity tests of different concentrations of examined essential oils were conducted on adult females and larval stages. Results showed that the essential oils of C. zizanioides with high and low acidity reduced oviposition of females, eggs hatch and larval survival, being more effective than some commercial products widely used to control these ectoparasites. These results indicate that the C. zizanoides essential oils are promising candidates as acaricidal agents and represent also an add value to vetiver oil with high acidity, which is commercially undervalued in the cosmetic industry.
Banajee, K. H.; Verhoeve, V. I.; Harris, E. K.; Macaluso, K. R.
Rickettsia parkeri Luckman (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) is a pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia transmitted by Amblyomma maculatum Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) in the United States. The acute innate immune response to this pathogen and the effect of tick feeding or salivary components on this response is largely unknown. We hypothesized that A. maculatum saliva enhances R. parkeri infection via downregulation of the acute cellular and cytokine immune response. C3H/HeN mice were intradermally inoculated with R. parkeri both with and without A. maculatum saliva. Flow cytometry and microscopic evaluation of inoculation site skin suspensions revealed that neutrophils and macrophages predominated at 6 and 24 h post R. parkeri inoculation, respectively. This cellular influx was significantly downregulated when A. maculatum saliva was inoculated along with R. parkeri. Inflammatory cytokines (interferon γ and interleukins 6 and 10) were significantly elevated after R. parkeri inoculation. However, cytokine concentration and rickettsial load were not significantly modified by A. maculatum saliva during the acute phase of infection. These results revealed that tick saliva inhibits the cutaneous cellular influx during the acute phase of rickettsial infection. Further study is needed to determine the overall impact of this effect on the establishment of rickettsiosis in the host and development of disease. PMID:27521760
Ros, Vera I. D.; Fleming, Vicki M.; Feil, Edward J.; Breeuwer, Johannes A. J.
At least 20% of all arthropods and some nematode species are infected with intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia. This highly diverse genus has been subdivided into eight “supergroups” (A to H) on the basis of nucleotide sequence data. Here, we report the discovery of a new Wolbachia supergroup recovered from the spider mite species Bryobia species V (Acari: Tetranychidae), based on the sequences of three protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA, and groEL) and the 16S rRNA gene. Other tetranychid mites possess supergroup B Wolbachia strains. The discovery of another Wolbachia supergroup expands the known diversity of Wolbachia and emphasizes the high variability of the genus. Our data also clarify the existing supergroup structure and highlight the use of multiple gene sequences for robust phylogenetic analysis. In addition to previous reports of recombination between the arthropod-infecting supergroups A and B, we provide evidence for recombination between the nematode-infecting supergroups C and D. Robust delineation of supergroups is essential for understanding the origin and spread of this common reproductive parasite and for unraveling mechanisms of host adaptation and manipulation across a wide range of hosts. PMID:19098217
Bochkov, Andre V; Skirnisson, Karl
A new species of syringophilid mites, Mironovia lagopus sp. nov. (Acari: Syringophilidae) is described from feather quills of the rock ptarigman Lagopus muta (Montin) (Phasianidae) from Iceland. Females of this new species differ from the closely related Mironovia rouloul Skoracki and Sikora by setae d2, which are subequal or 1.1-1.2 times shorter than setae e2 (vs. d2 1.4-1.5 times longer than e2 in Mironovia rouloul) and by setae ag1, which are 1.3-1.5 times shorter than ag2 (vs. ag1 1.7-1.8 times shorter than ag2). The postembryonic stages of this new species are figured and described in details. In ontogeny of Mironovia spp., the observed pattern of setal appearance is not different from the pattern in other galliform-associated genera such as Syringophilus and Colinophilus, with exception for tarsal setae p'I, II which are absent in protonymphs. The key to all four species of the genus Mironovia is also provided.
Postawa, Tomasz; Szubert-Kruszyńska, Agnieszka; Ferenc, Hanna
We studied variations in the abundance of parasitic spinturnicid mites in relation to the gender, age and body condition of bats living in different habitats. Populations of Spinturnix myoti Kolenati, 1856 (Acari: Spinturnicidae), an ectoparasite of the bat Myotis myotis (Borkhausen) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), were investigated in two types of roosts differing in microclimatic conditions: caves (low temperature and high humidity) and attics (high temperature and low humidity). Our data suggest that bats from cave nursery colonies harbour more parasites than those from attic colonies, irrespective of host sex or age. In underground colonies, adult females and their young differ in the mean abundance of parasites, whereas no such differences were found in attic colonies. Non-lactating females from underground roosts and lactating females from attic colonies had similar parasite loads, were lower than those of adult lactating females from caves. A negative correlation between the host body condition index and parasite load was found only in the most infected sex/age group of bats. In spite of significant differences in parasite load, the mean abundance of particular life stages of mites seems to be independent of the type of roost occupied by the host, its sex or age. However, in attic colonies the number of female deutonymphs was twice that of male deutonymphs, whereas in cave colonies the proportions of the sexes were similar. We suggest that the microclimate of the host's roosts may influence ectoparasite abundance through pressure on the sex ratio in the nymphal stages of mites.
Huang, Li-Qin; Guo, Xian-Guo; Speakman, John R; Dong, Wen-Ge
During a survey lasting from 1990 to 2008, we captured 4,113 Asian house rats, Rattus tanezumi Temminck 1844 (Rodentia: Muridae) from 28 counties of Yunnan Province in southwestern China. From these rats, a total of 19,304 gamasid mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) were collected and identified as comprising 50 different species. The species diversity of gamasid mites from this single rat species is higher than that reported previously from multiple hosts within a given geographical region. Of the 50 mite species, 31 species belonged to ectoparasites and 19 species belonged to free-living mites. The species diversity of the mites from rats trapped outdoors was much higher than from rats trapped indoors. The parameter K from the negative binomial distribution was used to measure the spatial distribution patterns of the dominant mite species and revealed that all the mites had an aggregated distribution among the rat hosts. Most mite species showed a predominantly female-biased population structure with many more females than males.
Zhao, Ya-E; Wang, Zheng-Hang; Xu, Yang; Wu, Li-Ping; Hu, Li
According to base pairing, the rRNA folds into corresponding secondary structures, which contain additional phylogenetic information. On the basis of sequencing for complete rDNA sequences (18S, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 and 28S rDNA) of Demodex, we predicted the secondary structure of the complete rDNA sequence (18S, 5.8S, and 28S rDNA) of Demodex folliculorum, which was in concordance with that of the main arthropod lineages in past studies. And together with the sequence data from GenBank, we also predicted the secondary structures of divergent domains in SSU rRNA of 51 species and in LSU rRNA of 43 species from four superfamilies in Acari (Cheyletoidea, Tetranychoidea, Analgoidea and Ixodoidea). The multiple alignment among the four superfamilies in Acari showed that, insertions from Tetranychoidea SSU rRNA formed two newly proposed helixes, and helix c3-2b of LSU rRNA was absent in Demodex (Cheyletoidea) taxa. Generally speaking, LSU rRNA presented more remarkable differences than SSU rRNA did, mainly in D2, D3, D5, D7a, D7b, D8 and D10.
Elias, Susan P; Lubelczyk, Charles B; Rand, Peter W; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Holman, Mary S; Smith, Robert P
We evaluated the relationships between forest understory structure and the abundance of questing adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), in three Maine towns endemic for Lyme disease, 2001-2003. In fragmented New England woodlands, over-abundant white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman, overbrowse palatable species, allowing browse-resistant exotic-invasive species to replace native forest understory structures. We predicted there would be more ticks in plots dominated by exotic-invasive shrubs (such as Japanese barberry, Berberis thunbergii DC) than in plots dominated by native shrubs, ferns, or open understory. We assessed canopy composition and closure, tree basal area, litter composition, percentage of coverage and stem density of understory species, litter depth, soil moisture, and abundance of small mammals and white-tailed deer pellet groups. We used generalized linear mixed model analysis of covariance to determine the effect of understory structure on tick counts, controlling for continuous habitat and host covariates and adjusting for random spatial effects. There were twice as many adults and nearly twice as many nymphs in plots dominated by exotic-invasives than in plots dominated by native shrubs. Both adult and nymphal counts were lowest in open understory with coniferous litter. Adults were positively associated with increasing litter depth, medium soil moisture, and increasing abundance of white-footed deer mice, Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque, and deer pellet group counts. Nymphs were positively associated with increasing litter depth, moderately wet soil, and mice. We concluded that deer browse-resistant exotic-invasive understory vegetation presented an elevated risk of human exposure to the vector tick of Lyme disease.
Nchu, Felix; Magano, Solomon R; Eloff, Jacobus N
Dichloromethane (DCM) extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) bulbs was assessed for its repellent effect against the hard tick, Hyalomma rufipes (Acari: Ixodidae) using two tick behavioural bioassays; Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, under laboratory conditions. These bioassays exploit the questing behaviour of H. rufipes, a tick that in nature displays ambush strategy, seeking its host by climbing up on vegetation and attaching to a passing host. One hundred microlitres (100 µL) of the test solution containing DCM extract of garlic bulbs and DCM at concentrations of 0.35%, 0.7% or 1.4% w/v were evaluated. DCM only was used for control. Tick repellency increased significantly (R2 = 0.98) with increasing concentration (40.03% - 86.96%) yielding an EC50 of 0.45% w/v in Type B repellency bioassay. At concentration of 1.4% w/v, the DCM extract of garlic bulbs produced high repellency index of 87% (male ticks) and 87.5% (female ticks) in the Type A repellency bioassay. Only 4% avoidance of male ticks or female ticks was recorded in the Type B repellency bioassay. In the corresponding controls, the mean numbers of non-repelled male or female ticks were 80% and 41 males or 38 females of 50 ticks in the Type A and Type B repellency bioassays, respectively. The variations in the results could be attributed to the difference in tick repellent behaviours that were assessed by the two repellency bioassays; the Type A repellency bioassay assessed repellent effect of garlic extracts without discriminating between deterrence and avoidance whereas the Type B repellency bioassay only assessed avoidance response. Generally, DCM extract of garlic was repellent against H. rufipes, albeit weak tick repellency was obtained in the Type B repellency bioassay. Furthermore, this study established that the tick repellent activity of garlic extracts is predominantly by deterrence.
Responses of Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae) and Menacanthus stramineus (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) to gradients of temperature, light, and humidity, with comments on microhabitat selection on chickens.
Halbritter, D A; Mullens, B A
Responses of the northern fowl mite (NFM), Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago) (Acari: Macronyssidae), and the chicken body louse (CBL), Menacanthus stramineus (Nitzsch) (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae), to variation in temperature, light, and humidity were assessed in bioassays. The location on a continuous thermal gradient at which each ectoparasite arrested was recorded and analyzed. NFM adults arrested at an average temperature of 30.09 +/- 0.34 degrees C. Adult CBL and first-instar CBL nymphs arrested at 33.69 +/- 0.20 degrees C and 34.99 +/- 0.26 degrees C, respectively. Groups of each ectoparasite were placed into clear glass vials (n = 10/vial) with one half shaded, and vials were exposed to three light levels, as follows: high (200 micromolm(-2)s(-1)), low (4 micromolm(-2)s(-1)), and nearly no light (0 micromolm(-2)s(-1)). The vial cap edges provided an opportunity to assess the interactive effect of light with harborage. NFM avoided light and sought harborage. In low light, the harborage preference overrode the tendency to avoid light. CBL avoided the harborage and showed a minimal preference for light. A four-level humidity gradient was established in two separate experimental arenas for NFM and CBL. Trials were run in ambient light (4 micromolm(-2)s(-1)) for the NFM and in nearly no light for the CBL. The NFM gradient used 38 +/- 2%, 54 +/- 7%, 73 +/- 3%, and 90 +/- 4% RH, whereas the CBL gradient used 42 +/- 5%, 48 +/- 7%, 63 +/- 4%, and 73 +/- 5% RH. NFM showed no humidity response in the walking bioassay, but the CBL settled at the lowest humidity level. Temperature and humidity on different hen body regions were related to the bioassay results and observed on-host ectoparasite distributions.
Jordan, Robert A; Schulze, Terry L; Jahn, Margaret B
We monitored the abundance of Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae) and the Lyme disease incidence rate after the incremental removal of white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann, within a suburban residential area to determine whether there was a measurable decrease in the abundance of ticks due to deer removal and whether the reduction in ticks resulted in a reduction in the incidence rate within the human population. After three seasons, the estimated deer population was reduced by 46.7%, from the 2002 postfawning estimate of 2,899 deer (45.6 deer per km2) to a 2005 estimate of 1,540 deer (24.3 deer per km2). There was no apparent effect of the deer culling program on numbers of questing I. scapularis subadults in the culling areas, and the overall numbers of host-seeking ticks in the culling areas seemed to increase in the second year of the program. The Lyme disease incidence rate generated by both passive and active surveillance systems showed no clear trend among years, and it did not seem to vary with declining deer density. Given the resources required to mount and maintain a community-based program of sufficient magnitude to effectively reduce vector tick density in ecologically open situations where there are few impediments to deer movement, it may be that deer reduction, although serving other community goals, is unlikely to be a primary means of tick control by itself. However, in concert with other tick control interventions, such programs may provide one aspect of a successful community effort to reduce the abundance of vector ticks.
Lara, Jesús R; Saremi, Naseem T; Castillo, Martin J; Hoddle, Mark S
Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) is an important foliar spider mite pest of 'Hass' avocados in several commercial production areas of the world. In California (USA), O. perseae densities in orchards can exceed more than 100 mites per leaf and this makes enumerative counting prohibitive for field sampling. In this study, partial enumerative mite counts along half a vein on an avocado leaf, an industry recommended practice known as the "half-vein method", was evaluated for accuracy using four data sets with a combined total of more than 485,913 motile O. perseae counted on 3849 leaves. Sampling simulations indicated that the half-vein method underestimated mite densities in a range of 15-60 %. This problem may adversely affect management of this pest in orchards and potentially compromise the results of field research requiring accurate mite density estimation. To address this limitation, four negative binomial regression models were fit to count data in an attempt to rescue the half-vein method for estimating mite densities. These models were incorporated into sampling plans and evaluated for their ability to estimate mite densities on whole leaves within 30-tree blocks of avocados. Model 3, a revised version of the original half-vein model, showed improvement in providing reliable estimates of O. perseae densities for making assessments of general leaf infestation densities across orchards in southern California. The implications of these results for customizing the revised half-vein method as a potential field sampling tool and for experimental research in avocado production in California are discussed.
Description of a new species of Ixodes Latreille, 1795 (Acari: Ixodidae) and redescription of I. lasallei Méndez & Ortiz, 1958, parasites of agoutis and pacas (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae, Cuniculidae) in Central and South America.
Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Bermúdez, Sergio E
Ixodes bocatorensis n. sp. (Acari: Ixodidae), is described based on adults ex agoutis (Rodentia: Dasyproctidae), pacas (Rodentia: Cuniculidae) and "tapir and sloth" (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae and Pilosa) from Colombia, Panama and Venezuela. Adults of I. bocatorensis n. sp. are similar to those of I. lasallei Méndez & Ortiz, 1958 but can be distinguished by the scutum dimensions, punctation pattern, gnathosoma and palpi measurements and their ratios, basis capituli anterior angle and shape of the spur of palpal segment I ventrally. For comparative purposes the female of I. lasallei is redescribed and the true male of this species is described for the first time. Studied adults of I. lasallei were found on agoutis, pacas and ocelot (Carnivora: Felidae) in Colombia, Peru and Venezuela.
First description of the male and redescription of the female of Ixodes tapirus Kohls, 1956 (Acari: Ixodidae), a parasite of tapirs (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae) from the mountains of Colombia, Costa Rica and Panama.
Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Domínguez, Lillian G; Torres, Sugeys S; Bernal, Juan A; Montenegro, Victor M; Bermúdez, Sergio E
The male of Ixodes tapirus Kohls, 1956 (Acari: Ixodidae) is described for the first time and the female is redescribed in greater detail. Adults of I. tapirus are similar to those of Ixodes guatemalensis Kohls, 1956, Ixodes lasallei Méndez & Ortiz, 1958, Ixodes montoyanus Cooley, 1944 and Ixodes venezuelensis Kohls, 1953 but can be distinguished by their overall size, the amount of sclerotisation of the conscutum and accessory plates, the shape of the scutum, the number of punctations and their pattern on the conscutum and scutum, the depth of the punctations on the basis capituli dorsally, the shape and size of the porose areas and the size and shape of the auriculae. Adults of I. tapirus were collected from tapirs and vegetation in the mountains of Colombia, Panama and recorded from Costa Rica for the first time.
Childers, Carl C; Ueckermann, Eduard A
Seven citrus orchards on reduced- to no-pesticide spray programs were sampled for predacious mites in the families Eupalopsellidae and Stigmaeidae (Acari: Prostigmata) in central and south central Florida. Inner and outer canopy leaves, fruit, twigs, and trunk scrapings were sampled monthly between August 1994 and January 1996. Open flowers were sampled in March from five of the sites. Two species of eupalopsellid mites (Exothorhis caudata Summers and Saniosulus harteni (van-Dis and Ueckermann)) were identified from 252 specimens collected within citrus tree canopies within the seven citrus orchards of which 249 were E. caudata. Only two E. caudata were collected from ground cover plants within five of the seven orchards. Eight species of Stigmaeidae were identified from 5,637 specimens: Agistemus floridanus Gonzalez, A. terminalis Gonzalez, Eustigmaeus arcuata (Chandhri), E. sp. near arcuata, E. segnis (Koch), Mediostigmaeus citri (Rakha and McCoy), Stigmaeus seminudus Wood, and Zetzellia languida Gonzalez were collected from within citrus tree canopies from seven orchard sites. Agistemus floridanus was the only species in either family that was abundant with 5,483 collected from within citrus tree canopies compared with only 39 from vine or ground cover plants. A total of 431 samples from one or more of 82 vines and ground cover plants were sampled monthly between September 1994 and January 1996 in five of these orchards and one or more eupalopsellids or stigmaeids were collected from 19 of these plants. Richardia brasiliensis (Meg.) Gomez had nine A. floridanus from 5 of 25 samples collected from this plant. Solanum sp. had five A. floridanus from three samples taken. Both eupalopsellid and stigmaeid species numbers represented <1 % of the total numbers of phytoseiid species taken from the same plants. The two remaining orchards were on full herbicide programs and ground cover plants were absent. Agistemus floridanus was more abundant in the citrus orchards
Khederi, Saeid Javadi; de Lillo, Enrico; Khanjani, Mohammad; Gholami, Mansur
The interaction of grape erineum mite (GEM), Colomerus vitis Pagenstecher (Acari: Eriophyidae), with grape was investigated in the laboratory. We studied some plant morphological biochemical features potentially related to vine resistance/tolerance of eight native grapevine cultivars, extensively cultivated in western Iran, and two non-native cultivars. Free-choice experiments indicated that the cultivars Shahani, Flame seedless and Yaghuti were colonized by lower levels of GEM, whereas Muscat Gordo, Gazne and White Thompson seedless hosted denser populations. These differences between cultivars may be due to differential attractiveness to GEM, possibly associated with plant biochemical and morphological traits. In no-choice assays with six grapevine cultivars, mite population development and some cultivar features were assessed. Mite populations grew fastest on Gazne and Muscat Gordo, and slowest on Yaghuti and Shahani. The degree of mite infestation was associated with reduction of leaf area, increase of leaf weight, shortening of shoots and more numerous erinea: these features were larger on the most infested Gazne, whereas morphological features of Shahani and Yaghuti were scarcely affected by GEM infestation. Also trichome type and density of the assayed cultivars appeared to be related to mite density: the most infested cultivars (Gazne and Muscat Gordo) displayed higher ranks of blade and vein hairs and lower ranks of blade and vein bristles and domatia. No correlation was found between mite density and leaf thickness of mature leaves. The amount of leaf waxes was highest in Shahani and Yaghuti, which displayed the lowest mite density, the fewest erinea and the largest leaves. Carbohydrate amount of uninfested leaves was lowest on the least infested Shahani and highest on the most infested Gazne; phenols increased in leaves of Shahani and decreased in those of Gazne after mite infestation. Finally, cultivars also appeared to influence some morphological
Hiraoka, H; Mori, N; Nishida, R; Kuwahara, Y
A mixture of two monoterpenes was obtained as the opisthonotal gland secretion from unidentified Histiogaster sp. A096 (Acari: Acaridae), and their structures were elucidated to be (4E)-dehydrocitrals [(2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienals] by GC/MS, GC/FT-IR, UV and 1H-NMR spectra. Both isomers of (4E)-dehydrocitral prepared by syntheses in 4 steps from 3-methyl-2-butenal with 34.2% yields (based on the ylide) were separated by column chromatography into the (2E,4E)- and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal. Mass spectra together with GC retention times of the purified natural (4E)-dehydrocitrals were identical with those of synthetic (2E,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal and (2Z,4E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6-octatrienal. The geometry at the 2-C position of both synthetic (4E)-dehydrocitrals was confirmed by NOESY analyses. This is the first identification of (4E)-dehydrocitrals from the animal kingdom.
Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping; Hu, Li; Xu, Yang; Wang, Zheng-Hang; Liu, Wen-Yan
Due to the difficulty of DNA extraction for Demodex, few studies dealt with the identification and the phyletic evolution of Demodex at molecular level. In this study, we amplified, sequenced, and analyzed a complete (Demodex folliculorum) and an almost complete (D12 missing) (Demodex brevis) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence and also analyzed the primary sequences of divergent domains in small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of 51 species and in large-subunit rRNA of 43 species from four superfamilies in Acari (Cheyletoidea, Tetranychoidea, Analgoidea, and Ixodoidea). The results revealed that 18S rDNA sequence was relatively conserved in rDNA-coding regions and was not evolving as rapidly as 28S rDNA sequence. The evolutionary rates of transcribed spacer regions were much higher than those of the coding regions. The maximum parsimony trees of 18S and 28S rDNA appeared to be almost identical, consistent with their morphological classification. Based on the fact that the resolution capability of sequence length and the divergence of the 13 segments (D1-D6, D7a, D7b, and D8-D12) of 28S rDNA were stronger than that of the nine variable regions (V1-V9) of 18S rDNA, we were able to identify Demodex (Cheyletoidea) by the indels occurring in D2, D6, and D8.
Infection and co-infection rates of Anaplasma phagocytophilum variants, Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial endosymbiont in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) from sites in Indiana, Maine, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
Steiner, Fresia E; Pinger, Robert R; Vann, Carolyn N; Grindle, Nate; Civitello, David; Clay, Keith; Fuqua, Clay
In total, 394 questing adult blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say (Acari: Ixodidae), collected at four sites were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for five microbial species: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, Babesia odocoilei, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the rickettsial I. scapularis endosymbiont. Identities of genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum were determined by sequencing a portion of the 16S DNA. In 55% of infected ticks (193/351), a single agent was detected. In 45% (158/351), two or more agents were detected; 37% harbored two agents and 8% harbored three agents. One male tick, collected from Ft. McCoy, WI, harbored all four microbial genera The highest rates of co-infection were by the Ixodes endosymbiont and B. burgdorferi (95/351). Two species of Babesia co-occurred within a single tick population in Wells National Estuarine Research Reserve, Wells, ME, whereas only B. odocoilei was found in other tick populations. Only A. phagocytophilum human anaplasmosis variant was detected in questing ticks from Tippecanoe River State Park, IN; from Wells; and Ft. McCoy, whereas a single infected tick from Presque Isle, PA, was infected by AP-Variant 1. Partially engorged ticks from deer in Tippecanoe River State Park were all infected with AP-Variant 1. Frequency of infections with each agent varied among populations. Rates and types of co-infections were not significantly different from random except for the Ixodes endosymbiont and B. burgdorferi in male ticks, which co-occurred less frequently than expected. Thus, I. scapularis hosts an array of pathogenic and symbiotic agents and potential evidence of interactions among microbial species was observed.
Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Baccharis dracunculifolia De Candole (1836) and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).
de Assis Lage, Tiago Coelho; Montanari, Ricardo Marques; Fernandes, Sergio Antonio; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; de Oliveira Souza Senra, Tatiane; Zeringota, Viviane; da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik
Baccharis dracunculifolia DC (common name "alecrim-do-campo" in Brazil) is a plant with widespread distribution in South America that is the botanical origin of green propolis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and acaricidal activity of the essential oil of B. dracunculifolia and its constituents nerolidol and limonene on unengorged larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). The essential oil yield was 0.8% of dry mass and the major constituents were nerolidol (22.3%), germacrene D (7.2%), limonene (6.9%), β-pinene (6.7) and bicyclogermacrene (6.5%). The acaricidal activity of the essential oil and the pure compounds nerolidol and (R)-(+)-limonene were assessed in the laboratory through the modified larval packet test (LPT) and the female immersion test (FIT). In the LPT, the essential oil and nerolidol were both active, causing more than 90% mortality at concentrations from 15.0 and 10.0 mg mL(-1), respectively, whereas (R)-(+)-limonene was not active. In the FIT, the oil and nerolidol caused reduction in the quantity and quality of eggs produced, with control percentages of 96.3% and 90.3% at concentrations of 60.0 and 50.0 mg mL(-1), respectively. It can be concluded that the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of B. dracunculifolia and its major component nerolidol have high activity on R. microplus larvae and engorged females.
Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Rocha, Thiago Lopes; de Sabóia-Morais, Simone Maria Teixeira; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodriguez
We evaluated the effects of 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from Guarea kunthiana A. Juss (Meliaceae) on oogenesis, as a larvicide and on ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) (Acari: Ixodidae). On the oogenesis' test, 48 engorged females were divided into three groups, evaluated at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Half of the females were treated with 0.01% 3β-O-tigloylmelianol diluted in distilled water and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), while the other half (controls) were exposed to distilled water and 5% DMSO. After treatment, the ovaries were weighed in order to measure the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and were also subjected to standard histological technical tests. On the larvicide and ecdysis' tests, 3β-O-tigloylmelianol was tested at concentrations of 0.01, 0.005, 0.0025 and 0.00125%. Compared with the controls, there was a reduction of GSI of approximately 50% on the treated group, which started at 48 h post treatment. Overall, the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol has caused a significant reduction in the number of oocytes. It has also caused alteration of the cytoplasmic and germinal vesicle diameters. Morphological changes, such as vacuolization, chorion irregularity which has modified the oocytes' morphology as well as alterations on the yolk's granules were also observed. The compound was not larvicide, however, interfered in the ecdysis of the larvae and the nymphs. This study shows that the protolimonoid 3β-O-tigloylmelianol from G. kunthiana acts on oogenesis and ecdysis of R. (B.) microplus, but not as larvicide, indicating that it acts on the endocrine system of the tick.
da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba
Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed.
Ermilov, Sergey G; Friedrich, Stefan
Six species of oribatid mites of the genus Pergalumna (Oribatida, Galumnidae) are collected from the German Expedition to Amazonian Peru in 2013; of these, three are new for science, described from upper soil and leaf litter in the primary evergreen lowland rainforest. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) parapassimpunctata sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) passimpunctata Balogh & Mahunka, 1969, but differs from the latter by the presence of foveolate body surface, two pairs of porose areas Aa and minute interlamellar setae, and the absence of porose areas A3. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) krisperi sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) cardosensis Pérez-Íñigo & Baggio, 1986, but differs from the latter by the smaller body size, rostral and lamellar setae of medium size and the presence of four pairs of notogastral porose areas. Pergalumna (Pergalumna) lenticulata sp. nov. is morphologically most similar to P. (P.) decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, but differs from the latter by the larger body size and the presence of lenticulus and bidentate rostrum. The species Pergalumna (Pergalumna) bryani Jacot, 1934 is recorded for the first time in Peru.
Abstract The present paper is based on original and literature data. In Croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. The number of tick species recorded in Croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. A total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in Croatia. Ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. Haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by Rhipicephalus with four species. Dermacentor and Hyalomma are represented by two species each. The ticks were collected on 47 different host species. Eleven tick species were collected on Bos taurus and Ovis aries, followed by Capra hircus and Equus caballus with 8 species and Canis lupus familiaris with 6 species. On the remaining 42 host species one, two or three tick species were collected. The most widespread tick is Ixodes ricinus which was found on 25 different host species. PMID:23372407
Tenuipalpus Donnadieu is the most speciose genus of the family Tenuipalpidae, with over 300 described species. The descriptions of many of these species are incomplete, and lack important information necessary for accurate species identification. The objective of this study was to re-describe specie...
Nava, Santiago; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A
The life cycle of Amblyomma neumanni was described studying the seasonal distribution of free-living stages and parasitic phases during two consecutive years. Development periods of engorged ticks under different photoperiod conditions were recorded. Larvae of A. neumanni have the peak of abundance in autumn. Nymphs reach the peak in winter. Females were collected on cattle from autumn to late spring. The seasonal distribution pattern of females showed a bimodal curve, with a peak in autumn and other during early and middle spring. The engorged females exposed at shortest photoperiod regimen (10 h light-14 h dark) under both laboratory and field conditions undergo morphogenetic diapause, expressed as a delay in the oviposition. It is concluded that females of A. neumanni that feed and copulate in autumn undergo morphogenetic diapause, and they will lay eggs in spring, simultaneously with the females that feed and copulate in this season. Climate niche analysis shows that adequate suitability for A. neumanni depends mainly from temperature (mean, absolute maximum and minimum, and mean temperature in wettest and driest quarters) as well as from rainfall in warmest and coldest quarters. Sequences of 16S rDNA gene belonging to different populations of A. neumanni, showed no intraspecific genetic differentiation.
Pascual Izaola, A; Sánchez Milla, J J; Mateo Garmilla, J I; Antépara, I
In this work we collect the results of the variation of the variable "rechange of the wind with the exterior" in the three possibilities of a bedroom: --close window, semi close and totally open. And we unite the relation that we already know between the prevail of acariens (Dermatophagoides) and the relative humidity of the wind in a Bilbao city's house.
de Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Maturano, Ralph; Daemon, Erik; Catunda-Junior, Francisco Eduardo Aragão; Calmon, Fernanda; Senra, Tatiane de Souza; Faza, Aline; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the acaricidal activity of eugenol, with different solubilizations and concentrations, on Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens larvae and to determine the lethal time. The study consisted of four experiments, and the mortality was assessed using the larval packet test with adaptations. The mortality observed in the first experiment was 100 % for all the groups treated with eugenol solubilized in different solvents. In the second, the hydroethanolic formulation of eugenol was used, and the mortality rates for R. microplus and D. nitens was 100 % starting from the concentration of 5.0 μl/ml. In the third experiment, the mortality was 100 % for larvae of both R. microplus and D. nitens after 1 h of contact. And in the fourth experiment, the mortality was above 90 % and statistically similar (p > 0.05) for the four methods the test evaluated.
Sato, Mário Eidi; Da Silva, Marcos Zatti; De Souza Filho, Miguel Francisco; Matioli, André Luís; Raga, Adalton
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) for the control of Tetranychus urticae Koch in commercial strawberry fields, under greenhouse conditions, in association or not with the use of acaricides. The N. californicus strain used in this study was tolerant or resistant to several pesticides. Three experiments were carried out in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. For the first experiment, the initial infestation of T. urticae was 87.1 active stages per leaflet. Two applications of propargite were made on the first and the 14th day of the experiment. Approximately 2 h after each propargite application, N. californicus was released at a rate of 3.0 and 1.9 adult mites per plant, respectively, for each application. The population of T. urticae decreased from 87.1 to 2.8 mites per leaflet in the first three weeks. After this period, the population of T. urticae was maintained at low levels (
Bandaranayaka, K O; Apanaskevich, D A; Rajakaruna, R S
Nosomma monstrosum (Nuttall & Warburton) is a hard tick infesting mainly buffalo and cattle in Sri Lanka. Biological data on the life cycle pattern of N. monstrosum were collected using experimental infestation on New Zealand white rabbits under laboratory conditions. The three-host life cycle was completed within 64-102 days. Eggs hatched after 20-29 days of incubation and the larvae hatched out started feeding which lasted for 2-4 days. After a moulting period of 8-11 days nymphs emerge and they actively fed for 2-4 days. Subsequently the nymphs took 15-18 days for moulting before emerging as adults. Freshly moulted females fed for 7-8 days and remained latent for 4-5 days before starting the oviposition. Females laid 3864-12,520 eggs for 11-17 days. The male: female sex ratio was 8:3 in the adults which were moulted under laboratory conditions. Strong positive correlations were found in female weight with number of eggs laid and REI. Females raised from the first generation of eggs had higher oviposition periods, higher REI, laid ten times more eggs, and lower pre-oviposition periods compared to those collected from the wild. When a suitable host is given, N. monstrosum could successfully complete its three-host life cycle under laboratory conditions.
Bandaranayaka, K O; Apanaskevich, D A; Rajakaruna, R S
Amblyomma integrum is a hard tick infesting mainly buffalo and cattle and has been identified as an agent of human otoacariasis in Sri Lanka. Data on the life cycle pattern of A. integrum were collected by experimental infestation on New Zealand white rabbits under laboratory conditions. Wild-caught females laid 55-7389 eggs for 2-35 days after spending a latent period of 10-25 days. Egg incubation period was 31-105 days and the newly emerged larvae started feeding after 4-11 days. Larvae dropped off after feeding and they moulted into nymphs after 10-16 days. Nymphs actively fed on rabbits for 4-8 days and dropped off. Engorged nymphs took 11-25 days for moulting before emerging as adults. The male:female sex ratio of the adults moulted under laboratory conditions was 11:9. All the stages showed periodicity in engorgement and dropping off. The three-host life cycle was completed within 74-245 days with an average of 152.9 days. The mean Reproductive Efficiency Index (REI) and Reproductive Aptitude Index (RAI) were 3.6 and 1.1, respectively. Females hatched in the laboratory did not successfully feed on New Zealand white rabbits. The wild-caught females which fed on buffaloes had prolonged pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, low REI, low RAI and low eclosion under controlled laboratory conditions compared to other tick species. Although larva and nymphs of A. integrum successfully fed on New Zealand white rabbits under laboratory conditions, full life cycle was not completed because the adult females did not feed on rabbits.
Two new tarsonemid species of the genus Daidalotarsonemus found on both native and crop plants in Brazil are described herein, based on adult females: Daidalotarsonemus esalqi sp. n. and Daidalotarsonemus savanicus sp. n. A key is provided to distinguish females of Daidalotarsonemus species known to...
Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G; Rider, S Dean; Grunwald, William C; Cool, David R
The pruritic skin disease scabies is caused by the burrowing of the itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei (De Geer). It is difficult to diagnose this disease because its symptoms often resemble those of other skin diseases. No reliable blood or molecular diagnostic test is available. The aim of this project was to begin to characterize the scabies proteome to identify scabies mite proteins, including those that may be useful in the development of a diagnostic test or vaccine. Various scabies mite extracts were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, and 844 Coomassie Blue-stained protein spots were excised, subjected to trypsin digestion, and analyzed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight/Time-Of-Flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Tryptic fragment sequences determined by MS were searched against the recently completed S. scabiei annotated genome, leading to the identification of >150 proteins. Only 10 proteins hit to previously identified scabies proteins including actin, tropomyosin, and several ABC transporters. Thirteen proteins had homology to dust mite allergens (members of groups 8, 10, 13, 17, 20, 25, and 28). Most other sequences showed some homology to proteins in other mites and ticks including homologs of calmodulin, calreticulin, lipocalin, and glutathione-S-transferase. These data will now allow the identification of the proteins to which scabies patients produce antibodies, including those that may be good candidates for inclusion in a diagnostic test and vaccine.
Ermilov, Sergey G.; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P.
Abstract Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibates bolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibates minimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given. PMID:25349489
Kontschán, Jenő; Friedrich, Stefan
Soil dwelling Uropodina mites were collected from a primary lowland rainforest in Amazonian Peru. The species found belong to three different families. A new diagnosis and the type genus of Tetrasejaspidae fam. nov. are given, and the family is recorded from Peru for the first time on the basis of Tetrasejaspis sellnicki Hirschmann, 1973. Two rotundabaloghid mites were collected (Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) magna Hirschmann, 1992 and Rotundabaloghia (Circobaloghia) iquitosensis Hirschmann, 1992), both already reported from Peru. A new species (Origmatrachys peruensis sp. nov.) from the family Trachyuropodidae was collected in large numbers from soil, and is described on the basis of females, males, nymphs and larvae. This is the first description of the protonymphs and larvae of Origmatrachys. The new species differs from the previously described ones in the basis of sculptural pattern of dorsal, ventral, sternal shields and the length of the setae in the central part of the dorsal shield. A new key to the known adults and deutonymphs of Origmatrachys is given.
Warburton 1911), Haemaphysalis (Nuttall and Warburton 1915), Amblyomma (Robinson 1926) and the works of Neumann (e.g., 1899, 1901, 1911). Most of these...synonymy). Although dated, the only one of these that is of real value today is that on Amblyomma , both for its keys to the adult stages and its fine...1993 Ixodidae Amblyomma 12 Petney 1993 Aponommaa 9 Petney 1993 Boophilusb 1 Petney and Keirans 1996 Dermacentor 5 Petney and Keirans 1996 Haemaphysalis
Olwoch, J M; Van Jaarsveld, A S; Scholtz, C H; Horak, I G
The suitability of present and future climates for 30 Rhipicephalus species in Africa are predicted using a simple climate envelope model as well as a Division of Atmospheric Research Limited-Area Model (DARLAM). DARLAM's predictions are compared with the mean outcome from two global circulation models. East Africa and South Africa are considered the most vulnerable regions on the continent to climate-induced changes in tick distributions and tick-borne diseases. More than 50% of the species examined show potential range expansion and more than 70% of this range expansion is found in economically important tick species. More than 20% of the species experienced range shifts of between 50 and 100%. There is also an increase in tick species richness in the south-western regions of the sub-continent. Actual range alterations due to climate change may be even greater since factors like land degradation and human population increase have not been included in this modelling process. However, these predictions are also subject to the effect that climate change may have on the hosts of the ticks, particularly those that favour a restricted range of hosts. Where possible, the anticipated biological implications of the predicted changes are explored.
Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A
The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work.
Martínez-Girón, Rafael; Doganci, Levent; Iraola, Victor
Recently there has been an increasing interest in studying arthropods that live close to humans, such as cockroaches and mites, for their potential as vectors. Gregarines observed under light microscopy in intestinal extracts of house dust mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are described for the first time in scientific literature.
Kuo, Chi-Chien; Shu, Pei-Yun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Lee, Pei-Lung; Wu, Yin-Wen; Chung, Chien-Kung; Wang, Hsi-Chieh
Ticks are second to mosquitoes as the most important disease vectors, and recent decades have witnessed the emergence of many novel tick-borne rickettsial diseases, but systematic surveys of ticks and tick-borne rickettsioses are generally lacking in Asia. We collected and identified ticks from small mammal hosts between 2006 and 2010 in different parts of Taiwan. Rickettsia spp. infections in ticks were identified by targeting ompB and gltA genes with nested polymerase chain reaction. In total, 2,732 ticks were collected from 1,356 small mammals. Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides Supino (51.8% of total ticks), Haemaphysalis bandicota Hoogstraal & Kohls (28.0%), and Ixodes granulatus Supino (20.0%) were the most common tick species, and Rattus losea Swinhoe (44.7% of total ticks) and Bandicota indica Bechstein (39.9%) were the primary hosts. The average Rickettsia infective rate in 329 assayed ticks was 31.9% and eight Rickettsia spp. or closely related species were identified. This study shows that rickettsiae-infected ticks are widespread in Taiwan, with a high diversity of Rickettsia spp. circulating in the ticks. Because notifiable rickettsial diseases in Taiwan only include mite-borne scrub typhus and flea-borne murine typhus, more studies are warranted for a better understanding of the real extent of human risks to rickettsioses in Taiwan.
Pence, Danny B.; Thomas, N.J.
A new species is described and additional host records are presented for 2 other species of deutonymphs of the family Hypoderatidae from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the wood stork, Mycteria americana L. Phalacrodectes (Phalacrodectes) mycteria n. sp. appears to share affinities with species from both pelicaniform and ciconiiform hosts, but it most closely resembles P. (P.) punctatissimus (Černý) Pence & Courtney from pelicans in idiosomal chaetotaxy, cutdcular sclerotization, and posteriorly divergent, widely separated genital openings. The new species differs from this and other species of the genus by its small size, the degree of separation of the genital openings with papillae, no secondary sclerotization in the perigenital area or surrounding the genital openings, and the long filiform setae s and w on genu III. There was a mixed infection of Neottialges kutzeri Fain and N. mycteriae Pence in all of 7 wood storks examined from Florida and Georgia; P. (P) mycteria was found in 4 of these hosts. This is the 7th species described as a deutonymph in the genus Phalacrodectes. The apparent close affinity of P. (P.) mycteria with P. (P.) punctatissimus and allied species from pelicaniform versus ciconiiform birds appears to be inconsistent with the established host-parasite relationships based on classical avian taxonomic relationships. However, this apparent affinity may be more reflective of the close relationships between the families of pelicans, ibises and spoonbills, and storks as recently proposed by DNA-DNA hybridization studies.
Flat mites in the genus Raoiella have attracted recent world-wide interest due to the rapid spread of a major pest of various palm trees and other monocot species, the red palm mite, R. indica. This focus on the species R. indica has created a need to better understand the genus. Despite the econo...
Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...
Ermilov, Sergey G.; Tolstikov, Andrei V.
Abstract An annotated checklist of identified oribatid mites of the superfamily Galumnoidea collected from Cuba, including ten species from four genera and two families, is provided. Galumna flabellifera Hammer, 1958, Pergalumna bifissurata Hammer, 1972, Pergalumna bryani (Jacot, 1934), Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977 and Galumnopsis secunda Sellnick, 1923 are recorded for the first time in the Cuban fauna. A new species of Pergalumna, Pergalumna cubaensis sp. n., is described; it is morphologically similar to Pergalumna decorata Balogh & Mahunka, 1977, but differs from the latter by the larger body size, heavily granulated prodorsum and well-developed interlamellar setae. The adult of Allogalumna cubana Balogh & Mahunka, 1979 is redescribed. PMID:26798237
Anderson, D L; Trueman, J W
Varroa jacobsoni was first described as a natural ectoparasitic mite of the Eastern honeybee (Apis cerana) throughout Asia. It later switched host to the Western honeybee (A. mellifera) and has now become a serious pest of that bee worldwide. The studies reported here on genotypic, phenotypic and reproductive variation among V. jacobsoni infesting A. cerana throughout Asia demonstrate that V. jacobsoni is a complex of at least two different species. In a new classification V. jacobsoni is here redefined as encompassing nine haplotypes (mites with distinct mtDNA CO-I gene sequences) that infest A. cerana in the Malaysia Indonesia region. Included is a Java haplotype, specimens of which were used to first describe V. jacobsoni at the beginning of this century. A new name, V. destructor n. sp., is given to six haplotypes that infest A. cerana on mainland Asia. Adult females of V. destructor are significantly larger and less spherical in shape than females of V. jacobsoni and they are also reproductively isolated from females of V. jacobsoni. The taxonomic positions of a further three unique haplotypes that infest A. cerana in the Philippines is uncertain and requires further study. Other studies reported here also show that only two of the 18 different haplotypes concealed within the complex of mites infesting A. cerana have become pests of A. mellifera worldwide. Both belong to V. destructor, and they are not V. jacobsoni. The most common is a Korea haplotype, so-called because it was also found parasitizing A. cerana in South Korea. It was identified on A. mellifera in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Less common is a Japan/Thailand haplotype, so-called because it was also found parasitizing A. cerana in Japan and Thailand. It was identified on A. mellifera in Japan, Thailand and the Americas. Our results imply that the findings of past research on V. jacobsoni are applicable mostly to V. destructor. Our results will also influence quarantine protocols for bee mites, and may present new strategies for mite control.
tapir , locality unknown, 1917, coll. E. Joukowsky). The other Paraguayan specimens of Am. triste in the USNTC, all collected in Estancia Faro Moro by...Experimental Station and Filadelfia, and has been found on cattle and horses in Villarica and on tapir in Colonia Risso (Berlese, 1888; Tonelli Rondelli, 1931
Tucci, E C; Prado, A P; Araújo, R P
The development, viability, and life cycle parameters of Dermanyssus gallinae at five different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C), and at relative humidity 70-85% were evaluated. Life cycle duration was 690.75 h (28 days) at 15 degrees C, 263.12h (11 days) at 20 degrees C, 164.63 h (7 days) at 25 degrees C, 140.69 h (6 days) at 30 degrees C and 172.04 h (7 days) at 35 degrees C. The optimal development temperature for D. gallinae was 30 degrees C, with the greatest survival in all stages and the shortest development time. High mortality at 35 degrees C indicated that this temperature had adverse effects on development of D. gallinae, and that in field conditions D. gallinae populations may decrease or even disappear due to the negative impact of high temperature on development. There were no significant differences in the pre-oviposition period among the four temperatures 20-35 degrees C, indicating that temperature did not affect this part of the life cycle.
