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Sample records for accelerate drying process

  1. Accelerated dry curing of hams.

    PubMed

    Marriott, N G; Kelly, R F; Shaffer, C K; Graham, P P; Boling, J W

    1985-01-01

    Uncured pork legs from the right side of 18 carcasses were treated with a Ross Tenderizer and the left side were controls. All 36 samples were dry-cured for 40, 56 or 70 days and evaluated for appearance traits, cure penetration characteristics, microbial load, Kramer Shear force and taste attributes. The tenderization treatment had no effect (P > 0·05) on visual color or cure penetration rate, weight loss before curing, percentage moisture, nitrate level, nitrite level, total plate count, anaerobic counts, psychrotrophic counts, objective and subjective tenderness measurements or juiciness. However, the higher values of salt suggested a possible acceleration of the dry cure penetration process among the tenderized samples. Cure time had no effect (P > 0·05) on percentage moisture, percentage salt, nitrate content, nitrite content, shear force and juiciness. Results suggest a limited effect of the mechanical tenderization process on certain traits related to dry curing and that total process time should be at least 70 days if color stability during cooking is desired. PMID:22056076

  2. Effect of the drying process on the intensification of phenolic compounds recovery from grape pomace using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Rajha, Hiba N; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G; Maroun, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications.

  3. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Rajha, Hiba N.; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G.; Maroun, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications. PMID:25322155

  4. Freeze-drying simulation framework coupling product attributes and equipment capability: toward accelerating process by equipment modifications.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Arnab; Alexeenko, Alina A; Schultz, Steven G; Kim, Sherry G

    2013-10-01

    A physics-based model for the sublimation-transport-condensation processes occurring in pharmaceutical freeze-drying by coupling product attributes and equipment capabilities into a unified simulation framework is presented. The system-level model is used to determine the effect of operating conditions such as shelf temperature, chamber pressure, and the load size on occurrence of choking for a production-scale dryer. Several data sets corresponding to production-scale runs with a load from 120 to 485 L have been compared with simulations. A subset of data is used for calibration, whereas another data set corresponding to a load of 150 L is used for model validation. The model predictions for both the onset and extent of choking as well as for the measured product temperature agree well with the production-scale measurements. Additionally, we study the effect of resistance to vapor transport presented by the duct with a valve and a baffle in the production-scale freeze-dryer. Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques augmented with a system-level unsteady heat and mass transfer model allow to predict dynamic process conditions taking into consideration specific dryer design. CFD modeling of flow structure in the duct presented here for a production-scale freeze-dryer quantifies the benefit of reducing the obstruction to the flow through several design modifications. It is found that the use of a combined valve-baffle system can increase vapor flow rate by a factor of 2.2. Moreover, minor design changes such as moving the baffle downstream by about 10 cm can increase the flow rate by 54%. The proposed design changes can increase drying rates, improve efficiency, and reduce cycle times due to fewer obstructions in the vapor flow path. The comprehensive simulation framework combining the system-level model and the detailed CFD computations can provide a process analytical tool for more efficient and robust freeze-drying of bio-pharmaceuticals.

  5. Ultrasonic Drying Processing Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, V.; Bon, J.; Riera, E.; Pinto, A.

    The design of a high intensity ultrasonic chamber for drying process was investigated. The acoustic pressure distribution in the ultrasonic drying chamber was simulated solving linear elastic models with attenuation for the acoustic-structure interaction. Together with the government equations, the selection of appropriate boundary conditions, mesh refinement, and configuration parameters of the calculation methods, which is of great importance to simulate adequately the process, were considered. Numerical solution, applying the finite element method (FEM), of acoustic-structure interactions involves to couple structural and fluid elements (with different degrees of freedom), whose solution implies several problems of hardware requirements and software configuration, which were solved. To design the drying chamber, the influence of the directivity of the drying open camera and the staggered reflectors over the acoustic pressure distribution was analyzed. Furthermore, to optimize the influence of the acoustic energy on the drying process, the average value of the acoustic energy distribution in the drying chamber was studied. This would determine the adequate position of the food samples to be dried. For this purpose, the acoustic power absorbed by the samples will be analyzed in later studies.

