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Sample records for acartia tonsa dana

  1. Predicting the Effects of Coastal Hypoxia on Vital Rates of the Planktonic Copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, David T.; Pierson, James J.; Roman, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a model predicting the effects of low environmental oxygen on vital rates (egg production, somatic growth, and mortality) of the coastal planktonic copepod Acartia tonsa. Hypoxic conditions can result in respiration rate being directly limited by oxygen availability. We hypothesized that A. tonsa egg production, somatic growth, and ingestion rates would all respond in a similar manner to low oxygen conditions, as a result of oxygen dependent changes in respiration rate. Rate data for A. tonsa egg production, somatic growth, and ingestion under low environmental oxygen were compiled from the literature and from supplementary experiments. The response of these rates to oxygen was compared by converting all to the analogous units in terms of oxygen utilization, which we termed analogous respiration rate. These analogous respiration rates, along with published measurements of respiration rates, were used to parameterize and evaluate the relationship between A. tonsa respiration rate and environmental oxygen. At 18°C, our results suggest that A. tonsa experiences sub-lethal effects of hypoxia below an oxygen partial pressure of 8.1 kPa (∼3.1 mg L−1 = 2.3 mL L−1). The results of this study can be used to predict the effects of hypoxia on A. tonsa growth and mortality as related to environmental temperature and oxygen partial pressure. Such predictions will be useful as a way to incorporate the effects of coastal hypoxia into population, community, or ecosystem level models that include A. tonsa. This approach can also be used to characterize the effects of hypoxia on other aquatic organisms. PMID:23691134

  2. Fate of the Black Sea Acartia clausi and Acartia tonsa (Copepoda) penetrating into the Marmara Sea through the Bosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubareva, Elena; Svetlichny, Leonid; Kideys, Ahmet; Isinibilir, Melek

    2008-01-01

    In October 2005 spatial distribution of live and dead Acartia clausi and Acartia tonsa was studied in the Black and Marmara Seas and near the Marmara Sea inlet of the Bosphorus, in order to understand their fate upon transportation between two seas. The morphometric characteristics in both species from all studied areas, and the decreased abundance of A. clausi and A. tonsa from the Black Sea towards the Marmara Sea indicate that the Marmara Sea Acartia populations are formed by recruitment from the Black Sea. We observed mass mortality of A. clausi in the Marmara Sea near the Prince Islands. The majority of carcasses (66% of total A. clausi numbers in the Marmara Sea) were found in the salinity gradient layer. Laboratory experiments showed that during a gradual salinity increase (3.5-4 h) from 18.9 (salinity of the Marmara Sea surface layers) to 39.8 (Marmara Sea salinity at depths >25 m) Acartia clausi began to die at a salinity of 30 and that all copepods were dead at 39.8. In comparison with A. clausi, Acartia tonsa was more tolerant to short-term salinity increase. Despite the high salinity tolerance of A. tonsa however, the abundance of this species was estimated to be very low in the offshore Marmara Sea. Respiration rate and frequency of jumps in A. tonsa were 1.3-1.5 and 1.77 times higher, respectively, than those in A. clausi.

  3. Temperature impact on the trophic transfer of fatty acids in the congeneric copepods Acartia tonsa and Acartia clausi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werbrouck, Eva; Tiselius, Peter; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Cervin, Gunnar; Vanreusel, Ann; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-06-01

    Copepods of the genus Acartia occur worldwide and constitute an important link to higher trophic levels in estuaries. However, biogeographical shifts in copepod assemblages and colonization of certain European estuaries by the invader A. tonsa, both driven or enhanced by increasing ocean temperature, raise the pressure on autochthonous copepod communities. Despite the profound effect of temperature on all levels of biological organization, its impact on the fatty acid (FA) dynamics of Acartia species is understudied. As certain FAs exert a bottom-up control on the trophic structure of aquatic ecosystems, temperature-induced changes in FA dynamics of Acartia species may impact higher trophic levels. Therefore, this study documents the short-term temperature responses of A. tonsa and A. clausi, characterized by their warm- versus cold-water preference respectively, by analyzing the FA profiles of their membrane and storage lipids under 5 and 15 °C. Copepods that were fed an ad libitum diet of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii (bloom conditions) under 15 °C increased their storage FA content substantially. Furthermore, the membrane FA composition of A. tonsa showed a more profound temperature response compared with A. clausi which might be linked with the eurythermal character of the former.

  4. Fully defined saltwater medium for cultivation of and toxicity testing with marine copepod Acartia tonsa

    SciTech Connect

    Kusk, K.O.; Wollenberger, L.

    1999-07-01

    The marine copepod Acartia tonsa and the food organism Rhodomonas salina were cultured in fully defined medium for 8 months without problems. Both organisms were also cultured in natural seawater and in a commercial salt mixture for at least two generations before the sensitivities of A. tonsa to bisphenol A, potassium dichromate, and 3,5-dichlorophenol in the three different media were compared and found to be at the same level. The defined medium may be used for cultivation and testing, thus avoiding unknown background contaminants.

  5. Experimental records of the effect of food patchiness and predation on egg production of Acartia tonsa

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, E.; Tiselius, P.; Verity, P.; Paffehofer, G.A. ); Jonsson, P.R. )

    1993-03-01

    The effects of predation and spatial patchiness in food distribution on egg production of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were investigated in the laboratory. A postexperiment egg production method was developed to override the decline in number of copepods due to predation. The copepods were able to remain in food patches about 41-47% of the time, and consequently egg production rates were higher than expected from the average food concentration. Predation by the calanoid copepod Labidocera aestiva tended to increase egg production rates of A. tonsa. The interaction of patchiness and predation resulted in relatively less time spent by A. tonsa in the food patches, probably as a consequence of conflict between hunger level and predation risk. 40 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Comparison of the metabolism of Acartia clausi and A. tonsa: influence of temperature and salinity.

    PubMed

    Gaudy; Cervetto; Pagano

    2000-04-26

    In the Marseilles region (French Mediterranean coast), A. clausi is one of the most abundant copepod species of the Gulf of Fos while A. tonsa constitutes the almost exclusive copepod species of the Berre lagoon, a neighbouring semi-closed brackish area communicating with the gulf. As different ecophysiological capabilities to stand the various temperature, salinity and food conditions could explain why these two species do not coexist in the same environment, comparative experiments were performed on metabolism and feeding. The respiration and ammonia excretion of the two species were measured in different combinations of temperature (10, 15 and 20 degrees C) and salinity (15, 25 and 35 per thousand). For each temperature, at the salinity of 35 per thousand, respiration rates were less in A. clausi than in A. tonsa, the contrary being observed at the lowest salinity. At any temperature ammonia excretion was greater at the intermediate salinity in A. tonsa and least in A. clausi. In Acartia tonsa, Q(10) of respiration and excretion were minimum at the lowest salinity, while in A. clausi they were unaffected by salinity variation. The O:N atomic ratio (from respiration and ammonia excretion rates) was significantly more elevated in A. clausi (mean 21.2; range 13.6-28.7) than in A. tonsa (mean 11.3; range 4.2-25) suggesting a more proteinic oriented metabolism in the later. Feeding experiments where Dunaliella tertiolecta30 per thousand) or lagoon (<16 per thousand) salinity. The relationships between ingestion and food concentration in the two species were not significantly different. These different results are compared to other ecophysiological information concerning these Acartia species (survival tolerances, osmotic regulation, feeding behaviour) and are discussed in relation with the characteristics of their niches in the studied region.

  7. Cryptic diversity and comparative phylogeography of the estuarine copepod Acartia tonsa on the US Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Hare, Matthew P

    2011-06-01

    Unexpectedly strong geographic structures in many cosmopolitan species of marine holoplankton challenge the traditional view of their unrestrained dispersal and presumably high gene flow. We investigated cryptic lineage diversity and comparative phylogeography of a common estuarine copepod, Acartia tonsa, on the US Atlantic coast, using mitochondrial (mtCOI) and nuclear (nITS) gene markers. Three broadly sympatric lineages (F, S, X) were defined by genealogically concordant clades across both gene trees, strongly supporting recognition as reproductively isolated species. Limited dispersal seems to have had a major role in population differentiation of A. tonsa in general, with gene flow propensities rank ordered X > S > F. Geographic structure was found only at large scales (1000-2000 km) in X and S. Phylogeographic patterns in all three lineages were mostly concordant with previously recognized zoogeographic provinces but a large mid-Atlantic gap in the occurrence of lineage X, coupled with its presence in Europe, suggests possible nonindigenous origins. For lineage F, physiological adaptation to low-salinity environments is likely to have accentuated barriers to gene flow and allopatric differentiation at both regional and continental scales. Three allopatric F sublineages inferred a southern centre of origin and a stepwise northward diversification history at the continental scale. The most recently derived F sublineages, in the mid-Atlantic Bight, showed strong phylogeographic patterns at nITS albeit weaker at mtCOI. Applying a crustacean mtCOI molecular clock suggests that A. tonsa lineages diverged pre-Pleistocene but mid-Atlantic F lineage diversification may be post-Pleistocene.

  8. Toxicity of nickel in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa: Nickel chloride versus nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Vitiello, V; Casals, E; Puntes, V F; Iamunno, F; Pellegrini, D; Changwen, W; Benvenuto, G; Buttino, I

    2016-01-01

    Nickel compounds are widely used in industries and have been massively introduced in the environment in different chemical forms. Here we report the effect of two different chemical forms of nickel, NiCl2 and nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs), on the reproduction of the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. The behavior of nickel nanoparticles was analyzed with different techniques and with two protocols. In the "sonicated experiment" (SON) NiNP solution was sonicated while in the "non-sonicated experiment" (NON-SON) the solution was vigorously shaken by hand. Final nominal concentrations of 5, 10 and 50mgL(-1) and 1, 5 and 10mgL(-1) NiNPs were used for the acute and semichronic tests, respectively. Nanoparticle size did not change over time except for the highest concentration of 50mgL(-1) NiNPs, in which the diameter increased up to 843nm after 48h. The concentration of Ni dissolved in the water increased with NP concentration and was similar for SON and NON-SON solutions. Our results indicate that sonication does not modify toxicity for the copepod A. tonsa. Mean EC50 values were similar for NON-SON (20.2mgL(-1)) and SON experiments (22.14mgL(-1)) in the acute test. Similarly, no differences occurred between the two different protocols in the semichronic test, with an EC50 of 7.45mgL(-1) and 6.97mgL(-1) for NON-SON and SON experiments, respectively. Acute and semichronic tests, conducted exposing A. tonsa embryos to NiCl2 concentrations from 0.025 to 0.63mgL(-1), showed EC50 of 0.164 and 0.039mgL(-1), respectively. Overall, A. tonsa is more sensitive to NiCl2 than NiNPs with EC50 being one order of magnitude higher for NiNPs. Finally, we exposed adult copepods for 4 days to NiCl2 and NiNPs (chronic exposure) to study the effect on fecundity in terms of daily egg production and naupliar viability. Egg production is not affected by either form of nickel, whereas egg viability is significantly reduced by 0.025mgL(-1) NiCl2 and by 8.5mgL(-1) NiNPs. At NiNP concentration

  9. Acute silver toxicity in the euryhaline copepod Acartia tonsa: influence of salinity and food.

    PubMed

    Pedroso, Mariana Saia; Bersano, José Guilherme Filho; Bianchini, Adalto

    2007-10-01

    The euryhaline copepod Acartia tonsa was exposed to silver (AgNO(3)) in either the absence or the presence of food (diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii; 2 x 10(4) cells/ml). Standard static-renewal toxicity tests that included a fixed photoperiod of 16: 8 h light:dark and temperature (20 degrees C) were run in three different salinities (5, 15, and 30 ppt) together with measurements of pH, ions (Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), SO(4)(2-), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+)), alkalinity, dissolved organic carbon, and total and dissolved (0.45 microm) silver concentrations in the experimental media. In the absence of food, the 48-h EC50 (concentration causing effect to 50% of the individuals tested) values based on total and dissolved silver concentrations were 11.6, 87.2, and 163.2 microg Ag/L and 7.1, 79.2, and 154.6 microg Ag/L at salinities 5, 15, and 30 ppt, respectively. In the presence of food, they were 62.1, 98.5, and 238.4 microg Ag/L and 48.4, 52.3, and 190.9 microg Ag/L, respectively. In all experimental conditions, most of the toxic silver fraction was in the dissolved phase, regardless of salinity or the presence of food in the water. In either the absence or the presence of food, acute silver toxicity was salinity dependent, decreasing as salinity increased. Data indicate that changes in water chemistry can account for the differences in acute silver toxicity in the absence of food, but not in the presence of food, suggesting that A. tonsa requires extra energy to cope with the stressful conditions imposed by acute silver exposure and ionoregulatory requirements in low salinities. These findings indicate the need for incorporation of both salinity and food (organic carbon) in a future biotic ligand model (BLM) version for estuarine and marine conditions, which could be validated and calibrated using the euryhaline copepod A. tonsa.

  10. Acute and chronic toxicity of produced water from a North Sea oil production platform to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa

    SciTech Connect

    Girling, A.E. )

    1989-08-01

    The routine operation of offshore oil production platforms results in the discharge to the sea of produced water after it has been separated from oil drawn from the reservoir. Discharge of produced water in the UK sector of the North Sea is given an exemption from the provisions of the 1971 Prevention of Oil Pollution Act providing the monthly average oil-in-water content measured twice per day does not exceed 40 mg kg{sup {minus}1}. To assess the toxic hazard to marine organisms of produced water discharged to the North Sea, within this exemption, Shell UK Exploration and Production has implemented a research program. Methods for determining the acute and chronic toxicity of produced water to the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa have been established and applied at Shell's Sittingbourne Research Centre to samples from the Shell/Esso Dunlin A platform. This paper describes the methods used to assess acute and chronic toxicity and the results of tests performed on a sample of produced water collected in February 1986. Tests were performed on subsamples of the bulk sample which: (a) were untreated (b) had been filtered and (c) biodegraded (i.e., organic substances present in the produced water were degraded by micro-organisms) and then filtered. The results of the tests are discussed in relation to the likely patterns of dilution offshore in the North Sea.

  11. Accumulation of polyunsaturated aldehydes in the gonads of the copepod Acartia tonsa revealed by tailored fluorescent probes.

    PubMed

    Wolfram, Stefanie; Nejstgaard, Jens C; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are released by several diatom species during predation. Besides other attributed activities, these oxylipins can interfere with the reproduction of copepods, important predators of diatoms. While intensive research has been carried out to document the effects of PUAs on copepod reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanistic aspects of PUA action. Especially PUA uptake and accumulation in copepods has not been addressed to date. To investigate how PUAs are taken up and interfere with the reproduction in copepods we developed a fluorescent probe containing the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element that is essential for the activity of PUAs as well as a set of control probes. We developed incubation and monitoring procedures for adult females of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and show that the PUA derived fluorescent molecular probe selectively accumulates in the gonads of this copepod. In contrast, a saturated aldehyde derived probe of an inactive parent molecule was enriched in the lipid sac. This leads to a model for PUAs' teratogenic mode of action involving accumulation and covalent interaction with nucleophilic moieties in the copepod reproductive tissue. The teratogenic effect of PUAs can therefore be explained by a selective targeting of the molecules into the reproductive tissue of the herbivores, while more lipophilic but otherwise strongly related structures end up in lipid bodies.

  12. Accumulation of Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Gonads of the Copepod Acartia tonsa Revealed by Tailored Fluorescent Probes

    PubMed Central

    Wolfram, Stefanie; Nejstgaard, Jens C.; Pohnert, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs) are released by several diatom species during predation. Besides other attributed activities, these oxylipins can interfere with the reproduction of copepods, important predators of diatoms. While intensive research has been carried out to document the effects of PUAs on copepod reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanistic aspects of PUA action. Especially PUA uptake and accumulation in copepods has not been addressed to date. To investigate how PUAs are taken up and interfere with the reproduction in copepods we developed a fluorescent probe containing the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element that is essential for the activity of PUAs as well as a set of control probes. We developed incubation and monitoring procedures for adult females of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and show that the PUA derived fluorescent molecular probe selectively accumulates in the gonads of this copepod. In contrast, a saturated aldehyde derived probe of an inactive parent molecule was enriched in the lipid sac. This leads to a model for PUAs' teratogenic mode of action involving accumulation and covalent interaction with nucleophilic moieties in the copepod reproductive tissue. The teratogenic effect of PUAs can therefore be explained by a selective targeting of the molecules into the reproductive tissue of the herbivores, while more lipophilic but otherwise strongly related structures end up in lipid bodies. PMID:25383890

  13. The turbidity front as a habitat for Acartia tonsa (Copepoda) in the Río de la Plata, Argentina-Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derisio, Carla; Braverman, Mara; Gaitán, Esteban; Hozbor, Constanza; Ramírez, Fernando; Carreto, José; Botto, Florencia; Gagliardini, Domingo A.; Acha, E. Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa is one of the most abundant copepod species in estuaries worldwide. In the Río de la Plata, its highest densities appear to occur in an area of low quality food (detritus): the turbidity front (TF). The objective of this study was to understand how trophic and oceanographic drivers contribute to the high densities of A. tonsa in the Río de la Plata TF. The patterns of spatial distribution and density of this species were analyzed in relation to oceanographic and biological attributes of the system. The egg production rate (EPR) in the TF was evaluated as a measure of fitness, and a stable isotope analysis indicated the possible sources of organic matter in the species' diet. This study confirmed that the highest observed densities of A. tonsa were mostly associated with the TF, where high suspended matter and low Chl-a occur. Immediately offshore from the TF, decreased copepod densities and the maximum Chl-a values were found. Females close to the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) had a lower EPR than those closer to the high Chl-a concentrations. Within the TF, A. tonsa apparently fed on detritus close to the ETM and phytoplankton close to the edge of the TF. The report includes a discussion of how retention processes, two layered flow and the life history strategy of A. tonsa could be contributing to the development of high densities (more than 10,000 ind m- 3) of this species in the inner estuarine zone, despite the poor quality of food available for development in that area. A. tonsa can live and prosper in areas with high turbidity and low chlorophyll concentrations. This trait exemplifies the plasticity of this species and helps explain why it is a key species in many worldwide estuaries.

  14. Egg production and hatching success of Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa in the northern Chile upwelling zone (23°S), Humboldt Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruz, Paula M.; Hidalgo, Pamela; Yáñez, Sonia; Escribano, Rubén; Keister, Julie E.

    2015-08-01

    Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ's) are expanding and intensifying as result of climate change, affecting Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. Local effects of vertical movements of OMZ's that result from changes in upwelling intensity could reduce or expand the oxygenated surface layer that most zooplanktonic species inhabit in coastal areas. Using the copepods Calanus chilensis and Acartia tonsa as model organisms, an experimental test of the impact of different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (between 0.5 and 5 ml L- 1) on egg production and hatching success was carried out and compared with field estimations of egg production, female and egg abundance in Mejillones Bay (23°S). Abundance of C. chilensis was highly variability and no consistent pattern in egg production and hatching success was found across DO levels, whereas A. tonsa egg production had maximum values between 2.6 and 4.7 ml O2 L- 1 and hatching success was positively correlated with DO (r = 0.75). In the field, temperature was the main factor controlling the dynamics of both species, while Chl-a and DO were also correlated with C. chilensis and A. tonsa, respectively. Principal Component Analysis showed that abundances of both copepods were controlled by temperature, stratification, OMZ depth, and Ekman transport, which together explained more than 70% of the total variance and were the main factors that modulated the populations of C. chilensis and A. tonsa in the upwelling zone of northern Chile (23°S). The differential responses of C. chilensis and A. tonsa to changes in DO concentrations associated with vertical movements of the OMZ suggest that C. chilensis may be better adapted to hypoxic conditions than A. tonsa, however both species are successful and persistent all year-round. We suggest that physiological responses of copepods could be used to evaluate population dynamics affected by the shoaling of OMZ's and the repercussions to trophic food webs of eastern boundary current systems.

  15. Effects of methyltestosterone, letrozole, triphenyltin and fenarimol on histology of reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa.

    PubMed

    Watermann, Burkard T; Albanis, Triantafyllos A; Dagnac, Thierry; Gnass, Katarina; Ole Kusk, K; Sakkas, Vasilios A; Wollenberger, Leah

    2013-07-01

    The marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa was exposed to methyltestosterone (MET, 1.6-126 μg L(-1)), letrozole (LET, 10-1000 μg L(-1)), triphenyltin chloride (TPT, 0.0014-0.0088 μg L(-1) TPT-Sn) and fenarimol (FEN, 2.8-105 μg L(-1)) for 21 d covering a full life-cycle. All four compounds investigated are known to act as androgens in vertebrates. The digestive tract, musculature, nervous system, reproductive organs, gonad and accessory sexual glands were examined by light microscopy after routine staining and immune-labelling for detection of apoptosis and determination of proliferation activities. MET induced an inhibition of oogenesis, oocyte maturation and yolk formation, respectively, which was most pronounced at the lowest concentrations tested. In LET exposed males, spermatogenesis was enhanced with very prominent gamete stages; in some stages apoptosis occurred. The spermatophore was hypertrophied and displayed deformations. In females, LET induced a disorder of oogenesis and disturbances in yolk synthesis. TPT stimulated the male reproductive system at 0.0014 and 0.0035 μg TPT-SnL(-1), whereas inhibiting effects were observed in the female gonad at 0.0088 μg TPT-SnL(-1). In FEN exposed females proliferation of gametes was reduced and yolk formation showed irregular features at 2.8-105 μgL(-1). In FEN exposed males an elevated proliferation activity was observed. No pathological alterations in other organ systems, e.g. the digestive tract including the hindgut acting as respiratory organ, the nervous system, or the musculature were seen. This indicates that the effects on gonads might be caused rather by disturbance of endocrine signalling or interference with hormone metabolism than by general toxicity.

  16. The effects of power station entrainment passage on three species of marine planktonic crustacean, Acartia tonsa (Copepoda), Crangon crangon (Decapoda) and Homarus gammarus (Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Bamber, Roger N; Seaby, Richard M H

    2004-05-01

    Experiments have been undertaken exposing larval common shrimp (Crangon crangon) and lobster (Homarus gammarus) and adult copepods (Acartia tonsa) to the key stresses of entrainment within power-station cooling-water systems. The apparatus has enabled the testing of mechanical, thermal, chlorine and realistic pressure effects both alone and in combination, the range of stressors spanning the standard conditions found within a temperate coastal direct-cooled power station. Mechanical stresses affected only lobster larvae, pressure changes affected only the Acartia adults. Residual chlorine caused significant mortality of Acartia and shrimp larvae, but had no effect on lobster larvae even at 1 ppm. The temperature increment significantly affected all three species, with a synergistic effect on chlorine sensitivity in the shrimp larvae, but only temperatures higher than would be experienced in a normally-operating power station affected the copepods. The majority of individuals of each species would survive passage through a power-station system under normal conditions. It is notable that, within the species tested, generalizations from the responses of one species to those of another are not valid.

  17. Effects of salinity on egg and fecal pellet production, development and survival, adult sex ratio and total life span in the calanoid copepod, Acartia tonsa: a laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shayegan, Majid; Esmaeili Fereidouni, Abolghasem; Agh, Naser; Jani Khalili, Khosrow

    2016-07-01

    The effects of salinity on the copepod, Acartia tonsa in terms of daily egg production rate (EPR), hatching success, fecal pellet production rate (FPR), naupliar development time and survival, sex ratio, and total life span were determined in laboratory conditions through three experiments. In experiment 1, EPR, hatching success, and FPR of individual females were monitored at salinities of 13, 20, 35 and 45 during short-periods (seven consecutive days). Results show EPR was affected by salinity with the highest outputs recorded at 20 and 35, respectively, which were considerably higher than those at 13 and 45. Mean FPR was also higher in 35 and 20. In experiment 2, the same parameters were evaluated over total life span of females (long-term study). The best EPR and FPR were observed in 35, which was statistically higher than at 13 and 20. In experiment 3, survival rates of early nauplii until adult stage were lowest at a salinity of 13. The development time increased with increasing of salinity. Female percentage clearly decreased with increasing salinity. Higher female percentages (56.7% and 52.2%, respectively) were significantly observed at two salinities of 13 and 20 compared to that at 35 (25%). Total longevity of females was not affected by salinity increment. Based on our results, for mass culture we recommend that a salinity of 35 be adopted due to higher reproductive performances, better feeding, and faster development of A. tonsa.

  18. Effect of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on early life-stage development of the marine copepod Acartia tonsa at different temperatures and salinities.

    PubMed

    Kusk, Kresten Ole; Avdolli, Manola; Wollenberger, Leah

    2011-04-01

    Benzophenone (BP)-type ultraviolet (UV) filters are widely used in cosmetic and sunscreen products and can enter the aquatic environment. Therefore, we investigated the subchronic toxicity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone (BP1) on the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in an early life-stage development study. Since developmental endpoints depend on environmental conditions, a preceding study of A. tonsa development was performed at three temperatures, four salinities, four light:dark regimes, six food densities, and four culture densities. Times elapsed until 50% of the population had reached a copepodite stage (DT(½) ) at the different conditions were calculated. The DT(½) values decreased from 296 h at 15°C to 89 h at 25°C and were also affected by salinity (126 h at 15‰ and 167 h at 30‰), whereas the light:dark regime and culture density influenced development only to a minor extent. BP1 was found acutely toxic at 2.6 mg/L (48-h median lethal concentration [LC50]). The toxicity of BP1 on early life-stage development was studied in combinations of three temperatures (15, 20, 25°C) and three salinities (15, 20, 25‰) using five toxicant concentrations between 0.051 and 2 mg/L in each scenario. Concentrations causing 10 and 50% inhibition of development (EC10 and EC50) were determined. Acartia tonsa was most resistant towards BP1 at 20°C where an EC50 of 1.1 mg/L was found, whereas EC50 values were significantly lower at 15°C (0.49 mg/L) and 25°C (0.77 mg/L), respectively. The EC50 also decreased with increasing salinity. Our results demonstrate that environmental conditions do influence toxicity test results; thus, they need to be considered carefully when developing test protocols as well as for environmental risk assessments of chemicals.

  19. Multi-threaded Event Processing with DANA

    SciTech Connect

    David Lawrence; Elliott Wolin

    2007-05-14

    The C++ data analysis framework DANA has been written to support the next generation of Nuclear Physics experiments at Jefferson Lab commensurate with the anticipated 12GeV upgrade. The DANA framework was designed to allow multi-threaded event processing with a minimal impact on developers of reconstruction software. This document describes how DANA implements multi-threaded event processing and compares it to simply running multiple instances of a program. Also presented are relative reconstruction rates for Pentium4, Xeon, and Opteron based machines.

  20. A Review of the Aquatic Biological Resources of the Atlantic Coastal Area Off Virginia Beach, Virginia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    K K Penilia avirostris x Podon polyphemoides x COPEPODA Acartia clausi x A. tonsa x x Caligus chelifer x Centropages hamatus x x C. typicus x x C...Euconchoecia chierchine x .4 COPEPODA Acartia sp. x A. clausi X A. danae X 4A. tonsa X *Anomalocera sp. X A. ornata x X_ A. patersonil x Calanus...Eurytemora sp. x E. americana x Labidocera sp. x x L. aestiva x x Mecynocera clausi x Metridia lecens x xINannocalanus mi or x x Oithona sp. x x x

  1. Population dynamics of a dominant species (Pseudocalanus, Acartia and Temora) in the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Janecki, M.; Lemieszek, A.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    1 - C3 and C4 - C5 and finally the adult stage - C6. The Baltic zooplankton is composed of microzooplankton, mezozooplankton and macroplankton with characteristic ichtyoplankton forms. The structure of mezozooplankton in the Gdansk Gulf mainly consisted of four taxa: copepoda, cladocera, rotatoria and meroplankton. The most important species in the Gdansk Gulf are copepoda: Acartia spp. (i.e. A. bifilosa, A. longiremis and A. tonsa), Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Centropages hamatus and cladocera: Bosmina coregoni maritime and Podon polyphemoides. Copepoda dominate numerically, while in the warm season Cladocera are subdominants. The study describes numerical simulations of the seasonal dynamics of Acartia spp., Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus in the southern Baltic Sea using a three-dimensional version of the coupled ecosystem-copepod model. In the case of the Baltic Sea, food concentration and temperature are the main factors controlling copepod development, and salinity is a masking factor. The surface water salinity of the southern Baltic is constant at 7-8 PSU. It is included in the present study. The simulated population dynamics were compared with observations at the Gulf of Gdansk. This work is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research [grant number: NN306 353239 and No. N N305 111636]. The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were done at the Academic Computer Center in Gdansk.

  2. X-15 with test pilot Bill Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    NASA research pilot Bill Dana is seen here next to the X-15 #3 rocket-powered aircraft after a flight. William H. Dana is Chief Engineer at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Formerly an aerospace research pilot at Dryden, Dana flew the F-15 HiDEC research aircraft and the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/F-16 aircraft. Dana flew the famed X-15 research airplane 16 times, reaching a top speed of 3,897 miles per hour and a peak altitude of 310,000 feet (almost 59 miles high). The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation made 3 X-15 aircraft for the program. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52

  3. F-18 HARV research pilot Dana Purifoy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Dana D. Purifoy is an aerospace research pilot at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. He joined NASA in August 1994. Purifoy is a former Air Force test pilot who served as a project pilot in the joint NASA/Air Force X-29 Forward Swept Wing research program conducted at Dryden from 1984 to 1991. His most recent assignment in the Air Force was flying U-2 aircraft as a test pilot at Air Force Plant 42, Palmdale, CA. In addition to flying the X-29 at Dryden as an Air Force pilot, Purifoy also served as project pilot and joint test force director with the AFTI F-16 (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/F-16) program, also located at Dryden. Before his assignments as project pilot on the X-29 and AFTI/F-16 aircraft, Purifoy was chief of the Academics Systems Branch at the Air Force Test Pilot School at Edwards. Prior to becoming a test pilot, he flew F-111 and F-16 aircraft in Great Britain and Germany. He has accumulated 3800 hours of flying time in his career. The final flight for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) took place at NASA Dryden on May 29, 1996. The highly modified F-18 airplane flew 383 flights over a nine year period and demonstrated concepts that greatly increase fighter maneuverability. Among concepts proven in the aircraft is the use of paddles to direct jet engine exhaust in cases of extreme altitudes where conventional control surfaces lose effectiveness. Another concept, developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is a deployable wing-like surface installed on the nose of the aircraft for increased right and left (yaw) control on nose-high flight angles.

  4. The "Dana Decision" and Its Impact Relative to On-Line Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2012-01-01

    Dana College (Dana.edu) was dying. A corporation was willing to buy it. However, Dana did not teach in the main, 21st century technical skills which is true of most little liberal arts colleges. Dana's demise first came in cuts for faculty in terms of benefits (Manghan, K. 1/16/2009). The entrance of the federal government was an attempt to stop a…

  5. Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) Prototype System User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sam Alessi; Dennis Keiser

    2012-10-01

    This document is a user manual for the Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) model. DANA provides an analysis of dairy anaerobic digestion technology and allows users to calculate biogas production, co-product valuation, capital costs, expenses, revenue and financial metrics, for user customizable scenarios, dairy and digester types. The model provides results for three anaerobic digester types; Covered Lagoons, Modified Plug Flow, and Complete Mix, and three main energy production technologies; electricity generation, renewable natural gas generation, and compressed natural gas generation. Additional options include different dairy types, bedding types, backend treatment type as well as numerous production, and economic parameters. DANA’s goal is to extend the National Market Value of Anaerobic Digester Products analysis (informa economics, 2012; Innovation Center, 2011) to include a greater and more flexible set of regional digester scenarios and to provide a modular framework for creation of a tool to support farmer and investor needs. Users can set up scenarios from combinations of existing parameters or add new parameters, run the model and view a variety of reports, charts and tables that are automatically produced and delivered over the web interface. DANA is based in the INL’s analysis architecture entitled Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems (GEMS) , which offers extensive collaboration, analysis, and integration opportunities and greatly speeds the ability construct highly scalable web delivered user-oriented decision tools. DANA’s approach uses server-based data processing and web-based user interfaces, rather a client-based spreadsheet approach. This offers a number of benefits over the client-based approach. Server processing and storage can scale up to handle a very large number of scenarios, so that analysis of county, even field level, across the whole U.S., can be performed. Server based databases allow dairy and digester

  6. X-15 #3 with test pilot Bill Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    NASA research pilot Bill Dana is seen here next to the X-15 #3 (56-6672) rocket-powered aircraft after a flight. William H. Dana is Chief Engineer at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Formerly an aerospace research pilot at Dryden, Dana flew the F-15 HIDEC research aircraft and the Advanced Fighter Technology Integration/F-16 aircraft. Dana flew the famed X-15 research airplane 16 times, reaching a top speed of 3,897 miles per hour and a peak altitude of 306,900 feet (over 58 miles high). The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique side fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of thrust. North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and movable horizontal stabilizers to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a

  7. The influence of food quality on the nutritional acclimation of the copepod Acartia clausi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayzaud, P.; Tirelli, V.; Bernard, J. M.; Roche-Mayzaud, O.

    1998-06-01

    The influence of food quality on the nutritional metabolism of Acartia clausi was studied experimentally using four different diets: (1) diatom cells of Thalassiosira weissflogii, (2) detritus prepared from the same culture, (3) 50 : 50 mix on a protein basis of the two previous diets, and 4) dinoflagellate cells of Prorocentrum micans. For each trophic, ingestion, gut transit time, trypsin activity and Km (half saturation constant) were measured at limiting and saturating concentration. Assimilation rates were also estimated for both pure diatoms and mixed live-detrital cell diets. Ingestion followed a Holling type 2 response for diets 1 and 4, a linear one for detritus and an intermediate response for diet 3. Gut transit time displayed different adaptive changes with food regime depending on protein concentration. Trypsin activity was lower for detrital food and trypsin Km significantly decreased with increasing concentration of live diatoms. Assimilation rates were higher for live food than for mixed live-detrital food. Results illustrated that Acartia-type copepods optimize nitrogen or protein uptake. They suggest that besides chemoreception-mediated selectivity, internal controls by digestion and assimilation also regulate ingestion (feed-back).

  8. Effects of formaldehyde preservation on biometrical characters, biomass and biochemical composition of Acartia clausi (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapiris, K.; Miliou, H.; Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, M.

    1997-03-01

    The effects of formaldehyde preservation on biometrical characters, biomass and biochemical composition of the marine copepod Acartia clausi were studied using the relevant values of fresh unpreserved animals as reference. Acartia were collected in the southern parts of Saronicos Gulf in early May (16.5°C) and late June (21°C). Formalin was found to cause significant shrinkage of cephalothorax length, abdomen length and total length. The sex of individuals, as well as the temperature of seawater at the time of collection seem to influence dimensional losses. Females and animals collected at 16.5°C presented heavier losses. Dry weight is drastically reduced after formaldehyde preservation. Final losses are more severe for females and animals collected at 21°C. Two of the measured biochemical constituents, carbohydrates and neutral lipids, seem to be unaffected by formaldehyde. DNA and RNA although initially affected seem to be stabilized towards the end of the experimental period (30 days). The other biochemical parameters, viz proteins, total lipids and sugars, are profoundly affected by preservation.

  9. 78 FR 1265 - Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Dana Holding Corporation; Power Technologies Group Division; Including... Technologies Group Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (subject firm). The worker group includes on-site leased... Company, Power Technologies Group Division, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, who were engaged in employment...

  10. Effects of Dredged Materials on Zooplankton.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    VI. Biology of Acartia clausi and A. tonsa. Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., 15: 156-7 . "b Darby, 0. A., R. W. Alden III, J. H. Rule, C. H. Blair...block number) Elutriate bioassays with Acartia tonsa suggest that sediments from the Southern Branch lower reaches could significantly impact the...REFERENCES ..................................................... 15 -’ LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Multiple regression table for Acartia tonsa survival

  11. Dana-Farber repository for machine learning in immunology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang Lan; Lin, Hong Huang; Keskin, Derin B; Reinherz, Ellis L; Brusic, Vladimir

    2011-11-30

    The immune system is characterized by high combinatorial complexity that necessitates the use of specialized computational tools for analysis of immunological data. Machine learning (ML) algorithms are used in combination with classical experimentation for the selection of vaccine targets and in computational simulations that reduce the number of necessary experiments. The development of ML algorithms requires standardized data sets, consistent measurement methods, and uniform scales. To bridge the gap between the immunology community and the ML community, we designed a repository for machine learning in immunology named Dana-Farber Repository for Machine Learning in Immunology (DFRMLI). This repository provides standardized data sets of HLA-binding peptides with all binding affinities mapped onto a common scale. It also provides a list of experimentally validated naturally processed T cell epitopes derived from tumor or virus antigens. The DFRMLI data were preprocessed and ensure consistency, comparability, detailed descriptions, and statistically meaningful sample sizes for peptides that bind to various HLA molecules. The repository is accessible at http://bio.dfci.harvard.edu/DFRMLI/.

  12. Gonad morphology, oocyte development and spawning cycle of the calanoid copepod Acartia clausi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisfeld, Sonja M.; Niehoff, Barbara

    2007-09-01

    Information on gonad morphology and its relation to basic reproductive parameters such as clutch size and spawning frequency is lacking for Acartia clausi, a dominant calanoid copepod of the North Sea. To fill this gap, females of this species were sampled at Helgoland Roads from mid March to late May 2001. Gonad structure and oogenesis were studied using a combination of histology and whole-body-analysis. In addition, clutch size and spawning frequency were determined in incubation experiments, during which individual females were monitored at short intervals for 8 and 12 h, respectively. The histological analysis revealed that the ovary of A. clausi is w-shaped with two distinct tips pointing posteriorly. It is slightly different from that of other Acartia species and of other copepod taxa. From the ovary, two anterior diverticula extend into the head region, and two posterior diverticula extend to the genital opening in the abdomen. Developing oocytes change in shape and size, and in the appearance of the nucleus and the ooplasm. Based on these morphological characteristics, different oocyte development stages (OS) were identified. Mitotically dividing oogonia and young oocytes (OS 0) were restricted to the ovary, whereas vitellogenic oocytes (OS 1 4) were present in the diverticula. The development stage of the oocytes increased with distance to the ovary in both, anterior and posterior diverticula. Most advanced oocytes were situated ventrally, and their number varied between 1 and 18, at a median of 4. All oocyte development stages co-occur indicating that oogenesis in A. clausi is a continuous process. These morphological features reflect the reproductive traits of this species. In accordance with the low numbers of mature oocytes in the gonads, females usually produced small clutches of one to five eggs. Clutches were released throughout the entire observation period at intervals of 90 min (median) resulting in mean egg production rates of 18 28 eggs female

  13. Evaluation of Salinity-Related Habitat Impacts in the Lower Chesapeake Bay and James River for the Norfolk Harbor and Channels Deepening Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    guinguecirrha ......... .. . ... .. .. .. .. . .. ... .. . ... .. . .. A-2 Acartia clausi .................................................... A-4...Cnidaria Chrysaora guinquecirrha sea nettle Rotifera Brachionus calcyiflorus rotifer Crustacea Acartia clausi copepod Acartia tonsa copepod Eurytemora...Norfolk Harbor Deepening Study. ZOOPLANKTON Cnidaria Chrysaora quinguecirrha sea nettle Crustacea Acartia clausi copepod <VEurytemora affinis copepod

  14. HL-10 after landing with pilot Bill Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    This movie clip, running about 56 seconds, shows NASA pilot Bill Dana exiting the cockpit of the HL-10 and waving to his B-52 drop aircraft, just after landing on the dry lakebed at Edwards Air Force Base, California. A fleet of lifting bodies flown at the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, from 1963 to l975 demonstrated the ability of pilots to maneuver (in the atmosphere) and safely land a wingless vehicle. These lifting bodies were basically designed so they could fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an aircraft at a pre-determined site. (In 1976 NASA renamed the FRC as the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in honor of Hugh L. Dryden.) These unique research vehicles, with their unconventional aerodynamic shapes, were the M2-F1, M2-F2, M2-F3, HL-10, X-24A, and the X-24B. The information the lifting body program generated contributed to the database that led to development of the current space shuttle program as well as the X-33 and X-38 technology demonstrators. Aerodynamic lift -- essential to flight in the atmosphere -- was obtained from the shape of the vehicles rather than from wings on a normal aircraft. The addition of fins and control surfaces allowed the pilots to stabilize and control the vehicles and regulate their flight paths. All but the M2-F1 were powered by the same type of XLR-11 rocket engine used in the famed Bell X-1 -- first aircraft to fly faster than the speed of sound. The M2-F1, a lightweight prototype, was unpowered. The success of the Dryden M2-F1 program led to the NASA development and construction of two heavyweight lifting bodies based on studies at NASA Ames and Langley research centers -- the M2-F2 and the HL-10, both built by the Northrop Corporation. The 'M' refers to 'manned' and 'F' refers to 'flight' version. 'HL' comes from 'horizontal landing' and '10' is for the tenth lifting body model to be investigated by Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The HL-10 was delivered to the FRC by Northrop

  15. X-15 test pilots - Thompson, Dana, and McKay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    NASA pilots Milton O. Thompson, William H. 'Bill' Dana, and John B. 'Jack' McKay are seen here in front of the #2 X-15 (56-6671) rocket-powered research aircraft. Among them, the three NASA research pilots made 59 flights in the X-15 (14 for Thompson, 16 for Dana, and 29 for McKay). The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52 aircraft at 45,000 ft and a speed of about 500 mph. Depending on the mission, the rocket engine provided thrust for the first 80 to 120 sec of flight. The remainder of the

  16. Test pilots 1962 - Armstrong, Walker, Dana, Peterson, McKay, Thompson, Butchart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The research pilots at what in 1962 was called the Flight Research Center standing in front of the X-1E. They are (left to right) Neil Armstrong, Joe Walker, Bill Dana, Bruce Peterson, Jack McKay, Milt Thompson, and Stan Butchart. of the group, Armstrong, Walker, Dana, McKay and Thompson all flew the X-15. Bruce Peterson flew the M2-F2 and HL-10 lifting bodies, while Stan Butchart was the B-29 drop plane pilot for many of the D-558-II and X-1 series research aircraft.

  17. Dana Awards for Undergraduate Education and Health Prompt Debate on the Proper Role of Foundations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Liz

    1988-01-01

    The Charles A. Dana Foundation is trying to bring attention to innovations that improve the quality of undergraduate education and those that prevent disease and promote health. It is especially interested in ideas that can be copied on other campuses or in other communities or medical institutes. (MLW)

  18. Testing Mixture Models of Transitive Preference: Comment on Regenwetter, Dana, and Davis-Stober (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    This article contrasts 2 approaches to analyzing transitivity of preference and other behavioral properties in choice data. The approach of Regenwetter, Dana, and Davis-Stober (2011) assumes that on each choice, a decision maker samples randomly from a mixture of preference orders to determine whether "A" is preferred to "B." In contrast, Birnbaum…

  19. Promoting Writing among Psychology Students and Faculty: An Interview with Dana S. Dunn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Perilou

    2002-01-01

    Perilou Goddard is a professor of psychology at Northern Kentucky University (NKU), where she teaches introductory and abnormal psychology as well as courses in writing in psychology and drug policy. She was chosen as NKU's outstanding professor in 1999. Dana S. Dunn is a professor of psychology and former chair of the Department of Psychology at…

  20. 76 FR 43348 - Dana Structural Manufacturing, LLC, Structures Division, Longview, TX; Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...; Leased Workers From Manpower Working On-Site at Dana Structural Manufacturing, LLC Structures Division... Solutions Group, including on-site workers from Career Personnel, Longview, Texas, separated from employment... date being one full year before the petition date. There were no leased workers from Career...

  1. Mentoring Matters: Many Voices, Many Choices--Women Who Mentored and Inspired Dana Rodriguez

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Mary G.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay, the author traces the progress of one English teacher (Dana) from her days as a middle school student, to her university work, to her emergence as a teacher. The journey reveals that many mentors along the way contributed to the new teacher's sense of purpose, efficacy, and confidence. It is easy to limit one's thinking about the…

  2. 5. PILOTS KNIGHT, RUSHWORTH, ENGLE, THOMPSON, DANA, AND McKAY STANDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. PILOTS KNIGHT, RUSHWORTH, ENGLE, THOMPSON, DANA, AND McKAY STANDING AT THE NOSE OF X-15 NO. 66671. - Edwards Air Force Base, X-15 Engine Test Complex, Rogers Dry Lake, east of runway between North Base & South Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. Sperm storage and mating in the deep-sea squid Taningia danae Joubin, 1931 (Oegopsida: Octopoteuthidae).

    PubMed

    Hoving, Hendrik Jan T; Lipinski, Marek R; Videler, John J; Bolstad, Kat S R

    2010-01-01

    Spermatangium implantation is reported in the large oceanic squid Taningia danae, based on ten mated females from the stomachs of sperm whales. Implanted spermatangia were located in the mantle, head and neck (on both sides) or above the nuchal cartilage, under the neck collar and were often associated with incisions. These cuts ranged from 30 to 65 mm in length and were probably made by males, using the beak or arm hooks. This is the first time wounds facilitating spermatangium storage have been observed in the internal muscle layers (rather than external, as observed in some other species of squid). The implications of these observations for the mating behavior of the rarely encountered squid T. danae are discussed.

  4. Molecular and microscopic evidence of viruses in marine copepods

    PubMed Central

    Dunlap, Darren S.; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Rosario, Karyna; Barbosa, Jorge G.; Greco, Anthony M.; Breitbart, Mya; Hewson, Ian

    2013-01-01

    As dominant members of marine mesozooplankton communities, copepods play critical roles in oceanic food webs and biogeochemical cycling. Despite the ecological significance of copepods, little is known regarding the causes of copepod mortality, and up to 35% of total copepod mortality cannot be accounted for by predation alone. Viruses have been established as ecologically important infectious agents in the oceans; however, viral infection has not been investigated in mesozooplankton communities. Here we used molecular and microscopic techniques to document viral infection in natural populations of the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa (Dana) and Labidocera aestiva (Wheeler) in Tampa Bay, FL. Viral metagenomics revealed previously undocumented viruses in each species, named Acartia tonsa copepod circo-like virus (AtCopCV) and Labidocera aestiva copepod circo-like virus (LaCopCV). LaCopCV was found to be extremely prevalent and abundant in L. aestiva populations, with up to 100% prevalence in some samples and average viral loads of 1.13 × 105 copies per individual. LaCopCV transcription was also detected in the majority of L. aestiva individuals, indicating viral activity. AtCopCV was sporadically detected in A. tonsa populations year-round, suggesting temporal variability in viral infection dynamics. Finally, virus-like particles of unknown identity were observed in the connective tissues of A. tonsa and L. aestiva by transmission electron microscopy, demonstrating that viruses were actively proliferating in copepod connective tissue as opposed to infecting gut contents, parasites, or symbionts. Taken together, these results provide strong independent lines of evidence for active viral infection in dominant copepod species, indicating that viruses may significantly influence mesozooplankton ecology. PMID:23297243

  5. Dana Farber Cancer Institute: Identification of Therapeutic Targets Across Cancer Types | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The Dana Farber Cancer Institute CTD2 Center focuses on the use of high-throughput genetic and bioinformatic approaches to identify and credential oncogenes and co-dependencies in cancers. This Center aims to provide the cancer research community with information that will facilitate the prioritization of targets based on both genomic and functional evidence, inform the most appropriate genetic context for downstream mechanistic and validation studies, and enable the translation of this information into therapeutics and diagnostics.

  6. Dana Farber Cancer Institute: Discovery of Novel Oncogenes | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Widespread recurrent copy number alterations are observed across the majority of human cancers, yet the specific targets of such amplified or deleted regions remain undefined. Here, the CTD2 Center at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute took a systematic approach using cDNA overexpression screening to identify and validate oncogenes residing in such amplified regions. In representative examples, these experiments have identified the adaptor proteins CRKL, GAB2, FRS2 and the TLOC and SKIL proteins as novel amplified oncogenes.

  7. Acute toxicity testing with the tropical marine copepod Acartia sinjiensis: optimisation and application.

    PubMed

    Gissi, F; Binet, M T; Adams, M S

    2013-11-01

    Globally there is limited toxicity data for tropical marine species, and there has been a call for further research and development in the area of tropical marine ecotoxicology. An increase in developmental pressures in northern tropical Australia is causing a higher demand for toxicity test protocols with ecologically relevant species. Copepods are a diverse group of zooplankton that are major components of marine food webs. The calanoid copepod Acartia sinjiensis is widely distributed across tropical and sub-tropical brackish to marine waters of Australia and was identified in a recent comprehensive review of marine tropical toxicity testing in Australia as a suitable test organism. Through a number of optimisation steps including feeding trials, changes to culture and test conditions; a 48-h acute toxicity test with A. sinjiensis was modified to become a highly reliable and reproducible standard test protocol. Control mobility was improved significantly, and the sensitivity of A. sinjiensis to copper (EC50 of 33µg/L), ammonia (EC50 of 10mg/L) and phenol (EC50 of 13mg/L) fell within the ranges of those reported previously, indicating that the modifications did not alter its sensitivity. In a comprehensive literature search we found that this species was the most sensitive to copper out of a range of marine copepods. The test was also successfully applied in toxicity assessments of four environmental samples: two produced formations waters (PFWs) and two mine tailing liquors (MTLs). The toxicity assessments utilised toxicity data from a suite of marine organisms (bacteria, microalgae, copepods, sea urchins, oysters, prawns, and fish). For the PFWs, which were predominantly contaminated with organic chemicals, A. sinjiensis was the most sensitive species (EC50 value 2-17 times lower than for any other test species). For the predominantly metal-contaminated mine tailing liquors, its sensitivity was similar to that of other test species used. The modified 48-h acute

  8. Experimental infection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with marine Eubothrium sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea): observations on the life cycle, aspects of development and growth of the parasite.

    PubMed

    Saksvik, M; Nylund, A; Nilsen, F; Hodneland, K

    2001-01-01

    The life cycle of marine Eubothrium sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea), from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was experimentally completed in one year and included only one intermediate host (Acartia tonsa Dana) (Copepoda: Calanoida). Adult cestodes were collected from farmed salmon, and ripe eggs released by the cestodes were fed to Acartia tonsa. Ingested eggs hatched in the gut and the larvae developed in the haemocoel of the copepod for 15 days at 16 degrees C. A total of 170 seawater-reared salmon were exposed to infected copepods and the total prevalence of Eubothrium sp. in the salmon after infection was 95.3%, with a mean intensity of 15.0 (range 1-87). The infected salmon were kept in the laboratory where the growth of the cestodes was studied for eleven months. Mean length of the cestodes increased with time, but a large variation among the cestodes was observed. Growth and maturation of the cestodes were dependent on host size and the number of worms present in the intestine. No evidence of mortality of Eubothrium sp. was observed during the experimental period.

  9. Dana Farber Cancer Institute: Discovery of Resistance Mechanisms | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Resistance to targeted therapy is emerging as a bottleneck to achieving durable drug responses in cancer. The goal of the CTD2 Center at Dana Farber Cancer Institute is to identify mechanisms of resistance for both existing therapeutics as well as for emerging targets even prior to the identification of lead compounds. They aim to use this information to inform combinatorial treatments. In representative examples they have found that YAP1 leads to resistance after KRAS targeting and that PRKACA mediates resistance to HER2 therapy.

  10. Embryonic development time of Penilia avirostris Dana, 1852 in a tropical bay in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Valentin, J L; Marazzo, A

    2004-11-01

    Development time of embryos in the brood pouch of the cladoceran Penilia avirostris Dana, 1852, was estimated by collecting zooplankton daily for 15 days in surface water of Guanabara Bay, Brazil. Each day the maturity stage of embryos of 90 parthenogenic females was noted. Total development time (egg to birth) varied from 2 to 3 days, the immature phase (stages I to IV) being generally longer (2 days) than intermediate and mature phases (1 day, stages V to XII). Similar results were obtained from Bottrell's equation, which takes water temperature into account.

  11. Copepods from Warm-Core Ring 82-H.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    separately for each species except Lucicutia spp. and Acartia spp. where they are combined. Copepod species categories (female, male, copepodite) are...to prefer different regions and Acartia danae (0-90 m) and A. negligens (80-160 m) had little overlap. The Pleuromamma species did not show this...deeper, while others were found more or less evenly over the entire 160 m. mixed layer below thermocline both Acartia danae Acartia negligens

  12. Test pilots 1962 - Thompson, McKay, Dana, Armstrong, Peterson, Butchart, Walker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    A group photo of NASA research pilots at the front door of the Flight Research Center headquarters building. In the front row are (left to right) Milt Thompson, Jack McKay, and Bill Dana. All three flew the X-15, and Thompson and Dana were also involved in the lifting body flights. McKay was injured in a crash landing in X-15 #2. Although he recovered, the injuries eventually forced him to retire from research flying. In the back row (left to right) are Neil Armstrong, Bruce Peterson, Stanley Butchart, and Joe Walker. Armstrong and Walker also both flew the X-15. Soon after this photo was taken, Armstrong was selected as an astronaut, and seven years later became the first man to walk on the Moon. Walker made the highest flight in the X-15, reaching 354,200 feet. He then went on to fly the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle, and was killed on June 8, 1966 when his F-104N collided with the XB-70. Peterson made the first flight in the HL-10 lifting body, and was later badly injured in the crash of the M2-F2 lifting body. Butchart flew a wide range of research missions in the 1950s, and was the B-29 drop plane pilot for a number of rocket flight.