Tucci, Edna Clara; do Prado, Angelo P; de Araújo, Raquel Pires
The thermal requirements for development of Dermanyssus gallinae were studied under laboratory conditions at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C, a 12h photoperiod and 60-85% RH. The thermal requirements for D. gallinae were as follows. Preoviposition: base temperature 3.4 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 562.85 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.59, regression equation: Y= -0.006035 + 0.001777x. Egg: base temperature 10.60 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 689.65 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.94, regression equation: Y= -0.015367 + 0.001450x. Larva: base temperature 9.82 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 464.91 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.87, regression equation: Y= -0.021123 + 0.002151x. Protonymph: base temperature 10.17 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 504.49 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.90, regression equation: Y= -0.020152 + 0.001982x. Deutonymph: base temperature 11.80 degrees C, thermal constant (k) 501.11 degree-hours, determination coefficient (R(2)) 0.99, regression equation: Y= -0.023555 + 0.001996x. The results obtained showed that 15 to 42 generations of Dermanyssus gallinae may occur during the year in the State of São Paulo, as estimated based on isotherm charts. Dermanyssus gallinae may develop continually in the State of São Paulo, with a population decrease in the winter. There were differences between the developmental stages of D. gallinae in relation to thermal requirements.
Ermilov, Sergey G; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Kontschán, Jenő; Retana-Salazar, Axel P
Two species of oribatid mites of the genus Benoibates (Oribatida, Oripodidae), i.e., Benoibatesbolivianus Balogh & Mahunka, 1969(a) and Benoibatesminimus Mahunka, 1985, are recorded for the first time in Costa Rica. Both are redescribed in details, using drawings, images and SEM micrographs, on the basis of Costa Rican specimens. An identification key to the known species of Benoibates is given.
Nemati, Alireza; Mohseni, Mastaneh
This paper reports on two new species of mites of the genus Gaeolaelaps in soil from Iran, G. farajii sp. nov., and G. orbiculatus sp. nov.. A key to the species of Gaeolaelaps with short peritremes is presented.
Bello, Ana Cristina P De P; Da Cunha, Arildo P; Leite, Romário C; Oliveira, Paulo R; Ribeiro, Antônio Cândido C L; Domingues, Luisa N; De Freitas, Carolina Maria V; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Dalla Rosa, Ricardo C
This trial evaluated control practices of Anocentor nitens on equines, using spraying devices and application of acaricide paste formulation in the auricular pavilion and nasal diverticulum. The study was carried out from October 2003 to March of 2008 and the evaluations had been divided in the following stages: Phase 1--out/03 mar/04 and Phases 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, correspondents to the month's periods until março/08. It was used score of 0 to 3 to classify infestation levels. From abr/04 to mar/06 was implanted a schedule of acaricide sprayings every seven days and divided in two series. The first one beginning in April 2004 and the second beginning in July, both using six sprayings treatments with pyrethroid chemical base--cypermethrin 0,015%, plus topical treatments applied monthly in the auricular pavilions (powder acaricide). From abril/06 to março/08 was carried out similar schedule treatments, each two months, using an experimental acaricide paste in the auricular pavilion and nasal diverticulum. Phases 2 and 3 did not showed reduction of the parasitic loads of A. nitens compared to the control period. Whereas in Phases 4 and 5 registered significant reduction compared control period and also with the results of Phases 2 and 3, characterizing the effectiveness of the treatment with the acaricide paste formulation. Results demonstrated of A. nitens populations present in the nasal diverticulum are important in the maintenance of the infestations on equines, and necessary attention to this anatomical structure when controlling ticks.
Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Tarallo, Viviana Domenica; Ramos, Rafael Antonio do Nascimento; Stanneck, Dorothee; Baneth, Gad; de Caprariis, Donato
Certain tick species including Ixodes holocyclus can inoculate neurotoxins that induce a rapid, ascending flaccid paralysis in animals. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, the most widespread tick of dogs, is recognized as a vector of several pathogens causing diseases in dogs and humans. A single report suggests its role as cause of paralysis in dogs. This study presents the clinical history of 14 young dogs heavily infested by R. sanguineus (intensity of infestation, 63-328) in an endemic area of southern Italy. During May to June of 2011, dogs were presented at the clinical examination with neurological signs of different degrees (e.g., hind limb ataxia, generalized lethargy, and difficulty in movements). All animals were treated with acaricides and by manual tick removal but ten of them died within a day, displaying neurological signs. The other 4 dogs recovered within 3 days with acaricidal and supportive treatment. Twelve dogs were positive by blood smear examination for Hepatozoon canis with a high parasitemia, two also for Babesia vogeli and two were negative for hemoparasites. Low-grade thrombocytopenia, hypoalbuminemia, and pancytopenia were the haematological alterations most frequently recorded. Other causes of neurological disease in dogs were excluded and the diagnosis of tick paralysis by R. sanguineus was confirmed (ex juvantibus) by early and complete recovery of 4 dogs following acaricidal treatment and tick removal.
Raspotnig, Günther; Leutgeb, Verena; Krisper, Günther; Leis, Hans-Jörg
The chemical composition of secretions from opisthonotal (oil) glands in four species of the oribatid mite genus Oribotritia (Mixonomata, Euphthiracaroidea, Oribotritiidae) was compared by means of gas chromatography--mass spectrometry. The secretions of all, O. banksi (from North America) and three Austrian oribotritiids (O. berlesei, O. hermanni, O. storkani), are shown to be based on certain unusual compounds, the iridoid monoterpenes chrysomelidial and epi-chrysomelidial and the diterpene β-springene. These components probably represent general chemical characteristics of oribotriid oil glands. Their relative abundance in the secretions along with further components (mainly saturated and unsaturated C(13)-, C(15)-, C(17)-hydrocarbons, and the tentatively identified octadecadienal) led to well-distinguishable, species-specific oil gland secretions profiles. In addition a reduced set of "Astigmata compounds" (sensu Sakata and Norton in Int J Acarol 27:281-291, 2001)--namely the two monoterpenes neral and geranial--could be detected in extracts of O. banksi nevertheless indicating the classification of euphthiracaroids within the (monophyletic) group of "Astigmata compounds-bearing"-Oribatida. These compounds are considered to be apomorphically reduced in all Austrian species. Our findings emphasize the potential of chemosystematics using oil gland secretion profiles in the discrimination of morphologically very similar, syntopically living or even cryptic oribatid species.
Burazerović, J; Ćakić, S; Mihaljica, D; Sukara, R; Ćirović, D; Tomanović, S
Ticks parasitizing bats have been largely understudied, especially in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, where the last data from the field research date from almost 25 years ago. Bats are hosts to a large number of ectoparasites, including ticks, which can act as vectors of zoonotic agents. For this reason, it is important to identify the distribution of ticks and their relationship to different hosts, including wild animals, bats in particular. The present research was conducted at 16 localities throughout Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM). We examined 475 individuals of bats belonging to 13 species. A total of three tick species were identified, I. simplex being the most numerous and widespread, followed by I. vespertilionis and A. vespertilionis. To the best of our knowledge, the presented data include the first records of I. simplex in Serbia and Montenegro, I. vespertilionis for Montenegro and A. vespertilionis in FYROM. Also, we identify a new possible host/parasite association between I. simplex and Rhinolophus euryale.
Lotfollahi, Parisa; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad; Khanjani, Mohamad; Moghadam, Mohamad; De Lillo, Enrico
Five species of eriophyoid mites were identified during surveys of mite fauna associated with plant species of the family Compositae from Southwest of East Azerbaijan province during 2010 and 2011. Two of them, Aceria virgatae n. sp. from Centaurea virgata Lam. and Aceria xeranthenzis n. sp. from Xeranthemumn squarrosum Boiss., were found to be new to science. No damage symptoms were observed on their host plants. Aceria xeranthemis n. sp. is the first eriophyoid collected from the plant genus Xeranthenun. Aculops centaureae (Farkas, 1960) from Centaurea albonitens Turrill and Aceria cichorii Petanović et al. 2000 from Cichorium intybus L. are new records for Iranian mite fauna. The deutogyne female of Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa) was recorded for the first time in Iran, too. A key to the species collected on Compositae in Iran is given.
Kwak, Mackenzie L; Mintram, Kate
A rare opportunity to travel to Herald's Beacon Islet with permission from the Australian government to collect ticks allowed for a survey of the tick fauna of the island to be undertaken for the first time. The avian fauna of the island, which serve as hosts, was also recorded and includes one new species record for the island. The seabird soft tick Ornithodoros capensis Neumann and the seabird hard tick Amblyomma loculosum Neumann were found to be present on the island. Images of the ticks present on the island are presented along with morphological characters for their identification.
Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise
Predatory phytoseiid mites have been intensively studied and surveyed in the last decades because of their economic importance as biocontrol agents of agricultural pests. However, many regions of the world remain unexplored and the diversity of the family worldwide is still fragmentary. Up to date no phytoseiid species have been collected in the southernmost part of the Earth down to latitude 45º S. In this study Phytoseiidae were sampled from native vegetation in southern Argentina and Chile in the regions of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego Island. Thirteen species were collected, five of which were previously described and eight, Chileseius australis n. sp., Neoseiulus mapuche n. sp., Typhlodromips valdivianus n. sp., T. fissuratus n. sp., Amblyseius grandiporus n. sp., A. caliginosus n. sp., Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) anomalos n. sp. and Metaseiulus parabrevicollis n. sp. are proposed as new to science and are described and diagnosed.
Chen, Ze; Li, Youquan; Ren, Qiaoyun; Liu, Zhijie; Luo, Jin; Li, Kai; Guan, Guiquan; Yang, Jifei; Han, Xueqing; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong
Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann has been considered to exist in China, especially in the southern part of the country. However, H. bispinosa referred to in many Chinese research papers may in fact be H. longicornis, which is widely distributed in most regions of China. In order to clarify the occurrence of H. bispinosa, Haemaphysalis ticks collected from 18 of 23 provinces of China (Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, Xinjiang, Anhui, Zhejiang, Shannxi, Guizhou, Sichuan, Shanxi, Shandong, Ningxia, Fujian, Qinghai and Jiangxi) were examined based on morphological and molecular characteristics. We found no evidence of H. bispinosa being present in China. Our results indicate that all of the so called "H. bispinosa" ticks reported in China are in fact H. longicornis.
Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.
Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.
Melo, José W da S; Domingos, Cleiton A; Gondim, Manoel G C; Moraes, Gilberto J de
Mites of the genus Euseius are generally considered specialist as pollen feeders. Euseius alatus DeLeon is one of the six species of phytoseiid mites most commonly found on coconut plants in northeast Brazil associated with Aceria guerreronis Keifer. Although the morphology of E. alatus does not favor the exploitation of the meristematic area of the fruit inhabited by A. guerreronis, the predator may have some role in the control of this eriophyid during the dispersion process. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of E. alatus on the following diets: A. guerreronis, Ricinus communis pollen (Euphorbiaceae), and Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae) + R. communis pollen + honey solution 10%. Euseius alatus developed slightly faster and had slightly higher oviposition rate when feeding on the diet composed of T. urticae + pollen + honey. However, life table parameters were very similar on all diets, suggesting that E. alatus may contribute in reducing the population of A. guerreronis in the field.
Daemon, Erik; Maturano, Ralph; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Goldner, Márcio Scoralik; Massoni, Tainara
The aim of this study was to assess the acaricidal activity of hydroethanolic formulations of thymol at varying concentrations on Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor nitens larvae. The larval packet test was used and the thymol concentrations tested were 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 mg/ml. The control group was exposed only to water and ethanol (50/50%) and there were 10 repetitions for each treatment. The mortality was evaluated after 24 h. For the R. sanguineus larvae, the mortality rates were 47.5, 50.2, 96.7, 95.9 and 98.1%, while for D. nitens the rates were 14.1, 75.0, 90.2, 90.3 and 99.5%, at respective thymol concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 mg/ml. The results indicate that the hydroethanolic formulations of thymol tested have acaricidal activity on R. sanguineus and D. nitens larvae exposed topically, causing mortality greater than 90% 24 h post-treatment starting at the concentration of 10 mg/ml.
Zou, Zhiwen; Min, Qiang; Xiao, Shungen; Xin, Tianrong; Xia, Bin
Effects of five photoperiods (Light:Dark = 4:20, 8:16; 12:12, 16:8, 20:4) on the development, survival and reproduction of Neoseiulus barkeri Hughes fed on storage mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) were examined under laboratory conditions at 85 % relative humidity and 24 °C. Development time of almost all immature stages in N. barkeri was the shortest (5.43 ± 0.12 days) under 12 h of daylight. Total duration of immature stages was as high as 8.55 ± 0.16 days during the longest photoperiod. Photoperiod had no effect on hatching rate, but did affect survival of larvae, protonymphs and deutonymphs. Total survivorship ranged from 20 (4:20) to 60 % (12:12). Under 12 h daylight, female adults had the shortest pre- and post-oviposition period, longest oviposition period and longevity, largest total number of eggs (15.95) and and highest daily egg production (1.43) per female. Under 12 h light, N. barkeri experienced its highest net reproductive rate (R 0 = 11.791), intrinsic rate of increase (r m = 0.180), and finite rate of increase (λ = 1.197), and lowest mean generation time (t = 13.71 days) and population doubling time (DT = 3.86 days). All demographic parameters displayed a parabolic relationship with photoperiod. The results of the present study indicated that the photoperiod of 12:12 is optimal for the development and reproduction of N. barkeri fed on T. putrescentiae, and that N. barkeri may serve most efficiently as a biological control agent under this regime.
Pekas, Apostolos; Palevsky, Eric; Sumner, Jason C; Perotti, M Alejandra; Nesvorna, Marta; Hubert, Jan
Neoseiulus cucumeris is a predatory mite used for biological control of arthropod pests. Mass-reared predators are fed with factitious prey mites such as Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Although some information on certain endosymbionts of N. cucumeris and T. putrescentiae exists, it is unclear whether both species share bacterial communities. The bacterial communities in populations of predator and prey mites, as well as the occurence of potential acaropathogenic bacteria were analyzed. The comparisons were based on the following groups: (i) N. cucumeris mass-production; (ii) N. cucumeris laboratory population with disease symptoms; (iii) T. putrescentiae pure populations and; (iv) T. putrescentiae from rearing units of N. cucumeris. Only 15% of OTUs were present in all samples from predatory and prey mite populations (core OTUs): the intracellular symbionts Wolbachia, Cardinium, plus other Blattabacterium-like, Solitalea-like, and Bartonella-like symbionts. Environmental bacteria were more abundant in predatory mites, while symbiotic bacteria prevailed in prey mites. Relative numbers of certain bacterial taxa were significantly different between the microbiota of prey mites reared with and without N. cucumeris. No significant differences were found in the bacterial communities of healthy N. cucumeris compared to N. cucumeris showing disease symptoms. We did not identify any confirmed acaropathogenic bacteria among microbiota.
Clemente, Mateus Aparecido; de Oliveira Monteiro, Caio Márcio; Scoralik, Márcio Goldner; Gomes, Fernando Teixeira; de Azevedo Prata, Márcia Cristina; Daemon, Erik
The present study evaluated the acaricidal activity of essential oils from Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus on non-engorged larvae of Amblyomma cajennense and Anocentor nitens. In order to carry out the study, six groups were formed, each concentration being a treatment (6.25%, 12.5%, 25%, and 50%, respectively) and also with the creation of a control group (distilled water) and a positive control (Deltametrine). For each treatment, approximately 100 larvae of these ticks were placed onto filter papers (2 x 2 cm) impregnated with the concentrations used to test. Next, the envelopes were closed bearing inside the filter paper with measurements of 6 x 6 cm. For each group, six repetitions were performed, and after 24 h live and dead larvae were counted. This procedure was carried out for two essential oils on the two species of ticks. For A. cajennense, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 10.8%, 35.3%, 34.5%, and 53.1%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 0.0%, 0.0%, and 61.1% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. In relation to A. nitens, the acaricide efficacy of E. citriodora oil was of 20.1%, 84.5%, 89.2%, and 100.0%, whereas the efficacy of C. nardus was of 0.0%, 90.8%, 100.0%, and 100.0% at concentrations of 6.25%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 50.0%, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oils tested showed a promising acaricidal activity mainly on A. nitens larvae.
Cruz, Paula Barroso; Barbosa, Alan Franco; Zeringóta, Viviane; Melo, Diego; Novato, Tatiane; Fidelis, Queli Cristina; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; de Carvalho, Mário Geraldo; Oliveira Sabaa-Srur, Armando Ubirajara; Daemon, Erik; Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira
We evaluated the acaricidal activity of Acmella oleracea methanol extract and spilanthol on Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens. The extract was made through maceration with methanol. From this extract, a dichloromethane fraction with 99% spilanthol was obtained and tested on R. microplus larvae and engorged females and D. nitens larvae. For evaluation against larvae, the modified larval packet test was used, and both the methanol extract and dichloromethane fraction were tested at concentrations of 0.2-50mg/mL. The modified larval packet test was also used in the lethal time (LT) test, with the methanol extract at a concentration of 12.5mg/mL and the percentage mortality was assessed after 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120min and 24h. The 50% lethal time calculation (LT50) was performed in this test. The engorged female test was performed with R. microplus only, at concentrations of 25-200mg/mL for methanol extract and 2.5-20.0mg/mL for spilanthol. The methanol extract caused 100% mortality of the R. microplus and D. nitens larvae at concentrations of 3.1 and 12.5mg/mL, respectively. Spilanthol resulted in 100% mortality of R. microplus larvae at concentration of 1.6mg/mL and of D. nitens at 12.5mg/mL. In the lethal time assay using the methanol extract, the mortality rate was 100% for R. microplus and D. nitens larvae after 120min and 24h, with LT50 values of 38 and 57min, respectively. In the test of females, the egg mass weight and the hatching percentage of the groups treated with concentrations equal to or higher than 50.0mg/mL of methanol extract were significantly reduced (p<0.05), while for spilanthol, the reduction of the egg mass weight and hatching percentage occurred from concentrations of 10.0mg/mL and 2.5mg/mL, respectively. Females treated with 200.0mg/mL of extract died before starting oviposition, resulting in 100% effectiveness, while the best efficacy for spilanthol was 92.9% at a concentration of 20.0mg/mL. Thus we conclude that the methanol extract of A. oleracea and spilanthol have acaricidal activity against R. microplus and D. nitens.
Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; de Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Maturano, Ralph; Senra, Tatiane de Oliveira Souza; da Silva Matos, Renata; Gomes, Geovany Amorim; de Carvalho, Mario Geraldo; Daemon, Erik
This study aimed at assessing the combined effect of thymol, carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde on Amblyomma sculptum and Dermacentor nitens larvae. The effects resulting from treatments were evaluated by means of the modified larval packet test. In order to determine the LC50, components of essential oils, the monoterpenes thymol, carvacrol and phenylpropanoid (E)-cinnamaldehyde were individually tested at different concentrations. After determining the LC50, each essential oil component was separately evaluated and then combined with another substance at a 1:1 proportion at the LC50 concentration and at 1/2 and 1/4 of the LC50. For A. sculptum, the lowest LC50 value was obtained for (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1.40 mg/ml), followed by thymol (2.04 mg/ml) and carvacrol (3.49 mg/ml). The same order of effectiveness was observed for D. nitens, with values of 1.68, 2.17 and 3.33 mg/ml, respectively. In the evaluation of component associations of essential oils against A. sculptum larvae, only the combinations between carvacrol and thymol (LC50) and carvacrol and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (1/4 LC50) presented a moderate synergetic effect. In turn, for D. nitens larvae, the combinations between thymol and carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50) presented a synergetic effect, while the others presented an additive or antagonistic effect. Therefore, it can be concluded that the combination of thymol and carvacrol (LC50) has a moderate synergetic effect against A. sculptum larvae, while thymol, combined with carvacrol (LC50 and 1/2 LC50), has a synergetic effect against D. nitens larvae.
Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter
Abstract Two new species of oribatid mites, Plasmobates zarae sp. n. and Basilobelba spasmenosi sp. n. are described from the Republic of Rwanda. They can easily be differentiated from other species by a number of characters. Plasmobates zarae sp. n. is differentiated the following characters. four types of particular cerotegumental layers. Integument slightly foveate to smooth on prodorsum; foveate on notogaster; ventral region rugose to smooth.Large rostral setae inserted on protuberance, whip-shaped, with longitudinal pucker; interlamellar setae rod-shaped with triangular scales; interlamellar setae small. Medial band on prodorsum extending to anterior of central part, but not reaching rostrum. Bothridium horn-shaped; opening basally incised with rectilinear wall, internal bothridial rings dentate. Sensillus whip-like, with minute triangular scales. Variably distributed circumgastric macropores. Opisthosomal gland apophysis flat, triangular in lateral view and cylindrical in posterolateral view. Six pairs of notogastral setae, all situated posterior to opisthosomal gland level. Aggenital setae not detected; three pairs of adanal setae; two pairs of anal setae present. Nymphal scalps simple without anterior tuft or filaments, with dentate peripheral ridge. Larval scalp shaped like Chinese hat. Basilobelba spasmenosi sp. n. is characterized by the combination of the following characters: Cerotegument: thick basal layer with amorphous coat and cavities of different sizes, as well as structures resembling small cauliflowers. Setation: simple: notogastral, epimeral, genital, anal; simple long, basally barbate: le, ro setae; simple, whip-shaped: ex setae; medium length, sharpened tip with thorns on surface: in setae, leg setae; Flabellate: setae situated in ventral neotrichous zone. Thorn-like barbs and more or less parallel longitudinal grooves present on body surface of le, ro, in and leg setae. Prodorsum: rostrum finger-shaped, relative sizes of setae: le > ro > in > ex. Prodorsal cuticular surface smooth with shallow transversal furrow and two oblique furrows determining two triangular structures. Large humpbacked CSO situated anterior to and in medial line with in setal insertion, dorsal bothridial opening. Notogaster swollen, hemispheric; nine pairs of minute setae, only h1, h2, h3 easily identifiable, cuticular wart and dimple clearly visible. Humeral apophysis with longitudinal furrow dorsally. Elongate chelicera with cha, chb setae, behind them a series of scales directed dorsoventrally. Epimeral setation 3-1-3-3, adanal-aggenital neotrichy with between 8-10 setae. Nymphal scalps with very particular bean-shaped structure on either side of the decoupage zone, surrounding horn-like structure. Scalps with cuticular polyhedral reticulate to ovoid structure, often forming a cavity, either completely perforated or with a thin cuticular layer resembling an interior membrane. PMID:27408588
Gomes, Geovany Amorim; Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Julião, Lisieux de Santana; Maturano, Ralph; Senra, Tatiane Oliveira Souza; Zeringóta, Viviane; Calmon, Fernanda; Matos, Renata da Silva; Daemon, Erik; Carvalho, Mario Geraldo de
The aims of this work were to identify the compounds and to investigate the acaricidal activity of the essential oil of Lippia sidoides for unengorged larvae and nymphs of Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Amblyomma cajennense. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In total, 22 compounds comprising 98.5% of the total peak area were identified. The major constituent of the essential oil was thymol (69.9%). The acaricidal activity against larvae and nymphs was assessed using a modified larval packet test. In all experiments, oils were tested at concentrations of 2.35, 4.70, 9.40 14.10 and 18.80 mg/mL. The mortalities of larvae and nymphs of R. sanguineus were 20.6, 47.8, 73.6, 99.5 and 99.0% and 12.0, 50.0, 76.3, 96.0 and 96.1%, respectively. For larvae and nymphs of A. cajennense the rates of mortality were 41.9, 63.3, 77.8, 82.5 and 100.0% and 0.0, 32.8, 64.8, 71.1 and 94.0%, respectively. The LC 90 values of the L. sidoides oil were 11.56 and 12.97 mg/mL for larvae and nymphs of R. sanguineus and 15.70 and 18.52 mg/mL for larvae and nymphs of A. cajennense, respectively. The essential oil from L. sidoides has acaricidal activity on unengorged larvae and nymphs of R. sanguineus and A. cajennense.
Greco, Nancy M; Sánchez, Norma E; Liljesthröm, Gerardo G
Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) is a promising agent for successful Tetranychus urticae Koch control through conservation techniques, in strawberry crops in La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina). In prey-predator interaction, initial relative densities have an important effect on system dynamics. The economic threshold level (ETL) used for this pest in the present study was 50 active mites per leaflet. In our laboratory experiments, initial T. urticae to N. californicus ratio had a significant effect on the population abundance of T. urticae at a 7-day period. When pest/predator ratio was 5/1 (at initial pest densities from 5 to 15 females/leaflet) the final number of active T. urticae/leaflet was significantly lower than the ETL, while at 20 females/leaflet this number did not differ from the ETL. At 7.5/1 ratio, the final number of active T. urticae/leaflet, at initial pest densities from 5 to 15 females/leaflet, reached the ETL without surpassing it. At 10/1 and 15/1 ratios, pest densities exceeded the ETL only at 15 initial T. urticae/leaflet. Most greenhouse and field observations were consistent with the predictions of a graphical model based on experimental results. This predator was very effective in limiting pest densities at a 7-day period and within the range of pest-predator ratios and absolute densities used in this study. Conservation of N. californicus promoting favorable pest/predator ratios may result in early control of T. urticae.
Chemical composition and acaricidal activity of essential oil from Lippia sidoides on larvae of Dermacentor nitens (Acari: Ixodidae) and larvae and engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).
Gomes, Geovany Amorim; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Senra, Tatiane de Oliveira Souza; Zeringota, Viviane; Calmon, Fernanda; Matos, Renata da Silva; Daemon, Erik; Gois, Roberto Wagner da Silva; Santiago, Gilvandete Maria Pinheiro; de Carvalho, Mario Geraldo
The aim of this work was to identify the compounds and to investigate the acaricidal activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Lippia sidoides on Rhipicephalus microplus and Dermacentor nitens. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In total, 15 compounds comprising 99.97 % of the total peak area were identified. The main constituent of the essential oil was thymol (67.60 %). The acaricidal activity was assessed by the modified larval packet test, with oil concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 μl/ml, and by the female immersion test with concentrations of 10.0, 20.0, 40.0, 60.0, and 80.0 μl/ml. The mortality of the R. microplus and D. nitens larvae was greater than 95 % starting at concentrations of 10.0 and 20.0 μl/ml, respectively. In the test with the engorged females, the L. sidoides essential oil starting at a concentration of 40.0 μl/ml caused a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the values of the egg mass weight and egg production index. The viability of the eggs was affected in all the treated groups, with significantly lower hatching rates (p < 0.05) in relation to the control group. The control percentages at concentrations of 10.0, 20.0, and 30.0 μl/ml were 54, 57, and 72 %, and reached 100 % at the highest two concentrations (60.0 and 80.0 μl/ml). Therefore, it can be concluded that the essential oil from the leaves of L. sidoides has acaricidal activity on R. microplus and D. nitens.
Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L; Whittington, R; Higo, H; Le Doux, M
Neem oil, neem extract (neem-aza), and canola oil were evaluated for the management of the honey bee mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Oudemans) and Acarapis woodi (Rennie) in field experiments. Spraying neem oil on bees was more effective at controlling V. jacobsoni than feeding oil in a sucrose-based matrix (patty), feeding neem-aza in syrup, or spraying canola oil. Neem oil sprays also protected susceptible bees from A. woodi infestation. Only neem oil provided V. jacobsoni control comparable to the known varroacide formic acid, but it was not as effective as the synthetic product Apistan (tau-fluvalinate). Neem oil was effective only when sprayed six times at 4-d intervals and not when applied three times at 8-d intervals. Neem oil spray treatments had no effect on adult honey bee populations, but treatments reduced the amount of sealed brood in colonies by 50% and caused queen loss at higher doses. Taken together, the results suggest that neem and canola oil show some promise for managing honey bee parasitic mites, but the negative effects of treatments to colonies and the lower efficacy against V. jacobsoni compared with synthetic acaricides may limit their usefulness to beekeepers.
The short shoot syndrome (SSS) causes severe crop losses in Oregon vineyards due to bunch necrosis during the early part of the season. Other symptoms include malformed leaves, unusually short and angled shoots, scar tissue and bronzed leaves close to harvest time. It was determined that SSS found...
Background Dermanyssus gallinae (poultry red mite) is a major threat for the poultry industry and is of significant interest for public health. Identification of D. gallinae can be difficult for scientists not familiar with mite morphology and terminology especially when trying to use identification keys. Moreover, this species may easily be confused with another dermanyssoid mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (northern fowl mite), which often shares the same hosts and environment. Methods Specimens of D. gallinae were collected at poultry farms in the Puglia and performed for light and scanning electron microscopy observations, identification and micrographs. Moreover specimens of O. sylviarum were collected separately macerated and mounted on slides for light microscopy observations, identification and pictures. Results The micrographs used in this study, based on LM and SEM observations, highlight the following important identifying characters of D. gallinae: the prominent shoulders of the dorsal shield and the jagged edges of the shield reticulations, the position of setae j1, s1 and the epigynal pores, and the presence on tibia IV pl of one seta. Additional micrographs highlighting the shape of the dorsal (abruptly narrowed posteriorly) and epigynal (narrowly rounded posteriorly) shields and the chelicera (elongate, with distinct digits) of O. sylviarum enable its differentiation from D.gallinae. Conclusion The photographic support provided here (both LM and SEM pictures) can be considered a practical tool for scientists who are not well acquainted with the morphology of D.gallinae, and who are involved with classical and molecular systematics, veterinary and human health aspects of poultry red mites. PMID:22647594
Typhlodromus pyri and Euseius finlandicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as potential biocontrol agents against spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) inhabiting willows: laboratory studies on predator development and reproduction on four diets.
Puchalska, Ewa K; Kozak, Marcin
Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Euseius finlandicus (Oudemans) are important predators of phytophagous mites. The present laboratory study aimed to determine whether both species can develop and reach maturity feeding on spider mites occurring on willows, i.e., Schizotetranychus schizopus (Zacher), Schizotetranychus garmani Pritchard & Baker, and Tetranychus urticae Koch, and on Brassica napus L. pollen. The predators' development, reproduction and demographic parameters were significantly affected by diet. The data suggest that rape pollen can be useful in mass rearing of E. finlandicus but is completely unsuitable as alternative food for T. pyri. Short development time and high values of population parameters achieved by T. pyri feeding on larvae and protonymphs of S. schizopus and by E. finlandicus feeding on juvenile stages of S. garmani indicate great suitability of these preys as food for the phytoseiids, and make both predatory species promising biocontrol agents in spider mite control on willows.
The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destuctor is a serious threat to beekeeping and crops that rely on honey bee for pollination. The Varroa mite not only causes significant damage to honey bees by feeding on their haemolymph, but also serves as a vector of disease. In addition, the Varroa mite has develo...
Tenuipalpus toropi sp. nov., is described from females, males, deutonymphs, protonymphs and larvae collected on Sapium glandulatum (Vell.) Pax (Euphorbiaceae) from the northwest of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. We include details of the development in idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy for all stages of...
Abstract Three new intertidal oribatid species, Selenoribates elegans sp. n., Selenoribates quasimodo sp. n. and Selenoribates satanicus sp. n. are described from the archipelago of Bermuda. Selenoribates elegans sp. n. is characterized by its slender body shape, Selenoribates quasimodo sp. n. possesses a hunchback in lateral view and Selenoribates satanicus sp. n. exhibits two horn-like projections on its anterior gastronotic region. Based on these new findings, the number of Selenoribates species doubled at once and the distribution of this genus, formerly limited to the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, includes now occurrences in the Atlantic and Indo-pacific Ocean as well. The morphology of Selenoribates quasimodo sp. n. and Selenoribates satanicus sp. n. deviates conspicuously from the other known members of Selenoribates, thus indicating that not only the number of species but also the anatomy of this genus is more diverse than formerly supposed. Nymphs of Selenoribates quasimodo sp. n. show an interesting case of ontogenetic neotrichy, with gastronotic setae being duplicated with each moult. PMID:23825447
Uehara, K; Toyoda, Y; Konishi, E
Passenger trains were surveyed for contamination with Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouesart) mites in Japan. A total of 492 dust samples were collected from upholstered seats in six commuter trains, one long-distance express train and three night trains in October, 1996 and January, April, and July, 1997. Mite antigen levels contained in fine dust fractions of these samples were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Most samples obtained from commuter trains showed relatively high mite antigen levels of > 10 microgm(-2) (corresponding to > 100 mites). Express and night trains showed lower antigen levels per square meter, but higher mite antigen levels per gram of fine dust than commuter trains, indicating relatively high mite antigen densities. Seasonal comparisons indicated that commuter trains showed the highest mean antigen level per square meter in winter (January), whereas the highest antigen level per gram of fine dust was observed in summer (July) in express and night trains.
Herron, G A; Rophail, J; Wilson, L J
The responses of Tetranychus urticae Koch from Australian cotton to chlorfenapyr has been monitored since the 1997--1998 growing season. Resistance was first detected in the 2001--2002 season and then increased quickly in both level and proportion of resistant strains detected. In response, the resistance management strategy for chlorfenapyr use in cotton was altered and now recommends a further restriction of use from two to one spray per season. There was no evidence of negative cross-resistance to the pyrethroid bifenthrin, but chlorfenapyr was associated with an undefined negative cross-resistance.
Costa, Gabriel Cerqueira Alves; Soares, Adriana Coelho; Pereira, Marcos Horácio; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Sant'Anna, Maurício Roberto Viana; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento
Ornithodoros rostratus Aragão is an argasid tick found in Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil. Only limited studies about O. rostratus have been conducted and several aspects of their life cycle differ among studies or remain unexplored. In order to better elucidate the biology of O. rostratus, the present work describes its life cycle when feeding on mice under laboratory conditions. To complete their life cycle on mice, O. rostratus goes through a larval stage, 3-6 nymphal instars (nymph 1-6) and adult male and female. Adults can be originated from nymph 3-6. Nymphs 4 with higher weight after feeding tend to originate adults. Adults originated from early instars tended to be lighter. Females tended to be heavier than males. Larvae needed on average 2.7 days to complete their blood meal whereas other instars ranged from 17.3 to 78.3 min. The capacity to ingest blood was higher in larvae and females in comparison to males. The preecdysis period ranged from 5 to 12.5 days. After one blood meal, females remain on average 15.2 ± 5.8 days laying 276.8 ± 137.2.9 eggs. Females originated from nymph 4 had similar oviposition time, egg incubation and conversion ingested blood/number of eggs produced, but presented lower initial weigh and weigh gain, generating fewer eggs. Our results added novel information on O. rostratus biology and was discussed considering the variability of argasid populations and in context with the differences about their life cycle described in previous works.
Pfingstl, Tobias; Lienhard, Andrea; Jagersbacher-Baumann, Julia
The small archipelago of Bermuda is a geologically young landmass in the Western Atlantic Ocean and recently turned out to be inhabited by a number of intertidal oribatid mites. One newly described species, Carinozetes bermudensis, showed an unusual vast range of habitats like sandy beaches, rocky substrate and mangroves. In the present study, 13 Bermudian populations of C. bermudensis were analysed to verify species integrity of specimens from different microhabitats. A morphometric analysis of 17 continuous variables as well as a molecular genetic investigation of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I revealed the existence of a new species Carinozetes mangrovi sp. nov., inhabiting exclusively intertidal algae growing on mangrove roots. Although both species are morphologically nearly identical, the configuration of the genus-specific ventral carinae represents a clear diagnostic character. The high genetic divergence of approximately 12 % of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene sequence between C. bermudensis and C. mangrovi sp. nov. suggests that these two species diverged before the emergence of the Bermuda islands. Accordingly, both of them are older than the geologically young archipelago of Bermuda.
The population dynamics of the three intertidal oribatid species, Alismobates inexpectatus, Fortuynia atlantica and Carinozetes bermudensis, have been studied on the archipelago of Bermuda over the course of a year. All three species are univoltine, showing a clear seasonal demographic pattern, with reproduction from spring to late autumn and a complete standstill of egg production in winter. A seasonal shift in sex ratio could also be observed in all three species and is supposed to be based on sex-dependent mortality. The subtropical climate of Bermuda allows longer reproductive periods than shown in other intertidal or edaphic temperate species and temperature is supposed to be the main factor influencing the demography of these intertidal dwelling mites. Although all three Bermudian species exhibit the same basic seasonal demographic pattern, there are slight temporal shifts in population dynamics, presumably caused by local microclimatic differences among the populations. Larviparity, shown in other littoral oribatid mites, is clearly absent in the present species.
Lubelczyk, C; Cahill, B K; Hanson, T; Turmel, J; Lacombe, E; Rand, P W; Elias, S P; Smith, R P
In July 2008, owners of seasonal camps in Vermont and Maine were exposed to large numbers of questing ticks after opening their camps for the season. Examination of collected specimens revealed that the camp in Vermont was infested with Ixodes cookei Packard, and the camp in Maine was infested with Ixodes marxi Banks. In both instances, numerous tick bites were reported by residents. Both camps were also occupied by wildlife during the off-season, primarily squirrels (Maine) and skunks (Vermont). Subsequent samples from the Vermont site were tested for the presence of Powassan encephalitis virus, though no viral activity was detected.
Pat-Nah, Henry; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Bolio-Gonzalez, Manuel Emilio; Villegas-Perez, Sandra Luz; Reyes-Novelo, Enrique
Ehrlichia canis is the etiological agent behind canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, and the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) is its main vector. Blood smear and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to identify E. canis infection in dogs and R. sanguineus, and explore factors possibly associated with infection in dogs in Yucatan, Mexico. Blood samples were taken and ticks R. sanguineus collected from 50 dogs (10 house dogs and 40 in an animal control center). Data were collected on dog age, sex, body condition, and signs associated with platelet deficiencies (epistaxis). Blood smears were analyzed to identify E. canis morulae and generate platelet counts. Nested PCR analysis was done on blood samples and 200 ticks. A χ(2) test was done to identify factors associated with the E. canis infection in the tested dogs. The overall prevalence for infection, as determined by PCR, was 36% (18 out of 50). All positive dogs were from samples collected from the animal shelter, representing prevalence, for this sampling site, of 45% (18 out of 40). Morulae in monocytes were identified in only 4% of samples. Dog origin (i.e. animal control center) was the only variable associated with E. canis infection (P < 0.01). Male ticks had a higher (P < 0.05) infection rate than female ticks (24.5 vs 13.5%). It is concluded that E. canis infection is present in both dogs and the brown dog ticks R. sanguineus in Yucatan, Mexico.
Jaimez-Ruiz, I A; Otero-Colina, G; Valdovinos-Ponce, G; Villanueva-Jiménez, J A; Vera-Graziano, J
Rice is attacked by Steneotarsonemus spinki Smiley, a mite that has dispersed throughout many countries causing important loss on rice production. Rice plants of the variety Morelos A-92 were infested with S. spinki, and its population growth was estimated along plant development. Further, the morphological and histological injuries associated to the mite attack were characterized. The highest infestation level was obtained 13 weeks after plant infestation, with an average of 58.5 mites per plant, predominantly females. Morphological injuries were categorized from level 0 (no injuries from uninfested plants) to level 3, characterized by the highest injuries represented by blotches on the adaxial epidermis of the leaf sheath and on panicles and grains. Plants ranked within levels 0, 1, and 2 for morphological injury did not exhibit clear histological injuries, while those at level 3 exhibited histological injury characterized by destruction of cells of the adaxial epidermis, disorder, color change, and hypertrophy in the mesophyll cells, as well as color change in the abaxial epidermis. Thus, it presented a significant correlation between morphological injuries and mite density level, which can be further adopted to help the control decision-making process for this mite on rice.
The response of Typhlodromus pyri, a key predator of grapevine rust mite (Calepitrimerus vitis), to MeSA was tested using a Y-tube olfactometer in laboratory bioassays. Six doses ranging from 200 to 0.002 µg of diluted MeSA were tested. Significantly higher proportions of T. pyri preferred MeSA at ...
Keskin, Adem; Bursali, Ahmet; Kumlutas, Yusuf; Ilgaz, Cetin; Tekin, Saban
Reptiles may contribute to maintaining tick populations by feeding larvae, nymphs, and adults. The life cycles and tick-host associations of many Turkish ticks are still poorly known, and only 3 ixodid tick species have been reported on 7 reptile species in Turkey. In this study, we performed a tick survey on reptiles in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey. In 2005, 57 reptiles (52 lizards and 5 snakes) comprising 10 species from 5 families were captured and examined for tick infestation. A total of 427 ticks was collected. The majority of ticks found on lizards was the immature stages of Haemaphysalis sulcata, 420 larvae and 4 nymphs. The only adult ticks recorded on the agamid lizard, Laudakia stellio, were Hyalomma aegyptium (1 ♂, 2 ♀). The highest tick infestation rate was recorded on specimens of Timon princeps. This study is the first detailed investigation on ticks infesting reptiles in Turkey. To the best of our knowledge, these tick-host associations have never been documented in the literature.
Amer, Said; Wahab, Taher Abd El; Metwaly, Abd El Naby; Ye, Jianbin; Roellig, Dawn; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua
Little is known about the genetic diversity of Sarcoptes scabiei mites in farm animals in Egypt. In this study, we characterized S. scabiei in 25 skin scrapes from water buffalo, cattle, sheep, and rabbits at the nuclear marker ITS2 and mitochondrial markers COX1 and 16S rRNA. Sequences of the ITS2 showed no host segregation or geographical isolation, whereas those of the mitochondrial COX1 and 16S rRNA genes indicated the presence of both host-adapted and geographically segregated populations of S. scabiei. Host adaptation may limit inter-species transmission of. S. scabiei, thus restrict gene flow among S. scabiei from different hosts. This is the first report on the molecular characterization of sarcoptic mites in Egypt. Further genetic studies involving larger numbers of specimens, especially those from humans and companion animals, are needed to understand the molecular epidemiology of sarcoptic mange in Egypt. PMID:24728386
Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Parsa, Soroush
Abstract The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus’ native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:24899828
Permethrin is a commonly used acaricide for tick control on domestic animals and in residential environments, while fipronil use is restricted to on-animal treatment. Following widespread reports of permethrin and fipronil application failures to control indoor infestations of Rhipicephalus sanguin...
I investigated the influence of insemination at different life stages on female fitness in the mite Histiostoma feroniarum. In this species, males guard immature females at the tritonymph stage to inseminate them immediately after the last moulting. Four groups of females were studied (1) females inseminated 'naturally', i.e. mating occurred immediately after guarding, and then the male was removed (IF/0M), (2) 'naturally' inseminated females, where after insemination the male was replaced by two additional males (IF/2M), (3) virgin females reared without males (VF/0M) and (4) mature, virgin females to which two virgin males were added 3 days after last moulting (VF/2DM). The results show that females inseminated 'naturally' (IF/0M) have higher longevity and fecundity than either virgin (VF/0M) or late-inseminated females (VF/2DM). Furthermore, longevity and fecundity of the former (IF/0M) was also greater than that of females 'naturally' inseminated and subsequently exposed to males (IF/2M). One may suggest that seminal fluids have a positive effect on female fitness. When delayed insemination occurs, such positive effect may not be observed due to a change in features of the sperm access system. Harassment may explain decreased longevity and fecundity of females inseminated 'naturally' compared to females that received additional males.