  6. Accelerator simulation of astrophysical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombrello, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    Phenomena that involve accelerated ions in stellar processes that can be simulated with laboratory accelerators are described. Stellar evolutionary phases, such as the CNO cycle, have been partially explored with accelerators, up to the consumption of He by alpha particle radiative capture reactions. Further experimentation is indicated on reactions featuring N-13(p,gamma)O-14, O-15(alpha, gamma)Ne-19, and O-14(alpha,p)F-17. Accelerated beams interacting with thin foils produce reaction products that permit a determination of possible elemental abundances in stellar objects. Additionally, isotopic ratios observed in chondrites can be duplicated with accelerator beam interactions and thus constraints can be set on the conditions producing the meteorites. Data from isotopic fractionation from sputtering, i.e., blasting surface atoms from a material using a low energy ion beam, leads to possible models for processes occurring in supernova explosions. Finally, molecules can be synthesized with accelerators and compared with spectroscopic observations of stellar winds.

  7. Diffusive Shock Acceleration and Reconnection Acceleration Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.; Hunana, P.; Mostafavi, P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Li, Gang; Webb, G. M.; Khabarova, O.; Cummings, A.; Stone, E.; Decker, R.

    2015-12-01

    Shock waves, as shown by simulations and observations, can generate high levels of downstream vortical turbulence, including magnetic islands. We consider a combination of diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) and downstream magnetic-island-reconnection-related processes as an energization mechanism for charged particles. Observations of electron and ion distributions downstream of interplanetary shocks and the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) are frequently inconsistent with the predictions of classical DSA. We utilize a recently developed transport theory for charged particles propagating diffusively in a turbulent region filled with contracting and reconnecting plasmoids and small-scale current sheets. Particle energization associated with the anti-reconnection electric field, a consequence of magnetic island merging, and magnetic island contraction, are considered. For the former only, we find that (i) the spectrum is a hard power law in particle speed, and (ii) the downstream solution is constant. For downstream plasmoid contraction only, (i) the accelerated spectrum is a hard power law in particle speed; (ii) the particle intensity for a given energy peaks downstream of the shock, and the distance to the peak location increases with increasing particle energy, and (iii) the particle intensity amplification for a particular particle energy, f(x,c/{c}0)/f(0,c/{c}0), is not 1, as predicted by DSA, but increases with increasing particle energy. The general solution combines both the reconnection-induced electric field and plasmoid contraction. The observed energetic particle intensity profile observed by Voyager 2 downstream of the HTS appears to support a particle acceleration mechanism that combines both DSA and magnetic-island-reconnection-related processes.

  8. Accelerated subcritical drying of large alkoxide silica gels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiho; Kirkbir, Fikret; Chaudhuri, S. R.; Sarkar, Arnab

    1992-12-01

    Fracture during drying has been the key hurdle in fabrication of large monolithic silica glass from alkoxide gels. Although existing literature suggests pore enlargement, aging, chemical additives, supercritical drying and freeze drying as helpful in avoiding fracture during drying, successful accelerated sub-critical drying of large silica monoliths from alkoxide gels has not yet been reported. In the present approach, acid catalyzed sols of TEOS, ethanol and water (pH equals 2) were cast as cylindrical rods in plastic molds of 8.0 and 10.0 cm diameter with volumes of 2000 cc and 3000 cc respectively. The resultant gels were aged for about 7 days and dried in a specially designed chamber under sub-critical conditions of the pore field. We have obtained monolithic dry gels in drying times of 3 - 7 days for sizes of 2000 - 3000 cc. The dry gels have narrow unimodal pore size distributions, with average pore radius of about 20 angstroms as measured by BET. Although capillary stress during drying increases with reduction of pore size, it was found that in this approach it is easier to dry gels of smaller pore size.

  9. Accelerated stochastic diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbaczewski, Piotr

    1990-07-01

    We give a purely probabilistic demonstration that all effects of non-random (external, conservative) forces on the diffusion process can be encoded in the Nelson ansatz for the second Newton law. Each random path of the process together with a probabilistic weight carries a phase accumulation (complex valued) weight. Random path summation (integration) of these weights leads to the transition probability density and transition amplitude respectively between two spatial points in a given time interval. The Bohm-Vigier, Fenyes-Nelson-Guerra and Feynman descriptions of the quantum particle behaviours are in fact equivalent.

  10. Non isothermal drying process optimisation - Drying of clay tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasić, M.; Radojević, Z.

    2015-11-01

    In our previous studies we have developed a model for determination of the variable effective diffusivity and identification of the exact transition points between possible drying mechanisms. The next goal was to develop a drying regime which could in advance characterize the real non isothermal process of drying clay tiles. In order to do this four isothermal experiments were recorded. Temperature and humidity were maintained at 350C / 75%; 450C / 70%; 450C / 60% and 500C / 60%; respectively in each experiment. All experimentally collected data were analyzed and the exact transition points between possible drying mechanisms were detected. Characteristic drying period (time) for each isothermal drying mechanism was also detected. The real, non-isothermal drying process was approximated by 5 segments. In each of these segments approximately isothermal drying condition were maintained. Temperature and humidity of the drying air, in the first four segments, was maintained on the same level as in recorded isothermal experiments while in the fifth segment, it were maintained at 700C / 40%. The duration of the first four segments were calculated from the diagrams Deff - t respectively for each experiment. The clay tile in experiment five was dried without cracking using the proposed non isothermal drying regime.