  13. High-resolution seismic-reflection data offshore of Dana Point, southern California borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sliter, Ray W.; Ryan, Holly F.; Triezenberg, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected high-resolution shallow seismic-reflection profiles in September 2006 in the offshore area between Dana Point and San Mateo Point in southern Orange and northern San Diego Counties, California. Reflection profiles were located to image folds and reverse faults associated with the San Mateo fault zone and high-angle strike-slip faults near the shelf break (the Newport-Inglewood fault zone) and at the base of the slope. Interpretations of these data were used to update the USGS Quaternary fault database and in shaking hazard models for the State of California developed by the Working Group for California Earthquake Probabilities. This cruise was funded by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Catastrophic Hazards project. Seismic-reflection data were acquired aboard the R/V Sea Explorer, which is operated by the Ocean Institute at Dana Point. A SIG ELC820 minisparker seismic source and a SIG single-channel streamer were used. More than 420 km of seismic-reflection data were collected. This report includes maps of the seismic-survey sections, linked to Google Earth? software, and digital data files showing images of each transect in SEG-Y, JPEG, and TIFF formats.

  14. Population ecology of the blue crab Callinectes danae (Crustacea: Portunidae) in a Brazilian tropical estuary.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Marina S L C; Barreto, Aline V; Negromonte, Aurinete O; Schwamborn, Ralf

    2012-03-01

    This paper aims at describing the population ecology of the swimming crab Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 in one of the most productive estuaries of Brazil, the Santa Cruz Channel. These crabs were monthly collected from January to December/2009 at four stations along the channel, two in the upper and two in the lower estuary. A total of 2373 specimens of C. danae were collected during the study. Males had a larger average carapace width than non-ovigerous females (60.0 ± 15.6 mm and 52.9 ± 12.4 mm, respectively), an adaptation that gives greater protection for females during the copulation. Overall sex ratio did not differ significantly from 1:1. However, evaluating sex-ratio by sampling area, males and juveniles of both sexes occurred preferentially in the upper estuary (p < 0.05), while adult females, including ovigerous, inhabited the lower estuary, an area of major marine influence (p < 0.05). While juveniles look for estuarine waters due to the benefit from the shelter and abundance of food, ovigerous females migrate to areas of greater depth and higher salinity in order to provide a more favorable environment for embryonic and larval development and to enhance larval dispersal. Recruitment of juveniles was continuous along the year, but intensified from March to June and, with less intensity, from October to December.

  15. Seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep) - numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Głowacka, L.; Bielecka, L.; Mudrak, S.

    2006-07-01

    A population dynamics model for copepods is presented describing a seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdansk Deep). The copepod model was coupled with an one-dimensional physical and biological upper layer model for nutrients (total inorganic nitrogen, phosphate), phytoplankton, microzooplankton and an early juvenile of herring as predator. In this model, mesozooplankton (herbivorous copepods) has been introduced as animals having definite patterns of growth in successive stages, reproduction and mortality. The populations are represented by 6 cohorts in different developmental stages, thus assuming, that recruitment of the next generation occurs after a fixed period of adult life. The copepod model links trophic processes and population dynamics, and simulates individual growth within cohorts and the changes in biomass between cohorts. The simulations of annual cycles of copepods contain one complete generation of Pseudocalanus and two generations of Acartia in the whole column water, and indicate the importance of growth of older stages of 6 cohorts each species to total population biomass. The peaks of copepods biomass, main, at the turn of June and July for Pseudocalanus and smaller, in July for Acartia, lag that phytoplankton by ca. two mouths due to growth of cohorts in successive stages and egg production by females. The numerical results show that the investigated species could not be the main factor limiting the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Gdansk Deep, because the initial development was slow for Acartia and faster for Pseudocalanus, but main development formed after the bloom, in both cases. However, the simulated microzooplankton biomass was enough high to conclude, in our opinion, that, in this case, it was major cause limiting phytoplankton bloom. Model presented here is a next step in understanding how the population dynamics of a dominant species in the southern Baltic Sea interact

  16. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 83-107-1574, Dana Corporation, Fort Wayne, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, R.G.; Wallingford, K.M.

    1985-04-01

    Environmental and breathing-zone samples of cutting fluids and oils were analyzed at Dana Corporation, Fort Wayne, Indiana in May, 1983. The survey was requested by a company representative to evaluate the cause of dermatitis among machine-tool operators. A cutting fluid used at the facility was thought to be the cause of the dermatitis. Medical questionnaires were administered to 95 workers. Company dispensary records were reviewed. N-nitrosodimethylamine and triethanolamine were detected in new and used cutting fluid samples. Nickel, chromium, and zinc were detected in a sample of used cutting oil residue. Chloromethyl-phenol was found in two cutting fluid mix samples. The authors conclude that a health hazard exists at the facility. The skin problems appear to be related to exposure to cutting fluids and solvents in general, rather than a specific agent. Recommendations include using protective clothing, using waterless hand cleaners instead of solvents, and avoiding contact with chlorothene.

  17. The importance of uptake from food for the bioaccumulation of PCB and PBDE in the marine planktonic copepod Acartia clausi.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Kerstin; Tiselius, Peter

    2010-07-15

    The accumulation of (14)C-labelled PCB 31, PCB 101, PCB 153 and PBDE 99 was investigated at the two lowest trophic levels of the pelagic food web. Accumulation was measured in the small phytoplankter Thalassiosira weissflogii (Coscinodiscophyceae: Thalassiosirales) and in the neritic zooplankter Acartia clausi (Copepoda: Calanoida) exposed to the substance either only via water or through ingestion of contaminated T. weissflogii. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for all four compounds were significantly higher in A. clausi feeding on contaminated phytoplankton than in animals exposed only via water. The logBAF for the PCBs increased linearly with the octanol-water partitioning coefficients (logK(OW)) in both the algae and the copepods, but with steeper slopes for feeding than non-feeding animals. Reported values for K(OW) for PBDEs vary by almost an order of magnitude and it was therefore not meaningful to calculate a logBAF-logK(OW) ratio for PBDE 99. It is clear that the nutritional status of the zooplankton affects the uptake of the compounds and that the bioaccumulation cannot be modelled as a passive partitioning between the organisms and the surrounding water. Small copepods are typical of coastal waters and point sources (both temporal and spatial) may be the rule for HOC releases into the sea. Thus, the pathways shown in this study are important and realistic.

  18. Feeding activity of the copepod Acartia hongi on phytoplankton and micro-zooplankton in Gyeonggi Bay, Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eun Jin; Ju, Se-Jong; Choi, Joong-Ki

    2010-06-01

    To improve our understanding of the trophic link between micro-zooplankton and copepods in Gyeonggi Bay, Yellow Sea, the diet composition, ingestion rates, and prey selectivity of Acartia hongi, known as the most abundant and widespread copepod species, was estimated by conducting in situ bottle incubation throughout the different seasons. The results showed that A. hongi preferentially grazed on ciliate and heterotrophic dinoflagellate of a size ranging from 20 to 100 μm rather than phytoplankton. Although micro-zooplankton comprised only an average 13.7% of the total carbon available in the natural prey pool, micro-zooplankton accounted for >70% of the total carbon ration ingested by A. hongi throughout the year, except for winter diatom blooming periods when A. hongi obtained about 60% of its carbon ration from phytoplankton. Our results demonstrated that A. hongi modified their diet composition and feeding rates in response to change in composition and size of prey available to them, and that A. hongi preferentially ingested micro-zooplankton over phytoplankton. Feeding activity of A. hongi could therefore affect the species composition and size structure of natural plankton communities in this study area, particularly the micro-zooplankton. Strongly selective feeding and high grazing pressure by A. hongi on micro-zooplankton shows the role of trophic coupling between copepods and the microbial food web in the pelagic ecosystem of Gyeonggi Bay.

  19. Dryden Test Pilots 1990 - Smolka, Fullerton, Schneider, Dana, Ishmael, Smith, and McMurtry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    It was a windy afternoon on Rogers Dry Lake as the research pilots of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility gathered for a photo shoot. It was a special day too, the 30th anniversary of the first F-104 flight by research pilot Bill Dana. To celebrate, a fly over of Building 4800, in formation, was made with Bill in a Lockheed F-104 (826), Gordon Fullerton in a Northrop T-38, and Jim Smolka in a McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 (841) on March 23, 1990. The F-18 (841), standing on the NASA ramp is a backdrop for the photo of (Left to Right) James W. (Smoke) Smolka, C. Gordon Fullerton, Edward T. (Ed) Schneider, William H. (Bill) Dana, Stephen D. (Steve) Ishmael, Rogers E. Smith, and Thomas C. (Tom) McMurtry. Smolka joined NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility in September 1985. He has been the project pilot on the F-15 Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) research and F-15 Aeronautical Research Aircraft programs. He has also flown as a pilot on the NASA B-52 launch aircraft, as a co-project pilot on the F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Control aircraft and the F-18 High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft. Other aircraft he has flown in research programs are the F-16, F-111, F-104 and the T-38 as support. Fullerton, joined NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility in November 1986. He was project pilot on the NASA/Convair 990 aircraft to test space shuttle landing gear components, project pilot on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft, and project pilot on the B-52 launch aircraft, where he was involved in six air launches of the commercially developed Pegasus space launch vehicle. Other assignments include a variety of flight research and support activities in multi-engine and high performance aircraft such as, F-15, F-111, F-14, X-29, MD-11 and DC-8. Schneider arrived at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility on July 5, 1982, as a Navy Liaison Officer, becoming a NASA research

  20. Dryden Test Pilots 1990 - Smolka, Fullerton, Schneider, Dana, Ishmael, Smith, and McMurtry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    It was a windy afternoon on Rogers Dry Lake as the research pilots of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility gathered for a photo shoot. It was a special day too, the 30th anniversary of the first F-104 flight by research pilot Bill Dana. To celebrate, a fly over of Building 4800, in formation, was made with Bill in a Lockheed F-104 (826), Gordon Fullerton in a Northrop T-38, and Jim Smolka in a McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 (841) on March 23, 1990. The F-18 (841), standing on the NASA ramp is a backdrop for the photo of (Left to Right) James W. (Smoke) Smolka, C. Gordon Fullerton, Edward T. (Ed) Schneider, William H. (Bill) Dana, Stephen D. (Steve) Ishmael, Rogers E. Smith, and Thomas C. (Tom) McMurtry. Smolka joined NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility in September 1985. He has been the project pilot on the F-15 Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) research and F-15 Aeronautical Research Aircraft programs. He has also flown as a pilot on the NASA B-52 launch aircraft, as a co-project pilot on the F-16XL Supersonic Laminar Flow Control aircraft and the F-18 High Angle-of-Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) aircraft. Other aircraft he has flown in research programs are the F-16, F-111, F-104 and the T-38 as support. Fullerton, joined NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility in November 1986. He was project pilot on the NASA/Convair 990 aircraft to test space shuttle landing gear components, project pilot on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft, and project pilot on the B-52 launch aircraft, where he was involved in six air launches of the commercially developed Pegasus space launch vehicle. Other assignments include a variety of flight research and support activities in multi-engine and high performance aircraft such as, F-15, F-111, F-14, X-29, MD-11 and DC-8. Schneider arrived at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility on July 5, 1982, as a Navy Liaison Officer, becoming a NASA research

  1. Seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep) - numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Głowacka, L.; Bielecka, L.; Mudrak, S.

    2006-12-01

    A population dynamics model for copepods is presented, describing the seasonal dynamics of Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Acartia spp. in the southern Baltic Sea (Gdańsk Deep). The copepod model was coupled with a one-dimensional physical and biological upper layer model for nutrients (total inorganic nitrogen, phosphate), phytoplankton, microzooplankton, and an early juvenile of herring as a predator. In this model, mesozooplankton (herbivorous copepods) has been introduced as an animal having definite patterns of growth in successive stages, reproduction and mortality. The populations are represented by 6 cohorts in different developmental stages, thus assuming that recruitment of the next generation occurs after a fixed period of adult life. The copepod model links trophic processes and population dynamics, and simulates individual growth within cohorts and the changes in biomass between cohorts. The simulations of annual cycles of copepods contain one complete generation of Pseudocalanus and two generations of Acartia in the whole column water, and indicate the importance of growth in the older stages of 6 cohorts of each species, to arrive at a total population biomass. The peaks of copepods' biomass are larger at the turn of June and July for Pseudocalanus and smaller in July for Acartia, lagging that of phytoplankton by ca. two mouths, due to the growth of cohorts in successive stages and egg production by females. The numerical results show that the investigated species could not be the main factor limiting the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Gdańsk Deep, because the initial development was slow for Acartia and faster for Pseudocalanus, but the main development formed after the bloom, in both cases. The phytoplankton bloom is very important in the diet of the adults of the copepods, but it is not particularly important for the youngest part of new generation (early nauplii). However, the simulated microzooplankton biomass was enough high to

  2. Dana Farber Cancer Institute: Identification of Therapeutic Targets in KRAS Driven Lung Cancer | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    The CTD2 Center at Dana Farber Cancer Institute focuses on the use of high-throughput genetic and bioinformatic approaches to identify and credential oncogenes and co-dependencies in cancers. This Center aims to provide the cancer research community with information that will facilitate the prioritization of targets based on both genomic and functional evidence, inform the most appropriate genetic context for downstream mechanistic and validation studies, and enable the translation of this information into therapeutics and diagnostics.

  3. An environmental forensic approach for tropical estuaries based on metal bioaccumulation in tissues of Callinectes danae.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Andrade, Nathalia P; Hortellani, Marcos A; Favaro, Deborah I T; Kakazu, Mauricio H; Cotrim, Marycel E B; Lavradas, Raquel T; Moreira, Isabel; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann

    2016-01-01

    The blue crab Callinectes danae is distributed throughout the Atlantic coast and this study aimed to evaluate a environmental forensics approach that could be applied at tropical estuarine systems where this species is distributed, based on the metal concentrations in its tissues. For this purpose, blue crab samples were collected in 9 sites (distributed in 3 areas) along the Santos Estuarine System, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in gills, hepatopancreas and muscle tissues. Sediment samples were collected and analyzed in these same sites. A data distribution pattern was identified during both sampling periods (August and December 2011). In order to validate this model, a new sampling campaign was performed in March 2013 at the Santos Estuarine System and also at Ilha Grande (state of Rio de Janeiro). These data were added to the previous database (composed of the August and December 2011 samples) and a discriminant analysis was applied. The results confirmed an environmental fingerprint for the Santos Estuarine System.

  4. X-15 test pilots - Engle, Rushworth, McKay, Knight, Thompson, and Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The X-15 flight crew, left to right; Air Force Captain Joseph H. Engle, Air Force Major Robert A. Rushworth, NASA pilot John B. 'Jack' McKay, Air Force pilot William J. 'Pete' Knight, NASA pilot Milton O. Thompson, and NASA pilot Bill Dana. of their 125 X-15 flights, 8 were above the 50 miles that constituted the Air Force's definition of the beginning of space (Engle 3, Dana 2, Rushworth, Knight, and McKay one each). NASA used the international definition of space as beginning at 62 miles above the earth. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large

  5. X-15 flight crew - Engle, Rushworth, McKay, Knight, Thompson, and Dana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The X-15 flight crew, left to right; Air Force Captain Joseph H. Engle, Air Force Major Robert A. Rushworth, NASA pilot John B. 'Jack' McKay, Air Force Major William J. 'Pete' Knight, NASA pilot Milton O. Thompson, and NASA pilot Bill Dana. These six pilots made 125 of the 199 total flights in the X-15. Rushworth made 34 flights (the most of any X-15 pilot); McKay flew 29 times; Engle, Knight, and Dana each flew 16 times; Thompson's total was 14. The X-15 was a rocket-powered aircraft 50 ft long with a wingspan of 22 ft. It was a missile-shaped vehicle with an unusual wedge-shaped vertical tail, thin stubby wings, and unique fairings that extended along the side of the fuselage. The X-15 weighed about 14,000 lb empty and approximately 34,000 lb at launch. The XLR-99 rocket engine, manufactured by Thiokol Chemical Corp., was pilot controlled and was capable of developing 57,000 lb of rated thrust (actual thrust reportedly climbed to 60,000 lb). North American Aviation built three X-15 aircraft for the program. The X-15 research aircraft was developed to provide in-flight information and data on aerodynamics, structures, flight controls, and the physiological aspects of high-speed, high-altitude flight. A follow-on program used the aircraft as a testbed to carry various scientific experiments beyond the Earth's atmosphere on a repeated basis. For flight in the dense air of the usable atmosphere, the X-15 used conventional aerodynamic controls such as rudder surfaces on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw and canted horizontal surfaces on the tail to control pitch when moving in synchronization or roll when moved differentially. For flight in the thin air outside of the appreciable Earth's atmosphere, the X-15 used a reaction control system. Hydrogen peroxide thrust rockets located on the nose of the aircraft provided pitch and yaw control. Those on the wings provided roll control. Because of the large fuel consumption, the X-15 was air launched from a B-52

  6. Potential earthquake faults offshore Southern California, from the eastern Santa Barbara Channel south to Dana Point

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Sorlien, C.C.; Sliter, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Urban areas in Southern California are at risk from major earthquakes, not only quakes generated by long-recognized onshore faults but also ones that occur along poorly understood offshore faults. We summarize recent research findings concerning these lesser known faults. Research by the U.S. Geological Survey during the past five years indicates that these faults from the eastern Santa Barbara Channel south to Dana Point pose a potential earthquake threat. Historical seismicity in this area indicates that, in general, offshore faults can unleash earthquakes having at least moderate (M 5-6) magnitude. Estimating the earthquake hazard in Southern California is complicated by strain partitioning and by inheritance of structures from early tectonic episodes. The three main episodes are Mesozoic through early Miocene subduction, early Miocene crustal extension coeval with rotation of the Western Transverse Ranges, and Pliocene and younger transpression related to plate-boundary motion along the San Andreas Fault. Additional complication in the analysis of earthquake hazards derives from the partitioning of tectonic strain into strike-slip and thrust components along separate but kinematically related faults. The eastern Santa Barbara Basin is deformed by large active reverse and thrust faults, and this area appears to be underlain regionally by the north-dipping Channel Islands thrust fault. These faults could produce moderate to strong earthquakes and destructive tsunamis. On the Malibu coast, earthquakes along offshore faults could have left-lateral-oblique focal mechanisms, and the Santa Monica Mountains thrust fault, which underlies the oblique faults, could give rise to large (M ??7) earthquakes. Offshore faults near Santa Monica Bay and the San Pedro shelf are likely to produce both strike-slip and thrust earthquakes along northwest-striking faults. In all areas, transverse structures, such as lateral ramps and tear faults, which crosscut the main faults, could

  7. Postglacial sedimentary record of the Southern California continental shelf and slope, Point Conception to Dana Point

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sommerfield, C.K.; Lee, H.J.; Normark, W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Sedimentary strata on the Southern California shelf and slope (Point Conception to Dana Point) display patterns and rates of sediment accumulation that convey information on sea-level inundation, sediment supply, and oceanic transport processes following the Last Glacial Maximum. In Santa Monica Bay and San Pedro Bay, postglacial transgression is recorded in shelf deposits by wave-ravinement surfaces dated at 13-11 ka and an upsection transition from coastal to shallow-marine sediment facies. Depositional conditions analogous to the modern environment were established in the bays by 8-9 ka. On the continental slope, transgression is evidenced in places by an increase in sediment grain size and accumulation rate ca. 15-10 ka, a consequence of coastal ravinement and downslope resedimentation, perhaps in conjunction with climatic increases in fluvial sediment delivery. Grain sizes and accumulation rates then decreased after 12-10 ka when the shelf flooded and backfilled under rising sea level. The Santa Barbara coastal cell contains the largest mass of postglacial sediment at 32-42 ?? 109 metric tons, most of which occurs between offshore Santa Barbara and Hueneme Canyon. The San Pedro cell contains the second largest quantity of sediment, 8-11 ?? 109 metric tons, much of which is present on the eastern Palos Verdes and outer San Pedro shelves. By comparison, the mass of sediment sequestered within the Santa Monica cell is smaller at ??6-8 ?? 109 metric tons. The postglacial sediment mass distribution among coastal cells reflects the size of local fluvial sediment sources, whereas intracell accumulation patterns reflect antecedent bathymetric features conducive for sediment bypass or trapping. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  8. Recent faulting in the Gulf of Santa Catalina: San Diego to Dana Point

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, H.F.; Legg, M.R.; Conrad, J.E.; Sliter, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    We interpret seismic-reflection profiles to determine the location and offset mode of Quaternary offshore faults beneath the Gulf of Santa Catalina in the inner California Continental Borderland. These faults are primarily northwest-trending, right-lateral, strike-slip faults, and are in the offshore Rose Canyon-Newport-Inglewood, Coronado Bank, Palos Verdes, and San Diego Trough fault zones. In addition we describe a suite of faults imaged at the base of the continental slope between Dana Point and Del Mar, California. Our new interpretations are based on high-resolution, multichannel seismic (MCS), as well as very high resolution Huntec and GeoPulse seismic-reflection profiles collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1998 to 2000 and MCS data collected by WesternGeco in 1975 and 1981, which have recently been made publicly available. Between La Jolla and Newport Beach, California, the Rose Canyon and Newport-Inglewood fault zones are multistranded and generally underlie the shelf break. The Rose Canyon fault zone has a more northerly strike; a left bend in the fault zone is required to connect with the Newport-Inglewood fault zone. A prominent active anticline at mid-slope depths (300-400 m) is imaged seaward of where the Rose Canyon fault zone merges with the Newport-Inglewood fault zone. The Coronado Bank fault zone is a steeply dipping, northwest-trending zone consisting of multiple strands that are imaged from south of the U.S.-Mexico border to offshore of San Mateo Point. South of the La Jolla fan valley, the Coronado Bank fault zone is primarily transtensional; this section of the fault zone ends at the La Jolla fan valley in a series of horsetail splays. The northern section of the Coronado Bank fault zone is less well developed. North of the La Jolla fan valley, the Coronado Bank fault zone forms a positive flower structure that can be mapped at least as far north as Oceanside, a distance of ??35 km. However, north of Oceanside, the Coronado Bank

  9. Chesapeake Bay Low Freshwater Inflow Study. Phase II. MAP FOLIO. Biota Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Mnemiopsislei-dyiWinter (Ctenophone -Sea Walnut) 15 Maarenai Brachionis calyciflorus (Rotifer) 16 Callinectt Acartia clausi (Copepod) 17 Callinect4... Acartia tonsa (Copepod) 18 Alos sa Scottolana canadensis (Copepod) 19 Brevoorti Bosmina longirostris (Cladoceren) 20 fAnchoa mi Evadne tergestina

  10. Field, Lab and Modelling Study of Microscale Copepod Distributions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    laboratory data, and forced with data gathered from the LUMIS and FishTV deployments (Jaffe and Franks, parent grant). APPROACH Acartia clausi , one of...A model for Acartia tonsa: effect of turbulence and consequences for the related physiological processes. J. Plankton Res. 18:2139-2177. PUBLICATIONS

  11. A preliminary assessment of metal bioaccumulation in the blue crab, Callinectes danae S., from the Sao Vicente Channel, Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bordon, Isabella C A C; Sarkis, Jorge E S; Tomás, Acácio R G; Souza, Marcelo R; Scalco, Allan; Lima, Mariana; Hortellani, Marcos A

    2012-04-01

    The concentrations of metals in tissues of Callinectes danae were evaluated, aiming to determine the bioaccumulation process of this species. Gills presented the highest mean concentrations for most metals, except for Hg (danae of this estuary.

  12. DFCI Gene Index Project: Interactive Data Maps for Plant, Animal, Protist, and Fungi Organisims from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

    DOE Data Explorer

    Funding for the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) Gene Index Project ended and the database was taken down in July of 2014. However, this record links you to the "tombstone" page where you will find FTP addresses for the software tools and the data created.

  13. Statement of Facts for 1987 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. Dana Barr, Plaintiff v. Kit Zuff, as Administrator of the Lorton Medium Security Facility, Defendant. MT-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its 16th annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides the material for a mock civil trial in which Dana Barr, a former corrections officer, brings suit against the Lorton Medium Security Facility for firing him on the basis of his status as Human…

  14. A new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Yusuke

    2015-06-03

    The palaemonid shrimp genus Palaemonella Dana, 1852 is currently represented by 21 formally described species worldwide, of which 17 species are known from the Indo-West Pacific. In this study, a new species, P. okunoi, is described and illustrated on the basis of two ovigerous female specimens collected from coastal waters in Okinawa Island, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, at depths of 5-30 m. The new species closely resembles P. hachijo Okuno, 1999, but the shorter rostrum, more anteriorly located postrostral teeth on the carapace, the presence of a pair of submedian teeth on the fourth thoracic sternite and the less slender pereopods distinguish P. okunoi n. sp. from P. hachijo. The discovery of the present new species raises the number of Japanese species of Palaemonella to eight. An updated key to the Indo-West Pacific species of the genus is presented.

  15. Taxonomic revision of New Guinea diving beetles of the Exocelina danae group, with the description of ten new species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae)

    PubMed Central

    Shaverdo, Helena; Sagata, Katayo; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ten new species of Exocelina Broun, 1886 from New Guinea are described: Exocelina andakombensis sp. n., Exocelina garaina sp. n., Exocelina injiensis sp. n., Exocelina kabwumensis sp. n., Exocelina marawaga sp. n., Exocelina posmani sp. n., Exocelina tekadu sp. n., Exocelina varirata sp. n., Exocelina wareaga sp. n., and Exocelina woitapensis sp. n. All of them together with five already described species are united into the newly defined Exocelina danae-group (with Exocelina miriae-subgroup), a polyphyletic complex of related species with lateral setation on the median lobe. In the light of newly available material, all previously described species of the Exocelina rivulus-group are considered to belong to a single species, Exocelina damantiensis (Balke, 1998), which is now placed into the Exocelina danae-group, and three new synonyms are therefore proposed: Exocelina madangensis (Balke, 2001) syn. n., Exocelina patepensis (Balke, 1998) syn. n., and Exocelina rivulus (Balke, 1998) syn. n. Exocelina tarmluensis (Balke, 1998) syn. n. is a junior synonym of Exocelina danae (Balke, 1998). Redescription of Exocelina atratus (Balfour-Browne, 1939) is provided based on its type material. An identification key to all known species of the group is provided, and important diagnostic characters are illustrated. Data on the species distribution are given, showing that whilst most species are local endemics, Exocelina damantiensis is extremely widely distributed. PMID:27829789

  16. Responses of free radical metabolism to air exposure or salinity stress, in crabs (Callinectes danae and C. ornatus) with different estuarine distributions.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carolina A; Togni, Valéria G; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2011-10-01

    The swimming crabs Callinectes danae and C. ornatus are found in bays and estuaries, but C. danae is more abundant in lower salinities, while C. ornatus remains restricted to areas of higher salinity. Experimental crabs of both species were submitted to: air exposure (Ae, 3h), reimmersion in 33‰ (control) sea water (SW) (Ri, 1h) following air exposure; hyposaline (Ho, 10‰ for 2h) or hypersaline (He, 40‰ for 2h) SW, then return to control 33‰ SW (RHo and RHe, for 1h). Hemolymph was sampled for osmolality and chloride determinations. Activity of antioxidant enzymes [glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase, glutathione-S-transferase] and levels of carbonyl proteins and lipid peroxidation (TBARS) were evaluated in hepatopancreas, muscle, anterior and posterior gills. In Ho groups, hemolymph concentrations were lower in both species, compared to He groups. C. danae displayed higher control activities of GPX (hepatopancreas and muscle) and catalase (all four tissues) than C. ornatus. C. ornatus presented increased activities of catalase and GPX in Ae, Ri, and He groups. Increased TBARS was seen in C. ornatus tissues (He group). The more euryhaline species displayed higher constitutive activities of antioxidant enzymes, and the less euryhaline species exhibited activation of these enzymes when exposed to air or hyper-salinity.

  17. Taxonomic revision of New Guinea diving beetles of the Exocelina danae group, with the description of ten new species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae).

    PubMed

    Shaverdo, Helena; Sagata, Katayo; Balke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Ten new species of Exocelina Broun, 1886 from New Guinea are described: Exocelina andakombensissp. n., Exocelina garainasp. n., Exocelina injiensissp. n., Exocelina kabwumensissp. n., Exocelina marawagasp. n., Exocelina posmanisp. n., Exocelina tekadusp. n., Exocelina variratasp. n., Exocelina wareagasp. n., and Exocelina woitapensissp. n. All of them together with five already described species are united into the newly defined Exocelina danae-group (with Exocelina miriae-subgroup), a polyphyletic complex of related species with lateral setation on the median lobe. In the light of newly available material, all previously described species of the Exocelina rivulus-group are considered to belong to a single species, Exocelina damantiensis (Balke, 1998), which is now placed into the Exocelina danae-group, and three new synonyms are therefore proposed: Exocelina madangensis (Balke, 2001) syn. n., Exocelina patepensis (Balke, 1998) syn. n., and Exocelina rivulus (Balke, 1998) syn. n. Exocelina tarmluensis (Balke, 1998) syn. n. is a junior synonym of Exocelina danae (Balke, 1998). Redescription of Exocelina atratus (Balfour-Browne, 1939) is provided based on its type material. An identification key to all known species of the group is provided, and important diagnostic characters are illustrated. Data on the species distribution are given, showing that whilst most species are local endemics, Exocelina damantiensis is extremely widely distributed.

  18. Determining the Advantages, Costs, and Trade-Offs of a Novel Sodium Channel Mutation in the Copepod Acartia hudsonica to Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST)

    PubMed Central

    Finiguerra, Michael; Avery, David E.; Dam, Hans G.

    2015-01-01

    The marine copepod Acartia hudsonica was shown to be adapted to dinoflagellate prey, Alexandrium fundyense, which produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Adaptation to PSTs in other organisms is caused by a mutation in the sodium channel. Recently, a mutation in the sodium channel in A. hudsonica was found. In this study, we rigorously tested for advantages, costs, and trade-offs associated with the mutant isoform of A. hudsonica under toxic and non-toxic conditions. We combined fitness with wild-type: mutant isoform ratio measurements on the same individual copepod to test our hypotheses. All A. hudsonica copepods express both the wild-type and mutant sodium channel isoforms, but in different proportions; some individuals express predominantly mutant (PMI) or wild-type isoforms (PWI), while most individuals express relatively equal amounts of each (EI). There was no consistent pattern of improved performance as a function of toxin dose for egg production rate (EPR), ingestion rate (I), and gross growth efficiency (GGE) for individuals in the PMI group relative to individuals in the PWI expression group. Neither was there any evidence to indicate a fitness benefit to the mutant isoform at intermediate toxin doses. No clear advantage under toxic conditions was associated with the mutation. Using a mixed-diet approach, there was also no observed relationship between individual wild-type: mutant isoform ratios and among expression groups, on both toxic and non-toxic diets, for eggs produced over three days. Lastly, expression of the mutant isoform did not mitigate the negative effects of the toxin. That is, the reductions in EPR from a toxic to non-toxic diet for copepods were independent of expression groups. Overall, the results did not support our hypotheses; the mutant sodium channel isoform does not appear to be related to adaptation to PST in A. hudsonica. Other potential mechanisms responsible for the adaptation are discussed. PMID:26075900

  19. Vertical Migrations and Feeding Rhythms of Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda: Calanoida) in a Tropical Lagoon (Ebrié, Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouassi, E.; Pagano, M.; Saint-Jean, L.; Arfi, R.; Bouvy, M.

    2001-06-01

    Diel changes in vertical distribution and gut pigment contents of Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei were studied during several 24-h time series performed between 1993 and 1997 in four sites of the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire). The sites differed by their morphology and their hydrological structure and by the vertical distribution of chlorophyll biomass. Both species showed classical diel vertical migrations (DVM). Copepodites and adult stages of P. hessei were almost benthic during the day and evenly distributed through the water column at night. The amplitude of DVM of A. clausi increased from copepodites I-III to adults. Copepodites and adults of A. clausi increased significantly their gut fluorescence at night, whereas those of P. hessei showed no clear diel feeding rhythm (DFR). These results suggest that A. clausi feed mostly at night on phytoplanktonic particles and P. hessei feed mostly on benthic algal particles during the day and on sestonic particles at night. No relationship was observed between DFR and DVM because both patterns occurred when food was either vertically homogeneous or vertically stratified. The daily average gut fluorescence of A. clausi increased with ambient chlorophyll concentration until around 12-15 μg l -1, whereas no relationship was found for P. hessei. The implication of these patterns on the adaptation capacities and the behaviour of the two species are discussed. The DVM of P. hessei should explain its rarity in the estuarine area. The comparison of our results with previous ones suggests an evolution of A. clausi DFR between 1981-1982 and 1996-1997, in relation to an intensification of eutrophication.

  20. Feeding of Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda: Calanoida) on natural particles in a tropical lagoon (Ebrié, Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, M.; Kouassi, E.; Saint-Jean, L.; Arfi, R.; Bouvy, M.

    2003-03-01

    Grazing of the copepods Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei on natural particles was studied from on board experiments during several 24 h time series performed between 1993 and 1997 in four sites of the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire). Ingestion rates of both species increased linearly with food concentration until a concentration threshold (5.5×10 9 μm 3 l -1 for A. clausi and 5.2×10 9 mm 3 l -1 for P. hessei) beyond which the relation presented a plateau. Both species poorly selected the peak of available particles (range 3-6 mm equivalent spherical diameter, ESD) but A. clausi seek preferentially smaller particles (6-21 μm ESD) than P. hessei (9-33 μm ESD). When the proportion of the preferred particles in the food offered decreased, A. clausi extended its selectivity towards both smaller and larger particles whereas P. hessei extended its selectivity towards larger particles only. As a consequence of these patterns, the useful particle concentration (UPC) was higher for A. clausi than for P. hessei. In addition, the ratio of the UPC for the two species showed a positive relationship with the ratio of their respective biomass. The significance of these results for the adaptation capacities of the two species and for the ecosystem functioning are discussed. A. clausi which is more suited than P. hessei to exploit smaller particles (3-6 μm) which dominate the seston, has a food competitive advantage. The inadequacy between the seston food-size composition and the selective patterns of the two main zooplankton species of the Ebrié Lagoon explains that they could be food limited despite the high trophic level of the lagoon. It could also partly explain the low transfer efficiency between phytoplankton and zooplankton in this ecosystem.

  1. Determining the Advantages, Costs, and Trade-Offs of a Novel Sodium Channel Mutation in the Copepod Acartia hudsonica to Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST).

    PubMed

    Finiguerra, Michael; Avery, David E; Dam, Hans G

    2015-01-01

    The marine copepod Acartia hudsonica was shown to be adapted to dinoflagellate prey, Alexandrium fundyense, which produce paralytic shellfish toxins (PST). Adaptation to PSTs in other organisms is caused by a mutation in the sodium channel. Recently, a mutation in the sodium channel in A. hudsonica was found. In this study, we rigorously tested for advantages, costs, and trade-offs associated with the mutant isoform of A. hudsonica under toxic and non-toxic conditions. We combined fitness with wild-type: mutant isoform ratio measurements on the same individual copepod to test our hypotheses. All A. hudsonica copepods express both the wild-type and mutant sodium channel isoforms, but in different proportions; some individuals express predominantly mutant (PMI) or wild-type isoforms (PWI), while most individuals express relatively equal amounts of each (EI). There was no consistent pattern of improved performance as a function of toxin dose for egg production rate (EPR), ingestion rate (I), and gross growth efficiency (GGE) for individuals in the PMI group relative to individuals in the PWI expression group. Neither was there any evidence to indicate a fitness benefit to the mutant isoform at intermediate toxin doses. No clear advantage under toxic conditions was associated with the mutation. Using a mixed-diet approach, there was also no observed relationship between individual wild-type: mutant isoform ratios and among expression groups, on both toxic and non-toxic diets, for eggs produced over three days. Lastly, expression of the mutant isoform did not mitigate the negative effects of the toxin. That is, the reductions in EPR from a toxic to non-toxic diet for copepods were independent of expression groups. Overall, the results did not support our hypotheses; the mutant sodium channel isoform does not appear to be related to adaptation to PST in A. hudsonica. Other potential mechanisms responsible for the adaptation are discussed.

  2. No evidence for induction or selection of mutant sodium channel expression in the copepod Acartia husdsonica challenged with the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense

    PubMed Central

    Finiguerra, Michael; Avery, David E; Dam, Hans G

    2014-01-01

    Some species in the dinoflagellate genus Alexandrium spp. produce a suite of neurotoxins that block sodium channels, known as paralytic shellfish toxins (PST), which have deleterious effects on grazers. Populations of the ubiquitous copepod grazer Acartia hudsonica that have co-occurred with toxic Alexandrium spp. are better adapted than naïve populations. The mechanism of adaptation is currently unknown. We hypothesized that a mutation in the sodium channel could account for the grazer adaptation. We tested two hypotheses: (1) Expression of the mutant sodium channel could be induced by exposure to toxic Alexandrium fundyense; (2) in the absence of induction, selection exerted by toxic A. fundyense would favor copepods that predominantly express the mutant isoform. In the copepod A. hudsonica, both isoforms are expressed in all individuals in varying proportions. Thus, in addition to comparing expression ratios of wild-type to mutant isoforms for individual copepods, we also partitioned copepods into three groups: those that predominantly express the mutant (PMI) isoform, the wild-type (PWI) isoform, or both isoforms approximately equally (EI). There were no differences in isoform expression between individuals that were fed toxic and nontoxic food after three and 6 days; induction of mutant isoform expression did not occur. Furthermore, the hypothesis that mutant isoform expression responds to toxic food was also rejected. That is, no consistent evidence showed that the wild-type to mutant isoform ratios decreased, or that the relative proportion of PMI individuals increased, due to the consumption of toxic food over four generations. However, in the selected line that was continuously exposed to toxic food sources, egg production rate increased, which suggested that adaptation occurred but was unrelated to sodium channel isoform expression. PMID:25535562

  3. First report of the presence of Acartia bispinosa Carl, 1907 (Copepoda, Calanoida) in a semi-enclosed Bay (Sharm El-Maya), northern Red Sea with some notes on its seasonal variation in abundance and body size

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M.; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The calanoid copepod, Acartia bispinosa Carl, 1907, is reported for the first time in the Red Sea, where it is found to be an important copepod in the mesozooplankton community structure of the Sharm El-Maya Bay. Female and male are fully redescribed and illustrated of as the mouthparts of this species have never previously been described and figured. Acartia bispinosa was collected in the plankton samples throughout the year and showed two peaks of abundance, a pronounced one in April (4234 individuals m-3), and second smaller peak during November (1784 individuals m-3). The average total length of females varied between 1.32 and 1.53 mm at the end of June and January respectively. For males, the average total length fluctuated between 1.07 and 1.16 mm at end of June and March respectively. Temperature showed an inverse relationship with the body length (P > 0.001) and seemed to be one of the prime factors affecting the body length of both sexes. PMID:25349502

  4. The NEU1-selective sialidase inhibitor, C9-butyl-amide-DANA, blocks sialidase activity and NEU1-mediated bioactivities in human lung in vitro and murine lung in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Sang W; Liu, Anguo; Liu, Zhenguo; Cross, Alan S; Verceles, Avelino C; Magesh, Sadagopan; Kommagalla, Yadagiri; Kona, Chandrababunaidu; Ando, Hiromune; Luzina, Irina G; Atamas, Sergei P; Piepenbrink, Kurt H; Sundberg, Eric J; Guang, Wei; Ishida, Hideharu; Lillehoj, Erik P; Goldblum, Simeon E

    2016-08-01

    Neuraminidase-1 (NEU1) is the predominant sialidase expressed in human airway epithelia and lung microvascular endothelia where it mediates multiple biological processes. We tested whether the NEU1-selective sialidase inhibitor, C9-butyl-amide-2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (C9-BA-DANA), inhibits one or more established NEU1-mediated bioactivities in human lung cells. We established the IC50 values of C9-BA-DANA for total sialidase activity in human airway epithelia, lung microvascular endothelia and lung fibroblasts to be 3.74 µM, 13.0 µM and 4.82 µM, respectively. In human airway epithelia, C9-BA-DANA dose-dependently inhibited flagellin-induced, NEU1-mediated mucin-1 ectodomain desialylation, adhesiveness for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and shedding. In lung microvascular endothelia, C9-BA-DANA reversed NEU1-driven restraint of cell migration into a wound and disruption of capillary-like tube formation. NEU1 and its chaperone/transport protein, protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA), were differentially expressed in these same cells. Normalized NEU1 protein expression correlated with total sialidase activity whereas PPCA expression did not. In contrast to eukaryotic sialidases, C9-BA-DANA exerted far less inhibitory activity for three selected bacterial neuraminidases (IC50 > 800 µM). Structural modeling of the four human sialidases and three bacterial neuraminidases revealed a loop between the seventh and eighth strands of the β-propeller fold, that in NEU1, was substantially shorter than that seen in the six other enzymes. Predicted steric hindrance between this loop and C9-BA-DANA could explain its selectivity for NEU1. Finally, pretreatment of mice with C9-BA-DANA completely protected against flagellin-induced increases in lung sialidase activity. Our combined data indicate that C9-BA-DANA inhibits endogenous and ectopically expressed sialidase activity and established NEU1-mediated bioactivities in human airway epithelia, lung microvascular

  5. Growth of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) estimated from laboratory experiments.

    PubMed

    Utz, L R P

    2008-05-01

    Peritrich ciliates are commonly found colonizing living substrates. Although this a well known phenomenon, biological aspects of this relationship need to be studied in more detail. Assessment of growth rates in peritrichs has been the subject of very few studies. Only species in the genera Carchesium Ehrenberg, 1830 and Vorticella Linnaeus, 1767 had their growth rates evaluated in the field and in the laboratory. In the present study, growth, colonization (colonies/host), and proliferation (zooids/colony) rates of the peritrich epibiont Zoothamnium intermedium Precht, 1935 attached to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana 1848 were evaluated in the laboratory in two food regimes: bacteria only, and algal based diet. Results showed that growth, colonization, and proliferation rates were similar for both diets. Maximum growth rates obtained for Z. intermedium was 0.85 and 0.83 per day, for bacteria and algae respectively. Maximum colonization rates were 0.5 per day for both diets, and the maximum proliferation rates were 0.44 and 0.42 per day for bacteria and algae respectively. These results demonstrate that Z. intermedium is able to grow at the same rate of other peritrichs on bacterial and algal based diets.

  6. Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia under Treatment with the Protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 00-01.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Jaimes-Reyes, Ethel Zulie; Arellano-Galindo, José; García-Jiménez, Xochiketzalli; Tiznado-García, Héctor Manuel; Dueñas-González, María Teresa; Martínez Villegas, Octavio; Sánchez-Jara, Berenice; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Ortíz-Torres, María Guadalupe; Ortíz-Fernández, Antonio; Marín-Palomares, Teresa; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Our aim in this paper is to describe the results of treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Mexican children treated from 2006 to 2010 under the protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) 00-01. The children were younger than 16 years of age and had a diagnosis of ALL de novo. The patients were classified as standard risk if they were 1-9.9 years old and had a leucocyte count <50 × 10(9)/L, precursor B cell immunophenotype, no mediastinal mass, CSF free of blasts, and a good response to prednisone. The rest of the patients were defined as high risk. Of a total of 302 children, 51.7% were at high risk. The global survival rate was 63.9%, and the event-free survival rate was 52.3% after an average follow-up of 3.9 years. The percentages of patients who died were 7% on induction and 14.2% in complete remission; death was associated mainly with infection (21.5%). The relapse rate was 26.2%. The main factor associated with the occurrence of an event was a leucocyte count >100 × 10(9)/L. The poor outcomes were associated with toxic death during induction, complete remission, and relapse. These factors remain the main obstacles to the success of this treatment in our population.

  7. Environmental benefits and concerns on safety: communicating latest results on nanotechnology safety research-the project DaNa(2.0).

    PubMed

    Kühnel, D; Marquardt, C; Nau, K; Krug, H F; Paul, F; Steinbach, C

    2017-04-01

    The use of nanotechnology and advanced materials promises to revolutionise many areas of technology and improve our daily life. In that respect, many positive effects on the environment are expected, either directly, by developing new technologies for remediation, filtering techniques or energy generation, or indirectly, by e.g. saving resources due to lower consumption of raw materials, or lower energy and fuel consumption due to reduced weight of vehicles. However, such beneficial effects of new technologies are often confronted by concerns regarding the safety of novel substances or materials. During the past 10 years, great effort has been put into research on potential hazards of nanomaterials towards environmental organisms. As the methodology for reliable assessment of nanomaterials was immature, many studies reporting contradictory results have been published, hindering both risk assessment for nanomaterials, as well as the knowledge communication to all involved stakeholders. Thus, DaNa(2.0) serves as a platform to implement trusted knowledge on nanomaterials for an objective discussion.

  8. Re-examination of the eastern Pacific and Atlantic material of Alpheus malleator Dana, 1852, with the description of Alpheus wonkimi sp. nov. (Crustacea, Decapoda, Alpheidae).

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Pachelle, Paulo P G

    2013-01-01

    The bumpy-clawed snapping shrimp, Alpheus malleator Dana, 1852 (Alpheidae), is revised based on the recently collected and older museum material from the eastern Pacific (Panama, Ecuador), Caribbean (Panama, Puerto Rico, Trinidad & Tobago), Brazil (São Paulo), and West Africa (Cape Verde, Senegal, Guinea, Equatorial Guinea, Congo). The eastern Pacific material is assigned to A. wonkimi sp. nov., based on one morphological difference in the colour and thickness of the uropodal spiniform seta, as well as previously published molecular data. The Caribbean, Brazilian and West African material is considered to represent a single, widespread, morphologically variable, amphi-Atlantic taxon, A. malleator. Alpheus pugilator A. Milne-Edwards, 1878 is retained as ajunior synonym of A. malleator, whereas A. tuberculosus Osorio, 1892, A. malleator var. edentatus Zimmer, 1913 and A. belli Coutière, 1898, the latter two based on juvenile specimens, are tentatively placed in the synonymy of A. malleator. Illustrations, including colour photographs, are provided for A. wonkimi sp. nov. and A. malleator and their morphological variability is discussed and illustrated.

  9. First results on the genetic diversity of the invasive signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana, 1852) in Europe using novel microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Froufe, E; Varandas, S; Teixeira, A; Sousa, R; Filipová, L; Petrusek, A; Edsman, L; Lopes-Lima, M

    2015-08-01

    The introduction of non-native crayfish in aquatic ecosystems is very common due to human activities (e.g. aquaculture, recreational and commercial fisheries). The signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus (Dana, 1852), is one of the most widespread invasive species in Europe. Although several important ecological and economic impacts of this species have been reported, its European population genetic characterisation has never been undertaken using nuclear markers. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop and characterise new microsatellite markers for signal crayfish that can be useful in future studies in its invaded range, since only five are available so far. In total, 93 individuals from four geographically distinct European populations (Portugal, Great Britain, Finland and Sweden) were scored for the new markers and for those previously described, with the Bayesian analysis revealing a clear distinction among populations. These markers are suitable for future studies of the population genetic structure of this important invasive species, by increasing information about the possible pathways of introduction and dispersal, and by giving insights about the most important vectors of introduction.

  10. Survival of Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia under Treatment with the Protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 00-01

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Jaimes-Reyes, Ethel Zulie; Arellano-Galindo, José; García-Jiménez, Xochiketzalli; Tiznado-García, Héctor Manuel; Sánchez-Jara, Berenice; Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Ortíz-Torres, María Guadalupe; Ortíz-Fernández, Antonio; Marín-Palomares, Teresa; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Our aim in this paper is to describe the results of treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in Mexican children treated from 2006 to 2010 under the protocol from the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) 00-01. The children were younger than 16 years of age and had a diagnosis of ALL de novo. The patients were classified as standard risk if they were 1–9.9 years old and had a leucocyte count <50 × 109/L, precursor B cell immunophenotype, no mediastinal mass, CSF free of blasts, and a good response to prednisone. The rest of the patients were defined as high risk. Of a total of 302 children, 51.7% were at high risk. The global survival rate was 63.9%, and the event-free survival rate was 52.3% after an average follow-up of 3.9 years. The percentages of patients who died were 7% on induction and 14.2% in complete remission; death was associated mainly with infection (21.5%). The relapse rate was 26.2%. The main factor associated with the occurrence of an event was a leucocyte count >100 × 109/L. The poor outcomes were associated with toxic death during induction, complete remission, and relapse. These factors remain the main obstacles to the success of this treatment in our population. PMID:25922837

  11. Long-term results of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium protocols for children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (1985-2000).

    PubMed

    Silverman, L B; Stevenson, K E; O'Brien, J E; Asselin, B L; Barr, R D; Clavell, L; Cole, P D; Kelly, K M; Laverdiere, C; Michon, B; Schorin, M A; Schwartz, C L; O'Holleran, E W; Neuberg, D S; Cohen, H J; Sallan, S E

    2010-02-01

    The Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) Consortium has been conducting multi-institutional clinical trials in childhood ALL since 1981. The treatment backbone has included 20-30 consecutive weeks of asparaginase during intensification and frequent vincristine/corticosteroid pulses during the continuation phase. Between 1985 and 2000, 1457 children aged 0-18 years were treated on four consecutive protocols: 85-01 (1985-1987), 87-01 (1987-1991), 91-01 (1991-1955) and 95-01 (1996-2000). The 10-year event-free survival (EFS)+/-s.e. by protocol was 77.9+/-2.8% (85-01), 74.2+/-2.3% (87-01), 80.8+/-2.1% (91-01) and 80.5+/-1.8% (95-01). Approximately 82% of patients treated in the 1980s and 88% treated in the 1990s were long-term survivors. Both EFS and overall survival (OS) rates were significantly higher for patients treated in the 1990s compared with the 1980s (P=0.05 and 0.01, respectively). On the two protocols conducted in the 1990s, EFS was 79-85% for T-cell ALL patients and 75-78% for adolescents (age 10-18 years). Results of randomized studies revealed that dexrazoxane prevented acute cardiac injury without adversely affecting EFS or OS in high-risk (HR) patients, and frequently dosed intrathecal chemotherapy was an effective substitute for cranial radiation in standard-risk (SR) patients. Current studies continue to focus on improving efficacy while minimizing acute and late toxicities.

  12. Biological processes in the water column of the South Atlantic Bight: Zooplankton responses

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-07

    The goal of the Fall Removal Experiment 1987 was to determine the processes affecting the dependent and fate of low salinity coastal water and of biological material therein during fall when winds are mainly south-to westward. Five zooplankton taxa, Acartia tonsa, (A. tonsa) Paracalanus species (sp), Temora turbinata (T. turbinata), Oncaea sp, and Sagitta enflata were examined. Data on the distribution of all five taxa were presented, and distribution over time was also studied. The abundance of A. tonsa decreased tenfold over the 13 day sampling period, Paracalanus varied twofold and T. Turbinata showed little variability. The A. tonsa decrease was postulated to result from food abundance or predation, although the possible role of size distribution, water displacement and chlorophyll distribution will be examined in the future. A possible role of turbulence in zooplankton abundance is being examined. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  13. Man-induced hydrological changes, metazooplankton communities and invasive species in the Berre Lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France).

    PubMed

    Delpy, Floriane; Pagano, Marc; Blanchot, Jean; Carlotti, François; Thibault-Botha, Delphine

    2012-09-01

    The Berre Lagoon has been under strong anthropogenic pressure since the early 1950s. The opening of the hydroelectric EDF power plant in 1966 led to large salinity drops. The zooplankton community was mainly composed of two common brackish species: Acartia tonsa and Brachionus plicatilis. Since 2006, European litigation has strongly constrained the input of freshwater, maintaining the salinity above 15. A study was performed between 2008 and 2010 to evaluate how these modifications have impacted the zooplankton community. Our results show that the community is more diverse and contains several coastal marine species (i.e., Centropages typicus, Paracalanus parvus and Acartia clausi). A. tonsa is still present but is less abundant, whereas B. plicatilis has completely disappeared. Strong predatory marine species, such as chaetognaths, the large conspicuous autochtonous jellyfish Aurelia aurita and the invasive ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi, are now very common as either seasonal or permanent features of the lagoon.

  14. Acute and chronic temperature stress on copepod individuals and populations. Final report, November 1977-February 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, B.P.

    1983-10-01

    Temperature variation resulting from thermal discharges of two power plants affected temperature tolerances and densities of two copepod species, Eurytemora affinis and Acartia tonsa. Temperature tolerances were increased genetically (next generation) provided either ambient temperature or delta T was sufficiently high. Densities also varied with temperature but not always systematically. Other criteria used to assess the environmental influence of power plant were egg production and potentials for physiological and genetic adaptation.