Peng, Pei-Ying; Guo, Xian-Guo; Ren, Tian-Guang; Song, Wen-Yu; Dong, Wen-Ge; Fan, Rong
Chigger mites are a large group of arthropods and the larvae of mites are ectoparasites. Some species of ectoparasitic mites (larvae) can be the transmitting vectors of tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus). Yunnan Province is located in the southwest of China with complicated topographic landform and high biodiversity, where there are five zoogeographical subregions. Rodents and some other small mammals were trapped and examined for ectoparasitic chigger mites in 29 investigation sites in Yunnan during 2001-2013. From 13,760 individuals and 76 species of small mammal hosts, we collected 274 species of mites, which were identified as comprising 26 genera in two families. The species diversity of chigger mites (274 species) in the present study were not only much higher than that from other provinces of China but also largely exceeded that recorded from other regions and countries in the world. Of the five zoogeographical subregions, both the species diversity and Shannon-Weiner's diversity of mites were the highest in subregion II (southern subregion of Hengduan Mountains) with middle altitudes and middle latitude. Both the species diversity of mites and Shannon-Wiener diversity index showed a parabolic tendency from the low altitude (<500 m) to the high altitude (>3500 m) along the vertical gradients with the peak occurring in the middle-altitude regions (2000-2500 m). Of four dominant hosts, the species richness of mites was highest on Eothenomys miletus (S = 165) and Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highest on Rattus norvegicus (H = 3.13). Along latitude gradients, species richness of chigger mites increased first and then decreased, peaking at 25° to 26° N with 193 mite species. The geographical location, complex topography, and landscape with diverse small mammal hosts in Yunnan Province have contributed to the extremely high species diversity of mites in the province. The large sampling size of small mammal hosts in a wide geographical scope within a long time span also made it possible to have collected so many species of chigger mites.
Loaiza, Jose R; Miller, Matthew J; Bermingham, Eldredge; Sanjur, Oris I; Jansen, Patrick A; Rovira, Jose R; Alvarez, Eric; Rodriguez, Eric; Davis, Philip; Dutari, Larissa C; Pecor, James; Foley, Desmond; Radtke, Meghan; Pongsiri, Montira J
Free-ranging ticks are widely known to be restricted to the ground level of vegetation. Here, we document the capture of the tick species Amblyomma tapirellum in light traps placed in the forest canopy of Barro Colorado Island, central Panama. A total of forty eight adults and three nymphs were removed from carbon dioxide–octenol baited CDC light traps suspended 20 meters above the ground during surveys for forest canopy mosquitoes. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of questing ticks from the canopy of tropical forests. Our finding suggests a novel ecological relationship between A. tapirellum and arboreal mammals, perhaps monkeys that come to the ground to drink or to feed on fallen fruits. PMID:25075277
Loaiza, Jose R; Miller, Matthew J; Bermingham, Eldredge; Sanjur, Oris I; Jansen, Patrick A; Rovira, Jose R; Alvarez, Eric; Rodriguez, Eric; Davis, Philip; Dutari, Larissa C; Pecor, James; Foley, Desmond; Radtke, Meghan; Pongsiri, Montira J
Free-ranging ticks are widely known to be restricted to the ground level of vegetation. Here, we document the capture of the tick species Amblyomma tapirellum in light traps placed in the forest canopy of Barro Colorado Island, central Panama. A total of forty eight adults and three nymphs were removed from carbon dioxide-octenol baited CDC light traps suspended 20 meters above the ground during surveys for forest canopy mosquitoes. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of questing ticks from the canopy of tropical forests. Our finding suggests a novel ecological relationship between A. tapirellum and arboreal mammals, perhaps monkeys that come to the ground to drink or to feed on fallen fruits.
Oorebeek, M; Rismiller, P
In 2006, we examined Kangaroo Island kangaroos, Macropusfuliginosusfuliginosus, for ticks. We collected three tick species: Ixodes hirsti Hassall, Hemaphysalis bancrofti Nuttall & Warburton, and Bothriocroton concolor (Neumann). Surprisingly, the specimens included eight females and one nymph of B. concolor, which had previously been considered strictly host specific to the echidna (Tachyglossus sp.). This is the first record of B. concolor on the Kangaroo Island kangaroo.
Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E
The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials.
Montserrat, M; de la Peña, F; Hormaza, J I; González-Fernández, J J
The persea mite Oligonychus perseae is a pest of avocado trees that builds extremely dense webbed nests that protect them against natural enemies, including phytoseiid mites. Nests have one or two marginal entrances that are small and flattened. The predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus co-occurs with O. perseae in the avocado orchards of the south-east of Spain. Penetration inside nests through the entrances by this predator is thought to be hindered by its size and its globular-shaped body. However, in the field it has repeatedly been found inside nests that were clearly ripped. Perhaps penetration of the nests has been facilitated by nest wall ripping caused by some other species or by unfavourable abiotic factors. However, to assess whether N. californicus is also able to enter the nest of O. perseae by itself, we carried out laboratory experiments and made a short film. They show how this predator manages to overcome the webbed wall, and that it can penetrate and forage inside nests of O. perseae.
Battsetseg, Badgar; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Battur, Banzragch; Xuan, Xuenan; Fujisaki, Kozo
A complementary DNA coding a novel kynurenine aminotransferase (KAT) molecule from Haemaphysalis longicornis tick embryo was cloned and characterized. The transcription of the HlKAT occurs at all stages during tick development as well as in the midgut, salivary glands, ovary, and synganglion of adult ticks, and protein expression levels increased during the blood-feeding course. The HlKAT gene without signal peptide was successfully expressed as a glutathione S-transferase fusion protein in soluble form, which is capable of catalyzing the transamination of kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine to kynurenic acid and xanthurenic acid, respectively. The purified recombinant HlKAT showed dose-dependent inhibition effect on the growth of equine babesial parasite, Babesia caballi, in in vitro culture. All results suggested that a specific HlKAT is present in tick and HlKAT may play an important physiological role in H. longicornis. This is the first report of a member enzyme of tryptophan pathway in Chelicerata.
Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; Baêta, Bruna de Azevedo; Valim, Jaqueline Rodrigues de Almeida; Teixeira, Rafaella Câmara; Cepeda, Patrícia Barizon; da Silva, Jenevaldo Barbosa; da Fonseca, Adivaldo Henrique
The establishment of laboratory colonies of ticks is often hampered by their lack of adaptation to alternative hosts. The aim of this study was to artificially feed partially engorged Dermacentor (Anocentor) nitens females through plastic tips, and to identify what are the optimal conditions of application of this technique to get as much as possible close to the natural conditions. The technique of artificial feeding through plastic tips allowed the engorgement of D. nitens ticks to a final weight within the normal range for the species.
Bochkov, A V; Mironov, S V
The term synhospitality means the association of two or more closely related parasite species with one host species (Eichler, 1966). The cases of two or three synhospitalic species are known from the same host species, and especially ones where parasites were recorded from different parts of the host range, are quite common. The most ordinary reason causing synhospitality in permanent parasites is the host switching. Nevertheless, there are a number of synhospitality cases, where the parasite complex is monophyletic because evolved on a single host species. The special term--"phylogenetic synhospitality" (FS) is proposed for these cases of synhospitality. Most known cases of FS in acariform mites, permanent parasites of vertebrates, are analysed. It is found out that both astigmatan and prostigmatan parasite mites demonstrate a numbers of FS. The majority of these examples represent parasitism of two or three synhospitalic parasite species. Impressive examples of FS involving a number of synhospitalic species is shown by only astigmatan mites inhabiting the fur of mammals or plumage of birds. Most known examples involving four or more mite species are discussed: 51 mite species of the genus Schizocarpus (Chirodiscidae) parasitizing Castor fiber and C. canadensis (Castoridae); 6 species of Listrophorus spp. (Listrophoridae) from Ondatra zibethicus (Cricetidae); 23 species of Listrophoroides s. 1. (Atopomelidae) from Maxomys surifer (Muridae); 21 species of Cytostethum (Atomelidae) from Potorous tridactylus (Potoridae); 4 species of Listrophoroides (Afrolistrophoroides) from Malacomys longipes (Muridae); 7 species of Fainalges (Xolalgidae) from Aratinga holochlora (Psittacidae); 4 species of Zygepigynia (Pteronyssidae) from Chrysocolaptes lucidus (Picidae). The main reason of FS is that, in spite of the Fahrenholz's rule, the speciation of many parasites proceeds much more intensively than in their hosts because of the more rapid replacement of the parasitic generations. The first factor causing FS is the mite speciation it temporary segregated populations of the host (allopatric speciation). In this case, the "multispecies complexes" appeared after the subsequent reintegration of the host populations formerly isolated. The second factor is the speciation due to the specialization of mites to local microhabitats in the fur or plumage of host (sympatric or synxenic speciation). The second way of speciation is most characteristic for mites with highly specialized attaching structures. The phenomenon of FS more resides in ectoparasites of mammals rather than in feather mites in spite of much more structural complicacy of plumage rather than the fur. The high mobility of birds and wide dispersion of their new generations probably embarrass the process of sympatric speciation in their parasites. As a rule, only really significant geographical barriers play role for population isolation in birds. Thus, it could be concluded that two independent factors or their combination lead to FS. (i) The complex and/or disjunctive host range giving a possibility for allopatric speciation in parasites. (ii) The deep mite specialization to local microhabitats on the host body causing sympatric (synxenic) speciation. Fur of mammals and plumage of birds are very complicated in structure and microconditions and provide a considerable number of different microhabitats for mites inhabiting them. The prevalence of one of these two factors depends on the biological peculiarities of both parasites and their hosts. In mites with lesser specialized attaching organs, for example in atopomelids, allopatric speciation dominates. In mites with strongly specialized attaching organs, for example in listrophorids or chirodiscids, both pathways of speciation may take place. In feather mites, sympatric speciation should be more probable due to quite complicate and various structure of feathers in avian hosts. In fur mites, sympatric speciation is more likely in mites parasitizing hosts with peculiar ecology, for example in semiaquatic rodents possessing quite different fur structure in different parts of the body.
Liu, Jian-Nan; Yu, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Li-Meng; Li, Ning-Xin; Wang, Rong-Rong; Zhang, Chun-Mian; Liu, Jing-Ze
Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs) with significant homology to Francisella tularensis (γ-proteobacteria) have been characterized in several tick species, whereas knowledge on their distribution and population dynamics in ticks remains meager. Hence, in the current study, we identified a novel Francisella-like endosymbiont (FLEs-Hd) from the tick Haemaphysalis doenitzi and evaluated the putative functions of this symbiont. Results indicated that FLEs-Hd had 100% infection rate and a perfect vertical transmission in H. doenitzi, and that it is distributed in ovaries, malpighian tubules, salivary glands and midguts of the ticks, suggesting that FLEs-Hd presumably is a crucial symbiont of the host without specific tissue tropism. To further explore the function of the symbiont, the population dynamics of FLEs-Hd at each developmental stage of ticks and in tissues at different reproductive statuses were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR). Results showed that the high density and regular population dynamics of FLEs-Hd appeared in female ovaries, suggesting that the symbiont may provide necessary nutrients or regulators to ensure normal ovary development of ticks. PMID:27731377
Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Parsa, Soroush
The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT's Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus' native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).
Zhioua, Elyes; Heyer, Klaus; Browning, M.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; LeBrun, Roger A.
Pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki de Barjac & Lemille was tested against the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say. Engorged larvae dipped in a solution of 108 spores per ml showed 96% mortality, 3 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration required to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Bacillus thuringiensis shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.
Domingues, Luciana Ferreira; Giglioti, Rodrigo; Feitosa, Karina Alves; Fantatto, Rafaela Regina; Rabelo, Márcio Dias; Oliveira, Márcia Cristina de Sena; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; Bechara, Gervasio Henrique; Chagas, Ana Carolina de Souza
Measures to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, based only on chemical products are becoming unsustainable, mainly because of the development of resistance. The objective of this study was to test the effect of the aqueous extract of pineapple skin (AEPS) and bromelain extracted from the stem (Sigma-Aldrich®, B4882) on engorged females and larvae of R. (B.) microplus in vitro. These substances were diluted in water and evaluated at eight concentrations. Engorged females were collected and distributed in groups of 10, with three repetitions for each treatment. After immersion in the solutions, the females were placed in an incubator for observation of survival, oviposition and larval hatching. The larval packet method was used, also with three repetitions with about 100 larvae each. The packets were incubated and the readings were performed after 24 h. The estimated reproduction and efficacy of the solutions were calculated. The LC(50) and LC(90) were estimated using the Probit procedure of the SAS program. The eight concentrations were compared within each treatment by the Tukey test. For the experiment with engorged females, the most effective concentrations were 125, 250 and 500 mg/mL: 33%, 48% and 59% for the AEPS and 27%, 51% and 55% for the bromelain. The LC(50) and LC(90) values were, respectively, 276 and 8691 mg/mL for AEPS and 373 and 5172 mg/mL for bromelain. None of the dilutions tested was effective against the larvae of R. (B.) microplus. This is the first report of the action of pineapple extracts or their constituents on cattle ticks. The results demonstrate that further studies regarding composition of tick cuticle, with evaluation of other solvents and formulations, should be conducted seeking to enhance the effect of pineapple extracts and compounds against this ectoparasite.
Madhav, Nita K; Brownstein, John S; Tsao, Jean I; Fish, Durland
The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, a vector for the agents of Lyme borreliosis and other diseases, has expanded its range dramatically over the past 20 yr. However, the relative contributions of different vertebrate host species to this expansion have remained largely unexplored. To address this issue, we simulated the expansion of a theoretical tick population across a simple landscape by using a deterministic, spatially explicit, cellular automata model. The model incorporates the ecology of ticks and three vertebrate hosts: white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus Zimmermann; white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus Rafinesque; and American robin, Turdus migratorius L. Host contribution to tick dispersal is modeled as a function of tick burden, home range size, and population density. These parameters were determined using published and unpublished data. Our results suggest that 1) hosts with high tick burdens and large home ranges (e.g., deer) play a critical role in I. scapularis range expansion; 2) hosts with small home ranges (e.g., mice) can limit range expansion if they divert a sufficient number of ticks from feeding on more mobile hosts; and (3) birds that migrate annually (e.g., robins) can play a crucial role in tick range expansion.
Morales-Malacara, J B
The genus Parichoronyssus Radovsky (1966), is redefined, and Parichoronyssus lopezi Morales-Malacara is described as a new species from specimens collected from a bat, Dermanura azteca, taken in Tlaxcala, Mexico. A key to the 6 species of Parichoronyssus is provided.
Luypaert, Gil; Witters, Johan; Van Huylenbroeck, Johan; Maes, Martine; De Riek, Jan; De Clercq, Patrick
The broad mite, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks), is one of the major pests causing severe economic damage in Rhododendron simsii Planch hybrid production in Belgium. In order to optimize biological control programs and to parameterize warning programs, we studied the effect of environmental temperature on the development of P. latus on R. simsii leaves. In combination with a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L:D) and a relative humidity of 80 ± 5 %, six constant temperatures (15, 17, 20, 25, 30 and 33 ± 1 °C), were studied. Total developmental times of 13.3, 10.5, 6.6, 4.2, 3.5 and 4.0 days were measured, respective to each of the aforementioned temperatures. Development of females took significantly longer than that of males at 15, 17, 20 and 30 °C. Survival rates observed between 17 and 30 °C varied between 43.5 and 96.9 %. Lower survival rates were found at 15 and 33 °C, i.e. 31.8 and 23.6 %, respectively. The lower, optimal and upper developmental threshold (t min , t opt and t max , respectively) and thermal constant (K) of the pest were estimated for each life stage by a linear and two non-linear models. Based on measurements of total development of P. latus thermal thresholds of 10.0, 30.1 and 36.0 °C were calculated for t min , t opt and t max , respectively. The number of degree-days needed to complete immature development when feeding on R. simsii was 66.7.
Sánchez-Ramos, Ismael; Castañera, Pedro
The effect of temperature on reproductive parameters and longevity of the mold mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) was examined at seven constant temperatures, ranging from 10 to 34 degrees C, and a relative humidity of 90 +/- 5%. Preoviposition period and fecundity were adversely affected by extreme temperatures and the oviposition period increased as temperature was reduced. Different patterns were observed for longevity data for males and females, with greater longevities for males at intermediate temperatures and more similar values for both sexes at extreme temperatures. Polynomial and non-linear models provided a good fit of the relationship of reproductive and longevity parameters with temperature. The effect of temperature on the intrinsic rate of increase of T. putrescentiae populations was established by the non-linear Lactin model. The optimum temperature for development was obtained at 30 degrees C. At this temperature, the population doubling time is 1.75 days. The lower and upper thresholds for T. putrescentiae populations were established at 10.4 and 34.8 degrees C, respectively. Altogether, these data provide basic information to develop sound physical control strategies of the mold mite.
Wilson, M L; Dykstra, E A; Schmidt, B A
The survival of unfed adult Hyalomma truncatum Koch held under different regimes of constant temperature (5, 17, 24, and 30 degrees C) and relative humidity (10, 50, and 80%) was monitored during > 1 yr. Longevity of this medically important African tick was shortest at the highest temperature and lowest relative humidity (100% dead at week 25). Conversely, H. truncatum lived longest at lower temperatures and higher relative humidity (< 100% dead at week 64). The combined effects of temperature and humidity, measured as vapor pressure deficit, were strongly related to survival of these ticks. The survival of males and females was similar and was independent of the weight of ticks. These findings have implications for the maintenance and study of laboratory colonies of H. truncatum and for the development of tick control strategies to reduce vectorial capacity.
Ahadiyat, Ali; Beaulieu, Frédéric
Abstract Two new species of mites of the genus Zygoseius Berlese, Zygoseius papaver sp. n. and Zygoseius lindquisti sp. n., collected from moss and flood debris, respectively, in a creek in Chiapas State, Mexico, are described herein. PMID:27920596
Lord, C C
Activity patterns of nymphal Ixodes scapularis Say were compared between habitat types (dominant tree types: mixed deciduous, oak, white pine, red cedar, sassafras, and spicebush). Both the time of peak abundance and the relative abundance of questing nymphs at the peak were compared. Several smoothing algorithms were tested with the data to determine if they could be used to estimate the time of peak abundance more accurately. Determination of the time of peak abundance using the raw data or simple moving averages was susceptible to outliers. Weighted averages were less susceptible to outliers. The seasonal pattern of nymphal abundance was similar in all habitat types. Variation in the time of peak abundance between habitats was low. Peak densities were lower in deciduous habitats (0.24 +/- 0.05 nymphs per square meter) than in nondeciduous habitats (0.85 +/- 0.15 nymphs per square meter); this could have resulted from higher host use of the nondeciduous areas. These data suggest that there are differences in the population dynamics of nymphs found in different habitats.
Norton, Roy A; Fuangarworn, Marut
Nanohystrix hammerae n. gen., n. sp.--proposed on the basis of numerous adults and a few juveniles--is a new oribatid mite of the infraorder Enarthronota that appears to be phylogenetically relictual and endemic to northern New Zealand, in habitats ranging from native shrublands to native and semi-native forests. With an adult body length of 1-1.2 mm, the species is the largest known enarthronote mite outside Lohmanniidae, and it has an unusual combination of plesiomorphic and apomorphic traits. Plesiomorphies include: a well-formed median (naso) eye and pigmented lateral eyes; a bothridial seta with a simple, straight base; a vertically-oriented gnathosoma; a peranal segment; adanal sclerites partially incorporated in notogaster (uncertain polarity); three genu I solenidia and a famulus on tarsus II. Autapomorphies include: five pairs of pale cuticular disks on the notogaster, with unknown function; six pairs of long, erectile notogastral setae, including pair h2 incorporated in the second transverse scissure along with the f-row, and pair h1 in a third scissure; chelicerae that are unusually broad, creating a flat-faced appearance; legs I that are inferred to have an unusually wide range of motion. Further, it is the only enarthronote species known to have an elongated ovipositor, and one of few to have glassy, luminous notogastral setae. The gastronotum of juveniles lacks transverse scissures, but has isolated sclerites supporting setae, including erectile setae. The large character gaps between N. hammerae and other enarthronote taxa justifies proposal of a monotypic new family--Nanohystricidae n. fam.--which is tentatively grouped with several other relictual families in the paraphyletic Heterochthonioidea. Small muscles appear to be involved in the operation of all erectile setae, but seem to be only depressors, with erection effected by hysterosomal distension. Based on gut contents, its food is primarily fungal hyphae and spores, though ingestion of small arthropods also occurs (perhaps by necrophagy). Collections were made by Berlese-funnel samples of litter, by sweeping low vegetation, and (mainly) by pitfall traps; the latter two suggest that adults are surface-active. Tritonymphs were collected by pitfall traps, but earlier juveniles were collected only by Berlese-funnels. Adults are frequently infected with a eugregarine parasite, which can entirely fill the digestive caeca; immature trophozoites were also seen in tritonymphs. Adults also can serve as hosts for dispersal of secondary capilliconidia of the fungal genus Basidiobolus.
Prusinski, M. A.; Mertins, J. W.; Meehan, L. J.
Gynandromorphism, the simultaneous occurrence of both male and female genotypic and morphological characteristics in a single individual of a normally sexually dimorphic species, is rare in ticks. The phenomenon is documented previously for free-living specimens representing several tick genera, particularly Amblyomma and Hyalomma, but only rarely in Ixodes. Here we describe the first two known gynandromorphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, collected while flagging vegetation during routine tick surveillance in the Hudson Valley region of New York State. Uniquely, both specimens display some morphological features typical of nymphs, in addition to those of both males and females. PMID:26336313
Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Pevidor, Luisa Viana; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes
Ornithodoros mimon is an argasid tick common on Chiroptera in the Neotropical region, where it also bites humans aggressively. Here we describe for the first time all nymphal instars (N1, N2 and N3) of O. mimon based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. Although the nymphal instars of O. mimon resemble each other closely, there are characters that differentiate them: the N3 are taller that N1 and N2; the genital primordium occurs in some N2 and all N3; the spiracular plate in N1 and N2 is cone-like, but in N3 it is semicircular; and the submarginal dorsal groove is less distinct in N1 but more evident in N3. Nymphs of 0. mimon closely resemble the bat-associated species of the genus Ornithodoros included in the Alectorobius group. We review prior descriptions of nymphs of the Alectorobius group and make comparisons with nymphs of O. minon, highlighting characters with diagnostic information, such as the idiosomal shape, presence of discs and hood and absence subapical protuberance of tarsus I. The description of nymphal instars of O. mimon herein presented, improves the taxonomy of the family Argasidae, performing a work more detailed about the immature stage of this species.
González-Acuña, Daniel; Vargas, Pamela; Ardiles, Karen; Parra, Luis; Guglielmone, Alberto
In order to describe the developmental biology of the tick Argas neghmei Kohls & Hoogstraal under laboratory conditions, 40 females and 40 males were collected from chicken coops located in Calama (II Region, Chile). They were fed on chickens and maintained under two laboratory conditions: one group at 30 +/- 5 degrees C and 35 +/- 5 % RH and another at 27 +/- 5 degrees C and 80 +/- 5 % RH, both at 12: 12 h L:D photoperiod. The ticks were observed daily to determine larval feeding periods, preoviposition, oviposition, egg incubation as well as the frequency of egg laying, number of eggs laid, and percentage of larval hatching. Females did not lay eggs at 80 +/- 5% RH, and data on the biology of this tick was obtained only at 35 +/- 5% RH. The life cycle of A. neghmei lasted an average of 269 days. Feeding period of each nymphal stage as well as of adult females between oviposition events lasted less than a day. Females laid on average 1.8 egg batches and egg-laying period lasted on average 14 days, during which about 96 eggs were laid per female.
Johnson, T L; Bjork, J K H; Neitzel, D F; Dorr, F M; Schiffman, E K; Eisen, R J
Ixodes scapularis Say, the black-legged tick, is the primary vector in the eastern United States of several pathogens causing human diseases including Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and babesiosis. Over the past two decades, I. scapularis-borne diseases have increased in incidence as well as geographic distribution. Lyme disease exists in two major foci in the United States, one encompassing northeastern states and the other in the Upper Midwest. Minnesota represents a state with an appreciable increase in counties reporting I. scapularis-borne illnesses, suggesting geographic expansion of vector populations in recent years. Recent tick distribution records support this assumption. Here, we used those records to create a fine resolution, subcounty-level distribution model for I. scapularis using variable response curves in addition to tests of variable importance. The model identified 19% of Minnesota as potentially suitable for establishment of the tick and indicated with high accuracy (AUC = 0.863) that the distribution is driven by land cover type, summer precipitation, maximum summer temperatures, and annual temperature variation. We provide updated records of established populations near the northwestern species range limit and present a model that increases our understanding of the potential distribution of I. scapularis in Minnesota.
3 10. type ("c" cells) is only distributed in the 6. NOWs K.S. 41965) Anatomy of the central subpenineuraal layer of H. dromedari and also in D...7COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and iderify by bloc number) FTEC GROUP SUB-GRC: Ticks; Ayaiomia dromedari
Tolesano-Pascoli, Graziela; Garcia, Frederico Innecco; Gomes, Carla Raphaela Gonzaga; Diniz, Kátia Cristina; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Venzal, José Manuel; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan
Brazil harbors five species of Cypseloidinae swifts. Those from Streptoprocne and Cypseloides genera have a very distinct ecology. They shelter at night and build nests in moist cliffs by waterfalls. Information about tick infestation of these birds is virtually non-existent and restricted to the description of a new species, Ixodes paranaensis, in Streptoprocne biscutata in Paraná State and another record of this species in Streptoprocne zonaris in Minas Gerais State. We herein report tick infestation of swifts at eight waterfalls in the Cerrado biome of Minas Gerais State, southeastern Brazil. Swifts were captured during six campaigns from November 2008 to April 2013. Overall, 584 swifts were captured (527 C. senex, four C. fumigatus and 53 S. zonaris). Four birds were tick infested (prevalence of 0.7 %). Three individuals of C. senex hosted one tick each; a nymph of I. paranaensis, a female of I. paranaensis and a nymph of Amblyomma cajennense. One S. zonaris hosted an I. paranaensis nymph and an Ornithodoros sp. larva (Argasidae).
Badii, Mohammad H; Hernández-Ortiz, Emilio; Flores, Adriana E; Landeros, Jerónimo
The aims of this study were: (a) determine the prey stage preference of female Euseius hibisci (Chant) (Phytoseiidae) at constant densities of different stages of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae), (b) assess the functional response of the predator females to the varying densities of eggs, larvae, or protonymphs of T. urticae, and (c) estimate the functional response of E. hibisci when pollen of Ligustrum ovalifolium was present as well. We conducted experiments on excised pieces of strawberry leaf arenas (Fragaria ananassa) under laboratory conditions of 25+/-2 degrees C, 60+/-5% RH and 12 h photophase. Our results indicated that the predator consumed significantly more prey eggs than other prey stages. Consumption of prey deutonymphs and adults was so low that they were excluded from the non-choice functional response experiments. The functional response on all food items was of type II. The two parameters of the functional response were estimated for each prey type by means of the adjusted non-linear regression model. The highest estimated value a' (instantaneous rate of discovery) and the lowest value of Th (handling time, including digestion) were found for the predator feeding on prey eggs, and a' was lowest and Th highest when fed protonymphs. Using the jack-knife method, the values for the functional response parameters were estimated. The values of a' and Th produced by the model were similar among all prey types except for the eggs, which were different. Using pollen simultaneously with prey larvae decreased the consumption of the latter over the full range of prey densities The suitability of this predator for biological control of T. urticae on strawberry is discussed.
Hornbostel, V.L.; Zhioua, Elyes; Benjamin, Michael A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Ostfeld, Richard S.
Effectiveness of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, for controlling nymphal Ixodes scapularis, was tested in laboratory and field trials. In the laboratory, M. anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin strain ESC1 was moderately pathogenic, with an LC50 of 107 spores/ml and induced 70% mortality at 109 spores/ml. In a field study, however, 109 spores/ml M. anisopliae did not effectively control questing I. scapularis nymphs, and significant differences were not detected in pre- and post-treatment densities. For nymphs collected and returned to the laboratory for observation, mortality was low in treatment groups, ranging from 20 to 36%. To assess whether a chemical acaricide would synergistically enhance pathogenicity of the fungus, we challenged unfed nymphal I. scapularis with combinations of M. anisopliae and permethrin, a relatively safe pyrethroid acaricide, in two separate bioassays. Significant interactions between M. anisopliae and permethrin were not observed, supporting neither synergism nor antagonism.
Barbar, Ziad; Tixier, Marie-Stéphane; Cheval, Brigitte; Kreiter, Serge
The abundance and diversity of phytoseiid mites were surveyed from April to September 2003 to 2005 in vineyards (Grenache and Syrah cultivars) co-planted with rows of Sorbus domestica or Pinus pinea and in monoculture plots of grapes in the South of France. Densities of phytoseiid mites were different on the two tree species, with P. pinea a more suitable host than S. domestica. Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) exhilaratus was the dominant species occurring on grapes and on co-planted rows of S. domestica and P. pinea, whereas T. (T.) phialatus was the most abundant species in monoculture plots of both S. domestica and P. pinea. Factors determining the dominance of T. (T.) phialatus over T. (T.) exhilaratus in monoculture trees are discussed. In this study, agroforestry management did not affect phytoseiid diversity in vineyards, but did affect phytoseiid density, especially in 2005. The results obtained in 2003 and 2004 are not easy to discuss in this regard because of the low densities of mites observed during these 2 years (very dry climatic conditions and pesticide applications).
Skoracki, Maciej; Scibek, Katarzyna; Sikora, Bozena
Abstract: Three new species, belonging to the newly proposed genus Pseudopicobia gen. n., inhabiting body quill feathers of puff-birds (Piciformes: Bucconidae), are described: P nonnula sp. n. from Nonnula frontalis (Sclater) in Colombia, P malacoptila sp. n. from Malacoptila panamensis Lafresnaye in Colombia and P hapaloptila sp. n. from Hapaloptila castanea (Verreaux) in Ecuador. The new genus differs from morphologically similar genus Picobia Heller, 1878 by the absence of the genital setae, absence of the genital lobes, solenidia phiI represented by microsetae, and by the presence of setiform solenidia sigma I. Syringophilid mites are recorded from birds of this family for the first time.
Botelho, J R; Linardi, P M; da Encarnação, C D
We received for examination a small colection of ticks captured in the National Park of the Serra da Canastra (MG), between 1979 and 1980. The authors demonstrated the existence of a broad co-accomodation of Amblyomma pseudoconcolor on Edentata of the family Dasypodidae, being Dasypodini the tribe more adjusted to this infestation. In conformity to the Figs 1 and 2, Dasypodini are probably the real hosts of A. pseudoconcolor and also the oldest hosts. For the first time, A. pseudoconcolor is also recorded on Cabassous tatouay, C. unicinctus, Priodontes maximus and Euphractus sexcincuts. Also for the first time A. pseudoconcolor and Amblyomma calcaratum were recorded in the State of Minas Gerais. The ectoparasites are deposited in the "Departamento de Parasitologia da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brasil".
Campos, Eldo; Moraes, Jorge; Façanha, Arnoldo R; Moreira, Erica; Valle, Denise; Abreu, Leonardo; Manso, Pedro P A; Nascimento, Aline; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; Lenzi, Henrique; Masuda, Aoi; Vaz, Itabajara da Silva; Logullo, Carlos
The present work evaluates the kinetics of utilization of the main potential energy sources throughout the embryonic developmental stages of Boophilus microplus. The embryonic development of this arthropod is completed in 21 days. Cellularization of the blastoderm occurs on the 6th day and is rapidly followed by germ band extension and segmentation, whose first signs are visible on the 7th day. Cellularization is typically a maternal-driven process, carried out by molecular determinants deposited in the oocyte during oogenesis. On the other hand, segmentation is of zygotic nature, being the consequence of the synthesis of various components by the growing embryo. The enhancement in total B. microplus RNA was observed after cellularization, corroborating the replacement of maternal-driven processes by embryonic zygotic expression. An abrupt increase in oxygen consumption was observed from cellularization until the 8th day of development. The reduction in dry weight at the same period and the susceptibility of oxygen consumption to KCN suggest that the respiration process is activated during early embryonic development. A marked decrease in total lipid content occurred between the 5th and 7th days of development, suggesting this is the main energy source for cellularization. A major reduction in carbohydrate content occurred later, between the 7th and 9th days, and it could be assigned to the morphological segmentation of the embryo. Although the total amount of proteins remains unchanged from oviposition to hatching, a 15% reduction in vitellin (VT) content was observed before cellularization, up to the 4th day after egglaying. This observation was correlated to the synthesis of new proteins needed to support early embryo development. Additional 20% of VT was consumed thereafter, mainly at the end of embryogenesis, and in this case VT is probably used as energy source to the older embryo. Altogether, these data indicate different energy sources for maternal and zygotic driven processes.
Yang, Xiaolong; Yu, Zhijun; He, Yanjie; Xu, Xiaoli; Gao, Zhihua; Wang, Hui; Chen, Jie; Liu, Jingze
Vitellin (Vt) was purified from eggs of parthenogenetic bush tick Haemaphysalis longicornis by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Our results revealed that only one single Vt existed in parthenogenetic bush tick, and the purified Vt was proved to be a hemoglycolipoprotein consisting of nine polypeptides with molecular weights of 203, 147, 126, 82, 74, 70, 61, 47 and 31 kDa, respectively. Polyclonal antibody and monoclonal antibody against Vt were produced using the purified Vt. The change in vitellogenin (Vg) and Vt levels over time of the parthenogenetic H. longicornis was established, and the Vg content in haemolymph and Vt in ovary at different feeding or engorgement statuses was also determined using a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The Vg level in haemolymph was distinctly increased on the day of engorgement (1.785 mg/mL) and continued to increase until 2nd day post-engorgement (5.611 mg/mL). There was a slight decrease in Vg level after 4 days of engorgement, and a second peak was observed on day 2 post-oviposition (10.774 mg/mL). Subsequently, Vg content continuously decreased and reached a low level on the 10th day post-oviposition. The Vt content in ovary continuously increased once the female reached its critical weight (0.024 mg per female), and reached the maximum level on day 2 post-oviposition (1.942 mg per female). Afterwards, Vt content rapidly decreased.
von Saltzwedel, Helge; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina
Parthenogenetic lineages may colonize marginal areas of the range of related sexual species or coexist with sexual species in the same habitat. Frozen-Niche-Variation and General-Purpose-Genotype are two hypotheses suggesting that competition and interclonal selection result in parthenogenetic populations being either genetically diverse or rather homogeneous. The cosmopolitan parthenogenetic oribatid mite Oppiella nova has a broad ecological phenotype and is omnipresent in a variety of habitats. Morphological variation in body size is prominent in this species and suggests adaptation to distinct environmental conditions. We investigated genetic variance and body size of five independent forest - grassland ecotones. Forests and grasslands were inhabited by distinct genetic lineages with transitional habitats being colonized by both genetic lineages from forest and grassland. Notably, individuals of grasslands were significantly larger than individuals in forests. These differences indicate the presence of specialized genetic lineages specifically adapted to either forests or grasslands which coexist in transitional habitats. Molecular clock estimates suggest that forest and grassland lineages separated 16-6 million years ago, indicating long-term persistence of these lineages in their respective habitat. Long-term persistence, and morphological and genetic divergence imply that drift and environmental factors result in the evolution of distinct parthenogenetic lineages resembling evolution in sexual species. This suggests that parthenogenetic reproduction is not an evolutionary dead end.
Soualah-Alila, Hana; Bouslama, Zihad; Amr, Zuhair; Bani Hani, Rihan
Parasitism of Ixodes ricinus on three species of lizards (Psammodromus algirus, Podarcis vaucheri and Timon pater) in northeastern Algeria was studied. Psammodromus algirus was the most preferred host, T. pater was least preferred. Nymphs of I. ricinus were found attached to lizards from March to August in various numbers. Most nymphs were collected during March, April and June for P. algirus, and most larvae from April until August. Larval stages were found to be mostly associated with P. vaucheri during the study period, with the highest number of recovered larvae in June.
Gharbi, Mohamed; Aziz Darghouth, Mohamed
Hyalomma scupense (syn. Hyalomma detritum) is a two-host domestic endophilic tick of cattle and secondarily other ungulates in the Maghreb region (Africa). This species transmits several pathogens, among which two are major livestock diseases: Theileria annulata and Theileria equi. Various other pathogens are also transmitted by this tick species, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia bovis. Hyalomma scupense is common in sub-humid and semi-arid areas of several regions in the world, mainly in the Maghreb region. In this region, adults attach to animals during the summer season; larvae and nymphs attach to their hosts during autumn, but there is a regional difference in H. scupense phenology. There is an overlap between immature and adult ticks, leading in some contexts to a dramatic modification of the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. This tick species attaches preferentially to the posterior udder quarters and thighs. Tick burdens can reach 130 ticks per animal, with a mean of 60 ticks. Calves are 70 times less infested than adult cattle. The control can be implemented through six options: (i) rehabilitation of the farm buildings by roughcasting and smoothing the outer and inner surfaces of the enclosures and walls. This control option should be recommended to be combined with a thorough cleaning of the farm and its surrounding area. With regard to Theileria annulata infection, this control option is the most beneficial. (ii) Acaricide application to animals during the summer season, targeting adults. (iii) Acaricide application during the autumn period for the control of the immature stages. (iv) Acaricide application to the walls: many field veterinarians have suggested this option but it is only partially efficient since nymphs enter deep into the cracks and crevices. It should be used if there is a very high tick burden or if there is a high risk of tick-borne diseases. (v) Manual tick removal: this method is not efficient since the ticks can feed on several other animal species in the farm. This control option can lead to a reduction of the tick population, but not a decrease in tick-borne disease incidence. (vi) Vaccination: this control option consists of injecting the protein Hd86; trials have shown a partial effect on nymphs, with no effect on adult ticks. Combination of two of these control options is recommended in regions where there are high burdens of important tick vectors. Further studies are needed to improve our knowledge on this tick species in the Maghreb region, since the number of published studies on Hyalomma scupense in this region is very limited. PMID:24507485
Bursali, Ahmet; Keskin, Adem; Şimşek, Eray; Keskin, Aysun; Tekin, Saban
In order to determine the species composition of infesting ticks, between 2011 and 2012 a total of 1118 wild animals were captured from various regions of Zara, Sivas province, Turkey. A total of 138 ticks were obtained from the 58 host animals. Ticks were identified as Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer), Haemaphysalis erinacei taurica Pospelova-Shtrom, Haemaphysalis parva (Neumann), Haemaphysalis punctata Canestrini and Fanzago, Haemaphysalis sulcata Canestrini and Fanzago, Hyalomma marginatum Koch, Ixodes laguri Olenev, Ixodes ricinus (L.), Ixodes vespertilionis Koch and Rhipicephalus turanicus Pomerantzev. To the best of our knowledge, there are several new host records for D. marginatus, H. e. taurica and I. laguri. In addition, I. vespertilionis was recorded for the first time in the Central Anatolian Region in Turkey, whereas I. laguri and H. e. taurica are firstly reported in Sivas.
The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome, and is considered to be a “hotspot” due the great concentration of en-demic species and high rate of deforestation. Surveys of the mite fauna present in this biome have revealed a great number of new species. In this paper, we describe Tenuipalpus s...
34Mediterranean ear haemaphysalid," q.v. New Guinea pig haemaphysalid, Haemaphysalis papuana Thorell, 1883 ― Trapido et al. (1964b) North African lizard ... lizard hyalomma, Hyalomma franchinii Tonelli-Rondelli, 1932 ― Hoogstraal & Kaiser (1958b)—precedes " North African lizard hyalomma," q.v. ― Hoogstraal...century’s preeminent authority on ticks and tick-borne diseases. Key words: Harry Hoogstraal, ticks, common names Introduction Harry Hoogstraal, Ph.D., D.Sc
de Souza, Izabel Vieira; Sá Argolo, Poliane; Júnior, Manoel Guedes Correa Gondim; de Moraes, Gilberto José; Bittencourt, Maria Aparecida Leão; Oliveira, Anibal Ramadan
Abstract The cultivation of tropical fruit trees has grown considerably in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil. Some of these have been severely attacked by phytophagous mites, which are usually controlled by the use of chemical pesticides. However, there is today a growing interest for the adoption of less aggressive measures of pest control, as for example the use of predatory mites. Most of the plant-inhabiting predatory mites belong to the family Phytoseiidae. The objective of this paper is to report the phytoseiid species found in an intensive survey conducted on cultivated tropical fruit trees in fifteen localities of the southern coast of Bahia. Measurements of relevant morphological characters are provided for each species, to complement the understanding of the morphological variation of these species. Twenty-nine species of sixteen genera were identified. A key was elaborated to assist in the separation of these species. Fifteen species are reported for the first time in the state, raising to sixty-six the number of species of this family now known from Bahia. Seventy-two percent of the species collected belong to Amblyseiinae, followed by Typhlodrominae (21%) and Phytoseiinae (7%). The most diverse genus was Amblyseius. Amblyseius operculatus De Leon was the most frequent and abundant species. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the possible role of the most common predators as control agents of the phytophagous mites co-occurring with them. PMID:26668542
Sanches, Gustavo S; Évora, Patrícia M; Mangold, Atílio J; Jittapalapong, Sattaporn; Rodriguez-Mallon, Alina; Guzmán, Pedro E E; Bechara, Gervásio H; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I
In this study, different geographical populations of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato were compared by molecular, biological, and morphometric methods. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using 12S and 16S rDNA sequences and showed two distinct clades: one composed of ticks from Brazil (Jaboticabal, SP), Cuba (Havana) Thailand (Bangkok) and the so-called "tropical strain" ticks. The second clade was composed of ticks from Spain (Zaragoza), Argentina (Rafaela, Santa Fe) and the so-called "temperate strain" ticks. Morphometric analysis showed good separation between females of the two clades and within the temperate clade. Males also exhibited separation between the two clades, but with some overlap. Multiple biological parameters revealed differences between the two clades, especially the weight of the engorged female. These results confirm the existence of at least two species under the name "R. sanguineus".
Menezes, C; Coletto-Silva, A; Gazeta, G S; Kerr, W E
We report the infestation of stingless bee nests by the mite Pyemotes tritici, which killed four colonies of Tetragonisca angustula and one colony of Frieseomelitta varia in Brazil. The first infected colony, a colony of T. angustula, came from an area between Uberlândia and Araguari, Minas Gerais. The transfer of the mites to the other colonies occurred through the transfer of infected combs and subsequent manipulations. Other colonies in the same meliponary, which had not been manipulated, were not infected. The infestation was terminated by isolating the dead colonies from the meliponary.
Hernandes, Fabio Akashi
Five new feather mite species of the genus Trouessartia Canestrini are described from South American birds: Trouessartia latiducta sp. nov. from Phylloscartes kronei (Tyrannidae), T. basileuteri sp. nov. from Basileuterus culicivorus (Parulidae), T. sicaliae sp. nov. from Sicalis flaveola (Emberizidae), T. savanae sp. nov. from Tyrannus savana (Tyrannidae), and T. picumni from Picumnus fulvescens (Picidae). The latter species is the first representative of the genus described from a bird of the order Piciformes.
Johnson, T. L.; Bjork, J. K. H.; Neitzel, D. F.; Dorr, F. M.; Schiffman, E. K.; Eisen, R. J.