  11. ESS Accelerator Cryoplant Process Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Arnold, P.; Hees, W.; Hildenbeutel, J.; Weisend, J. G., II

    2015-12-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron-scattering facility being built with extensive international collaboration in Lund, Sweden. The ESS accelerator will deliver protons with 5 MW of power to the target at 2.0 GeV, with a nominal current of 62.5 mA. The superconducting part of the accelerator is about 300 meters long and contains 43 cryomodules. The ESS accelerator cryoplant (ACCP) will provide the cooling for the cryomodules and the cryogenic distribution system that delivers the helium to the cryomodules. The ACCP will cover three cryogenic circuits: Bath cooling for the cavities at 2 K, the thermal shields at around 40 K and the power couplers thermalisation with 4.5 K forced helium cooling. The open competitive bid for the ACCP took place in 2014 with Linde Kryotechnik AG being selected as the vendor. This paper summarizes the progress in the ACCP development and engineering. Current status including final cooling requirements, preliminary process design, system configuration, machine concept and layout, main parameters and features, solution for the acceptance tests, exergy analysis and efficiency is presented.

  12. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying. Yearly report

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  13. EUV extendibility via dry development rinse process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayan, Safak; Zheng, Tao; De Simone, Danilo; Vandenberghe, Geert

    2016-03-01

    Conventional photoresist processing involves resist coating, exposure, post-exposure bake, development, rinse and spin drying of a wafer. DDRP mitigates pattern collapse by applying a special polymer material (DDRM) which replaces the exposed/developed part of the photoresist material before wafer is spin dried. As noted above, the main mechanism of pattern collapse is the capillary forces governed by surface tension of rinse water and its asymmetrical recession from both sides of the lines during the drying step of the develop process. DDRP essentially eliminates these failure mechanisms by replacing remaining rinse water with DDRM and providing a structural framework that support resist lines from both sides during spin dry process. Dry development rinse process (DDRP) eliminates the root causes responsible for pattern collapse of photoresist line structures. Since these collapse mechanisms are mitigated, without the need for changes in the photoresist itself, achievable resolution of the state-of-the-art EUV photoresists can further be improved.

  14. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  15. Optimization of drying process parameters for cauliflower drying.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Sehgal, V K; Arora, Sadhna

    2013-02-01

    The different sizes (3, 4 and 5 cm) of hybrid variety of cauliflower (variety no. 71) were dehydrated in thin layer at three temperatures of 55, 60 and 65 °C with velocities of 40, 50 and 60 m/min. Dehydrated samples were analyzed for vitamin C, rehydration ratio and browning. Statistical analysis indicated that drying time was dependent on initial size of cauliflower, drying air temperature and velocity, but rehydration ratio was significantly affected by the combined effect of temperature and airflow velocity. Vitamin C content of the dried cauliflower samples were significantly affected by temperature only and non enzymatic browning was function of temperature, airflow velocity, and combined effect of temperature and airflow velocity. Optimization of the drying process parameters for the given constraints resulted in 60.10(0)C, 59.28 m/min, 3.35 cm. The predicted responses for the optimized combination of process parameters were time, vitamin C content, rehydration ratio, and browning values of 491.22 min (time), 289.86 mg/100 g (Vitamin C), 6.91 ( rehydration ratio), and 0.14 (browning), respectively with the desirability factor of 0.787. PMID:24425888

  16. Maximal acceleration and radiative processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papini, Giorgio

    2015-08-01

    We derive the radiation characteristics of an accelerated, charged particle in a model due to Caianiello in which the proper acceleration of a particle of mass m has the upper limit 𝒜m = 2mc3/ℏ. We find two power laws, one applicable to lower accelerations, the other more suitable for accelerations closer to 𝒜m and to the related physical singularity in the Ricci scalar. Geometrical constraints and power spectra are also discussed. By comparing the power laws due to the maximal acceleration (MA) with that for particles in gravitational fields, we find that the model of Caianiello allows, in principle, the use of charged particles as tools to distinguish inertial from gravitational fields locally.