  15. The ability of the branchiopod, Artemia salina, to graze upon harmful algal blooms caused by Alexandrium fundyense, Aureococcus anophagefferens, and Cochlodinium polykrikoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcoval, M. Alejandra; Pan, Jerónimo; Tang, Yingzhong; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2013-10-01

    We present experiments that examined the grazing and survivorship of zooplankton native (Acartia tonsa) and non-native (Artemia salina) to NY (USA) estuaries when exposed to blooms and cultures of the three harmful algae native to NY, Alexandrium fundyense, Aureococcus anophagefferens (strains CCMP 1850 and CCMP 1984) and Cochlodinium polykrikoides. During experiments with cultures of A. anophagefferens, clearance rates (CR) of A. salina were significantly greater than those of A. tonsa for both algal strains examined. A. salina fed on cultures of C. polykrikoides at higher rates than all phytoplankton species examined, including the control diet (Rhodomonas salina), and faster than rates of A. tonsa fed C. polykrikoides. During experiments with A. fundyense, A. salina actively grazed all cell concentrations (250-1500 cells ml-1) while A. tonsa did not feed at any concentration. Percent mortality of A. salina and A. tonsa fed A. fundyense for 48 h were 43 ± 7.7% and 72 ± 7.8%, respectively, percentages significantly higher than those of individuals fed all other algal diets. During 25 field experiments using natural blooms of the three HAB species performed across six NY estuaries, A. salina significantly (p < 0.05) reduced cell densities of A. anophagefferens, C. polykrikoides, and A. fundyense relative to the control treatments in all but one experiment. The sum of these findings demonstrates that a failure to graze these HABs by the indigenous copepod, A. tonsa, may permit blooms to occur. In addition, the ability of A. salina to graze these HABs at densities that were inhibitory to A. tonsa suggests that A. salina could, in some circumstances, be considered as a part of mitigation strategy for these events.

  16. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O.

    1997-02-01

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  17. Strain-related physiological and behavioral effects of Skeletonema marinoi on three common planktonic copepods.

    PubMed

    Md Amin, Roswati; Koski, Marja; Båmstedt, Ulf; Vidoudez, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Three strains of the chain-forming diatom Skeletonema marinoi, differing in their production of polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUA) and nutritional food components, were used in experiments on feeding, egg production, hatching success, pellet production, and behavior of three common planktonic copepods: Acartia tonsa, Pseudocalanus elongatus, and Temora longicornis. The three different diatom strains (9B, 1G, and 7J) induced widely different effects on Acartia tonsa physiology, and the 9B strain induced different effects for the three copepods. In contrast, different strains induced no or small alterations in the distribution, swimming behavior, and turning frequency of the copepods. 22:6(n-3) fatty acid (DHA) and sterol content of the diet typically showed a positive effect on either egg production (A. tonsa) or hatching success (P. elongatus), while other measured compounds (PUA, other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) of the algae had no obvious effects. Our results demonstrate that differences between strains of a given diatom species can generate effects on copepod physiology, which are as large as those induced by different algae species or groups. This emphasizes the need to identify the specific characteristics of local diatoms together with the interacting effects of different mineral, biochemical, and toxic compounds and their potential implications on different copepod species.

  18. Acute toxicity of eight oil spill response chemicals to temperate, boreal, and Arctic species.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Bonaunet, Kristin; Overjordet, Ida Beathe

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the acute toxicity of selected shoreline washing agents (SWA) and dispersants, and (2) assess interspecies differences in sensitivity to the products. Eight shoreline washing agents (Hela saneringsvæske, Bios, Bioversal, Absorrep K212, and Corexit 9580) and chemical dispersants (Corexit 9500, Dasic NS, and Gamlen OD4000) were tested on five marine species, algae Skeletonema costatum, planktonic copepod species Acartia tonsa (temperate species), Calanus finmarchicus (boreal species) and Calanus glacialis (Arctic species), and benthic amphipod Corophium volutator. For most products, A. tonsa was the most sensitive species, whereas C. volutator was the least sensitive; however, these species were exposed through different media (water/sediment). In general, all copepod species displayed a relatively similar sensitivity to all products. However, A. tonsa was somewhat more sensitive than other copepods to most of the tested products. Thus, A. tonsa appears to be a candidate species for boreal and Arctic copepods for acute toxicity testing, and data generated on this species may be used as to provide conservative estimates. The benthic species (C. volutator) had a different sensitivity pattern relative to pelagic species, displaying higher sensitivity to solvent-based SWA than to water-based SWA. Comparing product toxicity, the dispersants were in general most toxic while the solvent-based SWA were least toxic to pelagic species.

  19. Grazers and vitamins shape chain formation in a bloom-forming dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaodong; Lonsdale, Darcy J; Gobler, Christopher J

    2010-10-01

    Predators influence the phenotype of prey through both natural selection and induction. We investigated the effects of grazers and nutrients on chain formation in a dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides, which forms dense blooms and has deleterious effects on marine ecosystems around the world. Field populations of C. polykrikoides formed longer chains than laboratory cultures without grazers. In the field, chain length of C. polykrikoides was positively correlated with the abundance of the copepod Acartia tonsa. Chain length of C. polykrikoides increased when exposed to live females of A. tonsa or its fresh (<24 h post-isolation) exudates for 48 h. These results suggest that dissolved chemical cues released by A. tonsa induce chain formation in C. polykrikoides. Ingestion rate of A. tonsa on four-cell chains of C. polykrikoides was lower than on single cells, suggesting that chain formation may be an effective anti-grazing defense. Finally, nutrient amendment experiments demonstrated that vitamins (B(1), B(7), and B(12)) increased the chain length of C. polykrikoides both singly and collectively, while trace metals and inorganic nutrients did not, showing that vitamins may also influence chain formation in this species.

  20. Species composition of Black Sea marine planktonic copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubanova, A.; Altukhov, D.; Stefanova, K.; Arashkevich, E.; Kamburska, L.; Prusova, I.; Svetlichny, L.; Timofte, F.; Uysal, Z.

    2014-07-01

    This paper reviews the changes in the marine planktonic copepods of the Black Sea species' list from the beginning of taxonomic research to the present day. The study was based on the SESAME biological database, unpublished data, literature and data obtained during the course of the SESAME project. Comparisons were made with the Guidebook for Marine Fauna of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, which revealed changes both in the taxonomic status of some species and in the structure of the copepod community. The taxonomic status of two species (Acartia clausi small form and Centropages kroyeri pontica) and the nomenclature of two species (Oihona minuta and Calanus helgolandicus) have been changed. Three native species (Acartia margalefi, Oithona nana, and Paracartia latisetosa) have disappeared. Two non-indigenous copepods (Acartia tonsa and Oithona davisae) became established in the Black Sea ecosystem in the 1970s and 2000s, respectively. The success of their establishment was determined by biological features of the species and vulnerability of the native copepod community to invasions. It is highly probable that both species were introduced to the Black Sea by vessel ballast water. The hypothesis of "mediterranization" of the Black Sea fauna does not appear to hold true for zooplankton. Numerous claims of alien copepod species in the Black Sea remain largely unverified due to insufficient information. Data on newly discovered species of the Acartia genus are not authenticated. An updated list of marine planktonic copepods of the Black Sea is hereby presented.

  1. Habitat temperature is an important determinant of cholesterol contents in copepods

    PubMed Central

    Hassett, R. Patrick; Crockett, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Effects of habitat and acclimation temperature on cholesterol contents were examined in oceanic and inshore species of copepods. The cholesterol content of five species of thermally acclimated copepods was determined, and nine species (representing six families) were sampled to assess the role of habitat temperature. The species selected have maximum habitat temperatures (and temperature tolerances) that vary at least twofold. Levels of dietary cholesterol required to achieve maximum growth were also studied at different acclimation temperatures in a eurythermal copepod. Both eggs and copepodites of Calanus finmarchicus had higher cholesterol levels at the warm acclimation temperature (16°C) than at the cooler temperature (6°C). Neither Acartia tonsa, Acartia hudsonica, Temora longicornis nor Eurytemora affinis altered cholesterol contents with acclimation temperature. Maximum growth rates were achieved at fourfold higher concentrations of dietary cholesterol in warm-acclimated Eurytemora affinis than in cold-acclimated animals. The most consistent trend is the positive relationship between cholesterol content and habitat temperature. Species residing in warmer habitats (e.g. Centropages typicus, Eurytemora affinis) had approximately twice the cholesterol of species living in colder waters (e.g. Calanus glacialis, Euchaeta norvegica). A similar pattern was observed for comparisons of species within genera (Calanus, Acartia and Centropages), with the species abundant at lower latitudes having more cholesterol than the northern congener. These data indicate that habitat temperature is an important determinant of cholesterol content, and cholesterol endows membranes with the stability required for a range of body temperatures. PMID:19088212

  2. Transitioning the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) to Operational Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    McIntosh AR, Levine B: Brain activity patterns uniquely supporting visual feature integration after traumatic brain injury. Front Hum Neurosci 2011; 5...Brain activity patterns uniquely supporting visual feature integration after traumatic brain injury. Front Hum Neurosci 2011; 5: 164. 9. Cernich A...Security$ 9/12$:$14,600$armend$TSA$ agents.$ Intelligence$ Community$ NSA $ Environmental,$ Safety$and$Health$ Solutions$Division$ Direct$ $$ Thomas

  3. Transitioning the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) to Operational Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    primary&purpose&of&the&PTSD&study&conducted&by&our&partners,&Pacific&Health& Research&and&Education&Institute&(PHREI),&was&to&provide& psychological &data...8217’&holds&both& cognitive&and& psychological &test&information,&by&summary&and&by&trial.&(Database+diagram+ in+Appendix+M)+ Additionally,&in&order&to&streamline...Neurocognitive+Assessment+Tool."+Applied+ Psychological + Measurement+(2015):+0146621615577361+ Published:!Yes.!Acknowledgement!of!federal!support:+Yes

  4. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Functional Annotation of Cancer Genomes Principal Investigator: William C. Hahn, M.D., Ph.D. The comprehensive characterization of cancer genomes has and will continue to provide an increasingly complete catalog of genetic alterations in specific cancers. However, most epithelial cancers harbor hundreds of genetic alterations as a consequence of genomic instability. Therefore, the functional consequences of the majority of mutations remain unclear.

  5. 33 CFR 110.93 - Dana Point Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Harbor, Calif. commencing at a point at latitude 33°27′36.2″ N., longitude 117°42′20.4″ W.; thence 016°20′ True for 612 feet to a point at latitude 33°27′42.1″ N., longitude 117°42′18.4″ W.; thence 106°20′ True for 85 feet to a point at latitude 33°27′41.8″ N., longitude 117°42′17.7″ W.; thence 196°20′ True...

  6. 33 CFR 110.93 - Dana Point Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Harbor, Calif. commencing at a point at latitude 33°27′36.2″ N., longitude 117°42′20.4″ W.; thence 016°20′ True for 612 feet to a point at latitude 33°27′42.1″ N., longitude 117°42′18.4″ W.; thence 106°20′ True for 85 feet to a point at latitude 33°27′41.8″ N., longitude 117°42′17.7″ W.; thence 196°20′ True...

  7. 33 CFR 110.93 - Dana Point Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Harbor, Calif. commencing at a point at latitude 33°27′36.2″ N., longitude 117°42′20.4″ W.; thence 016°20′ True for 612 feet to a point at latitude 33°27′42.1″ N., longitude 117°42′18.4″ W.; thence 106°20′ True for 85 feet to a point at latitude 33°27′41.8″ N., longitude 117°42′17.7″ W.; thence 196°20′ True...

  8. Rapid, storm-induced changes in the natural abundance of sup 15 N in a planktonic ecosystem, Chesapeake Bay, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, J.P.; McCarthy, J.J. ); Horrigan, S.G. )

    1991-12-01

    Samples of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), particulate nitrogen (PN), and two species of zooplankton were collected during two north-south transects of the Chesapeake Bay in the autumn of 1984 (27-28 September and 3-5 October). During the first transect, the natural abundance of {sup 15}N ({delta} {sup 15}N) in the major dissolved and planktonic pools of nitrogen suggested that the {delta}{sup 15}N of PN was largely determined by isotopic fractionation during uptake of NH{sub 4}{sup +} by phytoplankton. Averaged over the transect as a whole, the {delta}{sup 15}N of the herbivorous calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa was 4.1% higher than that of the PN, while the {delta}{sup 15}N of the carnivorous ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi was 6.4% higher than that of the PN. In the interval between the two transects, storm-induced mixing of the water column resulted in the injection of NH{sub 4}{sup +} into the surface layer of the bay. In combination with ancillary physical, chemical, and biological data, these changes in {delta}{sup 15}N provided estimates of the isotopic fractionation factor for NH{sub 4}{sup +} uptake by phytoplankton ({alpha} = 1.0065-1.0080) as well as the turnover time of nitrogen in Acartia tonsa (6.0-9.6 days). Despite the changes in {delta}{sup 15}N observed during this cruise, the relative distribution of {sup 15}N between trophic levels was preserved: during the second transect, the difference in {delta}{sup 15}N between Acartia tonsa and PN was 3.6%, and the difference in {delta}{sup 15}N between Mnemiopsis leidyi and PN was 7.3%. These results demonstrate that the natural abundance of {sup 15}N can change dramatically on a time scale of days, and that time-series studies of the natural abundance of {sup 15}N can be a useful complement to studies using tracer additions of {sup 15}N to document nitrogen transformations in planktonic ecosystems.

  9. Karmitoxin: An Amine-Containing Polyhydroxy-Polyene Toxin from the Marine Dinoflagellate Karlodinium armiger.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Silas Anselm; Binzer, Sofie Bjørnholt; Hoeck, Casper; Meier, Sebastian; de Medeiros, Livia Soman; Andersen, Nikolaj Gedsted; Place, Allen; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Hansen, Per Juel; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2017-04-05

    Marine algae from the genus Karlodinium are known to be involved in fish-killing events worldwide. Here we report for the first time the chemistry and bioactivity of a natural product from the newly described mixotrophic dinoflagellate Karlodinium armiger. Our work describes the isolation and structural characterization of a new polyhydroxy-polyene named karmitoxin. The structure elucidation work was facilitated by use of (13)C enrichment and high-field 2D NMR spectroscopy, where (1)H-(13)C long-range correlations turned out to be very informative. Karmitoxin is structurally related to amphidinols and karlotoxins; however it differs by containing the longest carbon-carbon backbone discovered for this class of compounds, as well as a primary amino group. Karmitoxin showed potent nanomolar cytotoxic activity in an RTgill-W1 cell assay as well as rapid immobilization and eventual mortality of the copepod Acartia tonsa, a natural grazer of K. armiger.

  10. Chemical comparison and acute toxicity of water accommodated fraction (WAF) of source and field collected Macondo oils from the Deepwater Horizon spill.

    PubMed

    Faksness, Liv-Guri; Altin, Dag; Nordtug, Trond; Daling, Per S; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2015-02-15

    Two Source oils and five field collected oil residues from the Deepwater Horizon incident were chemically characterized. Water accommodated fractions (WAFs) of the Source oils and two of the field-weathered oils were prepared to evaluate the impact of natural weathering on the chemical composition and the acute toxicity of the WAFs. Toxicity test species representing different tropic levels were used (the primary producer Skeletonema costatum (algae) and the herbivorous copepod Acartia tonsa). The results suggest that the potential for acute toxicity is higher in WAFs from non-weathered oils than WAFs from the field weathered oils. The Source oils contained a large fraction of soluble and bioavailable components (such as BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylenes) and naphthalene), whereas in the surface collected oils these components were depleted by dissolution into the water column as the oil rose to the surface and by evaporative loss after reaching the sea surface.

  11. [Distribution of zooplankton during opposite tide fluxes in the lagoon complex of Chelem, Yucatan, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Escamilla, J B; Suárez-Morales, E; Gasca, R

    2001-03-01

    Zooplankton was surveyed in a tropical lagoon system of the northern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula in high tide, December (1998) and low tide, March 1999 (northerlies season). Zooplankton biomass was measured, zooplankters were counted, and copepods were identified and quantified. Despite the fact that both months were influenced by winds from the North, they showed a different salinity gradient which developed a particular structure of the zooplankton community. Biomass tended to be accumulated in certain areas apparently because of the high residence time of water in Chelem, the forcing effect of the northerlies, and of the tidal current. Biomass values suggest a relatively high secondary production when compared with other systems of the Yucatan Peninsula. The distribution of the copepods Acartia lilljeborgii and A. tonsa is related to saline conditions and tidal flow. The overall faunistic and hydrologic data suggest that even during a single climatic season, the zooplankton community shows strong changes due to mesoscale hydrological processes.

  12. Changes in zooplankton communities along a mercury contamination gradient in a coastal lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Patrícia Gonçalves; Marques, Sónia Cotrim; D'Ambrosio, Mariaelena; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando Costa; Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

    2013-11-15

    The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the impact of mercury on the zooplankton communities' structure and functioning and their bioaccumulation patterns along a contamination gradient in a temperate coastal lagoon. Our results demonstrated that total abundance was not negatively affected by Hg contamination, since the most contaminated areas presented the highest values, being the copepod Acartia tonsa the dominant species, which means that it is a very well adapted and tolerant species to mercury. Nevertheless, negative effects were observed in terms of species diversity, since the most contaminated areas presented the lowest values of species richness, evenness and heterogeneity. Moreover, the spatial mercury gradient was reflected on the bioaccumulation patterns of the zooplankton communities. This reinforces the idea that zooplankton can be considered as an important vehicle of mercury transfer through the food pelagic web since it constitutes a primordial food resource for several commercial fish species.

  13. Ecological-evaluation of organotin-contaminated sediment. Final report, March-June 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar, M.H.; Salazar, S.M.

    1985-07-01

    A standard dredged material bioassay was conducted with high levels of organotins to assess the toxicity and bioavailability of organotins associated with sediment and to determine if this sediment would qualify for ocean disposal. This study concluded that high levels of organotins in sediments do not a priori indicate a significant adverse impact on the marine environment after ocean disposal. The sediment tested would qualify for ocean disposal under the present guidelines administered by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Army Corps of Engineers. Particulate-phase tests were conducted with Acanthomysis sculpta (mysid), Citharichthys stigmaeus (flatfish), and Acartia tonsa (copepod). Solid-phase tests were conducted with A. sculpta, Macoma nasuta (clam), and Neanthes arenaceodentata (polychaete worm). The bioassay also included an estimate of the potential for bioaccumulation of cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, silver, pesticides, PCBs, petroleum hydrocarbons, and organotins. Survival was high in all particulate-phase and solid-phase tests.

  14. Copepods induce paralytic shellfish toxin production in marine dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Selander, Erik; Thor, Peter; Toth, Gunilla; Pavia, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Among the thousands of unicellular phytoplankton species described in the sea, some frequently occurring and bloom-forming marine dinoflagellates are known to produce the potent neurotoxins causing paralytic shellfish poisoning. The natural function of these toxins is not clear, although they have been hypothesized to act as a chemical defence towards grazers. Here, we show that waterborne cues from the copepod Acartia tonsa induce paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) production in the harmful algal bloom-forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum. Induced A. minutum contained up to 2.5 times more toxins than controls and was more resistant to further copepod grazing. Ingestion of non-toxic alternative prey was not affected by the presence of induced A. minutum. The ability of A. minutum to sense and respond to the presence of grazers by increased PST production and increased resistance to grazing may facilitate the formation of harmful algal blooms in the sea. PMID:16769640

  15. Evaluation of auxiliary tempering pump effectiveness at Chalk Point Steam Electric Station

    SciTech Connect

    Wendling, L.C.; Holland, A.F.

    1989-08-01

    The effectiveness of auxiliary tempering pump operation at Chalk Point Steam Electric Station (SES) at reducing plant-induced mortality of aquatic biota was evaluated. Several Representative Important Species (RIS) and dominant benthic and zooplankton species were used in the evaluation as indicators of overall system-wide responses. Expected mortality with and without auxiliary pump operation was estimated using thermal tolerance data available from the scientific literature for blue crabs, white perch, striped bass, spot, Macoma balthica and Acartia tonsa. The evaluation led to the conclusion that the operation of auxiliary tempering pumps at Chalk Point SES increases plant-induced mortality of spot, white perch, striped bass, and zooplankton. Operation of the tempering pumps may reduce blue crab mortality slightly under certain circumstances, and Macoma balthica mortality is probably largely unaffected by their operation.

  16. Lipid nanocapsules as a new delivery system in copepods: Toxicity studies and optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Stancheva, Stefka; Souissi, Anissa; Ibrahim, Ali; Barras, Alexandre; Spriet, Corentin; Souissi, Sami; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigated the potential of lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) as a delivery system of small hydrophobic molecules, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - pyrene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, in the copepod Acartia tonsa. The LNCs were produced by a phase inversion process with a nominal size of 50 nm. These nanocapsules were obtained without organic solvent and with pharmaceutically acceptable excipients. The PAHs-LNCs displayed a stable monodisperse size distribution and a good stability in sea water for 7 days. By using fluorescent LNCs, it was possible to evidence LNCs ingestion by the copepods using confocal laser scanning microscopy. While blank LNCs are not toxic to copepods at tested concentrations, PAH-loaded LNCs were found to be very toxic on A. tonsa with a high mortality rate reaching 95% after 72 h exposure to 200 nM pyrene-loaded LNCs. On the other hand, when acetone is used to dissolve an equivalent concentration of PAHs in sea water, the copepod mortality is 10 times lower than using LNCs as nano-delivery system. This confirms the efficiency of using LNCs to deliver molecules directly in the gut or copepod carapace. The small size and non toxicity of these delivery nano-systems make them suitable for drug delivery to copepods.

  17. Effect of advection on variations in zooplankton at a single location near Cabo Nazca, Peru

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S L; Brink, K H; Santander, H; Cowles, T J; Huyer, A

    1980-04-01

    Temporal variations in the biomass and species composition of zooplankton at a single midshelf station in an upwelling area off Peru can be explained to a large extent by onshore-offshore advection in the upper 20 m of the water column. During periods of strong or sustained near-surface onshore flow, peaks in biomass of zooplankton were observed at midshelf and typically oceanic species of copepod were collected. In periods of offshore flow at the surface, a copepod capable of migrating into oxygen-depleted layers deeper than 30 m was collected. A simple translocation model of advection applied to the cross-shelf distribution of Paracalanus parvus suggests that the fluctuations in P. pavus observed in the midshelf time-series were closely related to onshore-offshore flow in the upper 20 m. Fluctuations in abundance of the numerically dominant copepod, Acartia tonsa, were apparently affected by near surface flow also. The population age-structure suggests that A. tonsa was growing at maximal rates, due in part to its positive feeding response to the dinoflagellate/diatom assemblage of phytoplankton.

  18. Decadal changes in zooplankton abundance and phenology of Long Island Sound reflect interacting changes in temperature and community composition.

    PubMed

    Rice, Edward; Stewart, Gillian

    2016-09-01

    Between 1939 and 1982, several surveys indicated that zooplankton in Long Island Sound, NY (LIS) appeared to follow an annual cycle typical of the Mid-Atlantic coast of North America. Abundance peaked in both early spring and late summer and the peaks were similar in magnitude. In recent decades, this cycle appeared to have shifted. Only one large peak tended to occur, and summer copepod abundance was consistently reduced by ∼60% from 1939 to 1982 levels. In other Mid-Atlantic coastal systems such a dramatic shift has been attributed to the earlier appearance of ctenophores, particularly Mnemiopsis leidyi, during warmer spring months. However, over a decade of surveys in LIS have consistently found near-zero values in M. leidyi biomass during spring months. Our multiple linear regression model indicates that summer M. leidyi biomass during this decade explains <25% of the variation in summer copepod abundance. During these recent, warmer years, summer copepod community shifts appear to explain the loss of copepod abundance. Although Acartia tonsa in 2010-2011 appeared to be present all year long, it was no longer the dominant summer zooplankton species. Warmer summers have been associated with an increase in cyanobacteria and flagellates, which are not consumed efficiently by A. tonsa. This suggests that in warming coastal systems multiple environmental and biological factors interact and likely underlie dramatic alterations to copepod phenology, not single causes.

  19. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A; Waggett, Rebecca J; Place, Allen R

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  20. Interactions between zooplankton and crude oil: toxic effects and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L(-1) in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L(-1)) and dispersant-treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L(-1)) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments.

  1. Interactions between Zooplankton and Crude Oil: Toxic Effects and Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Wambaugh, Zoe; Wang, Zucheng; Hyatt, Cammie; Liu, Zhanfei; Buskey, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted ship-, shore- and laboratory-based crude oil exposure experiments to investigate (1) the effects of crude oil (Louisiana light sweet oil) on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mesozooplankton communities, (2) the lethal effects of dispersant (Corexit 9500A) and dispersant-treated oil on mesozooplankton, (3) the influence of UVB radiation/sunlight exposure on the toxicity of dispersed crude oil to mesozooplankton, and (4) the role of marine protozoans on the sublethal effects of crude oil and in the bioaccumulation of PAHs in the copepod Acartia tonsa. Mortality of mesozooplankton increased with increasing oil concentration following a sigmoid model with a median lethal concentration of 32.4 µl L−1 in 16 h. At the ratio of dispersant to oil commonly used in the treatment of oil spills (i.e. 1∶20), dispersant (0.25 µl L−1) and dispersant- treated oil were 2.3 and 3.4 times more toxic, respectively, than crude oil alone (5 µl L−1) to mesozooplankton. UVB radiation increased the lethal effects of dispersed crude oil in mesozooplankton communities by 35%. We observed selective bioaccumulation of five PAHs, fluoranthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benzo[b]fluoranthene in both mesozooplankton communities and in the copepod A. tonsa. The presence of the protozoan Oxyrrhis marina reduced sublethal effects of oil on A. tonsa and was related to lower accumulations of PAHs in tissues and fecal pellets, suggesting that protozoa may be important in mitigating the harmful effects of crude oil exposure in copepods and the transfer of PAHs to higher trophic levels. Overall, our results indicate that the negative impact of oil spills on mesozooplankton may be increased by the use of chemical dispersant and UV radiation, but attenuated by crude oil-microbial food webs interactions, and that both mesozooplankton and protozoans may play an important role in fate of PAHs in marine environments. PMID:23840628

  2. Algal Toxins Alter Copepod Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A.; Waggett, Rebecca J.; Place, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod’s feeding appendages–a “sampling beating” that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration “grazing beating” that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod’s grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod’s feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  3. Relative sensitivity of one freshwater and two marine acute toxicity tests as determined by testing 30 offshore E & P chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sverdrup, Line E; Fürst, Charlotte S; Weideborg, Mona; Vik, Eilen A; Stenersen, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Acute toxicity of 30 offshore E & P (Exploration and Production) chemicals was measured using the three standard test organisms Daphnia magna (freshwater cladoceran), Acartia tonsa (marine copepod) and Skeletonema costatum (marine diatom alga). Test chemicals included 20 water-soluble and 10 (partially) non-soluble products. For 22 out of the 30 chemicals, the difference in sensitivity between the three tests varied within one order of magnitude. A very good correlation was found between the two marine tests (r = 0.96, P < 0.01, n = 30), and a correlation coefficient of r = 0.78 (P < 0.01, n = 30) was found between D. magna and both A. tonsa and S. costatum, individually. When the comparison of D. magna and A. tonsa sensitivity was based only on the water-soluble chemicals, a significantly higher correlation was obtained (r = 0.84, n = 20), indicating that the sample preparation method used for the (partially) non-soluble chemicals (the water accommodated fraction (WAF) method) induces additional variation between tests performed with different test media. (Partially) non-soluble chemicals are characterised by phase separation or precipitation at the concentrations used for testing. In a WAF-based test, each test concentration/exposure level is prepared separately, and following mixing and separation, only the water phase is used for testing. Toxicity is related to the amount of substance originally added to the mixing vessels. For 25 of the 30 chemicals, D. magna was found to be less sensitive than the marine copepod by a factor >2. The generally higher sensitivity of the marine toxicity tests compared to the Daphnia test emphasise the importance of using marine data for environmental hazard classification as well as for environmental risk assessment purposes.

  4. Comparison of different DNA-extraction techniques to investigate the bacterial community of marine copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Petra; Gerdts, Gunnar; Boersma, Maarten; Wiltshire, Karen H.; Wichels, Antje

    2010-12-01

    Marine zooplanktic organisms, such as copepods, are usually associated with large numbers of bacteria. Some of these bacteria live attached to copepods’ exoskeleton, while others prevail in their intestine and faecal pellets. Until now, general conclusions concerning the identity of these bacteria are problematic since the majority of previous studies focused on cultivable bacteria only. Hence, to date little is known on whether copepod genera or species harbour distinct bacterial populations and about the nature of this association. To shed more light on these copepod/bacteria consortia, the focus of this study was the development and evaluation of a suitable approach to extract bacterial DNA from different North Sea copepod genera. Furthermore, the bacterial DNA was analysed by PCR-DGGE and subsequent sequencing of excised bands. The result of this work was an appropriate extraction method for batches of ten to one copepod specimens and offered first insights as to which bacteria are attached to the copepods Acartia sp . and Temora sp . from Helgoland Roads (German Bight) and a laboratory-grown Acartia tonsa culture. It revealed the prevalence of Alphaproteobacteria.

  5. Fatty acid profiling reveals seasonal and spatial shifts in zooplankton diet in a temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, A. M. M.; Azeiteiro, U. M.; Pardal, M. A.; De Troch, M.

    2012-08-01

    Fatty acids composition of copepod and cladoceran species and their possible food sources was investigated in the Mondego estuary (southern Europe) in order to explain the seasonal variation of the small copepods Acartia clausi, Acartia tonsa, Copidodiaptomus numidicus, Temora longicornis and the freshwater cladoceran Daphnia longispina. A total of 12 zooplankton species (7 marine, 2 estuarine and 3 freshwater species) were studied. A multivariate analysis revealed a clear seasonal distribution of zooplankton species in terms of fatty acids composition and abundance, with winter and spring zooplankton species showing maximal concentrations and diversity of total fatty acids. These findings underline the role of lipids as storage during the colder seasons in a highly variable environment like an estuary. Estuarine and freshwater species showed a more diverse array of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids rather than marine species, except for Centropages typicus. Fatty acids markers of trophic position indicated the presence of two trophic levels: copepod species were primarily omnivorous, whereas cladocerans showed to be herbivorous. Our results suggest that feeding patterns of plankton change spatially and temporally, reflecting the shifts in dominance between diatoms and flagellates as well as between dinoflagellates/diatoms and small animals.

  6. Relationships between copepod community structure, rainfall regimes, and hydrological variables in a tropical mangrove estuary (Amazon coast, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, André; Pereira, Luci Cajueiro Carneiro; da Costa, Rauquírio Marinho

    2015-03-01

    The influence of rainfall and hydrological variables on the abundance and diversity of the copepod community was investigated on a monthly basis over an annual cycle in the Taperaçu mangrove estuary. In general, the results show that there were no clear spatial or tidal patterns in any biological variables during the study period, which was related to the reduced horizontal gradient in abiotic parameters, determined mainly by the morphological and morphodynamic features of the estuary. Nevertheless, seasonal and monthly trends were recorded in both the hydrological data and the abundance of the dominant copepod species. In particular, Pseudodiaptomus marshi (6,004.6 ± 22,231.6 ind m-3; F = 5.0, p < 0.05) and Acartia tonsa (905.6 ± 2,400.9 ind m-3; F = 14.6, p < 0.001) predominated during the rainy season, whereas Acartia lilljeborgii (750.8 ± 808.3 ind m-3; U = 413.0, p < 0.01) was the most abundant species in the dry season. A distinct process of succession was observed in the relative abundance of these species, driven by the shift in the rainfall regime, which affected hydrological, in particular salinity, and consequently the abundance of copepod species. We suggest that this may be a general pattern governing the dynamics of copepod populations in the estuaries of the Brazilian Amazonian region.

  7. Grazers and Phytoplankton Growth in the Oceans: an Experimental and Evolutionary Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ratti, Simona; Knoll, Andrew H.; Giordano, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomic composition of phytoplankton responsible for primary production on continental shelves has changed episodically through Earth history. Geological correlations suggest that major changes in phytoplankton composition correspond in time to changes in grazing and seawater chemistry. Testing hypotheses that arise from these correlations requires experimentation, and so we carried out a series of experiments in which selected phytoplankton species were grown in treatments that differed with respect to the presence or absence of grazers as well as seawater chemistry. Both protistan (Euplotes sp.) and microarthropod (Acartia tonsa) grazers changed the growth dynamics and biochemical composition of the green alga Tetraselmis suecica, the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp., increasing the specific growth rate and palatability of the eukaryotic algae, while decreasing or leaving unchanged both parameters in the cyanobacteria. Synechococcus (especially) and Thalassiosira produced toxins effective against the copepod, but ciliate growth was unaffected. Acartia induced a 4-6 fold increase of Si cell quota in the diatom, but Euplotes had no similar effect. The differential growth responses of the eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria to ciliate grazing may help to explain the apparently coeval radiation of eukaryophagic protists and rise of eukaryotes to ecological prominence as primary producers in Neoproterozoic oceans. The experimental results suggest that phytoplankton responses to the later radiation of microarthropod grazers were clade-specific, and included changes in growth dynamics, toxin synthesis, encystment, and (in diatoms) enhanced Si uptake. PMID:24204815

  8. Grazers and phytoplankton growth in the oceans: an experimental and evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Ratti, Simona; Knoll, Andrew H; Giordano, Mario

    2013-01-01

    The taxonomic composition of phytoplankton responsible for primary production on continental shelves has changed episodically through Earth history. Geological correlations suggest that major changes in phytoplankton composition correspond in time to changes in grazing and seawater chemistry. Testing hypotheses that arise from these correlations requires experimentation, and so we carried out a series of experiments in which selected phytoplankton species were grown in treatments that differed with respect to the presence or absence of grazers as well as seawater chemistry. Both protistan (Euplotes sp.) and microarthropod (Acartia tonsa) grazers changed the growth dynamics and biochemical composition of the green alga Tetraselmis suecica, the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp., increasing the specific growth rate and palatability of the eukaryotic algae, while decreasing or leaving unchanged both parameters in the cyanobacteria. Synechococcus (especially) and Thalassiosira produced toxins effective against the copepod, but ciliate growth was unaffected. Acartia induced a 4-6 fold increase of Si cell quota in the diatom, but Euplotes had no similar effect. The differential growth responses of the eukaryotic algae and cyanobacteria to ciliate grazing may help to explain the apparently coeval radiation of eukaryophagic protists and rise of eukaryotes to ecological prominence as primary producers in Neoproterozoic oceans. The experimental results suggest that phytoplankton responses to the later radiation of microarthropod grazers were clade-specific, and included changes in growth dynamics, toxin synthesis, encystment, and (in diatoms) enhanced Si uptake.

  9. Bloom-forming cyanobacteria support copepod reproduction and development in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999-2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth

  10. Bloom-Forming Cyanobacteria Support Copepod Reproduction and Development in the Baltic Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hogfors, Hedvig; Motwani, Nisha H.; Hajdu, Susanna; El-Shehawy, Rehab; Holmborn, Towe; Vehmaa, Anu; Engström-Öst, Jonna; Brutemark, Andreas; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that summer cyanobacterial blooms cannot be efficiently utilized by grazers due to low nutritional quality and production of toxins; however the evidence for such effects in situ is often contradictory. Using field and experimental observations on Baltic copepods and bloom-forming diazotrophic filamentous cyanobacteria, we show that cyanobacteria may in fact support zooplankton production during summer. To highlight this side of zooplankton-cyanobacteria interactions, we conducted: (1) a field survey investigating linkages between cyanobacteria, reproduction and growth indices in the copepod Acartia tonsa; (2) an experiment testing relationships between ingestion of the cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena (measured by molecular diet analysis) and organismal responses (oxidative balance, reproduction and development) in the copepod A. bifilosa; and (3) an analysis of long term (1999–2009) data testing relationships between cyanobacteria and growth indices in nauplii of the copepods, Acartia spp. and Eurytemora affinis, in a coastal area of the northern Baltic proper. In the field survey, N. spumigena had positive effects on copepod egg production and egg viability, effectively increasing their viable egg production. By contrast, Aphanizomenon sp. showed a negative relationship with egg viability yet no significant effect on the viable egg production. In the experiment, ingestion of N. spumigena mixed with green algae Brachiomonas submarina had significant positive effects on copepod oxidative balance, egg viability and development of early nauplial stages, whereas egg production was negatively affected. Finally, the long term data analysis identified cyanobacteria as a significant positive predictor for the nauplial growth in Acartia spp. and E. affinis. Taken together, these results suggest that bloom forming diazotrophic cyanobacteria contribute to feeding and reproduction of zooplankton during summer and create a favorable growth

  11. Ocean Acidification Affects the Phyto-Zoo Plankton Trophic Transfer Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cripps, Gemma; Flynn, Kevin J.; Lindeque, Penelope K.

    2016-01-01

    The critical role played by copepods in ocean ecology and biogeochemistry warrants an understanding of how these animals may respond to ocean acidification (OA). Whilst an appreciation of the potential direct effects of OA, due to elevated pCO2, on copepods is improving, little is known about the indirect impacts acting via bottom-up (food quality) effects. We assessed, for the first time, the chronic effects of direct and/or indirect exposures to elevated pCO2 on the behaviour, vital rates, chemical and biochemical stoichiometry of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Bottom-up effects of elevated pCO2 caused species-specific biochemical changes to the phytoplanktonic feed, which adversely affected copepod population structure and decreased recruitment by 30%. The direct impact of elevated pCO2 caused gender-specific respiratory responses in A.tonsa adults, stimulating an enhanced respiration rate in males (> 2-fold), and a suppressed respiratory response in females when coupled with indirect elevated pCO2 exposures. Under the combined indirect+direct exposure, carbon trophic transfer efficiency from phytoplankton-to-zooplankton declined to < 50% of control populations, with a commensurate decrease in recruitment. For the first time an explicit role was demonstrated for biochemical stoichiometry in shaping copepod trophic dynamics. The altered biochemical composition of the CO2-exposed prey affected the biochemical stoichiometry of the copepods, which could have ramifications for production of higher tropic levels, notably fisheries. Our work indicates that the control of phytoplankton and the support of higher trophic levels involving copepods have clear potential to be adversely affected under future OA scenarios. PMID:27082737

  12. Toxicological effects of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots on marine planktonic organisms.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chao; Vitiello, Valentina; Pellegrini, David; Wu, Changwen; Morelli, Elisabetta; Buttino, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Quantum dot nanoparticles (QDs) are proposed as novel materials for photovoltaic technologies, light emitting devices, and biomedical applications. In this study we investigated the effect of CdSe/ZnS QDs on the growth rate of four microalgae: the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the cryptophyte Rhinomonas reticulata, the prymnesiophyte Isochrysis galbana and the green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In addition we analyzed the effect of QDs on the copepod Acartia tonsa. A classical acute test (48-h) with embryos was carried out to evaluate naupliar survival. Moreover, a 4-day chronic test with adult copepods was conducted to evaluate their fecundity (embryos f(-1)day(-1)) and egg hatching success. QDs in the range from 1 to 4nM gradually inhibited the growth rate of P. tricornutum, I. galbana, R. reticulata and D. tertiolecta with an EC50 of 1.5, 2.4, 2.5 and 4.2nM, respectively. Acute tests with A. tonsa (QD concentration tested from 0.15 to 1.5nM) showed an increased naupliar mortality in response to QD treatment, exhibiting an EC50 of 0.7nM. Chronic test showed no negative effect on egg production, except on the last two days at the highest QD concentration (2.5nM). No significant reduction of the percentage of egg hatching success was recorded during the exposure. Toxicity assessment of QDs was also investigated at the molecular level, studying heat shock protein 70 gene expression (hsp 70). Our results indicate that hsp70 was upregulated in adults exposed 3 days to 0.5nM QDs. Overall, these results suggest that species unable to swim along the water column, like P. tricornutum and early hatched copepods, could be more exposed to toxic effects of QDs which tend to aggregate and settle in seawater.

  13. Short-term variability on mesozooplankton community in a shallow mixed estuary (Bahía Blanca, Argentina): Influence of tidal cycles and local winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menéndez, María C.; Piccolo, María C.; Hoffmeyer, Mónica S.

    2012-10-01

    The short-term dynamics of zooplankton in coastal ecosystems are strongly influenced by physical processes such as tides, riverine runoff and winds. In this study, we investigated the short-term changes of the representative taxa within mesozooplankton in relation to the semidiurnal tidal cycles. Also, we evaluated the influence of local winds on this short-term variability. Sampling was carried out bimonthly from December 2004 to April 2006 in a fixed point located in the inner zone of the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina. Mesozooplankton samples were taken by pumps during 14-h tidal cycles at 3-h intervals, from surface and bottom. Vertical profiles of temperature and salinity as well as water samples to determine suspended particulate matter were acquired at each sampling date. All data concerning winds were obtained from a meteorological station and water level was recorded with a tide gauge. Holoplankton dominated numerically on meroplankton and adventitious fraction. Concerning holoplanktonic abundance, the highest values were attained by the calanoid copepods Acartia tonsa and Eurytemora americana. Meroplankton occurred mainly as barnacle larvae while benthic harpacticoids and Corophium sp. dominated the adventitious component. Semidiurnal tide was the main influence on the A. tonsa variability. However, noticeable differences in the abundance pattern as function of wind intensity were detected. Meroplankton abundance did not show a clear variation along the tidal cycle. Distributional pattern of harpacticoids seemed to be mainly modulated by velocity asymmetries in the tidal currents, in the same way as suspended particulate matter. However, the Corophium sp. distribution indicated probable behavioural responses associated with tides. The obtained results show how variable the mesozooplankton community structure can be over short-term time scales in mesotidal temperate estuaries. This variability should be taken into account for any zooplankton monitoring

  14. Egg production of Eurytemora affinis—Effect of k-strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirche, H.-J.

    1992-10-01

    The number of eggs found in egg sacs of Eurytemora affinis in the Schlei, a mesohaline fjord in the Western Baltic, was determined between January and August, and female prosome length measured. Prosome length at 25°C was only half that at 0°C and was significantly correlated with mean temperature during development. Clutch size increased from lower winter values to a maximum in April and thereafter sharply decreased to a minimum at the end of July. The correlation between clutch size and body size was stronger than that between clutch size and temperature at collection. From calculations using regressions of body size and clutch size with temperature, a curve was derived for female fecundity at satiating food levels with a minimum at 12°C and increased values at both lower and higher temperatures. Depending on the length-weight conversion applied, P/B for egg production was 0·01 to 0·02 day -1 in winter and 0·43 to 0·51 day -1 at the temperature maximum in summer. Reproductive production is similar to somatic production of larval stages at low temperatures, but increases faster with increasing temperatures. The considerably smaller fecundity and weight specific egg production rate of E. affinis may be the reason why it is outnumbered by Acartia tonsa in the summer in many locations. Seasonal partitioning of the biotope by the two species is maintained by k-strategy at lower temperatures with E. affinis carrying few large eggs, and r-strategy in summer with A. tonsa depositing many small eggs.

  15. Ocean Acidification Affects the Phyto-Zoo Plankton Trophic Transfer Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Gemma; Flynn, Kevin J; Lindeque, Penelope K

    2016-01-01

    The critical role played by copepods in ocean ecology and biogeochemistry warrants an understanding of how these animals may respond to ocean acidification (OA). Whilst an appreciation of the potential direct effects of OA, due to elevated pCO2, on copepods is improving, little is known about the indirect impacts acting via bottom-up (food quality) effects. We assessed, for the first time, the chronic effects of direct and/or indirect exposures to elevated pCO2 on the behaviour, vital rates, chemical and biochemical stoichiometry of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa. Bottom-up effects of elevated pCO2 caused species-specific biochemical changes to the phytoplanktonic feed, which adversely affected copepod population structure and decreased recruitment by 30%. The direct impact of elevated pCO2 caused gender-specific respiratory responses in A.tonsa adults, stimulating an enhanced respiration rate in males (> 2-fold), and a suppressed respiratory response in females when coupled with indirect elevated pCO2 exposures. Under the combined indirect+direct exposure, carbon trophic transfer efficiency from phytoplankton-to-zooplankton declined to < 50% of control populations, with a commensurate decrease in recruitment. For the first time an explicit role was demonstrated for biochemical stoichiometry in shaping copepod trophic dynamics. The altered biochemical composition of the CO2-exposed prey affected the biochemical stoichiometry of the copepods, which could have ramifications for production of higher tropic levels, notably fisheries. Our work indicates that the control of phytoplankton and the support of higher trophic levels involving copepods have clear potential to be adversely affected under future OA scenarios.

  16. Mesozooplankton Grazing on Picocyanobacteria in the Baltic Sea as Inferred from Molecular Diet Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Motwani, Nisha H.; Gorokhova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Our current knowledge on the microbial component of zooplankton diet is limited, and it is generally assumed that bacteria-sized prey is not directly consumed by most mesozooplankton grazers in the marine food webs. We questioned this assumption and conducted field and laboratory studies to examine picocyanobacteria contribution to the diets of Baltic Sea zooplankton, including copepods. First, qPCR targeting ITS-1 rDNA sequence of the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus spp. was used to examine picocyanobacterial DNA occurrence in the guts of Baltic zooplankton (copepods, cladocerans and rotifers). All field-collected zooplankton were found to consume picocyanobacteria in substantial quantities. In terms of Synechococcus quantity, the individual gut content was highest in cladocerans, whereas biomass-specific gut content was highest in rotifers and copepod nauplii. Moreover, the gut content in copepods was positively related to the picocyanobacteria abundance and negatively to the total phytoplankton abundance in the water column at the time of sampling. This indicates that increased availability of picocyanobacteria resulted in the increased intake of this prey and that copepods may rely more on picoplankton when food in the preferred size range declines. Second, a feeding experiments with a laboratory reared copepod Acartia tonsa fed a mixture of the picocyanobacterium Synechococcus bacillaris and microalga Rhodomonas salina confirmed that copepods ingested Synechococcus, even when the alternative food was plentiful. Finally, palatability of the picocyanobacteria for A. tonsa was demonstrated using uptake of 13C by the copepods as a proxy for carbon uptake in feeding experiment with 13C-labeled S. bacillaris. These findings suggest that, if abundant, picoplankton may become an important component of mesozooplankton diet, which needs to be accounted for in food web models and productivity assessments. PMID:24260175

  17. Comprehensive Condition Survey and Storm Waves, Circulation, and Sediment Study, Dana Point Harbor, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    following six meteorological patterns (USACE LAD 1996): 1 ) extratropical cyclone in the northern hemisphere; 2) north - west winds in the outer coastal...to South America send swells northward to the west coast of Central and North America . The great circle approaching directions to Southern... volume dredged in 2000 but significantly less than that dredged in 2009. ERDC/CHL TR-14-13 93 Figure 67. Morphology change at the end of the 1 yr

  18. Wave glider observations of surface winds and currents in the core of Typhoon Danas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, S.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous monitoring of surface winds and currents is essential to understand oceanic responses to tropical cyclones. We used a new platform, a Wave Glider (Liquid Robotics) to observe air-sea processes during a typhoon, equivalent to a category 4-hurricane, at peak strength, near Okinawa, Japan. Surface winds showed strong asymmetry in both speed and direction, faster fore than aft. Rotations of surface winds and currents were not coupled; currents rotated clockwise in the wake of the typhoon eye after passage of rapid wind rotations. Wind work was mostly done ahead of the eye, amplifying prior inertial motions with a phase shift. Wind-induced energy was nearly balanced with an increase in estimated kinetic energy of the upper ocean current, relative to prior inertial oscillations. This study provides a newer, more complete view of actual atmosphere-ocean interactions in a typhoon.

  19. Integrative Tumor Board: a Case Report and Discussion from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Weidong; Ott, Mary Jane; Kennedy, Stacy; Mathay, Maria B.; Doherty-Gilman, Anne M.; Dean-Clower, Elizabeth; Hayes, Carolyn M.; Rosenthal, David S.

    2010-01-01

    A 34-year-old female carrying a BRCA1 gene and a significant family history was diagnosed with T1c, N1 breast cancer. The tumor was estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER-2/Neu negative. The patient received dose-dense chemotherapy with Adriamycin and Cytoxan followed by Taxol, and left breast irradiation. Later, a bilateral S-GAP flap reconstruction with right prophylactic mastectomy and left mastectomy were performed. During her treatment, the patient had an integrative medicine consultation and was seen by a team of healthcare providers specializing in integrative therapies including integrative nutrition, therapeutic massage, acupuncture, and yoga. Each modality contributed unique benefit in her care that led to a satisfactory outcome of the patient. A detailed discussion regarding her care from each modality is presented. The case elucidates the need of integrative approaches for cancer patients in a conventional medical setting. PMID:19815593

  20. Gas chromatographic investigation of volatile nitrogen containing bases of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba Dana.

    PubMed

    Svetlova, N I; Golovnya, R V; Zhuravleva, I L; Grigorieva, D N; Samusenko, A L

    1985-01-01

    The composition of the volatile nitrogen-containing bases of fresh-caught Antarctic krill E. superba has been investigated by gas chromatography. The analysis was carried out on three packed columns with Apiezon L, Triton X-305, PEG-1000 and one glass capillary column with Triton X-305. The components were identified by standardless gas chromatographic method with a special computer program. No less than 63 compounds have been found and 54 compounds have been identified, among these primary, secondary and tertiary aliphatic amines as well as heterocyclic bases. The presence of 5 compounds has been confirmed by GC/MS technique. Analysis with the help of a specific flame-photometric detector has shown the presence of 9 bi-functional nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds.

  1. Project DANA: multiagent simulation and fuzzy rules for international crisis detection--can we forestall wars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozien, Roger F.; Colautti, Andre

    1999-11-01

    Assessing the conflicting potential of an international situation is very important in the exercise of Defence duty. Mastering a formal method allowing the detection of risky situations is a necessity. Our aim was to develop a highly operational method twinned with a computer simulation tool which can explore a huge number of potential war zones, and can test many hypotheses with high accuracy within reasonable time. We use a multi-agents system to describe an international situation. The agent coding allows us to give computer existence to very abstract concepts such as: a government, the economy, the armed forces, the foreign policy... We give to these agents fuzzy rules of behavior, those rules represent human expertise. In order to yardstick our model we used the Falklands war to make our first simulations. The main distortion between the historical reality and our simulations comes from our fuzzy controller which causes a great loss of information. We are going to change it to a more efficient one in order to fit the historical reality. Agent coding with fuzzy rules allows human experts to keep close to their statements and expertise, and they can handle this kind of tool quite easily.

  2. Dana Farber Cancer Institute: Mapping the Function of Rare Oncogenic Variants | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Although some oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are recurrently mutated at high frequency, the majority of somatic sequence alterations found in cancers occur at low frequency, and the functional consequences of the majority of these mutated alleles remain unknown. We are developing a scalable systematic approach to interrogate the function of cancer-associated gene variants. Read the abstract: Kim et al., 2016

  3. 77 FR 51064 - Dana Holding Corporation, Power Technologies Group Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... findings that the subject firm did not shift production of gaskets and exhausts to a foreign country nor did the subject firm or its customers increase reliance on imports during the relevant period. The... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. Comprehensive Condition Survey and Storm Waves, Circulation, and Sedimentation Study, Dana Point Harbor, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Extreme Wave Height Distribution at Location 6 Figure 4-1 Sketch of Wave Transmission and Flow Penetration through a Permeable Structure Figure 4-2...Forcing Figure 4-7 Comparisons between Simulated and Measured Currents at the Inside and Outside ADCP Stations with Different Permeable Breakwater...Segments Figure 4-8 Simulated Depth Averaged Current Fields for Non- Permeable Breakwaters Figure 4-9 Simulated Depth Averaged Current Fields with a

  5. Ovarian Cancer Training Program at the Dana Farber/Harvard Cancer Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    Biochemistry lab courses. Consulting experience 2001 Celera Genomics , South San Francisco, CA Curation of proteins for Celera’s proprietary PantherTM...aims to characterize the MIS specific Smads, and target genes for MIS :•.: "Comparative Genomics to Correct Human Lung Hypophasia" Program Project, PI...instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information

  6. Ovarian Cancer Training Program at the Dana Farber/Harvard Cancer Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    essential for maintenance of rapid rates of cell division and is thus an interesting target for therapeutic intervention in malignant diseases . The...currently in preparation. New Fellow- (2004-) Dr. John Miao is working on the role of Hepsin- a desmosomal junction associated protein that whose...analysis showed that hepsin co-localizes with desmoplakin at the cell membrane, where it is linked to keratin filaments at desmosomal junctions

  7. Habitat shifts and spatial distribution of the intertidal crab Neohelice ( Chasmagnathus ) granulata Dana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casariego, Agustina Mendez; Alberti, Juan; Luppi, Tomás; Daleo, Pedro; Iribarne, Oscar

    2011-08-01

    Intertidal zones of estuaries and embayments of the SW Atlantic are dominated by the semiterrestrial burrowing grapsid crab, Neohelice ( Chasmagnathus) granulata, and characterized by extensive mud flats surrounded by salt marshes. In this work we examined spatial patterns of distribution of N. granulata during two years to explain their movement patterns. The results of the population sampling showed segregation by sex and size throughout the intertidal, with seasonal variations in densities and different condition indices for adults and juveniles at the different zones. The comparison of seasonal activity (ambulatory activity outside burrows) between marshes and mudflats shows that short term (e.g. daily) variations in activity were controlled by tides. Crabs were active at high tides but increased their activity on days with higher tidal amplitude. Seasonal activity showed that at both areas, females remain with low activity except for a peak in winter, while males showed the highest activity during summer in the mudflat zone, but not so in the marsh. This pattern can be the response to differences in stress tolerance, suggesting that high temperatures are limiting the performance of adult crabs during summer, especially at the marsh where physical conditions can be more critical. The spatial size segregation can be explained by differential mortality in each zone (estimated with tethered crabs), and by the juvenile movement between these zones (estimated with movement traps). Juvenile mortality is higher at the mudflat, while adult mortality is higher in the marsh. Smaller juveniles moved to the marsh, where the mortality is lower, and the larger juveniles moved towards the mudflat. This mortality is due almost exclusively to cannibalism, so our results suggest that this movement of different size classes between zones is controlled, at least in part, by intraspecific predation.