Ixodes scapularis Say, the black-legged tick, is the primary vector in the eastern United States of several pathogens causing human diseases including Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and babesiosis. Over the past two decades, I. scapularis-borne diseases have increased in incidence as well as geographic distribution. Lyme disease exists in two major foci in the United States, one encompassing northeastern states and the other in the Upper Midwest. Minnesota represents a state with an appreciable increase in counties reporting I. scapularis-borne illnesses, suggesting geographic expansion of vector populations in recent years. Recent tick distribution records support this assumption. Here, we used those records to create a fine resolution, subcounty-level distribution model for I. scapularis using variable response curves in addition to tests of variable importance. The model identified 19% of Minnesota as potentially suitable for establishment of the tick and indicated with high accuracy (AUC = 0.863) that the distribution is driven by land cover type, summer precipitation, maximum summer temperatures, and annual temperature variation. We provide updated records of established populations near the northwestern species range limit and present a model that increases our understanding of the potential distribution of I. scapularis in Minnesota. PMID:27026161
Background Amblyomma cajennense F. is one of the best known and studied ticks in the New World because of its very wide distribution, its economical importance as pest of domestic ungulates, and its association with a variety of animal and human pathogens. Recent observations, however, have challenged the taxonomic status of this tick and indicated that intraspecific cryptic speciation might be occurring. In the present study, we investigate the evolutionary and demographic history of this tick and examine its genetic structure based on the analyses of three mitochondrial (12SrDNA, d-loop, and COII) and one nuclear (ITS2) genes. Because A. cajennense is characterized by a typical trans-Amazonian distribution, lineage divergence dating is also performed to establish whether genetic diversity can be linked to dated vicariant events which shaped the topology of the Neotropics. Results Total evidence analyses of the concatenated mtDNA and nuclear + mtDNA datasets resulted in well-resolved and fully congruent reconstructions of the relationships within A. cajennense. The phylogenetic analyses consistently found A. cajennense to be monophyletic and to be separated into six genetic units defined by mutually exclusive haplotype compositions and habitat associations. Also, genetic divergence values showed that these lineages are as distinct from each other as recognized separate species of the same genus. The six clades are deeply split and node dating indicates that they started diverging in the middle-late Miocene. Conclusions Behavioral differences and the results of laboratory cross-breeding experiments had already indicated that A. cajennense might be a complex of distinct taxonomic units. The combined and congruent mitochondrial and nuclear genetic evidence from this study reveals that A. cajennense is an assembly of six distinct species which have evolved separately from each other since at least 13.2 million years ago (Mya) in the earliest and 3.3 Mya in the latest lineages. The temporal and spatial diversification modes of the six lineages overlap the phylogeographical history of other organisms with similar extant trans-Amazonian distributions and are consistent with the present prevailing hypothesis that Neotropical diversity often finds its origins in the Miocene, after the Andean uplift changed the topology and consequently the climate and ecology of the Neotropics. PMID:24320199
Lado, Paula; Nava, Santiago; Labruna, Marcelo B; Szabo, Matias P J; Durden, Lance A; Bermudez, Sergio; Montagna, Matteo; Sánchez Quirós, Ana C; Beati, Lorenza
The geographical distribution of Amblyomma parvum Aragão 1908 in the New World is disjunct, with two main clusters separated from each other by the Amazon basin. The main objectives of this study were to further investigate the systematic relationships within A. parvum, to determine whether or not populations from different geographical areas might represent cryptic species, and to reconstruct the phylogeographical evolutionary history of the species. The genetic diversity of A. parvum collected throughout its distributional range was analyzed by using 6 molecular markers: 5 mitochondrial [the small and the large ribosomal subunits 12rDNA and 16SrDNA, the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and II (COII) and the control region or d-loop (DL)], and one nuclear (ITS2, Inter transcribed spacer 2). Phylogenetic trees were inferred by using maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses. In addition, node dating was attempted for the main lineages identified phylogenetically. Although mitochondrial and nuclear topologies were not totally congruent, they all identified at least two main supported clusters, a Central American lineage, and a Brazilian-Argentinian lineage. Clade support and divergence values strongly suggest that the two lineages correspond to different taxonomic entities. Node dating placed the split between the Central American and the Brazilian-Argentinian lineages at approximately 5.8-4.9 Mya, just after the progressive replacement of the dry areas that occupied the northern part of South America by the Amazon Basin in the early-mid Miocene. This event might be the cause of fragmentation and putative speciation within the ancestral relatively xerophilic A. parvum population.
Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Venzal, José M; González-Acuña, Daniel; Nava, Santiago; Lopes, Marcos G; Martins, Thiago F; Figueroa, Cecilia; Fernández, Nicolás; Labruna, Marcelo B
Ornithodoros atacamensis n. sp. is described from larvae collected on the lizard Liolaemus bisignatus and from free-living adults collected in desert areas from the Pan de Azúcar and Llanos de Challe National Parks, in Northern Chile. Additionally, unengorged larvae were obtained from fertilized females, which laid eggs in the laboratory. Morphological and mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequence analyses were performed in order to compare this new soft tick species with other congeneric Neotropical representatives. Larvae of O. atacamensis are morphologically closely related to Ornithodoros talaje sensu stricto, Ornithodoros puertoricensis, Ornithodoros rioplatensis, Ornithodoros guaporensis and Ornithodoros hasei, all belonging to the O. talaje species group. The larval diagnostic characters for this species are a combination of a large pyriform dorsal plate with a length of approximately 300μm, 17 pairs of dorsal setae with five central pairs, hypostome with apex pointed and dental formula 2/2 in most rows, 3/3 apically, and capsule of the Haller's organ oval in shape without reticulations. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene and a Principal Component Analysis based on morphometric characters provide additional support to the description of O. atacamensis as an independent lineage within the genus clustering within the O. talaje species group.
Bezerra Santos, Marcos Antônio; de Macedo, Lucia Oliveira; de Souza, Islanne Barbosa; do Nascimento Ramos, Carlos Alberto; Alves, Leucio Câmara; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; de Carvalho, Gílcia Aparecida
The biological control of ticks represents an alternative method to the chemical control, given its ecological-friendly approach. Amongst the alternatives, the use of parasitoids of the genus Ixodiphagus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) has been largely investigated. The aim of this study was to document and molecularly characterize Ixodiphagus wasps in ticks from a tropical region of Brazil. From October 2015 to March 2016, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks (n=1814) were collected from naturally infested dogs and Ixodiphagus larvae were detected by microscopic examination. In addition, adult wasps were obtained in the laboratory. Larvae and adults were molecularly identified as Ixodiphagus hookeri. These findings suggest that this type of parasitism deserves to be studied in local tick populations, in order to elucidate the role of these wasps as a potential alternative to chemical tick control.
Düttmann, Christiane; Flores, Byron; Kadoch Z, Nathaniel; Bermúdez C, Sergio
We document the species of ticks that parasitize livestock in Nicaragua. The study was based on tick collection on cattle and horses from 437 farms in nine departments. Of 4841 animals examined (4481 cows and 360 horses), 3299 were parasitized, which represent 68 % of the bovines and 67 % of the equines in study: 59 cows and 25 horses were parasitized by more than one species. In addition, 280 specimens of the entomological museum in León were examined. The ticks found on cattle were Rhipicephalus microplus (75.2 % of the ticks collected), Amblyomma mixtum (20.8 %), A. parvum (2.6 %), A. tenellum (0.7 %), A. maculatum (0.7 %). While the ticks collected from the horses were: Dermacentor nitens (41.5 %), A. mixtum (31.7 %), R. microplus (13.8 %), A. parvum (6.5 %), A. tenellum (3.3 %), D. dissimilis (2.4 %) and A. maculatum (0.8 %).
Bostanian, Noubar J; Thistlewood, Howard M A; Hardman, John M; Racette, Gaétan
A laboratory evaluation of fenbuconazole, myclobutanil propiconazole, boscalid, fenhexamid and pyraclostrobin revealed these fungicides to be harmless to adult Galendromus occidentalis. None of these fungicides affected adversely fecundity and egg viability. Elemental sulphur also had no effect on adults and fecundity. However, 72.4% of the young larvae perished after hatching. The six novel fungicides are safer alternatives to sulphur in perennial crops in British Columbia.
Stromdahl, Ellen Y; Williamson, Phillip C; Kollars, Thomas M; Evans, Sandra R; Barry, Ryan K; Vince, Mary A; Dobbs, Nicole A
We used a nested PCR with Borrelia flagellin gene (flaB) primers and DNA sequencing to determine if Borrelia lonestari was present in Amblyomma americanum ticks removed from military personnel and sent to the Tick-Borne Disease Laboratory of the U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine. In our preliminary investigation, we detected Borrelia sequences in 19 of 510 A. americanum adults and nymphs from Ft. A. P. Hill, Va. During the 2001 tick season, the flaB primers were used to test all A. americanum samples as they were received, and 29 of 2,358 A. americanum samples tested individually or in small pools were positive. PCRs with 2,146 A. americanum samples in 2002 yielded 26 more Borrelia-positive samples. The positive ticks in 2001 and 2002 were from Arkansas, Delaware, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. The last positive sample of the 2001 season was a pool of larvae. To further investigate larval infection, we collected and tested questing A. americanum larvae from Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.; 4 of 33 pools (40 larvae per pool) were positive. Infection of unfed larvae provides evidence of the maintenance of B. lonestari by means of transovarial transmission. Sequence analysis revealed that the amplicons were identical to sequences of the B. lonestari flaB gene in GenBank. Despite the low prevalence of infection, the risk of B. lonestari transmission may be magnified because A. americanum is often abundant and aggressive, and many tick bite victims receive multiple bites.
Stromdahl, E Y; Randolph, M P; O'Brien, J J; Gutierrez, A G
Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is a sometimes fatal, emerging tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Ehrlichia chaffeensis. It is frequently misdiagnosed because its symptoms mimic those of the flu. Current evidence indicates that Amblyomma americanum (L.), the lone star tick, is the major vector of HME. To determine if E. chaffeensis is present in ticks at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, questing A. americanum ticks were collected from 33 sites. Nucleic acid was extracted from 34 adult and 81 nymphal pools. Sequences diagnostic for E. chaffeensis from three different loci (16S rRNA, 120-kDa protein, and a variable-length polymerase chain reaction [PCR] target, or VLPT) were targeted for amplification by the PCR. Fifty-two percent of the collection sites yielded pools infected with E. chaffeensis, confirming the presence and widespread distribution of E. chaffeensis at Aberdeen Proving Ground. Analysis with the both the 120-kDa protein primers and the VLPT primers showed that genetic variance exists. A novel combination of variance for the two loci was detected in two tick pools. The pathogenic implications of genetic variation in E. chaffeensis are as yet unknown.
Stegall-Faulk, T; Clark, D C; Wright, S M
Genetic sequences characteristic of Borrelia lonestari (Barbour et al. 1996) were detected in two pools of adult Amblyomma americanum (L.) from Tennessee, corresponding to an estimated minimum field infection rate of 8.4 infected ticks/1000 adults. DNA amplification was conducted using primers derived from the B. lonestari flagellin gene that would also amplify Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, and Brenner). Species-specific, internal probes were then used to differentiate between genetic sequences of the spirochetes. Subsequent nucleotide sequencing confirmed the presence of B. lonestari in A. americanum; B. burgdorferi was not detected. This represents the first report of B. lonestari from Tennessee, and suggests that Lyme-like illness may occur in Tennessee.
Mastropaolo, Mariano; Nava, Santiago; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Mangold, Atilio J
The fertility of hybrids from two distinct populations of Amblyomma cajennense from different ecological regions of Northern Argentina was analyzed. Two colonies of A. cajennense from El Rey National Park (RNP), Salta Province (24º41'S, 64º36'W), and Copo National Park (CNP), Santiago del Estero Province (25º55'S, 61º43'W) were established infesting rabbits with adults collected from vegetation. Reproductive parameters of the first generation in laboratory of each colony and their crosses were evaluated considering engorged weight of females, engorged period of females, pre-oviposition period of females, minimum egg incubation period, reproductive efficiency index [REI = number of eggs laid/weight of the females in mg], and fertility efficiency index [FEI = number of hatched larvae/weight of the females in mg]. Infestations were made as follows: Group 1) RNP males and females; Group 2) CNP males and females; Group 3) males from CNP and females from RNP; Group 4) males from RNP and females from CNP. The engorgement weight of the females from CNP that mated with males from RNP was significantly lighter than those of the engorged females obtained in the other 3 crosses, and the engorged period of the females from CNP that mated with males from RNP was significantly longer that the engorged period of the females belonging to the remaining groups. The females from group 3 and 4 had a FEI extremely low in comparison with the FEI obtained from the engorged females originated from the groups 1 and 2. Biological implication of these findings is discussed.
Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Marques, Sandro; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Beati, Lorenza; Guglielmone, Alberto Alejandro
Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 is a Neotropical tick, known as the 'sloth's giant tick', with records from southern Central America to Argentina. It is found almost exclusively on mammals of the families Bradypodidae and Magalonychidae (Xenarthra). Differences exist in discussions with regard to the dentition of the female hypostome being either 3/3 or 4/4. The male was also originally described as having a short spur on coxa IV, but some specimens recently collected from different Brazilian localities have this spur three times longer. These differences beg the question of whether there is more than one species included under this taxon. In order to answer this question and to clarify the taxonomic characters of this species, 258 adult specimens were examined, and a redescription of male and female based on light and scanning electron microscopy is provided. In addition, DNA was extracted from males with either a long or a short spur on coxa IV to help settle this question for future investigations on their taxonomy. The morphological study showed that the dental formula pattern for males and females is 3/3 and 4/4, respectively. When sequenced, the 12 S rDNA genes of both A. varium males with long and short spurs on coxa IV were found to be identical, indicating that the length of the spurs on coxa IV is likely to be an intraspecifically polymorphic character of this species.
Norval, R A; Sutherst, R W; Kerr, J D
Infestations of adults and nymphs of Amblyomma hebraeum were counted on Brahman (Br), Brahman x Simmental (BS), Sanga (Sa) and Hereford (He) steers exposed to infested pastures at Mbizi in southern Zimbabwe in 1986-1987. Herefords were always the most heavily infested, while the Sanga tended to carry the fewest ticks with the Brahman and Brahman x Simmental groups being in between. The ratios of the engorged females on the four breeds were 2.3:1.4:1.4:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The ratios of the standard nymphs were 2.2:1.4:1.7:1.0 for He:Br:BS:Sa. The results confirm earlier observations in Africa and support the view that there are genetic differences between breeds in the expression of resistance to this tick species.
Labruna, Marcelo B; Soares, João F; Martins, Thiago F; Soares, Herbert S; Cabrera, Ricardo R
The present study evaluated the reproductive compatibility of the crosses between adult ticks of the following three geographically different populations of Amblyomma cajennense: State of São Paulo (SP), southeastern Brazil; State of Rondônia (RO), northern Brazil; and Colombia (CO). In addition, crosses between A. cajennense ticks from Argentina (AR) and SP ticks were also performed. The Argentinean population (AR) was compatible with SP because their crosses resulted in high % egg hatching (mean values ranging from 71.5 to 93.5%), similarly to all homologous (intrapopulational) crosses. In contrast, the tick populations SP, RO, and CO were shown to be incompatible with each other, since their heterologous (interpopulational) crosses always resulted in very low % egg hatching (range: 0-5%). The F(1) larval offspring derived from some of these females that yielded 5% egg hatching were reared until the F(1) adult stage. In all cases, only adult females molted from engorged nymphs. These F(1) females were likely to be a product of thelytokous parthenogenesis of the SP, RO, and CO females that were used in the heterologous crosses. Reproductive incompatibility is not expected to occur between different populations of a single species. Thus, our results suggest that the taxon A. cajennense might be represented by a complex of different species, whereas SP and AR ticks might represent a single species. Further populational genetic studies, coupled with extensive morphological analyses, are needed to clarify and determine a possible complex of valid species that might have been classified under the taxon A. cajennense.
Labruna, Marcelo B; Terrassini, Flávio A; Camargo, Luís Marcelo A
An adult male of the tick Amblyomma rotundatum Koch was collected on a naturally infested lizard, Tropidurus sp. (Squamata: Tropiduridae), at Monte Negro, State of Rondonia, Brazil. The tick's identity was confirmed morphologically and by analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA. This is the third known male specimen of A. rotundatum, a species that has been shown to reproduce exclusively by parthenogenesis. The two previously reported male specimens seemed to be partially teratological or gynandromorphic, whereas the present specimen shows no visible genetic or developmental anomaly.
Estrada-Peña, A; Guglielmone, A A; Mangold, A J; Castellá, J
Gas chromatography has been used to analyze the variation in cuticular hydrocarbon patterns between several populations of Amblyomma cajennense. 88 compounds were detected and these could be divided into 17 groups of hydrocarbons. Heterozygosis in the populations ranges from 0% to 25.84%. Isomers for pentacosane, heptacosane and nonatriacontane are the most variable, with 13, 10 and 11 variants, respectively. Nei's genetic identity and genetic distance show that populations may be considered as regional variants of only one species: the results do not indicate the presence of sibling species. However, a relatively high genetic distance has been observed between several Cuban and continental populations, suggesting a long reproductive isolation. Gas chromatography of cuticular hydrocarbons is a good alternative to isozyme analysis for population studies, when collecting conditions do not allow the use of live ticks and only alcohol-preserved collections are available. The high number of compounds available for genetic studies will provide excellent markers for evaluating the extent of gene flow and migration of tick species.
Beati, Lorenza; Patel, Jaymin; Lucas-Williams, Helene; Adakal, Hassane; Kanduma, Esther G; Tembo-Mwase, Enala; Krecek, Rosina; Mertins, James W; Alfred, Jeffery T; Kelly, Susyn; Kelly, Patrick
The genetic diversity of Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) from four Caribbean islands and five African countries was compared by analyzing the sequences of three gene fragments, two mitochondrial (12SrDNA and D-Loop-DL), and one nuclear (intergenic transcribed spacer 2 [ITS2]). Genetic variability of the ITS2 DNA fragment consisted of only uninformative single nucleotide mutations, and therefore this gene was excluded from further analyses. Mitochondrial gene divergences among African populations and between Caribbean and African populations were very low. Nevertheless, the data suggest that A. variegatum is divided into distinct East and West African groups, the western group including all Caribbean samples. Phylogenetic analyses of the 12SrDNA and DL gene sequences showed that the West African A. variegatum clustered in a well-supported monophyletic clade, distinct from eastern paraphyletic lineages. Sequences of A. variegatum from the Caribbean were embedded in the West African clade, which supports the known West African historical origin for these ticks.
Hilburn, L R; Sattler, P W
Nine populations of Amblyomma americanum (L.) were examined electrophoretically for variation of 21 enzymes. Only three enzymes were not polymorphic and the average heterozygosity per individual (h) for the species was 0.085 with a range of 0.077 to 0.110, comparing well with values in other arthropods. The average Nei identity value for pairwise comparisons among the nine populations was high, 0.994 +/- 0.004 (I +/- SD). These high identity values and the absence of geographic structuring of the protein variation suggest that this species is genetically homogeneous. Normal levels of genic variability within and a lack of divergence between populations were not predicted by models developed to describe these genetic characteristics on the basis of the heterogeneities encountered by parasites in their environment. An analysis of data from several different species of ticks suggests host mobility and abundance, as well as tick abundance and selectivity in choosing a host, are important parameters in determining genetic variation in these ectoparasites.
Zúquete, Sara Tudela; Coelho, João; Rosa, Fernanda; Vaz, Yolanda; Cassamá, Bernardo; Padre, Ludovina; Santos, Dulce; Basto, Afonso P; Leitão, Alexandre
Tick infestations are a major problem for animal production in tropical areas where prevention and control remain deficient. The present study sought to assess the awareness of traditional cattle producers towards the importance of ticks and aimed at the identification of tick species infesting bovines within the Geba River basin, Guinea-Bissau. Interviews with producers revealed that the majority directly correlates the presence of ticks with the occurrence of diseases in cattle. However, insufficient or inadequate control approaches prevail. A total of 337 ticks were collected on bovines at 18 different villages (10 during dry season, and 8 during rainy season). The tick species collected during the dry season were Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) geigyi (56.5%), followed by Amblyomma variegatum (23.3%), Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (17.6%) and Hyalomma truncatum (1%). In the rainy season A. variegatum was the most collected (88.9%), followed by R. (Boophilus) geigyi (4.2%), R. (Boophilus) annulatus (3.4%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus group (2.8%) and H. truncatum (0.7%). To support species identification, segments of both cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and 12S ribosomal RNA (12S) genes were sequenced and the data gathered were analysed by maximum likelihood and parsimony. Morphological and genetic data of individual specimens gathered in this study provide relevant information for future studies on tick population dynamics in the region. In addition, it led to a deeper characterization of R. sulcatus and a R. sanguineus-like specimen, exploring their genetic relationship with other R. sanguineus, which supports their classification as distinct species within R. sanguineus group.
2000) Prevalence of Lyme disease Borrelia spp. in ticks from migratory birds on the Japanese mainland. Applied Environmental Microbiology, 66, 982–986...in Japan and the isolation of Lyme disease spirochetes from bird-feeding ticks. Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology, 44, 315-326. Ree, H.I. (2005
Zhang, Ke; Luo, Lingyan; Chen, Xieting; Hu, Meiying; Hu, Qiongbo; Gong, Liang; Weng, Qunfang
The effective dose of irradiation to control pest mites in quarantine has been studied extensively, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of the irradiation on mites are largely unknown. In this study, exposure to 400 Gy of γ rays had significant (p < 0.05) effects on the adult survival, fecundity and egg viability of Panonychus citri. The irradiation caused the degradation of the DNA of P. citri adults and damaged the plasma membrane system of the egg, which led to condensed nucleoli and gathered yolk. Additionally, the transcriptomes and gene expression profiles between irradiated and non-irradiated mites were compared, and three digital gene expression libraries were assembled and analyzed. The differentially expressed genes were putatively involved in apoptosis, cell death and the cell cycle. Finally, the expression profiles of some related genes were studied using quantitative real-time PCR. Our study provides valuable information on the changes in the transcriptome of irradiated P. citri, which will facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that cause the sterility induced by irradiation. PMID:26569230
In the of period 2003-2007, a total of 382 specimens of reptiles belonging to the following genera were investigated: Testudo, Iguana, Varanus, Gongylophis, Python, Spalerosophis, Psammophis. The material for the present study was a collection of reptiles owned by the "Animals" Ltd from Swietochłowice (Upper Silesia, Poland), specialising in import of exotic animals to Poland, as well as the reptile collections of private breeders. The reptiles that turned out to be the most heavily infected with ticks were the commonly bred terrarium reptiles: Varanus exanthematicus and Python regius and they were imported to Poland from Ghana, Africa. Exotic reptiles are also imported from Southern Europe, Asia and Central America. The presently reported study helped to confirm the fact of transfer of exotic ticks on reptiles to Poland. A total of 2104 tick specimens, representing all stages of development (males, females, nymphs, larvae), were collected. They represented species of the genera Amblyomma and Hyalomma. The following species were found: Amblyomma exornatum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma flavomaculatum (Lucas, 1846), Amblyomma latum Koch, 1844, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz, 1909, Amblyomma quadricavum Schulze, 1941, Amblyomma transversale (Lucas, 1844), Amblyomma varanense (Supino, 1897), Amblyomma spp. Koch, 1844, Hyalomma aegyptium (Linnaeus, 1758). All the species of ticks of genus Ambylomma revealed have been discovered in Poland for the first time. The overall prevalence of infection was 77.6%. The highest prevalence value (81.2%) was observed on pythons (Python regius) and (78.7%) on monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus). The highest number of ticks was collected from Python regius and Varanus exanthematicus. The mean infection intensity for V. exanthematicus was 7.6 ticks per host, while for P. regius the intensity reached 4.7 ticks. The most abundant tick transferred to Poland on a host was an African tick, Amblyomma latum. Fifty eight specimens of monitor lizards (V. salvator and V. exanthematicus) and 92 specimens pythons (P. regius) were examined, with detailed descriptions of where the parasite was feeding on the body of the host. Among the 434 specimens of ticks collected from the monitor lizards, the majority were attached on the host's legs (40.5%), on the trunk (29.3%), on the head (20.3%), with fewest on the tail (9.9%). Also, 430 specimens of ticks were collected from the bodies of pythons. They mostly parasitized along the whole length of the back (54.4%) and on the stomach side of the trunk (29.8%), less frequently in the area of the cloaca (5.6%), around the eyes (3.7%), in the nostril openings (0.9%) and on the remainder of the head (5.6%). On the hosts, ticks were found at different development stages, but adult development stages dominated. The most frequent were males (999 specimens), then adult females (552 specimens), nymphs (508 specimens) and larvae (45 specimens). During the research, 13 cases of anomalies of morphological structure were confirmed for ticks Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma latum and Hyalomma aegyptium. Asymmetries and deformations of the general body shape were observed, as were anomalies concerning structures on the surface of the body and anomalies of the legs. For the first time in Poland, epidemiological tests were carried out in the direction of the infection of exotic ticks gathered from reptiles with micro-organisms which pose a threat for the health of people and animals. For this purpose, molecular techniques - polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were used. The isolates from 345 ticks, were examined for the presence of DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, which is the etiological factor in human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and Rickettsia spp. from the spotted fever group, causing human rickettsiosis. This study confirmed the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in two ticks of Amblyomma flavomaculatum (constituting 0.6% of all the ticks investigated) feeding on Varanus exanthematicus. None of the tick specimens, however, contained Rickettsia spp. DNA. The expanding phenomenon of the import of exotic reptiles in Poland and Central Europe is important for parasitological and epidemiological reasons and therefore requires monitoring and wide-ranging prophylactic activities to prevent the inflow of exotic parasites to Poland.
Garvin, Stephen D; Noden, Bruce H; Dillwith, Jack W; Fox, Stanley F; Payton, Mark E; Barker, Robert W
Reptiles were collected in nine counties in Oklahoma from September 2002 to May 2004 and examined for Ixodes scapularis (Say) larvae and nymphs to determine seasonal incidence and prevalence of these ticks. In total, 209 reptile specimens consisting of nine species of lizards and seven species of snakes were collected. Plestiodon fasciatus (L.) was the most numerous species collected (55%) followed by Sceloporus undulatus (Latreille) (17%) and Scincella lateralis (Say) (11%). Less than 10 individuals were collected for all remaining reptile species. The infestation prevalence of I. scapularis on all reptile specimens collected was 14% for larvae and 25% for nymphs. Larvae were found on lizards from April until September and peaked in May, while nymphs were found from March until September and peaked in April. I. scapularis larvae (84%) and nymphs (73%) preferentially attached to the axillae/front leg of P. fasciatus. Two chigger species, Eutrombicula splendens (Ewing) and Eutrombicula cinnabaris (Ewing), were found on 2% of the reptiles collected. No ectoparasites, including ticks, were obtained from the seven species of snakes collected.
Venzal, José M; Estrada-Peña, Agustín
This paper determines the feeding performance of the larvae of two Neotropical soft tick species namely Ornithodoros rostratus Aragão, 1911 and O. puertoricensis Fox, 1947 on reptiles (Gekkonidae) using rabbits, mice and guinea pigs to provide comparisons with feeding features on mammals. O. puertoricensis produced a larval feeding rate of 63% on reptiles, while that of O. rostratus was only 20%. But the final success (attaching + feeding) was similar, 12.4% for O. puertoricensis and 10.4% for O. rostratus. The feeding time was also very different for both species. In O. puertoricensis, detachment begins at 16th day and lasts until day 27. In O. rostratus detachment begins at 1.5 h and lasts until day 10. These values of feeding on reptiles are different from those obtained on mammals (average 5.6 days for O. puertoricensis and 2.9 for O. rostratus).
Lane, R S; Burgdorfer, W
In northern California, antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi were detected in 58 of 73 (79%), and spirochetemias in one of 26 (4%) black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus californicus), by indirect and direct immunofluorescence, respectively. Five species of ticks (Dermacentor occidentalis, D. parumapertus, Ixodes neotomae, I. pacificus, and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris) were collected from rabbits. Two of these species of ticks were found to contain spirochetes; two of 10 (20%) I. neotomae and two of 174 (1%) H. leporispalustris. A strain of B. burgdorferi was recovered from I. neotomae. One infected H. leporispalustris female passed spirochetes via eggs to about 67% of her progeny. The widespread distribution of the black-tailed jackrabbit, its infestation by at least four ticks (D. occidentalis, D. parumapertus, I. neotomae, and I. pacificus) known to be infected naturally with B. burgdorferi, and the high prevalence of spirochetal antibody in this lagomorph suggest that it might be useful as a sentinel for surveillance of Lyme borreliosis. Spirochetes were detected in 15% of 40 Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) by direct immunofluorescence bound with a Borrelia-specific monoclonal antibody (H9724), but not with a monoclonal antibody (H5332) specific for B. burgdorferi. The geographical overlap of different borreliae in ticks that bite wildlife such as deer may confound spirochetal serosurveys, and underscores the need for more specific serologic tests than those currently available.
Ruiz, Érica V; Romano, Gonzalo M; Morrone, Juan J
We analysed distributional data of 30 species of Oribatid mites of the Subantarctic subregion of southern South America in order to contribute to elucidate their biotic evolution. We constructed individual tracks for the species analysed, based on published and unpublished records. After superposing them we obtained six generalized tracks and five nodes. Four generalized tracks (T2, T3, T4 and T6) extend along and near the Andean ranges, whereas two generalized tracks (T1 and T5) may be artefacts caused by the lack of information. The generalized tracks and nodes show the complex relationships of the austral biota, as hypothesized in previous contributions based on other plant and animal taxa.
Ospina, Oscar E.; Massey, Steven E.; Verle Rodrigues, Jose Carlos
Tenuipalpidae comprises mites that transmit viruses to agriculturally important plants. Several tenuipalpid species present parthenogenesis, and in Brevipalpus yothersi, the endosymbiont Cardinium has been associated with female-only colonies. It is unclear what the bacterial composition of B. yothersi is, and how common Cardinium is in those microbiomes. We performed a comparative analysis of the bacteriomes in three populations of B. yothersi and three additional Tetranychoidea species using sequences from V4-fragment of 16S DNA. The bacteriomes were dominated by Bacteroidetes (especially Cardinium) and Proteobacteria, showing a remarkably low alpha diversity. Cardinium was present in about 22% of all sequences; however, it was not present in R. indica and T. evansi. In B. yothersi, the proportion of Cardinium was higher in adults than eggs, suggesting that proliferation of the bacteria could be the result of selective pressures from the host. This hypothesis was further supported because colonies of B. yothersi from different populations showed different bacterial assemblages, and bacteriomes from different mite species showed similar abundances of Cardinium. A phylogenetic analysis of Cardinium revealed that not only specialization but horizontal transmission has been important for this symbiosis. Together, these results represent a glimpse into the evolution of the Tetranychoidea and Cardinium. PMID:27999386
Bouneb, Mabrouk; Turchetti, Tullio; Nannelli, Roberto; Roversi, Pio Federico; Paoli, Francesco; Danti, Roberto; Simoni, Sauro
The natural spread of virus-induced hypovirulence is highly involved in the recovery of blighted chestnut stands and orchards in Italy and in Europe. The potential role of corticolous mites as vectors of hypovirulence in blighted chestnut Castanea sativa (Mill.) stands was pointed out in previous reports. Here, by using RT-PCR, mycovirus Cryphonectria hypovirus (CHV1) was detected in Thyreophagus corticalis mites reared on a hypovirulent strain in monoxenic cultures and in their faecal pellets. Cryphonectria parasitica mycelium derived from mites' dejecta was able to transmit CHV1 to the virulent strain determining its conversion to hypovirulent one. This converted strain induced healing cankers on excised stems, differently from the un-converted virulent strain. Our findings prove the spread of CHV1 by corticolous mites that feed on virus-infected fungus and emphasize their potential role as vectors.
Immediato, Davide; Figueredo, Luciana Aguiar; Iatta, Roberta; Camarda, Antonio; de Luna, Rafaela Lira Nogueira; Giangaspero, Annunziata; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia
Essential oils (EOs) and entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana (Bb) strains have the potential to be used as alternative insecticides and acaricides for controlling ectoparasites as Dermanyssus gallinae. These compounds have some limitations in their use: the acaricidal effect of EOs is rapid, but short-lived, whilst that of Bb is delayed, but long-lived. To evaluate the effect of both compounds combined against D. gallinae, the non-toxic dose of Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus citriodora, Thymus vulgaris and Eugenia caryophyllata essential oils were firstly calculated for "native" strains of Bb. Subsequently, the effects of the combination of selected EOs with Bb against nymph and adult poultry red mites (PRMs) was assessed. EO concentrations ranging from 0.0015 to 8% v/v (i.e., nine double dilutions) were used to evaluate their effect on germination, sporulation and vegetative growth rates of native strains of Bb. A total of 1440 mites (720 nymphs and 720 adults) were divided into three-treated group (TGs) and one control group (CG). In TGs, mites were exposed to Bb in combination with the selected EO (TG1), EO alone (TG2) or Bb (TG3) alone. In the CG, mites were exposed to 0.1% tween 80 plus EO solvent (CG). E. globulus and E. citriodora were toxic for Bb in concentrations higher than 0.2% and 0.003% respectively, whilst E. caryophyllata and T. vulgaris were toxic at all concentrations tested against Bb. Based on the results of the toxicity assays against Bb, E. globulus was chosen to be tested as acaricide resulting non-toxic for Bb at concentration lower than 0.4%. Increased mortality of D. gallinae adults was recorded in TG1 than those in other TGs from 4days post-infection (T+4DPI). A 100% mortality of D. gallinae was recorded in adults at T+9DPI and at T+10DPI in nymphs in TG1 and later than T+11DPI in the other TGs. Used in combination with E. globulus, Bb displayed an earlier acaricidal effect towards both haematophagous D. gallinae stages. The combination of B. bassiana and E. globulus at 0.2% might be used for controlling arthropods of medical and veterinary importance as D. gallinae.
de Souza Chagas, Ana Carolina; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Cotinguiba, Fernando; Furlan, Maysa; Giglioti, Rodrigo; de Sena Oliveira, Márcia Cristina; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro
Herbal drugs have been widely evaluated as an alternative method of parasite control, aiming to slow development of resistance and obtain low-cost biodegradable parasiticides. This study evaluated the in vitro efficacy on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus of extracts from Carapa guianensis seed oil, Cymbopogon martinii and Cymbopogon schoenanthus leaf essential oil, and Piper tuberculatum leaf crude extract and similar synthesized substances. In the immersion test, engorged females were evaluated in five dilutions ranging from 10% to 0.030625% concentration. In the larval test on impregnated filter paper, the concentration ranged from 10% to 0.02%. The treatments and controls were done in three replicates. Chemical analysis of the oils was performed by gas chromatography. The main compounds were oleic acid (46.8%) for C. guianensis and geraniol for C. martinii (81.4%), and C. schoenanthus (62.5%). The isolated and synthesized substances showed no significant effect on larvae and adult. C. martinii and P. tuberculatum showed the best efficacy on the engorged females. The LC(50) and LC(90) were 2.93% and 6.66% and 3.76% and 25.03%, respectively. In the larval test, the LC(50) and LC(90) obtained for C. martinii, P. tuberculatum, and C. schoenanthus were 0.47% and 0.63%, 0.41% and 0.79%, 0.57% and 0.96%, respectively. The fact that geraniol is present in greater quantities in C. martinii explains its higher activity in relation to C. shoenanthus. It is necessary to validate the in vivo use of safe and effective phytoparasiticidal substances. Efforts should be focused on developing formulations that enhance the efficacy in vivo and lengthen the residual period.
Audenaert, Joachim; Vissers, Marc; Haleydt, Bart; Verhoeven, Ruth; Goossens, Frans; Gobin, Bruno
In recent years, the begonia mite (Polyphagotarsonemus lotus) has become an important threat to different ornamental cultures in warm greenhouses. At present there are no professional plant protection products registered in Belgium for the control of mites of the Tarsonemidae family. In a screening trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a range of different acaricides: abamectin, milbemectin, pyridaben, spirodiclofen. Based on the results of the screening trial several products were selected for a full efficacy trial following EPPO guidelines. The best control results were obtained with two products from the avermectine group: abamectin and milbemectin. As growers currently have to rely solely on the use of natural enemies there is a strong need for practical evaluation of efficacies of the various predatory mite species (Amblyseius swirskii, A. cucumeris, A. andersoni) used in biological mite control. In a series of experiments, we screened the use of different species of predatory mites. The first efficacy trials on heavily infested plants at different rates of dosage and under different circumstances (temperature, dose rate, application technique) were started in May 2008. In these experiments Amblyseius swirskii showed good efficacy. But temperature was the limiting factor: the predatory mite needed a minimal temperature of 18 degrees C to obtain good results. Further research is necessary to search for predatory mites that can be used in winter conditions (lower temperatures, less light).
Treatment schedules to maintain low levels of Varroa mites in honey bee colonies were tested in hives started from either package bees or splits of larger colonies. The schedules were developed based on predictions of Varroa population growth generated from a mathematical model of honey bee colony ...
Three new species, Daidalotarsonemus oliveirai Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. nov.,Excelsotarsonemus caravelis Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. nov. and E. tupi Rezende, Lofego & Ochoa, sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Measurements for these species are provided, as well as drawings, phase contrast...
Chagas, C M; Kitajima, E W; Rodrigues, J C V
Coffee ringspot is characterized by conspicuous ringspot symptoms on leaves, berries, and less frequently on twigs. It is caused by coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV), a short, bacilliform virus (40 nm x 100-110 nm). The virus is not seed borne and is transmitted by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). Transovarial transmission within the mite does not occur. CoRSV has been mechanically transmitted to Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reynaud, C. quinoa Wildenow, Beta vulgaris L., and Alternanthera tenella Colla resulting in local lesions. Systemic infection within both C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa occurs. Virions are found in the nucleus or cytoplasm of infected cells, commonly associated with membranes. Occasionally, membrane bounded particles are found within the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum. A characteristic electron lucent, nuclear inclusion is commonly found in many infected cells. These cytopathic effects place CoRSV among the nuclear type of Brevipalpus-borne viruses. The disease has been reported in several Brazilian states (São Paulo, Paraná, Minas Gerais, and Federal District) and recently found in Costa Rica. A similar disease is known in the Philippines, but no information exists about its relationship to CoRSV. Coffee ringspot had no economical significance until recently when a large scale infection was reported in Minas Gerais that resulted in yield loss.
Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents of humans and animals. Recent reports indicate that some ornithophilic argasids harbored rickettsial agents. A Nearctic tick, Argas monolakensis Schwan, Corwin, Brown is ornithophilic and has not previously been examined for rickettsial agents....
Reeves, Will K
Argasid ticks are vectors of viral and bacterial agents of humans and animals. Recent reports indicate that some ornithophilic argasids harbored rickettsial agents. A Nearctic tick, Argas monolakensis Schwan, Corwin, Brown is ornithophilic and has not previously been examined for rickettsial agents. Thirty adult A. monolakensis were tested by PCR for DNA from Rickettsia or Coxiella. Amplicons from a Coxiella sp. that were divergent from Coxiella burnetii were detected in 16/30 A. monolakensis. These molecular isolates were similar but not identical to C. burnetii, the Coxiella spp. of other ticks, and "Coxiella cheraxi" a pathogen of crayfish.
Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; Martínez-Nájera, Yecenia; Becker, Ingeborg; Venzal, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B
The genus Rickettsia includes obligate intracellular bacteria transmitted by several hematophagous arthropods such as ticks, fleas and sucking lice. In particular hard ticks (Ixodidae) have been cited as the main vectors of pathogenic rickettsiae in Mexico. However, there have been only two records of a single Rickettsia species associated with Mexican soft ticks (Argasidae). In this study, we searched for rickettsial DNA in argasid ticks (13 adults and eight nymphs of Ornithodoros yumatensis) from two bat caves in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Additionally one larva collected in a cave from Chiapas, Mexico, and associated with Desmodus rotundus was used to corroborate the tick taxonomic determination. Of these, nine ticks (43%) yielded expected PCR products for the rickettsial gltA gene. These PCR-positive ticks were tested with additional PCR protocols targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA and ompB. DNA partial sequences from these genes showed 99-100% identities with Rickettsia lusitaniae, an agent isolated from O. erraticus in Portugal, and closely related to R. felis and R. hoogstraalii. Based on the results from this study, the inventory of rickettsiae distributed in Mexico increases from six to seven species.
Halliday, R B
This paper provides details of 300 genus-group names in the suborder Uropodina, including the superfamilies Microgynioidea, Thinozerconoidea, Uropodoidea, and Diarthrophalloidea. For each name, the information provided includes a reference to the original description of the genus, the type species and its method of designation, and details of nomenclatural and taxonomic anomalies where necessary. Twenty of these names are excluded from use because they are nomina nuda, junior homonyms, or objective junior synonyms. The remaining 280 available names appear to include a very high level of subjective synonymy, which will need to be resolved in a future comprehensive revision of the Uropodina.
Wang, Qiong; Han, Xiao; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue
Abstract In this paper, three new species of eriophyoid mites in the family Eriophyidae associated with Phoebe hunanensis Hand.–Mazz. (Lauraceae), namely Gammaphytoptus striatilobus sp. n., Phyllocoptes setalsolenidion sp. n., and Dechela phoebe sp. n. are described and illustrated. All are vagrants causing no apparent damage to the same host plants. PMID:24843283
Zhioua, E.; Browning, M.; Johnson, P.W.; Ginsberg, H.S.; LeBrun, R.A.
The entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae is highly pathogenic to the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Spore concentrations of 108/ml for engorged larvae and 107/ml for engorged females resulted in 100% tick mortality, 2 wk post-infection. The LC50 value for engorged larvae (concentration to kill 50% of ticks) was 107 spores/ml. Metarhizium anisopliae shows considerable potential as a microbial control agent for the management of Ixodes scapularis.
Hugh-Jones, M.; Barre, N.; Nelson, G.; Wehnes, K.; Warner, J.; Garvin, J.; Garris, G.
The feasibility of identifying specific habitats of the African bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum, from Landsat-TM images was investigated by comparing remotely sensed images of visible farms in Grande Terre (Guadeloupe) with field observations made in the same period of time (1986-1987). The different tick habitates could be separated using principal component analysis. The analysis clustered the sites by large and small variance of band values, and by vegetation and moisture indexes. It was found that herds in heterogeneous sites with large variances had more ticks than those in homogeneous or low variance sites. Within the heterogeneous sites, those with high vegetation and moisture indexes had more ticks than those with low values.
Zolnik, Christine P; Makkay, Amanda M; Falco, Richard C; Daniels, Thomas J
Ticks and whole blood were collected from American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) between October 2011 and October 2012 across four counties in northwestern New Jersey, an area where blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) and their associated tick-borne pathogens are prevalent. Adult American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis Say) were the most frequently collected tick species in late spring, whereas adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks were found in both the late spring and fall months. Additionally, for blacklegged ticks, we determined the quality of bloodmeals that females acquired from black bears compared with bloodmeals from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman), the most important host for the adult stage of this tick species. Measures of fecundity after feeding on each host species were not significantly different, suggesting that the bloodmeal a female blacklegged tick acquires from a black bear is of similar quality to that obtained from a white-tailed deer. These results establish the American black bear as both a host and quality bloodmeal source to I. scapularis. Thus, black bears may help support blacklegged tick populations in areas where they are both present. In addition, samples of black bear blood were tested for DNA presence of three tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Foggie and Babesia microti Franca were found in 9.2 and 32.3% of blood samples, respectively. All blood samples were quantitative polymerase chain reaction-negative for Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, & Brenner. Although circulating pathogens were found in blood, the status of black bears as reservoirs for these pathogens remains unknown.
Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes; Zeringota, Viviane; Matos, Renata Silva; Senra, Tatiane Oliveira Souza; Maturano, Ralph; Prata, Márcia Cristina Azevedo; Daemon, Erik; Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira
This is the first study to investigate the activity of thymol on Rhipicephalus microplus larvae under semi-natural conditions. For this purpose, tests were conducted in pots with Brachiaria decumbens seedlings containing cattle tick larvae. Thymol, diluted in ethanol 50° GL, was tested at concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0, and 20.0 mg/mL, along with the control group treated with the solvent alone. Each treatment was composed of five pots (1 pot = a repetition). The experiment was performed in three steps. On the first day, the larvae were applied at the base of the signalgrass. Twenty-four hours later, approximately 25 mL of the solution was applied with thymol on the top of the vegetation in each pot. The survival of the larvae was measured 24 h after application of the solutions. Each pot was analyzed individually, and the grass fillets contained larvae were cut with scissors, placed in Petri dishes, and taken to the laboratory to count the number of living larvae. At the highest concentrations (10, 15, and 20 mg /mL), the number of live larvae declined by more than 95 % in relation to the control group. The lethal concentration 50 % (LC50) and LC90 values were 3.45 and 9.25 mg/ml, respectively. The application of thymol in semi-natural conditions starting concentration of 10 mg/mL significantly reduced the number of living R. microplus larvae.