  17. Natural denitrification in drying process of dew

    SciTech Connect

    Takenaka, Norimichi; Suzue, Takahiko; Ohira, Kingo; Bandow, Hiroshi; Maeda, Yasuki; Morikawa, Tazuko

    1999-05-01

    This report is the first observation of natural chemical denitrification in the drying process of dew. Nitrogen compounds released in the atmosphere are considered to be subjected to oxidation to form nitric acid by the chemical process so far. The results here show that nitrous acid is reduced to N{sub 2} by drying of dew. Dew was collected at Osaka Prefecture University in Sakai City, Japan from 1996 to 1997. Concentrations of ammonium and nitrite ions in dew were very high related to those in rain, and pHs of dew were relatively high, pH ca. 6.5. The authors found that when dew was dried, most nitrite and ammonium ions included in dew were decomposed. It is well-known that concentrated ammonium nitrite aqueous solution is unstable and decomposes to N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. During the drying process of dew, nitrite and ammonium would be concentrated and react to form N{sub 2}, and as a result, nitrite and ammonia in the dried dew are lost, that is, natural denitrification occurs in the drying process of dew. The authors report here results of the natural denitrification.

  18. Pore scale processes in dry soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Almost all soils experience regular drought and rewetting events. Yet most of our understanding of soil processes focuses on the moist periods, when plants are growing and nutrients are actively cycling. Yet, as soils dry, processes continue, yet change. Microbes shift their metabolic pathways from growth to survival, producing extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), sporulating, and going dormant. Under dry conditions, biotic processes are constrained but abiotic, chemical processes continue potentially altering soil aggregation and structure; in clayey California annual grassland & woodland soils pools of bioavailable water extractable organic carbon (WEOC) increase as does microbial biomass. Finally at rewetting, the pulse of water mobilizes resources, stimulates microbial activity and produces a flush of respiration and nutrient mineralization that can mobilize resources that had been previously inaccessible. One question that has driven much research has been where the organic matter comes from that drives these processes. We had hypothesized that the source of C for the dry-season increases was from the previous winter's dead roots, but field experiments where we maintained plots plant-free for two years showed no decline in the production of WEOC, nor in the early-season respiration pulses following rewetting. In this presentation, we will discuss recent work integrating measurements on aggregation (driven both by biotic and abiotic processes), EPS production, and the dynamics of WEOC and microbial biomass and how they function differently under dry and moist conditions.

  19. Experiment specific processing of residual acceleration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Alexander, J. I. D.

    1992-01-01

    To date, most Spacelab residual acceleration data collection projects have resulted in data bases that are overwhelming to the investigator of low-gravity experiments. This paper introduces a simple passive accelerometer system to measure low-frequency accelerations. Model responses for experiments using actual acceleration data are produced and correlations are made between experiment response and the accelerometer time history in order to test the idea that recorded acceleration data and experimental responses can be usefully correlated. Spacelab 3 accelerometer data are used as input to a variety of experiment models, and sensitivity limits are obtained for particular experiment classes. The modeling results are being used to create experiment-specific residual acceleration data processing schemes for interested investigators.

  20. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on a sheet-fed pilot-scale shoe press to compare impulse drying and double-felted pressing. Both an IPST (Institute of Paper Science and Technology) ceramic coated and Beloit Type A press roll were evaluated for lienrboard sheet structures having a wide range of z-direction permeability. Purpose was to find ways of correcting sheet sticking problems observed in previous pilot-scale shoe press experiments. Results showed that impulse drying was superior to double felted pressing in both press dryness and in important paper physical properties. Impulse drying critical temperature was found to depend on specific surface of the heated layer of the sheet, thermal properties of the press roll surface, and choice of felt. Impulse drying of recycled and two-ply liner was demonstrated for both Southern Pile and Douglas fir-containing furnishes.

  1. Dry Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    K. M. Goff; M. F. Simpson

    2009-09-01

    Dry (non-aqueous) separations technologies have been used for treatment of used nuclear fuel since the 1960s, and they are still being developed and demonstrated in many countries. Dry technologies offer potential advantages compared to traditional aqueous separations including: compactness, resistance to radiation effects, criticality control benefits, compatibility with advanced fuel types, and ability to produce low purity products. Within the Department of Energy’s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, an electrochemical process employing molten salts is being developed for recycle of fast reactor fuel and treatment of light water reactor oxide fuel to produce a feed for fast reactors. Much of the development of this technology is based on treatment of used Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) fuel, which is metallic. Electrochemical treatment of the EBR-II fuel has been ongoing in the Fuel Conditioning Facility, located at the Materials and Fuel Complex of Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. More than 3.8 metric tons of heavy metal of metallic fast reactor fuel have been treated using this technology. This paper will summarize the status of electrochemical development and demonstration activities with used nuclear fuel, including high-level waste work. A historic perspective on the background of dry processing will also be provided.