  8. Reliability Assessment of the Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment (DANA) in Extreme Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    changes made to the subject’s information (Figure 4). ABORTED SCREENINGS A screening is aborted by pressing the home or power button on the...Notebook during a screening. A subject with any aborted screening will have a red warning symbol next to their name, test, and screening that was aborted ...1. Select the aborted subject, test, and screening (Figure 9, 10, and 11). 2. If no sections of the screening have been completed before the

  9. Barriers to Care for Transgender People: A Conversation With Dana Hines, PhD, MSN, RN

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Donna J.; Hines, Dana

    2016-01-01

    A public health nurse talks about her career trajectory, her entry into nursing research, and her research career in transgender health. Transgender people encounter many health and social disparities, yet medical and nursing professionals are often ill-prepared to care for this population of individuals. The nursing profession is well known for its contributions to population health and for developing nursing-led interventions to improve the health outcomes of marginalized populations. Hines urges nursing to take a more active stance in transgender health and is leading this effort by example. PMID:27587944

  10. Copepod behavior in thin layers of attractive and deterrent chemical cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, M.; Webster, D. R.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that the oceanographic distribution of mobile zooplankton can be attributed, at least in part, to foraging and aggregative behaviors. A laboratory system was developed to test the cues that induce these behaviors. The system mimics thin layer structure in the ocean, and the research has focused on calanoid copepods, specifically Temora longicornis and Acartia tonsa. Responses are directly observed as copepod cultures are subjected to different attractive and deterrent chemical cues, such as phytoplankton (food) and harmful algal bloom metabolites. Behaviors are quantified using three behavioral markers: proportional residence time in the thin layer, swimming speed, and turn frequency. These three markers are measured using video-based observation, which quantifies path kinematics and swimming behavior. Previous experiments have shown that attractive chemical exudates elicite behaviors such as increased swimming speed and excited area-restricted search behavior. Thus, understanding how zooplankton behave in response to chemicals from toxic species will extend our understanding of zooplankton interaction with thin layers and the potential consequences for population dynamics, nutrient cycling, and biodiversity in coastal and pelagic ecosystems.

  11. Copepod Trajectory Characteristics in Thin Layers of Toxic Algal Exudates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; True, A. C.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.

    2013-11-01

    Recently documented thin layers of toxic phytoplankton (``cryptic blooms'') are modeled in a custom flume system for copepod behavioral assays. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements quantify the spatiotemporal structure of the chemical layers ensuring a close match to in situ bloom conditions and allowing for quantification of threshold dissolved toxin levels that induce behavioral responses. Assays with the copepods Acartia tonsa (hop-sinker) and Temora longicornis (cruiser) in thin layers of toxic exudates from the common dinoflagellate Karenia brevis (cell equivalent ~ 1 - 10,000 cells/mL) examine the effects of dissolved toxic compounds and copepod species on swimming trajectory characteristics. Computation of parameters such as swimming speed and the fractal dimension of the two-dimensional trajectory (F2D) allows for statistical evaluation of copepod behavioral responses to dissolved toxic compounds associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs). Changes in copepod swimming behavior caused by toxic compounds can significantly influence predator, prey, and mate encounter rates by altering the fracticality (``diffuseness'' or ``volume-fillingness'') of a copepod's trajectory. As trophic mediators linking primary producers and higher trophic levels, copepods can significantly influence HAB dynamics and modulate large scale ecological effects through their behavioral interactions with toxic blooms.

  12. Tests for oil/dispersant toxicity: In situ laboratory assays

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, D.A.; Coelho, G.M.; Aurand, D.V.

    1995-12-31

    As part of its readiness program in oil spill response, the Marine Pollution Control Unit (MPCU), Department of Transport, U.K. conducts annual field trials in the North Sea, approximately 30 nautical miles from the southeast coast of England. The trials take the form of controlled releases of crude oil or Medium Fuel/Gas Oil mix (MFO), with and without the application of Corexit 9527 dispersant. In 1994 and 1995 the authors conducted a series of in situ toxicity bioassays in association with these spills with included 48h LC50 tests for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and oyster (Crassostrea gigas) larvae, a 48 h oyster (C. gigas) embryonic development test and two full life-cycle assays using the copepods Acartia tonsa and Tisbe battagliai. Tests were also conducted in the Chesapeake Bay laboratory using estuarine species including the copepod Eurytemora affinis and the inland silverside Menidia beryllina. Here, the authors report on the results of these assays, together with 1996 in situ toxicity data resulting from Norwegian field trials in the northern North Sea.

  13. Influence of UVB radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to planktonic copepod nauplii.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Harvey, Tracy E; Connelly, Tara L; Baca, Sarah; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-06-01

    Toxic effects of petroleum to marine zooplankton have been generally investigated using dissolved petroleum hydrocarbons and in the absence of sunlight. In this study, we determined the influence of natural ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation on the lethal and sublethal toxicity of dispersed crude oil to naupliar stages of the planktonic copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Pseudodiaptomus pelagicus. Low concentrations of dispersed crude oil (1 μL L(-1)) caused a significant reduction in survival, growth and swimming activity of copepod nauplii after 48 h of exposure. UVB radiation increased toxicity of dispersed crude oil by 1.3-3.8 times, depending on the experiment and measured variables. Ingestion of crude oil droplets may increase photoenhanced toxicity of crude oil to copepod nauplii by enhancing photosensitization. Photoenhanced sublethal toxicity was significantly higher when T. turbinata nauplii were exposed to dispersant-treated oil than crude oil alone, suggesting that chemical dispersion of crude oil may promote photoenhanced toxicity to marine zooplankton. Our results demonstrate that acute exposure to concentrations of dispersed crude oil and dispersant (Corexit 9500) commonly found in the sea after oil spills are highly toxic to copepod nauplii and that natural levels of UVB radiation substantially increase the toxicity of crude oil to these planktonic organisms. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of considering sunlight in petroleum toxicological studies and models to better estimate the impact of crude oil spills on marine zooplankton.

  14. Towards an internationally harmonized test method for reproductive and developmental effects of endocrine disrupters in marine copepods.

    PubMed

    Kusk, K Ole; Wollenberger, Leah

    2007-02-01

    New and updated methods to detect and characterize endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are urgently needed for the purpose of environmental risk assessment since these substances are often not detected using existing chronic toxicity tests. Numerous reports on the effects of EDCs on crustacean development and reproduction have been published and the development of life-cycle tests with crustaceans has been prioritized within the OECD work program for endocrine disrupter testing and assessment. As a result, Sweden, and Denmark initiated a proposal for development of a full life-cycle test with marine copepods (Acartia tonsa, Nitocra spinipes, Tisbe battagliai, and Amphiascus tenuiremis). The present paper gives an overview on the endocrine system of crustaceans with special emphasis on development and reproduction, which are targets for endocrine disruption, and reviews available methods for detecting effects on development and reproduction in calanoid and harpacticoid copepods. A draft OECD guideline Copepod Development and Reproduction Test has been developed, and a pre-validation of this draft guideline was completed in 2005. An updated draft guideline, taking into account the results of the pre-validation, is now under validation in an international ring-test, which is running till the end of 2006.

  15. Toxicity and phototoxicity of water-accommodated fraction obtained from Prestige fuel oil and Marine fuel oil evaluated by marine bioassays.

    PubMed

    Saco-Alvarez, Liliana; Bellas, Juan; Nieto, Oscar; Bayona, Josep María; Albaigés, Joan; Beiras, Ricardo

    2008-05-15

    Acute toxicity and phototoxicity of heavy fuel oil extracted directly from the sunken tanker Prestige in comparison to a standard Marine fuel oil were evaluated by obtaining the water-accommodated fraction (WAF) and using mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryogenesis bioassays, and copepod Acartia tonsa and fish Cyprinodon variegatus survival bioassays. Aromatic hydrocarbon (AH) levels in WAF were measured by gas chromatography. Prestige WAF was not phototoxic, its median effective concentrations (EC50) were 13% and 10% WAF for mussel and sea urchin respectively, and maximum lethal threshold concentrations (MLTC) were 12% and 50% for copepod and fish respectively. Marine WAF resulted phototoxic for mussel bioassay. EC50s of Marine WAF were 50% for sea urchin in both treatments and 20% for mussel under illumination. Undiluted Marine WAF only caused a 20% decrease in mussel normal larvae. Similar sensitivities were found among sea urchins, mussels and copepods, whilst fish were less sensitive. Unlike Marine WAF, Prestige WAF showed EC50 values at dilutions below 20%, and its toxicity was independent of lighting conditions. The differences in toxicity between both kinds of fuel could not be explained on the basis of total AH content.

  16. Food quality affects secondary consumers even at low quantities: an experimental test with larval European lobster.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Boersma, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most research has focussed on the primary producer-herbivore link, recent studies have shown that quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C:P ratios) and four different quantities to investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a lower C:P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food. These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for ecosystem productivity.

  17. Hydrodynamics and energetics of jumping copepod nauplii and copepodids.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Navish; Andersen, Anders; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Within its life cycle, a copepod goes through drastic changes in size, shape and swimming mode. In particular, there is a stark difference between the early (nauplius) and later (copepodid) stages. Copepods inhabit an intermediate Reynolds number regime (between ~1 and 100) where both viscosity and inertia are potentially important, and the Reynolds number changes by an order of magnitude during growth. Thus we expect the life stage related changes experienced by a copepod to result in hydrodynamic and energetic differences, ultimately affecting the fitness. To quantify these differences, we measured the swimming kinematics and fluid flow around jumping Acartia tonsa at different stages of its life cycle, using particle image velocimetry and particle tracking velocimetry. We found that the flow structures around nauplii and copepodids are topologically different, with one and two vortex rings, respectively. Our measurements suggest that copepodids cover a larger distance compared to their body size in each jump and are also hydrodynamically quieter, as the flow disturbance they create attenuates faster with distance. Also, copepodids are energetically more efficient than nauplii, presumably due to the change in hydrodynamic regime accompanied with a well-adapted body form and swimming stroke.

  18. Host-Specific and pH-Dependent Microbiomes of Copepods in an Extensive Rearing System

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, Alf; Castro-Mejia, Josue Leonardo; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2015-01-01

    Copepods are to an increasing extent cultivated as feed for mariculture fish larvae with variable production success. In the temperate climate zone, this production faces seasonal limitation due to changing abiotic factors, in particular temperature and light. Furthermore, the production of copepods may be influenced by biotic factors of the culture systems, such as competing microorganisms, harmful algae, or other eukaryotes and prokaryotes that may be non-beneficial for the copepods. In this study, the composition of bacteria associated with copepods was investigated in an extensive outdoor copepod production system. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed that bacteria were primarily found attached to the exoskeleton of copepods although a few bacteria were also found in the gut as well as internally in skeletal muscle tissue. Through 16S rRNA gene-targeted denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, a clear difference was found between the microbiomes of the two copepod species, Acartia tonsa and Centropages hamatus, present in the system. This pattern was corroborated through 454/FLX-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of copepod microbiomes, which furthermore showed that the abiotic parameters pH and oxygen concentration in rearing tank water were the key factors influencing composition of copepod microbiomes. PMID:26167852

  19. Bioluminescence in Dinoflagellates: Evidence that the Adaptive Value of Bioluminescence in Dinoflagellates is Concentration Dependent.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Karen A; Widder, Edith A

    2017-03-01

    Three major hypotheses have been proposed to explain why dinoflagellate bioluminescence deters copepod grazing: startle response, aposematic warning, and burglar alarm. These hypotheses propose dinoflagellate bioluminescence (A) startles predatory copepods, (B) warns potential predators of toxicity, and (C) draws the attention of higher order visual predators to the copepod's location. While the burglar alarm is the most commonly accepted hypothesis, it requires a high concentration of bioluminescent dinoflagellates to be effective, meaning the bioluminescence selective advantage at lower, more commonly observed, dinoflagellate concentrations may result from another function (e.g. startle response or aposematic warning). Therefore, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate copepod grazing (Acartia tonsa) on bioluminescent dinoflagellates (during bioluminescent and nonbioluminescent phases, corresponding to night and day, respectively) at different concentrations (10, 1000, and 3000 cells mL(-1) ), on toxic (Pyrodinium bahamense var. bahamense) and nontoxic (Lingulodinium polyedrum) bioluminescent dinoflagellates, and in the presence of nonluminescent diatoms (Thalassiosira eccentrica). Changes in copepod ingestion rates, clearance rates, and feeding preferences as a result of these experimental factors, particularly during the mixed trails with nonluminescent diatoms, indicate there is a concentration threshold at which the burglar alarm becomes effective and below which dinoflagellate bioluminescence functions as an aposematic warning.

  20. Selected alternatives to conventional chlorination. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garey, J.F.

    1980-10-01

    This study was jointly funded by EPRI and five electric utility companies in New England (New England Power, Northeast Utilities, United Illuminating, Vermont Yankee Nuclear, and Public Service of New Hampshire). Previous investigations had identified three major areas for further study: continuous low-level chlorination, dechlorination, and condenser biofouling control. Continuous low-level chlorination, studied at two locations, one on open coastal water and the other in an industrialized estuarine area, showed that 0.1 ppM total residual oxidant (TRO) prevented attachment of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) to concrete surfaces. Chronic bioassays showed that 0.075 ppM TRO reduced biofouling by indigenous organisms; 0.1 ppM TRO slightly increased mortalities of the Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia) but had no effect on the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Dechlorination investigations showed that threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus), Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia), larval bay scallops (Argopecten irradians), and the copepod Acartia tonsa exposed to water chlorinated to 0.5 ppM TRO for 10, 100, and 1000 seconds, followed by dechlorination with sodium thiosulfate, all suffered significant toxic effects. Condenser tube biofouling studies showed that there was a strong correlation between condenser performance and condenser tube biofouling; biofilm induction varied inversely with ambient water temperature, but orientation of the tubes had no effect on biofilm formation; and all chemicals tested (mono-, di-, and trisodium phosphate; Polident; and TRO at 0.1 ppM) reduced but did not remove biofilms.

  1. Characterization of the current biological communities within the Nanticoke River in the vicinity of the Vienna SES

    SciTech Connect

    Stroup, C.F.; Brindley, A.; Kazyak, P.F.

    1991-07-01

    Pursuant to a utility's intent to file for permission to build a generating station along the Nanticoke River, Maryland, a field program was conducted to update characterizations of major aquatic biota of the river in proximity to the existing power plant and a potential intake/discharge location. This characterization sampled five stations on the Nanticoke River, spanning 14 miles from Chapter Point to Riverton, between July 1988 and October 1989. During the study period, the juvenile and adult fish community was dominated by white perch, Atlantic menhaden, bay anchovy, hogchoker, and spot. Spring ichthyoplankton was composed of white perch, striped bass, yellow perch, and alosids, while summer ichthyoplankton was dominated by naked gobies and bay anchovy. Acartia tonsa, Eurytemora affinis and Bosmina longirostris dominated zooplankton samples. The phytoplankton community was composed primarily of diatoms, green algae, and monads. Polychaetes and crustaceans were the dominant macrobenthic taxa, with molluscs contributing to total abundance primarily during spring recruitment. The final report presents the results of fish, ichthyoplankton, zooplankton, and benthic surveys conducted between July 1988 and October 1989 in the middle portion of the Nanticoke River, Maryland. During the dry conditions of 1988, aquatic communities were dominated by estuarine species, while the lower saline environment of 1989 resulted in the presence of more freshwater species.

  2. Diel vertical behavior of Copepoda community (naupliar, copepodites and adults) at the boundary of a temperate estuary and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, A. M. M.; Pardal, M. A.; Marques, S. C.; Mendes, S.; Fernández-Gómez, M. J.; Galindo-Villardón, M. P.; Azeiteiro, U. M.

    2012-02-01

    Despite a growing interest in diel vertical migration as a research topic, there are few studies in southern European marine coastal systems. This study determined the main structuring hydrological and physical factors at different temporal scales in copepod assemblage distribution patterns. Seasonal, tidal, lunar and diel vertical migrations accomplished by horizontal movements were examined on the main copepod fraction of the Mondego estuary, Portugal. Seasonal samples were conducted hourly at the mouth of the estuary, during diel cycles (25 h), both over neap and spring tides, at the bottom and surface, using a 63 μm and 335 μm mesh size nets. Simultaneously, four sites inside the estuary were sampled during flood tide to evaluate and compare copepods species' distribution along the estuary. Species life cycles were also categorized. Spring-spring tide best expresses the stable part of copepod-environment dynamics. Acartia tonsa and Oithona nana were distributed mainly at the bottom during ebb tides. A clear resident estuarine performance was noticeable in O. nana proving the estuarine preferences of the species. Neritic species showed preferences by saline waters, whereas the resident species were found mainly at estuarine areas. Copepodites stages showed a similar distribution pattern as estuarine species, avoiding leaving the estuary. In contrast nauplii and Oithona plumifera showed higher densities at surface flood tides. Indeed, vertical migrations accomplished by horizontal movements were mainly influenced by depth and tidal cycles, whereas day and night were not ecologically significant.

  3. Predation by the Dwarf Seahorse on Copepods: Quantifying Motion and Flows Using 3D High Speed Digital Holographic Cinematography - When Seahorses Attack!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemmell, Brad; Sheng, Jian; Buskey, Ed

    2008-11-01

    Copepods are an important planktonic food source for most of the world's fish species. This high predation pressure has led copepods to evolve an extremely effective escape response, with reaction times to hydrodynamic disturbances of less than 4 ms and escape speeds of over 500 body lengths per second. Using 3D high speed digital holographic cinematography (up to 2000 frames per second) we elucidate the role of entrainment flow fields generated by a natural visual predator, the dwarf seahorse (Hippocampus zosterae) during attacks on its prey, Acartia tonsa. Using phytoplankton as a tracer, we recorded and reconstructed 3D flow fields around the head of the seahorse and its prey during both successful and unsuccessful attacks to better understand how some attacks lead to capture with little or no detection from the copepod while others result in failed attacks. Attacks start with a slow approach to minimize the hydro-mechanical disturbance which is used by copepods to detect the approach of a potential predator. Successful attacks result in the seahorse using its pipette-like mouth to create suction faster than the copepod's response latency. As these characteristic scales of entrainment increase, a successful escape becomes more likely.

  4. Prey Detection and Prey Capture in Copepod Nauplii

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Eleonora; Andersen Borg, Christian Marc; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Copepod nauplii are either ambush feeders that feed on motile prey or they produce a feeding current that entrains prey cells. It is unclear how ambush and feeding-current feeding nauplii perceive and capture prey. Attack jumps in ambush feeding nauplii should not be feasible at low Reynolds numbers due to the thick viscous boundary layer surrounding the attacking nauplius. We use high-speed video to describe the detection and capture of phytoplankton prey by the nauplii of two ambush feeding species (Acartia tonsa and Oithona davisae) and by the nauplii of one feeding-current feeding species (Temora longicornis). We demonstrate that the ambush feeders both detect motile prey remotely. Prey detection elicits an attack jump, but the jump is not directly towards the prey, such as has been described for adult copepods. Rather, the nauplius jumps past the prey and sets up an intermittent feeding current that pulls in the prey from behind towards the mouth. The feeding-current feeding nauplius detects prey arriving in the feeding current but only when the prey is intercepted by the setae on the feeding appendages. This elicits an altered motion pattern of the feeding appendages that draws in the prey. PMID:23144712

  5. Marine microalgae attack and feed on metazoans

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Terje; Poulsen, Louise K; Moldrup, Morten; Daugbjerg, Niels; Juel Hansen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Free-living microalgae from the dinoflagellate genus Karlodinium are known to form massive blooms in eutrophic coastal waters worldwide and are often associated with fish kills. Natural bloom populations, recently shown to consist of the two mixotrophic and toxic species Karlodinium armiger and Karlodinium veneficum have caused fast paralysis and mortality of finfish and copepods in the laboratory, and have been associated with reduced metazooplankton biomass in-situ. Here we show that a strain of K. armiger (K-0688) immobilises the common marine copepod Acartia tonsa in a density-dependent manner and collectively ingests the grazer to promote its own growth rate. In contrast, four strains of K. veneficum did not attack or affect the motility and survival of the copepods. Copepod immobilisation by the K. armiger strain was fast (within 15 min) and caused by attacks of swarming cells, likely through the transfer and action of a highly potent but uncharacterised neurotoxin. The copepods grazed and reproduced on a diet of K. armiger at densities below 1000, cells ml−1, but above 3500 cells ml−1 the mixotrophic dinoflagellates immobilised, fed on and killed the copepods. Switching the trophic role of the microalgae from prey to predator of copepods couples population growth to reduced grazing pressure, promoting the persistence of blooms at high densities. K. armiger also fed on three other metazoan organisms offered, suggesting that active predation by mixotrophic dinoflagellates may be directly involved in causing mortalities at several trophic levels in the marine food web. PMID:22513533

  6. Marine microalgae attack and feed on metazoans.

    PubMed

    Berge, Terje; Poulsen, Louise K; Moldrup, Morten; Daugbjerg, Niels; Juel Hansen, Per

    2012-10-01

    Free-living microalgae from the dinoflagellate genus Karlodinium are known to form massive blooms in eutrophic coastal waters worldwide and are often associated with fish kills. Natural bloom populations, recently shown to consist of the two mixotrophic and toxic species Karlodinium armiger and Karlodinium veneficum have caused fast paralysis and mortality of finfish and copepods in the laboratory, and have been associated with reduced metazooplankton biomass in-situ. Here we show that a strain of K. armiger (K-0688) immobilises the common marine copepod Acartia tonsa in a density-dependent manner and collectively ingests the grazer to promote its own growth rate. In contrast, four strains of K. veneficum did not attack or affect the motility and survival of the copepods. Copepod immobilisation by the K. armiger strain was fast (within 15 min) and caused by attacks of swarming cells, likely through the transfer and action of a highly potent but uncharacterised neurotoxin. The copepods grazed and reproduced on a diet of K. armiger at densities below 1000, cells ml(-1), but above 3500 cells ml(-1) the mixotrophic dinoflagellates immobilised, fed on and killed the copepods. Switching the trophic role of the microalgae from prey to predator of copepods couples population growth to reduced grazing pressure, promoting the persistence of blooms at high densities. K. armiger also fed on three other metazoan organisms offered, suggesting that active predation by mixotrophic dinoflagellates may be directly involved in causing mortalities at several trophic levels in the marine food web.

  7. Association of Vibrio cholerae with plankton in coastal areas of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lizárraga-Partida, M L; Mendez-Gómez, E; Rivas-Montaño, A M; Vargas-Hernández, E; Portillo-López, A; González-Ramírez, A R; Huq, A; Colwell, R R

    2009-01-01

    The El Niño event of 1997/1998 provided an opportunity to carry out a field experiment in which the relationship of sea surface temperature and the association of Vibrio cholerae with marine plankton could be assessed in Mexican coastal and estuarine areas. Plankton samples were collected from May 1997 through June 1999. Sites included the Mexican ports of Veracruz, Coatzacoalcos and Frontera in the Gulf of Mexico and Ensenada, Guaymas, Mazatlán, Manzanillo, Acapulco and Oaxaca in the Pacific Ocean. Sampling was also accomplished during two oceanographic cruises in the Yucatan channel of the Caribbean Sea. Bacteriological analyses for V. cholerae serogroups O1 and O139 were carried out. Also, the taxonomic structure of the plankton populations was determined. Vibrio cholerae O1 was detected only in Veracruz samples collected during April, May and June 1999, when La Niña climatic conditions prevailed. It is concluded that V. cholerae O1 in Mexico derives from its marine and estuarine origin and not from sewage contamination. The significant number of Acartia tonsa copepodites and V. cholerae copepodite-positive samples suggests a significant role of this copepod in the occurrence and distribution of V. cholerae in coastal areas of Mexico.

  8. Evaluation of antibiotics as a methodological procedure to inhibit free-living and biofilm bacteria in marine zooplankton culture.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Vanessa O; Macedo, Alexandre J; Muxagata, Erik

    2016-01-01

    There is a problem with keeping culture medium completely or partially free from bacteria. The use of prokaryotic metabolic inhibitors, such as antibiotics, is suggested as an alternative solution, although such substances should not harm non-target organisms. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments in inhibiting free-living and biofilm bacteria and their half-life in artificial marine environment using the copepod Acartia tonsa as bioindicador of non-harmful antibiotic combinations. Regarding to results, the application of 0.025 g L-1 penicillin G potassium + 0.08 g L-1 streptomycin sulphate + 0.04 g L-1 neomycin sulphate showed great potential for use in marine cultures and scientific experiments without lethal effects to non-target organisms. The effect of this combination starts within the first six hours of exposure and reduces up to 93 % the bacterial density, but the half-life is short, requiring replacement. No adverse changes in water quality were observed within 168 hours of exposure. As a conclusion, we can infer that this treatment was an effective procedure for zooplankton cultures and scientific experiments with the aim of measuring the role of free-living and biofilm in the marine community.

  9. Mortality and LC50 values for several stages of the marine copepod Tigriopus brevicornis (Müller) exposed to the metals arsenic and cadmium and the pesticides atrazine, carbofuran, dichlorvos, and malathion.

    PubMed

    Forget, J; Pavillon, J F; Menasria, M R; Bocquené, G

    1998-07-01

    The toxicity of three insecticides (carbofuran, dichlorvos, malathion), an herbicide (atrazine), and two metals (arsenic and cadmium) to ovigerous females, copepodids, and nauplii of Tigriopus brevicornis was determined by 96-h semistatic (or static-renewal) bioassays. Freshly prepared aqueous stock solutions of these pesticides and metals were diluted to appropriate concentrations. Mortalities were recorded and test solutions were changed completely each day up to 96 h. The rate of mortality was analyzed for linear regressions, and LC50 values were determined by probit analysis. LC50 values for ovigerous T. brevicornis females were 153.2 micrograms liter-1 for atrazine, 59.9 micrograms liter-1 for carbofuran, 47.9 micrograms liter-1 for cadmium, 27.5 micrograms liter-1 for arsenic, 24.3 micrograms liter-1 for malathion, and 4.6 micrograms liter-1 for dichlorvos. Comparison of the overall toxicities of these pesticides and metals indicated that dichlorvos was the most toxic substance to T. brevicornis, followed by malathion, arsenic, cadmium, carbofuran, and atrazine. Available LC50 data indicate that marine copepods are more sensitive to pollutants than Daphnia magna, Acartia tonsa, and Tisbe battagliai, or as sensitive as the mysid Mysidopsis bahia.

  10. Does gender really matter in contaminant exposure? A case study using invertebrate models.

    PubMed

    McClellan-Green, Patricia; Romano, Jocelyn; Oberdörster, Eva

    2007-05-01

    Exposure to contaminants in the environment is indiscriminate and multiple species/populations of all sexes are potentially at risk. In this paper we examine the current information available on gender specific differences in invertebrates following exposure to environmental contaminants. Because of their close association with the environment and diversity of habitats, invertebrates are uniquely at risk for adverse responses to pollutants. Since 97% of all animal species are invertebrates, it would be impossible to cover each of the phyla in this review. Instead, this paper discusses major invertebrate species including insects (Periplaneta americana, Panorpa vulgaris, Lycosa hilaris, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), and Drosophilia melanogaster), nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), crustaceans (Streptocephalus dichotomus, Amphiascus tenuiremis, Microarthridion littorale, Tisbe bulbisetosa, Acartia tonsa, and Palaemonetes pugio), mollusks (Pinctada fucata martensii, Ilyanassa obsoleta, Nucella lapillus, Hinia reticulata, Thais clavigera, and Mercenaria mercenaria), corals (Euphyllia ancora and Montipara capitata), and echinoderms (Asterias rubens) that have been used in studies examining the differences between males and females. Our discussion focuses on gender differences that occur in both toxicokinetic mechanisms (uptake and elimination, metabolism and physiology) and other toxicological endpoints (survival and behavior as well as morphology and development). It will become evident that the endocrine systems of invertebrates have many traits and/or pathways that are comparable to those observed in higher organisms. Yet the sensitivity of some elements of the invertebrate endocrine system, e.g., disruption of neuropeptide hormone signaling following TBT exposure, highlights the uniqueness of their systems and their potential for disruption.

  11. Ingestion and sublethal effects of physically and chemically dispersed crude oil on marine planktonic copepods.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Baca, Sarah; Hyatt, Cammie; Buskey, Edward J

    2014-08-01

    Planktonic copepods play a key function in marine ecosystems, however, little is known about the effects of dispersants and chemically dispersed crude oil on these important planktonic organisms. We examined the potential for the copepods Acartia tonsa, Temora turbinata and Parvocalanus crassirostris to ingest crude oil droplets and determined the acute toxicity of the dispersant Corexit(®) 9500A, and physically and chemically dispersed crude oil to these copepods. We detected ingestion of crude oil droplets by adults and nauplii of the three copepod species. Exposure to crude oil alone (1 µL L(-1), 48 h) caused a reduction of egg production rates (EPRs) by 26-39 %, fecal pellet production rates (PPRs) by 11-27 %, and egg hatching (EH) by 1-38 % compared to the controls, depending on the species. Dispersant alone (0.05 µL L(-1), 48 h) produced a reduction in EPR, PPR and EH by 20-35, 12-23 and 2-11 %, respectively. Dispersant-treated crude oil was the most toxic treatment, ~1.6 times more toxic than crude oil alone, causing a reduction in EPR, PPR and EH by 45-54, 28-41 and 11-31 %, respectively. Our results indicate that low concentrations of dispersant Corexit 9500A and chemically dispersed crude oil are toxic to marine zooplankton, and that the ingestion of crude oil droplets by copepods may be an important route by which crude oil pollution can enter marine food webs.

  12. First evidences of sexual selection by mate choice in marine zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Sara; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Sexual selection is potentially important in marine zooplankton, presumably the most abundant metazoans on earth, but it has never been documented. We examine the conditions for sexual selection through mate choice and describe mating preferences in relation to size in a marine zooplankter, the pelagic copepod Acartia tonsa. Males produce spermatophores at a rate (~1 day(-1)) much lower than known female encounter rates for most of the year and the decision to mate a particular female thus implies lost future opportunities. Female egg production increases with female size, and males mating larger females therefore sire more offspring per mating event. Similarly, females encounter males more frequently than they need to mate. Large males produce larger spermatophores than small males and the offspring production of female increases with the size of the spermatophore she receives. Additionally, large spermatophores allow females to fertilize eggs for a longer period. Thus, mating with large males reduces the female's need for frequent matings and she may sire sons that produce more offspring because size is heritable in copepods. Finally, we show that both males and females mate preferentially with large partners. This is the first demonstration of sexual selection by mate choice in a planktonic organism.

  13. Latest research results on the effects of nanomaterials on humans and the environment: DaNa - Knowledge Base Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardt, C.; Kühnel, D.; Richter, V.; Krug, H. F.; Mathes, B.; Steinbach, C.; Nau, K.

    2013-04-01

    Nanotechnology is considered one of the key technologies of the 21st century. The success of this fascinating technology is based on its versatility. It will bring about fundamental changes of basic research as well as of many sectors of industry and also of daily life from electronics to the health care system. However, consumers often miss reliable and understandable information on nanomaterials and all aspects of this versatile technology. A huge body of data on the potential hazards of nanoobjects towards human and environmental health already exists, but is either not easily accessible for a broad audience or presented unprocessable for nonexperts. But risk communication is an essential and thus integral component of risk management. For that purpose, the DaNa-Project aims at filling this gap by collecting and evaluating scientific results in an interdisciplinary approach with scientists from different research areas, such as human and environmental toxicology, biology, physics, chemistry, and sociology. Research findings from the field of human and environmental nanotoxicology are being prepared and presented together with material properties and possible applications for interested laymen and stakeholders. For the evaluation of literature a "Literature Criteria Checklist" has been developed as well as a Standard Operation Procedure template (SOP) based on careful scientific practice.

  14. High-performance thin-layer chromatography for quantification of 1-octacosanol in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana).

    PubMed

    Gao, Wenfang; Liu, Daicheng; Su, Shupeng

    2015-01-01

    1-Octacosanol is a straight-chain aliphatic 28-carbon fatty alcohol with well-known anti-fatigue function. In this study, 1-octacosanol was extracted from Antarctic krill for the first time. Separation of 1-octacosanol was achieved using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with a mobile phase consisting of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/toluene (4 : 1 : 0.05, v/v/v) on precoated silica gel GF254 high-performance TLC plates. The separated 1-octacosanol was quantified using spectrodensitometry with distilled water/bromothymol blue/sodium hydroxide (100 : 0.1 : 0.7, v/w/w) as a chromogenic system. The high-performance TLC method was validated with respect to specificity, linearity, intra- and interplate variation. The stability of the 1-octacosanol-chromogen complex and recovery of 1-octacosanol were also evaluated. Containing ~10.6 µg/mg 1-octacosanol, Antarctic krill is potentially a rich and renewable source of 1-octacosanol.

  15. Written Corrective Feedback in L2 Writing: Connors & Lunsford (1988); Lunsford & Lunsford (2008); Lalande (1982) Dana Ferris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Written corrective feedback (CF) has been the most heavily researched topic in second language (L2) writing over the past 20 years. As a recent research timeline article in this journal (Ferris 2012; see also Bitchener & Ferris 2012) shows, studies of error correction in student writing have crossed disciplines (composition and rhetoric,…

  16. Redescription of poorly known species of Ceratothoa Dana, 1852 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Cymothoidae), based on original type material

    PubMed Central

    Hadfield, Kerry A.; Bruce, Niel L.; Smit, Nico J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Due to the difficulty in accurately identifying cymothoids, these parasitic isopods are often incorrectly named or confused with other species. Within the genus Ceratothoa, a number of recent studies have aimed at clarifying some of the problematic species; however, several of the less studied species still require revision. This paper redescribes, from type material, several poorly known Ceratothoa species including Ceratothoa angulata, Ceratothoa capri, Ceratothoa carinata, Ceratothoa collaris, Ceratothoa gilberti, Ceratothoa gobii, Ceratothoa guttata, Ceratothoa italica, Ceratothoa oestroides, and Ceratothoa verrucosa, further resolving taxonomic uncertainties within the genus. PMID:27408544

  17. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Dungeness crab. [Cancer magister dana

    SciTech Connect

    Pauley, G.B.; Armstrong, D.A.; Heun, T.W.

    1986-08-01

    The Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) is found off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and southern British Columbia, as well as in the estuarine waters of this geographic area. It is a shellfish highly prized and sought after by both commercialand sport fishermen. In Washington and Oregon, only male crabs may be retained by sport and commercial fishermen. Commercial crab catches are highly variable from year to year, but the catches from Washington and Oregon follow a very similar pattern. The highest sport catches take place on low tides ranging from -0.60 to -0.74 m. Dungeness crab go through a life cycle that involves several metamorphic stages: zoea, megalops, postlarval crab, and adult crab. Hatching success decreases as water temperature increases from 10 to 17/sup 0/C; the optimal temperature for larval crabs is between 10 and 14/sup 0/C. Salinity is not as important to egg development and hatching as temperature, but optimum hatching occurs at about 15 ppt.

  18. Plankton dynamics and zooplankton carcasses in a mid-latitude estuary and their contributions to the local particulate organic carbon pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesecke, R.; Vallejos, T.; Sanchez, M.; Teiguiel, K.

    2017-01-01

    Estuaries are among the most productive aquatic ecosystems in coastal areas. Their productivity is linked to the formation of fronts generating mixing and retention of nutrients that can be used by autotrophs. Estuaries exhibit strong thermoclines and haloclines that may significantly affect zooplankton survival, while producing carcasses that could act as an alternative pathway of particulate organic carbon recycling. We investigated the in situ abundance of dead mero- and holozooplankton along the Valdivia River estuary, south-central Chile, during contrasting fresh water discharge conditions (summer, winter and spring), including the potential contribution of zooplankton carcasses to the particulate organic carbon standing stock along the estuary. Zooplankton samples were collected at four stations along the estuary during high tide at the surface, in the pycnocline and below the pycnocline. During autumn and winter the zooplankton community was mostly dominated by copepods, while during summer barnacle nauplii outnumbered copepods fourfold on average. During this study 29.5%±1.8% S.E. of the net-captured zooplankton community, including Acartia tonsa, Paracalanus spp., Oikopleura spp., copepod nauplii, Podon spp. and barnacle nauplii, appeared to have been dead at collection. Highest overall mortality occurred in winter (44±3.1% S.E.), with lower mortality during spring (26±3.8% S.E.) and summer (19±2.7% S.E.). The instantaneous mortality of copepods (Paracalanus spp. and A. tonsa) and copepod naupliar stages was always greater at the surface, associated with brackish water, while dead barnacle nauplii were usually distributed homogenously in the water column. The zooplankton carcass standing stock averaged 0.2 mg C m-3 (in spring and winter) contributing to 0.03-0.22% of the POC produced in the estuary, while in summer carcasses reached up to 2.99 mg C m-3 with a contribution up to 0.87% of the POC. The summer contribution is linked to the presence of

  19. Fine-scale vertical distribution of coastal and offshore copepods in the Golfo de Arauco, central Chile, during the upwelling season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Leonardo R.; Troncoso, Victor A.; Figueroa, Dante R.

    2007-11-01

    In order to understand the mechanism by which zooplankters from different origins co-occur during the upwelling season within Golfo de Arauco, one of the most productive areas in central Chile, we assessed short term variations in the vertical distribution of the most abundant copepod species. Fine-scale, day and night vertical zooplankton sampling was done with a pump over 12 days in summer. The water column in the gulf consisted of three layers: Equatorial Subsurface Water of low dissolved oxygen content in the deeper part of the water column, strong temperature and oxygen gradients at mid-depth (15-25 m), and a layer of warmer, more oxygenated, less saline water at the surface. Copepods within the gulf originated from offshore, from the continental shelf, and from the coastal area. Most taxa showed distinctive vertical distributions. Three copepod groups were identified by their mean weighted depths of residence. One group included shallow residents found above the thermocline/oxycline ( Acartia tonsa, Centropages brachiatus, Corycaeus sp., Paracalanus parvus, Oncaea sp.). A second group was comprised by species distributed at or below the thermocline/oxycline ( Oithona sp., Oncaea conifera, Lucicutia sp., Metridia sp., Heterorhabdus papilliger). The third group was composed of vertical migrators that crossed the thermocline/oxycline ( Calanus chilensis, Calanoides patagoniensis, Aetideus armatus, Pleuromamma piseki). In spite of their different vertical distribution ranges, the most abundant and frequent copepod species ( P. parvus, C. chilensis, C. patagoniensis, C. brachiatus) share a common capacity to withstand wide ranges of oxygen concentration and temperature. This characteristic, along with the capacity to vary their life strategies under different environmental conditions, seems to facilitate the maintenance of large numbers of copepods in coastal waters along the Humboldt Current.

  20. Origin of resources and trophic pathways in a large SW Atlantic estuary: An evaluation using stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botto, Florencia; Gaitán, Esteban; Mianzan, Hermes; Acha, Marcelo; Giberto, Diego; Schiariti, Agustín; Iribarne, Oscar

    2011-03-01

    The Río de la Plata (34° 36' S, 55° 58' W; Argentina and Uruguay) estuary, one of the most important South American estuarine environments, is characterized by weak seasonal freshwater discharge, low tidal amplitude (<1 m), a wide and permanent connection to the sea, and a salt-wedge regime. Using stable isotope analysis, we explored the relative importance of the different sources of primary production in the food web. Our results show that phytoplankton and macrodetritus from terrestrial salt and freshwater marshes both contribute to the food web of the Río de la Plata estuary. On the basis of the sampled species, we identified four trophic levels. The clam Mactra isabelleana, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, and the opossum shrimp Neomysis americana are the primary consumers. The rays Atlantoraja castelnaui and Squatina guggenheim and the shark Galeorhinus galeus are the top predators. The Río de la Plata food web shows an important input of nutrients derived from phytoplankton. Rays, sharks, and predatory gastropods reveal an important contribution of C4 plants (likely Spartina spp.). However, production derived from C3 plants is also important for some species. The fishes Brazilian menhaden, Brevoortia aurea; the stripped weakfish Cynoscion guatucupa; and the whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri, showed differences in their isotopic signatures as juveniles and adults, indicating different food sources, and they were therefore treated as different components of the food web. Our data suggest that detritus from salt and freshwater marshes is reaching the Río de la Plata estuary and can be an important allocthonous source of energy to this environment.

  1. Ocean acidification-induced food quality deterioration constrains trophic transfer.

    PubMed

    Rossoll, Dennis; Bermúdez, Rafael; Hauss, Helena; Schulz, Kai G; Riebesell, Ulf; Sommer, Ulrich; Winder, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Our present understanding of ocean acidification (OA) impacts on marine organisms caused by rapidly rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration is almost entirely limited to single species responses. OA consequences for food web interactions are, however, still unknown. Indirect OA effects can be expected for consumers by changing the nutritional quality of their prey. We used a laboratory experiment to test potential OA effects on algal fatty acid (FA) composition and resulting copepod growth. We show that elevated CO(2) significantly changed the FA concentration and composition of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, which constrained growth and reproduction of the copepod Acartia tonsa. A significant decline in both total FAs (28.1 to 17.4 fg cell(-1)) and the ratio of long-chain polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids (PUFA:SFA) of food algae cultured under elevated (750 µatm) compared to present day (380 µatm) pCO(2) was directly translated to copepods. The proportion of total essential FAs declined almost tenfold in copepods and the contribution of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) tripled at high CO(2). This rapid and reversible CO(2)-dependent shift in FA concentration and composition caused a decrease in both copepod somatic growth and egg production from 34 to 5 eggs female(-1) day(-1). Because the diatom-copepod link supports some of the most productive ecosystems in the world, our study demonstrates that OA can have far-reaching consequences for ocean food webs by changing the nutritional quality of essential macromolecules in primary producers that cascade up the food web.

  2. The reaction of European lobster larvae (Homarus gammarus) to different quality food: effects of ontogenetic shifts and pre-feeding history.

    PubMed

    Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Schmalenbach, Isabel; Boersma, Maarten

    2014-02-01

    Young larval stages of many organisms represent bottlenecks in the life-history of many species. The high mortality commonly observed in, for example, decapod larvae has often been linked to poor nutrition, with most studies focussing on food quantity. Here, we focus instead on the effects of quality and have investigated its effects on the nutritional condition of lobster larvae. We established a tri-trophic food chain consisting of the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina, the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. In a set of experiments, we manipulated the C:N:P stoichiometry of the primary producers, and accordingly those of the primary consumer. In a first experiment, R. salina was grown under N- and P-limitation and the nutrient content of the algae was manipulated by addition of the limiting nutrient to create a food quality gradient. In a second experiment, the effect on lobster larvae of long- and short-term exposure to food of varying quality during ontogenetic development was investigated. The condition of the lobster larvae was negatively affected even by subtle N- and P-nutrient limitations of the algae. Furthermore, younger lobster larvae were more vulnerable to nutrient limitation than older ones, suggesting an ontogenetic shift in the capacity of lobster larvae to cope with low quality food. The results presented here might have substantial consequences for the survival of lobster larvae in the field, as, in the light of future climate change and re-oligotrophication of the North Sea, lobster larvae might face marked changes in temperature and nutrient conditions, thus significantly altering their condition and growth.

  3. The chronic toxicity of molybdate to marine organisms. I. Generating reliable effects data.

    PubMed

    Heijerick, D G; Regoli, L; Stubblefield, W

    2012-07-15

    A scientific research program was initiated by the International Molybdenum Association (IMOA) which addressed identified gaps in the environmental toxicity data for the molybdate ion (MoO(4)(2-)). These gaps were previously identified during the preparation of EU-REACH-dossiers for different molybdenum compounds (European Union regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances; EC, 2006). Evaluation of the open literature identified few reliable marine ecotoxicological data that could be used for deriving a Predicted No-Effect Concentration (PNEC) for the marine environment. Rather than calculating a PNEC(marine) using the assessment factor methodology on a combined freshwater/marine dataset, IMOA decided to generate sufficient reliable marine chronic data to permit derivation of a PNEC by means of the more scientifically robust species sensitivity distribution (SSD) approach (also called the statistical extrapolation approach). Nine test species were chronically exposed to molybdate (added as sodium molybdate dihydrate, Na(2)MoO(4)·2H(2)O) according to published standard testing guidelines that are acceptable for a broad range of regulatory purposes. The selected test organisms were representative for typical marine trophic levels: micro-algae/diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta), macro-alga (Ceramium tenuicorne), mysids (Americamysis bahia), copepod (Acartia tonsa), fish (Cyprinodon variegatus), echinoderms (Dendraster exentricus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and molluscs (Mytilus edulis, Crassostrea gigas). Available NOEC/EC(10) levels ranged between 4.4 mg Mo/L (blue mussel M. edulis) and 1174 mg Mo/L (oyster C. gigas). Using all available reliable marine chronic effects data that are currently available, a HC(5,50%) (median hazardous concentration affecting 5% of the species) of 5.74(mg Mo)/L was derived with the statistical extrapolation approach, a value that can be used for national and

  4. Methyl mercury uptake by diverse marine phytoplankton and trophic transfer to zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. S.; Fisher, N. S.

    2014-12-01

    While it is well known that methylmercury (MeHg) biomagnifies in aquatic food chains, few studies have quantified its bioaccumulation in marine phytoplankton from seawater, even though that is overwhelmingly the largest bioaccumulation step. Aquatic animals acquire MeHg mainly from dietary exposure and it is important to evaluate the bioaccumulation of this compound in planktonic organisms that form the base of marine food webs. We used a gamma-emitting radioisotope, 203Hg, to assess the rate and extent of MeHg uptake in marine diatoms, dinoflagellates, coccolithophores, cryptophytes chlorophytes, and cyanobacteria held in unialgal cultures under varying temperature and light conditions. For experimental conditions in which the dissolved MeHg was at 300 pM, the uptake rates in all species ranged from 0.004 to 0.75 amol Hg μm-3 cell volume d-1 and reached steady state within 2 d. Volume concentration factors (VCFs) ranged from 0.4 to 60 x 105 for the different species. Temperature and light conditions had no direct effect on cellular MeHg uptake but ultimately affected growth of the cells, resulting in greater suspended particulate matter and associated MeHg. VCFs strongly correlated with cell surface area to volume ratios in all species. Assimilation efficiencies of MeHg from phytoplankton food (Thalassiosira pseudonana, Dunaliella tertiolecta and Rhodomonas salina) in a marine copepod grazer (Acartia tonsa) ranged from 74 to 92%, directly proportional to the cytoplasmic partitioning of MeHg in the phytoplankton cells. MeHg uptake in copepods from the aqueous phase was low and modeling shows that nearly all the MeHg acquired by this zooplankter is from diet. Herbivorous zooplankton can be an important link from phytoplankton at the base of the food web to fish higher in the food chain.

  5. Distribution and transport of bay anchovy ( Anchoa mitchilli) eggs and larvae in Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    North, E. W.; Houde, E. D.

    2004-07-01

    Mechanisms and processes that influence small-scale depth distribution and dispersal of bay anchovy ( Anchoa mitchilli) early-life stages are linked to physical and biological conditions and to larval developmental stage. A combination of fixed-station sampling, an axial abundance survey, and environmental monitoring data was used to determine how wind, currents, time of day, physics, developmental stage, and prey and predator abundances interacted to affect the distribution and potential transport of eggs and larvae. Wind-forced circulation patterns altered the depth-specific physical conditions at a fixed station and significantly influenced organism distributions and potential transport. The pycnocline was an important physical feature that structured the depth distribution of the planktonic community: most bay anchovy early-life stages (77%), ctenophores (72%), copepod nauplii (>76%), and Acartia tonsa copepodites (69%) occurred above it. In contrast, 90% of sciaenid eggs, tentatively weakfish ( Cynoscion regalis), were found below the pycnocline in waters where dissolved oxygen concentrations were <2.0 mg l -1. The day-night cycle also influenced organism abundances and distributions. Observed diel periodicity in concentrations of bay anchovy and sciaenid eggs, and of bay anchovy larvae >6 mm, probably were consequences of nighttime spawning (eggs) and net evasion during the day (larvae). Diel periodicity in bay anchovy swimbladder inflation also was observed, indicating that larvae apparently migrate to surface waters at dusk to fill their swimbladders. Overall results suggest that wind-forced circulation patterns, below-pycnocline dissolved oxygen conditions, and diel changes in vertical distribution of larvae and their copepod prey have important implications for potential transport of bay anchovy early-life stages.

  6. The Kinematics of Swimming and Relocation Jumps in Copepod Nauplii

    PubMed Central

    Andersen Borg, Christian Marc; Bruno, Eleonora; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Copepod nauplii move in a world dominated by viscosity. Their swimming-by-jumping propulsion mode, with alternating power and recovery strokes of three pairs of cephalic appendages, is fundamentally different from the way other microplankters move. Protozoans move using cilia or flagella, and copepodites are equipped with highly specialized swimming legs. In some species the nauplius may also propel itself more slowly through the water by beating and rotating the appendages in a different, more complex pattern. We use high-speed video to describe jumping and swimming in nauplii of three species of pelagic copepods: Temora longicornis, Oithona davisae and Acartia tonsa. The kinematics of jumping is similar between the three species. Jumps result in a very erratic translation with no phase of passive coasting and the nauplii move backwards during recovery strokes. This is due to poorly synchronized recovery strokes and a low beat frequency relative to the coasting time scale. For the same reason, the propulsion efficiency of the nauplii is low. Given the universality of the nauplius body plan, it is surprising that they seem to be inefficient when jumping, which is different from the very efficient larger copepodites. A slow-swimming mode is only displayed by T. longicornis. In this mode, beating of the appendages results in the creation of a strong feeding current that is about 10 times faster than the average translation speed of the nauplius. The nauplius is thus essentially hovering when feeding, which results in a higher feeding efficiency than that of a nauplius cruising through the water. PMID:23115647

  7. Intermittency in processing explains the diversity and shape of functional grazing responses.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Kai W

    2012-08-01

    Central to theoretical studies of trophic interactions is the formulation of the consumer response to varying food availability. Response functions, however, are only rarely derived in mechanistic ways. As a consequence, the uncertainty in the functional representation of feeding remains large, as, e.g., evident from the ongoing debate on the usage of Ivlev, or Holling type I, II, and III functions in aquatic ecosystem models. Here, I refer to the work of Sjöberg in Ecol Model 10:215-225 (1980) who proposed to apply elements of the queuing theory developed in operational research to plankton-plankton interactions. Within this frame, food item processing is subdivided into two major stages which may operate with variable synchronicity. Asynchronous phasing of the two stages enhances the probability of long total processing times. This phenomenon is here termed feeding intermittency. Intermittency is assumed to determine the functional form of grazing kinetics, for which a novel grazing function containing a "shape" parameter is derived. Using this function, I evaluate the hypotheses that intermittency is influenced by (1) patchiness in the prey field (e.g., related to turbulence), and (2) the ratio of actual prey size to optimal prey size. Evidence for the first hypothesis arises from explaining reported variations in clearance rates of Acartia tonsa under different turbulence regimes. Further model applications to ingestion data for rotifers, copepods, and ciliates support the view that an increasing food size enhances intermittency and, this way, affects functional grazing responses. In the application to ciliate grazing, a possible prey density effect appears, possibly due to an intermittent activation of a feeding sub-stage. Queueing theory offers mechanistic explanations for transitions between Holling I-, II-, and Ivlev-type grazing. In doing so for variable prey size ratios, it may also refine size-based ecosystem models which are increasingly emerging in

  8. Multiple vs. single phytoplankton species alter stoichiometry of trophic interaction with zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Plum, Christoph; Hüsener, Matthias; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2015-11-01

    Despite the progress made in explaining trophic interactions through the stoichiometric interplay between consumers and resources, it remains unclear how the number of species in a trophic group influences the effects of elemental imbalances in food webs. Therefore, we conducted a laboratory experiment to test the hypothesis that multispecies producer assemblages alter the nutrient dynamics in a pelagic community. Four algal species were reared in mono- and polycultures under a 2 x 2 factorial combination of light and nutrient supply, thereby contrasting the stoichiometry of trophic interactions involving single vs. multiple producer species. After 9 d, these cultures were fed to the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa, and we monitored biomass, resource use, and C:N:P stoichiometry in both phyto- and zooplankton. According to our expectations, light and N supply resulted in gradients of phytoplankton biomass and nutrient composition (C:N:P). Significant net diversity effects for algal biomass and C:N:P ratios reflected the greater responsiveness of the phytoplankton polyculture to altered resource supply compared to monocultures. These alterations of elemental ratios were common, and were partly triggered by changes in species frequency in the mixtures and partly by diversity-related changes in resource use. Copepod individual biomass increased under high light (HL) and N-reduced (-N) conditions, when food was high in C:N but low in C:P and N:P, whereas copepod growth was obviously P limited, and copepod stoichiometry was not affected by phytoplankton elemental composition. Correspondingly, copepod individual biomass reflected significant net diversity effects: compared to expectations- derived from monocultures, copepod individuals feeding on algal polycultures remained smaller than predicted under HL and N-sufficient (+N) conditions but grew larger than predicted under HL, -N and low light +N conditions. In conclusion, multiple producer species altered the

  9. How much crude oil can zooplankton ingest? Estimating the quantity of dispersed crude oil defecated by planktonic copepods.