Mendes, Andressa da Silva; Daemon, Erik; Monteiro, Caio Márcio de Oliveira; Maturano, Ralph; Brito, Fernanda Calmon; Massoni, Tainara
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acaricidal efficacy of thymol on unengorged and engorged larvae and engorged nymphs of Amblyomma cajennense. To perform the test for unengorged larvae, the larval packet technique was employed and mortality was evaluated 24h after the test, while for engorged larvae and engorged nymphs the immersion technique was employed and mortality was evaluated after 15 days. In all the experiments, the following concentrations of thymol were tested: 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg the thymol/ml. The control group was exposed to water and 1% DMSO and there were 10 repetitions for each treatment. The values found for mortality of unengorged larvae were 18.2%, 51.8%, 97.6%, 93.5% and 94.5%, and for engorged nymphs the values were 26.0%, 92.2%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 100.0%, in concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0mg of thymol/ml, respectively. In the test with engorged larvae, mortality was 100.0% in all treatments. Based on the results, it is possible to conclude that thymol has acaricidal activity against immature stages of A. cajennense.
Muyobela, Jackson; Nkunika, Philip Obed Yobe; Mwase, Enala Tembo
The objective of the study was to determine the acaricidal properties of Bobgunnia madagascariensis (Desv.) J.H. Kirkbr. and Wiersema (Leguminosae) against adult Amblyomma variegatum (Fabricius) ticks, using Tephrosia vogelii Hook.f. (Leguminosae) as a positive control. Plant extracts of both were prepared using methanol, acetone and chloroform as extraction solvents. Methanol leaf extracts of T. vogelii (0.014 g) and methanol fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis (0.0062 g) gave the highest mean extraction weights among the plant parts and solvents used. In free contact bioassays, only methanol extracts of the bark and leaf material of T. vogelii and methanol fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis produced 100 % mortality of A. variegatum ticks in 24 h. The acaricidal activity of methanol leaf extracts of T. vogelii persisted for up to 8 days while that of fruit extracts of B. madagascariensis persisted for only 6 days. In topical application bioassays, the toxicity of T. vogelii and B. madagascariensis extracts was found to be significantly different at 95 % confidence level, with B. madagascariensis extracts (LD50 0.030 w/v) being more toxic than T. vogelii extracts (LD50 0.555 w/v). This study has shown that plant extracts of B. madagascariensis and T. vogelii extracts have significant in vitro acaricidal activity against A. variegatum ticks and can thus be considered as alternatives for tick control. Further research is however required on persistence, safety and the required application rates.
Tollerup, Kris E; Marcum, Daniel; Wilson, Rob; Godfrey, Larry
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an economic pest on peppermint [Mentha x piperita (L.), 'Black Mitcham'] grown in California. A sampling plan for T. urticae was developed under Pacific Northwest conditions in the early 1980s and has been used by California growers since approximately 1998. This sampling plan, however, is cumbersome and a poor predictor of T. urticae densities in California. Between June and August, the numbers of immature and adult T. urticae were counted on leaves at three commercial peppermint fields (sites) in 2010 and a single field in 2011. In each of seven locations per site, 45 leaves were sampled, that is, 9 leaves per five stems. Leaf samples were stratified by collecting three leaves from the top, middle, and bottom strata per stem. The on-plant distribution of T. urticae did not significantly differ among the stem strata through the growing season. Binomial and enumerative sampling plans were developed using generic Taylor's power law coefficient values. The best fit of our data for binomial sampling occurred using a tally threshold of T = 0. The optimum number of leaves required for T urticae at the critical density of five mites per leaf was 20 for the binomial and 23 for the enumerative sampling plans, respectively. Sampling models were validated using Resampling for Validation of Sampling Plan Software.
A list of over 400 new localities studied for ptyctimous mites within Palaearctic Region and a list of 96 identified species of ptyctimous mites of 20 genera are given. The species, knowledge of whose zoogeographical ranges was extended, have been pointed out. One new species, Phthiracarus pachys sp. nov. from Spain, is described. A few rare species have been diagnosed and their additional morphological data are given. The species from a few papers that have not been included in the monograph by Niedbała (2011) are commented on. The unjustified recombinations of species between certain genera (Subías 2004, updated in 2015) and unaccepted proposals on synonymy of some species by Subías & Shtanchaeva (2011) have been commented on.
Silva, H M; Hernandes, F A; Pichorim, M
The present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.
Stalažs, Arturs; Moročko-Bičevska, Inga
Cecidophyopsis mites are important pests in all cultivation regions of Ribes causing bud galls and sterility. Despite their economic importance, the knowledge on Cecidophyopsis species infesting Ribes in various areas of the world is still deficient. The present study was carried out to identify Cecidophyopsis species occurring in Latvia on cultivated and wild Ribes, to assess their host range and gain insight into the genetic diversity of these insufficiently studied pests by use of multiplex PCR, rDNA sequences and morphological characters. Cecidophyopsis alpina, C. aurea, C. spicata and C. selachodon were detected to occur in all surveyed habitats. For the first time, C. alpina was identified on blackcurrants and redcurrants, and C. aurea on redcurrants, blackcurrants and alpine currants. The presence of C. ribis was not confirmed with molecular tools during this study. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the presence of four Cecidophyopsis species identified by multiplex PCR. A close phylogenetic relatedness was found for C. aurea and C. alpina, and for C. ribis and C. spicata highlighting the necessity for additional studies. Our findings suggest a need to consider also other Cecidophyopsis species besides C. ribis in breeding programs for host resistance to mites.
Coetzee, Louise; Brink, James S.
In a pioneer application of acarology to Quaternary fossil-bearing sediments in southern Africa, the oribatid composition in the Florisbad Quaternary sediments was determined and compared to the currently known distribution of those species. Nine species of oribatid mites were recorded in the Holocene aeolian deposits of the third test pit, three species from the Middle Stone Age (MSA) horizon sediments of the third test pit, and thirteen species from the Holocene spring sediments. The Florisbad results indicate a better agreement between the oribatid fauna of the last interglacial MSA horizon of the third test pit and the organic-rich mid-Holocene deposits near the spring than between either of these and early- and late-Holocene aeolian sediments of the third test pit, suggesting some similarity in microsedimentary environments. The majority of the species recorded in the sediments are parthenogenetic and can be regarded as pioneer species.
Konecka, Edyta; Olszanowski, Ziemowit
We determined the distribution of microbial endosymbionts as possible agents of parthenogenesis in Oribatida. We screened mites from 20 species of 14 families suspected to be parthenogenetic from the absence or rarity of males. Our research included parthenogenesis-inducing bacteria Wolbachia spp., Cardinium spp., Rickettsia spp., and additionally Arsenophonus, Spiroplasma and microsporidia that can also manipulate host reproduction. We detected the endosymbionts by PCR-based methods and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of fixed and stained preparations of host cells. We detected Wolbachia only in one Oribatida species, Oppiella nova, by identifying Wolbachia genes using PCR. TEM observations confirmed infection by the endosymbiont in O. nova and its lack in other Oribatida species. Sequence analysis of hcpA and fbpA genes showed that the Wolbachia strain from O. nova was different from strains characterized in some insects, crustaceans (Isopoda), mites (Tetranychidae), springtails (Hexapoda) and roundworms (Nematoda). The analysis strongly suggested that the Wolbachia sp. strain found in O. nova did not belong to supergroups A, B, C, D, E, F, H or M. We found that the sequences of Wolbachia from O. nova were clearly distantly related to sequences from the bacteria of the other supergroups. This observation makes O. nova a unique Wolbachia host in terms of the distinction of the strain. The role of these micro-organisms in O. nova remains unknown and is an issue to investigate.
Radwell, A. J.; Brown, A. V.
Because water mites are tightly linked to other stream metazoans through parasitism and predation, they are potentially effective indicators of environmental quality. Meiofauna (80 μm to 1 mm) were sampled from headwater riffles of 11 Ozark streams to determine relative abundance and densities of major meiofauna taxa. Water mites comprised 15.3% of the organisms collected exceeded only by chironomids (50.2%) and oligochaetes (17.8%), and mean water mite density among the 11 streams was 265 organisms per liter. The two streams that differed the most in environmental quality were sampled using techniques suitable for identification of species. An estimated 32 species from 20 genera and 13 families were found in the least disturbed stream; an estimated 19 species from 13 genera and 8 families were found in the most disturbed stream. This preliminary finding supports the notion that water mite species richness declines in response to environmental disturbance. Many species could only be identified as morphospecies of particular genera, but the ongoing taxonomic revision of Hydrachnida is expected to provide needed information. A collaborative effort between those interested in taxonomy/systematics of water mites and ecologists interested in the significance of water mites in aquatic communities could prove mutually beneficial.
Niedbała, Wojciech; Starý, Josef
In six sifting litter samples from Madagascar, altogether 26 species of ptyctimous mites, belonging to four families and 11 genera, were found. Three new species, Arphthicarus phoxos sp. nov., Notophthiracarus parapaulianus sp. nov. and Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) paralemurius sp. nov. are described and figured. Keys for species of genera and subgenera Arphthicarus, Notophthiracarus and Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) from Madagascar are presented.
The moss cover of a roof was studied as the model of a simple habitat divided into microhabitats by the members of a community of saprophagous mites. This community consisted of two species of oribatid mites: Scutovertex minutus and Trichoribates trimaculatus. They were extracted from moss onto moist paper, and subsequently, their mobility, responses to moisture fluctuation, and food selection were tested in laboratory experiments. For the nutritional biology, the microanatomy of their alimentary tract was examined according to the system of histological characteristics formulated in the laboratory of the author (type of food, digestive activity of gut walls, etc.). The paraplast sections of the mites were stained by Masson triple stain for these purposes. Moreover, the enzymological tests (chitinase and cellulase activities) were performed to detail the digestive processes. Such an approach was applied to field-sampled specimens as well as to those in the laboratory experiments. These above-mentioned data were discussed with respect to microhabitat selection, vertical and horizontal distribution, and dispersal ability of these two oribatid mites sharing this habitat. These two species differ in several characteristics from each other and these differences resulted in their different microhabitat choices and role in the habitat as a whole.
Niedbała, Wojciech; Starý, Josef
Altogether 24 species of ptyctimous mites were found in sifting litter samples from the Cameroon. Twelve new species of the ptyctimous mites, Indotritia montkoupensis sp. nov., Acrotritia furca sp. nov., Acrotritia quasidivida sp. nov., Hoplophthiracarus kumboensis sp. nov., Hoplophthiracarus reticulatus sp. nov., Hoplophthiracarus spinus sp. nov., Steganacarus (Rhacaplacarus) quaternarius sp. nov., Austrophthiracarus bicarinatus sp. nov., Protophthiracarus diatropos sp. nov., Protophthiracarus korupensis sp. nov., Protophthiracarus preptos sp. nov., Atropacarus (Hoplophorella) gibbus sp. nov., from the Cameroon are described and figured. Seven species are recorded for the first time for the Cameroon oribatid mite fauna. A comparison of morphological similarities with the most closely related species is presented. Taxonomical notes and additional information for two ptyctimous species: Acrotritia ardua (C.L.Koch, 1841), Arphthicarus sculptilis (Niedbała, 1988), were added. Keys for Afrotropical species of genera Hoplophthiracarus and Protophthiracarus are presented.
Szydło, W; Hein, G; Denizhan, E; Skoracka, A
Recent research on the wheat curl mite species complex has revealed extensive genetic diversity that has distinguished several genetic lineages infesting bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and other cereals worldwide. Turkey is the historical region of wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) domestication and diversification. The close relationship between these grasses and the wheat curl mite provoked the question of the genetic diversity of the wheat curl mite in this region. The scope of the study was to investigate genetic differentiation within the wheat curl mite species complex on grasses in Turkey. Twenty-one wheat curl mite populations from 16 grass species from nine genera (Agropyron sp., Aegilops sp., Bromus sp., Elymus sp., Eremopyrum sp., Hordeum sp., Poa sp., Secale sp., and Triticum sp.) were sampled in eastern and southeastern Turkey for genetic analyses. Two molecular markers were amplified: the cytochrome oxidase subunit I coding region of mtDNA (COI) and the D2 region of 28S rDNA. Phylogenetic analyses revealed high genetic variation of the wheat curl mite in Turkey, primarily on Bromus and Hordeum spp., and exceptionally high diversity of populations associated with bread wheat. Three wheat-infesting wheat curl mite lineages known to occur on other continents of the world, including North and South America, Australia and Europe, were found in Turkey, and at least two new genetic lineages were discovered. These regions of Turkey exhibit rich wheat curl mite diversity on native grass species. The possible implications for further studies on the wheat curl mite are discussed.
Karaca, Mehmet; Urhan, Raşit
Mites belonging to the genus Zercon collected from the Thrace region in Turkey are investigated. Five new species, Z. filiformis sp. nov., Z. geliboluensis sp. nov., Z. sklarsimilis sp. nov., Z. tekirdagensis sp. nov. and Z. thracicus sp. nov., are described and illustrated. Zercon similifoveolatus Ivan & Călugăr is newly recorded for the Turkish fauna. Female specimens of Z. sklari Balan are reported and descibed for the first time in Turkey. Some known zerconid mites are recorded from new localities. A key to species of the genus Zercon known from Turkey is included.
Keskin, Adem; Keskin, Aysun; Bursali, Ahmet; Tekin, Saban
In order to identify ticks infesting humans in Corum and Yozgat provinces in Turkey, a total of 2110 ticks representing 14 species were collected on humans, between June and September 2009. Of those, 1551 (687♂, 450♀, 407 nymphs, 7 larvae) were collected from Corum and 559 (330♂, 180♀, 49 nymphs) were collected from Yozgat. The majority of ticks (n = 1121, 53.1 %) was Hyalomma marginatum. Other common ticks infesting humans were Dermacentor marginatus (n = 209, 9.9 %) and Rhipicephalus turanicus sensu lato (n = 145, 6.9 %) in the study area. In addition, a total of 386 immature Hyalomma were found on humans in Corum (335 nymphs, 7 larvae) and Yozgat (44 nymphs). Ixodes laguri and Haemaphysalis erinacei taurica were recorded for the first time in Corum. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first detailed investigation on ticks infesting humans in Corum and Yozgat, except individual or incidental records. The present study provides useful information for those concerned with ticks and tick-borne diseases in Turkey.
Li, Chaopin; Zhan, Xiaodong; Zhao, Jinhong; Wei, Guo
Objetivo: La Gohieria fusca (Oudemans, 1902) se reproduce en la harina de trigo, arroz, maíz, piensos, salvado de trigo y los medicamentos a base de hierbas, además de en otros productos almacenados; este ácaro puede tener una reactividad cruzada de leve a moderada con alérgenos de los ácaros del polvo domésticos, una importante fuente de alérgenos de interior asociada al asma y otras afecciones alérgicas. Los sistemas de aire acondicionado son indispensables en edificios públicos y civiles, y las pantallas de estos aparatos son los lugares donde más se acumula el polvo. Se realizó este estudio con el fin de investigar si la Gohieria fusca puede reproducirse en las pantallas de los acondicionadores de aire instalados en espacios públicos o viviendas en la ciudad de Wuhu, provincia de Anhui, China. Métodos: Se recogieron 430 muestras de polvo de los filtros de los sistemas de aire acondicionado en la cafeterías de centros educativos, mercados, hoteles y edificios civiles entre junio y septiembre de 2013, y se aisló la Gohieria fusca de dichas muestras. Resultados: Los resultados indicaron que la Gohieria fusca estaba presente en 98 de las 430 muestras (22,79%), y la tasa de reproducción fue significativa en los filtros del aire acondicionado de diferentes espacios (c2=18.294, P.
Rueda-Ramírez, Diana; Varela, Amanda; Moraes, Gilberto J De
Soil mites of the Ascidae sensu Lindquist & Evans (1965) are poorly known in Colombia. This group, presently represented by the families Ascidae sensu stricto, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae, contains species known to prey on small arthropods and nematodes, thus having the potential to be used for the control of soil pests. The aim of this study was to identify species of this group from a fragment of Andean forest and a nearby grassland at the municipality of La Calera, Cundinamarca Department, Colombia, at about 2800 m of elevation. Nine species were found, including five new species, namely Gamasellodes andinus sp. nov., Gamasellodes intermedius sp. nov., Protogamasellus caleraensis sp. nov., Cheiroseius mesae sp. nov. and Proctolaelaps colombianus sp. nov. Morphological characterisation of all the species and relevant soil characteristics of the sites where the mites were collected are presented.
Durden, Lance A; Oliver, James H; Banks, Craig W; Vogel, Gregory N
From 1982-1985 and 1993-1999, a total of 309 individual reptiles, mostly lizards and snakes, belonging to 12 species (American alligator, six lizard species, five snake species) was captured on St. Catherine's Island, Liberty County, Georgia, USA, and examined for ticks. Three lizard species, the broad-headed skink Eumeces laticeps, southeastern 5-lined skink Eumeces inexpectatus, and eastern glass lizard Ophisaurus ventralis, were severely infested with larvae and nymphs of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Ticks were not found on any of the other reptile species. Overall, 80% of 65 E. inexpectatus examined were parasitized by a mean intensity of 21.5 larvae and 88% were parasitized by a mean intensity of 4.8 nymphs. Corresponding figures for E. laticeps (n=56) were 93% and 51.3 for larvae and 89% and 7.4 for nymphs, and for O. ventralis (n=3) were 67% and 22.5 for larvae and 100% and 21.3 for nymphs. Larvae and nymphs attached along the lateral grooves of O. ventralis. Nymphs attached mainly behind the ears and in the foreleg axillae whereas larvae mainly attached to these sites and on the hindlegs in Eumeces spp. Seasonally, both larvae and nymphs were recorded on lizards from April through October. A unimodal larval peak was recorded in May or June. Seasonal data for nymphs did not reveal any distinct peaks but small bimodal peaks in mean intensities may have occurred (one in early summer, the other in late summer) suggesting that some ticks complete their life cycle in one year, and others in two years, on St. Catherine's Island. Potential epidemiological consequences of these findings with respect to Lyme disease in the southeastern United States are briefly addressed.
Levine, J F; Apperson, C S; Howard, P; Washburn, M; Braswell, A L
Previously archived museum specimens of lizards collected throughout North Carolina were examined for Ixodes scapularis (Say). Lizards (n = 1,349) collected in 80 of North Carolina's 100 counties were examined. Lizards with ticks were collected in 23 (29%) of the 80 counties from which lizards were examined. I. scapularis was detected on 8.7% (n = 117) of the lizards and was the sole species of tick obtained from lizards. Immature ticks were most frequently found on the southeastern five-lined skink, Eumeces inexpectatus, and the eastern glass lizard, Ophisaurus ventralis. Larvae were most frequently found on the six-lined racerunner, Cnemidophorus sexlineatus. One C. sexlineatus harbored 177 larvae and 2 nymphs. Nymphs were most frequently observed on E. inexpectatus. The majority of counties (chi 2, P < 0.01) where ticks were found on lizards were in the Coastal Plain.
Durden, L A; Oliver, J H; Kinsey, A A
From September 1997 through July 1999, 300 individuals and 46 species of birds were mist-netted and screened for ticks and spirochetes on St. Catherine's Island, Liberty County, GA. Seventy-six (25%) of the birds were parasitized by a meal intensity of 4.6 ticks. Seasonally, more birds were infested with ticks during the summer (50% in 1998, 34% in 1999) than in spring (15% in 1998, 11% in 1999) or fall (21% in 1997, 20% in 1998), mainly because of severe infestations on some birds by immature stages of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.), during this season. Eight species ofticks were recovered from 14 species of birds during this study: A. americanum (74 nymphs, 168 larvae); the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say (11 nymphs, 28 larvae), the Gulf Coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum Koch (two nymphs, 29 larvae); Ixodes minor Neumann (16 larvae); the rabbit tick. Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard) (one nymph, 14 larvae); the bird tick Ixodes brunneus Koch (two larvae); the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (one nymph); and Ixodes affinis Neumann (one larva). The Carolina wren was parasitized by more species of ticks (seven) than any other bird species, followed by the northern cardinal (five), white-throated sparrow (four) and painted bunting (three). Spirochetes were isolated in BSK II medium from one tick (a nymphal A. americanum) and from skin biopsies of 12 (4%) of the individual birds (three downy woodpeckers, three northern waterthrushes, two Carolina wrens, one American redstart, one pine warbler, one Swainson's thrush, and one white-eyed vireo) all in fall 1997. This concentrated phenology of spirochete isolations might reflect periodic amplification or recrudescence of spirochetes in reservoir avian hosts.
Lindberg, C M; Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L
A laboratory bioassay was developed to evaluate miticides to control Varroa jacobsoni (Oudemans), an important parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. Bees and mites were exposed to applications of essential oil constituents in petri dishes (60 by 20 mm). The registered mite control agents tau-fluvalinate (Apistan) and formic acid also were evaluated as positive controls. Treatments that caused high mite mortality (> 70%) at doses that produced low bee mortality (< 30%) were considered mite selective. The six most selective of the 22 treatments tested (clove oil, benzyl acetate, thymol, carvacrol, methyl salicylate, and Magic3) were further evaluated to estimate LD50 values and selectivity ratios (A. mellifera LD50/V. jacobsoni LD50) at 24, 43, and 67 h after exposure. Tau-fluvalinate was the most selective treatment, but thymol, clove oil, Magic3, and methyl salicylate demonstrated selectivity equal to or greater than formic acid. The effect of mode of application (complete exposure versus vapor only) on bee and mite mortality was assessed for thymol, clove oil, and Magic3 by using a 2-chambered dish design. Estimated V. jacobsoni LD50 values were significantly lower for complete exposure applications of thymol and Magic3, suggesting that both vapor and topical exposure influenced mite mortality, whereas estimated values for clove oil suggested that topical exposure had little or no influence on mite mortality. These results indicate that essential oil constituents alone may not be selective enough to control Varroa under all conditions, but could be a useful component of an integrated pest management approach to parasitic mite management in honey bee colonies.
Haragsim, O; Samsinák, K
The mite Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans, 1904, is a dangerous parasite of bees which has spread over Europe and other continents in recent two decades. The rapid spreading of the parasite has become a serious problem to veterinarians and bee-keepers in many countries of the world. The development of the mite Varroa jacobsoni has not yet been studied in all details. A detailed taxonomic description of the developmental stages of female and male mite is presented. The female develops from egg into larva, nymph I and nymph II. No deutonymph II has been found in the development of the males, so it is assumed that, like in some other parasitic mite species, this stage is missing in the development of Varroa jacobsoni males. It has been concluded from the morphology of the mouth parts that the adult male cannot parasitize the pupae nor adult bees and that it does not take in food during its short life.
Ginsberg, Howard S.; Zhioua, Elyes; Mitra, Shaibal; Fischer, Jason L.; Buckley, P.A.; Verret, Frank; Underwood, H. Brian; Buckley, Francine G.
Spatial distribution patterns of black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in deciduous and coniferous woodlands were studied by sampling ticks in different woodland types and at sites from which deer had been excluded and by quantifying movement patterns of tick host animals (mammals and birds) at the Lighthouse Tract, Fire Island, NY, from 1994 to 2000. Densities of nymphal ticks were greater in deciduous than coniferous woods in 3 of 7 yr. Only engorged ticks survived the winter, and overwintering survival of engorged larvae in experimental enclosures did not differ between deciduous and coniferous woods. Nymphs were not always most abundant in the same forest type as they had been as larvae, and the habitat shift between life stages differed in direction in different years. Therefore, forest type by itself did not account for tick distribution patterns. Nymphal densities were lower where deer had been excluded compared with areas with deer present for 3 yr after exclusion, suggesting that movement patterns of vertebrate hosts influenced tick distribution, but nymphal densities increased dramatically in one of the enclosures in the fourth year. Therefore, movements of ticks on animal hosts apparently contribute substantially to tick spatial distribution among woodland types, but the factor(s) that determine spatial distribution of nymphal I. scapularis shift from year to year.
Debnath, Pranab; Karmakar, Krishna
Three new eriophyoid mite species, namely Dichopelmus puncti n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from cogan grass, Imperata cylindrica (Poaceae); Calacarus kalyaniensis n. sp. (Eriophyidae) from Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae) and Neorhynacus bidhanae n. sp. (Diptilomiopidae) from Croton caudatus (Euphorbiaceae), are described and illustrated from West Bengal, India. The new species are vagrants on the leaves of their respective host plants with no visible damage observed. Keys to the known species of Dichopelmus and Neorhynacus are provided along with a checklist of eriophyoid mites species present in West Bengal.
Gonçalves, Dinarte; Da Silva, Guilherme Liberato; Ferla, Noeli Juarez
Yerba mate is a plant of great socioeconomic importance in southern South America. Little has been published about the phytoseiid mite fauna of yerba mate. This paper presents information about the morphology and distribution of phytoseiid mites collected in yerba mate in the Ilópolis and Putinga counties of Brazil between 2002 and 2004. Four areas with of different forms of cultivation in every county were sampled. A list of the species recorded from that state, and a key for their identification are provided. Sixteen phytoseiid mites species were identified, belonging to 11 genera in the subfamilies Amblyseiinae (13 species) and Typhlodrominae (three species). The most abundant genus was Amblyseius with three species. Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma, 1961 and Typhloseiopsis dorsoreticulatus Lofego, Demite & Feres, 2011 are reported for the first time from Rio Grande do Sul state. This study also includes the description of a new species, Typhlodromips pallinii n. sp.
Kiedrowicz, Agnieszka; Denizhan, Evsel; Bromberek, Klaudia; Szydło, Wiktoria; Skoracka, Anna
Five new eriophyoid mite species (Eriophyidae) from Turkey are described and illustrated in this paper: Aceria vanensis n. sp., Aceria onosmae n. sp., Aculus lydii n. sp., Aculus gebeliae n. sp. and Aculus spectabilis n. sp.. The descriptions are based on the morphology of females collected from weedy plants, respectively: Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae), Onosma isauricum Boiss. et Heldr. (Boraginaceae), Hypericum lydium Boiss. (Hypericaceae), Lotus gebelia Vent. (Fabaceae) and Stachys spectabilis Choisy ex DC. (Lamiaceae). The new species were found to be vagrant on their host plants with no visible damage symptoms observed.
Manweiler, S A; Lane, R S; Block, W M; Morrison, M L
A total of 138 birds (24 species) was captured in an oak woodland between December 1988 and June 1989 at the University of California, Sierra Foothill Range Field Station, Yuba County, Calif. Ticks were not found on 71 birds captured between December 1988 and March 1989. Five subadult Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls were removed from 3 of 67 birds caught between April and June 1989. These three birds, an orange-crowned warbler (Vermivora celata (Say], a lazuli bunting (Passerina amoena (Say], and a chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina (Bechstein], represent new host records for I. pacificus in California. Tissues from two ticks and thick blood films prepared from 126 birds tested negative for spirochetes by direct immunofluorescence (DI). A total of 172 larval and 197 nymphal I. pacificus was removed from 15 of 16 western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis Baird & Girard) caught between April and June 1989 in the same location as were birds. Thick blood films prepared from all 16 lizards and tissue smears from 334 of the ticks (143 larvae and 191 nymphs) were DI test-negative for spirochetes. One (1.1%) of 93 adult I. pacificus collected at the bird-lizard capture site in February 1989 was infected with spirochetes that resembled B. burgdorferi.
Klich, M; Lankester, M W; Wu, K W
Birds that had migrated northward across Lake Superior were captured upon reaching landfall at Thunder Cape (48 degrees 18' N, 88 degrees 56' W) at the southwestern tip of the Sibley Peninsula, northwestern Ontario, from 9 May to 9 June 1995. Twenty-one of 530 birds examined (6 of 55 species) had a total of 34 ticks; 1 blue jay, Cyanocitta cristata, had a northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini & Fanzago). Four blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, larvae were found on an American robin, Turdus migratorius, and 2 on a chipping sparrow, Spizella passerina. This tick was not found on small mammals at Thunder Cape. Twenty-six larvae and a nymph of the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard) were found on 1 American robin, 2 Swainson's thrushes, Catharus ustulatus, 1 white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, 1 common yellowthroat, Geothlypis trichas, 1 blue jay, and 12 chipping sparrows. A nymph of H. chordeilis (Packard) occurred on 1 chipping sparrow. Results demonstrate that northward migrating birds transport larvae of I. scapularis to areas of Ontario where the tick does not appear to have become established in small mammal populations. Spring migrants may be more involved in the dispersal of I. scapularis larvae than previously thought. Cooler temperatures and shorter seasons experienced in the more northerly, continental parts of the established distribution of this tick may extend the life cycle, resulting in a predominance of larvae rather than nymphs being acquired by northward-bound birds in early spring. Consequently, the role of spring migrating birds in the northward spread of I. scapularis and of borreliosis should be reevaluated.
Suleiman, Elham A; Shigidi, M T; Hassan, S M
In the Sudan, ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (TBDs) with subsequent costs of control and treatment are causing substantial economic loss. Control of ticks is mainly by chemical insecticides. The rising environmental hazards and problem of resistance has motivated research on biological agents as alternative methods of control. The present study aims at controlling livestock ticks using fungi for their unique mode of action besides their ability to adhere to the cuticle, to germinate and penetrate enzymatically. The study was conducted to evaluate the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for tick control as an alternative mean to chemical acaricides. Pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on different developmental stages of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum. The fungus induced high mortality to flat immature stages. It, also, affected reproductive potential of the females. Egg laid, hatching percent, fertility and moulting percent of immature stages were significantly (p < or = 0.05) reduced. It was, also, shown that the fungus had ability to adhere to the cuticle and penetrate the integument of the tick. Conidia of the fungus were isolated from their internal tissues. This phenomenon is important in considering fungi as bioinsecticides. Infection of eggs laid by treated engorged female ticks, with the fungus might demonstrate suggesting transovarian transmission. The use of M. anisopliae to control ticks is discussed.
Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Tunholi Alves, Victor Menezes; da Silva, Jairo Pinheiro; Nora Castro, Rosane; Salgueiro, Fernanda Barbosa; Perinotto, Wendell Marcelo de Souza; Gôlo, Patrícia Silva; Camargo, Mariana Guedes; Angelo, Isabele da Costa; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro
Rhipicephalus microplus is an important tick in tropical regions due to the high economic losses caused by its parasitism. Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana are well-known entomopathogenic fungi that can afflict R. microplus ticks. The development of new targets and strategies to control this parasite can be driven by studies of this tick's physiology. Recently, it was reported that when exposed to adverse physiological conditions, ticks can activate fermentative pathways, indicating transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism. Nevertheless, the precise mechanism by which entomopathogenic fungi influence R. microplus metabolism has not been clarified, limiting understanding of the tick-fungus association. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of infection of ticks by M. anisopliae and B. bassiana on the amount of selected carboxylic acids present in the hemolymph, enabling increased understanding of changes previously reported. The results showed preservation in the concentrations of oxalic, lactic, and pyruvic acids in the hemolymph 24 and 48 h after dropping from cattle; while there were variations in the concentration of these carboxylic acids after infection of female ticks to M. anisopliae and B. bassiana. Significant increases were observed in the concentration of oxalic and lactic acids and significant reduction of pyruvic acid for both observation times (24 and 48 h) after infection by entomopathogenic fungi. These results indicate that B. bassiana and M. anisopliae infection alters the basal metabolism of R. microplus females, resulting in the activation of fermentative pathways.
Duso, Carlo; Ahmad, Shakeel; Tirello, Paola; Pozzebon, Alberto; Klaric, Virna; Baldessari, Mario; Malagnini, Valeria; Angeli, Gino
Kampimodromus aberrans is an effective predatory mite in fruit orchards. The side-effects of insecticides on this species have been little studied. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of insecticides on K. aberrans. Field experiments showed the detrimental effects of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad on predatory mites. Spider mite (Panonychus ulmi) populations reached higher densities on plots treated with etofenprox and tau-fluvalinate than in the other treatments. Single or multiple applications of neonicotinoids caused no detrimental effects on predatory mites. In the laboratory, spinosad and tau-fluvalinate caused 100 % mortality. Etofenprox caused a significant mortality and reduced fecundity. The remaining insecticides did not affect female survival except for imidacloprid. Thiamethoxam, clothianidin, thiacloprid, chlorpyrifos, lufenuron and methoxyfenozide were associated with a significant reduction in fecundity. No effect on fecundity was found for indoxacarb or acetamiprid. Escape rate of K. aberrans in laboratory was relatively high for etofenprox and spinosad, and to a lesser extent thiacloprid. The use of etofenprox, tau-fluvalinate and spinosad was detrimental for K. aberrans and the first two insecticides induced spider mite population increases. The remaining insecticides caused no negative effects on predatory mites in field trials. Some of them (reduced fecundity and repellence) should be considered with caution in integrated pest management programs.
Iwassaki, Larissa Akemi; Sato, Mário Eidi; Calegario, Fagoni Fayer; Poletti, Marcelo; Maia, Aline de Holanda Nunes
The twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the main pests on strawberry crops in Brazil. TSSM can be difficult to control due to acaricide resistance. The objective of this work was to compare the effect of conventional and integrated strawberry production (ISP) systems on mite abundance and acaricide resistance. The control of TSSM in ISP was based on the release of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) or application of a selective acaricide (propargite), when TSSM monitoring indicated the timing for the release of predaceous mites (1-3 mites per leaflet on 30% leaflets) or chemical intervention (>10 mites per leaflet). Only acaricides (abamectin, fenpyroximate) were applied in the conventional system. Integrated control of TSSM were sufficient to maintain a significantly lower pest infestation level, resulting in a sixfold reduction in the frequency of acaricide applications, and consequently, a lower selection pressure for acaricide resistance. Strategies for the management of TSSM in strawberry fields are described and discussed.
Mejía-Recamier, B E; Vázquez, I M; Callejas-Chaveros, A; Estrada-Venegas, E G
Agroecosystems are altered systems whose soil structure has changed affecting the dynamics of soil organisms. This paper aims at evaluation of the effects of garlic farming practices on phenology, richness, abundance, composition and diversity of soil-dwelling Cunaxidae. Ten pilot plots in Guanajuato State were sampled from August 2002 to July 2005, every month, 8 months per year. Ten soil samples (1 kg) were taken from each plot and extracted in Berlese-Tullgren funnels. A total of 108 cunaxids were found, belonging to 11 species. Neocunaxoides andrei was the most abundant, and Cunaxa evansi and Armascirus sp. were least abundant. Relative abundance was highest after harvesting and during plant growth, and lowest during planting. Dactyloscirus nicobarensis and D. candylus were present from planting to harvesting. According to Sörensen's similarity coefficient between cultivation stages, Cunaxidae communities were similar during plant growth and harvesting, sharing 80 % of the species. The highest abundance and diversity were found in 2004, during and after harvesting. Cunaxid species increased over 100 % from planting to the harvesting phase, suggesting that they play an important role in the soil agrosystems food web. Species composition and diversity in cunaxid communities present in garlic crop fields varied with agricultural phase, but little change was observed among the years studied. All species found in this study are new records for the state of Guanajuato and for the garlic crop fields.
38 halacarid species from the coasts of the boreal West Atlantic Ocean have been recorded. In a wide-spread net of stations, samples were taken from different substrata in marine and brackish waters in order to obtain information on the biology and ecology of halacarid species. Several habitats with their flora, fauna and halacarid species are described. In intertidal areas on the coasts of boreal North America fewer species were found than known from European coasts. Similar habitats on the west and east coasts of the North Atlantic Ocean are compared with respect to their halacarid population. In the rhombognathine and the genus Halacarellus, most species found in the West Atlantic Ocean are known in the East Atlantic too, living in similar habitats. The genera Anomalohalacarus and Copidognathus are common both in North American and European waters, but comparable biotopes are inhabited by different species, though often related or very similar in their appearance. 45 % of the halacarid species found in the boreal West Atlantic Ocean are also known in the East Atlantic. Hypotheses as to the dispersal and geographical distribution of halacarid genera and species are discussed. It is supposed, that many of the amphiatlantic species invaded biotopes on the American and European coasts, shortly after these continental plates drifted apart.
Umina, P A; Hoffmann, A A
Earth mites are major winter pests of a variety of crops and pastures in southern Australia. Competition between four earth mite species was investigated using field and shadehouse experiments. The influence of different plant hosts on the frequency and intensity of competitive interactions also were examined. This information is important, because control attempts that eradicate one species of mite could be directly followed by an increase in abundance of another earth mite species. There were strong effects of intraspecific competition on the reproductive rate of species, while interspecific interactions between Halotydeus destructor (Tucker) and Penthaleus species and between the three Penthaleus species also were detected. Competitive abilities were altered on the different plant types. On pasture, the competitive advantage swayed between Penthaleus major (Dugés), H. destructor, and Penthaleus falcatus (Qin & Halliday). Penthaleus sp. x was the strongest competitor in a mixture of wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.), and oats, Avena sativa (L.), whereas on canola, Brassica napus (L.), and bristly ox-tongue, Picris echioides (L.), P. falcatus, and H. destructor were superior competitors. These results suggest that competition is a strong force influencing the abundance of earth mites in the field and that host plant factors are important in shaping the type of interactions. This highlights the importance of identifying mite species when considering control options and suggests that effective control recommendations need to be developed for each individual species.
Golezardy, H; Horak, I G
During surveys on the tick burdens of various wildlife species in South Africa, nine small antelopes became available for study. Six of these were steenbok, Raphicerus campestris and three sunis, Neotragus moschatus, and their tick burdens are recorded here. The steenbok were examined in three nature reserves and harboured nine tick species. The sunis were examined in a fourth reserve and were infested with eight species. The steenbok and sunis were generally infested with the immature stages of the same tick species that infest larger animals in the same geographic regions. In addition the sunis harboured Haemaphysalis parmata, which in South Africa is present only in the eastern and north-eastern coastal and adjacent areas of KwaZulu-Natal Province. They were also infested with Rhipicephalus kochi, which in South Africa occurs only in the far north-east of the KwaZulu-Natal and Limpopo Provinces.
Malagnini, Valeria; de Lillo, Enrico; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Beber, Roberta; Duso, Carlo; Raiola, Alessandro; Zanotelli, Livia; Valenzano, Domenico; Giampetruzzi, Annalisa; Morelli, Massimiliano; Ratti, Claudio; Causin, Roberto; Gualandri, Valeria
Grapevine Pinot gris virus (GPGV) is a new virus reported in Europe and several other grape-growing countries. In an attempt to identify a vector for GPGV, samples of the eriophyid mite Colomerus vitis collected from buds and erinea in GPGV-infected vines were analysed by RT-PCR, using specific primers. Molecular analysis revealed the presence of GPGV in C. vitis. Transmission trials were conducted using C. vitis collected from GPGV-infected vines. Mites were able to transmit GPGV to healthy grapevines, suggesting that C. vitis is a potential vector of this virus.
Tuininga, Amy R; Miller, Jessica L; Morath, Shannon U; Daniels, Thomas J; Falco, Richard C; Marchese, Michael; Sahabi, Sadia; Rosa, Dieshia; Stafford, Kirby C
Entomopathogenic fungi are commonly found in forested soils that provide tick habitat, and many species are pathogenic to Ixodes scapularis Say, the blacklegged tick. As a first step to developing effective biocontrol strategies, the objective of this study was to determine the best methods to isolate entomopathogenic fungal species from field-collected samples of soils and ticks from an Eastern deciduous forest where I. scapularis is common. Several methods were assessed: (1) soils, leaf litter, and ticks were plated on two types of media; (2) soils were assayed for entomopathogenic fungi using the Galleria bait method; (3) DNA from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal repeat was extracted from pure cultures obtained from soils, Galleria, and ticks and was amplified and sequenced; and (4) DNA was extracted directly from ticks, amplified, and sequenced. We conclude that (1) ticks encounter potentially entomopathogenic fungi more often in soil than in leaf litter, (2) many species of potentially entomopathogenic fungi found in the soil can readily be cultured, (3) the Galleria bait method is a sufficiently efficient method for isolation of these fungi from soils, and (4) although DNA extraction from ticks was not possible in this study because of small sample size, DNA extraction from fungi isolated from soils and from ticks was successful and provided clean sequences in 100 and 73% of samples, respectively. A combination of the above methods is clearly necessary for optimal characterization of entomopathogenic fungi associated with ticks in the environment.
Tuininga, Amy R.; Miller, Jessica L.; Morath, Shannon U.; Daniels, Thomas J.; Falco, Richard C.; Marchese, Michael; Sahabi, Sadia; Rosa, Dieshia; Stafford, Kirby C.
Entomopathogenic fungi are commonly found in forested soils that provide tick habitat, and many species are pathogenic to Ixodes scapularis Say, the blacklegged tick. As a first step to developing effective biocontrol strategies, the objective of this study was to determine the best methods to isolate entomopathogenic fungal species from field-collected samples of soils and ticks from an Eastern deciduous forest where I. scapularis is common. Several methods were assessed: (1) soils, leaf litter, and ticks were plated on two types of media; (2) soils were assayed for entomopathogenic fungi using the Galleria bait method; (3) DNA from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal repeat was extracted from pure cultures obtained from soils, Galleria, and ticks and was amplified and sequenced; and (4) DNA was extracted directly from ticks, amplified, and sequenced. We conclude that (1) ticks encounter potentially entomopathogenic fungi more often in soil than in leaf litter, (2) many species of potentially entomopathogenic fungi found in the soil can readily be cultured, (3) the Galleria bait method is a sufficiently efficient method for isolation of these fungi from soils, and (4) although DNA extraction from ticks was not possible in this study because of small sample size, DNA extraction from fungi isolated from soils and from ticks was successful and provided clean sequences in 100 and 73% of samples, respectively. A combination of the above methods is clearly necessary for optimal characterization of entomopathogenic fungi associated with ticks in the environment. PMID:19496427
Sobrino, Raquel; Millán, Javier; Oleaga, Alvaro; Gortázar, Christian; de la Fuente, José; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco
Ticks parasitizing wild carnivores and the tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) that they transmit may affect domestic carnivores and humans. Thus, investigating the role of wild carnivores as tick hosts is of relevance for understanding the life cycle of ticks in natural foci and the epidemiology of TBPs shared with domestic animals and humans. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to determine the ixodid tick fauna of wild carnivores in Peninsular Spain and the environmental factors driving the risk of wild carnivores to be parasitized by ixodid ticks. We hypothesized that the adaptation of tick species to differing climatic conditions may be reflected in a similar parasitization risk of wild carnivores by ticks between bioclimatic regions in our study area. To test this, we surveyed ixodid ticks in wild carnivores in oceanic, continental-Mediterranean, and thermo-Mediterranean bioclimatic regions of Peninsular Spain. We analyzed the influence of environmental factors on the risk of wild carnivores to be parasitized by ticks by performing logistic regression models. Models were separately performed for exophilic and endophilic ticks under the expected differing influence of environmental conditions on their life cycle. We found differences in the composition of the tick community parasitizing wild carnivores from different bioclimatic regions. Modelling results partially confirmed our null hypothesis because bioclimatic region was not a relevant factor influencing the risk of wild carnivores to be parasitized by exophilic ticks. Bioclimatic region was however a factor driving the risk of wild carnivores to be parasitized by endophilic ticks. Spanish wild carnivores are hosts to a relevant number of tick species, some of them being potential vectors of pathogens causing serious animal and human diseases. Information provided herein can be of help to understand tick ecology in Spanish wildlife, the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases, and to prevent the risks of TBPs for wildlife, domestic animals, and humans.