  2. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinev, D.

    2009-03-01

    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  3. Improved Energy and Processing Efficiencies of Strawberry Drying Using Sequential Infrared Freeze-Drying Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberries are rich in nutrients but highly perishable. Freeze-drying is an excellent dehydration method for strawberry preservation. However, freeze-drying is an expensive dehydration process due to slow drying rates, high capital operating costs and low energy efficiency. Strawberry slice wei...

  4. Overview and system analysis of various sewage sludge drying processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kasakura, T.; Imoto, Y.; Mori, T. )

    1993-01-01

    An incineration process is routinely used in Japan to treat nearly all the generated sewage sludge. The drying process now is recognized as an important part of the pretreatment process of a incineration process. This pater provides a brief introduction to the conventionally utilized drying methods/equipment (i.e, hot gas drying fluidized bed drying, pneumatic conveyor drying, and steam drying) for treating dewatered sludge cakes. In addition, a systems analysis approach is described which is used to model various thermal processing methods which include the drying process. This allows the parameters which most significantly affect plant operation and initial construction costs and also energy recovery efficiency to be optimized and clarified.

  5. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria.

  6. Exergetic simulation of a combined infrared-convective drying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza

    2016-04-01

    Optimal design and performance of a combined infrared-convective drying system with respect to the energy issue is extremely put through the application of advanced engineering analyses. This article proposes a theoretical approach for exergy analysis of the combined infrared-convective drying process using a simple heat and mass transfer model. The applicability of the developed model to actual drying processes was proved using an illustrative example for a typical food.

  7. Accelerating an iterative process by explicit annihilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jespersen, D. C.; Buning, P. G.

    1985-01-01

    A slowly convergent stationary iterative process can be accelerated by explicitly annihilating (i.e., eliminating) the dominant eigenvector component of the error. The dominant eigenvalue or complex pair of eigenvalues can be estimated from the solution during the iteration. The corresponding eigenvector or complex pair of eigenvectors can then be annihilated by applying an explicit Richardson process over the basic iterative method. This can be done entirely in real arithmetic by analytically combining the complex conjugate annihilation steps. The technique is applied to an implicit algorithm for the calculation of two dimensional steady transonic flow over a circular cylinder using the equations of compressible inviscid gas dynamics. This demonstrates the use of explicit annihilation on a nonlinear problem.

  8. Accelerating an iterative process by explicit annihilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jespersen, D. C.; Buning, P. G.

    1983-01-01

    A slowly convergent stationary iterative process can be accelerated by explicitly annihilating (i.e., eliminating) the dominant eigenvector component of the error. The dominant eigenvalue or complex pair of eigenvalues can be estimated from the solution during the iteration. The corresponding eigenvector or complex pair of eigenvectors can then be annihilated by applying an explicit Richardson process over the basic iterative method. This can be done entirely in real arithmetic by analytically combining the complex conjugate annihilation steps. The technique is applied to an implicit algorithm for the calculation of two dimensional steady transonic flow over a circular cylinder using the equations of compressible inviscid gas dynamics. This demonstrates the use of explicit annihilation on a nonlinear problem.

  9. Neurocomputing approaches to modelling of drying process dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, W.; Strumillo, P.; Tomczak, E.

    1998-07-01

    The application of artificial neural networks to mathematical modeling of drying kinetics, degradation kinetics and smoothing of experimental data is discussed in the paper. A theoretical foundation of drying process description by means of artificial neural networks is presented. Two network types are proposed for drying process modelling, namely the multilayer perceptron network and the radial basis functions network. These were validated experimentally for fresh green peals and diced potatoes which represent diverse food products. Network training procedures based on experimental data are explained. Additionally, the proposed neural network modelling approach is tested on drying experiments of silica gel saturated with ascorbic acid solution.

  10. Accelerated corrosion of steel in dry-cast reinforced concrete pipes after initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Brian William

    Instrumented dry-cast reinforced concrete pipe (DC-RCP) specimens in which corrosion of the reinforcing steel had initiated were selected to accelerate the corrosion. Type C and type F DC-RCP were used. An anodic current density of various magnitudes (0.5 muA/cm2, 1 muA/cm2 and 2.5 muA/cm2) was applied during the corrosion propagation stage. The specimens were placed in high humidity and selected specimens were later covered with wet sand. Selected specimens were terminated for visual examination and gravimetric analysis. Typically, the reinforcement potentials during the accelerated corrosion period were more negative for F specimens compared to C specimens. The C specimens experienced ~2x more corrosion than the F specimens. The accumulated corrosion products did not cause cracks. A method was developed that allows for modest corrosion acceleration during the corrosion propagation stage of DC-RCP.