    PubMed

    Almeda, Rodrigo; Connelly, Tara L; Buskey, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated and quantified defecation rates of crude oil by 3 species of marine planktonic copepods (Temora turbinata, Acartia tonsa, and Parvocalanus crassirostris) and a natural copepod assemblage after exposure to mechanically or chemically dispersed crude oil. Between 88 and 100% of the analyzed fecal pellets from three species of copepods and a natural copepod assemblage exposed for 48 h to physically or chemically dispersed light crude oil contained crude oil droplets. Crude oil droplets inside fecal pellets were smaller (median diameter: 2.4-3.5 μm) than droplets in the physically and chemically dispersed oil emulsions (median diameter: 6.6 and 8.0 μm, respectively). This suggests that copepods can reject large crude oil droplets or that crude oil droplets are broken into smaller oil droplets before or during ingestion. Depending on the species and experimental treatments, crude oil defecation rates ranged from 5.3 to 245 ng-oil copepod(-1) d(-1), which represent a mean weight-specific defecation rate of 0.026 μg-oil μg-Ccopepod(1) d(-1). Considering a dispersed crude oil concentration commonly found in the water column after oil spills (1 μl L(-1)) and copepod abundances in high productive coastal areas, copepods may defecate ∼ 1.3-2.6 mg-oil m(-3) d(-1), which would represent ∼ 0.15%-0.30% of the total dispersed oil per day. Our results indicate that ingestion and subsequent defecation of crude oil by planktonic copepods has a small influence on the overall mass of oil spills in the short term, but may be quantitatively important in the flux of oil from surface water to sediments and in the transfer of low-solubility, toxic petroleum hydrocarbons into food webs after crude oil spills in the sea.

  10. Differential effects of nutrient-limited primary production on primary, secondary or tertiary consumers.

    PubMed

    Malzahn, Arne M; Hantzsche, Florian; Schoo, Katherina L; Boersma, Maarten; Aberle, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional imbalances between predator and prey are the rule rather than the exception at the lower end of food webs. We investigated the role of different grazers in the propagation of nutritionally imbalanced primary production by using the same primary producers in a three-trophic-level food chain and a four-trophic-level food chain experimental setup. The three-trophic-level food chain consisted of a classic single-cell primary producer (Rhodomonas salina), a metazoan grazer (the copepod Acartia tonsa) and a top predator (the jellyfish Gonionemus vertens), while we added a protozoan grazer (Oxyrrhis marina) as primary consumer to the food chain to establish the four-trophic-level food chain. This setup allowed us to investigate how nutrient-limitation effects change from one trophic level to another, and to investigate the performance of two components of our experimental food chains in different trophic positions. Stoichiometry and fatty acid profiles of the algae showed significant differences between the nutrient-depleted [no N and no P addition (-P), respectively] and the nutrient-replete (f/2) treatments. The differences in stoichiometry could be traced when O. marina was the first consumer. Copepods feeding on these flagellates were not affected by the nutritional imbalance of their prey in their stoichiometry, their respiration rates nor in their developmental rates. In contrast, when copepods were the primary consumer, those reared on the -P algae showed significantly higher respiration rates along with significantly lower developmental rates. In neither of our two experimental food chains did the signals from the base of the food chains travel up to jelly fish, our top predator.

  11. Quantum Optoelectronics. Summaries of the Papers Presented at the Topical Meeting at Dana Point, California on 15-17 March 1995. Technical Digest Series, Volume 14.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-03-17

    Dimensional Semiconductors QThE Poster, Novel Semiconductor Materials and Structures, and Micro and Vertical Cavity Physics and Applications....Photonic Bandgaps Microcavity Physics and Applications, New Materials for Quantum Optoelectronics, Quantum Dots, Physics and Applications of Low

  12. The complete mitochondrial genome of the bass yabby Trypaea australiensis Dana 1852, (Crustacea; Decapoda; Callianassidae) - a new gene order for the Decapoda.

    PubMed

    Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Bass yabby Trypaea australiensis was obtained from a partial genome scan using the MiSeq sequencing system. The T. australiensis mitogenome is 16,821 bp in length (70.25% A + T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a putative 1977 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This Trypaea mitogenome sequence is the 5th for the family Callianassidae and represents a new gene order for the Decapoda involving protein-coding, rRNA and tRNA genes and the control region.

  13. Department of Education: Efforts by the Office for Civil Rights To Resolve Asian-American Complaints. Report to the Honorable Dana Rohrabacher, House of Representatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horinko, Larry; And Others

    With the Department of Education's staff remaining stable during a period of increased civil rights complaints, this study examined the Department's Office of Civil Rights (OCR) investigations of discrimination cases involving Asian-Americans. In particular the evaluation looked at 13 specific cases, timeliness and outcomes for fiscal years…

  14. Tolerance to Elevated Temperature and Ocean Acidification of the Larvae of the Solitary Corals Fungia fungites (Linnaues, 1758) and Lithophyllon repanda (Dana, 1846).

    PubMed

    Baria, Maria Vanessa B; Kurihara, Haruko; Harii, Saki

    2015-10-01

    Increase in atmospheric CO₂is the main driver of global climate change and is projected to elevate sea surface temperature by at least 2°C and to decrease oceanic pH by 0.3 to 0.4 units by the end of the century. These factors seriously threaten coral reef ecosystems worldwide. In Okinawa, solitary corals are an important feature of the coral community structure. While previous studies on the effects of ocean warming (OW), ocean acidification (OA) and its combination on larval survival focused on colonial coral species, the present study assessed the effect of high temperature on larvae from solitary corals. In this study, we examined the influence of OW (control = 28°C; control +3 = 31°C; control + 6 = 34°C) and OA (control, pCO₂= 400 to 500 μatm; medium, pCO₂= 1000 to 1300 μatm; high, pCO₂= 1700 to 2200 μatm) on the larval survival of two solitary corals, Fungia fungites and Lithophyllon repanda for eight days. Results showed that F. fungites was neither affected by OW, OA, nor its combination. Similarly, survival of L. repanda was not affected by OA however it was significantly affected by temperature. Temperature tolerance varies between species; L. repanda (+3°C above ambient) has lower tolerance than F. fungites (+6°C above ambient). This observation suggests that fungiid larvae had higher tolerance to elevated temperature stress relative to other scleractinian corals. With the projected increase in OW and OA in the future, fungiidsmay retain good potential to widely disperse and successfully recruit to natal and other neighbouring reefs.

  15. ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES (OCS) AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN SEDIMENTS AND CRABS (Chasmagnathus granulata, DANA, 1851) FROM MANGROVES OF GUANABARA BAY, RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Alexandre Santos; Torres, João Paulo Machado; Meire, Rodrigo Ornellas; Neves, Rafael Curcio; Couri, Márcia Souto; Serejo, Cristiana Silveira

    2008-01-01

    Organochlorinated compounds, seven indicator PCB congeners, DDT and its main metabolites, were determined in sediment and crab (Chasmagnathus granulata) samples collected from mangrove areas near Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Samples were analysed according to the FAO/SIDA protocols using continuous non-polar solvent extraction and a conventional GC-ECD apparatus. The highest levels of total PCB congeners and total DDT metabolites in sediments (184.16 and 37.40 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) and crab eggs (570.62 and 98.22 ng.g−1d.w. respectively) were found at impacted mangroves. The higher PCB congeners than DDT metabolites levels suggesting a stronger industrial impact in this area. The results indicate that the population density of crab is negatively affected by sediment contamination that is reflected basically by the organochlorine content in the female eggs. The organochlorine concentration in eggs is more significant to evaluate or estimate an impact of these pollutants upon C. granulata population than the organochlorine concentration in sediment samples. PMID:18485446

  16. Systematic status of the caridean families Gnathophyllidae Dana and Hymenoceridae Ortmann (Crustacea: Decapoda): a further examination based on molecular and morphological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Zhibin; Li, Xinzheng; Kou, Qi; Chan, Tinyam; Chu, Kahou; Huang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The four palaemonoid (sub)families Anchistioididae, Gnathophyllidae, Hymenoceridae, and Pontoniinae are similar in morphology, and all live in marine habitats. Their systematic relationships are controversial. In this study, we used sequences from a mitochondrial ribosomal gene (16S rRNA) and three nuclear genes (H3, NaK, and enolase) to explore the phylogenetic relationships of these four taxa. Our tree based on 43 species belonging to 28 genera shows that Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae are nested within Pontoniinae. This result is consistent with evidence from larval morphology. The defining characteristics of Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae, a vestigial or missing mandibular incisor process and a broadened third maxilliped, can also be found in Pontoniinae; conversely, on the basis of published species descriptions, gnathophyllids and hymenocerids meet most of the defining characteristics of Pontoniinae. The peculiar form of the third maxilliped in gnathophyllids and hymenocerids might be the result of adaptive evolution, as these particular features are also present in pontoniines. According to our phylogenetic tree, Anchistioididae are more remote from Pontoniinae, which is consistent with the distinct morphological differences in the pleopods. The pontoniine genera analyzed (together with Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae) are divided into two clades. The members of Clade I exhibit primordial characteristics similar to those of the Palaemoninae, and might be direct descendants of the ancestor of the Pontoniinae; members of Clade II are more specialized.

  17. A three-dimensional biophysical model of Karenia brevis dynamics on the west Florida shelf: A look at physical transport and potential zooplankton grazing controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milroy, Scott P.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; He, Ruoying; Kirkpatrick, Gary J.; Lester, Kristen M.; Steidinger, Karen A.; Vargo, Gabriel A.; Walsh, John J.; Weisberg, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The development of accurate predictive models of toxic dinoflagellate blooms is of great ecological importance, particularly in regions that are most susceptible to their detrimental effects. This is especially true along the west Florida shelf (WFS) and coast, where episodic bloom events of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis often wreak havoc on the valuable commercial fisheries and tourism industries of west Florida. In an effort to explain the dynamics at work within the maintenance and termination phases of a red tide, a simple three-dimensional coupled biophysical model was used in the analysis of the October 1999 red tide offshore Sarasota, Florida. Results of the numerical experiments indicate that: (1) measured and modeled flowfields were capable of transporting the observed offshore inoculum of K. brevis to within 16 km of the coastal boundary; (2) background concentrations (1000 cells L -1) of K. brevis could grow to a red tide of over 2×10 6 cells L -1 in little more than a month, assuming an estuarine initiation site with negligible offshore advection, no grazing losses, negligible competition from other phytoplankton groups, and no nutrient limitation; (3) maximal grazing pressure could not prevent the initiation of a red tide or cause its termination, assuming no other losses to algal biomass and a zooplankton community ingestion rate similar to that of Acartia tonsa; and (4) the light-cued ascent behavior of K. brevis served as an aggregational mechanism, concentrating K. brevis at the 55 μE m -2 s -1 isolume when mean concentrations of K. brevis exceeded 100,000 cells L -1. Further improvements in model fidelity will be accomplished by the future inclusion of phytoplankton competitors, disparate nutrient availability and limitation schemes, a more realistic rendering of the spectral light field and the attendant effects of photo-inhibition and compensation, and a mixed community of vertically-migrating proto- and metazoan grazers. These model

  18. Assimilation and retention of selenium and other trace elements from crustacean food by juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baines, Stephen B.; Fisher, Nicholas S.; Stewart, Robin

    2002-01-01

     Estimates of the assimilation and retention of trace elements from food by fish are useful for linking toxicity with the biogeochemical cycling of these elements through aquatic food webs. Here we use pulse-chase radiotracer techniques to estimate the assimilation and retention of Se and four trace metals, Ag, Am, Zn, and Cd, by 43- and 88-d-old juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, from crustacean food. Brine shrimp nauplii, Artemia franciscana, or adult copepods,Acartia tonsa, were fed radiolabeled diatoms and then fed to juvenile striped bass. Assimilation efficiencies (AEs ± SD) for 43-d-old fish were 18 ± 2%, 6 ± 1%, 23 ± 4%, 33 ± 3%, and 23 ± 2% for Ag, Am, Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively. For 88-d-old fish, the AEs were 28 ± 1%, 42 ± 5%, and 40 ± 5% for Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively. The higher AEs in the older fish may result from longer gut passage times for larger fish. The 44-d-old fish excreted 5 ± 0.8%, 4 ± 2.0%, 7 ± 0.3%, 9 ± 0.4%, and 1.3 ± 0.9% of the Ag, Am, Cd, Se, and Zn, respectively, they ingested from food per day, whereas the 88-d-old fish excreted 3 ± 1.0%, 8 ± 0.5%, and 3 ± 0.5% of the assimilated Cd, Se, and Zn per day, respectively. Predictions of steady state Se concentrations in juvenile striped bass tissues made using a biokinetic model and the measured AE and efflux rates ranged from 1.8 to 3.0 mg Se g-1dry wt for muscle tissue and 6.8 to 11.6 mg Se g-1 dry wt for gut tissue. These predictions agreed well with average values of 2.1 and 13 mg Se g-1 dry wt measured independently in North San Francisco Bay, where elevated Se concentrations are of concern. The model results imply that the planktonic food web, including juvenile striped bass, does not transfer Se as efficiently to top consumers as does the benthic food web.

  19. Community Structure and Standing Stock of Epibenthic Zooplankton at Five Sites in Grays Harbor, Washington

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    particularly Eurytemora americana and Acartia clausi . Density and standing crop were somewhat higher at the DODJM 1473 EJITION OF I NOV 65 IS...Eurytemora americana and Acartia clausi . Density and standing crop were somewhat higher at the 0.0-m tidal elevations than at +2.1-r, except at the Marsh...Eurytemora americansa and such. coastal marine forms as Acartia clausi . However, the harpacticoid Leimia vaga, which was dominant in the 0.0-n collection at

  20. Weymouth Fore River, Weymouth, Braintree, Massachusetts, Small Navigation Project. Detailed Project Report and Environmental Assessment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    10%: the solid phase bioassay for Neomysis americana (Table 3-2) and the suspended particulate phase bioassays for Acartia clausi (Tables B-16, B-17, B...100. 2. Nereis virens, mortality 5 of 100. Control group, Suspended particulate phase: All 3 sites Acartia clausi , mortality 4-5 of 30. Further...Survival of copepods ( Acartia clausi ), mysid shrimp (Neomysis americana), and Atlantic silversides (Menidia menidia) exposed for 96 hr to 100% liquid

  1. 75 FR 45095 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Terephthalate (PET) Film from Dana Mermelstein South Korea (A-580-807) (3rd Review). (202) 482-1391. Stainless.... Stainless Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings Dana Mermelstein from South Korea (A-580-813) (3rd Review)....

  2. 75 FR 53664 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

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  4. Checklist of copepods from Gulf of Nicoya, Coronado Bay and Golfo Dulce, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with comments on their distribution.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, A

    1996-12-01

    also observed, but the separation of the species was not so evident. Outer stations were represented by oceanic species like Paracalanus aculeatus, Pleuromamma gracilis, Lucicutia ovalis, Candacia catula, Euchaeta wolfendeni and Oncaea mediterranea, while the inner station, located at the upper part of the Gulf, was more characterized by a mixed copepod group, with both neritic species like Pseudodiaptomus wrigthi, Acartia danae, A. clausi, Canthocalanus pauper as well as oceanic species like Scolicithricella marginata, Saphirina nicromaculata or Oncaea conifera. Two species of Coryceaus, C. flaccus and C. speciosus, were identified in the outer stations of Golfo Dulce, while C. brehmi was found in inner stations of Gulf of Nicoya. The majority of copepods found are typical of the east Pacific. This paper constitutes an additional work about the copepods in the Gulf of Nicoya and the first report of copepod species for Coronado Bay and Golfo Dulce.

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  8. 75 FR 30777 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

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  9. 77 FR 103 - JD Products, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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    ... Suites by Hilton Hotel Doheny Beach--Dana Point, 34402 Pacific Coast Highway, Dana Point, California... p.m. Location: DoubleTree Suites by Hilton Hotel Doheny Beach--Dana Point, 34402 Pacific Coast... pre-filing activity that incorporates the time frames provided for in Part 5 of the...

  10. Reply to "Comment on: Structure, transport, and vertical coherence of the Gulf Stream from the Straits of Florida to the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge, by Meinen and Luther" by Dana K. Savidge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinen, Christopher S.; Luther, Douglas S.

    2016-06-01

    Savidge (2016) raises a concern about how the spatial averaging embodied in our Gulf Stream analysis of vertical coherence (Meinen and Luther, 2016) might contribute to the low coherence found. This response addresses the concerns raised in the Savidge (2016) short comment.

  11. Reply to "Comment on: Structure, transport, and vertical coherence of the Gulf Stream from the Straits of Florida to the Southeast Newfoundland Ridge, by Meinen and Luther" by Dana K. Savidge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinen, Christopher S.; Luther, Douglas S.

    2016-05-01

    Savidge (2016) raises a concern about how the spatial averaging embodied in our Gulf Stream analysis of vertical coherence (Meinen and Luther, 2016) might contribute to the low coherence found. This response addresses the concerns raised in the Savidge (2016) short comment.

  12. Reply to "Comment on 'Cosmic-ray-driven reaction and greenhouse effect of halogenated molecules: Culprits for atmospheric ozone depletion and global climate change' by Dana Nuccitelli et al."

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Q.-B.

    2014-04-01

    In the Comment by Nuccitelli et al., they make many false and invalid criticisms of the CFC-warming theory in my recent paper, and claim that their anthropogenic forcings including CO2 would provide a better explanation of the observed global mean surface temperature (GMST) data over the past 50 years. First, their arguments for no significant discrepancy between modeled and observed GMST changes and for no pause in recent global warming contradict the widely accepted fact and conclusion that were reported in the recent literature extensively. Second, their criticism that the key data used in my recent paper would be "outdated" and "flawed" is untrue as these data are still used in the recent or current literature including the newest (2013) IPCC Report and there is no considerable difference between the UK Met Office HadRCUT3 and HadRCUT4 GMST datasets. The use of even more recently computer-reconstructed total solar irradiance data (whatever have large uncertainties) for the period prior to 1976 would not change any of the conclusions in my paper, where quantitative analyses were emphasized on the influences of humans and the Sun on global surface temperature after 1970 when direct measurements became available. For the latter, the solar effect has been well shown to play only a negligible role in global surface temperature change since 1970, which is identical to the conclusion made in the 2013 IPCC Report. Third, their argument that the solar effect would not play a major role in the GMST rise of 0.2°C during 1850-1970 even contradicts the data and conclusion presented in a recent paper published in their Skeptical Science by Nuccitelli himself. Fourth, their comments also indicate their lack of understandings of the basic radiation physics of the Earth system as well as of the efficacies of different greenhouse gases in affecting global surface temperature. Their listed "methodological errors" are either trivial or non-existing. Fifth, their assertion that "the climate system takes centuries to millennia to fully equilibrate" is lack of scientific basis. Finally, their model calculations including an additional fitting parameter do not reduce the discrepancy with observed GMST data even after their adjustments. Instead, their modeled results give a sharp GMST rise over the past 16 years, which obviously disagrees with the observed data.

  13. Regenerated Fe is tasty!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuester, J.; Twining, B. S.

    2012-12-01

    phytoplankton. In an experiment using the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana as prey and regrowth organism and the copepod Acartia tonsa as grazer, ~45% of regenerated Fe was taken up in the regrowth phase within 30 minutes. After 24 hours almost all regenerated Fe was taken up by T. pseudonana. In contrast, only ~10% and ~60% of inorganic Fe was associated with T. pseudonana cells after 0.5 and 24 hours, respectively. Furthermore, inorganic Fe adsorbed strongly to the frustule of T. pseudonana. At 0.5 hours almost 60% of cell-associated Fe was adsorbed in the inorganic uptake experiment. In contrast, experiments with regenerated Fe showed that all cell associated Fe was taken up after 30 min. These results indicate that copepod grazing produces readily bioavailable Fe.Results from additional experiments probing the effects of grazer taxonomy and chemical composition of prey on the bioavailability of regenerated Fe will be presented as well.

  14. An Overview of Ecological Processes in the Rio de la Plata Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acha, M.; Mianzan, H.

    2005-05-01

    The Rio de la Plata, one of the most important estuarine environments in South America, is characterized by a salt-wedge regime. Large extension and shallow water depth make the estuary highly susceptible to atmospheric forcing. The estuary is a highly productive area, which sustain important artisanal and coastal fisheries in Uruguay and Argentina, mainly based on the whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri. The main goal of this paper is to summarize recent knowledge on this system, integrating physical, chemical and biological studies. This estuary is characterized by strong vertical salinity stratification, with marine waters (saltier and denser) penetrating deeper into the estuary along the bottom, while fresh waters advance ocean-ward on the surface, forming a salt wedge. The upstream reach of the salt wedge defines a bottom salinity fronts, whose location is controlled by the topography, a submerged shoal called Barra del Indio and at the opposite area, the convergence between the estuarine and marine waters define a surface salinity front. The convergence of water masses and the strong picnoclines at the head of the salt wedge produce the accumulation and retention of plankton, including the eggs of those fishes that concentrate here to spawn (e.g. Micropogonias furnieri and Brevoortia aurea) and even debris. High turbidity constrains here photosynthetic production and food chains are probably detritus based, supporting high densities of Acartia tonsa (Copepoda) and Neomysis americana (Mysid), both omnivorous species that complete its entire life-cycle within the estuary. In agreement, heterotophic microzooplankton is abundant. Moreover, high deposition of suspended matter support dense beds of the deposit feeding clams Mactra isabelleana. As soon as the water become less turbid, an extremely high chlorophyll signal is observed. The largest portion of the salt wedge regime (more than 200 km) is characterized by dense plankton aggregations below the

  15. Feasibility of growing hardwood species on a borrow pit amended with either fertilizer and lime or sewage sludge. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Previous research on other sites showed that 15 tons/A of dried sewage sludge followed by subsoiling is sufficient to promote rapid growth of pines and sweetgum on borrow pits. During the past year, data have been obtained from this experiment showing that 30 tons/A of sewage sludge, well incorporated and followed by subsoiling, will promote very rapid first-year growth of green ash, yellow poplar, sycamore, and sawtooth oak. Loblolly pine and sweetgum also grew well as in previous studies. In most cases, seedlings of these species grew significantly faster with sewage sludge than with 1000 lbs./Aof 10-10-10 fertilizer and 2 tons/A of lime. Yellow poplar and sycamore grew the faster of all species, attaining heights during the first growing season of 134 and 209 cms, respectively. Sweetgum, green ash, and sawtooth oak all attained heights over 100 cms.

  16. How Do We Know What Information Sharing Is Really Worth? Exploring Methodologies to Measure the Value of Information Sharing and Fusion Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    default/files/2010_ITACG_Report_ Final_30Nov10.pdf Rhodes, William, Meg Chapman, Michael Shively, Christina Dyous, Dana Hunt, and Kristin Wheeler...Christina Dyous, Meg Chapman, Michael Shively, Dana Hunt, and Kristin Wheeler, Evaluation of the Multijurisdictional Task Forces (MJTFs), Phase II, MJTF

  17. 76 FR 31587 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Sunset Reviews. Department contact Antidumping Duty Proceedings Light-Walled Rectangular Welded Carbon... Steel Wire Rod from India (A-533-808) Dana Mermelstein, (202) 482-1391. (3rd Review). Welded Carbon...-583-815) ( 3rd Review). Welded Carbon Steel Pipe & Tube from Thailand Dana Mermelstein, (202)...

  18. Exploring Urban Literacy & Developmental Education. CRDEUL Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Dana Britt, Ed.; Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.

    This collection of papers includes: "Introduction: Why Should We Discuss 'Urban Literacy' in Developmental Education?" (Dana Britt Lundell and Jeanne L. Higbee); "History of the Center for Research on Developmental Education and Urban Literacy: 1996-2002" (Dana Britt Lundell); "The Traveling City: The Hudson's Store, Urban…

  19. Prospective evaluation of 2 acute graft-versus-host (GVHD) grading systems: a joint Société Française de Greffe de Moëlle et Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC), Dana Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI), and International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR) prospective study.

    PubMed

    Cahn, Jean-Yves; Klein, John P; Lee, Stephanie J; Milpied, Noël; Blaise, Didier; Antin, Joseph H; Leblond, Véronique; Ifrah, Norbert; Jouet, Jean-Pierre; Loberiza, Fausto; Ringden, Olle; Barrett, A John; Horowitz, Mary M; Socié, Gérard

    2005-08-15

    The most commonly used grading system for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was introduced 30 years ago by Glucksberg; a revised system was developed by the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR) in 1997. To prospectively compare the 2 classifications and to evaluate the effect of duration and severity of aGVHD on survival, we conducted a multicenter study of 607 patients receiving T-cell-replete allografts, scored weekly for aGVHD in 18 transplantation centers. Sixty-nine percent of donors were HLA-identical siblings and 28% were unrelated donors. The conditioning regimen included total body irradiation in 442 (73%) patients. The 2 classifications performed similarly in explaining variability in survival by aGVHD grade, although the Glucksberg classification predicted early survival better. There was less physician bias or error in assigning grades with the IBMTR scoring system. With either system, only the maximum observed grade had prognostic significance for survival; neither time of onset nor progression from an initially lower grade of aGVHD was associated with survival once maximum grade was considered. Regardless of scoring system, aGVHD severity accounted for only a small percentage of observed variation in survival. Validity of these results in populations receiving peripheral blood transplants or nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens remains to be tested.

  20. School Improvement Change Grant Community Survey, Final Report. A Report to Toluca Community Unit School District #2, El Paso Community Unit School District #375, Lowpoint-Washburn Community Unit School District #21, Minonk-Dana-Rutland Community Unit School District #108, and Roanoke-Benson Community Unit School District #60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Patricia A.; And Others

    This report presents the results of a collaborative study undertaken by five rural, unit school districts in Illinois to provide data to be used in planning for school improvement. Information was gathered from on-site visits by teams of constituents from other districts and through a survey of perceptions of local community persons regarding…

  1. Oxidative Stress Increases the Blood Brain Barrier Permeability Resulting in Increased Incidence of Brain Metastasis in BRCA Mutation Carriers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    grant 3/5/2013https://secure.bidmc.harvard.edu/ owa /,DanaInfo=email.caregroup.org,SSL+?ae=Item&t=IP... -g 250 Q. Q) "tii 200 -~ ~ C/) !::’ 150...mice, as indicated. Page 3 of 9Progress report for BC102246 DOD grant 3/5/2013https://secure.bidmc.harvard.edu/ owa /,DanaInfo=email.caregroup.org,SSL+?ae...secure.bidmc.harvard.edu/ owa /,DanaInfo=email.caregroup.org,SSL+?ae=Item&t=IP... Figure 2 A ~ E 0 li) ~ 0 -15 :.c c (j) 0 0:: -() w ~ (l) I B ~ :i 0

  2. Monitoring Bloom Dynamics of a Common Coastal Bioluminescent Ctenophore

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    Graham, W.M., F. Pages, and W.M. Hamner. (2001). A physical context for gelatinous zooplankton aggregations: a review. Hydrobiologia, 451: 199-212... zooplankton per cubic meter and shows a preponderance of the copepod, Acartia, throughout the year, with the greatest abundance between January and

  3. Zooplankton Responses to Thin Layers: Integrating Behavior and Physiology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-30

    the food source . Perception over longer distances did not seem to occur. Our results suggested that Acartia could take advantage of thin-layers...variable food source : a simple foraging-strategy model. 6 Lougee, L. 2000. The effect of haloclines on the vertical distribution and migration of

  4. Workplace/Women's Place: An Anthology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Dana

    The following papers are included: "Foreword" (Paula England); "Introduction to the Study of Women and Work" (Dana Dunn); "Gender Culture and Socialization" (Rita Mae Kelly); "Parental Influence and Women's Careers" (Sue Joan Mendelson Freeman); "Shortchanging Girls: Gender Socialization in…

  5. The talitrid amphipods of Tonga (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae).

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Bopiah, Arundathi

    2013-01-01

    One new genus and four species of talitrid amphipods are described from Tonga: Platorchestia ano sp. nov.; Talorchestia spinipalma (Dana, 1852); Tongorchestia pangaimotu gen. nov., sp. nov.; T. towneri sp. nov.

  6. 21. General view from the southwest, c.1862 Photocopied from an ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. General view from the southwest, c.1862 Photocopied from an advertisement, 'Whitney's Improved Fire-Arms,' Dana Scrapbook v. 61, p. 68, NHCHSL. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  7. 75 FR 5037 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Department contact Magnesium Metal from the People's Republic Jennifer Moats; (202) 482- of China (A-570-896). 5047. Magnesium Metal from Russia (A-821-819)... Dana Mermelstein; (202) 482- 1391. Countervailing...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1832 - Stack height regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... letter to Douglas M. Skie, EPA, dated May 11, 1988, Dana K. Mount, Director, Division of Environmental Engineering stated: * * * We are submitting this letter to allow EPA to continue to process our current...

  9. 76 FR 38613 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... & Tube (3rd Review). A-580-810 731-TA-540 South Korea Welded ASTM A-312 Dana Mermelstein, (202) 482-1391... 731-TA-533 South Korea Circular Welded Non- David Goldberger, (202) 482-4136. Alloy Steel Pipe...

  10. 75 FR 67081 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    .... Department contact Antidumping duty proceedings \\1\\ Solid Urea from Russia (A-821-801) (3rd Review)....... Dana Mermelstein; (202) 482-1391. Solid Urea from Ukraine (A-823-801) (3rd Review).........

  11. 75 FR 53637 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Mermelstein, (202) 482-1391. 570-836) (3rd Review). Porcelain-On-Steel Cooking Ware from Taiwan (A- Dana...-814) (3rd Review). Porcelain-On-Steel Cooking Ware from the Jennifer Moats, (202) 482-5047....

  12. Banquet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Dana; Maher, Dennis

    2006-10-01

    Banquet with speaker Dana Dunn and a performance by actor and professor Dennis Maher: ``QED, selections from the play by Peter Parnell based on the writings of Richard Feynman and Tuva or Bust! by Feynman and Leighton.''

  13. Which Genes Drive Cancers? - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Associate Professor of Medicine at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, William Hahn, describes the method his lab has developed to tease apart the crucial driver mutations from passenger mutations in ovarian cancer.

  14. [Reaction of the uterine wall on IUD of abnormal positioning and size].

    PubMed

    Nesit, V

    1973-05-01

    The reliability of an IUD was examined in 9 women 1-7 days prior to hysterectomy or supracervical amputation of the uterus. An extra large Dana, Dana super, or Dana cor was inserted. All the women complained of hypogastric pains; in 2 cases, the IUD was removed after only a few hours. After the surgery, the uterus was prepared for histological verification of the effects of the IUD. Significant deformation of the uterine wall was found, especially in the region of the cervix and corpus uteri. This was particularly marked with the Dana super, which also caused a rotary deformation. There were changes seen in the IUD itself as well. The results show that an excessively large or incorrectly positioned IUD will cause pronounced deformation of the corpus, uterine cavity and of the cervix with subsequent pains, staining, and expulsion.

  15. Libraries in Vermont: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/vermont.html Libraries in Vermont To use the sharing features on ... enable JavaScript. Burlington University of Vermont Dana Medical Library 81 Colchester Avenue Burlington, VT 05405-0068 802- ...

  16. 75 FR 78731 - Proposed Information Collection; OMB Control Number 1018-0115, Application for Training, National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... for Training, National Conservation Training Center AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... information about this IC, contact Dana Dennison, National Conservation Training Center, at (304) 876-7481... Service National Conservation Training Center in Shepherdstown, West Virginia, provides natural...

  17. Extracellular Matrix Biomarkers for Diagnosis, Prognosis, Imaging, and Targeting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    interest for breast cancer . We are also about to immunize two additional animals with matrisome preparations from human breast cancer metastases to lung ...Malignancies – Project 3 Single Cell Measures of Intratumor Diversity for Optimal Breast Cancer Therapy The Dana-Farber Cancer Institute- Physical ...Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139-4301AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 450

  18. Butterflies: Photonic Crystals on the Wing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-22

    Coliadinae), Eronia leda, Colotis danae, and Pieris rapae rapae (all Pierinae), respectively. The left and right column of the photographs are taken...phylogenetic tree: Colias electo belongs to the Coliadinae, Eronia leda and Colotis danae belong to the Colotis group, and Pieris rapae rapae to the Pierini...the droplet is brought into contact with a piece of wing (here of a large white, Pieris brassicae ). 3 Fig. 4. Electron microscopic photographs

  19. Daily Report, Supplement, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Washington [DANAS 4 Jun] ~. 5 DA Party Furthers Regional Interests [DANAS 4 JunJ ......;..;.... 7 POLAND * Church Official Discusses Church...not only raw data, but also analyses and evaluation on a given period, events, the opinion regarding, say, the highest party leadership, about...so-called original SDS [Serbian Democratic Party ], which he interpreted "as a purge of those who began the Serb revolution, and whose posts are

  20. Decision Analysis of the Benefits and Costs of Screening for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Oearnaley D. BrewW’I CR. Watson M. Does adive surveillance for men withlo· c.alized prostate cancer cany psychological morbidity? BJU Int. 2007;100(3...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02115 REPORT DATE: 2014 TYPE OF REPORT...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02115

  1. Variable tolerance to copper in two species from San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luoma, S.N.; Cain, D.J.; Ho, K.; Hutchinson, A.

    1983-01-01

    In static toxicity experiments, tolerance to soluble Cu of the bivalve, Macoma balthica, and the copepod, Acartia clausi, varied substantially among populations sampled within San Francisco Bay. Intraspecific tolerance differed ten-fold or more for both species over relatively small distances, suggesting geographical isolation of populations is not a prerequisite for the development of intraspecific differences in tolerance by aquatic organisms.In static toxicity experiments, tolerance to soluble Cu of the bivalve, Macoma balthica, and the copepod, Acartia clausi, varied substantially among populations sampled within San Francisco Bay. Intraspecific tolerance differed ten-fold or more for both species over relatively small distances, suggesting geographical isolation of populations is not a prerequisite for the development of intraspecific differences in tolerance by aquatic organisms. Refs.

  2. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-25

    Yugoslavism Today." Speakers: Taras Kermauner, Janko Prunk, Zarko Puhovski, Milan Djurcinov, Juraj Martino- vic, Predrag Palavestra and Milorad Vucelic...Gojko Nikolis to article entitled "What Would Tito Do Today" by Nino Pavic , published in DANAS, No 115, 22 May 84: "Final Answer"] [Text] I am outside...the country at the moment, so that I am a bit late in sending my answer to the question put to me by Comrade Nino Pavic in DANAS on 22 May. Pavic’s

  3. Stall/Spin Problems of Military Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    un pilotage humain. [n calmesa quiU ~ ral our la agitation,.e queallaorpichent Idalsoetdo vrilles 3.8 - Le contrilae des vrillaa plates. 3.6.1...attitude longitudinelo, Tous ovions Avions doarmts -dure d’un tour. Dana 1. tableau de Is figure 16 me trouvent clasmiem, par ordre d’importance, la...Llmportance relative eat jugie en tenant extrme armilea27. Dana Is tableau ne mont primentim que la 10 Zo I ’tZJ/Ag.e~wiom My, 014.Ere/,~,1t 11*n

  4. Why We Got Serious about Interdisciplinary Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring, Dana; Kelner, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When Tom Kelner, a 7th grade social studies teacher, realized that under the Common Core standards he'd be responsible for strengthening students' reading, writing, and research skills in his social studies classes, first he panicked. Then he approached Dana Haring, an English language arts teacher on his 7th grade team, and asked if they could…

  5. The Spillover Effects of Military Communities on the Need for Health Care Safety-Net Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    California Health Interview Survey.” http://www.healthpolicy.ucla.edu/shic-county.html UNC Chapel Hill, Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research...D. Kallich, and Dana Goldman . 2000. “Providing Managed Care Options for a Large Population: Evaluating the CHAMPUS Reform Initiative.”. Military

  6. 77 FR 13360 - Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000, as Amended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... current results of OWCP's research into the operational histories of these work sites, some of which.... Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory.. Batavia 1972-Present. Indiana DOE Facilities Dana Heavy Water.... Wisconsin DOE Facilities LaCrosse Boiling Water Reactor......... LaCrosse 1967-1969. Territorial...

  7. Photocopy of photograph (original negative in possession of LSA Associates, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original negative in possession of LSA Associates, Irvine, California) Dana Privett, Photographer, August 1982 WEST (REAR), LOOKING EAST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  8. Photocopy of photograph (original negative in possession of LSA Associates, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (original negative in possession of LSA Associates, Irvine, California) Dana Privett, Photographer, August 1982 EAST (FRONT), LOOKING WEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Boyd Tenant House, Southeast of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  9. Development of a 37K high-density oligo-nucleotide microarray for rainbow trout

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have constructed a rainbow trout high-density oligonucleotide microarray by using all the available tentative consensus (TC) sequences from the Rainbow Trout Gene Index database (The Computational Biology and Functional Genomics Lab., Dana Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard School of Public Heal...

  10. Joint Authorship: Faculty Members from Six Institutions Collaborate to Measure Writing Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleniewski, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Southeastern Massachusetts is home to six public institutions of higher education. In 2003, at the invitation of Bridgewater President Dana Mohler-Faria, five of them joined together to form a regional collaborative called CONNECT. (The original members were Bridgewater State College, Bristol, Cape Cod and Massasoit community colleges, and the…

  11. 77 FR 59986 - General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing Including On-Site Leased Workers from Aerotek, Kelly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Corporation, The Landing of GM, Filtration Services Group, BASF, G4s Secure Coalition, Seibert Powder Coating... Landing of GM, Filtration Services Group, BASF, G4S Secure Services, Seibert Powder Coating, and Advantis..., Shreveport Ramp Services, Dana Holding Corporation, The Landing of GM, Filtration Services Group, BASF,...

  12. 77 FR 40639 - General Motors Vehicle Manufacturing Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation Shreveport...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ..., LLC, Dana Holding Corp., the Landing of GM, Filtration Services Group, LLC, BASF, G4S Secure Coalition...., The Landing of GM, Filtration Services Group, LLC, BASF, G4S Secure Coalition, Seibert Powder Coating...., The Landing of GM, Filtration Services Group, LLC, BASF, G4S Secure Coalition, Seibert Powder...

  13. Quieting the Teacher Wars: What History Reveals about an Embattled Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Dana

    2015-01-01

    This article is excerpted from Marshall Project staff writer and author, Dana Goldstein's 2014 book, "The Teacher Wars: A History of America's Most Embattled Profession." It begins by describing Goldstein's experience traveling as an education reporter in the late 2000s and the incredible amount of political scrutiny under which the…

  14. Work and Family Policies: The New Strategic Plan. Research Report Number 949.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, James L., Ed.; And Others

    These 38 presentations are the highlights of the Conference Board's Work and Family Conference. An "Introduction" (Dana Friedman) is followed by "The Future Is Not What It Was, and Why Companies Care" (William Lee, Reuben Mark), which consists of introductory remarks and responses to an interview. "The Diversity of…

  15. Evolving Workforce Demographics: Federal Agency Action and Reaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-01

    That represents a projected surplus of "George Silvestri and John l[ukasiewicz, "’ Ocupational employment projections," Monthly Labor Review, November...Myths," Supervisory Management, Se4ptember 199, ,and D)ana l’riet, "Fmplohees Upgrade Basic Skills," the Washington Post , July 27, 1992. "U.S

  16. Classroom Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    In this issue's "Classroom Notes" section, the following papers are described: (1) "Sequences of Definite Integrals" by T. Dana-Picard; (2) "Structural Analysis of Pythagorean Monoids" by M.-Q Zhan and J. Tong; (3) "A Random Walk Phenomenon under an Interesting Stopping Rule" by S. Chakraborty; (4) "On Some Confidence Intervals for Estimating the…

  17. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy ORIGINAL FRONT AND SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy ORIGINAL FRONT AND SIDE ELEVATIONS, c. 1849 ARCHITECT, HENRY AUSTIN Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from Beinecke Rare Book Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. - James Dwight Dana House, 24 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  18. Statement of Facts for 1983 City-Wide Mock Trial Competitions. The Case of Vickers v. Hearst. No. MT-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.

    Prepared by the District of Columbia Street Law Project for its annual city-wide mock trial competition, this instructional handout provides material for a civil case over an automobile accident. After drinking heavily at a party hosted by Sandy Hearst, Dana Ivy ran a stop sign and struck the car of Terry Vickers, causing him to sustain a broken…

  19. 78 FR 39256 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ......... China Laminated Woven Sacks Jennifer Moats (1st Review). (202) 482-5047 C-570-917 701-TA-450....... China Laminated Woven Sacks Dana Mermelstein (1st Review). (202) 482-1391 A-570-875 731-TA-990....... China Non-Malleable Cast Jennifer Moats Iron Pipe Fittings (202) 482-5047 (2nd Review). A-570-925...

  20. How Schools Can Help: California Teachers Recall the Wildfires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Dana; Madueno, Marcelina; Atlas, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    This article draws from and builds on the experience of schools in San Diego County following the forest fires that wrought havoc on the area last October. Three teachers (Dana Riggs, Marcelina Madueno and Miriam Atlas) provide a moving account of the personal experiences of their students, who lived through the fires. Their recollections…

  1. Parsimonious Testing of Transitive or Intransitive Preferences: Reply to Birnbaum (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; Guo, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Birnbaum raised important challenges to testing transitivity. We summarize why an approach based on counting response patterns does not solve these challenges. Foremost, we show why parsimonious tests of transitivity require at least 5 choice alternatives. While the approach of Regenwetter, Dana, and Davis-Stober achieves high power with modest…

  2. Situational Awareness in Aerospace Operations (La Perception de la Situation au cours des Operations Aeriennes)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    dane Is pries do conscience do In situation 2.1 Facteurs impliquds dana twriestatlon npatiale LA tiche do pilotage neat pas uno situation naturelle ...domouverimntit fixil pikr un bracelet bur Ie pal gna! droit 04npflotos a dtd utilsia. Ce capteur comptabil ice lea d~placernentm A partir d~une

  3. Annual reports can help recruitment. Three examples target medical staff.

    PubMed

    Botvin, J D

    2000-01-01

    Some annual reports become outstanding as recruiting tools. The winners in this category are: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Mass., first place; New York Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, N.Y., second place; and Holy Name Hospital, Teaneck, N.J., third place.

  4. 76 FR 45775 - Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Advance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... the People's Republic Julia Hancock, (202) 482- of China (A-570-835) (3rd Review). 1394. Fresh Garlic from the People's Republic of Dana Mermelstein, (202) 482- China (A-570-831) (3rd Review). 1391. Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium from David Goldberger, (202) 482- Russia (A-821-807) (3rd Review)....

  5. Benthic and Sedimentologic Studies on the Charleston Harbor Ocean Disposal Area, Charleston Harbor Deepening Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    undet.) 5 Phylum 0hnnol Nemnerten (undet.) I Ph’:lvT.. Entoprocta 0 -35- Table (continued) Species Occurren~ce at Number of Stations Barentsia sp. 1...Sclhizocrizha tenella Telesto sanguinea - EDizoanthus americanus Astran, ia danae ?h-vlum P idtvhel-ainthes Turbell1aria (undet.) Phylum Entoprocta

  6. Framing Your Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    St. Paul's School in New Hampshire, the Orchard School in Indiana, Chestnut Hill Academy in Pennsylvania, and Dana Hall School in Massachusetts are like most independent schools--they have qualities that are distinctive and extraordinary. Line up their mission statements, however, and the schools sound almost interchangeable. They're all on a…

  7. 76 FR 25340 - Fenoxycarb, Sodium Tetrathiocarbonate, and Temephos; Registration Review Proposed Decisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... AGENCY Fenoxycarb, Sodium Tetrathiocarbonate, and Temephos; Registration Review Proposed Decisions... also used to control a variety of insects in greenhouses in a total release fogger product. Sodium..., friedman.dana@epa.gov . Sodium Tetrathiocarbonate, EPA-HQ-OPP-2007-1 Katherine St. Clair, Case No....

  8. feature - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    "Cancer is a disease of the genome," noted Lynda Chin, M.D., professor of dermatology, Harvard Medical School and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. "And understanding the impact of genomic changes in the proteome is critically important for converting genomic knowledge into something that a clinician can use on their patients."

  9. Evaluation of Resins Cured by Ultraviolet Radiation and in Conjunction with Fiber Optic Systems for Use in the Field Repair of Composite Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    indicating that either lack of molecular mobility due to crosslinking or termination reactions dominate the system. This observation precludes the...Dana Granville and Seth Ghiorse of the Composites Development Division of HTL . High intensity UV lamps were loaned by Arthur Kaplan of Natick Research

  10. X-15 pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    X-15 Pilots, Left to Right: Air Force pilot William J. 'Pete' Knight, Air Force Major Robert A. Rushworth, Air Force Captain Joseph H. Engle, NASA pilot Milton O. Thompson, NASA pilot Bill Dana, and NASA pilot John B. 'Jack' McKay.

  11. The Validity of the Air Traffic Selection and Training (AT-SAT) Test Battery in Operational Use

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    The Validity of the Air Traffic Selection and Training (AT-SAT) Test Battery in Operational Use Dana Broach Cristina L. Byrne Carol A. Manning...7. Author(s) 8. Performing Organization Report No. Broach D, Byrne CL, Manning CA, Pierce L, McCauley D, Bleckley MK 9...variables attenuate predictor- criterion relationships ( Barrett , Caldwell, & Alexander, 1989; Barrett , Alexander, & Doverspike, 1992; Beier

  12. Collaborating on Global Priorities: Science Education for Everyone--Any Time and Everywhere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Building on the key ideas from Dana Zeidler's paper I expand the conversation from the standpoint that the challenges facing humanity and the capacity of Earth to support life suggest that changes in human lifestyles are a priority. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to educate all humans about some of the science-related grand challenges, such…

  13. NON-RESIDENTIAL ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS PESTICIDE USE AS A PREDICTOR OF CHILDREN'S URINARY METABOLITE LEVELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    NON-RESIDENTIAL ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDE USE AS A PREDICTOR OF CHILDREN'S URINARY METABOLITE LEVELS.
    Julie A. Baker, Pauline Mendola, Dana Barr, Debra Walsh, John Creason, and Larry Needham. (University at Buffalo, US Environmental Protection Agency, and Centers for Disease ...

  14. Special Librarian to Knowledge Counselor in the Year 2006.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Frank H.

    1988-01-01

    Considers how four historical events have influenced the world for information professionals and the view these events offer of the future: (1) invention of the Gutenberg printing press; (2) invention of the transistor; (3) success of the railroad; and (4) a statement by John Cotton Dana, first president of the Special Libraries Association. (9…

  15. Defining Developmental Education: Theory, Research, & Pedagogy. NADE Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbee, Jeanne L., Ed.; Dwinell, Patricia L., Ed.

    This monograph presents seven papers on the research, and pedagogical aspects of developmental education and implications for a definition of developmental education. After an introductory paper by the editors, the papers are: (1) "The New Science: Connections with Developmental Education" (Dana D. Darby); (2) "Issues Affecting the Definition of…

  16. Universal Breast Cancer Antigens as Targets Linking Early Detection and Therapeutic Vaccination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    General Hospital, Boston, MA 1998-2001 Clinical Fellow in Hematology and Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 2000 Chief Medical...Resident, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA Faculty Appointments: 2000 -2001 Instructor in Medicine, Harvard University 2001-2007...Harvard Medical School 2000 Chief Medical Resident, Massachusetts General Hospital 2001 Landenberger Scholar, University of Pennsylvania Susan

  17. Universal Breast Cancer Antigens as Targets Linking Early Detection and Therapeutic Vaccination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Hospital, Boston, MA 1998-2001 Clinical Fellow in Hematology and Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 2000 Chief Medical Resident...Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA Faculty Appointments: 2000 -2001 Instructor in Medicine, Harvard University 2001-2007 Assistant...Medical School 2000 Chief Medical Resident, Massachusetts General Hospital 2 2001 Landenberger Scholar, University of Pennsylvania 2002-present

  18. Longitude - critical examination of a bestselling book (German Title: Längengrad - Kritische Betrachtung eines Bestsellers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lühning, Felix

    The history of longitude determination at sea in connection with John Harrison's clock constructions was widely disseminated by Dana Sobel's novel. It is shown that this novel, however, is very inaccurate and even flawed in its basic concept and in many details. This contribution traces the true historical courses and yields distinct insights in the history of the longitude problem.

  19. Middle School Concept Helps High-Poverty Schools Become High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picucci, Ali Callicoatte; Brownson, Amanda; Kahlert, Rahel; Sobel, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The results of a study conducted by the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin for the U.S. Department of Education during the 2001-02 school year showed that elements of the middle school concept can lead to improved student performance, even in high-poverty schools. This article describes common elements of the middle school…

  20. "Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Systematic and Meta-Analytic Review of Nonpharmacological Therapies for Cancer Patients:" Correction to Kangas, Bovbjerg, and Montgomery (2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Maria; Bovbjerg, Dana H.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2009-01-01

    Reports an error in "Cancer-related fatigue: A systematic and meta-analytic review of non-pharmacological therapies for cancer patients" by Maria Kangas, Dana H. Bovbjerg and Guy H. Montgomery (Psychological Bulletin, 2008[Sep], Vol 134[5], 700-741). The URL to the Supplemental Materials for the article is listed incorrectly in two places in the…

  1. Reading, Language Arts and Literacy. [SITE 2002 Section].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthew, Kathy, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on reading, language arts, and literacy from the SITE (Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education) 2002 conference: "PT3 Facilitates Technology Use in Preservice Teacher Reading Courses" (Dana Arrowood and Michele Maldonado); "PT3 Technology Enhanced Lesson Plans for the Elementary School"…

  2. Chronicle of Higher Education. Volume 51, Number 10, October 29, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Chronicle of Higher Education" presents an abundant source of news and information for college and university faculty members and administrators. This October 29, 2004 issue of "Chronicle of Higher Education" includes the following articles: (1) "A Job-Hunting Guru Comes up Short" (Zimbleman, Dana A.); (2) "Distinctive Words That are Seldom Heard…

  3. 77 FR 39218 - Initiation of Five-Year (“Sunset”) Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ...).... Dana Mermelstein (202) 482-1391. A-822-804 731-TA-873 Belarus Steel Concrete David Goldberger (202) 482... (202) 482-5047. A-570-860 731-TA-874 China Steel Concrete David Goldberger (202) 482-4136. Reinforcing Bars (2nd Review). A-560-811 731-TA-857 Indonesia Steel Concrete David Goldberger (202)...

  4. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy PRINCIPAL FLOOR PLAN, CHAMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy PRINCIPAL FLOOR PLAN, CHAMBER PLAN, ORIGINAL DRAWINGS, HENRY AUSTIN, ARCHITECT Restricted: Permission for use must be obtained in writing from Beinecke Rare Book Library, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. - James Dwight Dana House, 24 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  5. Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This research review is dedicated to the memory of William Safire (1929-2009). A visionary leader, Safire brought other visionaries, researchers, educators, artists, and policymakers together to explore the confluence of arts education and neuroscience. He fostered the new field of neuroeducation in his work as chair of The Dana Foundation in…

  6. The Current Women Superintendents in Texas: Still in the Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, Pauline; Davenport, Marie

    2010-01-01

    The superintendent is the highest ranking administrator in a school district (Katz, 2005). Despite increasing trends of women advancing in the fields of business and government, the superintendent position in school districts still has relatively few women (Brunner & Grogan, 2007; Dana & Bourisaw, 2006; Glass, 2000; Grogan & Brunner,…

  7. Nurturing Human Potential in the Context of Schooling: The Legacy of Seymour B. Sarason

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Rhona S.

    2012-01-01

    Seymour Bernard Sarason was born to Jewish immigrant parents on January 12, 1919, in Brooklyn, New York. He died on January 28, 2010, in New Haven, Connecticut, at the age of 91. He obtained his undergraduate degree in 1939 from Dana College in Newark (now Rutgers University), and earned his doctorate in clinical psychology in 1942 from Clark…

  8. TRANSGENERATIONAL EFFECTS OF DEHP IN THE MALE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    TITLE: Transgenerational Effects of Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate in the Male Rat. AUTHORS (ALL): Gray, Leon Earl1; Barlow, Norman J2; Furr, Johnathan R1; Brock, John 3; Silva, Manori J3; Barr, Dana B3; Ostby, Joseph S1

    SPONSOR NAME:

    INSTITUTIONS (AL...

  9. Botnets, Cybercrime, and Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-29

    be thrown into chaos.” George Butters , “Expect Terrorist Attacks on Global Financial System,” October 10, 2003 at [http://www.theregister. co.uk...see CRS Report RL31534, Critical Infrastructure: Control Systems and the Terrorist Threat, by Dana A. Shea . Unpredictable Interactions Between

  10. Botnets, Cybercrime, and Cyberterrorism: Vulnerabilities and Policy Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-15

    George Butters , “Expect Terrorist Attacks on Global Financial System,” October 10, 2003 at [http://www.theregister. co.uk/content/55/33269.html]. 73...Report RL31534, Critical Infrastructure: Control Systems and the Terrorist Threat, by Dana A. Shea . Unpredictable Interactions Between

  11. Maize Genetics and Genomics Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2007 report for MaizeGDB lists the new hires who will focus on curation/outreach and the genome sequence, respectively. Currently all sequence in the database comes from a PlantGDB pipeline and is presented with deep links to external resources such as PlantGDB, Dana Farber, GenBank, the Arizona...