Major infestations of the flat mite species Raoiella indica Hirst have been reported from the Caribbean islands of Dominica, Martinique, and Saint Lucia. Specimens from these localities were examined using traditional light microscopy and low-temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) techniqu...
Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; Robbins, Richard G.; Guglielmone, Alberto A.; Montiel-Parra, Griselda; Rivas, Gerardo; Pérez, Tila María
Abstract Distribution and host data from published literature and previously unpublished collection records are provided for all nine species of the Holarctic tick genus Dermacentor that are known to occur in Mexico, as well as two species that may occur there. Parasite-host and host-parasite lists are presented, together with a gazetteer of collection localities and their geographical coordinates. PMID:27110147
Garcia, Marcos V; Matias, Jaqueline; Aguirre, AndrÉ De A R; Csordas, Barbara G; SzabÓ, Matias P J; Andreotti, Renato
Identifying the tick species that successfully feed on humans would increase knowledge of the epidemiology of several tick-borne diseases. These species salivate into the host, increasing the risk of pathogen transmission. However, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding the ticks that prefer to feed on humans. Herein, we describe the successful feeding of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann nymphs on two of the authors after accidental tick bites occurred during field surveys in two preserved areas of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One of the host-parasite interactions was closely monitored, and the tick development, gross host skin alterations, and related sensations are presented.
Background Close relationships between ticks and microbial communities are important for tick fitness and pathogen colonization and transmission. Haemaphysalis longicornis, distributed widely in China, can carry and transmit various pathogens and pose serious damages to public health and economics. However, little is known about the broader array of microbial communities and symbionts in H. longicornis under natural conditions. In the present study, we investigated the composition of bacterial communities associated with H. longicornis and evaluated the putative symbionts. Methods The eubacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of H. longicornis were constructed and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing. In addition, diagnostic PCR was performed to assess the prevalence, vertical transmission and infection sites of the symbionts in H. longicornis. Results Vertically-transmitted symbionts, potential pathogens and allochthonous nonpathogenic bacteria were identified from the field-collected H. longicornis. Three types of symbionts (Coxiella-like, Arsenophonus-like and Rickettsia-like symbionts) were identified in a single host simultaneously. A series of analyses revealed the vertical transmission, prevalence, and infection sites of these symbionts. However, only Coxiella-like bacteria were transmitted stably in the laboratory-reared ticks. In addition, we identified a novel Coxiella-like agent with 95.31% sequence similarity to the taxon described previously. Conclusions The present study demonstrated that natural H. longicornis harboured a diverse array of microbial communities. Three types of symbionts were identified in a single host simultaneously. Moreover, high prevalence, vertical transmission and the infection sites supported an obligate symbiotic association between Coxiella symbiont and its host. The role of Coxiella symbiont in the host fitness and the interaction among microbial communities remained to be elucidated. Our investigation of microbial communities in the ticks revealed the complexity of ecological interactions between host and microbe and provided insight for the biological control of ticks. PMID:24499619
Martins, Thiago F; Diniz-Reis, Thaís R; Libardi, Gustavo S; Percequillo, Alexandre R; Verdade, Luciano M; Matushima, Eliana R; Labruna, Marcelo B
Between July 2008 and May 2010, we conducted a trophic study on 12 Brazilian wild carnivore species through their faecal analysis in a silvicultural landscape at Angatuba municipality, southern São Paulo state. Predator faeces was identified by morphology, predator hair, and surrounding tracks; prey remnants within faeces were used for morphological identification of the prey. Among the recovered ectoparasites, there were 89 specimens of six tick species in 21 (4.0%) out of 523 analysed samples. Ticks were identified to species level, based on external morphological characters, as following: adults of Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma sculptum; nymphs of Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma dubitatum, A. ovale, and Ixodes schulzei; and larvae of Amblyomma sp. and Ixodes sp. Generally, the recovered immature ticks were associated with consumed prey (small birds or small mammals), whereas adults were associated with the predator itself, ingested during its self-grooming. Our data show that faeces is an additional information source on ticks in Brazil and which may provide information on ectoparasite-predator-prey interactions.
Buczyńska, Edyta; Buczyński, Paweł; Zawal, Andrzej; Michoński, Grzegorz; Szlauer-Łukaszewska, Agnieszka
During the studies on ecology of Trichoptera of anthropogenic water bodies we have unexpectedly discovered the parasitic larvae of water mites of the species Tiphys torris on the pupa of Triaenodes bicolor. This is the first documented case of the parasitism of water mites on the caddisfly pupa as well as the first ever record of the species which is regarded as a dipteran parasite on caddisflies. The situation is very untypical for preimaginal stages of caddisflies are used by phoretic and not parasitic water mite larvae. Parasitism has been confirmed in this case by the formation of stylostomes and enlarged sizes of the bodies of the larvae. This is probably the case of facultative parasitism in which the pupa has served as a substitute of the adult form of a caddisfly.
Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran.
Kim, Soon-Il; Na, Young-Eun; Yi, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon
The acaricidal activity of methanolic extracts from 40 oriental medicinal plant species and a steam distillate of Cinnamomum camphora towards poultry house-collected adult Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of 15 acaricides currently used. In filter paper contact toxicity bioassays using adult D. gallinae, C. camphora steam distillate (0.0051 mgcm(-2)) was the most toxic material, followed by extracts from Asarum sieboldii var. seoulens whole plant, Eugenia caryophyllata flower bud and Mentha arvensis var. piperascens whole plant (0.0063-0.0072 mgcm(-2)), based upon 24h LD(50) values. The acaricidal activity of these four plant preparations was almost comparable to that of profenofos (LD(50), 0.003 mgcm(-2)) but less effective than dichlorvos (LD(50), 0.0004 mgcm(-2)). The toxicity of Illicium verum fruit and Lysimachia davurica leaf extracts (0.09 mgcm(-2)) was almost comparable to that of benfuracarb, prothiofos, propoxur and fenthion (0.053-0.070mgcm(-2)). In vapour phase toxicity tests, these plant preparations were more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these plant extracts was largely a result of action in the vapour phase. Plants described herein merit further study as potential D. gallinae control agents.
Cunha, Lucas M; Cunha, Mariana M; Leite, Romário C; Silva, Israel J; Oliveira, Paulo R de
This work aims to compare the performance of corrugated paper and "taquaril" bamboo (Phyllostachys sp.) straw traps for collecting (in sampling) Dermanyssus gallinae in a metal cages battery laying hens. The presence of eggs in the two trap models were compared using a Qui-square test and a proportion confidence interval test. Total daily values of mobile instars gathered in each type of trap were compared using the Wilcoxon's test. The amount of traps containing eggs was not different in neither of the traps (p < 0,05). The number of mobile instars sampled at every two days per trap model was different (p = 0,01). Counting in the corrugated paper traps showed a Gauss distribution histogram and was superior to the values of the bamboo straw traps.
Tavassoli, Mosa; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar; Bernousi, Iraj; Mardani, Karim
The pigeon tick Argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. Chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. In this study, the efficacy of three strains (V245, 685 and 715C) of entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for biological control of three life stages of pigeon tick A. reflexus including eggs, larvae, engorged and unfed adults was investigated under laboratory conditions. Five concentrations of different strains of M. anisopliae ranging from 103 to 107 conidia/ml were used. All fungal strains significantly decreased hatchability of A. reflexus eggs. Strain V245 was the most effective strain on the mortality of larval stage with nearly 100% mortality at the lowest concentration (103 conidia/ml) at 10 days post-inoculation. The mortality rate of both engorged and unfed adult ticks were also increased significantly exposed to different conidial concentrations compared to the control groups (P < 0.05) making this fungus a potential biological control agent of pigeon tick reducing the use of chemical acaricides. PMID:24031777
Rivera-Páez, Fredy A; Labruna, Marcelo B; Martins, Thiago F; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I
Up to some years ago, the taxon Amblyomma cajennense represented a single tick species in the New World, from southern United States to northern Argentina. Recent studies, based on genetic, reproductive and morphological data reorganized this taxon into a complex of the following 6 valid species: A. cajennense sensu stricto, Amblyomma mixtum, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma interandinum, Amblyomma tonelliae, and Amblyomma patinoi. According to this classification, the A. cajennense complex is currently represented in Colombia by only one species, A. patinoi. Because the Colombian land is surrounded by confirmed records of A. mixtum in Panama and Ecuador, and by A. cajennense s.s. in Venezuela and the Brazilian Amazon, it is possible that these two species could also occur in Colombia. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of ticks of the A. cajennense complex in the Orinoquía region of Colombia. A total of 246 adult ticks of the Amblyomma genus were collected in three sampled regions: 71 females and 110 males in Arauca (Arauca Department), 27 females and 20 males in Nunchía (Casanare Department), and 10 females and 8 males in Yopal (Casanare Department). Based on morphological and molecular analyses, these ticks were identified as A. mixtum. Molecular analyses consisted of DNA sequences of two molecular markers, the nuclear second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (COI). The presence of A. mixtum in Colombia is of medical relevance, since this species is incriminated as a vector of Rickettsia rickettsii in Central America.
Labruna, Marcelo B; de Paula, Cátia D; Lima, Thiago F; Sana, Dênis A
From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paran river, between the states of S o Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species), Boophilus (1) and Anocentor (1). A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages) collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.
Lourenço, Elizabete Captivo; Pinheiro, Michele da Costa; Faccini, João Luis Horácio; Famadas, Kátia Maria
Chirnyssoides parasitizes the anterior and posterior edges of bat wing membranes. Possibly due to a lack of studies, its distribution is believed to be restricted to a few countries of Central and South America, but its actual range is probably wider. The purpose of this paper is to report the presence of Chirnyssoides amazonae on the bat Carollia perspicillata in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and to present a checklist of hosts and localities for Chirnyssoides. Eleven females and 22 egg clusters of C. amazonae were collected from 11 individuals of C. perspicillata captured in Tinguá Biological Reserve using mist nets. Our search of the literature came up with 69 records of Chirnyssoides. There are reports of Chirnyssoides caparti, Chirnyssoides amazonae, Chirnyssoides brasiliensis and Chirnyssoides phyllostomus in Brazil. This paper reports the first record of Chirnyssoides amazonae in the state of Rio de Janeiro and the second in Brazil, indicating that their known distribution extends to the south. There are records of C. amazonae and C. surinamensis parasitizing C. perspicillata, but this is the first record of C. amazonae on C. perspicillata in Brazil.
Martins, Thiago F; Onofrio, Valeria C; Barros-Battesti, Darci M; Labruna, Marcelo B
Together with the larval stage, the nymphal stage of ticks of the genus Amblyomma are the most aggressive ticks for humans entering areas inhabited by wildlife and some domestic animals in Brazil. However, due to the absence of morphological descriptions of the nymphal stage of most Brazilian Amblyomma species, plus the lack of an identification key, little or nothing is known about the life history of Amblyomma spp. nymphs in the country. In the present study, morphological description of the nymphal stage, illustrating important external characters through scanning electron microscopy, is provided for nymphs of 15 Amblyomma species that occur in Brazil, for which the nymphal stage had never been described: A. aureolatum, A. auricularium, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. fuscum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. latepunctatum, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. ovale, A. pacae, A. pseudoconcolor, A. scalpturatum, A. varium. In addition, the nymphal stage of 12 Amblyomma species, which had been previously described, are redescribed: A. brasiliense, A. cajennense, A. dissimile, A. dubitatum, A. longirostre, A. oblongoguttatum, A. parkeri, A. parvum, A. romitii, A. rotundatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste. The descriptions and redescriptions totalized 27 species. Only 2 species (A. geayi, A. goeldii) out of the 29 Amblyomma species established in Brazil are not included in the present study. A dichotomous identification key is included to support taxonomic identification of the nymphal stage of 27 Amblyomma species established in Brazil.
Soto, Alberto; Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Rafael M; Oliveira, Hamilton G; Pallini, Angelo
Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard is an important pest of solanaceous plants, including tomatoes. This mite is characterized by a high reproductive rate, which leads to high population growth in a short period of time causing important economic damage. Control of T. evansi is mainly through synthetic acaricides. In searching for environmentally friendly control measures, we evaluated the efficiency of alternative products to control T. evansi on tomato plants under greenhouse conditions. The products tested were lime sulphur and neem based products. We first estimated the lethal concentration (LC) and instantaneous rate of increase (r i) of T. evansi exposed to different product concentrations in laboratory conditions, and later tested the efficacy of LC95 and the concentrations that restrained mite population growth (r i = 0) in greenhouse conditions. The following treatments were repeated three times: NeemPro (81.0 and 71.6 mg a.i./l), Natuneem (31.1 and 20.4 mg ai/l), Organic Neem (39.1 and 30.4 mg a.i./l), lime sulphur (1.0 and 0.6%) and water (control). For all products, control provided by LC95 was higher than provided for lower concentrations (r i = 0) one day after spraying. However, after five days, for both concentrations, the percentage of T. evansi population reduction was superior to 95% and increased over time. Only plants sprayed with Natuneem (31.1 mg a.i./l) showed symptoms of phytotoxicity. Lime sulphur and neem based products, applied in appropriate concentrations and formulations, bear out as a viable alternative to control T. evansi on tomato plants.
Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt) is one of several phytoseiid species that are available for purchase to supplement endemic predator populations that are not providing sufficient control of spider mites. We performed a series of releases of commercially reared G. occidentalis in commercial apple (...
Dennis, D T; Nekomoto, T S; Victor, J C; Paul, W S; Piesman, J
Lyme disease, caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, is the most frequently reported arthropod-borne disease in the United States. To develop a national map of the distribution of the vectors of B. burgdorferi to humans (Ixodes scapularis Say and Ixodes pacificus Cooley & Kohls ticks), we sent questionnaires to acarologists, health officials, and Lyme disease researchers; surveyed the 1966-1996 MEDLINE data base; and reviewed 1907-1995 National Tick Collection data. Tick collection methods cited included flagging and dragging, deer surveys, small- and medium-sized mammal surveys, CO2 baiting, and receipt of tick submissions. A total of 1,058 unique, county-specific I. scapularis and I. pacificus records was obtained. Tick populations were classified as "reported" (< 6 ticks and 1 life stage identified) or "established" (> or = 6 ticks or > 1 life stage identified). Established populations of I. scapularis were identified in 396 counties in 32 states in the eastern and central United States, whereas established populations of I. pacificus were found in 90 counties in 5 western states. Counties with established populations were most concentrated in the northeastern, upper northcentral, and west-coastal states but were also clustered in southeastern and Gulf-coastal states. A less concentrated distribution was found in the south-central states. Reports were notably missing from all but a few counties in Ohio, West Virginia, western Virginia and North Carolina, Kentucky, and Tennessee. They were absent in the Great Plains and Rocky Mountain regions and from large areas of western states east of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada cordilleras. These data are useful for identifying areas of Lyme disease risk, for targeting Lyme disease prevention strategies, and for monitoring trends in spatial distribution of Lyme disease vector ticks.
Abdigoudarzi, Mohammad; Mirafzali, Mahmoud S; Belgheiszadeh, Hamid
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae is one of the most economically important ectoparasites in hens and some species of mammals worldwide. Cases of human infestation have been reported worldwide. In this study we report infestation in three members of a family referred with pruritus and allergic dermatitis rash. They have collected very small animals and carried them to the laboratory which later was confirmed as D. gallinae. They claimed that they had been bitten with this ectoparasite. This is the first case report of human infestation owing to D. gallinae from Iran. PMID:25629073
Colombo, Valeria C; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Fasano, Agustín A; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Nava, Santiago
The aim of this communication is to report, for the first time, the occurrence of Amblyomma triste in Santa Fe province, Argentina, and to add a new isolation place for Amblyomma tigrinum. Both species of ticks are vectors of Rickettsia parkeri, a spotted fever group rickettsia. Ticks were recovered from tourists in August 2014 and December 2015 at the Federico Wildermuth Foundation (31° 59'S, 61° 24'O), San Martin Department, Santa Fe province. Five adult ticks were morphologically identified as A. tigrinum (3 females and 1 male) and A. triste (1 female). This is the first finding including both Amblyomma maculatum group species, A. triste and A. tigrinum, together in the same locality in Argentina. This finding suggests that this site might have favorable features for the development of both species of R. parkeri vector. Further studies including sampling of a larger number of ticks and detection of R. parkeri DNA are needed to better document the epidemiology of this rickettsia in Santa Fe.
Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I
Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus.
da Silva Matos, Renata; Daemon, Erik; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Remédio, Rafael Neodini; Araújo, Laryssa Xavier; Novato, Tatiane Pinheiro Lopes
Thymol is a monoterpene with proven acaricide action for several tick species. In addition to killing these ectoparasites, thymol can also reduce oviposition and egg hatch rate. However, the effects of thymol on the morphophysiology of tick ovaries are still unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphophysiological changes caused by this active principle in ovaries of Rhipicephalus sanguineus after a 6-day feeding period, through the application of morphohistochemical techniques. After the feeding period, a total of 50 females were divided into five groups and immersed in the following solutions: (I) distilled water (control), (II) 30% ethanol (control), (III) 1.25 mg/mL thymol, (IV) 2.5 mg/mL thymol, and (V) 5.0 mg/mL thymol. The experimental groups were kept in a climatic chamber (27 ± 1 °C; RH 80 ± 10%) for 5 days. After this period, morphological (hematoxylin/eosin) and histochemical (von Kossa) techniques were applied after remotion of the ovaries. The morphological results revealed large vacuoles in germ cells at different developmental stages and invaginations that represent deformations in the chorionic membrane. From the results obtained in this study, it was concluded that thymol interfered with the development of oocytes, which showed degeneration signs. The treatment containing 5.0 mg/mL thymol affected more accentuately the morphological development. Moreover, thymol also altered the calcium content of yolk granules, which generally showed an intense staining for this element.
Arnosti, André; Brienza, Paula Desjardins; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Neto, Salvador Claro; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Sampieri, Bruno Rodrigues; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel
This study showed the interference of esters extracted from Ricinus communis in the secretory cycle of salivary glands of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks, which consequently caused collateral effects on their feeding process. Ticks attached on hosts which were fed with commercial feed containing different concentrations of R. communis oil esters suffered damages such as cytoplasmic changes in their salivary glands, notably in the acinar cells, impairing the functioning of the acini and accelerating the organs degeneration as a whole. It was found that esters interfered with the activity of cellular secretion by changing the glycoprotein of salivary composition especially in acini II cells. It was also shown that the damages caused by esters in the salivary glands cells of these ectoparasites increased in higher concentrations of the product and degenerative glandular changes were more pronounced.
Li, Chaopin; Jiang, Yuxin; Guo, Wei; Chen, Qi
Objetivo: sancassania berlesei (S. berlesei) es el lider en la industria de cría amenaza mite eupolyphaga sinensis y la salud pública.Métodos: los especimenes vivos de S. berlesei fueron obtenidos a partir de la superficie de eupolyphaga sinensis y purificado con agua bidestilada.El huevo, larva, ninfa, hypopus, macho adulto y la hembra de S. berlesei fueron evaluados y elegidos bajo microscopio.Resultados: las variaciones morfológicas de S. berlesei, incluidas sus piernas, setas, genitales externos y accesorios, están claramente identificadas en la SEM.La larva tiene tres pares de patas, sin hojas como setas, pero su coxal Rod es desarrollada.Por la etapa de ninfa, cuatro pares de patas y el cuarto dorsal seta surgen, mientras que la zona genital se ve aún en desarrollo.En hypopus, las garras y tarsules aparecen bien construido, y la hoja como setas, setas de tibia y setas de Genu son vistos.La ventosa plato totalmente contiene nueve retoños y cuatro Shell como dimplings en que hay distribuciones simétricas con 1 par de mamones, 2 pares de lado anterior de ventosas y 1 par de tontos, respectivamente.Una pera como posterior ventosa está ubicado en la espalda de Sucker plato.Todos los tontos son suaves excepto anterior Sucker con franja radial.El órgano de sentido genital adultos exhibe con cordiforme aspecto externo y osificación típica textura; mientras que el macho es diferente con la hembra respecto a seta numero en el sentido de órganos genitales.Conclusión: descripción de la estructura morfologica en gran detalle para S. berlesei tiende a suministrar la información importante para la taxonomía y más estudio.
This is the first record of Tenuipalpus uvae De Leon (Tenuipalpidae) in Brazil. Specimens were collected from Spondias mombin L. (Anacardiaceae) in the states of Amapa (Northern Brazil) and Pernambuco (northeast)....
Cuculisyringophilus crotophaginus gen. n. et sp. n. is described from the guira cuckoo Guira guira (Gmelin) from Paraguay and also was collected from the groove-billed ani Crotophaga sulcirostris Swainson from Colombia and Mexico. This new genus is closely related to Neoaulobia Fain, Bochkov et Mironov, 2000 but is distinguished by the following characters: propodosomal setae sce are situated distinctly anterior to level of setae d1, leg setae vs'II are absent, apodemes I are divergent.
Wanzala, W; Okanga, S
This artcile describes the results obtained from a tick survey conducted in Haller park along the Kenyan coastline. The survey aimed at evaluating tick-host associations, assessing tick population density, and providing baseline information for planning future tick control and management in the park. Ticks (2,968) were collected by handpicking from eight species of wildlife and by dragging in 14 selected sites within the park. A considerable proportion of ticks were also collected from leaves, stems, and bark of most dominant trees, namely, Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Forst. and Forst.), Cocos nucifera L., Adansonia digitata L., Musa paradisiaca L., and Azadiracta indica Adr. Juss. Dragging was conducted in sites predominantly occupied by Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., Stenotaphrum dimidiatum L. (Kuntze.) Brongn., and Brachiaria xantholeuca Hack. Ex Schinz Stapf. and Loudetia kagerensis K. Schum. Hutch. Eight tick species were identified, and the collection included Rhipicephalus pravus Dönitz 1910, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstäcker 1873, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch 1844, Amblyomma gemma Dönitz 1910, Amblyomma hebraeum Koch 1844, Amblyomma sparsum Neumann 1899, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz 1909, and Boophilus decoloratus Koch 1844. Given that the identified tick species are known to parasitize humans as well as livestock, there exist risks of emergence of zoonotic infections mediated by tick vectors. In the recreational environment of Haller park, where tick vectors share habitats with hosts, there is a need to develop sustainable and effective tick control and management strategies to minimize economic losses that tick infestation may cause.
Thirty-two Canada thistle infestations in eastern Colorado and Wyoming and western Nebraska were surveyed in 2004 for the eriophyid mite Aceria anthocoptes (Nal.). Mites were abundant at 41% of the sites, present in lesser numbers at 53% of the sites, and no mites were found at 6% of the sites. In 2...
Massaro, Marcela; Martin, João Pedro Ignez; de Moraes, Gilberto José
Phytoseiid mites are commonly used as biological control agents of mite and small insect pests. To facilitate the production of phytoseiids, alternative food sources have been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of different food sources for the rearing of the phytoseiids Amblyseius tamatavensis Blommers, Euseius concordis (Chant) and Neoseiulus anonymus (Chant and Baker). This study evaluated the levels of oviposition of these predators when fed with 15 Astigmatina (Sarcoptiformes) mite species, one species of a bacteriophagous nematode, and pollen from five plant species. The highest oviposition rates of A. tamatavensis were obtained when fed on the mites Thyreophagus cracentiseta Barbosa, OConnor & Moraes and Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Troupeau) (2.6 and 2.1 eggs/female/day, respectively). The five highest oviposition levels of E. concordis occurred when the food source was pollen, especially of Ricinus communis L. (1.7 eggs/female/day). The evaluated oviposition levels of N. anonymus were at most 0.5 eggs/female/day on all food sources. The construction of life tables of A. tamatavensis and E. concordis with the two most favorable food sources showed that in both cases the values of rm were higher when the predator was fed with T. cracentiseta and R. communis, respectively. The possible use of pollen of Elaeis guineensis L. should be further evaluated, given the acceptance of this type of pollen by E. concordis and the ease of obtaining large amounts of this pollen in areas where this crop is grown.
Saporito, Ralph A; Norton, Roy A; Garraffo, Martin H; Spande, Thomas F
The opisthonotal (oil) glands of oribatid mites are the source of a wide diversity of taxon-specific defensive chemicals, and are likely the location for the more than 90 alkaloids recently identified in oribatids. Although originally recognized in temperate oribatid species, alkaloids have also been detected in related lineages of tropical oribatids. Many of these alkaloids are also present in a worldwide radiation of poison frogs, which are known to sequester these defensive chemicals from dietary arthropods, including oribatid mites. To date, most alkaloid records involve members of the superfamily Oripodoidea (Brachypylina), although few species have been examined and sampling of other taxonomic groups has been highly limited. Herein, we examined adults of more than 60 species of Nearctic oribatid mites, representing 46 genera and 33 families, for the presence of alkaloids. GC-MS analyses of whole body extracts led to the detection of 15 alkaloids, but collectively they occur only in members of the genera Scheloribates (Scheloribatidae) and Protokalumma (Parakalummidae). Most of these alkaloids have also been detected previously in the skin of poison frogs. All examined members of the oripodoid families Haplozetidae and Oribatulidae were alkaloid-free, and no mites outside the Oripodoidea contained alkaloids. Including previous studies, all sampled species of the cosmopolitan oripodoid families Scheloribatidae and Parakalummidae, and the related, mostly tropical families Mochlozetidae and Drymobatidae contain alkaloids. Our findings are consistent with a generalization that alkaloid presence is widespread, but not universal in Oripodoidea. Alkaloid presence in tropical, but not temperate members of some non-oripodoid taxa (in particular Galumnidae) deserves further study.
Carroll, J.F.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.
We conclude a mark-recapture study in which drag-collected ticks were removed from some park trails weekly from April to July. Weekly survival rates (probability of surviving and remaining on the trails) were significantly lower on trials used heavily by hikers, horses, and pets than on trails used less frequently. Although usage was the only obvious difference among these trails, differences in weekly survival rate estimates may be attributable to differential success in acquiring hosts. The estimated probability of capturing a host-seeking tick located along a trail on a single drag was 0.20 on the drag alone, and 0.25 including the person dragging. When routes parallel to the trails and of equal lengths were dragged immediately after sampling the trails, only .apprxeq. 5% as many ticks (including ticks on the person dragging) were found off the trails as on them. We found no evidence of reduced tick numbers on removal trails, but this result should be considered inconclusive because the power of the discerning test was low. However, the data reported here provide insights into turnover rates of the adult Dermacentor variabilis population and effectiveness of the drag as a sampling device.
Carroll, M.C.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Hyland, K.E.
The distribution of nymphal Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin in residential lawns was assessed by flagging on Prudence Island, RI. The number of ticks per sample was five times greater in lawns adjacent to woods than in lawns adjacent to other lawns. Relative tick abundance was negatively correlated with distance from the woods, but the decline was gradual. Spirochete prevalence in ticks did not differ among lawn types or at different distances from the woods. Therefore, barriers that keep people away from the wood edge probably lower the risk of acquiring Lyme disease, but there is still a risk. Even with physical barriers at lawn-wood edges, personal precautions to prevent tick bites should be followed.
Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Ahumada, Fabiana; Probasco, Gene; Schantz, Lloyd
Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) beta acids (HBA) were tested for miticidal effects on varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman, a parasitic mite of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.). When varroa were placed on bees that had topical applications of 1 % HBA, there was 100 % mite mortality. Bee mortality was unaffected. Cardboard strips saturated with HBA and placed in colonies resulted in mite drop that was significantly greater than in untreated hives. HBA was detected on about 60 % of the bees in colonies during the first 48 h after application. Mite drop in colonies lasted for about 7 days with the highest drop occurring in the first 2-3 days after treatment. There was a reduction in the percentages of bees with HBA and in the amounts on their bodies after 7 days. Bee and queen mortality in the colonies were not affected by HBA treatments. When cardboard strips saturated with HBA were put in packages of bees, more than 90 % of the mites were killed without an increase in bee mortality. HBA might have potential to control varroa when establishing colonies from packages or during broodless periods.
Kariuki, Edward K; Penzhorn, Barend L; Horak, Ivan G
Several ixodid tick species are shared between domestic cattle and African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). So too, are a number of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study was to compare the species composition of ticks that infest cattle and buffaloes utilising the same habitat within the Tsavo Conservation Area, Kenya. To this end, 25 cattle and 62 buffaloes were each opportunistically sampled for ticks on a single occasion in February 2010. Eight species, namely Amblyomma gemma, Amblyomma lepidum, Hyalomma albiparmatum, Hyalomma rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus pravus and Rhipicephalus pulchellus infested both cattle and buffaloes. Three species, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) sp., Rhipicephalus kochi, and Rhipicephalus muehlensi were collected only from cattle, and three species, Hyalomma impeltatum, Rhipicephalus humeralis and Rhipicephalus praetextatus were present only on buffaloes. The attachment sites of the various tick species were also recorded. New locality records for H. impeltatum and H. truncatum and the first confirmed locality record for Rhipicephalus praetextatus sensu stricto in Kenya were documented.
Hoogstraal & Wassef, H. taiwana Sugimoto, H. yeni Toumanoff, Ixodes acutitarsus ( Karsch ), I. granulatus Supino, I. kuntzi Hoogstraal & Kohls, I...in the same five checklists. The senior synonym I. ovatus is listed only by Tseng Ixodes acutitarsus ( Karsch , 1880).8 (1978) and Hoogstraal (letter no
Walzer, Andreas; Schausberger, Peter
The adaptive canalization hypothesis predicts that highly fitness-relevant traits are canalized via past selection, resulting in low phenotypic plasticity and high robustness to environmental stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the level of phenotypic plasticity of male body size of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis (low plasticity) and Neoseiulus californicus (high plasticity) reflects the effects of body size variation on fitness, especially male lifetime reproductive success (LRS). We first generated small and standard-sized males of P. persimilis and N. californicus by rearing them to adulthood under limited and ample prey supply, respectively. Then, adult small and standard-sized males were provided with surplus virgin females throughout life to assess their mating and reproductive traits. Small male body size did not affect male longevity or the number of fertilized females but reduced male LRS of P. persimilis but not N. californicus. Proximately, the lower LRS of small than standard-sized P. persimilis males correlated with shorter mating durations, probably decreasing the amount of transferred sperm. Ultimately, we suggest that male body size is more strongly canalized in P. persimilis than N. californicus because deviation from standard body size has larger detrimental fitness effects in P. persimilis than N. californicus. © 2014 The Authors. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2014, 111, 889–899. PMID:25132689
of the cell in subtype VIh (Fig. 2). Type IX : In these oval celo, 2 subtypes are distinguished according to cell size and NSG distribution. The NSG...1977) : Neurosecretion in Ornithodoros savignyi (Audouin) (Ixodoidea : Arga- sidae ). The distribution of neurosecretory cells in the brain. J. Vet. Res
Ioffe-Uspensky, I; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Uspensky, I; Galun, R
Life cycle parameters of 2 closely related tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille and R. turanicus Pomerantsev, were studied under laboratory conditions. Both Rhipicephalus, which have small adults, demonstrated the same adaptations as large tick species inhabiting deserts and semideserts: high reproductive rate, decrease in egg size, and an increase in interstage growth to compensate for the smaller size at birth. Pronounced quantitative differences between both species were discerned in relation to these adaptations. Female R. turanicus produced twice as many eggs as R. sanguineus which was facilitated by the greater amount of blood engorged by females and by the smaller egg weight in R. turanicus as compared with R. sanguineus. In all developmental stages, the weight increase from unfed to fed ticks was greater in R. turanicus than in R. sanguineus (23% higher in larvae, 118% in nymphs, and 26% in females). The increase in weight in R. turanicus from the unfed larva (0.013 mg) to the unfed female (3.31 mg) was 254-fold, and in R. sanguineus it was 127-fold (from 0.021 to 2.54 mg). In nymphal R. turanicus, the higher density and the greater height of the dorsal epicuticular folds, as well as procuticular indentations found inside the folds allow this tick to stretch its alloscutum during blood engorgement to a greater extent than R. sanguineus. The rates of blood ingestion (for nymphs and females), egg maturation, and metamorphosis were 1.1-1.7 times greater in R. turanicus than in R. sanguineus. A life cycle strategy with both a higher reproductive rate and faster development in R turanicus may be explained by its greater dependence on environmental factors than that in R. sanguineus.
Ticks have always been a part of fauna in and around human settlements, and their significance changed concurrently with the enlargement of settlements and their transformation into towns. The increased rate of urbanization during the last decades has created a new reality for tick existence. Two groups of ticks are of major concern for modern towns: those living under natural conditions of urban surroundings and those well-adapted to urban conditions. During the process of urbanization, encroachment into forested and uncultivated areas as well as protection of existing green spaces create opportunities for ticks living in nature to also exist under urban and suburban conditions. Conditions of modern urban and especially suburban environment in developed European countries adequately meet tick requirements. Tick species having an advantage in urban areas are those that can use one and the same host at all parasitic stages, can starve for a prolonged time, can use either urban pests or domesticated animals as hosts, and can live in man-made buildings. The ticks of the Argas reflexus group (Argasidae) and the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodidae) comply with practically all conditions necessary for successful survival in urban areas. The ability of ticks to transmit numerous human and animal pathogens and the presence of many reservoir hosts in urban and suburban areas create persistent danger for human populations and domestic animals. Impact on urban ticks should be directed against the two major requirements of tick existence: reducing populations of potential tick hosts (feral pigeons, stray dogs and cats, and urban rodents), and changing other environmental conditions to make them less suitable for ticks. It is especially important that urban inhabitants be properly informed about the danger posed by ticks, the sites of possible tick attacks, and basic self-protection techniques.
Zhao, Ya-E; Wu, Li-Ping
For a long time, classification of Demodex mites has been mainly based on their hosts and phenotype characteristics. The study was the first to conduct molecular identification and genetic relationship analysis for six isolates of three Demodex species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker. Totally, 239 DNA fragments were amplified from six Demodex isolates with 10 random primers in RAPD, of which 165 were polymorphic. Using a single primer, at least five fragments and at most 40 in the six isolates were amplified, whereas within a single isolate, a range of 35-49 fragments were amplified. DNA fingerprints of primers CZ 1-9 revealed intra- and interspecies difference in six Demodex isolates, whereas primer CZ 10 only revealed interspecies difference. The genetic distance and dendrogram showed the intraspecific genetic distances were closer than the interspecific genetic distances. The interspecific genetic distances of Demodex folliculorum and Demodex canis (0.7931-0.8140) were shorter than that of Demodex brevis and D. canis (0.8182-0.8987). The RAPD-SCAR marker displayed primer CZ 10 could be applied to identify the three Demodex species. The 479-bp fragment was specific for D. brevis, and the 261-bp fragment was specific for D. canis. The conclusion was that the RAPD-SCAR multi-marker was effective in molecular identification of three Demodex species. The genetic relationship between D. folliculorum and D. canis was nearer than that between D. folliculorum and D. brevis.
Zhao, Ya-e; Guo, Na; Xun, Meng; Xu, Ji-ru; Wang, Mei; Wang, Duo-lao
To identify sociodemographic characteristics and risk factor of Demodex infestation, 756 students aged 13-22 years in Xi'an, China were sampled for the school-based cross-sectional study. Demodex was examined using the cellophane tape method (CTP). The results showed that the total detection rate of Demodex was 67.6%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that five variables (gender, residence, sharing sanitary ware, frequency of face-wash per day, and use of facial cleanser) were found to be uncorrelated with Demodex infestation, whereas three variables (age, skin type, and skin disease) were found to be independent correlates. Students aged over 18 years had 22.1 times higher odds of Demodex infestation compared to those under 16 years and students aged 16-18 years also had 2.1 times higher odds compared to those aged 13-15 years. Odds of having a Demodex infestation for oily or mixed skin were 2.1 times those for dry or neutral skin. Students with a facial skin disease had 3.0 times higher odds of being infested with Demodex compared to those without. The inception rate of students with facial dermatoses increased in parallel with increasing mite count. The inception rates were 21.3%, 40.7%, 59.2%, and 67.7% in the negative, mild, moderate, and severe infestation groups, respectively (χ(2)=60.6, P<0.001). Specifically, the amount of infested mites and inception rate of acne vulgaris were positively correlated (R(2)=0.57, moderate infestation odds ratio (OR)=7.1, severe infestation OR=10.3). It was concluded that Demodex prevalence increases with age, and Demodex presents in nearly all adult human. Sebaceous hyperplasia with oily or mixed skin seems to favour Demodex proliferation. Demodex infestation could be associated with acne vulgaris. The CTP is a good sampling method for studies of Demodex prevalence.
Goleva, Irina; Zebitz, Claus P W
The predacious mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot is used as a biological control agent against various pests in greenhouses. Pollen offered as supplementary food is reported to improve their fast establishment and performance. However, the nutritional suitability of different pollens for A. swirskii is not sufficiently known yet. Pollens of 21 plant species were offered to the mites as exclusive food during preimaginal development. Preimaginal mortality and developmental time have been assessed, followed by a life-table analysis of the emerged adults and a calculation of demographic parameters. Amblyseius swirskii can feed exclusively on pollen, but the nutritional value of the pollens differed significantly. Pollens of Lilium martagon and Hippeastrum sp. were toxic, causing 100 % preimaginal mortality, probably due to secondary plant compounds. Hibiscus syriacus pollen was absolutely incompatible for the juvenile and adult mites, possibly due to their external morphology, differing from all the other pollens tested and leading to 100 % preimaginal mortality also. Considering all parameters, feeding on Aesculus hippocastanum, Crocus vernus, Echinocereus sp. and Paulownia tomentosa pollens lead to the best performance of the mites. Feeding on most pollens resulted in no or low preimaginal mortality of A. swirskii, but affected significantly developmental time, adult longevity, and reproduction parameters. Commercial bee pollen was not able to improve life-table parameters compared to pure pollen of the plant species. Pollens of Helianthus annuus, Corylus avellana and a Poaceae mix were less suitable as food source and resulted in a poor performance of all tested parameters. Compared with literature data, 18 pollens tested proved to be a similar or better food source than cattail pollen, qualifying A. swirskii as a positively omnivorous type IV species. Pollens of Ricinus communis and Zea mays can be recommended as supplementary food offered as banker plants, and A. hippocastanum and Betula pendula pollen is recommended to be used as dispersible pollen in greenhouses.
Flores, Fernando S; Nava, Santiago; Batallán, Gonzalo; Tauro, Laura B; Contigiani, Marta S; Diaz, Luis A; Guglielmone, Alberto A
Ixodid ticks were collected from wild birds in five ecoregions in north-central Argentina, namely: Selva de las Yungas, Esteros del Iberá, Delta e Islas del Paraná, Selva Paranaense and Chaco Seco. A total of 2199 birds belonging to 139 species, 106 genera, 31 families and 11 orders were captured, but ticks were collected only from 121 birds (prevalence=5.5%) belonging to 39 species (28.1%) and three Orders: Tinamiformes (Tinamidae) and Falconiformes (Falconidae) in Selva de las Yungas and Passeriformes (Conopophagidae, Corvidae, Emberizidae, Furnariidae, Icteridae, Parulidae, Thamnophilidae, Thraupidae, Troglodytidae, Turdidae) for all ecoregions. The following tick species were found: Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, Ixodes pararicinus plus Amblyomma sp. and Haemaphysalis sp. in Selva de las Yungas; Amblyomma triste and Ixodes auritulus in Delta e Islas del Paraná; Amblyomma dubitatum, A. triste and Amblyomma sp. in Esteros del Iberá; Amblyomma ovale and Amblyomma sp. in Selva Paranaense, and Amblyomma tigrinum in Chaco Seco. Amblyomma dubitatum was found for the first time on Passeriformes, while the records of A. ovale on avian hosts are the first for Argentina. Birds are also new hosts for I. pararicinus females. Besides 2 larvae and 1 nymph, and 1 larvae found on Tinamidae (Tinamiformes) and Falconidae (Falconiformes), respectively, all other ticks (691 larvae, 74 nymphs and 2 females) were found on Passeriformes with a relevant contribution of the family Turdidae. Birds are important hosts for I. pararicinus as shown by a prevalence of 45% while all others prevalence were below 15%. All the species of Amblyomma and Haemaphysalis found on birds in Argentina have been also detected on humans and are proven or potential vectors for human diseases. Therefore, their avian hosts are probable reservoirs of human pathogens in Argentina.
Britto, Erika Pessoa Japhyassu; Finotti, Amanda Silva; de Moraes, Gilberto José
Cultivation of tropical flowers has expanded considerably in Brazil, justifying efforts to determine the arthropods associated with it. Heliconia species are some of the most important tropical flowers in Brazil. Mites of the families Ascidae, Blattisociidae and Melicharidae are commonly found on those plants. They disperse from flower to flower on hummingbirds. The objective of this study was to identify the diversity of mites of this group in tropical flowers, with emphasis on Heliconia species, in Brazil and to determine the fluctuation of the population of these mites in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state. Specimens from Amazonas, Bahia, Pernambuco, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina and São Paulo States were examined. Mites of the genera Asca and Iphidozercon (Ascidae), Cheiroseius and Lasioseius (Blattisociidae), and Proctolaelaps and Tropicoseius (Melicharidae) were collected in flowers of four plant families, with Lasioseius being the most diverse genus. Overall, most specimens found belonged to Tropicoseius, especially Tropicoseius venezuelensis Baker & Yunker; this was the dominant species on five of 13 Heliconia species/hybrids considered in this study. Samples of panicles of Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pavón were collected every 2 weeks, in Piracicaba. Six species of those mite families were found, among which Tropicoseius heliconiae Baker & Yunker and T. venezuelensis were the most numerous. The highest population levels of mites of those three families occurred at the beginning and at the end of the year, coinciding with the highest levels of rainfall, relative humidity and temperature, when plant flowers were most numerous and vigorous. Along each panicle, the highest mite densities were found in inflorescences of the three distal eighths of the panicles, where nectar and pollen were probably most abundant.
Colombo, Valeria C; Nava, Santiago; Antoniazzi, Leandro R; Monje, Lucas D; Racca, Andrea L; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Beldomenico, Pablo M
The present study explores associations of different factors (i.e. host parameters, presence of other ectoparasites and [mainly biotic] environmental factors) with burdens of Ixodes loricatus immature stages in one of its main hosts in Argentina, the rodent Akodon azarae. For 2 years, rodents were trapped and sampled monthly at 16 points located in four different sites in the Parana River Delta region. Data were analysed with generalized linear mixed models with a negative binomial response (counts of larvae or nymphs). The independent variables assessed were (a) environmental: trapping year, presence of cattle, type of vegetation, rodent abundance; (b) host parameters: body length, sex, body condition, blood cell counts, natural antibody titers and (c) co-infestation with other ectoparasites. Two-way interaction terms deemed a priori as relevant were also included in the analysis. Most of the associations investigated were found significant, but in general, the direction and magnitude of the associations were context-dependent. An exception was the presence of cattle, which was consistently negatively associated with both larvae and nymphs independently of all other variables considered and had the strongest effect on tick burdens. Mites, fleas and Amblyomma triste were also significantly associated (mostly positively) with larval and nymph burdens, and in many cases, they influenced associations with environmental or host factors. Our findings strongly support that raising cattle may have a substantial impact on the dynamics of I. loricatus and that interactions within the ectoparasite community may be an important-but generally ignored-driver of tick dynamics.
Al-Arfaj, Ahmed M; Mullen, Gary R; Rashad, Rafiaa; Abdel-Hameed, Ahmed; OConnor, Barry M; Alkhalife, Ibrahim S; Dute, Roland R
A 31-year-old Saudi man was seen at an ear, nose, and throat clinic at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, with bilateral itching in the external auditory canal. On otoscopic examination, the skin lining the ear canal was thickened with whitish sheets of sloughed cells and thick discharge. Large numbers of mites of an undescribed species closely related to members of the genus Loxanoetus (Histiostomatidae) were present. The patient underwent successive washings of the ear canal with saline and 70% ethanol at intervals of 2-3 months and was treated with antibiotics. Treatment with Eurax (crotamiton) ear drops for one week cleared the mite infestation. This represents the first reported case of human otoacariasis involving a histiostomatid mite. Based on the known biology of histiostomatid mites and the associated hosts of Loxanoetus and related genera, there is reason to speculate that the patient acquired the infestation while swimming in a lake or pond where this mite was present.