  11. Technical and economical considerations of new DRI melting process

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Shuzo; Tokuda, Koji; Sammt, F.; Gray, R.

    1997-12-31

    The new DRI melting process can effectively and economically produce high quality molten iron. This process utilizes hot charging of DRI directly from a reduction furnace into a dedicated new melting furnace. The molten iron from this DRI premelter can be charged into a steelmaking furnace, such as an electric arc furnace (EAF), where the molten iron, together with other iron sources, can be processed to produce steel. Alternatively the molten iron can be pigged or granulated for off-site merchant sales. Comprehensive research and development of the new process has been conducted including operational process simulation, melting tests using FASTMET DRI, slag technology development, and refractory corrosion testing. This paper describes the process concept, its operational characteristics and further applications of the process.

  12. Substantial improvement of nanotube processability by freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Maugey, M; Neri, W; Zakri, C; Derré, A; Pénicaud, A; Noé, L; Chorro, M; Launois, P; Monthioux, M; Poulin, P

    2007-08-01

    As-produced carbon nanotubes often contain a fraction of impurities such as metal catalysts, inorganic supports, and carbon by-products. These impurities can be partially removed by using acidic dissolution. The resulting nanotube materials have to be dried to form a powder. The processability of nanotubes subjected to regular (thermal vaporisation) drying is particularly difficult because capillary forces pack and stick the nanotubes irreversibly, which limits their dispersability in polymeric matrices or solvents. We show that this dramatic limitation can be circumvented by using freeze-drying instead of regular-drying during nanotube purification process. In this case, the nanotubes are trapped in frozen water which is then sublimated. As a result the final powder is significantly less compact and, more important, the nanotubes can be easily dispersed with no apparent aggregates, thereby greatly enhancing their processability, e.g., they can be used to make homogeneous composites and fibers. Results from coagulation spinning from water-based dispersions of regularly-dried and freeze-dried nanotubes are compared. We also show that freeze-dried materials, in contrast to regularly-dried materials, can be dissolved in organic polar solvents using alkali-doped nanotubes. High resolution TEM and XRD analysis demonstrate that the nanotube structure and quality are not affected at the nanoscale by freeze-drying treatments. PMID:17685277

  13. Modeling of electrohydrodynamic drying process using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Dalvand, Mohammad Jafar; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Rafiee, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Energy consumption index is one of the most important criteria for judging about new, and emerging drying technologies. One of such novel and promising alternative of drying process is called electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying. In this work, a solar energy was used to maintain required energy of EHD drying process. Moreover, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to build a predictive model in order to investigate the combined effects of independent variables such as applied voltage, field strength, number of discharge electrode (needle), and air velocity on moisture ratio, energy efficiency, and energy consumption as responses of EHD drying process. Three-levels and four-factor Box–Behnken design was employed to evaluate the effects of independent variables on system responses. A stepwise approach was followed to build up a model that can map the entire response surface. The interior relationships between parameters were well defined by RSM. PMID:24936289

  14. Analysis of problems with dry fermentation process for biogas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilát, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Jandačka, Jozef

    2012-04-01

    The technology of dry anaerobic fermentation is still meeting with some scepticism, and therefore in most biogas plants are used wet fermentation technology. Fermentation process would be not complete without an optimal controlled condition: dry matter content, density, pH, and in particular the reaction temperature. If is distrust of dry fermentation eligible it was on the workplace of the Department of Power Engineering at University of Zilina built an experimental small-scale biogas station that allows analysis of optimal parameters of the dry anaerobic fermentation, in particular, however, affect the reaction temperature on yield and quality of biogas.

  15. Characterisation of Aronia powders obtained by different drying processes.

    PubMed

    Horszwald, Anna; Julien, Heritier; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges connected with the preservation of the highest possible quality of fruit products obtained after processing. Attention has been drawn to Aronia fruits due to numerous health promoting properties of their products. However, processing of Aronia, like other berries, leads to difficulties that stem from the preparation process, as well as changes in the composition of bioactive compounds. Consequently, in this study, Aronia commercial juice was subjected to different drying techniques: spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum drying with the temperature range of 40-80 °C. All powders obtained had a high content of total polyphenols. Powders gained by spray drying had the highest values which corresponded to a high content of total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, cyaniding-3-glucoside and total proanthocyanidins. Analysis of the results exhibited a correlation between selected bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, drying techniques have an impact on selected quality parameters, and different drying techniques cause changes in the content of bioactives analysed. Spray drying can be recommended for preservation of bioactives in Aronia products. Powder quality depends mainly on the process applied and parameters chosen. Therefore, Aronia powders production should be adapted to the requirements and design of the final product. PMID:23871034