  12. Great Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2013-01-01

    Like the best teachers in any subject, Dana Hamant is a consummate student. In his 31 years as a music instructor, he has attended every single annual Music Educators Association conference in his home state of Kansas and missed only two Kansas Bandmasters Association conferences. (He is also a frequent attendee at NAfME and other professional…

  13. A Conversation with Uri Treisman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treisman, Uri

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Uri Treisman, professor of mathematics and public affairs at The University of Texas at Austin and the director of the Charles A. Dana Center, has deep and active roots in mathematics and mathematics education. Dr. Treisman is well known for his early work at the University of California at Berkeley, where he developed the Calculus Workshop…

  14. Evaluation in Geographic Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurfman, Dana G., Ed.

    This second yearbook of the National Council for Geographic Education presents recent thinking about the formulation and assessment of the educational outcomes of geography. Dana G. Kurfman overviews "Evaluation Developments Useful in Geographic Education" relating evaluation to decision making, objectives, data gatherings, and data…

  15. Letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    Copper Content in Synthetic Copper Carbonate: A Statistical Comparison of Experimental and Expected Results by H. Gamsjäger and W. Preis Re: article by D. Sheeran The author replies The Amateur Mineral Chemist by Dana Martin Morong More on Double Replacement by George B. Kauffman Re: article by R. B. Martin

  16. Teaching as if Life Matters: The Promise of a New Education Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhl, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    What would it be like to teach as if life matters? To move beyond the typical regimen of classroom exercises, homework, and standardized tests and to guide students through life's most important lessons? Dissatisfied with traditional educational models, Christopher Uhl and Dana L. Stuchul asked themselves these questions. What they discovered will…

  17. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dana Redford, Acting Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  18. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 11:00 a.m.-6:00... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dana Redford, Acting...

  19. 78 FR 70041 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ...) 919- 707-6025. EIS No. 20130345, Final EIS, DOE, LA, Lake Charles Carbon Capture and Sequestration..., Draft EIS, USFS, AZ, Programmatic--Revision of the Coronado National Forest Land and Resource Management..., USFS, CA, Blacksmith Forest Health Project, Comment Period Ends: 01/06/2014, Contact: Dana Walsh...

  20. Neuroscience Workshops for Fifth-Grade School Children by Undergraduate Students: A University-School Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Judith G.; Feldman, Marissa; Lin, Edward; Mahoney, Margaret; Sjoblom, Chelsea

    2006-01-01

    The National Science Education Standards recommend that science be taught using inquiry-based approaches. Inspired by the Dana Alliance for Brain Initiatives, we examined whether undergraduate students could learn how to conduct field research by teaching elementary school children basic neuroscience concepts in interactive workshops. In an…

  1. Exposed: Phallic Protections, Shame and Damaged Parental Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cregeen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    Using ideas derived from Dana Birksted-Breen ("Phallus, penis and mental space," "International Journal of Psycho-Analysis," 77: 649-57, 1996), this article explores the clinical experience with "Tommy," a young boy who suffered multiple traumas and neglect. Birksted-Breen describes a phallic state of mind, which, amongst other things, serves to…

  2. Astro Camp Plus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's new Astro Camp Plus camp kicked off June 19 for teens ages 13-15. The new camp delves more deeply into the science, math and technology concepts introduced in the center's popular Astro Camp series. Campers including Jasmyne White (left) and Dana Yingst, both of Slidell, La., learn how NASA uses 'podcasting' to broadcast video, and made their own podcasts.

  3. Focus on Collaborative Learning. Classroom Practices in Teaching English, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Jeff; And Others

    Written by English teachers considered successful in directing collaborative learning, this collection of essays focuses on the effective use of collaborative learning in the English language arts classroom. The essays and their authors are, as follows: (1) "None of Us Is as Smart as All of Us" (Dana Herreman); (2) "Collaborative…

  4. Women in IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campus Technology, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Today, female students outnumber males on campus, earn a higher number of BA degrees, and surpass men in completing advanced degrees. So there is a certain irony in the fact that executive roles on campus are still dominated by men--and IT is no exception. "Campus Technology" asked three women (Pam McQuesten, Dana Hoover, and Jill Albin-Hill)…

  5. Fusions of Breast Carcinoma and Dendritic Cells as a Vaccine for the Treatment of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    IL-12 and IFNγ. In addition, fusion cells expressed CCR7 necessary for the migration of cells to sites of T cell traffic in the draining lymph...Conclusions Our clinical protocol has received approval by the FDA, NCI/CTEP (distributor of IL-12) and Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center. We have also

  6. Ethnographic Research and Globalization: A Discussion of Joseph Tobin's Model of Video-Cued Multivocal Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Joseph Tobin made an impact on the field of comparative education in 2009 when he used a unique form of ethnography to illuminate the effects of world-wide forces, such as modernization, on schools in specific countries. Earlier, in 1989, he published "Preschool in Three Cultures" with co-authors David Wu and Dana Davidson. The…

  7. Handbook of Cross-Cultural and Multicultural Personality Assessment. Personality and Clinical Psychology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Richard H., Ed.

    This collection of papers includes: (1) "An Assessment-Intervention Model for Research and Practice with Multicultural Populations" (Richard H. Dana); (2) "An Africentric Perspective for Clinical Research and Practice" (Edward F. Morris); (3) "Myths about the Null Hypothesis and the Path to Reform" (Robert G.…

  8. Targeting Breast Cancers Featuring Activating Mutations in PIK3CA by Generating a Lethal Dose of PIP3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-06-1-0341 TITLE: Targeting Breast Cancers Featuring...ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02115 REPORT DATE...2006 – 31 Jan 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Targeting Breast Cancers Featuring Activating Mutations in PIK3CA by Generating a

  9. Targeting Breast Cancers Featuring Activating Mutations in PIK3CA by Generating a Lethal Dose of PIP3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    2003). Frequent monoallelic deletion of PTEN and its reciprocal associatioin with PIK3CA amplification in gastric carcinoma. Int J Cancer 104, 318-327...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0341 TITLE: Targeting Breast Cancers Featuring...ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02115 REPORT DATE: February 2008 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual Summary

  10. Governor's Conference on Drug Dependence and Abuse. An Occasional Paper of the Honors College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliken, William G.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Following Governor Milliken's address, Dr. Dana Farnsworth defines the problem in terms of who's involved, to what extent, and with which drugs. His presentation focuses primarily on the motives of affluent young people who experiment with or become dependent upon hallucinogens, marihuana and amphetamines. He deals extensively with the drastically…

  11. Culture vs. Entertainment: Challenging Pleasures or Easy Comforts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gioia, Dana

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an excerpt from a speech delivered by Dana Gioia, poet, critic, and chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts, at the Stanford University commencement on June 17, 2007. In this speech, Gioia communicates his concerns about the diminished role of the arts in contemporary North American culture and the failure of school…

  12. Can the Climate of an Organization be Modified and Managed to Ensure Organizational Excellence?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-30

    the management team. In Megatrends, Author John Naisbitt quotes Rene McPherson, Chairman of the Dana Corporation , "Until we believe that the expert...Organizational Excellence: Stimulatin Quality and Communicatin & Value, (Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1987), p. 179. 3. Thomas J. Peters and

  13. Supporting the Research Process through Expanded Library Data Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Minglu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe how the authors gained a better understanding of the variety of library users' data needs, and how gradually some new data services were established based on current capabilities. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a case study of the new data services at the John Cotton Dana Library, at…

  14. A new carbon-rich phase (COPS) in Antarctic micrometeorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engrand, C.; Maurette, M.; Kurat, G.; Brandstatter, F.; Perreau, M.

    1993-01-01

    The contemporary flux of micrometeorites with sizes greater than 50 microns reaching the Earth's surface each year (about 20,000 tons/a) is much greater than the value of approximately 100 tons/a reported for conventional meteorites up to masses of approximately 10,000 tons. Moreover, on the average, Antarctic micrometeorites contain at least as much carbon as does Orgueil, the most C-rich meteorite. Micrometeorites are thus responsible for most of the carbon accreted by the Earth. In this paper we report SEM observations of a new C-rich 'dirty magnetite' phase observed as tiny inclusions in both melted and unmelted micrometeorites. This phase, which is enriched in C, O, P, S, Fe, frequently shows Ni contents in excess of 0.2 percent, strongly suggestive of an 'extraterrestrial' origin. We also discovered this 'COPS' phase in the fusion crust of Murchison. It appears likely that COPS is a product of meteoroid reprocessing during frictional heating in the Earth's atmosphere and/or its fast 'weathering' in the upper atmosphere. Upon 'catalyzed' hydrolysis this phase might have facilitated the functioning of micrometeorites as 'micro-chondritic-reactors' for the synthesis of prebiotic molecules on the early Earth.

  15. Spatial heterogeneity of zooplankton abundance and diversity in the Saudi coastal waters of the Southern Red Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen; Mantha, Gopikrishna

    2013-04-01

    The horizontal distribution, abundance and diversity of zooplankton has been studied at 50 stations along the Saudi coastal waters of the southern Red Sea (27 stations around Farasan archipelago, 9 around Al-Qunfodah and 14 around Al-Lith) during March-April 2011 using a plankton net of 150 µm. The zooplankton standing crop fluctuated between 1058 and 25787 individuals/m3 with an average of 5231 individuals/m3. Zooplankton was dominated by holoplanktonic forms that representing 80.26 % of total zooplankton, while meroplanktonic constituting 19.74% and dominated by mollusc larvae. Copepods appeared to be the predominant component, formed an average of 69.69 % of the total zooplankton count followed by chaetognaths and urochordates (4.5 and 4.1% of total zooplankton respectively). A total of 100 copepods species in addition to several species of other planktonic groups (cladocerans, chaetognaths, urochordates) were recorded in the study area. The copepod diversity decreased northward (94, 69 and 62 species at Farasan, Al-Qunfodah and Al-Lith respectively). In general, adult cyclopoid copepods dominated the zooplankton community in term of abundance and species number (19.55 %, 65 species) with dominance of Oncaea media, Oithona similis and Farranula carinata followed by adult calanoid copepods (19.38%, 35 species) with dominance of Paracalanus aculeatus, Clausocalanus minor, Acartia (Acanthacartia) fossae and Centropages orsinii. Harapacticoids densities were low in abundance, represented only by 5 species and dominated mainly by Euterpina acutifronis. Some copepod species decreased northward: Acartia amboinensis, Canthocalanus pauper, Labidocera acuta, Corycaeus flaccus, C. typicus, C. agilis, C. catus, C. giesbrechti, C. latus, C. furcifer and Euterpina acutifronis, while others increased northward (Acartia fossae, Undinula vulgaris and Centropages orsinii). Among copepod orders, Monstrilloida and Siphonostomatoida were observed only in southern area (Farasan

  16. Fludarabine Inhibits KV1.3 Currents in Human B Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    de la Cruz, Alicia; Vera-Zambrano, Alba; Peraza, Diego A.; Valenzuela, Carmen; Zapata, Juan M.; Perez-Chacon, Gema; Gonzalez, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Fludarabine (F-ara-A) is a purine analog commonly used in the treatment of indolent B cell malignancies that interferes with different aspects of DNA and RNA synthesis. KV1.3 K+ channels are membrane proteins involved in the maintenance of K+ homeostasis and the resting potential of the cell, thus controlling signaling events, proliferation and apoptosis in lymphocytes. Here we show that F-ara-A inhibits KV currents in human B lymphocytes. Our data indicate that KV1.3 is expressed in both BL2 and Dana B cell lines, although total KV1.3 levels were higher in BL2 than in Dana cells. However, KV currents in the plasma membrane were similar in both cell lines and were abrogated by the specific KV1.3 channel inhibitor PAP-1, indicating that KV1.3 accounts for most of the KV currents in these cell lines. F-ara-A, at a concentration (3.5 μM) similar to that achieved in the plasma of fludarabine phosphate-treated patients (3 μM), inhibited KV1.3 currents by 61 ± 6.3% and 52.3 ± 6.3% in BL2 and Dana B cells, respectively. The inhibitory effect of F-ara-A was concentration-dependent and showed an IC50 value of 0.36 ± 0.04 μM and a nH value of 1.07 ± 0.15 in BL2 cells and 0.34 ± 0.13 μM (IC50) and 0.77 ± 0.11 (nH) in Dana cells. F-ara-A inhibition of plasma membrane KV1.3 was observed irrespective of its cytotoxic effect on the cells, BL2 cells being sensitive and Dana cells resistant to F-ara-A cytotoxicity. Interestingly, PAP-1, at concentrations as high as 10 μM, did not affect the viability of BL2 and Dana cells, indicating that blockage of KV1.3 in these cells is not toxic. Finally, F-ara-A had no effect on ectopically expressed KV1.3 channels, suggesting an indirect mechanism of current inhibition. In summary, our results describe the inhibitory effect of F-ara-A on the activity of KV1.3 channel. Although KV1.3 inhibition is not sufficient to induce cell death, further research is needed to determine whether it might still contribute to F-ara-A cytotoxicity

  17. Egg production rates of two common copepods in the Barents Sea in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoretsky, Vladimir G.; Dvoretsky, Alexander G.

    2014-09-01

    Small copepod species play important roles in the pelagic food webs of the Arctic Ocean, linking primary producers to higher trophic levels. The egg production rates (EPs) and weight-specific egg production rates (SEPs) of two common copepods, Acartia longiremis and Temora longicornis, were studied under experimental conditions in Dalnezelenetskaya Bay (southern Barents Sea) during summer. The average EP and SEP at 5-10 °C were 4.7 ± 0.4 eggs female-1 day-1 and 0.025 ± 0.002 day-1, respectively, for A. longiremis and 13.1 ± 0.9 eggs female-1 day-1 and 0.075 ± 0.006 day-1, respectively, for T. longicornis. EP and SEP were significantly higher at 10°C than at 5°C for both species. The mean egg diameter correlated positively and significantly with female prosome length (PL) in each species. SEP of T. longicornis correlated negatively and significantly with PL. Daily EP and SEP were similar to rates recorded for other Acartia and Temora species in temperate and warm regions. The influence of environmental factors (temperature, salinity, and phytoplankton concentration) on EP of both species is discussed. We conclude that temperature is the main factor determining the reproduction rate and timing in A. longiremis and T. longicornis in the Barents Sea.

  18. Dynamics of the parasite Marteilia refringens (Paramyxea) in Mytilus galloprovincialis and zooplankton populations in Alfacs Bay (Catalonia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Carrasco, N; López-Flores, I; Alcaraz, M; Furones, M D; Berthe, F C J; Arzul, I

    2007-10-01

    Since the first description of Marteilia refringens (Paramyxea) in flat oysters Ostrea edulis in 1968 in the Aber Wrach, Brittany (France), the life-cycle of this parasite has remained unknown. However, recent studies, conducted in the 'claire' system, have proposed the planktonic copepod Acartia grani as a potential intermediate host for the parasite. Nevertheless, experimental transmission of the parasite through the copepod has failed. Recent studies in this field have reported the presence of the parasite in zooplankton from the bays of the Delta de l'Ebre, a more complex and natural estuarine environment than that of the claire. As a result, 2 new Marteilia host species were proposed: the copepods Oithona sp. (Cyclopoida) and an indeterminate Harpaticoida. Consequently, the objective of the present work was to study the dynamics of Marteilia in the zooplankton community from one of the bays, Alfacs Bay, as well as the dynamics of the parasite in cultivated mussels during 1 complete year. Six different zooplankton taxa appeared to be parasitized by M. refringens, including copepods (3 Calanoida, Acartia discaudata, A. clausi and A. italica; 1 Cyclopoida, Oithona sp.; and 1 Harpacticoida, Euterpina acutifrons), and larval stages of decapod crustaceans (zoea larvae of Brachyura, probably Portumnus sp.). These taxa are thus proposed as new subjects for study, since they could be intermediate hosts in the infection process of mussels by Marteilia.

  19. Ocean acidification challenges copepod phenotypic plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vehmaa, Anu; Almén, Anna-Karin; Brutemark, Andreas; Paul, Allanah; Riebesell, Ulf; Furuhagen, Sara; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2016-11-01

    Ocean acidification is challenging phenotypic plasticity of individuals and populations. Calanoid copepods (zooplankton) are shown to be fairly plastic against altered pH conditions, and laboratory studies indicate that transgenerational effects are one mechanism behind this plasticity. We studied phenotypic plasticity of the copepod Acartia sp. in the course of a pelagic, large-volume mesocosm study that was conducted to investigate ecosystem and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification. We measured copepod egg production rate, egg-hatching success, adult female size and adult female antioxidant capacity (ORAC) as a function of acidification (fCO2 ˜ 365-1231 µatm) and as a function of quantity and quality of their diet. We used an egg transplant experiment to reveal whether transgenerational effects can alleviate the possible negative effects of ocean acidification on offspring development. We found significant negative effects of ocean acidification on adult female size. In addition, we found signs of a possible threshold at high fCO2, above which adaptive maternal effects cannot alleviate the negative effects of acidification on egg-hatching and nauplii development. We did not find support for the hypothesis that insufficient food quantity (total particulate carbon < 55 µm) or quality (C : N) weakens the transgenerational effects. However, females with high-ORAC-produced eggs with high hatching success. Overall, these results indicate that Acartia sp. could be affected by projected near-future CO2 levels.

  20. KSC-04PD-0282

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida, talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. She gave a presentation to NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (far right) about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Behind Dana are (left to right) U.S. Senator Bill Nelson, Florida Congressman Tom Feeney; U.S. Representative Ric Keller; and Congressman Dave Weldon. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Center Director Jim Kennedy also attended the presentation.

  1. Modeling and Measurement of Electromagnetic Fields Near LORAN-C and OMEGA Stations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-15

    NEC model with top - 13 radial guys Figure 4. LaMoure OMEGA NEC model showing wire numbers 14 Figure 5. LaMoure OMEGA modeling results showing 15...Figure 13. Nantucket LORAN modeling results for 26 electric fields Figure 14 . Nantucket LORAN modeling results for 27 magnetic fields Figure 15. Dana...antennas 14 . Electric and magnetic field strength meter 61 requirements 15. Electric field meter calibration results 66 (low range) 16. Electric field

  2. Characterizing Mechanisms of Resistance to Androgen Deprivation in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0161 TITLE: Characterizing Mechanisms of Resistance to Androgen Deprivation in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL...INVESTIGATOR: Ginevra Botta CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: DANA-FARBER CANCER INSTITUTE BOSTON MA 02215 REPORT DATE: November 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Final...Characterizing mechanisms of Resistance to Androgen Deprivation in Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0161 5c. PROGRAM

  3. Implementation of Structures in the CMS:Part 1, Rubble Mound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    System ( CMS ) operated through the Surface-water Modeling System (SMS). A coastal application at Dana Point Harbor, California is provided to illustrate...MODELING SYSTEM : The CMS , developed by the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an integrated suite of numerical models for simulating water...ERDC/CHL CHETN-IV-93 August 2013 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Implementation of Structures in the CMS : Part I

  4. The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-04

    Order Code RL34160 The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Updated October 4, 2007 Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and...00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The National Bio- and Agro -Defense

  5. The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-15

    The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Introduction The agricultural and food infrastructure of the United States is a key...Order Code RL34160 The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Updated November 15, 2007 Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and...2007 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  6. The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-04

    FAD). The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Introduction The agricultural and food infrastructure of the United States is...Order Code RL34160 The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress September 4, 2007 Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and...SUBTITLE The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  7. The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-10

    Directive/HSPD-9, January 30, 2004. The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Introduction The agricultural and food infrastructure...Order Code RL34160 The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Updated September 10, 2007 Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and...to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  8. The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-03

    Directorate congressional budget justification, p. 44. The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Introduction The agricultural and food ...Order Code RL34160 The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Updated April 3, 2008 Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and...00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  9. The National Bio- and Agro-Defense Facility: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-19

    National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Introduction The agricultural and food infrastructure of the United States is a key component...Order Code RL34160 The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress Updated May 19, 2008 Dana A. Shea Specialist in Science and...00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The National Bio- and Agro -Defense Facility: Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. Next Generation Education for Prevention: Defining Educational Needs, Attitudes, Concerns, Life Plans of 18 to 24 Year Old Daughters of BRCA1/2 Mutations Carriers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Brown K, Kim Y, et al. (2005). Development and validation of a breast cancer genetic counseling knowledge questionnaire. Patient Education and...Check one that applies)  With parents, grandparents, brothers or sisters  With wife , husband or partner  In dorm, with or without a roommate...CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Inc. Boston, MA 02115 REPORT DATE: March 2010 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual

  11. Immunotherapy of Congenital SIV Infection.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    TITLE: Immunotherapy of Congenital SIV Infection PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ruth M. Ruprecht, M.D., Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer...SUBTITLE Immunotherapy of Congenital SIV 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Infection DAMD17-94-J-4431 6. AUTHOR(S) Ruth M. Ruprecht. M.D-. Ph.D 7. PERFORMING...period of several weeks, this strategy was adopted to avoid potential bias because of season or other factors. Because the staff at the Yerkes Regional

  12. Whither a Common Security for Southeast Asia?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    protect the job opportunities by repatriating foreign workers immediately set off a chain reaction with an adverse impact on Indonesia, who has up to...34China threat" being a unifying factor that could encourage greater Southeast Asian integration. These included Zara Dian (1994)4 and Dana Dillion...and Southeast Asia - Into the 21st Century, edited by Richard Grant, Washington D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1993. 4 Zara

  13. Fluid Dynamics of Jets with Applications to V/STOL.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    masaique dana ia veine, en raison de iaugmentation de la densitg du gaz entratnd lorsque celui- ci eat refroidi. Up calcul de trompe effectu6 de...de donner quelques pr~cisions sur lea montages at lea capteurs utilis~s. 11r. certain nambra de difficultis exp~rimentales qui sont apparues dans ia...mesure des fluctuations de presaion,concarnant principalament lea aspects suivants: - N~cessitg da disposer de capteurs insansibles aux vibrations. - N

  14. Tyrosine Pretreatment Alleviates Suppression of Schedule-Controlled Responding Produced by Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    specific interaction with tyrosine hydroxylase . Thus, (3,13,14). alleviation of CRF with tyrosine may result from an affect of The 200 mg/kg dose of tyrosine...G., Dana, R.; Risch, S. C.; Koob, G. F. Activating aspartame, phenylalanine , and tyrosine. Fund. Appl. Toxicol. 16: and anxiogenic effects of...Onali, P. Corticotropin-releasing factor activates ty- Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 32:967-970: 1989. rosine hydroxylase in rat and mouse striatal

  15. Aircraft Response to Turbulence.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    rique et son influence our le pilotage et les charges ont 6tf ralentles -slnon ebandonnies- dana beaucoup de pays :lee mfthodes de certification...donno - le nombre d’heures do vol effectugos cheque mole par chaquo avion d’un typo donnfi ; le tableau I prisente cotta Information, pour los 50...d’informations pour cheque fivinoment observi, qui comprend, par colonnes successivos ( tableau 111): - le typo do l’avion, - le numfiro repire de 1’avion

  16. Tools for Tomorrow’s Science and Technology Workforce: MATE’s 2006 ROV Competition Sets Students’ Sights on Ocean Observing Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Education 1201 New York Avenue, NW Suite 420 Washington, D.C. 20005 4Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute 7700 Sandholdt Road Moss Landing...Since 2001, the MATE Center and the ROV Committee have partnered with industry, education, professional society, government, and public aquarium ...being installed in the Strait of Georgia , off the coast of British Columbia. ▼ The Dana Middle School from Hawthorne, CA focused on a career

  17. Prediction of Aerodynamic Loads on Rotorcraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    domains ddcrochd. Des capteurs de preesion, station- nuires (tuysux) et instationnaires (membrane A semi-conducteur), saront rdpartis en qustre...cyclique d’une pale d’hdlicopt~re at entrera dana le domains ddcrochd. Des capteurs de pression, station- naires (tuysux) at instationnaires (membrane...de modes naturels (mdthode modale). 11 est aussi possible de traiter la question sans utiliser les modes propres en mettant en oeuvre une mdthode

  18. Insensitive Munitions (Les Munitions a Risque Attenue)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    rencontrees. eat largement utilisee pour caracteriser la vulnerabilite des nouveaux explosifa dana des est naturellement 1lincendie. susceptible d𔄀tre...seconde) permettent de vi- tes, tlu thrie en la pos~se globale (par capteurs de sualiser des instants caractdfistiques de- l’incendie. La du- force...34volume dmettetiur" concernent Ia pression (par capteur ), Ia tempdraturc (par thermocouple), la vi- pour les calculs d’impact de jets; (tempdrature

  19. Use or Reduction of Propagation and Noise Effects in Distributed Military Systems: Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Panel Symposium Held in Rethymno, Crete, Greece on 15-18 October 1990 (Utilisation ou Reduction des Effets de la Propagation et du Bruit dans les Systemes Militaires Distribues)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    6liminables est une fonction croissante du nombre de capteurs du reseau, les systtmes La Direction des Recherches, Etudes et Techniques ’basses...cozmmo cola oat naturel dana le cas AVAReat ~temin6A patirde toisoi lVon traite un prof il do liaison parambtros qui d~finissent les types be...varitiondesm~dineshoraresdirect., cosine cola oat naturel locales sur un profil do liaison loraque Vlon consid~ro des probl&Mes donn6, au cours du temnps

  20. Study examines quality of life factors at end of life for patients with cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Better quality of life at the end of life for patients with advanced cancer was associated with avoiding hospitalizations and the intensive care unit, worrying less, praying or meditating, being visited by a pastor in a hospital or clinic, and having a therapeutic alliance with their physician, according to a Dana-Farber Cancer Institute report published Online First by Archives of Internal Medicine, a JAMA Network publication. |

  1. Galatheid squat lobster species from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-11-01

    Five galatheid squat lobster species belonging to four genera of two galatheid families are reported for the first time from Chinese waters, namely Lauriea simulata Macpherson and Robainas-Barcia, 2013, Phylladiorhynchus ikedai (Miyake and Baba, 1965), Phylladiorhynchus integrirostris (Dana, 1852), Babamunida sp., and Raymunida elegantissima (de Man, 1902). The genera Lauriea Baba, 1971 and Babamunida Cabezas, Macpherson, and Machordom, 2008 have not previously been recorded from Chinese waters.

  2. A Paradigm for Security Metrics in Counterinsurgency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    originated with Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell who wrote On Governors in 1868.35 Maxwell described how the centrifugal governor on a steam engine...January 1963): 7-17. Maxwell , James Clerk . ―On Governors.‖ Proceedings of the Royal Society, 16, no. 100 (1867–1868). 270–283. Milbank, Dana...Research Rediscovered, Abstract‖ (San Diego: Haines Centre for Strategic Management. 18 July 2010), 2. 35James Clerk Maxwell , ―On Governors

  3. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, Massachusetts 02115 REPORT DATE: May 2002 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical...Farber Cancer Institute Boston, Massachusetts 02115 E-Mail: SabinaSignoretti@dfci.harvard.edu 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS...prostate development, prostate cancer 13 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20

  4. Biomarkers to Assess Possible Biological Effects on Reproductive Potential, Immune Function, and Energetic Fitness of Bottlenose Dolphins Exposed to Sounds Consistent with Naval Sonars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-30

    Reproductive Potential, Immune Function, and Energetic Fitness of Bottlenose Dolphins Exposed to Sounds Consistent with Naval Sonars Dana L. Wetzel...biomarkers to examine whether significant sublethal responses to sonar-type sounds occur in bottlenose dolphins exposed to such sounds. The...investigate samples collected from trained dolphins before exposure to simulated mid-frequency sonar signals, immediately after exposure, and one week post

  5. Aerospace Materials Process Modelling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    des phdnombnes physico - chimiques , slors sal connus, notamment des rdactions do phase as produisant dana l intorvalle do solidification, par des...connaissance do donndos theraiques, sinai qua du comportement e~canique, physico - chimique at mdtaliurgique des pibees & order maim aussi des moules. des...W.T.Sbs 16 A NUMERICAL MODEL OF DIRECTIONAL SOLIDIFICATION OF CAST TURBINE BLADES by G,.Lammndu and L -Veruiot des Roches 17 Paper IS withdrawn Pape 19

  6. Ultrafast Dynamics of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-23

    Amin Salehi -Khojin, Dana D. Dlott, Richard I. Masel, J. Phys. Chem. C 116, pp. 15307-15312 (2012). (invited) “Vibrational sum- frequency generation...1289–1296 (2010). 20. B. A. Rosen, A. Salehi -Khojin, M. R. Thorson, W. Zhu, D. T. Whipple, P. J. A. Kenis, and R. I. Masel, Ionic liquid–mediated...Zhu, A. Salehi -Khojin, D. D. Dlott, and R. Masel, In situ spectroscopic examination of a low overpotential pathway for carbon dioxide conversion to

  7. Biomarkers to Assess Possible Biological Effects on Reproductive Potential, Immune Function, and Energetic Fitness of Bottlenose Dolphins Exposed to Sounds Consistent with Naval Sonars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    Center for Ecotoxicology Mote Marine Laboratory 1600 Ken Thompson Pkwy. Sarasota, FL 34236-1096 phone: (941) 388-4441 email: dana@mote.org...AND ADDRESS(ES) Mote Marine Laboratory,Center for Ecotoxicology ,1600 Ken Thompson Pkwy,Sarasota,FL,34236 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...and applied benefits with regard to science and management, as follows: provide development of new tools for understanding the biology of

  8. Therapeutic Mechanism of BET Bromodomain Inhibitor in Breast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Shirley Liu CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02215-5450 REPORT DATE: December 2015 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED...Therapeutic Mechanism of BET Bromodomain Inhibitor in Breast Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0142 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...loci. By 24h of JQ1 treatment secondary effects dominate the gene expression pattern and BRD4 binding no longer predicts gene expression changes

  9. Systematic Characterization of the Molecular Mechanisms That Regulate and Mediate Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres in Breast Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    focused on the relevance of the project and results to cancer detection and therapy. Bi-weekly ono-on-one meetings with mentor to review results...Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres in Breast Carcinoma PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yaara Zwang CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer ...for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data

  10. A General Model for the Homogeneous Case of the Continuous Response.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-31

    Those who worked for her as assistants include i Paul S. Changas, Vicki R. Newton, Donald Reece Dana, Elizabeth Morgan, * and Esther Brunton. po TABLE... Lazarsfeld , 1959; Rasch, 1960; Birnbaum, 1968), now it includes varieties of cases such as the graded response level (e.g., Samejima, 1969, 1972), the...Psychometrika, 46, 1981, 443-459. [4] Lazarsfeld , P. F. Latent structure analysis. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: A study of a science. Vol. 3. New York

  11. Use of Combination Thermal Therapy and Radiation in Breast-Conserving Treatment of Extensive Intraductal Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-01

    heart size/Per- effusion/Constrictive heart failure wave inversion and ST sistent abnormality T peric~arditis/Maderato Sever. coastric- R changes... Sociedad Venezolana de Mastologia Major Committee Assignments: 1993- Medical Records Committee, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 1996- Drug Use...1993 Invited speaker, The University of New Mexico ,"Treatment of Breast Cancer: Mastectormy vs Less" and "Sterotactic Core Needle Biopsy", Albuquerque

  12. The War Film: Historical Perspective or Simple Entertainment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    officer named Captain Brad Parker (Robert Taylor) and his love affair with a British member of the American Red Cross, Valerie Russell (Dana Wynter...returns to London seriously wounded after fighting against Rommel in North Africa. Russell returns to her fiancée to care for him, although her 18 heart...just so he can return to England and see Miss Russell . As the story turns, the commanding officer of the elite force is relieved two days prior to

  13. [Neuroethics].

    PubMed

    Ramiro, H Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Neuroethics emerged as a discipline in 2012 after a World Congress organized by the Stanford University, the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), and sponsored by the Dana Foundation. It has emerged with great force and an important interdisciplinary approach between science and philosophy. Its most relevant lines of action are the study of the ethical consequences of neuroscience research and clinical interventions; as well as the biological factors of human behavior or conduct.

  14. National Dam Safety Program. Rush Reservoir (Inventory Number NY 1341), Genesee River Basin, Monroe County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-30

    age, the reservoir appears to be sited in the glacial debris of a drumlin ; which formational unit of the Salina Group would be determined by the depth...site is located on the Mendon-Waterloo-Auburn morainal belt. Part of this belt includes kame type deposits. Drumlins are also present. The reservoir...appears to be located on a drumlin that had been modified by waves from the lake waters of the then existing glacial Lake Dana. Drumlins normally are made

  15. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-02

    Not the Best,” New York Times, April 24, 2001; Steven Mufson and Dana Milbank, “Taiwan to Get Variety of Arms,” Washington Post, April 24, 2001; Neil ...President George W. Bush, “Your World with Neil Cavuto,” Fox News, June 8, 2005. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990 Congressional Research...246 Letters between the State Department and Representatives Rob Simmons, Lane Evans, Roskoe Bartlett , Chris Smith, John Hostettler, Madeleine

  16. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-24

    Not the Best,” New York Times, April 24, 2001; Steven Mufson and Dana Milbank, “Taiwan to Get Variety of Arms,” Washington Post, April 24, 2001; Neil ...Next 25 Years,” April 21, 2004. 130 Richard Armitage, Interview with PBS, December 10, 2004. 131 President George W. Bush, “Your World with Neil ...Department and Representatives Rob Simmons, Lane Evans, Roskoe Bartlett , Chris Smith, John Hostettler, Madeleine Bordallo, Trent Franks, and Jeb Bradley

  17. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-28

    2001; Steven Mufson and Dana Milbank, “Taiwan to Get Variety of Arms,” Washington Post, April 24, 2001; Neil King Jr., “Bush Defers Sale of Aegis to...139 Richard Armitage, Interview with PBS, December 10, 2004. 140 President George W. Bush, “Your World with Neil ...252 Letters between the State Department and Representatives Rob Simmons, Lane Evans, Roskoe Bartlett , Chris Smith, John Hostettler

  18. JPRS Report, East Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    to Serbian LCCC Denouncing Pavlovic Dismissal Reviewed [DANAS, 17 Nov 87] 29 ECONOMIC CZECHOSLOVAKIA CSSR: Changes in Foreign Currency Deposits...Academy of Scienc- es, Ivan T. Berend, cited a dozen examples at the meeting of the Central Committee to illustrate that we always go astray whenever...Dragisa Pavlovic , the party proceedings against Fadil Hoxha and other Kosovo leaders, and in the third place, the militant women’s movement in Kosovo

  19. Morphological and morphometrical analysis of Heterodera spp. populations in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Lafi, Hamzeh A.; Al-Banna, Luma; Sadder, Monther T.; Migdadi, Hussein M.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic diversity of five Jordanian populations of cyst nematodes, Heterodera spp. collected from five regions from Jordan (Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana, Al-Karak, and Jerash) was investigated. Soil samples were collected from one representative field in each region. Morphological and morphometrical characteristics revealed that Heterodera latipons is dominated in cereal fields at Ar-Ramtha, Madaba, Dana and Al-Karak regions and Heterodera schachtii in Jerash. Cysts populations from all cereal fields had bifenestrate vulval cone and a strong underbridge. Wherever, cysts of the cabbage population had ambifenestrate vulval cone with long vulval slit. The bullae were absent in Ar-Ramtha, Madaba and Dana populations, but present in Al-Karak and Jerash. Based on 12 morphometrical characters, the first three functions in canonical discriminant analysis accounted 99.3% of the total variation. Distance from dorsal gland duct opening to stylet base, underbridge length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and length of hyaline tail tip had strong and significant contributions in the first function. While the second function was strongly influenced by length of hyaline tail, fenestral length, fenestral width and tail length. However, the third canonical discriminate function was found to be influenced by stylet length, fenestral length, a = L/W (body length/midbody width) and underbridge width. The graphical representation of the distribution of the samples showed that the first canonical discriminant function clearly separated H. schachtii from Jerash from other populations. Whereas, H. latipons collected from Madaba and Dana were clearly separated in the second function. The results indicated that differences at morphological and morphometrical levels revealed diverse populations of Heterodera spp. in Jordan. PMID:26858546

  20. Spatio-Temporal Pattern Recognition Using Hidden Markov Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-06-01

    motion. Bulpitt and Allinson have a method that uses a neural network to interpret the motion in MLDs (12). A measure of the relative position of each...Report RC-4788, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, April 1974. 4. Dana H. Ballard and Christopher M. Brown. Computer Vision. Prentice-Hall, New...1987. 12. A. J. Bulpitt and N. M. Allinson . Motion perception and recognition using moving light displays. In Second International Conference on

  1. Application of Elemental Fingerprinting to Evaluate the Dynamics of Larval Exchange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    collection and handling of day-old recruits of Mytilus galloprovincialis and Musculista senhousia. (2) determination of trace element concentrations...concentrations in the calcium carbonate matrix (shell) of newly settled mussels. Day-old Mytilus galloprovincialis recruits, collected from Harbor Island in San...reccruits of Mytilus galloprovincialis and Musculista senhousia. For Mytilus , MB = Dana Landing, Mission Bay, CA; SDB = Harbor Island, San Diego Bay

  2. Fusions of Breast Carcinoma and Dendritic Cells as a Vaccine for the Treatment of Metatastic Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-31

    well as the stimulatory cytokines, IL-12 and IFNγ. In addition, fusion cells expressed CCR7 necessary for the migration of cells to sites of T cell...a marked expansion of anti-tumor effector cells. Body Our clinical protocol had received approval by the FDA, NCI/CTEP (distributor of IL...followed at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and was receiving chemotherapy for metastatic disease. She was seen by our vaccine group on 3/23/10 to

  3. Especially for High School Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, J. Emory

    1998-06-01

    Secondary School Feature Articles * Why Do Alcoholic Beverages Have "Legs"?, by Todd P. Silverstein, p 723. * Audience-Appropriate Analogies: Collision Theory, by Kent W. Piepgrass, p 724. * Using Balls from Different Sports To Model the Variation of Atomic Sizes, by Gabriel Pinto, p 725. * The Convergent Evolution of a Chemistry Project: Using Laboratory Posters as a Platform for Web Page Construction, by Sally Rigeman, p 727. * Process Development in the Teaching Laboratory, by Leonard C. Klein and Susanne M. Dana, p 745.

  4. A System Design Requirements Tool for Satellite Communications through Nuclear-Induced Scintillation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-10

    DOCUMENT NUMBER BMO-TR-87-19 A SYSTEM DESIGN REQUIREM4ENTS TOOL FOR SATELLITE COMMNICATIONS THROUGH NUCLEAR-INDUCED SCINTILILATION *~MA Acoesslon For NT...parameters. Several contractors, most notably Mission Research Corporation , have contributed to the development of this model. The full DNA model was never...Performance," Briefing Mission Research Corporation , Santa Barbara, CA (no date). 26. Dana, "Antenna Impulse Response Functions, Theory and Applications

  5. Outsourcing: Reforms Imperative to Restoring Military Capabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    roles.3 Peter Singer of the Brookings Institution says, "We have pushed the envelope of military outsourcing past the point of what anyone contemplated...CoL Peter Mansoor noted in January 2007, "if they push traffic off the roads or if they shoot up a car that looks suspicious, whatever it may be...America’s wars. 21 NOTES 1. Peter W. Singer, Corporate Warriors (Cornell University Press, 2003), 197. 2. Robert O’Harrow Jr. and Dana Hedgpeth

  6. Oblique map showing maximum extent of 20,000-year-old (Tioga) glaciers, Yosemite National Park, central Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpha, T.R.; Wahrhaftig, Clyde; Huber, N.K.

    1987-01-01

    day, but alpine plant species probably thrived where snow was seasonal, much as they occur today. Erratum The branching arrow on the map showing ice flowing from the basin east of Kuna Crest both northeastward around Mount Dana into the Mono Lake drainage and westward to the Tuolumne River is in error. No ice flowed northeastward from this basin through the site of Tioga Pass into the Mono Lake drainage. Although such an interpretation might be possible on the basis oJ the estimated elevation of the ice surface, the field evidence does not support it. A large and persistent boulder train of metamorphic rocks derived from Mount Dana and the mountain (Mount Gibbs) immediately to the south of Mount Dana has been mapped from near the base of Mount Dana westward toward the ice-filled gorge between Pettit Peak and Double Rock (the present Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne), indicating that ice from the west flank of Mount Dana flowed westward down the Tuolumne. In addition, glacial erratics of Cathedral Peak Granodiorite were observed near Tioga Pass (near the head of the erroneous arrow between Mount Dana and Mount Conness). These boulders must have come from the east face of Mount Conness or the mountain south of Mount Conness (White Mountain) and been transported by ice' flowing toward the Tioga Pass area, although the main mass of that ice turned eastward and flowed into the Mono Lake drainage. Tioga Pass was then the site of more-or-less stagnant ice between the Tuolumne drainage and that east of Mount Conness. Both the metamorphic boulder train and the glacial erratics of Cathedral Peak Granodiorite are incompatible with any flow of ice northeastward from the basin east of Kuna Crest into the Mono Lake drainage north of Mount Dana.

  7. Composition of the zooplankton community, with emphasis in copepods, in Punta Morales, Golfo De Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Brugnoli-Olivera, Ernesto; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Delfino-Machin, Mariana; Morales-Ramírez, Alvaro; Arosemena, Arturo Dominici

    2004-12-01

    The composition of the mesozooplanktonic community was studied in the Punta Morales estuary, Gulf of Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, during 1997. Oblique plankton hauls were performed during high and low tide using a 280 microm mesh screen net equipped with a flowmeter. The community was characterized by holoplanktonic and meroplanktonic organisms. For the holoplanktonic community, the main groups were copepods (80%) and chaetognaths (16%). The most abundant species were the copepods Acartia lilljeborgii and Paracalanus parvus. A. lilljeborgii is a typical estuarine species that maintains high populations in estuarine systems. Meroplankton was represented mainly by crustacean larvae (66%), and icthyoplankton (18%). The dominance of crustacean larvae and icthyoplankton is an evidence of the ecological importance of the Punta Morales zone.

  8. [Copepods distribution in relation to a Cape Ghir upwelling filament (Moroccan Atlantic coast)].

    PubMed

    Salah, Siham; Ettahiri, Omar; Berraho, Amina; Benazzouz, Aïssa; Elkalay, Khalid; Errhif, Ahmed

    2012-02-01

    The study of the Cape Ghir upwelling filament (31°N) focalizes to describe the dispersive mechanism, caused by the upwelling. The zooplankton was sampled during five oceanographic cruises conducted between 2008 and 2009. Surface temperature and chlorophyll "a" were also measured along with sampling. The distribution of environmental parameters accused extensions that show the path of the filament. Copepods constitute the largest fraction of zooplankton community and represented by 86 species, majorly dominated by Acartia clausi and Oncaea venusta. A number of species of deep or cold waters have been recorded in the area corresponding to a net resurgence of cold water. The analysis of the copepods distribution allowed to view the path of the filament at different times of the year. The distribution of the species A. clausi, neritic specie was observed in the open ocean, shows a result of this dynamic.

  9. Environmental forcing on jellyfish communities in a small temperate estuary.

    PubMed

    Primo, Ana Lígia; Marques, Sónia C; Falcão, Joana; Crespo, Daniel; Pardal, Miguel A; Azeiteiro, Ulisses M

    2012-08-01

    The impact of biological, hydrodynamic and large scale climatic variables on the jellyfish community of Mondego estuary was evaluated from 2003 to 2010. Plankton samples were collected at the downstream part of the estuary. Siphonophora Muggiaea atlantica and Diphyes spp. were the main jellyfish species. Jellyfish density was generally higher in summer and since 2005 densities had increased. Summer community analysis pointed out Acartia clausi, estuarine temperature and salinity as the main driven forces for the assemblage's structure. Also, Chl a, estuarine salinity, runoff and SST were identified as the major environmental factors influencing the siphonophores summer interannual variability. Temperature influenced directly and indirectly the community and fluctuation of jellyfish blooms in the Mondego estuary. This study represents a contribution to a better knowledge of the gelatinous plankton communities in small temperate estuaries.

  10. Seasonal change in body length of important small copepods and relationship with environmental factors in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaohong; Sun, Song; Li, Chaolun; Wang, Minxiao

    2012-05-01

    Differences among species in prosome length and in species' response to environmental factors do exist. Therefore, it is useful to examine prosome length for different copepod species in variable environments. Seasonal variations in prosome length of four small copepods and their copepodite stages in the Jiaozhou Bay were compared and the relative influence of temperature, salinity, and chlorophyll concentration were examined. Two peaks were found in the mean prosome length of Paracalanus parvus (in early winter and May). For Acartia bifilosa, the maximum values of all copepodites occurred mainly from February to April, and decreased to the bottom in July. Prosome length of Acartia pacifica peaked when it first appeared in June, then reached to the minimum in July. Parvocalanus crassirostris only appeared from late summer to autumn and the mean prosome length showed no clear changes. Correlations of adult prosome length with environmental factors were evaluated. For the four species, temperature was negatively correlated to prosome length except for P. crassirostris. But the different species varied markedly in their responds to temperature. A. bifilosa showed a more definite trend of size variation with temperature than P. parvus and A. pacifica. Correlations of prosome length with salinity were significantly positive for almost all the small copepods. The relationship between chlorophyll concentration and prosome length was complicated for these copepods, but for P. parvus, chlorophyll concentration was also an important affecting factor. Furthermore, investigation needs to be done on food quality for some copepod. These results are essential to estimate the biomass and the production, and to understand these small copepods' population dynamics in this human-affected bay.

  11. Genesis of Typhoon Nari (2001) from a mesoscale convective system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-Lin; Tian, Liqing; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the origin and genesis of Typhoon Nari (2001) as well as its erratic looping track, are examined using large-scale analysis, satellite observations, and a 4 day nested, cloud-resolving simulation with the finest grid size of 1.33 km. Observational analysis reveals that Nari could be traced 5 days back to a diurnally varying mesoscale convective system with growing cyclonic vorticity and relative humidity in the lower troposphere and that it evolved from a mesoscale convective vortex (MCV) as moving over a warm ocean under the influence of a subtropical high, a weak westerly baroclinic disturbance, an approaching-and-departing Typhoon Danas to the east, and the Kuroshio Current. Results show that the model reproduces the genesis, final intensity, looping track, and the general convective activity of Nari during the 4 day period. It also captures two deep subvortices at the eye-eyewall interface that are similar to those previously observed, a few spiral rainbands, and a midget storm size associated with Nari's relatively dry and stable environment. We find that (1) continuous convective overturning within the MCV stretches the low-level vorticity and moistens a deep mesoscale column that are both favorable for genesis; (2) Nari's genesis does not occur until after the passage of the baroclinic disturbance; (3) convective asymmetry induces a smaller-sized vortex circulation from the preexisting MCV; (4) the vortex-vortex interaction with Danas leads to Nari's looping track and temporal weakening; and (5) midlevel convergence associated with the subtropical high and Danas accounts for the generation of a nearly upright eyewall.

  12. Role of Sialidase in Long-Term Potentiation at Mossy Fiber-CA3 Synapses and Hippocampus-Dependent Spatial Memory

    PubMed Central

    Minami, Akira; Saito, Masakazu; Mamada, Shou; Ieno, Daisuke; Hikita, Tomoya; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Sialic acid bound to glycans in glycolipids and glycoproteins is essential for synaptic plasticity and memory. Sialidase (EC 3.2.1.18), which has 4 isozymes including Neu1, Neu2, Neu3 and Neu4, regulates the sialylation level of glycans by removing sialic acid from sialylglycoconjugate. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of sialidase activity in rat hippocampus and the role of sialidase in hippocampal memory processing. We previously developed a highly sensitive histochemical imaging probe for sialidase activity, BTP3-Neu5Ac. BTP3-Neu5Ac was cleaved efficiently by rat Neu2 and Neu4 at pH 7.3 and by Neu1 and Neu3 at pH 4.6. When a rat hippocampal acute slice was stained with BTP3-Neu5Ac at pH 7.3, mossy fiber terminal fields showed relatively intense sialidase activity. Thus, the role of sialidase in the synaptic plasticity was investigated at mossy fiber terminal fields. The long-term potentiation (LTP) at mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapses was impaired by 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA), a sialidase inhibitor. DANA also failed to decrease paired-pulse facilitation after LTP induction. We also investigated the role of sialidase in hippocampus-dependent spatial memory by using the Morris water maze. The escape latency time to reach the platform was prolonged by DANA injection into the hippocampal CA3 region or by knockdown of Neu4 without affecting motility. The results show that the regulation of sialyl signaling by Neu4 is involved in hippocampal memory processing. PMID:27783694

  13. X-15 pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    In keeping with the joint nature of the X-15 project, its pilots came from the four different organizations that were cooperating to design, build, and fly the airplane. X-15 Pilots in Order by Dates of First Flight A. Scott Crossfield, North American Aviation-14 flights Joseph A. Walker, NASA-25 flights Robert M. White, United States Air Force (USAF)-16 flights Forrest S. Petersen, United States Navy-5 flights John B. McKay, NASA-29 flights Robert A. Rushworth, USAF-34 flights Neil A. Armstrong, NASA-7 flights Joe H. Engle, USAF-16 flights Milton O. Thompson, NASA-14 flights William J. Knight, USAF-16 flights William H. Dana, NASA -16 flights Michael J. Adams, USAF-7 flights Total number of flights-199 The X-15 had its share of emergency landings and accidents, but only two produced serious injuries or death. On Nov. 9, 1962, Jack McKay experienced an engine failure and landed at Mud Lake, Nev. The landing gear collapsed, flipping him and the aircraft on its back. Although he recovered from his injuries sufficiently to fly again, he eventually had to retire because of them. On Nov. 15, 1967, on Michael Adams seventh flight, he entered a spin from which he was able to recover but could not bring it out of an inverted dive because of a technical problem with the adaptive flight control system. He died in the resultant crash of the X-15 number three. This short video clip provides two different views of X-15 pilots. In the first group are (left to right): Bob Rushworth and Joe Engle, Jack McKay, Pete Knight, Milt Thompson, and Bill Dana. The pilots shown in the close-up views are McKay, Thompson, and Dana.

  14. Multi-species generalist predation on the stochastic harvested clam Tivela mactroides (Mollusca, Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turra, Alexander; Fernandez, Wellington S.; Bessa, Eduardo; Santos, Flavia B.; Denadai, Márcia R.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down control is an important force modulating the abundance of prey and structuring marine communities. The harvested trigonal clam Tivela mactroides is hypothesized to be part of the diet of a variety of marine organisms, with its stock influencing predator abundance and being influenced by them. Here we analyzed the diet of potential predators of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay, northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil, to identify the main consumers of this marine resource, and also to address the importance of this clam in the diet of each predator. Samples were taken year-round by trawls; all specimens collected were identified and measured and the food items identified and quantified. Twenty-one species consumed T. mactroides, whose importance in the diet varied greatly in both the volume ingested and the frequency of occurrence (pompano Trachinotus carolinus > blue crab Callinectes danae > starfish Astropecten marginatus). Top-down influence on T. mactroides was also dependent on the abundance of consumers (yellow catfish Cathorops spixii > rake stardrum Stellifer rastrifer > barred grunt Conodon nobilis > A. marginatus). Considering the mean volume ingested, the frequency of occurrence of T. mactroides in the diet, and the relative abundance of consumers, the predators that most influenced T. mactroides were T. carolinus, A. marginatus, and C. danae, in decreasing order. Large numbers of small-sized individuals of T. mactroides (<10 mm) were generally preyed upon by A. marginatus, which may have a stronger effect on clam abundance in comparison to C. danae and T. carolinus, which preyed upon larger clams. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that predators' consumption of T. mactroides in Caraguatatuba Bay can influence its stocks, mainly due to the type and/or abundance of predator species, the volume and number of individuals of T. mactroides preyed upon, and the temporal variations in the abundance of predators.

  15. Interview with James Bradner. Interviewed by Hannah Coaker.

    PubMed

    Bradner, James E

    2013-08-01

    James E Bradner is an Assistant Professor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School (MA, USA) as well as a Staff Physician in the Division of Hematologic Malignancies at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (MA, USA). The present research focus of the Bradner laboratory concerns the discovery and optimization of prototype drugs targeting cancer gene regulation. The clinical objective of the Bradner group is to deliver novel therapeutics for human clinical investigation in hematologic diseases. Bradner's awards and honors include the Damon Runyon-Rachleff Innovation Award, the Smith Family Award for Excellence in Biomedical Research, the Dunkin' Donuts Rising Star Award and the HMS Distinguished Excellence in Teaching Award. He is a member of the American Society of Clinical Investigation, the American Society of Hematology, the American Chemical Society and the American Association of Cancer Research. His recent research has been published in Nature, Cell, Nature Chemical Biology and the Journal of the American Chemical Society. He has authored more than 20 US Patent applications, licensed to five pharmaceutical companies, and is a scientific founder of Acetylon Pharmaceuticals, SHAPE Pharmaceuticals, Tensha Therapeutics and Syros Pharmaceuticals. Bradner received his AB from Harvard University, his MD from the University of Chicago (IL, USA) and a MMS from Harvard Medical School. He completed his postgraduate training in Internal Medicine at Brigham & Women's Hospital (MA, USA), followed by a fellowship in Medical Oncology and Hematology at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Following additional post-doctoral training in Chemistry at Harvard University and the Broad Institute (MA, USA) with Professor Stuart Schreiber, Bradner joined the research faculty of Dana-Farber in 2008. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor.

  16. Seismicity and Crustal Anisotropy Beneath the Western Segment of the North Anatolian Fault: Results from a Dense Seismic Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkelli, N.; Teoman, U.; Altuncu Poyraz, S.; Cambaz, D.; Mutlu, A. K.; Kahraman, M.; Houseman, G. A.; Rost, S.; Thompson, D. A.; Cornwell, D. G.; Utkucu, M.; Gülen, L.