Osakabe, Masahiro; Kotsubo, Yu; Tajima, Ryusen; Hinomoto, Norihide
Species identification is a basic issue in biosecurity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) is a useful molecular diagnostic tool for species identification. However, the lack of transferability of data has been a serious shortcoming of this method. A RFLP catalog, i.e., a graph of PCR-RFLP patterns expected from sequence data, was devised as a tool to facilitate PCR-RFLP data sharing among laboratories. Twelve species of Tetranychus spider mites have been recorded in Japan to date. In this study, we analyzed DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region in nuclear ribosomal DNA of 11 Tetranychus species. For the species identification using PCR-RFLP, we chose six candidates from 131 restriction endonucleases and developed an RFLP catalog of all known Japanese Tetranychus species except Tetranychus neocaledonicus André. The RFLP catalog revealed that most Tetranychus species had diagnostic restriction fragments. The RFLP catalog is transferable and simple molecular diagnostic tool, and it has the ability to add more species and newly found intraspecific variations. Therefore, we believe that the RFLP catalog will contribute to biosecurity as a practical diagnostic tool for species identification of spider mites.
Keirans, J E; Lacombe, E H
The first records of 3 ixodid tick species collected in the state of Maine are reported. A total of 23 records of the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L., 1758), in 11 counties from hosts with no history of travel outside the state demonstrates that this tick is now a resident of Maine. Ixodes dentatus Marx, 1899 is recorded from Waldo and Lincoln counties, and Ixodes uriae White, 1852 is recorded from Matinicus Rock in Knox County. This is the first report of I. uriae from the eastern United States. Disease agents such as those causing human monocytic ehrlichiosis, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and several arboviruses have been recorded from 1 or more of these tick species.
Berrada, Zenda L; Goethert, Heidi K; Cunningham, Jenny; Telford, Sam R
The role of lone star ticks as vectors for Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) remains poorly described. We compared the entomological inoculation rates (EIRs) for Rickettsia spp. for representative sites in Missouri and Kansas, states that frequently report RMSF each year. Host-seeking ticks were collected during 2006 and pooled tick homogenates analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect probable R. rickettsii, with confirmation for multiple gene targets performed on individual ticks from pools that screened positive. Of 870 adult and nymphal lone star ticks, Amblyomma americanum (L.), 0.46% contained DNA of Rickettsia rickettsii. Interestingly, two of these positive ticks were concurrently infected by R. amblyommii. More than 90% of lone star tick pools contained R. amblyommii DNA. Of 169 dog ticks that were analyzed, none were infected by R. rickettsii. The entomological inoculation rate for spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae within lone star ticks was an order of magnitude greater than that for dog ticks. We conclude that lone star ticks may be epidemiologically significant vectors of Rocky Mountain spotted fever and of spotted fever group rickettsiae.
Trout Fryxell, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L; Billingsley, P M; Williamson, P C
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the etiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii, is the most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and is commonly diagnosed throughout the southeast. With the discoveries of Rickettsia parkeri and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks, it remains inconclusive if the cases reported as RMSF are truly caused by R. rickettsii or other SFGR. Arkansas reports one of the highest incidence rates of RMSF in the country; consequently, to identify the rickettsiae in Arkansas, 1,731 ticks, 250 white-tailed deer, and 189 canines were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the rickettsial genes gltA, rompB, and ompA. None of the white-tailed deer were positive, while two of the canines (1.1%) and 502 (29.0%) of the ticks were PCR positive. Five different tick species were PCR positive: 244 (37%) Amblyomma americanum L., 130 (38%) Ixodes scapularis Say, 65 (39%) Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), 30 (9%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 7 (4%) Dermacentor variabilis Say, and 26 (44%) unidentified Amblyomma ticks. None of the sequenced products were homologous to R. rickettsii. The most common Rickettsia via rompB amplification was Rickettsia montanensis and nonpathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii, whereas with ompA amplification the most common Rickettsia was Ca. R. amblyommii. Many tick specimens collected in northwest Arkansas were PCR positive and these were commonly A. americanum harboring Ca. R. amblyommii, a currently nonpathogenic Rickettsia. Data reported here indicate that pathogenic R. rickettsii was absent from these ticks and suggest by extension that other SFGR are likely the causative agents for Arkansas diagnosed RMSF cases.
Nemati, Alireza; Riahi, Elham; Gwiazdowicz, Dariusz J.
Abstract Julolaelaps hallidayi sp. n., was collected from soil of river verge in Brujen, Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Iran. Description and illustrations of this new species based on adult females are presented. Some entries are added to the key of Moraza and Kazemi (2012) to include the new species. PMID:26487827
De La Riva, Deborah G; Soto, Diane; Mullens, Bradley A
The northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestri & Fanzago), is an ectoparasite of more than 70 species of North American wild birds, but it has a particularly significant impact on chickens, where it is a permanent resident of vent feathers. Improved control practices depend on a better understanding of host-mite relationships. ISA Brown hens were inoculated experimentally with northern fowl mite adults, and northern fowl mite populations developed naturally. Using a fast-response microprobe, temperatures of individual vent feathers (n = 15) were recorded at 5-mm increments along the length of the feather shaft. Immediately after temperatures were recorded, the individual feathers were quickly clipped at the skin surface and then flash-frozen between 2 small blocks of dry ice, freezing all northern fowl mite stages in situ. The feathers then were cut into 5-mm sections for careful mite enumeration by life stage. There were no overall differences among life stages in the distributions on the feather. Mite positions on feathers (distance from skin) varied distinctly with feather zone temperatures, as well as with ambient and average temperatures over the prior 24 hr. Ambient temperature at time of sampling affected the positions of the 2 mobile categories, adults and larvae/nymphs, but showed no statistical relationship with egg distribution. In contrast, ambient 24-hr temperature influenced the positions of all life stages. On-host feather temperatures reflected ambient temperatures. Feathers collected on hot days (ambient temperatures of 23-33 C) provided a narrow and quite warm range of temperature conditions for mites (often >30-36 C). Temperatures on cool days (ambient temperatures of <23 C) provided much wider on-host temperature ranges for mites to occupy (13-35 C). Mites were farther from the skin on warmer days. When mites had a broad range of temperatures, the feather temperature zone occupied by all life stages averaged 28-29 C. Mites move to occupy favorable temperature conditions on-host. When further out on feathers in warm weather, and under thermal stress, northern fowl mites either move off host or are dislodged. They then become a human pest, are noticed by farmers, and are more likely to disperse.
Kiffner, Christian; Lödige, Christina; Alings, Matthias; Vor, Torsten; Rühe, Ferdinand
Despite the importance of roe deer as a host for Ixodes ticks in central Europe, estimates of total tick burden on roe deer are not available to date. We aimed at providing (1) estimates of life stage and sex specific (larvae, nymphs, males and females, hereafter referred to as tick life stages) total Ixodes burden and (2) equations which can be used to predict the total life stage burden by counting the life stage on a selected body area. Within a period of 1(1/2) years, we conducted whole body counts of ticks from 80 hunter-killed roe deer originating from a beech dominated forest area in central Germany. Averaged over the entire study period (winter 2007-summer 2009), the mean tick burden per roe deer was 64.5 (SE +/- 10.6). Nymphs were the most numerous tick life stage per roe deer (23.9 +/- 3.2), followed by females (21.4 +/- 3.5), larvae (10.8 +/- 4.2) and males (8.4 +/- 1.5). The individual tick burden was highly aggregated (k = 0.46); levels of aggregation were highest in larvae (k = 0.08), followed by males (k = 0.40), females (k = 0.49) and nymphs (k = 0.71). To predict total life stage specific burdens based on counts on selected body parts, we provide linear equations. For estimating larvae abundance on the entire roe deer, counts can be restricted to the front legs. Tick counts restricted to the head are sufficient to estimate total nymph burden and counts on the neck are appropriate for estimating adult ticks (females and males). In order to estimate the combined tick burden, tick counts on the head can be used for extrapolation. The presented linear models are highly significant and explain 84.1, 77.3, 90.5, 91.3, and 65.3% (adjusted R (2)) of the observed variance, respectively. Thus, these models offer a robust basis for rapid tick abundance assessment. This can be useful for studies aiming at estimating effects of abiotic and biotic factors on tick abundance, modelling tick population dynamics, modelling tick-borne pathogen transmission dynamics or assessing the efficacy of acaricides.
Soares, Sara Fernandes; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Sousa Braga, Raquel; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; de Paula, José Realino; Ferri, Pedro Henrique
Repellence responses of Amblyomma cajennense nymphs to callicarpenal, intermedeol, Hyptis suaveolens essential oil, extract of Melia azedarach, Cymbopogon nardus, Spiranthera odoratissima, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ageratum conyzoides, Mentha pulegium, Ruta graveolens, and Memora nodosa were studied. Among these the extract of C. nardus stood out because of the long-lasting repellence, maintaining, in the highest concentration, 35h of protection against 90% of the nymphs. The essential oil of H. suaveolens and the extracts of C. ambrosioides and A. conyzoides showed good repellence index (66%) when applied in high concentrations. However, greater protection could be obtained at higher concentrations but with a shorter repellence time. Callicarpenal, intermedeol, extract of M. Pulegium, and M. nodosa leaves showed moderate repellence in high concentrations. Extracts from M. azedarach, R. graveolens, S. odoratissima, and M. nodosa roots showed little or no repellent effect. These results show that some plant extracts may represent a promising alternative in the control of infestations by A. cajennense.
Latta, S C; O'Connor, B M
The ectoparasitic mite Knemidokoptes jamaicensis Turk burrows into the cornified epithelium of the legs and feet of Passeriform birds and has been reported from 12 species of North American birds. Here we establish new host and distribution records for K. jamaicensis from eight species of birds from three habitats in the Dominican Republic. These species include Hispaniolan pewee (Contopus hispaniolensis Bryant), northern mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos L.), Cape May warbler (Dendoica tigrina Gmelin), prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor Vieillot), palm warbler (Dendroica palmarum Gmelin), green-tailed warbler (Microligea palustris Cory), black-crowned palm tanager (Phaenicophilus palmarum L.), and Greater Antillean bullfinch (Loxigilla violacea L.). Rates of infestation were as great as 18.2% but varied between species and habitats. Mites were far more common in the dry desert thorn scrub than they were in higher elevation and more moist habitats, despite the fact that many of the affected species had distributions that spanned multiple habitat types. Results suggest that the abundance of scaley-leg mites is controlled by the abundance of suitable host species and by specific ecological conditions that promote transmission.
Babaeian, Esmaeil; Halliday, Bruce; Saboori, Alireza
Geholaspis (Geholaspis) pennulatus sp. nov. is described from females and males collected from forest leaf litter in Northern Iran. The new species can be easily recognised by its barbed setae j2 and z1, dorsal shield seta j5 located posterior to j6 and z6, a very wide ventri-anal shield, and the shape of the epistome. Geholaspis (G.) comelicensis Lombardini, 1962 is considered as a junior synonym of G. (G.) pauperior (Berlese, 1918). A new key for the separation of females of known species of Geholaspis (Geholaspis) is presented.
Eghbalian, Amir Hossein; Khanjani, Mohammad; Safaralizadeh, Mohammad Hassan; Ueckermann, Edward A
A new species of Hexabdella Van der Schyff, Theron & Ueckermann (Acariformes: Bdellidae), H. quercusi Eghbalian, Khanjani, Safaralizadeh, Ueckermann sp. nov., and a new species of Neomolgus Oudemans, N. iraniensis Eghbalian, Khanjani, Safaralizadeh, Ueckermann sp. nov., are described and illustrated. A key is provided for adult females of all known species of Hexabdella, as well as for adult females of Neomolgus from Asian and neighbouring countries, including Iran, Japan and the Siberian region of Russia. All specimens were collected from soil and litter under oak trees, Quercus brantii Lindley (Fagaceae), or from soil and litter under wild almond, Amygdalus scoparia L. (Rosaceae), from western Iran.
Ramroodi, Sara; Hajizadeh, Jalil; Joharchi, Omid
This paper reports on two species of mites of the genus Cosmolaelaps Berlese, 1903 in Iran--C. dorfakiensis sp. nov., and C. pinnatus sp. nov., extracted from soil and leaf litter samples in Guilan Province, Northern Iran. A key to the species of Cosmolaelaps occurring in the Iran is also provided.
Babaeian, Esmaeil; Joharchi, Omid; Jamshidian, Maryam Keshavarz
A new mite species of the genus Nothrholaspis Berlese, Nothrholaspis saboorii Babaeian & Joharchi sp. nov., is described and illustrated from specimens collected from soil in the Karaj region of Iran. An identification key for the known species of Nothrholaspis is presented.
Joharchi, Omid; Babaeian, Esmaeil; Seeman, Owen D
A new species of laelapid mite, Myrmozercon hunteri sp. nov. associated with Myrmica sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), is described and illustrated. A key to 18 species of Myrmozercon is presented. Ten further species, all described prior to 1950, are briefly diagnosed but cannot be included in the key. Myrmozercon is shown to include a distinct group, Myrmozercon sensu stricto, which all have short, highly hypotrichous legs and a series of other consistent character states. This group probably arises from within Myrmozercon sensu lato, which have long legs with little or no hypotrichy, but some species also have character states found in Myrmozercon s.s. Myrmozercon ovatum Karawajew, 1909 is regarded a junior synonym of M. brevipes Berlese, 1902.
Khanjani, Mohammad; Hoseini, Mohammad Ahmad
Three new species of the genus Neophyllobius Berlese, 1886 are described and illustrated from Iran: Neophyllobius edwardi sp. nov. and Neophyllobius seemani sp. nov. collected from soil under oak trees; and Neophyllobius dogani sp. nov. collected from soil under Astragalus bushes. A key to the species of Iran is provided.
Joharchi, Omid; Moradi, Maryam
This paper reports on three species of mites of the genus Myrmozercon Berlese, 1902 associated with ants in Iran--Myrmozercon crinitus Joharchi sp. nov. from Pheidole pallidula (Nylander), Myrmozercon michaeli Joharchi sp. nov. from Messor sp. and Myrmozercon tauricus Trach & Khaustov from Crematogaster schmidti (Mayr) in the bark of grape vines. Myrmozercon is redefined, the distribution, and the host-specificity and host range of its constituent species are discussed. A key to species of Myrmozercon occurring in the Palaearctic Region is presented.
Eghbalian, Amir Hossein; Khanjani, Mohammad; Safaralizadeh, Mohammad Hassan; Ueckermann, Edward A
This paper reports two new species of Bdellidae, Cyta leliae sp. nov. and Cyta kurdistanicus sp. nov., collected from soil and litter under oak trees, Quercus brantii Lindl. (Fagaceae), wild almond, Amygdalus lycioides Spach (Rosaceae) and grass, Kurdistan Province, Iran. A key is provided to adult female Cyta of the world.
Carnohan, Lucas P; Kaufman, Phillip E; Allan, Sandra A; Gezan, Salvador A; Weeks, Emma N I
The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latrielle), can be a serious residential pest due to its unique ability, among ticks, to complete its lifecycle indoors. A single engorged and fertilized female tick can oviposit around 4,000 eggs, allowing indoor establishment to be rapid and easy to miss in early-stage infestations. Acaricide treatment is currently the primary method of control, but can be costly and can lead to the development of acaricide resistance in tick populations. Traps of various designs can be used to help monitor and manage populations of indoor pests, such as cockroaches and bed bugs, but there are currently no commercially available traps for use with brown dog tick infestations. This study included a comparison of four commercially available bed bug traps (NightWatch [BioSensory Inc., Putnam, CT], Bed Bug Beacon [PackTite, Fort Collins, CO], ClimbUp [Susan McKnight Inc., Memphis, TN], and Verify [FMC Corporation, Philadelphia, PA]) with regard to their efficacy in capturing brown dog ticks, and also compared tick attraction to ClimbUp traps baited with several stimuli including CO2. Significantly more ticks were captured and attracted to the NightWatch and CO2-baited ClimbUp traps than the other two trap models. The results suggest that bed bug traps may be useful in brown dog tick monitoring, and CO2 will likely be an important component of a trapping system employed in the future.
Aboelhadid, Shawky Mohamed; Mahran, Hesham A; El-Hariri, Hazem M; Shokier, Khalid Mohamed
Background: Several compounds obtained from plants have potential insecticidal, growth deterrent or repellent characteristics. The control of hard ticks by non-chemical substances was targeted in this study. Methods: The effect of 36 materials on in-vitro ticks was studied, including 2 absolute controls (water only or absolute ethyl alcohol only), 6 conventionally used spinosad preparations (aqueous solutions), 12 Nigella sativa (N. sativa) preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions), and 12 Thyme preparations (aqueous and alcoholic solutions). The engorged ticks were tested in-vitro for mortality and oviposition ability using the studied materials. Results: The final mortality after 48 hours of application in N. sativa aqueous preparations began from 10.0% concentration, 1.0% to 100% by concentration preparations ≥10%. In addition, N. sativa alcoholic preparations began from 50.0% concentration, 2 % to 100% by concentration ≥5%. Meanwhile, Thyme aqueous and alcoholic preparations began from 70.0% concentration, 5% to 90% by concentration 10–20%. Additionally, spinosad aqueous preparations and both of control preparations (Water and Alcohol) resulted in no mortality. All differences were statistically significant. The oviposition was stopped in N. sativa (aqueous ≥10% and alcoholic ≥5%) and in spinosad (aqueous≥25%). The aqoues dilution of the used matters killed B. annulatus larvae beginning from the concentration 5%. Conclusion: Nigella sativa alcohol 20% was the best of studied preparations being the lowest concentration (20%) that could achieve the highest lethal (100%) effect in shortest time (12 hours). Moreover, Thyme oil and spinosad could not kill 100% of adult but did on larvae. PMID:27308273
Gadino, Angela N; Walton, Vaughn M
The beneficial mite Typhlodromus pyri is a key predator of grapevine rust mite Calepitrimerus vitis in Pacific coastal vineyards. Rust mite feeding has been associated with damage such as stunted, deformed shoot growth and reductions in fruit yield. The life history traits of T. pyri were assessed at seven constant temperatures (12.5, 15, 17.5, 20, 25, 30 and 35 °C) to determine population parameters providing data to better predict biological control of C. vitis populations by T. pyri in vineyards. Successful development from the egg to adult stage was observed at temperatures ranging from 15 to 30 °C. Constant exposure to 12.5 and 35 °C resulted in 100 % mortality in immature T. pyri. Developmental times, fecundity and longevity were highest at 25 °C. The estimated minimum and maximum developmental thresholds were 7.24 and 42.56 °C, respectively. Intrinsic rate of increase (r ( m )) was positive from 15 to 30 °C indicating population growth within this range of temperatures. Net reproductive rate and intrinsic rate of increase were greatest at 25 °C. These developmental parameters can be used to estimate population growth, determine seasonal phenology and aid in conservation management of T. pyri. Results presented in this study will aid in evaluating the effectiveness of T. pyri as a key biological control agent of C. vitis during different periods of the growing season in Pacific Northwest vineyards.
Wang, Xin; Huang, Yong; Niu, Si-bo; Jiang, Bao-Gui; Jia, Na; van der Geest, Leo; Ni, Xue-bing; Sun, Yi; Cao, Wu-Chun
Salp15, a 15-kDa tick salivary gland protein, is both essential for ticks to successfully obtain host blood and also facilitates transmission of Lyme borreliosis. To determine whether the Salp15 gene is expressed in Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes sinensis, principle vectors of Lyme borreliosis in China, we studied transcriptions of this gene in semi-engorged larvae, nymph and adults of these two species. A total of eight Salp15 homologues, five in I. persulcatus and three in I. sinensis, were identified by reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Interestingly, the intra-species similarity of Salp15 is approximately equal to its interspecies similarity and more than one Salp15 protein is expressed in a certain tick developmental stage. Comparison of DNA and proteins with other available tick Salp15 homologues suggests that the Salp15 superfamily is genetically conserved and diverse in the Ixodes ricinus complex. These findings indicate that Salp15 proteins in the I. ricinus complex may play an essential role in interacting with the host immune system and transmission of Borrelia genospecies. PMID:24714063
Venzal, José Manuel; Estrada-Peña, Agustín; Portillo, Aránzazu; Mangold, Atilio J; Castro, Oscar; de Souza, Carlos G; Félix, María L; Pérez-Martínez, Laura; Santibánez, Sonia; Oteo, José A
Amblyomma triste is the most prevalent tick species reported in human tick bites in Uruguay and has been found to be infected with Rickettsia parkeri, but no other microorganisms have been reported from this tick. A sample of 254 adults of A. triste was collected by flagging on vegetation in suburban areas in southern Uruguay. Pools of five ticks were assembled and a screening for the DNA from the resulting 51 pools was realized by PCR assays using primers for amplifying a fragment of 16S rRNA gene for members of Anaplasmataceae. Seventeen pools were positive (33%) and the sequenciation of the gene fragment amplified revealed the presence of a putative new Alpha-Proteobacterium (denominated Atri-uru). The phylogenetic analysis showed that this microorganism is closely related to the symbiont of I. ricinus denominated 'Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii' and other associated organisms. This rickettsial symbiont of ticks is included in a recent new clade proposed for the Alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria. The discovery of this bacterium in A. triste is the first evidence of this group of Rickettsiales detected in the Genus Amblyomma, and the first record in South America. Also, in two of 17 positive samples a Gamma-Proteobacterium related to Francisella-like organisms was detected.
Schulze, T L; Jordan, R A; Hung, R W; Taylor, R C; Markowski, D; Chomsky, M S
A single barrier application of granular deltamethrin to the woodland edges of a forested residential community in late spring significantly reduced the abundance of Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs. The application also suppressed the population of Amblyomma americanum (L.) nymphs, which recently became established in the study area. The efficacy of deltamethrin is compared with other commonly used acaricides.
Arimoto, Makoto; Satoh, Masaru; Uesugi, Ryuji; Osakabe, Masahiro
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-restriction fragment-length polymorphism)-based method for species identification was applied to 14 Tetranychus spider mite species, which were dominant species intercepted at Japanese import plant quarantine. We sequenced the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which included the partial ends of the 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and two internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) for 15 populations of the 14 species. We analyzed the recognition sites of four restriction endonucleases, which had been proposed for discrimination of Japanese Tetranychus species, and constructed a scheme for Tetranychus species identification by PCR-restriction fragment-length polymorphism. We then applied the scheme to 245 individuals from 199 populations, most of them were from foreign countries. As a result, all 14 species were correctly identified using PCR-restriction fragment-length polymorphism. This demonstrates the usefulness of the PCR-restriction fragment-length polymorphism method for the worldwide identification of Tetranychus species.
Boinas, Fernando; Ribeiro, Rita; Madeira, Sara; Palma, Mariana; de Carvalho, Isabel Lopes; Núncio, Sofia; Wilson, Anthony James
Argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex are associated with traditional pig-farming practices on the Iberian Peninsula and are also found elsewhere in North Africa, West Africa, and western Asia. The ticks associated with pig farming on the Iberian Peninsula are the only biological vectors of African swine fever virus (ASFV) known to occur in Europe, and their ecology makes them an extremely effective reservoir of both ASFV and the Borrelia species which cause tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in humans. The recent reappearance of ASFV in the European Union, coupled with evidence that Portuguese tick populations continue to harbor Borrelia despite a lack of confirmed human infections, suggest that these populations merit closer attention. In Portugal, a series of surveys over the last twenty-five years indicates that the number of farm sites with tick infestations has declined and suggest that populations are sensitive to changes in farm management, particularly the use of modern pig housing. Various technologies have been suggested for the control of farm-associated Ornithodoros ticks and related species but, in our opinion, farm management changes are still the most effective strategy for population control. Furthermore, we suggest that this species could probably be eradicated from Iberian pig farms.
Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Trinidad-Martinez, I; Pérez de León, A A
The brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Latreille, 1806), is an ectoparasite and disease vector of significant veterinary and public health importance that is distributed widely around the world. The intensive use of synthetic acaricides for tick control exerts a strong selective pressure for brown dog ticks to become resistant to them. Here, we investigated claims from the field regarding treatment failure associated with the use of veterinary products containing ivermectin (IVM) to control brown dog ticks infesting dogs in Yucatan state, Mexico. Dogs in six state municipalities were inspected to sample 15 R. sanguineus s.l.
von Saltzwedel, Helge; Maraun, Mark; Scheu, Stefan; Schaefer, Ina
Parthenogenetic lineages may colonize marginal areas of the range of related sexual species or coexist with sexual species in the same habitat. Frozen-Niche-Variation and General-Purpose-Genotype are two hypotheses suggesting that competition and interclonal selection result in parthenogenetic populations being either genetically diverse or rather homogeneous. The cosmopolitan parthenogenetic oribatid mite Oppiella nova has a broad ecological phenotype and is omnipresent in a variety of habitats. Morphological variation in body size is prominent in this species and suggests adaptation to distinct environmental conditions. We investigated genetic variance and body size of five independent forest - grassland ecotones. Forests and grasslands were inhabited by distinct genetic lineages with transitional habitats being colonized by both genetic lineages from forest and grassland. Notably, individuals of grasslands were significantly larger than individuals in forests. These differences indicate the presence of specialized genetic lineages specifically adapted to either forests or grasslands which coexist in transitional habitats. Molecular clock estimates suggest that forest and grassland lineages separated 16-6 million years ago, indicating long-term persistence of these lineages in their respective habitat. Long-term persistence, and morphological and genetic divergence imply that drift and environmental factors result in the evolution of distinct parthenogenetic lineages resembling evolution in sexual species. This suggests that parthenogenetic reproduction is not an evolutionary dead end. PMID:25409516
Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Campbell, Bronwyn Evelyn; Whittle, Alice; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Parisi, Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Wall, Richard; Otranto, Domenico
Natural enemies of ticks include the parasitoid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the occurrence of I. hookeri DNA in a community of ticks (Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor marginatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Haemaphysalis inermis and Rhipicephalus turanicus). From May 2010 to March 2012, ticks were collected monthly by dragging and flagging, identified, and 481 adults and 305 nymphs screened molecularly for infection with I. hookeri. Of the samples tested (n=786), 3.1% (n=25) were positive for I. hookeri DNA, 7.2% (n=22) in nymphs and 0.6% (n=3) in adults. I. hookeri DNA was only detected in I. ricinus. This study shows that I. hookeri infests I. ricinus in southern Italy, with nymphs being the main developmental stage affected by this wasp.
Li, Yongqiang; Yang, Na; Wei, Xingcun; Ling, Yun; Yang, Xinling; Wang, Qingmin
Etoxazole, 2-(2,6-difluorophenyl-4-[4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2-ethoxy-phenyl]-4,5-dihydrooxazole, an organofluorine chitin synthesis inhibitor, was assayed for its bioactivities against several major insect and acarus pests and compared to several other pesticides: two chitin synthesis inhibitors, hexaflumuron and chlorfluazuron; a pyrethroid, permethrin; an organophosphate, acephate; a carboximide, hexythiazox; and a tetrazine, clofentezine. The LC50 of etoxazole was calculated using probit analysis of the concentration-dependent mortality data against susceptible and resistant strains of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae); diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L. (Plutellidae); bean aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae); and carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) Boudreaux (Trombidiformes: Tetranychidae). The resistant strains were found to be resistant against all tested pesticides except etoxazole. The bioactivity of etoxazole was many times that of the other tested insecticides and acaricides widely used in vegetable crops in China. On the basis of our research, etoxazole can be expected to be extensively used on vegetable crops in China. PMID:25199415
Background For over a decade, the presence of trombiculid mites in some mountain areas of La Rioja (Northern Spain) and their association with seasonal human dermatitis have been recognized. This work aimed to establish the species identity of the agent causing trombiculiasis in the study area. Methods Trombiculid larvae (chigger mites) were collected from vegetation in the Sierra Cebollera Natural Park and in Sierra La Hez during an outbreak of human trombiculiasis in 2010. Three specimens collected from a bird were also examined. Identification was made using morphological and morphometric traits based on the most recent taxonomic sources. A comparison of those mites with specimens of the same species collected throughout Europe was performed by means of cluster analysis with multiscale bootstrap resampling and calculation of approximately unbiased p-values. Results All collected mites were identified as Neotrombicula inopinata (Oudemans, 1909). Therefore, this species is the most likely causative agent of trombiculiasis in Spain, not Neotrombicula autumnalis (Shaw, 1790), as it was generally assumed. No chigger was identified as N. autumnalis in the study area. Neotrombicula inopinata clearly differs from N. autumnalis in the presence of eight or more setae in the 1st and 2nd rows of dorsal idiosomal setae vs. six setae in N. autumnalis. Comparison of N. inopinata samples from different locations shows significant geographic variability in morphometric traits. Samples from Western and Eastern Europe and the Caucasus formed three separate clusters. Conclusion Since the taxonomical basis of many studies concerning N. autumnalis as a causative agent of trombiculiasis is insufficient, it is highly possible that N. inopinata may be hiding behind the common name of “harvest bug” in Europe, together with N. autumnalis. PMID:24589214
Dong, Yan; Sun, Yan-Mei; Xue, Xiao-Feng
Abstract Two new eriophyid mite species associated with Clematis terniflora var. mandshurica, namely Aculops jilinensis sp. n. and Phyllocoptes terniflores sp. n., are described. Both species infest the tender leaves of host plants, inducing severe curling and blistering. PMID:27833416
Kazemi, Shahrooz; Abolghasemi, Somayeh
Abstract In this paper, a new species of the genus Nenteria Oudemans, 1915 is described on the basis of adult female and male specimens collected in soil and litter in parks in Kerman, southeastern Iran, and Tehran, northern Iran. A key to the Iranian species of Nenteria is also presented, and Trachycilliba abantica (Bal & Őzkan, 2007) is reported for the first time in Iran. PMID:27408598
A new species of Tenuipalpus, T. sarcophilus n. sp., (Tenuipalpidae) is described from specimens collected from several species of ornamental succulent plants in Florida, including Crassula tetragona L, Sedum spp., Echeveria spp., Pachyphytum spp. (Crassulaceae) and Aloe spp. (Asphodelaceae), and fr...
Brevipalpus phoenicis sensu lato has been identified from countries all over the world and has been associated with many different host plant species. As a taxon, it shows a degree of morphological variation. A combination such as this often indicates that the taxon actually represents a complex o...
Stålstedt, Jeanette; Bergsten, Johannes; Ronquist, Fredrik
In many groups of organisms, especially in the older literature, it has been common practice to recognize sympatrically occurring phenotypic variants of a species as “forms”. However, what these forms really represent often remains unclear, especially in poorly studied groups. With new algorithms for DNA-based species delimitation, the status of forms can be explicitly tested with molecular data. In this study, we test a number of what is now recognized as valid species of water mites (Hydrachnidia), but have in the past been treated as forms sympatrically occurring with their nominate species. We also test a form without prior taxonomical status, using DNA and morphometrics. The barcoding fragment of COI, nuclear 28S and quantitative analyses of morphological data were used to test whether these taxa merit species status, as suggested by several taxonomists. Our results confirm valid species. Genetic distances between the form and nominate species (Piona dispersa and Piona variabilis, COI 11%), as well as likelihood ratio tests under the general mixed-Yule coalescent model, supported that these are separately evolving lineages as defined by the unified species concept. In addition, they can be diagnosed with morphological characters. The study also reveals that some taxa genetically represent more than one species. We propose that P. dispersa are recognized as valid taxa at the species level. Unionicola minor (which may consist of several species), Piona stjordalensis, P. imminuta s. lat., and P. rotundoides are confirmed as species using this model. The results also imply that future studies of other water mite species complexes are likely to reveal many more genetically and morphologically distinct species. PMID:24223279
Six previously unreported domatia-inhabiting mites are reported from Coffea arabica accessions planted in Costa Rica. One of these is a new species of Asca found to be carrying fungal spores on its cuticle. A review of the literature on mites in coffee domatia is presented....
Liu, Dong; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang
Three new species of Austrophthiracarus (Oribatida: Phthiracaridae) from New Zealand are described: Austrophthiracarus matuku sp. nov. from the Bethells Matuku Reserve, Auckland, Austrophthiracarus notoporosus sp. nov. from the Tutoko Bench, Fiordland and Austrophthiracarus karioi sp. nov. from the Mt. Karioi, Waikato. Holotype specimens are deposited in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research and paratypes are deposited in the Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Colloff, Matthew J
New Zealand contains 13 of the 69 species of Crotonia described globally and is the only place where all three genera of the Crotoniinae-Crotonia, Austronothrus and Holonothrus-have been recorded. Due to the pioneering work of Hammer (1966) and Luxton (1982) it also has the highest number of distribution records of Crotonia spp. anywhere. In the present study I build upon previous work to re-examine the Crotonia fauna of New Zealand in the light of recent taxonomic and biogeographical research. A new species is described, C. ramsayi sp. nov., a member of the Unguifera species group, and supplementary descriptions are provided for C. brachyrostrum (Hammer 1966), C. caudalis (Hammer, 1966), C. cophinaria (Michael, 1908), and C. unguifera (Michael 1908), as well as a key to species. Crotonia spp. from New Zealand occur predominantly in localities with relatively low mean annual temperature and high water balance, reflecting a requirement for cool, moist conditions. In New Zealand Crotonia spp. occur in an extremely wide variety of vegetation communities compared with other regions in its range (Australia, Africa and South America), and this is indicative that water balance requirements are met, regardless of vegetation type. Some elements of the New Zealand Crotonia fauna, notably the Cophinaria species group, are common to Australia, Africa and South America, indicating a shared evolutionary history pre-dating the separation of Africa from Gondwana 110 mya. The high proportion of species that occur west of the Alpine Fault is consistent with a relictual distribution of Gondwanan elements on the Australian Plate. However, it is unclear whether uplift of the Southern Alps formed a barrier to dispersal. A high representation of the morphologically closely-related Obtecta, Flagellata and Unguifera groups, shared only with South America (and, for Unguifera, with Oceania) represents a dramatically different faunal composition compared with other former Gondwanan landmasses and is consistent with submergence of most of New Zealand during the Oligocene (ca. 25 mya). All of these characteristics indicate a distinctive evolutionary pathway for the Crotonia fauna since New Zealand separated from the rest of Gondwana 80 mya.
Ogrzewalska, Maria; Literák, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldřich; Calderón, Víctor Álvarez; Rodríguez, Bernardo Calvo; Prudencio, Carlos; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B
The aim of this study was to document the presence of Rickettsia spp. in ticks parasitizing wild birds in Costa Rica. Birds were trapped at seven locations in Costa Rica during 2004, 2009, and 2010; then visually examined for the presence of ticks. Ticks were identified, and part of them was tested individually for the presence of Rickettsia spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting fragments of the rickettsial genes gltA and ompA. PCR products were DNA-sequenced and analyzed in BLAST to determine similarities with previously reported rickettsial agents. A total of 1878 birds were examined, from which 163 birds (9%) were infested with 388 ticks of the genera Amblyomma and Ixodes. The following Amblyomma (in decreasing order of abundance) were found in immature stages (larvae and nymphs): Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sabanerae, Amblyomma varium, Amblyomma maculatum, and Amblyomma ovale. Ixodes ticks were represented by Ixodes minor and two unclassified species, designated here as Ixodes sp. genotype I, and Ixodes sp. genotype II. Twelve of 24 tested A. longirostre ticks were found to be infected with 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', and 2 of 4 A. sabanerae were found to be infected with Rickettsia bellii. Eight of 10 larval Ixodes minor were infected with an endosymbiont (a novel Rickettsia sp. agent) genetically related to the Ixodes scapularis endosymbiont. No rickettsial DNA was found in A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. maculatum, A. ovale, A. varium, Ixodes sp. I, and Ixodes sp. II. We report the occurrence of I. minor in Costa Rica for the first time and a number of new bird host-tick associations. Moreover, 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' and R. bellii were found in A. longirostre and A. sabanerae, respectively, in Costa Rica for the first time.
Pence, D B; Newman, S
A new species of hypoderatid deutonymph is described from the subcutaneous adipose tissues of the pelagic cormorant, Phalacrocorax pelagicus Pallas, from Alaska. Neotialges neopelagicus n. sp. is similar to the 3 other Neottialges spp. from cormorants. N. neopelagicus closely resembles N. tasmaniensis Fain & Domrow except the genital apodeme is incomplete in the latter, but the sclerotized T-shaped extremities are connected by a thin line of sclerotization to form a complete central apodeme in N. neopelagicus. There also are minor differences in leg chaetotaxy of these 2 species. The genital apodeme is heavily sclerotized throughout its length in N. evanis Fain and N. pelagicus OConnor. In both these species, seta d4 is long and resembles other middorsal idiosomal setae, whereas it is short and hairlike in N. tasmaniensis and N. neopelagicus. In N. pelagicus terminal seta as on tarsus IV is smooth; it is serrated in the other three species. The single pelagic cormorant we found infected with N. neopelagicus shared this host with N. pelagicus, emphasizing the possibility of coexistence of 2 very similar species of hypoderatids in the same host individual.
Khanjani, Mohammad; Nasrollahi, Siamak; Zamani, Ali Sina; Fayaz, Bahman Asali
Two new species belonging to the family Stigmaeidae, Cheylostigmaeus tarae sp. nov. and Stigmaeus delaramae sp. nov., are described from specimens collected from soil and litter under pear trees, Pyrus communis L. (Rosaceae) in Iran. A key to all Iranian species of the genera Cheylostigmaeus (male) and Stigmaeus (female) are provided.
Khanjani, Mohammad; Hoseini, Mohammad Ahmad; Amini, Fatemeh
Two new species of the genus Anoplocheylus Berlese, 1910 are described: Anoplocheylus marivaniensis sp. nov. collected from soil and rotten leaves under oak trees and Anoplocheylus qorvehiensis sp. nov. from soil under Astragalus sp. bushes in Kurdistan province, Iran. A key to females of all known species of Anoplocheylus is provided, based on original descriptions and other literature.
Allerdice, Michelle E J; Hecht, Joy A; Karpathy, Sandor E; Paddock, Christopher D
Amblyomma maculatum Koch (the Gulf Coast tick) is an aggressive, human-biting ixodid tick distributed throughout much of the southeastern United States and is the primary vector for Rickettsia parkeri, an emerging human pathogen. Amblyomma maculatum has diverse host preferences that include white-tailed deer, a known reservoir for Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species, including the human pathogens E. ewingii and E. chaffeensis. To examine more closely the potential role of A. maculatum in the maintenance of various pathogenic Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species, we screened DNA samples from 493 questing adult A. maculatum collected from six U.S. states using broad-range Anaplasmataceae and Ehrlichia genus-specific PCR assays. Of the samples tested, four (0.8%) were positive for DNA of Ehrlichia ewingii, one (0.2%) was positive for Anaplasma platys, and one (0.2%) was positive for a previously unreported Ehrlichia species closely related to Ehrlichia muris and an uncultivated Ehrlichia species from Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks in Japan. No ticks contained DNA of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia canis, the Panola Mountain Ehrlichia, or Anaplasma phagocytophilum. This is the first identification of E. ewingii, A. platys, and the novel Ehrlichia in questing Gulf Coast ticks; nonetheless the low prevalence of these agents suggests that A. maculatum is not likely an important vector of these zoonotic pathogens.
Paddock, Christopher D; Goddard, Jerome
Amblyomma maculatum Koch (the Gulf Coast tick) is a three-host, ixodid tick that is distributed throughout much of the southeastern and south-central United States, as well as several countries throughout Central and South America. A considerable amount of scientific literature followed the original description of A. maculatum in 1844; nonetheless, the Gulf Coast tick was not recognized as a vector of any known pathogen of animals or humans for >150 years. It is now identified as the principal vector of Hepatozoon americanum, the agent responsible for American canine hepatozoonosis, and Rickettsia parkeri, the cause of an emerging, eschar-associated spotted fever group rickettsiosis identified throughout much of the Western Hemisphere. Coincident with these discoveries has been recognition that the geographical distribution of A. maculatum in the United States is far more extensive than described 70 yr ago, supporting the idea that range and abundance of certain tick species, particularly those with diverse host preferences, are not fixed in time or space, and may change over relatively short intervals. Renewed interest in the Gulf Coast tick reinforces the notion that the perceived importance of a particular tick species to human or animal health can be relatively fluid, and may shift dramatically with changes in the distribution and abundance of the arthropod, its vertebrate hosts, or the microbial agents that transit among these organisms.
Sréter-Lancz, Zsuzsa; Tornyai, Krisztián; Széll, Zoltán; Sréter, Tamás; Márialigeti, Károly
Fleas (95 Pulex irritans, 50 Ctenocephalides felis, 45 Ctenocephalides canis) and ixodid ticks (223 ixodes ricinus, 231 Dermacentor reticulatus, 204 Haemaphysalis concinna) were collected in Hungary and tested, in assays based on PCR, for Bartonella infection. Low percentages of P. irritans (4.2%) and C. felis (4.0%) were found to be infected. The groEL sequences of the four isolates from P. irritans were different from all the homologous sequences for bartonellae previously stored in GenBank but closest to those of Bartonella sp. SE-Bart-B (sharing 96% identities). The groEL sequences of the two isolates from C. felis were identical with those of the causative agents of cat scratch disease, Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae, respectively. The pap31 sequences of B. henselae amplified from Hungarian fleas were identical with that of Marseille strain. No Bartonella-specific amplification products were detected in C. canis, I. ricinus, D. reticulatus and H. concinna pools.
The tick Ixodes brunneus Koch is a rare species occurring primarily in North America, where it feeds on many species of passeriform birds. Virtually nothing is known about the questing activity of this tick, although adults often stand with their front legs straight up, suggesting that they quest from a horizontal position. The present study analyzed I. brunneus questing behavior based on field data from drag cloth collections in northern Mississippi, as well as observational laboratory data from 10 I. brunneus ticks released into an experimental "questing apparatus." Ten ticks of a related species, I. scapularis Say, were used for comparison, and there were 3 replications each trial. Eight I. brunneus adults were collected along a nature trail in a northern Mississippi park during 20 total swaths with a drag cloth over a 2-day period (each time 5 swaths in the middle of the trail, with little or no vegetation; and 5 swaths along the edge of the trail, with taller vegetation). All 8 ticks were collected in the middle of the trail in vegetation no taller than 40 mm. In the laboratory experiment, the majority (>70%) of ticks of both species made no attempt to climb the metal or wood artificial stems, but instead they crawled around on the substratum. In 8/30 instances, I. brunneus climbed metal artificial stems to various heights as opposed to 4/30 instances for I. scapularis . Sometimes, ticks of both species seemed to quest at the base of both types of artificial stems. The mean height for questing by I. scapularis on metal stems was 38.2 mm as opposed to 31.8 mm for I. brunneus. Although the mean height was slightly higher for I. scapularis compared with I. brunneus, there was no statistical difference in questing heights observed between the 2 species. Ixodes brunneus and I. scapularis climbed wooden artificial stems in only 2/30 instances for each tick species, again with no statistical difference in questing heights between species. The field observations suggest that I. brunneus quests at ground level; however, laboratory simulations revealed that although the average height climbed was below 40 mm, they sometimes climb artificial stems to greater heights (approximately 50 mm in 4 instances).