  16. Characterisation of Aronia powders obtained by different drying processes.

    PubMed

    Horszwald, Anna; Julien, Heritier; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges connected with the preservation of the highest possible quality of fruit products obtained after processing. Attention has been drawn to Aronia fruits due to numerous health promoting properties of their products. However, processing of Aronia, like other berries, leads to difficulties that stem from the preparation process, as well as changes in the composition of bioactive compounds. Consequently, in this study, Aronia commercial juice was subjected to different drying techniques: spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum drying with the temperature range of 40-80 °C. All powders obtained had a high content of total polyphenols. Powders gained by spray drying had the highest values which corresponded to a high content of total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, cyaniding-3-glucoside and total proanthocyanidins. Analysis of the results exhibited a correlation between selected bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, drying techniques have an impact on selected quality parameters, and different drying techniques cause changes in the content of bioactives analysed. Spray drying can be recommended for preservation of bioactives in Aronia products. Powder quality depends mainly on the process applied and parameters chosen. Therefore, Aronia powders production should be adapted to the requirements and design of the final product.

  17. Improved shelf life of dried Beauveria bassiana blastospores using convective drying and active packaging processes.

    PubMed

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Behle, Robert W; Kobori, Nilce N; Júnior, Ítalo Delalibera

    2016-10-01

    The yeast form (blastospore) of the dimorphic insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can be rapidly produced using liquid fermentation methods but is generally unable to survive rapid dehydration processes or storage under non-refrigerated conditions. In this study, we evaluated the influence of two convective drying methods, various modified atmosphere packaging systems, and storage temperatures on the desiccation tolerance, storage stability, and virulence of blastospores of B. bassiana ESALQ 1432. All blastospore formulations were dried to <5 % water content equivalent to aw < 0.3. The viability of B. bassiana blastospores after air drying and spray drying was greater than 80 %. Vacuum-packaged blastospores remained viable longer when stored at 4 °C compared with 28 °C with virtually no loss in viability over 9 months regardless the drying method. When both oxygen and moisture scavengers were added to sealed packages of dried blastospore formulations stored at 28 °C, viability was significantly prolonged for both air- and spray-dried blastospores. The addition of ascorbic acid during spray drying did not improve desiccation tolerance but enhanced cell stability (∼twofold higher half-life) when stored at 28 °C. After storage for 4 months at 28 °C, air-dried blastospores produced a lower LC80 and resulted in higher mortality to whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) when compared with spray-dried blastospores. These studies identified key storage conditions (low aw and oxygen availability) that improved blastospore storage stability at 28 °C and will facilitate the commercial development of blastospores-based bioinsecticides. PMID:27198727

  18. Copper post-CMP cleaning process on a dry-in/dry-out tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basak, Sanjay; Grief, Malcolm; Gupta, Anand; Murella, Krishna; VanDevender, Barrie

    1998-09-01

    Metal Chemical Mechanical Planarization (CMP) and post CMP cleaning have continued to increase in importance in semiconductor manufacturing. The introduction of copper metallization into semiconductor manufacturing processes has created a need for integrating CMP and cleaning tools, as well as a demand for the development of novel cleaning solutions. One system designed for integrated CMP processing and cleaning, commonly referred to as dry-in/dry-out CMP, is the SpeedFam Auriga C. The Auriga C integrates a widely used polishing tool together with a proven cleaning technique. The key to the operation of the Auriga C cleaning process is the effective operation of the PVA brush cleaners, water track transport, final jet rinse and high-speed spinner dryer. The effective operation of the cleaning mechanism for copper post- CMP cleaning requires the use of new chemical solutions. Typical solutions used for post process cleaning of more mature CMP processes are either ineffective for cleaning or chemically incompatible with the copper process. This paper discusses the cleaning mechanism used in an integrated dry- in/dry-out tool and demonstrates an effective and novel cleaning solution for use with this type of post-CMP cleaning process.

  19. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying operations. 590.547 Section 590.547 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process...

  20. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying operations. 590.547 Section 590.547 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process...

  1. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying operations. 590.547 Section 590.547 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process...

  2. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying operations. 590.547 Section 590.547 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process...