    2013-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is one of the major strike slip fault systems on Earth comparable to San Andreas Fault in some ways. Devastating earthquakes have occurred along this system causing major damage and casualties. In order to comprehensively investigate the shallow and deep crustal structure beneath the western segment of NAF, a temporary dense seismic network for North Anatolia (DANA) consisting of 73 broadband sensors was deployed in early May 2012 surrounding a rectangular grid of by 70 km and a nominal station spacing of 7 km with the aim of further enhancing the detection capability of this dense seismic array. This joint project involves researchers from University of Leeds, UK, Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI), and University of Sakarya and primarily focuses on upper crustal studies such as earthquake locations (especially micro-seismic activity), receiver functions, moment tensor inversions, shear wave splitting, and ambient noise correlations. To begin with, we obtained the hypocenter locations of local earthquakes that occured within the DANA network. The dense 2-D grid geometry considerably enhanced the earthquake detection capability which allowed us to precisely locate events with local magnitudes (Ml) less than 1.0. Accurate earthquake locations will eventually lead to high resolution images of the upper crustal structure beneath the northern and southern branches of NAF in Sakarya region. In order to put additional constraints on the active tectonics of the western part of NAF, we also determined fault plane solutions using Regional Moment Tensor Inversion (RMT) and P wave first motion methods. For the analysis of high quality fault plane solutions, data from KOERI and the DANA project were merged. Furthermore, with the aim of providing insights on crustal anisotropy, shear wave splitting parameters such as lag time and fast polarization direction were obtained for local events recorded

  17. Specialists Meeting on Wing-with-Stores Flutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-04-01

    originally had 98 degrees of freedom, was approximated to by its lowest 70 normal modes and 6 discrete-load modes. Each flap beam had 2 distortion modes...c~’il cot iccalisd sur le bord alattaquo do l’aile. 11 n’affecte pratiquemnt, quo ia partie rdellc cos coefficionts Cp. La comparaison avec Ia...JR faiblo (0,05) et ha Mach 0,5. Los resultats sent prdsentds dana le tableau ci-apres. Len coefficients dorads par la thdorie du cylindre no sent pan

  18. New talitrids from South Africa (Amphipoda, Senticaudata, Talitroidea, Talitridae) with notes on their ecology.

    PubMed

    Lowry, J K; Baldanzi, S

    2016-07-27

    Based on new talitrid amphipod collections from South Africa one new genus, Capeorchestia gen. nov., and one new species, Africorchestia meridionalis sp. nov., are described and Africorchestia quadrispinosa (K.H. Barnard, 1916) is redescribed. Eorchestia Bousfield, 1984 is redescribed. Based on this redescription Orchestia dassenensis (K.H. Barnard, 1916) is moved to Eorchestia and the Tasmanian species Eorchestia palustris Richardson, 1993 and E. rupestris Richardson, 1993 are moved to Microrchestia Bousfield, 1984. The current knowledge about the ecology of Capeorchestia capensis (Dana, 1853), Africorchestia quadrispinosa and A. meridionalis is summarized.

  19. Environmental Cleanup Technology Transfer Initiatives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    8. Contact Names Daniel Powell, EPA-TIO Wash DC 703-308-8827 Ellen Fitzpatrick, Clean Sites, Inc. 703-739-1262 Bud Hoda, McClellan AFB, CA 916-643...EPA 916-322-3294 Stacey Lupton , PRC 415-222-8245 Dana Sakamoto, Navy SWDiv 619-532-3964 Peter Wood, Cal Toxic Control Bd, tech transfer 916-255-2012...ENVIRONMENTAL MGMT / LUPTON , SAN FRANCISCO, CA; BRODERSON, SAN FRANCISCO, CA PRC INC / WALSH, SAN DIEGO, CA PWC GUAM / EBEL, SANTA RITA, PWC/EFA GREAT LAKES

  20. Volcanology in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Decker, R.; Decker, B.

    1988-01-01

    J.D. Dana, a geologist with a United states exploring expedition in the 1840's, was the first to write about the increase in age of the Hawaiian Islands to the northwest. He noted that weathering of the lavas, erosional destruction of the islands by waves and streams and the growth of reeds around the islands progressively increased away from the Island of Hawaii. He correctly established the islands' relative ages, but absolute ages had to wait for over 120 years until radioactive age-dating techniques became available. 

  1. Review: Tales from Both Sides of the Brain.

    PubMed

    Landis, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    Our brain has two hemispheres that specialize in different jobs-the right side processes spatial and temporal information, and the left side controls speech and language. How these two sides come together to create one mind is explained by pioneering neuroscientist Michael Gazzaniga in his new book, Tales from Both Sides of the Brain : A Life in Neuroscience (Ecco/Harper Collins, 2015). Gazzaniga is director of the SAGE Center for the Study of the Mind at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and a Dana Alliance member.

  2. Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Hypersonic Flows (Les Methodes Theoriques et Experimentales pour l’Etude Des Ecoulements Hypersoniques)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    figure 5 presente une comparaison entre la ripartition de avantages qiac l’on petit tirer d’une recompression naturelle nombre de Mach stir l’axe de...pressions paridtales ont Wt d’Electrons [1111. La figure 7 illustre cos techniques. 11 s’agit mosur~es 118J A ]’aide do capteurs diffdrentiels A self...Lors de visualisations r~alis~es autour d’un barreau cylindrique do ces essais, lea capteurs Etaient situ~s dana le caisson dispose transversalement

  3. Impact of Advanced Avionics Technology on Ground Attack Weapon Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    coiae Ions d’une acquisition directe par un capteur aur l’avion. L’autonomie accrue des armements, s’accunpagne donc d’une plus grande pr~paration des...dsnt - se servir des autres avions d’attaque cocme autant de capteurs intdgr~s dana un dispositif coop~ratif. En dehors des besoins ds performances...pour Les capteurs d’acquisition des objectifs, il faut insister sur la n~cessit6 de disposer de mayens de transmission en temps r~ei pour: - Ia

  4. Conference Proceedings on Vortex Flow Aerodynamics Held in Scheveningen, The Netherlands on 1-4 October 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-01

    couche limite h~rite-t-eile d’une tridirnensionnalit6 qui ne liii serait pas naturelle ? S’enrichit-elle d’une turbulence qu&A elle seule, ella ne...LA COUCHE LIMITE EN AVAL DU TOURBILLON Afin de sonder la couche limite aussi pr~s de la paroi que possible, le capteur utilis6 est une sonde A un seul... naturellement : r~ = r3 0 945r. Pour cc qui concerne la vitesse radiale 1la d V ,’~ 8Vjx etsupposle nu~e. Dana la section (5) cl AKp/2 ot e2 = (dKp/dx

  5. Backache and Back Discomfort

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Pour rdaliser co typo d’acquisition, Ie choix do capteurs do force, do pression, do d~placement, ou d’accdliration doit Atre fait on fonction do...dane un syatbme. S’il n’eat pam onvimageable do mettre un capteur do force dans Is disque, il n’est pas exclu de La placer sur un muscle. NOCUES C...musculairos intdread, etc ... Ls pression : l’obtention do Ia preasion intranucldaire ndcessite Ilimplantation du capteur dana 10 disque. Cette mesure

  6. Review: Tales from Both Sides of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Theodor

    2015-01-01

    Our brain has two hemispheres that specialize in different jobs—the right side processes spatial and temporal information, and the left side controls speech and language. How these two sides come together to create one mind is explained by pioneering neuroscientist Michael Gazzaniga in his new book, Tales from Both Sides of the Brain : A Life in Neuroscience (Ecco/Harper Collins, 2015). Gazzaniga is director of the SAGE Center for the Study of the Mind at the University of California, Santa Barbara, and a Dana Alliance member. PMID:27408671

  7. MUC1 Functions as an Oncogene by Targeting the Nucleus of Human Breast Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Donald Kufe, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02115 REPORT DATE: September 2005 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER MUCI Functions as an Oncogene by Targeting the Nucleus of Human Breast Cancer Cells 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-03-1...5. MUC1 increases ERa occupancy of EREs and ERa-mediated transactivation. A. MCF-7/CsiRNA and MCF-7/ MUCl siRNA-A cells were treated with 100 nM E2 for

  8. Primary lymphomas of the central nervous system: patterns of failure and factors that influence survival

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, J.S.; Ervin, T.J.; Mauch, P.; Skarin, A.; Weinstein, H.J.; Canellos, G.; Cassady, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    Primary lymphomas of the CNS are rare tumors accounting for less than 2% of all extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The treatment for this disease has been disappointing. Radiation therapy and surgery have produced consistently poor control of this disease, with a median survival of 15 months. A review of ten cases of primary lymphoma of the CNS treated at the Joint Center for Radiation Therapy or Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (Boston) from 1968 to 1981 is presented. All patients had biopsy- proven CNS lymphomas without systemic disease at presentation. In this series, control of CNS lymphoma was seen only in patients receiving craniospinal radiation or CNS-penetrating chemotherapy.

  9. Secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff: Microscopy and microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lauf, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Microcrystals of secondary sulfate minerals from Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) in the SEM. Among the samples the author discovered three new rare-earth sulfates: coskrenite-(Ce), levinsonite-(Y), and zugshunstite-(Ce). Other minerals illustrated in this report include sulfur, tschermigite, gypsum, epsomite, melanterite, halotrichite, apjohnite, jarosite, slavikite, magnesiocopiapite, and diadochite. Additional specimens whose identification is more tentative include pickeringite, aluminite, basaluminite, and botryogen. Alum Cave is a ``Dana locality`` for apjohnite and potash alum, and is the first documented North American occurrence of slavikite.

  10. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-24

    April 24, 2001; Steven Mufson and Dana Milbank, “Taiwan to Get Variety of Arms,” Washington Post, April 24, 2001; Neil King Jr., “Bush Defers Sale of...George W. Bush, “Your World with Neil Cavuto,” Fox News, June 8, 2005. 146 A DSCA official, Ed Ross, read the speech on September 19, 2005, in San Diego...Representatives Rob Simmons, Lane Evans, Roskoe Bartlett , Chris Smith, John Hostettler, Madeleine Bordallo, Trent Franks, and Jeb Bradley, January 31 and

  11. Taiwan: Major U.S. Arms Sales Since 1990

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-31

    2001; Steven Mufson and Dana Milbank, “Taiwan to Get Variety of Arms,” Washington Post, April 24, 2001; Neil King Jr., “Bush Defers Sale of Aegis to...140 President George W. Bush, “Your World with Neil Cavuto,” Fox News, June 8, 2005. 141 A DSCA official, Ed Ross, read the speech on September 19...Simmons, Lane Evans, Roskoe Bartlett , Chris Smith, John Hostettler, Madeleine Bordallo, Trent Franks, and Jeb Bradley, January 31 and February 15

  12. Temporal Statistics of Scintillation for Satellite Communication and Radar Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    DNA-TR-81-129 TEMPORAL STATISTICS OF SCINTILLATION v FOR SATELLITE COMMUNICATION AND RADAR SYSTEMS • Roger A. Dana I Mission Research Corporation P.O...k, I ,1A6NIZATION NAMI ANI) A(I) I) Q f IY ,I, Iu I M I ’ T FI F11) CT TA’,K AIL[ A 4 WI)L, UNIT NWIMII WL’, Mission Research Corporation P. 0. Drawer...factor 6 differs from unity in general if the PSD is not Gaussian. 2.4 FIRST ORDER STATISTICS FOR DUAL CHANNEL COMMUNICATIO ?’ SYSTEMS Dual channel

  13. Wanting to be Anna: examining lesbian sporting celebrity on The L Word.

    PubMed

    Chawansky, Megan; Francombe, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This article adds to the limited literature on coming out and on lesbians in sport by highlighting the presence of lesbian sporting celebrity on Showtime's series The L Word. Through a reading of The L Word's character/professional athlete, Dana Fairbanks, we explore the economic impetus and the racial and classed undertones of corporatized coming out narratives. We devote considerable effort to unpacking Fairbanks' articulation that she wishes to be "the gay Anna Kournikova" and speculate on the consequences of this utterance for both real lesbian sporting celebrities and the lesbian fans that necessarily follow Fairbanks' corporate-sponsored coming out.

  14. Castings Airworthiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    technologiques. b) Au niveau do la maltrise de la gualitd La conception duna pibca de fonderie qui exploita aux miaux les possibilitds techniques des nouveaux...d’amdlioration du niveau de qualit6 at de a reproductibilit6 dana le tamps. La s~lection des fondeurs at la g~ndralisation de l’application des concepts ...outilloges utilisis par lea ateliers d’usinage soient de seilleure qualit6 que ceux utilisis en fonderie, que ls maltrise des outils de coupe soit plus a ssur

  15. KSC-04PD-0255

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida, takes part in the proposal for locating NASAs new Shared Services Center in the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. The presentation was given to NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe and other officials. The center would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration by NASA.

  16. F-16XL ship #1 (#849) with Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) in flight over desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    An image of the F-16XL #1 during its functional flight check of the Digital Flight Control System (DFCS) on December 16, 1997. The mission was flown by NASA research pilot Dana Purifoy, and lasted 1 hour and 25 minutes. The tests included pilot familiarly, functional check, and handling qualities evaluation maneuvers to a speed of Mach 0.6 and 300 knots. Purifoy completed all the briefed data points with no problems, and reported that the DFCS handled as well, if not better than the analog computer system that it replaced.

  17. Etude de la Recharge de l’Accumulateur Plomb-Acide Red Camel Entre +20 C et -30 C (A Study of the Rechargeability of the Red Camel Lead-Acid Battery between +20 C and -30 C).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    Pour un voltage limite imposg de 14.3 V et une dur~e de charge de 7 heures, les rendements en courant (Rc) et en gnergie fi1ectrique (Re), calcul~s en...pour le d~marrage des v~hicules A moteur . Cependant en dega de -20*C, on assiste A une diminution importante des performances en dicharge rapide...rficup~ration de la capaciti dana le calcul des rendements en courant et en finergie filectrique. CONDUITE DES ESSAIS Lors de toul lea easais, le courant

  18. Histopathological changes in gills of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulata (Crustacea-Decapoda) following acute exposure to ammonia.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Rebelo, M; Rodriguez, E M; Santos, E A; Ansaldo, M

    2000-02-01

    Histopathological effects of ammonia on the gills of the estuarine crab Chasmagnathus granulata (Dana, 1851) were evaluated after acute exposure to ammonia concentrations around LC(50) value (17.85 Mm). Disruption of pilaster cells and a subsequent collapse of gill lamellae were the main effects observed. Epithelial necrosis and hyperplasia were also detected. Significant (P<0.05) increases in pCO(2) and lactate, and significant decreases of pO(2) were detected in the haemolymph of ammonia-exposed crabs. These changes suggest that the observed histopathological damage affected gas exchange, possibly leading to death.

  19. [Intrauterine contraception from the viewpoint of an ambulatory gynecologic department].

    PubMed

    Hagen, P

    1981-09-01

    The history, current status, indications and contraindications for intrauterine contraception are described, information on safety and side effects is cited from the literature, and the experience of 1 clinic with IUDs is discussed. In 1976, 200,000 women in the German Democratic Republic used IUDs, or 50/1000 women aged 15-45. Intrauterine contraception had a slower and less steady development than oral contraception. The most widely used 2nd generation IUDs in East Germany were manufactured of plastic in the USSR, while the DANA copper and copper-T are the most widely used 3rd generation devices. The last days of the menstrual period are the best times for insertion, but placement immediately following abortion or birth is also possible. IUDs are indicated in cases where hormonal contraception is contraindicated. Contraindications to IUD use include suspicion of pregnancy, genital infection, atypical cytological finding, serious menstrual disturbances or bleeding of unknown cause, myomatous uterus, genital neoplasia, and deformation of the cervix or uterine cavity. The most significant complications and side effects of IUD use are bleeding disorders, dysmenorrhea, expulsion of the IUD, inflammation of the pelvic organs, undesired pregnancy, extrauterine pregnancy, and perforation of the uterus. Data from a gynecological clinic serving a predominantly rural area on 121 patients who used IUDs for a variety of reasons between June 1975 and August 1980 are presented. Observations covered a total of 4309 cycles and averaged 35.6 cycles per woman. Average age of patients was 31.7 years, no insertions were done in nulliparous patients, and the longest user had an IUD in place for 94 months. 29 patients had DANA superlux, 61 had DANA cor, 10 had DANA copper, and 21 had copper T devices. Complications and side effects were observed in 32 cases, including 19 cases of bleeding problems, of which 6 required removal; 5 of pregnancy, all of which were ended by abortions and

  20. Integrated Taxonomy and DNA Barcoding of Alpine Midges (Diptera: Chironomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Matteo; Mereghetti, Valeria; Lencioni, Valeria; Rossaro, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and efficient DNA-based tools are recommended for the evaluation of the insect biodiversity of high-altitude streams. In the present study, focused principally on larvae of the genus Diamesa Meigen 1835 (Diptera: Chironomidae), the congruence between morphological/molecular delimitation of species as well as performances in taxonomic assignments were evaluated. A fragment of the mitochondrial cox1 gene was obtained from 112 larvae, pupae and adults (Diamesinae, Orthocladiinae and Tanypodinae) that were collected in different mountain regions of the Alps and Apennines. On the basis of morphological characters 102 specimens were attributed to 16 species, and the remaining ten specimens were identified to the genus level. Molecular species delimitation was performed using: i) distance-based Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), with no a priori assumptions on species identification; and ii) coalescent tree-based approaches as the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent model, its Bayesian implementation and Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes. The ABGD analysis, estimating an optimal intra/interspecific nucleotide distance threshold of 0.7%-1.4%, identified 23 putative species; the tree-based approaches, identified between 25–26 entities, provided nearly identical results. All species belonging to zernyi, steinboecki, latitarsis, bertrami, dampfi and incallida groups, as well as outgroup species, are recovered as separate entities, perfectly matching the identified morphospecies. In contrast, within the cinerella group, cases of discrepancy arose: i) the two morphologically separate species D. cinerella and D. tonsa are neither monophyletic nor diagnosable exhibiting low values of between-taxa nucleotide mean divergence (0.94%); ii) few cases of larvae morphological misidentification were observed. Head capsule color is confirmed to be a valid character able to discriminate larvae of D. zernyi, D. tonsa and D. cinerella, but it is here better defined as a color

  1. Copepod distribution and production in a Mid-Atlantic Ridge archipelago.

    PubMed

    Melo, Pedro A M C; Melo Júnior, Mauro DE; Macêdo, Silvio J DE; Araujo, Moacyr; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid

    2014-11-11

    The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA) are located close to the Equator in the Atlantic Ocean. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variations in the copepod community abundance, and the biomass and production patterns of the three most abundant calanoid species in the SPSPA. Plankton samples were collected with a 300 µm mesh size net along four transects (north, east, south and west of the SPSPA), with four stations plotted in each transect. All transects exhibited a tendency toward a decrease in copepod density with increasing distance from the SPSPA, statistically proved in the North. Density varied from 3.33 to 182.18 ind.m-3, and differences were also found between the first perimeter (first circular distance band) and the others. The total biomass varied from 15.25 to 524.50 10-3 mg C m-3 and production from 1.19 to 22.04 10-3 mg C m-3d-1. The biomass and production of Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849), Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 and Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849) showed differences between some transects. A trend of declining biodiversity and production with increasing distance from archipelago was observed, suggesting that even small features like the SPSPA can affect the copepod community in tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas.

  2. Role of calcium in the regulation of acetylcholine receptor synthese in cultured muscle cells*.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, M; Reis, M A; Shainberg, A

    1980-05-01

    Embroyonic muscles differentiated in vitro were used to study the effects of intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+1]i) variations on the amount of acetylcholine receptors ([AChR]) in the cell membrane. 2. Increased Ca2+ concentration in the growth medium ([Ca2+]o) caused a marked elevation of AChR levels, apparently through de novo synthesis. 3. Agents known to increase [Ca2+]i and its accumulation in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), such as ionophore A23187, sodium dantrolene (DaNa), or high [Mg2+]o all enhanced alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BGT) binding after 48 h of treatment. 4. Electrical stimulation or caffeine, both affectors of SR calcium release, brought about a decrease in [AChR] probably by suppressing its synthesis. 5. The effects of simultaneous treatment with two AChR-inducing agents, namely, high [Ca2+]o in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) or high [Mg2+]o were not additive, thus suggesting action via a common saturable mediator. 6. Intermediate AChR levels obtained following simultaneous treatments with opposing effects, e.g., electrical stimulation in the presence of high [Ca2+]o or DaNa, suggest contradictory actions on a common mediator. 7. All these observations indicate a strong correlation between SR calcium levels and [AChR] on myotubes; while calcium accumulation in the Sr was followed by increased AChR synthesis, calcium release was accompanied by suppression of receptor synthesis.

  3. M2-F3 and project personnel after the 100th flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The 100th flight of the heavy-weight lifting bodies was completed on October 5, 1972, with pilot Bill Dana soaring to an altitude of 66,300 feet and a Mach number of 1.370 (about 904 miles per hour) in the M2-F3. This was call for a celebration as the crew responsible for maintaining and operating the vehicle, the engineers who requested the flight, the pilots who flew the M2, and the Director of the NASA Flight Research Center gather in front of the M2-F3 lifting body for a photograph. Kneeling left to right are Bill Dana, (unknown person),* Jay King, and Herb Anderson. In the cockpit is Bill Szuwalski. Standing left to right are: Dale Reed, Robert Kempel, Milt Thompson, Bill Clifton, an Air Force fire fighter, Jerry Brandt, Johnny Armstrong, an Air Force fire fighter, Gary Layton, Jack Kolf, Ming Tang, (unknown person),* Byron Gibbs, Joe Huxman, (unknown person)*, Bill Mersereau, Bill Arnold, John Manke, Dr. Bill Winters, (unknown person)*, Bill LePage, Glenn Ford, Lee Scherer, Director of Center, (two unknown people),* Stan Butchart, and Berwin Kock. *=Identification incomplete at this time.)

  4. Considerations about the implementation of a public knowledge base regarding nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimmig, Daniel; Marquardt, Clarissa; Nau, Katja; Schmidt, Andreas; Dickerhof, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology ranks among the key technologies that will bring fundamental changes to basic research, many industry sectors and daily life. However, consumers often miss reliable and understandable information on nanomaterials. To create this transparency, the DaNa project collects and evaluates the latest scientific literature before publishing these on the website www.nanoobjects.info. Though all published articles are designed to meet the needs of different recipient groups, a certain knowledge about nanomaterials is presumed due to the nanomaterial-specific structuring of the website. This poses a barrier for interested laymen who usually have a particular nano-related application in mind. These application-oriented facts on nanomaterials already exist on the website but are scattered throughout the different articles. To overcome this, we first analyzed the state of the scattered information and then assessed requirements for a new tool displaying these facts: storage of extracted knowledge in a homogenous way, visualization options and integration of the new database into the existing content management system. We therefore extended our backend to capture knowledge on a semantically higher level in a database called DaNaVis. Based on this database we can increase the accessibility of DaNa's project results by means of interactive visualization components.

  5. Anonymity versus privacy in the dictator game: revealing donor decisions to recipients does not substantially impact donor behavior.

    PubMed

    Winking, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Anonymity is often offered in economic experiments in order to eliminate observer effects and induce behavior that would be exhibited under private circumstances. However, anonymity differs from privacy in that interactants are only unaware of each others' identities, while having full knowledge of each others' actions. Such situations are rare outside the laboratory and anonymity might not meet the requirements of some participants to psychologically engage as if their actions were private. In order to explore the impact of a lack of privacy on prosocial behaviors, I expand on a study reported in Dana et al. (2006) in which recipients were left unaware of the Dictator Game and given donations as "bonuses" to their show-up fees for other tasks. In the current study, I explore whether differences between a private Dictator Game (sensu Dana et al. (2006)) and a standard anonymous one are due to a desire by dictators to avoid shame or to pursue prestige. Participants of a Dictator Game were randomly assigned to one of four categories-one in which the recipient knew of (1) any donation by an anonymous donor (including zero donations), (2) nothing at all, (3) only zero donations, and (4) and only non-zero donations. The results suggest that a lack of privacy increases the shame that selfish-acting participants experience, but that removing such a cost has only minimal effects on actual behavior.

  6. Copepod distribution and production in a Mid-Atlantic Ridge archipelago.

    PubMed

    Melo, Pedro A M C; De Melo Júnior, Mauro; De Macêdo, Silvio J; Araujo, Moacyr; Neumann-Leitão, Sigrid

    2014-12-01

    The Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago (SPSPA) are located close to the Equator in the Atlantic Ocean. The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variations in the copepod community abundance, and the biomass and production patterns of the three most abundant calanoid species in the SPSPA. Plankton samples were collected with a 300 µm mesh size net along four transects (north, east, south and west of the SPSPA), with four stations plotted in each transect. All transects exhibited a tendency toward a decrease in copepod density with increasing distance from the SPSPA, statistically proved in the North. Density varied from 3.33 to 182.18 ind.m-3, and differences were also found between the first perimeter (first circular distance band) and the others. The total biomass varied from 15.25 to 524.50 10-3 mg C m-3 and production from 1.19 to 22.04 10-3 mg C m-3d-1. The biomass and production of Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849), Acrocalanus longicornis Giesbrecht, 1888 and Calocalanus pavo (Dana, 1849) showed differences between some transects. A trend of declining biodiversity and production with increasing distance from archipelago was observed, suggesting that even small features like the SPSPA can affect the copepod community in tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas.

  7. Morphological and molecular evidence on the existence of a single estuarine and rocky intertidal acanthocephalan species of Profilicollis Meyer, 1931 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of southern South America.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sara M; Diaz, Julia I; D'Elía, Guillermo

    2017-03-23

    Profilicollis chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector, Mañé-Garzón & Dei-Cas, 1977 (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) has been reported to parasitise different grapsid species as intermediate hosts along the South Atlantic shores, i.e. Cyrtograpsus angulatus (Dana) and Neohelice granulata (Dana) in Uruguay and Cyrtograpsus altimanus (Rathbun) in Argentina. Larvae of a similar acanthocephalan described as Profilicollis antarcticus Zdzitowiecki, 1985 were recorded in the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Milne-Edwards) from an estuarine habitat on the Southeast Pacific shore in Chile. Earlier studies have questioned the specific assignation of the Chilean estuarine populations of Profilicollis Meyer, 1931. The aim of this study was to re-examine the identification of these acanthocephalans by means of morphological and molecular analyses of cystacanths of Profilicollis spp. gathered from C. angulatus, N. granulata, C. altimanus and H. crenulatus. Our analyses showed that a single species of Profilicollis, P. chasmagnathi, parasitises these four crab species. The assessment of specimens from the South Shetlands Islands, the type-locality of P. antarcticus, is needed before formally proposing that P. antarcticus is a junior subjective synonym of P. chasmagnathi.

  8. The Big Splat, or How Our Moon Came to Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, Dana

    2003-03-01

    The first popular book to explain the dramatic theory behind the Moon's genesis This lively science history relates one of the great recent breakthroughs in planetary astronomy-a successful theory of the birth of the Moon. Science journalist Dana Mackenzie traces the evolution of this theory, one little known outside the scientific community: a Mars-sized object collided with Earth some four billion years ago, and the remains of this colossal explosion-the Big Splat-came together to form the Moon. Beginning with notions of the Moon in ancient cosmologies, Mackenzie relates the fascinating history of lunar speculation, moving from Galileo and Kepler to George Darwin (son of Charles) and the Apollo astronauts, whose trips to the lunar surface helped solve one of the most enigmatic mysteries of the night sky: who hung the Moon? Dana Mackenzie (Santa Cruz, CA) is a freelance science journalist. His articles have appeared in such magazines as Science, Discover, American Scientist, The Sciences, and New Scientist.

  9. The assemblage composition and structure of swimming crabs (Portunoidea) in continental shelf waters of southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, L. S.; Frameschi, I. F.; Costa, R. C.; Castilho, A. L.; Fransozo, A.

    2015-02-01

    Three regions along the Brazilian coast characterized by the occurrence of contrasting natural phenomena, such as upwellings and continental input, were surveyed to determine the composition and structure of the assemblage of swimming crabs. Twelve monthly collections were undertaken (July 2010 to June 2011) in Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (MAC); Ubatuba, São Paulo (UBA); and São Francisco do Sul, Santa Catarina (SFS). The lowest values ​​of the phi sediment grain size measure, bottom temperature and the highest values of organic matter and salinity were measured in MAC. In all, 10,686 individuals were collected, belonging to six species of Portunoidea: Arenaeus cribrarius, Callinectes danae, Callinectes ornatus, Callinectes sapidus, Achelous spinicarpus and Achelous spinimanus. A Multiple Response Permutation Procedure (MRPP) test indicated that the species composition differed significantly among the sampling sites, showing substantial heterogeneity in the composition and abundance of species among regions. The results suggest that C. danae was more abundant in waters with lower salinity and lower organic matter content. In contrast, A. spinimanus is positively correlated with these factors, showing a greater abundance under the opposite conditions. Callinectes ornatus appeared not to show strong selectivity for particular habitat characteristics. We conclude from these findings that areas affected by different phenomena produce changes in the composition and abundance of the assemblage of Portunoidea. Although the strength of eutrophication differs between UBA and MAC, the substantial continental inflow affecting SFS favors the development of species that complete their life cycle in the estuary.

  10. Were micrometeorites a source of prebiotic molecules on the early Earth?

    PubMed

    Maurette, M; Brack, A; Kurat, G; Perreau, M; Engrand, C

    1995-03-01

    "Interplanetary Dust Particles" with sizes approximately 10 micrometers collected in the stratosphere (IDPs), as well as much larger "giant" micrometeorites retrieved from Antarctic ice melt water (AMMs), are mostly composed of unequilibrated assemblages of minerals, thus being related to primitive unequilibrated meteorites. Two independent evaluations of the mass flux of micrometeorites measuring approximately 50 micrometers to approximately 200 micrometers, recovered from either the Greenland or the Antarctic ice sheets have been reported (approximately 20,000 tons/a). A comparison with recent evaluation of the flux of meteorites reaching the Earth's surface (up to masses of 10,000 tons), indicates that micrometeorites represent about 99.5% of the extraterrestrial material falling on the Earth's surface each year. As they show carbon concentrations exceeding that of the most C-rich meteorite (Orgueil), they are the major contributors of extraterrestrial C-rich matter accreting to the Earth today. Moreover they are complex microstructured aggregates of grains. They contain not only a variety of C-rich matter, such as a new "dirty" magnetite phase enriched in P, S, and minor elements, but also a diversity of potential catalysts (hydrous silicates, oxides, sulfides and metal grains of Fe/Ni composition, etc.). They could have individually functioned on the early Earth, as "micro-chondritic-reactors" for the processing of prebiotic organic molecules in liquid water. Future progress requires the challenging development of meaningful laboratory simulation experiments, and a better understanding of the partial reprocessing of micrometeorites in the atmosphere.

  11. Ecological and physiological studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: a review.

    PubMed

    Band-Schmidt, Christine J; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; López-Cortés, David J; Gárate-Lizárraga, Ismael; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick J; Hernández-Sandoval, Francisco E

    2010-06-23

    This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 °C and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions.

  12. Lipid metabolism-related gene expression pattern of Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus L.) larvae fed on live prey.

    PubMed

    Betancor, Mónica B; Ortega, Aurelio; de la Gándara, Fernando; Tocher, Douglas R; Mourente, Gabriel

    2016-11-04

    The present study is the first to evaluate lipid metabolism in first-feeding Atlantic bluefin tuna (ABT; Thunnus thynnus L.) larvae fed different live prey including enriched rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and Acartia sp. copepod nauplii from 2 days after hatch. Understanding the molecular basis of lipid metabolism and regulation in ABT will provide insights to optimize diet formulations for this high-value species new to aquaculture. To this end, we investigated the effect of dietary lipid on whole larvae lipid class and fatty acid compositions and the expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism in first feeding ABT larvae fed different live prey. Additionally, the expression of lipid metabolism genes in tissues of adult broodstock ABT was evaluated. Growth and survival data indicated that copepods were the best live prey for first feeding ABT and that differences in growth performance and lipid metabolism observed between larvae from different year classes could be a consequence of broodstock nutrition. In addition, expression patterns of lipid metabolic genes observed in ABT larvae in the trials could reflect differences in lipid class and fatty acid compositions of the live prey. The lipid nutritional requirements, including essential fatty acid requirements of larval ABT during the early feeding stages, are unknown, and the present study represents a first step in addressing these highly relevant issues. However, further studies are required to determine nutritional requirements and understand lipid metabolism during development of ABT larvae and to apply the knowledge to the commercial culture of this iconic species.

  13. Needle in a haystack: involvement of the copepod PARACARTIA grani in the life-cycle of the oyster pathogen Marteilia refringens.

    PubMed

    Audemard, C; Le, Roux F; Barnaud, A; Collins, C; Sautour, B; Sauria, P G; de, Montaudouin X; Coustau, C; Combes, C; Berthe, F

    2002-03-01

    Marteilia refringens is a major pathogen of the European flat oyster, Ostrea edulis Linnaeus. Since its description, the life-cycle of this protozoan parasite has eluded discovery. Attempts to infect oysters experimentally have been unsuccessful and led to the hypothesis of a complex life-cycle involving several hosts. Knowledge of this life-cycle is of central importance in order to manage oyster disease. However, the exploration of M. refringens life-cycle has been previously limited by the detection tools available and the tremendous number of species to be screened in enzootic areas. In this study, these two restrictions were circumvented by the use of both molecular detection tools and a mesocosm with low biodiversity. Screening of the entire fauna of the pond for M. refringens DNA was systematically undertaken using PCR. Here, we show that the copepod Paracartia (Acartia) grani is a host of M. refringens. Not only was DNA of M. refringens consistently detected in P. grani but also the presence of the parasite in the ovarian tissues was demonstrated using in situ hybridization. Finally, successful experimental transmissions provided evidence that P. grani can be infected from infected flat oysters.

  14. Plankton bioindicators of environmental conditions in coastal lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemraj, Deevesh A.; Hossain, Md A.; Ye, Qifeng; Qin, Jian G.; Leterme, Sophie C.

    2017-01-01

    Coastal lagoons are characterised by strong spatial gradient of environmental parameters, especially hypersalinity, and are prone to anthropogenic disturbance. The Coorong (South Australia) is an inverse estuarine coastal lagoon separated from the sea by sand dunes. It is exposed to extreme water quality changes that affect its aquatic communities. Here, we used plankton as indicators of extreme environmental fluctuations to monitor and manage the environmental health of such complex systems. We defined the relationship of different plankton communities with water quality fluctuations and determined plankton species suitable for monitoring the ecosystem health. Two distinct communities of phytoplankton and zooplankton were identified, with salinity and nutrients being the principal factors impacting species distribution. Thus, two sets of indicator species were selected based on the different communities observed. Polychaete and gastropod larvae were positive indicators, showing salinity range restriction of brackish to marine. The distribution Acartia cf. fancetti represented healthy hypersaline conditions (salinity 40-60), while Cyclophora sp. and Scrippsiella sp. were negative indicators, correlating with extreme salinity and ammonia levels. The implementation of planktonic organisms as environmental indicators provided a constructive tool for the management of ecosystem health of the Coorong and will be applicable to similar coastal lagoons.

  15. Retention of elements absorbed by juvenile fish (Menidia menidia, Menidia Beryllina) from zooplankton prey

    SciTech Connect

    Reinfelder, J.R.; Fisher, N.S.

    1994-12-01

    Radiolabeled copepods (Acartia spp.) were fed to juvenile silversides (Menidia menidia and Menidia beryllina) to study element absorption in the fish. Copepods were reared from nauplii in the presence of different radiotracers ({sup 14}C,{sup 109}Cd,{sup 57}Co,{sup 32}P,{sup 35}S,{sup 75}Se, o;r {sup 65}Zn) and were analyzed for relative concentrations of these elements in their tissue fractions. Copepod exoskeletons contained nearly all of the trace metals (>97%), 60% of the Se, and less than half of the C,P, and S accumulated by the copepods. Within the nonexoskeleton tissues of the copepods, nonpolar (CHCl{sub 3} extractable) material contained 34 and 24% of the total C and P, but only 8 and 2% of the total S and Se. Absorption efficiencies of trace metals in juvenile silversides (2.7% for Cd, 2.1% for Co, 6.2% for Zn) were an order of magnitude lower than those for nonmetals (29% for Se, 50% for S and C, 60% for P). The absorption efficiencies in the juvenile silversides of all seven elements studied were directly related to the percent of each element in the nonexoskeleton fractions of the copepod prey, indicating that the fish absorbed the soft tissues of the copepods and egested the chitinous exoskeleton and its associated elements. 32 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Copepod Behavioral Response to Simulated Frontal Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; True, A. C.; Weissburg, M. J.; Yen, J.; Genin, A.

    2015-11-01

    When presented with a fine-scale upwelling or downwelling shear flow in a laboratory flume, two tropical copepods from the Red Sea, Acartia negligens and Clausocalanus furcatus, performed a set of behaviors that resulted in apparent depth-keeping and the potential for producing patchiness. Analyses of free-swimming trajectories revealed a behavioral threshold shear deformation rate value of 0.05 s-1 for both species. This threshold triggered statistically significant changes in path kinematics (i.e., relative swimming speed and turn frequency) in the shear layer versus out-of-layer. Gross path characteristics (i.e., net-to-gross displacement ratio, NGDR, and proportional vicinity time, PVT) were also significantly different in the shear layer treatments compared to controls. The vertical net-to-gross displacement ratio (VNGDR) was introduced here to explain a spectrum of depth-keeping behaviors. The mean value of VNGDR significantly increased in the shear layer treatments and, coupled with excited relative swimming speeds, suggested the potential to induce large vertical transport (at the 10 cm scale of the observation). However, histograms of VNGDR revealed a bimodality, which indicated a sizable portion of the population was also displaying depth-keeping behavior. Those copepod trajectories displaying large VNGDR predominately consisted of copepods swimming against the flow, thereby resisting vertical advection, which is another potential depth-keeping mechanism.

  17. Stable Associations Masked by Temporal Variability in the Marine Copepod Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Moisander, Pia H; Sexton, Andrew D; Daley, Meaghan C

    2015-01-01

    Copepod-bacteria interactions include permanent and transient epi- and endobiotic associations that may play roles in copepod health, transfer of elements in the food web, and biogeochemical cycling. Microbiomes of three temperate copepod species (Acartia longiremis, Centropages hamatus, and Calanus finmarchicus) from the Gulf of Maine were investigated during the early summer season using high throughput amplicon sequencing. The most prominent stable component of the microbiome included several taxa within Gammaproteobacteria, with Pseudoalteromonas spp. especially abundant across copepod species. These Gammaproteobacteria appear to be promoted by the copepod association, likely benefitting from nutrient enriched microenvironments on copepods, and forming a more important part of the copepod-associated community than Vibrio spp. during the cold-water season in this temperate system. Taxon-specific associations included an elevated relative abundance of Piscirickettsiaceae and Colwelliaceae on Calanus, and Marinomonas sp. in Centropages. The communities in full and voided gut copepods had distinct characteristics, thus the presence of a food-associated microbiome was evident, including higher abundance of Rhodobacteraceae and chloroplast sequences in the transient communities. The observed variability was partially explained by collection date that may be linked to factors such as variable time since molting, gender differences, and changes in food availability and type over the study period. While some taxon-specific and stable associations were identified, temporal changes in environmental conditions, including food type, appear to be key in controlling the composition of bacterial communities associated with copepods in this temperate coastal system during the early summer.

  18. Ocean acidification challenges copepod reproductive plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vehmaa, A.; Almén, A.-K.; Brutemark, A.; Paul, A.; Riebesell, U.; Furuhagen, S.; Engström-Öst, J.

    2015-11-01

    Ocean acidification is challenging phenotypic plasticity of individuals and populations. Calanoid copepods (zooplankton) are shown to be fairly plastic against altered pH conditions, and laboratory studies indicate that transgenerational effects are one mechanism behind this plasticity. We studied phenotypic plasticity of the copepod Acartia bifilosa in the course of a pelagic, large-volume mesocosm study that was conducted to investigate ecosystem and biogeochemical responses to ocean acidification. We measured copepod egg production rate, egg hatching success, adult female size and adult female antioxidant capacity (ORAC) as a function of acidification (fCO2 ~ 365-1231 μatm), and as a function of quantity and quality of their diet. We used an egg transplant experiment to reveal if transgenerational effects can alleviate the possible negative effects of ocean acidification on offspring development. We found significant negative effects of ocean acidification on adult female copepod size and egg hatching success. In addition, we found a threshold of fCO2 concentration (~ 1000 μatm), above which adaptive maternal effects cannot alleviate the negative effects of acidification on egg hatching and nauplii development. We did not find support for the hypothesis that insufficient food quantity (total particulate carbon ~ 55 μm) or quality (C : N) weakens the transgenerational effects. However, females with high ORAC produced eggs with high hatching success. Overall, these results indicate that A. bifilosa could be affected by projected near future CO2 levels.

  19. Spatial and temporal variations of pelagic copepods in the North Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongju; Liu, Guangxing; Zhu, Yanzhong; Jiang, Qiang

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the abundance and biodiversity of pelagic copepods and their relationships with the environmental factors in the North Yellow Sea (NYS). These variations were analyzed on the basis of the survey data of the NYS in four seasons from 2006 to 2007. A total of 31 copepod species that belong to 17 genera, 13 families and 4 orders were identified in the four seasons. Of these copepods, the species belonging to Calanoida is the most abundant component. The dominant species include Calanus sinicus, Centropages abdominalis, Paracalanus parvus, Acartia bifilosa, Oithona plumifera, and Corycaeus affinis. C. sinicus is the most important and widely distributed dominant species in all of the seasons. The dominant species have not shown any significant variation for the past 50 years. However, the richness of warm-water species increased. The abundance of copepods significantly varied among different seasons: the average abundance was higher in spring (608.2 ind m-3) and summer (385.1 ind m-3) than in winter (186.5 ind m-3) and autumn (128.0 ind m-3). Factor analyses showed a high correlation between the spatial distributions of dominant copepods and environmental parameters, and Chl-a was the most important factor that influenced the distribution of copepods. This research can provide the fundamental information related to zooplankton, especially pelagic copepods. This research is also beneficial for the long-term monitoring of zooplankton ecology in the NYS.

  20. Mesozooplankton assemblage and first record of Paracartia grani Sars G.O., 1904 (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the Western harbour of Genova (Ligurian Sea).

    PubMed

    Pane, Luigi; Boccardo, Simona; Mariottini, Gian Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Harbours are characterized by high pollutant charge and by the occurrence of well adapted and resistant species. This paper reports the results of an annual plankton survey (May 1997-June 1998) carried out in the western harbour of Genova (Ligurian Sea) and in its mouth. Plankton samples were collected by horizontal trawls using a WP2 net. Copepods were the bulk of plankton in almost all samples. Eight copepod species were recognized: Paracalanus parvus and Acartia clausi were the most abundant. The first record of Paracartia grani in the harbour of Genova is here reported; this species, which is known to occur in polluted harbour waters of the Mediterranean Sea and was found in semi-confined Mediterranean and Atlantic coastal areas, was dominant during October 1997. Also Clausocalanus spp., Centropages typicus, Oithona helgolandica, Oithona nana, Farranula spp., Eurytemora spp., Isias clavipes and Lucicutia spp. were frequently sampled. Among other zooplankters, cladocerans, ostracods and tunicates occurred frequently, while cnidarians, mysids and chaetognaths showed low densities. These results show the occurrence of a well defined harbour plankton and point out the differences between harbour and neritic plankton of the Gulf of Genova.

  1. Spatial distribution of copepods along the salinity gradient of Perai river estuary, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Johan, I; Maznah, W O Wan; Mashhor, M; Abu Hena, M K; Amin, S M N

    2012-07-01

    Investigation on copepod communities in Perai river estuary was conducted from November 2005 to May 2006. Five stations were established for monthly sampling and were located from the river mouth to the upper reaches of the river. Copepod samples were collected from vertical tows using a standard zooplankton net. The Perai river estuary was slightly stratified and salinity decreases significantly from the mouth of the river towards the upper reaches of the river. A total of 28 species of copepods were recorded and comprised of 14 families, Paracalanidae, Oithonidae, Corycaeidae, Acartiidae, Calanidae, Centropagidae, Eucalanidae, Pontellidae, Pseudodiaptomidae, Tortanidae, Ectinosomatidae, Euterpinidae, Clausidiidae and Cyclopidae. A total of 10 species showed high positive affiliation towards salinity (R > 0.60), Acartia spinicauda, Euterpina acutifrons, Microsetella norvegica, Oithona nana, Oithona simplex, Paracalanus crassirostris, Paracalanus elegans, Paracalanus parvus, Pseudodiaptomus sp. and Hemicyclops sp. The copepod species Pseudodiaptomus dauglishi were negatively affiliated towards salinity (R = -0.71). The copepod assemblages classified into two distinct groups according to salinity regimes, euryhaline-polyhaline group (25 marine affiliated species) and oligohaline-mesohaline group (3 freshwater affiliated species).

  2. Projected marine climate change: effects on copepod oxidative status and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Vehmaa, Anu; Hogfors, Hedvig; Gorokhova, Elena; Brutemark, Andreas; Holmborn, Towe; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are an important link between primary producers and fish. Therefore, it is crucial to address their responses when predicting effects of climate change on pelagic ecosystems. For realistic community-level predictions, several biotic and abiotic climate-related variables should be examined in combination. We studied the combined effects of ocean acidification and global warming predicted for year 2100 with toxic cyanobacteria on the calanoid copepod, Acartia bifilosa. Acidification together with higher temperature reduced copepod antioxidant capacity. Higher temperature also decreased egg viability, nauplii development, and oxidative status. Exposure to cyanobacteria and its toxin had a negative effect on egg production but, a positive effect on oxidative status and egg viability, giving no net effects on viable egg production. Additionally, nauplii development was enhanced by the presence of cyanobacteria, which partially alleviated the otherwise negative effects of increased temperature and decreased pH on the copepod recruitment. The interactive effects of temperature, acidification, and cyanobacteria on copepods highlight the importance of testing combined effects of climate-related factors when predicting biological responses. PMID:24340194

  3. Temporal variation in copepod abundance and composition in a strong, persistent coastal upwelling zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Rachel E.; Elliott, Meredith L.; Largier, John L.; Jahncke, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Zooplankton abundance and species composition provide information on environmental variability in the ocean. While zooplankton time series span the west coast of North America, less data exist off north-central California. Here, we investigated a zooplankton time series, focusing specifically on copepods, collected within the Gulf of the Farallones-Cordell Bank area (37.5° to 38.5°N) from 2004 to 2009. Impacted by seasonally strong, persistent upwelling, this study area is located downstream of a major upwelling center (Point Arena). We found copepod abundance and species composition differed significantly, particularly between the first three years (2004-2006) and the latter three years (2007-2009) of the study. These changes were mainly observed as changes in abundance of boreal copepod species, Pseudocalanus mimus and Acartia longiremis. These taxa showed increasing abundances for the latter three years of the study (2007-2009). During the first three years of the time series, environmental measurements in the region showed lower alongshore wind stress, weaker upwelling, minimal surface alongshore flow, and warmer surface ocean temperatures. Temporal variations in copepod abundance and species composition correlated with several of these environmental measurements (e.g., surface cross-shore and alongshore flows, upwelling, and alongshore wind stress), indicating environmental forcing of primary consumers and ecosystem productivity in this strong, persistent upwelling zone.

  4. Ecological and Physiological Studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Band-Schmidt, Christine J.; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J.; López-Cortés, David J.; Gárate-Lizárraga, Ismael; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick J.; Hernández-Sandoval, Francisco E.

    2010-01-01

    This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 ºC and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions. PMID:20631876

  5. Carotenoid metabolic profiling and transcriptome-genome mining reveal functional equivalence among blue-pigmented copepods and appendicularia.

    PubMed

    Mojib, Nazia; Amad, Maan; Thimma, Manjula; Aldanondo, Naroa; Kumaran, Mande; Irigoien, Xabier

    2014-06-01

    The tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas are characterized by high water transparency and annual solar radiation. Under these conditions, a large number of phylogenetically diverse mesozooplankton species living in the surface waters (neuston) are found to be blue pigmented. In the present study, we focused on understanding the metabolic and genetic basis of the observed blue phenotype functional equivalence between the blue-pigmented organisms from the phylum Arthropoda, subclass Copepoda (Acartia fossae) and the phylum Chordata, class Appendicularia (Oikopleura dioica) in the Red Sea. Previous studies have shown that carotenoid-protein complexes are responsible for blue coloration in crustaceans. Therefore, we performed carotenoid metabolic profiling using both targeted and nontargeted (high-resolution mass spectrometry) approaches in four different blue-pigmented genera of copepods and one blue-pigmented species of appendicularia. Astaxanthin was found to be the principal carotenoid in all the species. The pathway analysis showed that all the species can synthesize astaxanthin from β-carotene, ingested from dietary sources, via 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, adonirubin or adonixanthin. Further, using de novo assembled transcriptome of blue A. fossae (subclass Copepoda), we identified highly expressed homologous β-carotene hydroxylase enzymes and putative carotenoid-binding proteins responsible for astaxanthin formation and the blue phenotype. In blue O. dioica (class Appendicularia), corresponding putative genes were identified from the reference genome. Collectively, our data provide molecular evidences for the bioconversion and accumulation of blue astaxanthin-protein complexes underpinning the observed ecological functional equivalence and adaptive convergence among neustonic mesozooplankton.

  6. Transport and coastal zooplankton communities in the northern California Current system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Hongsheng; Peterson, William T.; Strub, Paul T.

    2011-06-01

    Alongshore transport was estimated from the gridded AVISO altimeter data and water level data from NOAA tide gauges (1993-2010) for the northern California Current (NCC) system. The biomass of the cold neritic copepods including Calanus marshallae, Pseudocalanus mimus and Acartia longiremis (dominants in the eastern Bering Sea, coastal Gulf of Alaska, and NCC) was estimated from a 15 year time series of zooplankton samples (1996-2010) collected biweekly at a coastal station 9 km off Newport Oregon U.S.A. The alongshore currents and the biomass of the cold neritic copepods exhibit a strong seasonal pattern and fluctuate in opposite phase: positive alongshore current (from south) leads to low biomass in winter and negative alongshore current (from north) leads to high biomass in summer. When the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is positive, i.e., warm conditions around the northeast Pacific, there is more movement of water from the south in the NCC during winter. When the PDO is negative, there is more movement of water from the north during summer. The mean biomass of cold neritic copepods was positively correlated with the survival rate of juvenile coho salmon and cumulative transport was negatively correlated with coho salmon survival, i.e., in years when a greater portion of the source waters feeding the NCC enters from the north, the greater the salmon survival. We conclude that alongshore transport manifests PDO signals and serves as a linkage between large scale forcing to local ecosystem dynamics.

  7. The microbiome of North Sea copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdts, G.; Brandt, P.; Kreisel, K.; Boersma, M.; Schoo, K. L.; Wichels, A.

    2013-12-01

    Copepods can be associated with different kinds and different numbers of bacteria. This was already shown in the past with culture-dependent microbial methods or microscopy and more recently by using molecular tools. In our present study, we investigated the bacterial community of four frequently occurring copepod species, Acartia sp., Temora longicornis, Centropages sp. and Calanus helgolandicus from Helgoland Roads (North Sea) over a period of 2 years using DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and subsequent sequencing of 16S-rDNA fragments. To complement the PCR-DGGE analyses, clone libraries of copepod samples from June 2007 to 208 were generated. Based on the DGGE banding patterns of the two years survey, we found no significant differences between the communities of distinct copepod species, nor did we find any seasonality. Overall, we identified 67 phylotypes (>97 % similarity) falling into the bacterial phyla of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The most abundant phylotypes were affiliated to the Alphaproteobacteria. In comparison with PCR-DGGE and clone libraries, phylotypes of the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the clone libraries, whereas Alphaproteobacteria were most abundant in the PCR-DGGE analyses.

  8. Early winter mesozooplankton of the coastal south-eastern Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvoretsky, Vladimir G.; Dvoretsky, Alexander G.

    2015-01-01

    The south-eastern Barents Sea (Pechora Sea) is a little studied region of the Russian Arctic. We investigated mesozooplankton community of this area in early winter period for the first time. The study was based on collections performed with a Juday net (168 μm) in November 2010. Three types of stations differing in mesozooplankton composition and abundance were revealed by non-metric multidimensional scaling analyses. Taxa richness and diversity of the mesozooplankton were high. The total abundance and biomass varied from 931 to 4360 individuals m-3 and from 4.0 to 64.2 mg dry mass m-3, respectively. Maximum density of mesozooplankton was located in the hydrographical frontal zone where cold and warm waters interacted. Copepods dominated in terms of the total abundance. Abundances of major taxa were strongly correlated with environmental variables, of which temperature, salinity and depth were the most important. Previous studies showed that many mesozooplankton are in a dormant state during the Arctic winter from October to April. However, our investigation found young copepodites to be present for many of the common copepod species, which suggests successful reproduction of some opportunistic taxa (Pseudocalanus, Acartia, Temora, Oithona) and that the small copepod community was in an active phase. The main factor influencing possible development of the copepods in the south-eastern Barents Sea was river run-off which supplied plankton with detritus and suspended organic matter.