Castellaw, A H; Showers, J; Goddard, J; Chenney, E F; Varela-Stokes, A S
In this study, we evaluated Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick) in Mississippi for the presence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis; Ehrlichia ewingii, causative agent of human and canine granulocytic ehrlichiosis; Borrelia lonestari, putative agent of southern tick-associated rash illness; Francisella tularensis, the agent of tularemia; and Rickettsia spp., particularly R. amblyommii, a suspected pathogen. We collected adult A. americanum from four regions of Mississippi: Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and East. Of the ticks collected, 192 were dissected and DNA was extracted for nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to detect the above bacteria. In all, 3% of tick extracts had evidence of Borrelia sp., 4% for E. chaffeensis, 6% for E. ewingii, and 44% for a Rickettsia species. As determined by sequencing, most Rickettsia spp. were R. amblyommii. In addition, extracts from 42 pools (total of 950) of larval A. americanum collected in Southwest Mississippi were tested for the presence of E. chaffeensis and Rickettsia species. Of these extracts from pools, nine of 37 (24%) were PCR positive for a Rickettsia sp., most often, R. amblyommii; none had evidence of E. chaffeensis, supporting the ability of lone star ticks to transovarially transmit R. amblyommii, but not E. chaffeensis. This study demonstrates E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, "B. lonestari", and R. amblyommii in A. americanum by PCR for the first time in Mississippi. Understanding the prevalence and epidemiology of these agents in Mississippi should increase awareness of tick-borne disease in the medical community.
Pence, Danny B.; Spalding, M.G.; Bergan, J.F.; Cole, R.A.
New host, geographic records, or both are established for 14 species of hypoderatid deutonymphs from 14 species of birds in North America. Ten of these records are regarded as examples of a potential host colonization event where these hypopi have become established in hosts other than those with which they are normally associated. Herein, potential host colonization events by hypoderatid deutonymphs are regarded as more of an ecologically determined than physiologically specific phenomenon, often specifically related to sharing of nesting sites in the same rookeries by different host taxa. Neottialges ibisicola Young & Pence is placed as a junior synonym of Neottialges plegadicola Fain. The taxonomic status of Hypodectes propus from columbid versus ardeid hosts needs further study.
Ginsberg, Howard S.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Heyer, Klaus; Zhioua, Elyes
The potential for nontarget effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin, when used for biological control of ticks, was assessed in laboratory trials. Fungal pathogenicity was studied against convergent ladybird beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, house crickets, Acheta domesticus (L.), and the milkweed bugs Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas). Fungal spores applied with a spray tower produced significant mortality in H. convergens and A. domesticus, but effects on O. fasciatus were marginal. Placing treated insects with untreated individuals resulted in mortality from horizontal transmission to untreated beetles and crickets, but not milkweed bugs. Spread of fungal infection in the beetles resulted in mortality on days 4–10 after treatment, while in crickets mortality was on day 2 after treatment, suggesting different levels of pathogenicity and possibly different modes of transmission. Therefore, M. anisopliae varies in pathogenicity to different insects. Inundative applications can potentially affect nontarget species, but M. anisopliae is already widely distributed in North America, so applications for tick control generally would not introduce a novel pathogen into the environment. Pathogenicity in lab trials does not, by itself, demonstrate activity under natural conditions, so field trials are needed to confirm these results and to assess methods to minimize nontarget exposure.
The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...
Pence, Danny B.; Cole, R.A.
Thalassornectes (Alcidectes) aukletae, originally described from two species of auklets (Charadriiformes: Alcidae) from maritime eastern Russia, is reported from a third species of pelagic charadriiform (Stercorariidae), the pomarine jaeger, Stercorarius poinarinus (Temminck), from Florida. The specimens from the jaeger are slightly smaller, the genital apodeme is more heavily sclerotized, paired setae gm are twice as long and there are other minor variations in the idiosomal and leg chaetotaxy. These differences are not considered sufficient to warrant taxonomic separation at the species or subspecies level from the nominate species T. (A.) aukletae. The same hypopus occurring across different families of birds is unusual in the Hypoderatidae. The diversity in hosts from several orders of birds, low intensities of infection in the two species from Africa, low prevalences in alcids from Russia, and rarity of these hypoderatids in all surveyed hosts leads us to speculate that the true host affinities of species in the genus Thalassornectes are unknown. The alternative consideration is that these are simply uncommon species that are very host specific.
Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago; Mastropaolo, Mariano; Mangold, Atilio J
A study was conducted to investigate the distribution of Amblyomma triste in Argentina under the hypothesis that this tick prevails in riparian localities along the Paraná River and adjacent humid environments from 34° 30' S to 25° 20' S, approximately. Ticks were collected from mammals and vegetation in those environments from November 2008 to October 2012. Additionally, genetic variation was tested from Argentinean, Brazilian, Chilean, and Uruguayan populations of A. triste by comparing sequences of 16S rDNA mitochondrial gene. The hypothesis was not confirmed because A. triste were collected at 36° 16' S, well beyond the southern limit predicted, and the distribution along the banks of the Paraná River was not continuous. The northernmost population of A. triste within Argentina was found at 25° 42' S. Still undetermined abiotic factors and plant communities may play a role in modulating the abundance of A. triste because host availability does not appear to be a restriction factor. The genetic variation among A. triste populations from Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay indicates that they belong to a unique taxon that is considered bona fide A. triste (type locality Montevideo, Uruguay) while it is unclear if the Chilean population of A. triste is conspecific with the other populations investigated in this study. It would be of importance to compare those genetically homogeneous populations with other populations of alleged A. triste, especially populations established in the Nearctic Zoogeographic Region in Mexico and USA.
Nava, Santiago; Barbieri, Amalia M; Maya, Leticia; Colina, Rodney; Mangold, Atilio J; Labruna, Marcelo B; Venzal, José M
The aim of this work was to describe for the first time the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infecting ticks in Argentina. Unfed specimens of Ixodes pararicinus collected from vegetation in Jujuy Province were tested for Borrelia infection by PCR targeting the gene flagellin (fla), the rrfA-rrlB intergenic spacer region (IGS) and the 16S rDNA (rrs) gene. One male and one female of I. pararicinus collected in Jujuy were found to be positive to Borrelia infection with the three molecular markers tested. Phylogenetically, the Borrelia found in I. pararicinus from Jujuy belongs to the B. burgdorferi s.l complex, and it was similar to one of the genospecies detected in I. aragaoi from Uruguay. Also, this genospecies is closely related to two genospecies known from USA, Borrelia americana and the Borrelia sp. genospecies 1. The epidemiological risk that implies the infection with Borrelia in I. paracinus ticks from Argentina appears to be low because the genospecies detected is not suspected of having clinical relevance and there are no records of Ixodes ticks biting humans in the southern cone of South America. Further studies are needed to assess accurately if there is risk of borreliosis transmitted by ticks in South America.
Sanches, Gustavo S; André, Marcos R; do Prado, Angelo P; Allegretti, Silmara M; Remedio, Rafael N; Nunes, Pablo H; Machado, Rosangela Z; Bechara, Gervásio H; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I
The sloth's giant tick Amblyomma varium Koch, which is a neotropical species that inhabits tropical rainforests, is the largest tick reported to date. The adult stage of this tick parasitizes mammals from the families Bradypodidae and Magalonychidae (Xenarthra) nearly exclusively. This study aimed to describe morphological and histological features of the reproductive system and the oocyte maturation process of this tick species. The ovary of A. varium is a long single tubular organ that is horseshoe-shaped, winding and arranged in the posterior part of the body. Two oviducts are connected to the ovary on each side; these thicken at certain region forming the uterus (common oviduct), followed by a muscular connecting tube, vagina and genital aperture. A large number of oocytes at different stages of development are attached to the ovary wall by the pedicel, as they reach maturity they are released into the ovary lumen and from there to the genital aperture. These oocytes develop simultaneously and asynchronically along the ovary. Amblyomma varium oocytes were classified into five development stages (i.e., I-V), and specific characteristics were observed; the processes of yolk and chorion deposition begin early in oocytes stage II, and oocytes V exhibit a very thick chorion and eggs of a large size. These characteristics are likely adaptations that enhance the survival and the reproductive success of this extremely host-specific tick, which is limited to a particular environment.
Aspaly, Gamila; Stejskal, Vaclav; Pekár, Stano; Hubert, Jan
The pest potential of stored product mites depends on the reproduction rate that is affected by the environmental conditions. In this study we investigated the effect of temperature, ranging from 5 to 35 degrees C, on the population growth of three important mite species, Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Auleroglyphus ovatus at 85% r.h. Starting with 10 individuals the population increase of mites was observed after 3 weeks of cultivation, or after 6 weeks for those kept at low temperatures (5, 10, 12.5, and 15 degrees C). The rate of increase was calculated for each temperature and species. The obtained data were fitted with polynomial models. The mite population growth rates increased with increasing moderate temperatures until 25 degrees C, when r ( m )-values were 0.179, 0.177 and 0.190 for A. siro, A. ovatus and T. putrescentiae, respectively. The lower development threshold was 10.2 degrees C in all three species. Estimated upper temperature threshold was higher in T. putrescentiae (49 degrees C) than in A. siro and A. ovatus (38 degrees C). Simulation of the rate of population increase under ideal conditions, using real temperature records obtained from Czech grain stores, showed that the pest mite populations increase only during 3.5 months within a typical 9-month storage season in Central Europe. These results indicate that control of mites, be it chemical, physical or biological, is recommended during the months when allergens and pests are produced, i.e. from September to mid November and in May.
Major infestations of the Red Palm Mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, have been reported in almost all the Caribbean islands and Venezuela. Correct identification of the mite and host associations is essential for the management and biocontrol of this invasive mite pest. This paper provides information o...
Dermacentor albipictus (Packard) is a North American Ixodid tick that parasitizes deer species but also infests livestock. It is a suspected vector of the agent of anaplasmosis in cattle herds, Anaplasma marginale, but its microbial flora and emerging pathogen vector potential remain under-evaluated...
Horak, Ivan G; Lutermann, Heike; Medger, Katarina; Apanaskevich, Dmitry A; Matthee, Conrad A
The first collection of unengorged and fully engorged larvae of Nuttalliella sp. (N. namaqua?) from the murid rodents Micaelamys namaquensis, Aethomys chrysophilus and Acomys spinosissimus in Limpopo Province and from M. namaquensis in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa, is documented. A total of nine larvae were collected from two M. namaquensis in the Soutpansberg mountain range in the Limpopo Province during April 2009. During the last week of September 2011, 221 larvae were collected from rodents at the same locality and 10 of 48 M. namaquensis, 6 of 12 Ae. chrysophilus and 3 of 14 Ac. spinosissimus were infested. One of the M. namaquensis harboured 53 larvae. Five larvae were collected from two M. namaquensis in the Northern Cape Province. Total genomic DNA was extracted from two larvae and a region of the 18S rRNA gene was sequenced for these. BLASTn searches revealed similarity between these specimens and the Nuttalliella sequences published on GenBank.
Kazemi, Shahrooz; Mehrzad, Nazanin; Latifi, Malihe
Abstract A new species of the genus Laelaspis Berlese, Laelaspis elongatus sp. n. is described based on adult female and male specimens collected in association with Pheidole pallidula (Nylander) (Hym., Formicidae) in Ahwaz, Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran, and also Acinopus (Acinopus) picipes (Olivier) (Col., Carabidae) in Bam, Kerman Province, southeastern Iran. PMID:26843834
Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi
Objective To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. Results A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Conclusions Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks. PMID:25183090
Chilli thrips, a newly introduced pest in the United States, is well known to cause significant economic damage on a variety of crops worldwide. In Florida, it has emerged as a key pest of ornamental and vegetable crops. Chemical control is still considered a primary mode for its control. The ration...
Chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a newly introduced pest in the United States is well known to cause significant economic damage on a variety of crops worldwide. In Florida, it has emerged as a key pest of ornamental and vegetable crops. Chemical control is still ...
White, Joseph B; Park, Yong-Lak; West, Todd P; Tobin, Patrick C
With the recent decline of honey bees, Apis mellifera (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae), there is a need for alternative or supplemental crop pollinators, such as Osmia cornifrons (Radoszkowski) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). However, O. cornifrons propagation could be impeded by a cleptoparasitic mite, Chaetodactylus krombeini Baker. We investigated the effects of formic acid and wintergreen oil on mortality of C. krombeini hypopi and O. cornifrons adults by determining the lethal concentration of each compound on each species. On average, >4.8 and >1.8 h were required to cause mortality in O. cornifrons adults when <2,473.5 ppm of formic acid and wintergreen oil was applied as a fumigant, respectively. When the two chemicals were directly applied to the exoskeleton of O. cornifrons adults, 353.4 ppm of wintergreen oil caused bee mortality within 10 min; however, no mortality was found with any formic acid application attempted. Mortality of C. krombeini hypopi occurred 5 and 10 min after application of >176.7 ppm of formic acid and wintergreen oil, respectively. Estimates of LC50 for C. krombeini hypopi treated with formic acid and wintergreen oil were 54.3 and 271.3 ppm, respectively. This study showed that C. krombeini could be controlled effectively without inducing O. cornifrons adult mortality based on concentration and duration of fumigation.
Chakrabarti, Samiran; Sur, Surajit; Roy, Sourav; Sarkar, Sanjay
Two new genera and two new species of eriophyoid mites viz., Propeaciota genusetosis n. gen. and n. sp. infesting Acer sp. (Aceraceae) and Spinaephyes alnus n. gen. and n. sp. infesting Alnus nepalensis D. Don (Betulaceae) are described in the tribe Tegonotini (Eriophyidae: Phyllocoptinae) from North Bengal, India. Aciota secundum Flechtmann et al.1995 is re-assigned (n. comb.) to Propeaciota. Relationships of the new genera with other eriophyoid genera are discussed.
Jagersbacher-Baumann, Julia; Ebermann, Ernst
Based on males gained from laboratory cultures, nine new descriptions and one redescription of scutacarid males are given: the respective species are Heterodispus foveatus Jagersbacher-Baumann and Ebermann 2012, Imparipes dispar Rack, 1964, Lamnacarus ornatus Balogh and Mahunka, 1963, Scutacarus acarorum (Goeze, 1780), S. deserticolus Mahunka, 1969, S. ellipticus Karafiat, 1959, S. longipes Rack, 1975, S. longitarsus (Berlese, 1905), S. tackei Willmann, 1942 and S. tyrrhenicus Ebermann, 1986. The taxonomic relevance of male morphology is evaluated. It reveals a strong potential for differentiating between species, and possible characters diagnostic for scutacarid genera are discussed. Within Heterostigmatina, males of Scutacaridae show the most derived characters.
Three new fortuyniid species, Fortuynia longiseta sp. nov., F. maledivensis sp. nov. and Alismobates pseudoreticulatus sp. nov., were found in littoral environments of the Maldives and Singapore and are described based on adult and juvenile morphology. A key is given to all Alismobates and Fortuynia species. The genus Fortuynia shows a homogeneous morphology and this is supposed to be a result of a limited habitat preference shown in this genus. Nearly all species only occur on rocky intertidal shores, except for F. rotunda dwelling in mangrove habitats and F. smiti found in riverine environments. Fortuynia smiti was now also found in a typical littoral habitat in Singapore and hence the remarkably broad ecological range of this species is discussed. The records of further fortuyniid species in the Indo-Pacific affirm that this taxon may be continuously distributed along shores of this geographic region.
Sanders, Francis H; Norton, Roy A
Ptychoidy is a defensive adaptation of several groups of oribatid mites in which legs and coxisternum can be fully retracted into the opisthosoma and protected by a ventrally deflected prodorsum, resulting in a seed-like appearance. Using Euphthiracarus cooki as a model, we examined details of exoskeletal and muscular anatomy in combination with studies of live individuals to provide the first functional analysis of ptychoidy. There are two main functional components: the first is a set of exoskeletal and muscular adaptations, mostly of the podosoma and prodorsum, that combine to effect leg withdrawal and prodorsal deflection; the second comprises adaptations of the opisthosoma that allow control of hydrostatic pressure during the large hemocoel volume adjustments associated with ptychoidy. Adaptations important in the closing process (enptychosis) are found in four body regions. Much of the podosomal exoskeleton (especially pleural) is unsclerotized, which facilitates leg retraction and prodorsal deflection during enptychosis. The coxisternum has several flexible furrows along which it folds in order to bring legs into a tightly parallel arrangement. The prodorsum has specialized attachment surfaces (manubrium and inferior retractor process) for retractor muscles and a paired bothridial scale that participates in prodorsal alignment during enptychosis. The subcapitulum has a prominent capitular apodeme on which important retractor muscles insert. The mineralized notogaster has an anterior "collar" that accommodates the retracted prodorsum; it includes paired notches and receptacles that accommodate the bothridial scales, thereby creating a temporary fixed axis for rotation of the prodorsum in a "lazy hinge" mechanism. Specialized muscles form the retractor system; most conspicuous are the large coxisternal retractors and prodorsal retractors, both of which originate on the notogaster. Other components have adjustor roles; among them are muscles of the endosternal system that control retraction of the subcapitulum and assist leg retraction, and the dorsoventral muscles which adjust the folded coxisternum. Hemolymph pressure control is a function of the opisthosoma, where the principle exoskeletal elements form a pleated venter, having a cross-sectional shape like an inverted "W." Paired holoventral plates (each representing fused genital, aggenital, anal, and anal plates) form the inner angle and are flanked by paired plicature plates. The holoventral plates are connected medially in two ways : 1) by three permanent bridges of sclerotized cuticle that include an anterior phragmatal bridge and two widely spaced, hollow apodemes (preanal, postanal); 2) by temporary zipper-like closures of two different types. Lateral compression of the pleats is effected by a series of transversely arranged, lateral compressor muscles that run from plicature to holoventral plate edges, and from holoventral plate edges to the medial apodemes. Compression increases hydrostatic pressure in the opisthosoma and stores energy in both the slightly deformed, mineralized notogaster and in the three holoventral bridges. During normal activity the compressor system is active and the inflated podosomal region provides support for the extended legs. When the mite is irritated, the prodorsum is hydraulically ejected from its active position in the notogastral collar, then relaxation of the compressors causes a fall in hemolymph pressure and return of the notogaster to an undeformed condition. Muscles of the retractor system then act in specific sequence to retract and adjust the coxisternum and prodorsum until they are precisely positioned at the completion of enptychosis. The process takes between 0.5 and 1 sec. When irritation ceases, partial opening allows sensory leg hairs to "test" the environment. Resumption of normal, active posture (ecptychosis) involves activation of the lateral compressor system and hydraulic inflation of the podosoma, through which legs are extended and the prodorsum is reflected.
Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Żołtowska, Krystyna; Frączek, Regina; Lipiński, Zbigniew
Varroa destructor is an ectoparasite that causes serious damage to the population of the honeybee. Increasing resistance of the parasite to acaricides is related, among others, to metabolic adaptations of its esterases to facilitate decomposition of the chemicals used. Esterases are a large heterogeneous group of enzymes that metabolize a number of endogenous and exogenous substrates with ester binding. The aim of the present study was to determine the activity of esterases in the body extracts (BE) and excretion/secretion products (E/SP) of the mite. The enzymes contained in the E/SP should originate mainly from the salivary glands and the alimentary system and they may play a particularly important role in the first line of defence of the mite against acaricides. Activity of cholinesterases (ChEs) [acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase], carboxylesterases (CEs) and phosphatases [alkaline phosphatase (AP) and acid phosphatase (AcP)] was investigated. The activity of all the enzymes except AChE was higher in the E/SP than in the BE. ChEs from the BE and from the E/SP reacted differently on eserine, a ChE inhibitor. Eserine inhibited both enzymes from the BE, increased decomposition of acetylcholine, but did not influence hydrolysis of butyrylcholine by the E/SP. Activity of the CEs from the BE in relation to the esters of carboxylic acids can be presented in the following series: C10 > C12 > C14 > C8 > C2 > C4 = C16, while activity of the CEs from the E/SP was: C4 > C8 > C2 > C14 > C10 > C12 > C16. The inhibitor of CEs, triphenyl phosphate, reduced the activity of esterases C2–C8 and C14–C16; however, it acted in the opposite way to CEs C10 and C12. The activity of both phosphatases was higher in the E/SP than in the BE (AcP about twofold and AP about 2.6-fold); the activities of AP and AcP in the same material were similar. Given the role of esterases in resistance to pesticides, further studies are necessary to obtain complete biochemical characteristics of the enzymes currently present in V. destructor.
Mazyad, Said A; Abel El-Kadi, Mohamed
Cutaneous manifestations of bird and rat mite infestation in man are not easily recognized by physicians or patients. Clinical signs and symptoms are developed secondary to bites of mites that have infested rats, domestic poultry or birds nesting in or near human habitation and comes into contact with man. This study details 4 cases of pruritic dermatitis developed in four field workers in poultry farms in Al-Marg district, Qalyobia governorate, Egypt. The zoonotic species of Ornithoyssus sp., (Family Macronyssidae) was isolated from all samples collected from patients' habitat and the role played by Ornithonyssus mites in causing dermatitis in man was discussed.
Reeves, Will K; Loftis, Amanda D; Szumlas, Daniel E; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Hanafi, Hanafi A; Dasch, Gregory A
We collected and tested 616 tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)) from rats (Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout) and R. rattus (Linnaeus)) throughout 14 governorates in Egypt and tested DNA extracts from pools of these mites for Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. by PCR amplification and sequencing. Three different mite-associated bacterial agents, including one Bartonella and two Rickettsia spp., were detected in eight pools of mites. Further research could demonstrate the vector potential of mites and pathogenicity of these agents to humans or animals.
Horak, I G; MacIvor, K M; Petney, T N; De Vos, V
Large numbers of birds, wild mammals and domestic stock from a variety of localities within the Republic of South Africa were examined for infestation with the ixodid ticks Amblyomma hebraeum and Amblyomma marmoreum. Every warthog (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), Burchell's zebra (Equus burchelli), impala (Aepyceros melampus) and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) from the Kruger National Park in the north-eastern Transvaal Lowveld was infested with A. hebraeum. In the eastern Cape Province every helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris), scrub hare (Lepus saxatilis) and kudu from the Andries Vosloo Kudu Reserve; all but 1 of the 22 domestic cattle examined on the farm "Bucklands"; and all Angora goats plus nearly all Boer goats examined on the farm "Brakhill" were infested with this tick. Most animals examined appeared to be good hosts of the immature stages, and the larger the host species the greater the chances of it harbouring large numbers of adult ticks. The largest animals examined, such as eland, buffalo, giraffe and rhinoceros, harboured very large numbers of adult A. hebraeum. No adult A. marmoreum was recovered from any host. However, 50% or more of helmeted guinea fowl and kudu from the Andries Vosloo Kudu Reserve; helmeted guinea fowl, scrub hares and eland (Taurotragus oryx) from the Mountain Zebra National Park; helmeted guinea fowl, kudu, domestic sheep, goats and cattle on the farm "Bucklands", and caracal (Felis caracal) from the Cradock and Southwell areas of the eastern Cape Province were infested with immature A. marmoreum. In the Bontebok National Park in the south-western Cape Province more than 35% of scrub hares, vaal ribbok (Pelea capreolus) and bontebok (Damaliscus dorcas dorcas) were infested with immature ticks.
Zhioua, E.; LeBrun, R.A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Aeschliman, A.
The entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and S. glaseri (Steiner) are pathogenic to engorged adult, blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis (Say), but not to unfed females, engorged nymphs, or engorged larvae. Nematodes apparently enter the tick through the genital pore, thus precluding infection of immature ticks. The timing of tick mortality, and overall mortality after 17 d, did not differ between infections by S. carpocapsae and S. glaseri. These nematodes typically do not complete their life cycles or produce infective juveniles in I. scapularis. However, both species successfully produced infective juveniles when the tick body was slit before nematode infection. Mortality of engorged I. scapularis females infected by S. carpocapsae was greater than uninfected controls, but did not vary significantly with nematode concentration (50-3,000 infective juveniles per 5-cm-diameter petri dish). The LC50 was 347.8 infective juveniles per petri dish (5 ticks per dish). Hatched egg masses of infected ticks weighed less than those of uninfected controls. Mortality of infected ticks was greatest between 20 and 30?C, and was lower at 15?C.
Zhioua, E.; Bouattour, A.; Hu, C.M.; Gharbi, M.; Aeschliman, A.; Ginsberg, H.S.; Gern, L.
Free-living adult Ixodes ricinus L. were collected in Amdoun, situated in the Kroumiry mountains in northwestern Tunisia (North Africa). Using direct fluorescence antibody assay, the infection rate of field-collected I. ricinus by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was 30.5% (n = 72). No difference in infection rate was observed between male and female ticks. Spirochetes that had been isolated from I. ricinus from Ain Drahim (Kroumiry Mountains) in 1988 were identified as Borrelia lusitaniae (formerly genospecies PotiB2). This is the first identification of a genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from the continent of Africa.
Rulison, Eric L.; LeBrun, Roger A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.
Ambient temperature can influence tick development time, and can potentially affect tick interactions with pathogens and with vertebrate hosts. We studied the effect of ambient temperature on duration of attachment of larval blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis Say, to eastern fence lizards, Sceloporus undulatus (Bose & Daudin). Feeding periods of larvae that attached to lizards under preferred temperature conditions for the lizards (WARM treatment: temperatures averaged 36.6°C at the top of the cage and 25.8°C at the bottom, allowing behavioral thermoregulation) were shorter than for larvae on lizards held under cool conditions (COOL treatment temperatures averaged 28.4°C at top of cage and 24.9°C at the bottom). The lizards were infested with larvae four times at roughly monthly intervals. Larval numbers successfully engorging and dropping declined and feeding period was longer after the first infestation.
Ginsberg, H.S.; Zhioua, E.
Nymphal and adult Ixodes scapularis Say were sampled by flagging at 2 sites on a barrier island, Fire Island, NY, and at 2 sites on the nearby mainland. Nymphal densities did not differ consistently between island and mainland sites, but adult densities were consistently lower on the island. We tested whether lower adult densities on the island resulted from greater nymphal mortality on the island than the mainland, or whether adult ticks on the island were poorly sampled by flagging because they had attached abundantly to deer, which were common on Fire Island. Differential nymphal mortality on islands vs. mainland did not explain this difference in adult densities because survival of flat and engorged nymphs in enclosures was the same at island and mainland sites. Ticks were infected by parasitic wasps on the island and not the mainland, but the infection rate (4.3%) was too low to explain the difference in adult tick densities. In contrast, exclusion of deer by game fencing on Fire Island resulted in markedly increased numbers of adult ticks in flagging samples inside compared to samples taken outside the exclosures. Therefore, the scarcity of adult ticks in flagging samples on Fire Island resulted, at least in part, from the ticks being unavailable to flagging samples because they were on deer hosts. Differences in the densities of flagged ticks inside and outside the exclosures were used to estimate the percentage of questing adults on Fire Island that found deer hosts, excluding those that attached to other host species. Approximately 56% of these questing adult ticks found deer hosts in 1995 and 50% found deer hosts in 1996. Therefore, in areas where vertebrate hosts are highly abundant, large proportions of the questing tick population can find hosts. Moreover, comparisons of tick densities at different sites by flagging can potentially be biased by differences in host densities among sites.
Ogrzewalska, Maria; Schwarcz, Kaiser; Bajay, Miklos M; Bajay, Stephanie K; Pinheiro, José B; Zucchi, Maria I; Pinter, Adriano; Labruna, Marcelo B
The hard tick Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) is a vector of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiologic agent of Brazilian spotted fever (BSF) in parts of Brazil. Despite its wide distribution in southeastern South America and its public health importance, there is no information about genetic variation of this species that might help to understand the epidemiology of BSF. Using data from eight microsatellite markers and ticks from six localities, we used a population genetics approach to test the hypothesis that tick populations from areas with the presence of R. rickettsii are genetically different from ticks from areas without R. rickettsii Contrary to expectations, we found low genetic structure between studied regions. Thus, the presence of R. rickettsii in the specific area is more likely correlated with ecological and the environmental conditions or due to unknown gene coding regions of A. aureolatum genome that would be related to R. rickettsii infection resistance.
Ogrzewalska, M; Bajay, M M; Schwarcz, K; Bajay, S K; Telles, M P C; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Pinter, A; Labruna, M B
Amblyomma aureolatum (Pallas) is the main vector of the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, the etiological agent of Brazilian spotted fever. This disease is the most lethal human spotted fever rickettsiosis in the world. Microsatellite loci were isolated from a dinucleotide-enriched library produced from A. aureolatum sampled in Southeastern Brazil. Eight polymorphic microsatellites were further characterized among 38 individuals sampled from São Paulo metropolitan region. The number of observed alleles ranged from 2 to 9, observed heterozygosity was 0.184-0.647, and expected heterozygosity was 0.251-0.747. Cross-species amplifications suggested that these loci will be useful for other Amblyomma species.
Vásquez, C; Colmenárez, Y; de Moraes, G J
The red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, has been primarily found associated with coconut and musaceous plants in the New World. However, it has also been recorded on several other palms, heliconiaceous and zingiberaceous species. This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of different botanical families on which R. indica has been collected in the field and of arecaceous plants of the natural vegetation of the neotropics. In total, ten species of Arecaceae as well as Heliconia psittacorum [Heliconiaceae] and Alpinia purpurata [Zingiberacae] were evaluated, using coconut as a control. The study was carried out under controlled conditions (29 ± 0.5 °C, 60 ± 10% RH and photoperiod 12 h of light). Raoiella indica was able to complete immature development only on coconut, Adonidia merrillii, Ptychosperma macarthurii, H. psittacorum and A. purpurata. Duration of the immature phase (egg-adult) ranged between 21.5 days on coconut to 34.1 days on A. purpurata. Longevity was at least 50% greater and oviposition at least 38% higher on coconut than on other plants. Intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was higher on coconut (0.166) and A. merrillii (0.042), but negative on the other two plant species. Raoiella indica could not reach adulthood on any of the other ten arecaceous species considered in the study. The results suggested R. indica to be a threat to A. merrillii in addition to coconut, but not to other evaluated plants. However, complementary studies should be conducted to investigate whether the experimental procedures adopted in this study could not have prevented the mite from a better performance than it could have been under field conditions, especially in relation to Mauritia flexuosa, one of the dominant arecaceous plants in South America.
Carrillo, Daniel; Amalin, Divina; Hosein, Farzan; Roda, Amy; Duncan, Rita E; Peña, Jorge E
Raoiella indica has spread rapidly through the Neotropical region where the mite damages economically and ecologically important plants. Three studies were conducted to determine the host plant range of R. indica, using the presence of colonies containing all life stages as an indicator of reproductive suitability. Periodic surveys at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden (Miami Dade County, FL, USA) and the Royal Botanical Gardens (Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago) identified 27 new reproductive host plants. The reproductive suitability of two dicotyledonous species and three native Florida palm species was examined. An updated list of reproductive host plants of R. indica is presented. All reported reproductive hosts (91 plant species) of R. indica are monocots from the orders Arecales (Arecaceae), Zingiberales (Heliconiaceae, Musaceae, Strelitziaceae, Zingiberaceae) and Pandanales (Pandanaceae). Most are palms of the family Arecaceae that originated in areas of the Eastern Hemisphere; about one fourth of the reported hosts are native to the New World and could be considered new host associations of R. indica. Six years after the initial detection in the Caribbean, R. indica has expanded its host plant range. Here we report 27 new reproductive host of R. indica that represent 30% of increase on previous host plant records. As this mite continues spreading in the Neotropical region a great diversity of plants is potentially affected.
Nava, Santiago; Venzal, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Mastropaolo, Mariano; González, Enrique M; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A
We supply information about hosts and distribution of Amblyomma dubitatum. In addition, we carry out an analysis of genetic divergence among specimens of A. dubitatum from different localities and with respect to other Neotropical Amblyomma species, using sequences of 16S rDNA gene. Although specimens of A. dubitatum were collected on several mammal species as cattle horse, Tapirus terrestris, Mazama gouazoubira, Tayassu pecari, Sus scrofa, Cerdocyon thous, Myocastor coypus, Allouata caraya, Glossophaga soricina and man, most records of immature and adult stages of A. dubitatum were made on Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris, making this rodent the principal host for all parasitic stages of this ticks. Cricetidae rodents (Lundomys molitor, Scapteromys tumidus), opossums (Didelphis albiventris) and vizcacha (Lagostomus maximus) also were recorded as hosts for immature stages. All findings of A. dubitatum correspond to localities of Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, and they were concentrated in the Biogeographical provinces of Pampa, Chaco, Cerrado, Brazilian Atlantic Forest, Parana Forest and Araucaria angustifolia Forest. The distribution of A. dubitatum is narrower than that of its principal host, therefore environmental variables rather than hosts determine the distributional ranges of this tick. The intraspecific genetic divergence among 16S rDNA sequences of A. dubitatum ticks collected in different localities from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay was in all cases lower than 0.8%, whereas the differences with the remaining Amblyomma species included in the analysis were always bigger than 6.8%. Thus, the taxonomic status of A. dubitatum along its distribution appears to be certain at the specific level.
Rodrigues, Vinicius da Silva; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Zimmermann, Namor Pinheiro; Koller, Wilson Werner; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Andreotti, Renato
The objective of this study was to evaluate the life cycle and parasitic competence of Dermacentor nitens (Neumann, 1897) on different animal species. Experimental infestations were induced in five specimens each of seven species of possible hosts: rabbits, horses, sheep, cows, guinea pigs, birds and dogs. Rabbits were infested in the ear using artificial feeding chambers, and the horses, sheep, cows and dogs were infested in the ear without feeding chambers. For the infestation of guinea pigs, artificial feeding chambers were fixed on the back. Birds were infested by placing larvae on the back and under the wings without the use of chambers. All animals were inspected daily until the end of the parasitic phase (when the engorged females detached). The average period of engorgement was 25.1days on a horse, with larvae requiring 8days and nymphs 9days to reach engorgement; the average weight of engorged females was 271.4mg; the average weight of egg batches produced was 159.3mg, and the feed conversion rate was 56.8%. On rabbits, the average engorgement period was 27.6days, larvae and nymphs reached engorgement after 7.4 and 11days, respectively, the average weight of an engorged female was 108.4mg and the egg mass was 30.6mg. The feed conversion rate on rabbits was 30%. Cows, sheep, guinea pigs, dogs and birds were not competent hosts, since no engorged females were recovered. Rabbits, when artificially infested, can be used as an alternative host for the maintenance of these ticks in the laboratory. The parasitic specificity of D. nitens for horses was demonstrated in this study.
Ramos, Vanessa do Nascimento; Osava, Carolina Fonseca; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan
We herein describe the ambush behavior of Amblyomma sculptum (Berlese 1888), a widespread and epidemiologically important tick in Brazil. Along two years of sampling by visual search in the Brazilian Pantanal, A. sculptum ticks were observed on the vegetation and in the leaf litter. Most of the ticks were observed between 10 and 50cm above ground level and less than five percent of the total were positioned below 10cm, indicating that they are seeking for middle or large-sized hosts. In both seasons, vapor saturation deficit was low during the morning. No significant relationship was found between questing ticks and daytime interval of observation or saturation deficit. However, questing tick numbers seem be higher in the end of the morning, when saturation deficit reaches its peak. Behavioral patterns of A. sculptum ticks observed in Pantanal underscore the occurrence of this tick and human contact at green anthropogenic sites. Considering A. sculptum questing behavior, inferences on human behavioral patterns that enhance or avoid contact with ticks are discussed.
1962. Monografía de los Ixodoidea de México. I Parte. Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural 23:191-307. Hoffmann, A. 1969. Un caso de...geographic reference, 3rd ed., D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds.). The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. p. 894-1531. Nuttall, G. H. F...337. Nuttall, G. H. F. and C. Warburton. 1911. A monograph of the Ixodoidea. Part II. Ixodidae. Cambridge at the University Press, London. p. i-xix
Colín-Martínez, Helisama; García-Estrada, Carlos
Studies of mites on bats in the Mexican state Oaxaca are scarce. Our objective was therefore to evaluate the richness, infestation, and specificity of spinturnicid mites on bats in southern Oaxaca, Mexico. Bats were monthly captured from April 2010 to February 2011, in four sites using four mist-nets; also, we visited natural (crevices) and artificial roosts (tunnel). Of each bat we account the number of spinturnicid mites, considering the area of the body where they were collected. Mites were preserved in 70 % ethanol and later they were mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium. We captured bats of 15 species, of which eight species were infested. We recorded seven spinturnicid mites: five of the genus Periglischrus, one of the genus Cameronieta, and one of the genus Mesoperiglischrus. Periglischrus caligus, P. iheringi, and Periglischrus sp. are new records on Artibeus lituratus, Glossophaga soricina, and G. commissarisi, respectively. More infested bat species were Artibeus jamaicensis (93.8 %), A. lituratus (88.9 %), G. commissarisi and Sturnira parvidens (both 66.7 %). Prevalence of A. jamaicensis and A. lituratus was significantly higher than most other bat species. Although prevalence percentage was high, mean and median intensity were low. Spinturnicid mites were recorded in particular areas of a bat's body; therefore, they could be an additional tool for the taxonomic identification of bats.
Comparative laboratory toxicity of neem pesticides to honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), their mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) and Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae), and brood pathogens Paenibacillus larvae and Ascophaera apis.
Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L; Whittington, R; Smith, T; Lindberg, C; Mukai, A; Moore, M
Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate neem oil and neem extract for the management of key honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) pests. Neem pesticides inhibited the growth of Paenibacillus larvae (Ash, Priest & Collins) in vitro but had no effect on the growth of Ascophaera apis (Olive & Spiltoir). Azadirachtin-rich extract (neem-aza) was 10 times more potent than crude neem oil (neem oil) against P. larvae suggesting that azadirachtin is a main antibiotic component in neem. Neem-aza, however, was ineffective at controlling the honey bee mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Ouduemans) and Acarapis woodi (Rennie). Honey bees also were deterred from feeding on sucrose syrup containing > 0.01 mg/ml of neem-aza. However, neem oil applied topically to infested bees in the laboratory proved highly effective against both mite species. Approximately 50-90% V. jacobsoni mortality was observed 48 h after treatment with associated bee mortality lower than 10%. Although topically applied neem oil did not result in direct A. woodi mortality, it offered significant protection of bees from infestation by A. woodi. Other vegetable and petroleum-based oils also offered selective control of honey bee mites, suggesting neem oil has both a physical and a toxicological mode of action. Although oils are not as selective as the V. jacobsoni acaricide tau-fluvalinate, they nonetheless hold promise for the simultaneous management of several honey bee pests.
The Genus Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mexico: Adult Identification Keys, Diagnoses, Hosts, and Distribution (El genero Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) en Mexico: claves de identificacion para adultos, diagnosis, huespedes y distribucion)
de Historia Natural 23:191-307. Hoffmann, A. 1969. Un caso de parálisis por picadura de garrapata. Revista Latinoamericana de Microbiología y...Hopkins University Press, Baltimore. p. 894-1531. Nuttall, G. H. F. 1916. Notes on ticks. IV. Relating to the genus Ixodes and including a description of...Ixodidae. Cambridge at the University Press, London. p. i-xix, 105-348. Robbins, R. G. and J. E. Keirans. 1992. Systematics and ecology of the
Varroa mites are a serious pest of honey bees and the leading cause of colony losses. Varroa have relatively low reproductive rates, so populations should not increase rapidly, but often they do. Other factors might contribute to the growth of Varroa populations including mite migration into colonie...
Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille), the brown dog tick, is a veterinary canine and urban pest. These ticks have been found to develop permethrin resistance and fipronil tolerance, two commonly used acaricides. We developed a discriminating concentration that can be used to rapidly detect permethri...
Uesugi, R; Goka, K; Osakabe, Mh
We studied the genetic basis of resistance to two new acaricides, chlorfenapyr and etoxazole, which have different chemical structures and modes of action in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. The resistance ratios calculated from the LC50s of resistant and susceptible strains were 483 for chlorfenapyr and >100,000 for etoxazole. Mortality caused by the two acaricides in F1 progeny from reciprocal crosses between the resistant and susceptible strains indicated that the modes of inheritance of resistance to chlorfenapyr and etoxazole were completely dominant and completely recessive, respectively. Mortality in F2 progeny indicated that for both acaricides, the resistance was under monogenic control. Repeated backcross experiments indicated a linkage relationship among the two acaricide resistances and malate dehydrogenase, although phosphoglucoisomerase was not linked with them. The recombination ratio between the resistances was 14.8%. From this result, we suggest that heavy spraying of the two acaricides will lead to apparent cross-resistance as a consequence of crossing over; the two resistance genes are so close to each other that it would be difficult to segregate them once they came together on the same chromosome.
Herron, G A; Rophail, J
Chlorfenapyr resistance (2.9- and 19.9-fold respectively at LC50 and LC99 level) was detected in Tetranychus urticae Koch causing control failure following a single application of product to nectarines.
Tang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Youjun; Wu, Qingjun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli
The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a worldwide crop pest. The resistance to commonly applied acaricides (in this report, "acaricide" refers to both acaricides and insecticides that are toxic to mites) has seriously impaired T. urticae control in the field. Here, the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory and field populations of T. urticae to various acaricides was investigated. Based on data obtained with an acaricide-sensitive laboratory strain collected in 2009, abamectin was the most toxic of the tested acaricides. For each acaricide, susceptibility was greatest for larvae, least for adults, and intermediate for eggs. The egg was the most sensitive stage to abamectin, bifenazate, and hexythiazox; the larva was the most sensitive stage to abamectin, hexythiazox, bifenazate, propargite, and chlorfenapyr; and the adult was the most sensitive stage to abamectin, bifenazate, and chlorfenapyr. Based on the results obtained with the acaricide-sensitive laboratory strain, acaricides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field populations of T. urticae from Beijing, China. Although the field populations differed in their resistance to the acaricides in laboratory bioassays, the eggs, larvae, and adults of the four populations were sensitive to bifenazate and highly resistant to abamectin. Field trials for control of T. urticae in Beijing, China, should be conducted with bifenazate and other acaricides rather than with abamectin.
Diyes, G C P; Rajakaruna, R S
Otobius megnini infests mainly domesticated and wild animals and occasionally humans. It has been identified as an agent of human and horse otoacariasis in Sri Lanka. The number of nymphal stages in the life cycle of O. megnini varies from one to three in different geographic regions. The present study determined the life cycle of O. megnini infesting the racehorses in Nuwara Eliya. A tick colony was initiated from fully engorged nymphs collected from horses and maintained at 10°C, 22°C and 28°C. Immature stages were reared on New Zealand rabbits. Only the larvae weighing more than 0.9mg (84.9%) moulted to nymphs with a pre-moulting period of 5.6(±1.7) days. None of the larvae maintained at 10±1°C moulted. Larval survival was significantly higher at 28±1°C (44.2±4.3days) than at 22±1°C (35.6±9days). At 28±1°C, majority of nymphs (95.6%) weighing over 10mg moulted into adults within 12.5(±3.1) days. Nymphs kept at 10±1°C underwent diapause for 81.1(±72.0) days. Larger females (>13mg; 93.0%) laid eggs for of 44.6(±17.8) days with a mean pre-oviposition period of 10.3(±5.1) days. Females survived longer (369.8±128.3days) than males (210.4±54.1days; Student's t-test; t=5.9, p=0.001). Some females laid eggs without mating. Otobius megnini successfully completed the life cycle within 123days and has only one nymphal instar similar to the Neotropical population. Currently, O. megnini infestation is a serious problem to horses in the Nuwara Eliya racecourse and may pose a risk of spreading to dairy farms close by owing to its dynamic nature of the life cycle.
The resistance to fresh water and seawater in three intertidal oribatid mite species from Bermuda, Alismobates inexpectatus, Fortuynia atlantica and Carinozetes bermudensis, was tested in laboratory experiments. Larvae are more sensitive to fresh and salt water, nymphs and adults showed equal tolerances. Fortuynia atlantica and A. inexpectatus were more resistant to salt water whereas C. bermudensis survived longer in fresh water. Differences in the resistance to fresh and salt water among the three species may be related to their different vertical occurrences in the eulittoral zone but also to the ability of single species to dwell in periodically brackish waters. In all three species half of the specimens survived at least 10 days in fresh water and more than 18 days in salt water. Maximal submersion time in fresh and salt water ranged from 40 to 143 days. Based on median lethal times it could be estimated that each species would be able to survive transport in seawater along the Gulf Stream over a distance of 3,000 km, from Central America to Bermuda. Thus hydrochorous dispersal should be assumed as the most likely mode of dispersal in intertidal fortuyniid and selenoribatid mites.