  9. The Yale Peabody Museum Mineral Collection: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolescu, S.; Ague, J.

    2012-12-01

    The beginnings of what became the Yale Peabody Museum (YPM) mineral collection are intimately associated with the emergence of science teaching and scientific research in the US. In 1802 Yale College graduate Benjamin Silliman was offered the first Yale "Chymistry" and Natural History professorship. In order to fulfill his academic duties he needed a mineral collection, but in 1802 only a few specimens were available to him. Through his determined efforts and with the critical support of two Yale College presidents, by 1825 Yale was in possession of what was arguably the best mineral collection in the US. The quality of the scientific education pioneered by Silliman attracted many bright students, including future pillars of 19th century science J. D. Dana, O. C. Marsh and G. J. Brush. Silliman was also the founder of an illustrious mineralogical "dynasty", members of which, starting with his son-in-law J. D. Dana and continuing with son, B. Silliman, Jr. and grandson E. S. Dana, contributed in seminal ways to the development of mineralogy. Having access to specimens collected by the Sillimans, or the many ones described in successive editions of Dana's System of Mineralogy, is a rare privilege. The YPM was founded in 1866 and the mineral collection started by Silliman became part of it. The collection has now grown to some 40,000 specimens, at least 38 of which are type minerals (roughly one percent of all presently known mineral species). Any collection is a valuable asset only if it is "alive" through use and development; hence, further enhancing the holdings of the YPM mineral collection is a continuing effort. Preservation of historic and scientifically relevant specimens is only one of many purposes served by the collection. An important intellectual value resides in the fact that many specimens are from localities lost to anthropogenic activities. The REE and U-Th bearing pegmatites at Barringer Hill, TX are such an example. Barringer Hill has been under the

  10. KSC-04PD-0269

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (left) talks with Congressman Dave Weldon (right) after a presentation about the assets of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando, as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included Congressman Tom Feeney, U.S. Representative Ric Keller, U.S. Senator Bill Nelson, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  11. KSC-04PD-0289

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. He and government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Behind OKeefe are (left to right) U.S. Senator Bill Nelson; Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida; U.S. Representative Ric Keller; Florida Congressman Tom Feeney; and Congressman Dave Weldon. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Center Director Jim Kennedy also attended the presentation.

  12. KSC-04PD-0285

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Florida Congressman Tom Feeney talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. He, NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe and government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Behind Feeney are (left to right) U.S. Senator Bill Nelson; Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida; U.S. Representative Ric Keller; Congressman Dave Weldon; and OKeefe. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Center Director Jim Kennedy also attended the presentation.

  13. Library support of mobile resources during clinical clerkships.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Alice; Light, Jeanene; Haines, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    In response to frequent use of mobile devices among medical students, Dana Medical Library at the University of Vermont provided mobile resource support to medical students preparing for clerkships. The librarians offered group instruction, individual assistance, and an online subject guide. These activities were assessed through evaluations, web statistics, and a survey. Survey questions gathered data on access to mobile devices, use of library-licensed mobile resources, and benefits and barriers to use in the clinical setting. The majority of survey respondents believed access to mobile resources improved their clerkship experience and contributed to comparable educational experiences across clerkship sites. Researchers found that library support affected student perception of the value of mobile resources in the clerkship experience.

  14. Distributional pattern and population dynamics of Excirolana armata (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) in a Uruguayan sandy beach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Alava, Anita; Defeo, Omar

    1991-11-01

    Spatial and temporal structural analysis of the isopod Excirolana armata Dana (Cirolanidae) was carried out at Barra del Chuy (Uruguay) during the period May 1988-April 1989. The role of environmental variables in controlling microspatial abundance and zonation was studied. Some aspects of the population dynamics were also determined. Greatest abundances were registered around the upper level of the swash zone. Quantitative analysis showed a strongly aggregated distribution of organisms and a differential length structure in relation to their level of occurrence in the beach; a tendency to occupy microhabitats in a narrow range of sediment penetrability and sediment water content values was also observed. E. armata showed seasonal growth with minimum growth rates during winter, increasing from spring onwards. Longevity was nearly 3 years. One recruitment event per year is suggested, with the main peak in late spring and summer.

  15. Primer and interviews: advances in targeted gene modification. Interview by Julie C. Kiefer.

    PubMed

    Caroll, Dana; Zhang, Bo

    2011-12-01

    Gene targeting in mice, first reported 25 years ago, has led to monumental advances in the understanding of basic biology and human disease. The ability to employ a similarly straightforward method for gene manipulation in other experimental organisms would make their already significant contributions all the more powerful. Here, we briefly outline the strengths and weaknesses of reverse genetics techniques in non-murine model organisms, ending with a more detailed description of two that promise to bring targeted gene modification to the masses: zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). Dana Caroll, a forefather of zinc finger technology, and Bo Zhang, among the first to introduce TALEN-targeted mutagenesis to zebrafish, discuss their experience with these techniques, and speculate about the future of the field.

  16. Featured collection introduction: contaminants of emerging concern II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Kolok, Alan; Battaglin, William; Kolok, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This collection of 13 articles focuses on CECs, and each of the articles highlights a specific aspect of this broad topic. The articles were solicited from researchers who participated in the second summer specialty conference on this topic, organized by the American Water Resources Association. The title of the conference was “CECs in Water Resources II: Research, Engineering and Community Action,” and the conference, as well as the articles in this featured collection, focus on a better and more comprehensive understanding of these contaminants. The conference was held in Denver, Colorado, on June 25-27, 2012, and approximately 125 conference attendees participated in an interdisciplinary forum of more than 75 presentations including keynote or plenary presentations by Dana Kolpin, Jorg Drewes, Heiko Schoenfuss, Chris Metcalfe, Vicki Blazer, and Tyrone Hayes. The first conference was held in 2007 and also produced a featured collection of articles (Battaglin and Kolpin, 2009).

  17. Synthesis of selective inhibitors against V. cholerae sialidase and human cytosolic sialidase NEU2.

    PubMed

    Khedri, Zahra; Li, Yanhong; Cao, Hongzhi; Qu, Jingyao; Yu, Hai; Muthana, Musleh M; Chen, Xi

    2012-08-14

    Sialidases or neuraminidases catalyze the hydrolysis of terminal sialic acid residues from sialyl oligosaccharides and glycoconjugates. Despite successes in developing potent inhibitors specifically against influenza virus neuraminidases, the progress in designing and synthesizing selective inhibitors against bacterial and human sialidases has been slow. Guided by sialidase substrate specificity studies and sialidase crystal structural analysis, a number of 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA or Neu5Ac2en) analogues with modifications at C9 or at both C5 and C9 were synthesized. Inhibition studies of various bacterial sialidases and human cytosolic sialidase NEU2 revealed that Neu5Gc9N(3)2en and Neu5AcN(3)9N(3)2en are selective inhibitors against V. cholerae sialidase and human NEU2, respectively.

  18. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  19. Florida Governor Jeb Bush joins Daniel Goldin at KSC for STS-97 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Enjoying a light moment before the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97 are NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin (left) and Florida Governor Jeb Bush (right). Between them is California Congressman Dana Rohrabacher. Guests of NASA, they viewed the launch from the Banana Creek VIP Site. Liftoff of Endeavour occurred on time at 10:06:01 p.m. EST with a crew of five. The sixth construction flight to the International Space Station, Endeavour is transporting the P6 Integrated Truss Structure that comprises Solar Array Wing-3 and the Integrated Electronic Assembly, to provide power to the Space Station. The 11-day mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  20. 4th international conference on tumor progression and therapeutic resistance: meeting report

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Varun V; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2015-01-01

    The fourth international conference on tumor progression and therapeutic resistance organized in association with GTCbio was held in Boston, MA from March 9 to 11, 2014. The meeting attracted a diverse group of experts in the field of cancer biology, therapeutics and medical oncology from academia and industry. The meeting addressed the current challenges in the treatment of cancer including tumor heterogeneity, therapy resistance and metastasis along with the need for improved biomarkers of tumor progression and clinical trial design. Keynote speakers included Clifton Leaf, Editor at Fortune Magazine, Dr. Mina Bissell from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Dr. Levi Garraway from the Dana Farber Cancer Institute. The meeting featured cutting edge tools, preclinical models and the latest basic, translational and clinical research findings in the field. PMID:25782066

  1. How Variable Is Our Delivery of Information? Approaches to Patient Education About Oral Chemotherapy in the Pediatric Oncology Clinic.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Justine M; Athale, Uma H; Clavell, Luis A; Cole, Peter D; Leclerc, Jean-Marie; Laverdiere, Caroline; Michon, Bruno; Schorin, Marshall A; Welch, Jennifer J G; Sallan, Stephen E; Silverman, Lewis B; Kelly, Kara M

    In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, adherence to oral chemotherapy relies largely on a parent's comprehension of the drug's indication and administration guidelines. We assessed how pediatric oncology providers educate families about oral chemotherapy. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 68 physicians and nurses from 9 institutions in the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Consortium. The inter-individual approach to patient education is variable and may consist of handouts, treatment calendars, and discussions. The extent of teaching often varies depending on a provider's subjective assessment of a family's needs. Twenty-five percent of providers suggested standardizing patient teaching. When developing educational models, care teams should consider approaches that (a) objectively identify families in need of extensive teaching, (b) designate allotted teaching time by nursing staff during clinic visits, and (c) maintain the variation and dynamism that informs a successful provider-patient relationship.

  2. U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon looks at the U.S. Lab Destiny in the SSPF.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, Thomas R. 'Randy' Galloway, with the Space Station Hardware Integration Office, points out a feature to U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon (right) in the U.S. Lab, called 'Destiny.' In the far background is Dana Gartzke, the congressman's chief of staff. Weldon is on the House Science Committee and vice chairman of the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee. Destiny is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the ISS, with five equipment racks aboard to provide essential functions for station systems, including high data-rate communications, and to maintain the station's orientation using control gyroscopes launched earlier. Additional equipment and research racks will be installed in the laboratory on subsequent Shuttle flights.

  3. U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon outside the U.S. Lab Destiny in the SSPF.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, U.S. Rep Dave Weldon (at left) looks at the U.S. Lab, called Destiny. With him are Thomas R. 'Randy' Galloway, with the Space Station Hardware Integration Office, Dana Gartzke, the congressman's chief of staffm and Boeing workers. Weldon is on the House Science Committee and vice chairman of the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee. Destiny is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the ISS, with five equipment racks aboard to provide essential functions for station systems, including high data-rate communications, and to maintain the station's orientation using control gyroscopes launched earlier. Additional equipment and research racks will be installed in the laboratory on subsequent Shuttle flights.

  4. U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon looks at the U.S. Lab Destiny in the SSPF.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Space Station Processing Facility, U.S. Rep. Dave Weldon (center) and his chief of staff Dana Gartzke (second from left) get a close-up look at the interior of the U.S. Lab, called 'Destiny.' Thomas R. 'Randy' Galloway (second from right), with the Space Station Hardware Integration Office, helps with their familiarization of the equipment. They are joined (far left and right) by workers from Boeing. Weldon is on the House Science Committee and vice chairman of the Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee. Destiny is scheduled to be launched on Space Shuttle Endeavour in early 2000. It will become the centerpiece of scientific research on the ISS, with five equipment racks aboard to provide essential functions for station systems, including high data-rate communications, and to maintain the station's orientation using control gyroscopes launched earlier. Additional equipment and research racks will be installed in the laboratory on subsequent Shuttle flights.

  5. [Means and methods of alternative therapy for cancer: acupuncture--the effects and mechanisms of action].

    PubMed

    Korman, D B

    2014-01-01

    Among means of alternative and complementary therapy for cancer, acupuncture holds a special place. This is because, unlike the most other methods of alternative and complementary therapy for cancer, efficacy and safety of acupuncture in the symptomatic treatment for cancer patients is considered as proven. Not accidentally such leading cancer centers in the USA as the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston, the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York, the M.D.Anderson Cancer Center in Houston integrated acupuncture in accepted in these centers treatment standards and are staffed by licensed professionals on acupuncture. Particular attention is drawn to the use of acupuncture in hospices. It is stressed that it is the most effective and safe in the performance by qualified licensed professionals

  6. Bathymetry of the southwest flank of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chadwick, William W.; Moore, James G.; Fox, Christopher G.

    1994-01-01

    Much of the seafloor topography in the map area is on the southwest submarine flank of the currently active Mauna Loa Volcano. The benches and blocky hills shown on the map were shaped by giant landslides that resulted from instability of the rapidly growing volcano. These landslides were imagined during a 1986 to 1991 swath sonar program of the United States Hawaiian Exclusive Economic Zone, a cooperative venture by the U.S. Geological Survey and the British Institute of Oceanographic Sciences (Lipman and others, 1988; Moore and others, 1989). Dana Seamount (and probably also the neighboring Day Seamount) are apparently Cretaceous in age, based on paleomagnetic studies, and predate the growth of the Hawaiian Ridge volcanoes (Sager and Pringle, 1990).

  7. The rules of engagement: Power and interaction in dialogue events.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects on the "dialogic turn," focusing on one analytical framework for understanding the wide range of processes that fall under the rubric of engagement. The notion of power-in-interaction is explored using a case study of informal dialogue, the Dana Centre, London. Using this framework I argue that we can understand public engagement events as hallmarked by conflict, but that this conflict emerges not in differing assessments of the value of different forms of knowledge but around the very form of a dialogue event; similarly, I suggest that the content of talk indicates that imposed hierarchies are continually re-negotiated. In concluding I reflect on some implications of using power in the analysis of engagement.

  8. Ask the Experts: Is there a place for placebo analgesia in everyday clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2011-05-01

    Fabrizio Benedetti, MD is Professor of Physiology and Neuroscience at the University of Turin Medical School and at the National Institute of Neuroscience, Turin, Italy. He is a nominated member of The Academy of Europe and the European Dana Alliance for the Brain. He was consultant of the Placebo Project at the NIH and member of the six-strong Placebo Study Group at Harvard University (MA, USA), and held positions at the University of California (CA, USA) and the University of Texas (TX, USA). He identified some basic mechanisms of placebo responses across a variety of medical conditions, such as the involvement of endogenous opioids in placebo analgesia and of cholecystokinin in nocebo hyperalgesia, as well as the neuronal circuit that is affected by placebos in Parkinson's disease. He is author of the book Placebo Effects (Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2008), which received the Highly Commended Book Award of the British Medical Association, and The Patient's Brain (Oxford University Press 2010).

  9. Records of deep-sea anglerfishes (Lophiiformes: Ceratioidei) from Indonesia, with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Ho, Hsuan-Ching

    2016-06-09

    An examination of the ceratioid anglerfishes collected on the Indian Ocean side of Indonesia during surveys in 2004-2005 have revealed 18 species in 9 genera and 6 families, including three new species: Cryptopsaras couesii (Ceratiidae); Melanocetus johnsonii (Melanocetidae); Diceratias trilobus, Bufoceratias microcephalus sp. nov., B. thele, B. shaoi, B. cf. wedli (Diceratiidae); Himantolophus danae, H. sagamius, H. nigricornis, H. macroceratoides (Himantolophidae); Oneirodes quadrinema sp. nov., O. amaokai sp. nov., O. carlsbergi, O. cristatus, Dermatias platynogaster, Chaenophryne cf. melanorhabdus (Oneirodidae); and Linophryne parini (Linophrynidae). Of these, specimens of B. shaoi, H. macroceratoides, O. cristatus and L. parini represent the second records since the species were described. A specimen of H. nigricornis represents the third record and a specimen of Dermatias platynogaster represents the fourth record. Descriptive data and notes on the geographical distribution and morphological variation are provided for each species.

  10. Benthic harpacticoid copepods of Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lin; Li, Xinzheng

    2016-09-01

    The species richness of benthic harpacticoid copepod fauna in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, on the southern coast of Shandong Peninsula, has not been comprehensively studied. We present a preliminary inventory of species for this region based on material found in nine sediment samples collected from 2011 to 2012. Our list includes 15 species belonging to 15 genera in 9 families, the most speciose family was the Miraciidae Dana, 1846 (seven species); all other families were represented by single species only. Sediment characteristics and depth are determined to be important environmental determinants of harpacticoid distribution in this region. We briefly detail the known distributions of species and provide a key to facilitate their identification. Both harpacticoid species richness and the species/genus ratio in Jiaozhou Bay are lower than in Bohai Gulf and Gwangyang Bay. The poor knowledge of the distribution of benthic harpacticoids, in addition to low sampling effort in Jiaozhou Bay, likely contribute to low species richness.

  11. Three new species of chewing lice of the genus Emersoniella Tendeiro, 1965 (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) from Papua New Guinean kingfishers and kookaburras (Aves: Coraciiformes: Alcedinidae).

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Daniel R; Bush, Sarah E

    2014-05-20

    Three new species of the ischnoceran louse genus Emersoniella (Phthiraptera) are described from four species of New Guinean kingfishers and kookaburras (Coraciiformes: Alcedinidae: Halcyoninae). They are: Emersoniella crassicarina n. sp. ex Dacelo gaudichaud Quoy & Gaimard (rufous-bellied kookaburra) and Dacelo leachii intermedia Salvadori (blue-winged kookaburra); E. reninoda n. sp. ex Melidora macrorrhina macrorhina Lesson (hook-billed kingfisher); and E. persei n. sp. ex Tanysiptera danae Sharpe (brown-headed paradise-kingfisher). In addition, we illustrate Emersoniella regis Emerson & Price, Emersoniella halcyonis Tendeiro, and the male genitalia of Emersoniella galateae Emerson & Price, as well as provide a complete host-louse checklist, and an updated key to all seven species of this genus. 

  12. Three Species of odonata Observed at TA-3 in September 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Foy, Bernard R.; Hathcock, Charles Dean

    2016-04-14

    The spatial distribution of odonates (dragonflies and damselflies) in northern New Mexico is only partly known. Information about the occurrence of species is currently being accumulated by professional and amateur biologists. Los Alamos National Laboratory has a considerable amount of suitable habitat for odonates. With effort, it is likely that many species will be discovered in Los Alamos County that have yet to be documented, which would aid in general knowledge about odonate distribution and habitat needs. We report the occurrence of three species of odonates at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the autumn season of 2015. Foy visited the location on 2 September 2015 and discovered two Black Meadowhawk dragonflies (Sympetrum danae). The authors returned on 10 September 2015 and photographed one individual. We also photographed a Striped Meadowhawk (Sympetrum pallipes) and a Black-fronted Forktail (Ischnura denticollis), the latter being a damselfly.

  13. Gain weight by "going diet?" Artificial sweeteners and the neurobiology of sugar cravings: Neuroscience 2010.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing

    2010-06-01

    America's obesity epidemic has gathered much media attention recently. A rise in the percent of the population who are obese coincides with an increase in the widespread use of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, such as aspartame (e.g., Diet Coke) and sucralose (e.g., Pepsi One), in food products (Figure 1). Both forward and reverse causalities have been proposed. While people often choose "diet" or "light" products to lose weight, research studies suggest that artificial sweeteners may contribute to weight gain. In this mini-review, inspired by a discussion with Dr. Dana Small at Yale's Neuroscience 2010 conference in April, I first examine the development of artificial sweeteners in a historic context. I then summarize the epidemiological and experimental evidence concerning their effects on weight. Finally, I attempt to explain those effects in light of the neurobiology of food reward.

  14. Gravity anomalies in Silurian pinnacle reef trend, southwestern Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Malinconico, L.L. Jr.; Gognat, T.A.; Scher, P.L. )

    1989-08-01

    Structures produced over the top or along the margins of Silurian Pinnacle reefs have proven to be the source of significant oil production in the eastern Illinois basin. The authors have been able to refine gravity methods that can assist in the exploration of such reef targets. A gravity/density model was developed by combining the 1980 work of Dana at the Wilfred pool (Sullivan County, Indiana) with other lithologic and log data in southwestern Indiana. This model includes the density differences between the reef facies and surrounding lithologies as well as density variations that are the result of compaction of the sedimentary sequence above the reef. The density models suggest that positive gravity anomalies with amplitude between 1.5 to 2.5 mgals might occur over the reefs.

  15. Shallow water marine gammaridean amphipods of Pulau Tioman, Malaysia, with the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Azman, B.A.R.; Othman, B.H.R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Eleven taxa including one new species of gammaridean amphipods are reported from the waters of Pulau Tioman. The presence of Tethygeneia sunda sp. n. represents the first record of the genus from the South China Sea. Additional material of Ampelisca brevicornis (Costa, 1853); Cymadusa vadosa Imbach, 1967; Paradexamine setigera Hirayama, 1984; Ericthonius pugnax (Dana, 1853); Leucothoe furina (Savigny, 1816); Microlysias xenokeras (Stebbing, 1918); Monoculodes muwoni Jo, 1990 are identified from the South China Sea, supporting previous records by Lowry (2000), Huang (1994), Imbach (1967), Margulis (1968) and Nagata (1959). Three additional species, Gitanopsis pusilla K.H. Barnard, 1916, Liljeborgia japonica Nagata, 1965b and Latigammaropsis atlantica (Stebbing, 1888), whilst previously reported from the neighbouring waters, comprise new records for the South China Sea. PMID:24146563

  16. Message from the Conference Chairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Sanjay; Perera, Unil

    2015-05-01

    We were very excited to host the 8th International Workshop on Quantum Structure Infrared Photodetectors (QSIP 2014), in picturesque Santa Fe, New Mexico from June 29th-July 3rd, 2014. This followed successful QSIP conferences at Dana Point (2000), Torino (2002), Kananaskis (2004), Kandy (2006), Yosimite (2009), Istanbul (2010) and Corsica (2012). The QSIP workshop is a high level scientific conference that aims to bring together scientists, engineers, industrial organizations, students and users in order to discuss recent advances, and to share the "State of the Art" in this field. QSIP conferences provide an international forum for attendees to present and discuss progress in infrared device physics and modeling, materials growth and processing issues, focal plane array development and characterization.

  17. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension in adult patients with congenital heart disease].

    PubMed

    Serino, G; Giacomazzi, F

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) is definited by a mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAPm) >25 mmHg at rest. The Dana Point 2008 Revised Classification System represents the most recent classification system update with respect of various etiologies of PH. About 10 % of adolescents or adults with uncorrected congenital heart disease (CHD) with left-to-right shunt and high pulmonary blood flow develop Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) . Progressive vascular remodeling and increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) may ultimately lead to reversal of the shunt (pulmonary to systemic) causing cyanosis and determining the so-called Eisenmenger Syndrome (ES). Recent advances in the early diagnosis and medical targeted treatment of adult patients with CHD-PAH and ES can improve PAP, PVR and exercise tolerance, together with NYHA Class and survival, and may potentially reverse the vascular remodeling process in selected patients.

  18. Cataclysms and controversy -- aspects of the geomorphology of the Columbia River Gorge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, Jim; Burns, Scott; Madin, Ian; Dorsey, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Landslides and floods of lava and water tremendously affected the Columbia River during its long history of transecting the Cascade Volcanic Arc. This field trip touches on aspects of the resulting geology of the scenic Columbia River Gorge, including the river-blocking Bonneville landslide of ~550 years ago and the great late- Pleistocene Missoula floods. Not only did these events create great landscapes, but they inspired great geologists. Mid-nineteenth century observations of the Columbia River and Pacific Northwest by James Dwight Dana and John Strong Newberry helped germinate the “school of fluvial” erosion later expanded upon by the southwestern United States topographic and geologic surveys. Later work on features related to the Missoula floods framed the career of J Harlen Bretz in one of the great geologic controversies of the twentieth century.

  19. KSC-04PD-0283

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. U.S. Senator Bill Nelson talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. He, NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe and other government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Behind Nelson are (left to right) Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida; Florida Congressman Tom Feeney; U.S. Representative Ric Keller; Congressman Dave Weldon and OKeefe. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Center Director Jim Kennedy also attended the presentation.

  20. KSC-04PD-0268

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe gestures during a discussion with Florida government leaders about the location for NASAs new Shared Services Center. At left of OKeefe is U.S. Senator Bill Nelson; at right is Congressman Dave Weldon. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The Florida location being proposed is of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. Others attending the presentation included Congressman Tom Feeney, U.S. Representative Ric Keller, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  1. KSC-04PD-0273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (left) talks to U.S. Representative Ric Keller across the table after a presentation about the assets of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando, as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. In the center is U.S. Congressman Dave Weldon. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included Florida Congressman Tom Feeney, Congressman Dave Weldon, U.S. Senator Bill Nelson, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  2. KSC-04PD-0279

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. U.S. Senator Bill Nelson (center) and NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe are deep in conversation as they leave the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. Behind Nelson at left is Congressman Tom Feeney. The research park is being proposed as the location for NASAs new Shared Services Center. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included U.S. Representative Ric Keller, Congressman Dave Weldon, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  3. KSC-04PD-0264

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Florida Congressman Tom Feeney (left) and U.S. Senator Bill Nelson (right) listen to a presentation about the assets of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando, as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included Congressman Dave Weldon, U.S. Representative Ric Keller, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  4. KSC-04PD-0276

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe discusses the presentation about the assets of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando, as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included Florida Congressman Tom Feeney, Congressman Dave Weldon, U.S. Representative Ric Keller, U.S. Senator Bill Nelson, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  5. KSC-04PD-0272

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. U.S. Representative Ric Keller (center) talks to NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (left foreground) about the assets of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando, as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. At left behind OKeefe is Congressman Dave Weldon. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included Florida Congressman Tom Feeney, U.S. Senator Bill Nelson, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  6. KSC-04PD-0278

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. U.S. Senator Bill Nelson (left front) and NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (right front) leave the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. Behind Nelson (at left) is Congressman Tom Feeney. The research park is being proposed as the location for NASAs new Shared Services Center. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included U.S. Representative Ric Keller, Congressman Dave Weldon, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  7. KSC-04PD-0281

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. He and government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Behind OKeefe are (left to right) Florida Congressman Tom Feeney; U.S. Representative Ric Keller; and Congressman Dave Weldon. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included U.S. Senator Bill Nelson, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  8. KSC-04PD-0262

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA and government officials are gathered to hear about the assets of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando, as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration. At the far end is NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe. He is flanked, on the left, by Florida Congressman Tom Feeney and U.S. Senator Bill Nelson; and on the right by U.S. Congressman Dave Weldon and U.S. Representative Ric Keller. In the foreground, at left, is Center Director Jim Kennedy. At right is Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida. The center would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus.

  9. KSC-04PD-0284

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Congressman Dave Weldon talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. He, NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe and other government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Behind Weldon are (left to right) U.S. Senator Bill Nelson; Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida; and Florida Congressman Tom Feeney; at right is OKeefe. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Center Director Jim Kennedy also attended the presentation.

  10. KSC-04PD-0254

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. KSC Director Jim Kennedy makes a presentation to NASA and other officials about the benefits of locating NASAs new Shared Services Center in the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. At the far left is Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida. Central Florida leaders are proposing the research park as the site for the NASA Shared Services Center. The center would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration by NASA.

  11. KSC-04PD-0291

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. After talking to the media, NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (left) speaks to Congressman Dave Weldon (center) and Florida Congressman Tom Feeney (right). OKeefe and government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included U.S. Senator Bill Nelson, U.S. Representative Ric Keller, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  12. KSC-04PD-0286

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. U.S. Representative Ric Keller talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. He, NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe and government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Behind Keller are (left to right) U.S. Senator Bill Nelson; Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida; Florida Congressman Tom Feeney; Congressman Dave Weldon; and OKeefe. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Center Director Jim Kennedy also attended the presentation.

  13. KSC-04PD-0266

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. U.S. Senator Bill Nelson (center) makes a point while talking to NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (right) about the assets of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando, as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included Congressman Tom Feeney, Congressman Dave Weldon, U.S. Representative Ric Keller, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  14. KSC-04PD-0290

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. He and government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Behind OKeefe are (left to right) Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida; U.S. Representative Ric Keller; Florida Congressman Tom Feeney; and Congressman Dave Weldon. At right is Mike Rein, division chief of KSC External Affairs. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included U.S. Senator Bill Nelson and Center Director Jim Kennedy.

  15. KSC-04PD-0267

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (left) talks with Congressman Dave Weldon (right) after a presentation about the assets of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando, as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included Congressman Tom Feeney, U.S. Representative Ric Keller, U.S. Senator Bill Nelson, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  16. KSC-04PD-0287

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. He and government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Behind OKeefe are (left to right) Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida; and Florida Congressman Tom Feeney. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included U.S. U.S. Senator Bill Nelson, U.S. Representative Ric Keller, Congressman Dave Weldon and Center Director Jim Kennedy.

  17. KSC-04PD-0277

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. U.S. Senator Bill Nelson (left foreground) and NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (right) look deep in conversation as they leave the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. Behind Nelson is Congressman Tom Feeney and Center Director Jim Kennedy. The research park is being proposed as the location for NASAs new Shared Services Center. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included U.S. Representative Ric Keller, Congressman Dave Weldon and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  18. KSC-04PD-0265

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Congressman Dave Weldon listens to a presentation about the assets of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando, as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included Congressman Tom Feeney, U.S. Representative Ric Keller, U.S. Senator Bill Nelson, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  19. KSC-04PD-0271

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Congressman Tom Feeney (left) makes a point during a discussion around the table about the assets of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando, as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. At center is U.S. Senator Bill Nelson; at right is NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included Congressman Dave Weldon, U.S. Representative Ric Keller, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  20. KSC-04PD-0288

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. He and government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. On the left is Center Director Jim Kennedy. On the right are U.S. Senator Bill Nelson; Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida; and U.S. Representative Ric Keller . Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included Florida Congressman Tom Feeney and Congressman Dave Weldon.

  1. KSC-04PD-0275

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (center) talks to U.S. Senator Bill Nelson (left) after a presentation about the assets of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando, as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included Florida Congressman Tom Feeney, Congressman Dave Weldon, U.S. Representative Ric Keller, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  2. KSC-04PD-0270

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. After a presentation about the assets of the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando, as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center, Congressmen Tom Feeney (center) and Dave Weldon (right) share a humorous moment with NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe (foreground). Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included Congressman Dave Weldon, U.S. Representative Ric Keller, Center Director Jim Kennedy and Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida.

  3. KSC-04PD-0280

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. NASA Administrator Sean OKeefe talks to the media at the Central Florida Research Park, near Orlando. He and government officials were at the park for a presentation about the assets of the research park as the site of NASAs new Shared Services Center. Behind OKeefe are (left to right) Pamella J. Dana, Ph.D., director, Office of Tourism, Trade, and Economic Development in Florida; Florida Congressman Tom Feeney; U.S. Representative Ric Keller; and Congressman Dave Weldon. At right is Mike Rein, division chief of KSC External Affairs. Six sites around the U.S. are under consideration for location of the Center, which would centralize NASAs payroll, accounting, human resources, facilities and procurement offices that are now handled at each field center. The consolidation is part of the One NASA focus. Others attending the presentation included U.S. Senator Bill Nelson and Center Director Jim Kennedy.

  4. Heliophysics: Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2009-07-01

    Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliunas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index.

  5. Heliophysics: Plasma Physics of the Local Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2011-08-01

    Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index.

  6. Critical review of Ayurvedic Varṇya herbs and their tyrosinase inhibition effect

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Khemchand; Joshi, Namrata; Goyal, Chinky

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aspiration for light skin (fair complexion) is becoming pronounced in a greater number of people in the present times with natural products being more in demand than their synthetic counterparts. Research in the area of skin-lightening agents is an expanding field with the knowledge being updated regularly. In Ayurveda, varṇya, raktaprasādana, tvacya are few terms specifying skin lightening with respect to its modern counterpart i.e., Tyrosinase inhibition, the most commonly reported method of skin lightening. Aim: The present review is undertaken for screening twenty herbs from Varṇya Mahākaṣāya, Lodhrādi varṇya gaṇa, Elādi varṇa prasādana gaṇa and few varṇya formulations to evaluate their probable modes of action through which the skin lightening is effected as per both Ayurveda and biomedical concepts. Materials and Methods: Critical review of herbs to show varṇya property is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts as well as from multiple articles on the internet to justify their skin lightening property on the basis of data collected. Result and Conclusion: All the twenty herbs reviewed are found to act as varṇya directly (citation as varṇya) or indirectly (alleviation of pitta and rakta) as per Ayurveda and to interfere in melanogenesis pathway through tyrosinase inhibition as per biomedicine. This shows their potential to act as good skin whitening agents. Śuṇṭhi being a part of many varṇya formulations, is the only herb among all reviewed in the present study found to exhibit tyrosinase inhibition without any Ayurvedic citation of varṇya property. PMID:26600663

  7. Structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from the Auto-Correlation of Ambient Seismic Noise Recorded at a Dense Seismometer Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, D. G.; Rost, S.; Houseman, G.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years the technique of cross-correlating the ambient seismic noise wavefield at two seismometers to reconstruct empirical Green's Functions for the determination of Earth structure has been a powerful tool to study the Earth's interior without earthquake or man-made sources. However, far less attention has been paid to using auto-correlations of seismic noise to reveal body wave reflections from interfaces in the subsurface. In principle, the Green's functions thus derived should be comparable to the Earth's impulse response to a co-located source and receiver. We use data from a dense seismic array (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA) deployed across the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the region of the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake in western Turkey. The NAFZ is a major strike-slip system that extends ~1200 km across northern Turkey and continues to pose a high level of seismic hazard, in particular to the mega-city of Istanbul. We construct reflection images for the entire crust and upper mantle over the ~35 km by 70 km footprint of the 70-station DANA array. Using auto-correlations of vertical and horizontal components of ground motion, both P- and S-wave velocity information can be retrieved from the wavefield to constrain crustal structure further to established methods. We show that clear P-wave reflections from the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) can be retrieved using the autocorrelation technique, indicating topography on the Moho on horizontal scales of less than 10 km. Offsets in crustal structure can be identified that seem to be correlated with the surface expression of the fault zone in the region. The combined analysis of auto-correlations using vertical and horizontal components will lead to further insight into the fault zone structure throughout the crust and upper mantle.

  8. Structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone from the Autocorrelation of Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, George; Rost, Sebastian; Houseman, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    In recent years the technique of cross-correlating the ambient seismic noise wavefield at two seismometers to reconstruct empirical Green's Functions for the determination of Earth structure has been a powerful tool to study the Earth's interior without earthquakes or man-made sources. However, far less attention has been paid to using auto-correlations of seismic noise to reveal body wave reflections from interfaces in the subsurface. In principle, the Green's functions thus derived should be comparable to the Earth's impulse response to a co-located source and receiver. We use data from a dense seismic array (Dense Array for Northern Anatolia - DANA) deployed across the northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ) in the region of the 1999 magnitude 7.6 Izmit earthquake in western Turkey. The NAFZ is a major strike-slip system that extends ~1200 km across northern Turkey and continues to pose a high level of seismic hazard, in particular to the mega-city of Istanbul. We construct body wave images for the entire crust and the shallow upper mantle over the ~35 km by 70 km footprint of the 70-station DANA array. Using autocorrelations of the vertical component of ground motion, P-wave reflections can be retrieved from the wavefield to constrain crustal structure. We show that clear P-wave reflections from the crust-mantle boundary (Moho) can be retrieved using the autocorrelation technique, indicating topography on the Moho on horizontal scales of less than 10 km. Offsets in crustal structure can be identified that seem to be correlated with the surface expression of the northern branch of the fault zone, indicating that the NAFZ reaches the upper mantle as a narrow structure. The southern branch has a less clear effect on crustal structure. We also see evidence of several discontinuities in the mid-crust in addition to an upper mantle reflector that we interpret to represent the Hales discontinuity.

  9. Variability of the Southern California wave climate and implications for sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, J. P.; Noble, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed wave and wind data from 18 buoys in the Southern California Bight to characterize the spatial and temporal variability of the regional wave climate. Point Conception shelters most of the Bight from being directly impacted by North Pacific weather. The wave height inside the sheltered zone and to the east of the Channel Islands is less than half the wave height in the open ocean to the west. Within the sheltered Bight, storm waves (by proxy of being greater than the 95th percentile wave height for more than 6 hours) are mainly from the west, but long period swells (Tp >15 seconds) are mainly from the south-southwest. There are on average two to four storms during each winter month (November-March) and fewer than two storms per month for the rest of the year. The Channel Islands selectively block the westerly swells and make the wave climate in the Santa Barbara Channel different from the rest of the sheltered Bight. A statistically significant wave-height minimum exists in the area offshore Dana Point and Oceanside. The multiyear (2-23 years) wave-data records from all 18 buoys show negligible temporal trend, positive or negative. Like the wave climate, the long-term probability of sediment transport on the continental shelves of the Bight displays large difference between the sheltered and open-ocean (near Point Conception) sites. The return period of incipient sediment motion on the sheltered shelf breaks (one to five months) is at least two orders of magnitude longer than that on the Point Conception shelf break (0.6 day). Similar to the spatial distribution of wave heights, there is a systematic return-period maximum on the shelf off Dana Point and Oceanside. ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  10. Temporal variation in photosynthetic pigments and UV-absorbing compounds in shallow populations of two Hawaiian reef corals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuffner, I.B.

    2005-01-01

    As we seek to understand the physiological mechanisms of coral bleaching, it is important to understand the background temporal variation in photosynthetic pigments and photoprotective compounds that corals exhibit. In this study, reef flat populations of two hermatypic coral species, Montipora capitata (Dana, 1846) and Porites compressa Dana, 1846, were sampled monthly in Kane'ohe Bay, Hawai'i, from January 1998 to March 1999. Surface ultraviolet radiation (UVR) was measured continually during this time period at the same location. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of photosynthetic pigments and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) revealed temporal changes in concentrations and proportions of these compounds in tissues of both species of coral. Chlorophyll a (chl a), chlorophyll c2 (chl c2), peridinin, and diadinoxanthin concentrations changed on a skeletal weight (M. capitata) or surface area (P. compressa) basis, significantly correlating with seasonal changes in solar input (number of days from the winter solstice). In P. compressa, diadinoxanthin increased in proportion to the total pigment pool during summer months, suggesting an up-regulation of a xanthophyll cycle. In M. capitata, the ratio of chl a: chl c2 decreased during winter months, suggesting photoacclimation to lower light levels. It is surprising that there was not a clear seasonal pattern in total MAA concentration for either species, with the exception of shinorine in P. compressa. The relative stability of MAA concentrations over the course of the year despite a pronounced seasonal trend in UVR suggests either that MAAs are not performing a photoprotective role in these species or that concentrations are kept at a threshold level in the presence of a dynamic light environment. ?? 2005 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  11. Real time enzyme inhibition assays provide insights into differences in binding of neuraminidase inhibitors to wild type and mutant influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Susan; Mohr, Peter G; Schmidt, Peter M; McKimm-Breschkin, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    The influenza neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors zanamivir, oseltamivir and peramivir were all designed based on the knowledge that the transition state analogue of the cleaved sialic acid, 2-deoxy,2,3-dehydro N-acetyl neuraminic acid (DANA) was a weak inhibitor of NA. While DANA bound rapidly to the NA, modifications leading to the improved potency of these new inhibitors also conferred a time dependent or slow binding phenotype. Many mutations in the NA leading to decreased susceptibility result in loss of slow binding, hence this is a phenotypic marker of many but not all resistant NAs. We present here a simplified approach to determine whether an inhibitor is fast or slow binding by extending the endpoint fluorescent enzyme inhibition assay to a real time assay and monitoring the changes in IC(50)s with time. We carried out two reactions, one with a 30 min preincubation with inhibitor and the second without. The enzymatic reaction was started via addition of substrate and IC(50)s were calculated after each 10 min interval up to 60 min. Results showed that without preincubation IC(50)s for the wild type viruses started high and although they decreased continuously over the 60 min reaction time the final IC(50)s remained higher than for pre-incubated samples. These results indicate a slow equilibrium of association and dissociation and are consistent with slow binding of the inhibitors. In contrast, for viruses with decreased susceptibility, preincubation had minimal effect on the IC(50)s, consistent with fast binding. Therefore this modified assay provides additional phenotypic information about the rate of inhibitor binding in addition to the IC(50), and critically demonstrates the differential effect of incubation times on the IC(50) and K(i) values of wild type and mutant viruses for each of the inhibitors.

  12. Efficacy and Toxicity of Chemoradiotherapy Using Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Unknown Primary of Head and Neck

    SciTech Connect

    Sher, David J.; Balboni, Tracy A.; Haddad, Robert I.; Norris, Charles M.; Posner, Marshall R.; Wirth, Lori J.; Goguen, Laura A.; Annino, Donald; Tishler, Roy B.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: No single standard treatment paradigm is available for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma of an unknown primary (HNCUP). Bilateral neck radiotherapy with mucosal axis irradiation is widely used, with or without chemotherapy and/or surgical resection. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is a highly conformal method for delivering radiation that is becoming the standard of care and might reduce the long-term treatment-related sequelae. We report the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute experience with IMRT-based treatment for HNCUP. Patients and Materials: A retrospective study of all patients treated at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute for HNCUP with IMRT between August 2004 and January 2009. The primary endpoint was overall survival; the secondary endpoints were locoregional and distant control, and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: A total of 24 patients with HNCUP were included. Of these patients, 22 had Stage N2 disease or greater. All patients underwent neck computed tomography, positron emission tomography-computed tomography, and examination under anesthesia with directed biopsies. Of the 24 patients, 22 received concurrent chemotherapy, and 7 (29%) also underwent induction chemotherapy. The median involved nodal dose was 70 Gy, and the median mucosal dose was 60 Gy. With a median follow-up of 2.1 years, the 2-year actuarial overall survival and locoregional control rate was 92% and 100%, respectively. Only 25% of the patients had Grade 2 xerostomia, although 11 patients (46%) required esophageal dilation for stricture. Conclusion: In a single-institution series, IMRT-based chemoradiotherapy for HNCUP was associated with superb overall survival and locoregional control. The xerostomia rates were promising, but the aggressive therapy was associated with significant rates of esophageal stenosis.

  13. Revision of the Malagasy genus Trichoteleia Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae)

    PubMed Central

    Talamas, Elijah J.; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The species of the genus Trichoteleia Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) are revised: 42 species are recognized, of which two were previously named and are redescribed: Trichoteleia afo Talamas, sp. n., Trichoteleia albidipes Kieffer, Trichoteleia bicolor Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia bidentata Talamas sp. n.; Trichoteleia carinata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia cincta Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia delilah Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia eburata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia echinata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia fisheri Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia funesta Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia halterata Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia hemlyae Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia irwini Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia janus Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia jiro Talamas, sp. n.; T. ketrona Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia levii Talamas & Johnson, sp. n.; Trichoteleia longiventris Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia minima Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia nify Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia oculea Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia orona Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia parvipennis Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia pauliani (Risbec); Trichoteleia picturata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia prima Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia prolixa Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia quazii Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia ravaka Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia rugifrons Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia solocis Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia sphaerica Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia subtilis Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tahotra Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia takariva Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tezitra Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tigris Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tonsa Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia warreni Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia xantrox Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia zuparkoi Talamas & Masner, sp. n. A neotype is designated for Trichoteleia albidipes and a lectotype is designated for Trichoteleia pauliani. PMID

  14. Revision of the Malagasy genus Trichoteleia Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Platygastroidea, Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Talamas, Elijah J; Masner, Lubomír; Johnson, Norman F

    2011-02-16

    The species of the genus Trichoteleia Kieffer (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) are revised: 42 species are recognized, of which two were previously named and are redescribed: Trichoteleia afo Talamas, sp. n., Trichoteleia albidipes Kieffer, Trichoteleia bicolor Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia bidentata Talamas sp. n.; Trichoteleia carinata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia cincta Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia delilah Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia eburata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia echinata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia fisheri Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia funesta Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia halterata Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia hemlyae Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia irwini Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia janus Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia jiro Talamas, sp. n.; T. ketrona Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia levii Talamas & Johnson, sp. n.; Trichoteleia longiventris Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia minima Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia nify Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia oculea Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia orona Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia parvipennis Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia pauliani (Risbec); Trichoteleia picturata Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia prima Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia prolixa Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia quazii Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia ravaka Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia rugifrons Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia solocis Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia sphaerica Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia subtilis Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tahotra Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia takariva Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tezitra Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tigris Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia tonsa Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia warreni Talamas & Masner, sp. n.; Trichoteleia xantrox Talamas, sp. n.; Trichoteleia zuparkoi Talamas & Masner, sp. n. A neotype is designated for Trichoteleia albidipes and a lectotype is designated for Trichoteleia pauliani.

  15. Mnemiopsis leidyi (Ctenophora) in Narragansett Bay, 1975-1979: Abundance, size composition and estimation of grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deason, Ellen E.

    1982-08-01

    Surveys of the distribution, abundance and size of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were carried out in Narragansett Bay, R.I. over a 5-year period, 1975-1979. Yearly variations were observed in time of initiation of the ctenophore increase and maximum abundance. Biomass maxima ranged from 0·2 to 3 g dry weight m -3 at Station 2 in lower Narragansett Bay while maximum abundance varied from 20 to 100 animals m -3. Ctenophores less than 1 cm in length generally composed up to 50% of the biomass and 95% of the numerical abundance during the peak of the M. leidyi pulse. During the 1978 maxima and the declining stages of the pulse each year, 100% of the population was composed of small animals. M. leidyi populations increased earlier, reached greater maximum abundances, and were more highly dominated by small animals in the upper bay than toward the mouth of the bay. The averageclearance rate of M. leidyi larvae feeding on A. tonsa at 22°C was 0·36 l mg -1 dry weight day -1, with apparent selection for nauplii relative to copepodites. Predation and excretion rates applied to ctenophore biomass estimated for Narragansett Bay indicated that M. leidyi excretion is minor but predation removed a bay-wide mean of 20% of the zooplankton standing stock daily during August of 1975 and 1976. Variation in M. leidyi predation at Station 2 was inversely related to mean zooplankton biomass during August and September, which increased 4-fold during the 5-year period.

  16. Characterization and analysis of ribosomal proteins in two marine calanoid copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feifei; Xu, Donghui; Zhuang, Yunyun; Huang, Yousong; Yi, Xiaoyan; Chen, Hongju; Liu, Guangxing; Zhang, Huan

    2016-11-01

    Copepods are among the most abundant and successful metazoans in the marine ecosystem. However, genomic resources related to fundamental cellular processes are still limited in this particular group of crustaceans. Ribosomal proteins are the building blocks of ribosomes, the primary site for protein synthesis. In this study, we characterized and analyzed the cDNAs of cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (cRPs) of two calanoid copepods, Pseudodiaptomus poplesia and Acartia pacifica. We obtained 79 cRP cDNAs from P. poplesia and 67 from A. pacifica by cDNA library construction/sequencing and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Analysis of the nucleic acid composition showed that the copepod cRP-encoding genes had higher GC content in the protein-coding regions (CDSs) than in the untranslated regions (UTRs), and single nucleotide repeats (>3 repeats) were common, with "A" repeats being the most frequent, especially in the CDSs. The 3'-UTRs of the cRP genes were significantly longer than the 5'-UTRs. Codon usage analysis showed that the third positions of the codons were dominated by C or G. The deduced amino acid sequences of the cRPs contained high proportions of positively charged residues and had high pI values. This is the first report of a complete set of cRP-encoding genes from copepods. Our results shed light on the characteristics of cRPs in copepods, and provide fundamental data for further studies of protein synthesis in copepods. The copepod cRP information revealed in this study indicates that additional comparisons and analysis should be performed on different taxonomic categories such as orders and families.

  17. Automated identification of copepods using digital image processing and artificial neural network

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Copepods are planktonic organisms that play a major role in the marine food chain. Studying the community structure and abundance of copepods in relation to the environment is essential to evaluate their contribution to mangrove trophodynamics and coastal fisheries. The routine identification of copepods can be very technical, requiring taxonomic expertise, experience and much effort which can be very time-consuming. Hence, there is an urgent need to introduce novel methods and approaches to automate identification and classification of copepod specimens. This study aims to apply digital image processing and machine learning methods to build an automated identification and classification technique. Results We developed an automated technique to extract morphological features of copepods' specimen from captured images using digital image processing techniques. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to classify the copepod specimens from species Acartia spinicauda, Bestiolina similis, Oithona aruensis, Oithona dissimilis, Oithona simplex, Parvocalanus crassirostris, Tortanus barbatus and Tortanus forcipatus based on the extracted features. 60% of the dataset was used for a two-layer feed-forward network training and the remaining 40% was used as testing dataset for system evaluation. Our approach demonstrated an overall classification accuracy of 93.13% (100% for A. spinicauda, B. similis and O. aruensis, 95% for T. barbatus, 90% for O. dissimilis and P. crassirostris, 85% for O. similis and T. forcipatus). Conclusions The methods presented in this study enable fast classification of copepods to the species level. Future studies should include more classes in the model, improving the selection of features, and reducing the time to capture the copepod images. PMID:26678287

  18. Defining habitats suitable for larval fish in the German Bight (southern North Sea): An IBM approach using spatially- and temporally-resolved, size-structured prey fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Wilfried; Peck, Myron A.; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Daewel, Ute; Moll, Andreas; Pohlmann, Thomas; Stegert, Christoph; Tamm, Susanne

    2008-11-01

    We employed a coupled biological-physical, individual-based model (IBM) to estimate spatial and temporal changes in larval fish habitat suitability (the potential for areas to support survival and high rates of growth) of the German Bight, southern North Sea. In this Lagrangian approach, larvae were released into a size-structured prey field that was constructed from in situ measurements of the abundance and prosome lengths of stages of three copepods ( Acartia spp., Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus elongatus) collected on a station grid repeatedly sampled from February to October 2004. The choice of prey species and the model parameterisations for larval fish foraging and growth were based on field data collected for sprat ( Sprattus sprattus) and other clupeid larvae. A series of 10-day simulations were conducted using 20 release locations to quantify spatial-temporal differences in projected larval sprat growth rates (mm d - 1) for mid-April, mid-May and mid-June 2004. Based upon an optimal foraging approach, modeled sprat growth rates agreed well with those measured in situ using larval fish ototliths. On the German GLOBEC station grid, our model predicted areas that were mostly unsuitable habitats (areas of low growth potential), e.g. north of the Frisian Islands, and others that were consistently suitable habitats (areas that had high growth potential), e.g. in the inner German Bight. In some instances, modelled larvae responded rapidly (~ 5 days) to changing environmental characteristics experienced along their drift trajectory, a result that appears reasonable given the dynamic nature of frontal regions such as our study area in the southern North Sea.

  19. Seasonal variation in community structure and body length of dominant copepods around artificial reefs in Xiaoshi Island, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaohong; Liang, Zhenlin; Zou, Jixin; Wang, Longxiang

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the seasonal variations in copepod community structure and prosome length of dominant species from March 2009 to January 2010 around artificial reefs in Xiaoshi Island, Yellow Sea, Weihai, China. Samples were collected using two types of plankton net (Model I and Model II) for different-sized copepods. The number of taxon was calculated from the data of both the net types, while the copepod abundance was done using the samples from Model II only. Sixteen species of planktonic copepods, including 5 dominant species, were recorded. Results reveal that Oithona similis was the first dominant species from March to June, and was replaced by Paracalanus parvus in September; both dominated the copepod community in January. Acartia hongi was the second dominant species from March to September. Centropages abdominalis was the third dominant species from March to June, and was replaced by O. similis in September and Corycaeus affinis in January. C. affinis was the fourth dominant species in September. Population density of the dominant copepods was compared with that of other similar regions. We found that the dominant species were mostly small copepods (<1 mm) except for adult Centrapages abdominalis. Seasonal variation in prosome length of O. similis, C. abdominalis, and C. affinis, and their copepodites were studied for the first time in China. For P. parvus and A. hongi, seasonal trends in prosome length variation were similar with those in Jiaozhou Bay, Yellow Sea, Qingdao, China, in a similar temperate domain. The results are helpful for future calculation of copepod biomass and production, and for investigation of the relationship between copepods and fish resources.

  20. Questioning the role of phenology shifts and trophic mismatching in a planktonic food web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Angus; Harmer, Rachel A.; Widdicombe, Claire E.; McEvoy, Andrea J.; Smyth, Tim J.; Cummings, Denise G.; Somerfield, Paul J.; Maud, Jacqueline L.; McConville, Kristian

    2015-09-01

    In a warming climate, differential shifts in the seasonal timing of predators and prey have been suggested to lead to trophic "mismatches" that decouple primary, secondary and tertiary production. We tested this hypothesis using a 25-year time-series of weekly sampling at the Plymouth L4 site, comparing 57 plankton taxa spanning 4 trophic levels. During warm years, there was a weak tendency for earlier timings of spring taxa and later timings of autumn taxa. While this is in line with many previous findings, numerous exceptions existed and only a few taxa (e.g. Gyrodinium spp., Pseudocalanus elongatus, and Acartia clausi) showed consistent, strong evidence for temperature-related timing shifts, revealed by all 4 of the timing indices that we used. Also, the calculated offsets in timing (i.e. "mismatches") between predator and prey were no greater in extreme warm or cold years than during more average years. Further, the magnitude of these offsets had no effect on the "success" of the predator, in terms of their annual mean abundance or egg production rates. Instead numerous other factors override, including: inter-annual variability in food quantity, high food baseline levels, turnover rates and prolonged seasonal availability, allowing extended periods of production. Furthermore many taxa, notably meroplankton, increased well before the spring bloom. While theoretically a chronic mismatch, this likely reflects trade-offs for example in predation avoidance. Various gelatinous taxa (Phaeocystis, Noctiluca, ctenophores, appendicularians, medusae) may have reduced these predation constraints, with variable, explosive population outbursts likely responding to improved conditions. The match-mismatch hypothesis may apply for highly seasonal, pulsed systems or specialist feeders, but we suggest that the concept is being over-extended to other marine systems where multiple factors compensate.