  3. Accelerating Aerobic Sludge Granulation by Adding Dry Sewage Sludge Micropowder in Sequencing Batch Reactors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Liu, Jun; Wang, Danjun; Chen, Tao; Ma, Ting; Wang, Zhihong; Zhuo, Weilong

    2015-08-01

    Micropowder (20-250 µm) made from ground dry waste sludge from a municipal sewage treatment plant was added in a sequencing batch reactor (R2), which was fed by synthetic wastewater with acetate as carbon source. Compared with the traditional SBR (R1), aerobic sludge granulation time was shortened 15 days in R2. Furthermore, filamentous bacteria in bulking sludge were controlled to accelerate aerobic granulation and form large granules. Correspondingly, the SVI decreased from 225 mL/g to 37 mL/g. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis demonstrated that Al and Si from the micropowder were accumulated in granules. A mechanism hypotheses for the acceleration of aerobic granulation by adding dry sludge micropowder is proposed: added micropowder acts as nuclei to induce bacterial attachment; dissolved matters from the micropowder increase abruptly the organic load for starved sludge to control overgrown filamentous bacteria as a framework for aggregation; increased friction from the movement of micropowder forces the filaments which extend outwards to shrink for shaping granules. PMID:26308025

  4. Modeling a Dry Etch Process for Large-Area Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, R.J.; Hebner, G.A.; Ruby, D.S.; Yang, P.

    1999-07-28

    There has been considerable interest in developing dry processes which can effectively replace wet processing in the manufacture of large area photovoltaic devices. Environmental and health issues are a driver for this activity because wet processes generally increase worker exposure to toxic and hazardous chemicals and generate large volumes of liquid hazardous waste. Our work has been directed toward improving the performance of screen-printed solar cells while using plasma processing to reduce hazardous chemical usage.

  5. Spectroscopic evaluation of a freeze-dried vaccine during an accelerated stability study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Laurent; Van Renterghem, Jeroen; Daoussi, Rim; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    This research evaluates a freeze-dried live, attenuated virus vaccine during an accelerated stability study using Near Infrared (NIR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in addition to the traditional quality tests (i.e., potency assay and residual moisture analysis) and Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC). Therefore, freeze-dried live, attenuated virus vaccines were stored during four weeks at 4°C (i.e., recommended storage condition) and at 37°C (i.e., accelerated storage condition) and weekly analyzed using these techniques. The potency assay showed that the virus titer decreased in two phases when the samples were stored at 37°C. The highest titer loss occurred during the first week storage at 37°C after which the degradation rate decreased. Both the residual moisture content and the relaxation enthalpy also increased according to this two-phase pattern during storage at 37°C. In order to evaluate the virus and its interaction with the amorphous stabilizer in the formulation (trehalose), the NIR spectra were analyzed via principal component analysis (PCA) using the amide A/II band (5029-4690cm(-1)). The FTIR spectra were also analyzed via PCA using the amide III spectral range (1350-1200cm(-1)). Analysis of the amide A/II band in the NIR spectra revealed that the titer decrease during storage was probably linked to a change of the hydrogen bonds (i.e., interaction) between the virus proteins and the amorphous trehalose. Analyzing the amide III band (FTIR spectra) showed that the virus destabilization was coupled to a decrease of the coated proteins β turn and an increase of α helix. During storage at 4°C, the titer remained constant, no enthalpic relaxation was observed and neither the Amide A/II band (NIR spectra) nor the Amide III band (FTIR spectra) varied. PMID:27102305

  6. Development of budesonide nanocluster dry powder aerosols: processing.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Nashwa; Selvam, Parthiban; Soni, Pravin; Berkland, Cory

    2012-09-01

    Aerosolized medicine is one of the fastest growing areas in the pharmaceutical industry. Dry powder aerosols of pharmaceutical compounds are particularly attractive for the prevention and treatment of respiratory diseases but are also emerging as a treatment option for systemic diseases. Engineering particles in dry powder formulations can overcome many of the limitations of traditional inhaled pharmaceuticals. Here, a wet milling process for producing agglomerated budesonide nanoparticles (i.e., "NanoClusters") was explored. Parameters such as milling time and drug concentration were investigated, and the aerosol performance of dried budesonide NanoClusters was characterized. The wet milling process was able to produce aerosol particles composed entirely of budesonide. High emitted fraction and a large fine particle fraction suggested that the NanoCluster budesonide formulation would offer highly efficient delivery of drug throughout the lung.

  7. Emission characteristics of volatile compounds during sludges drying process.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wen-Yi; Yan, Jian-Hua; Li, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Fei; Zhu, Xiao-Wan; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2009-02-15

    The emission characteristics of volatile compounds (VCs) during municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and paper mill sludge (PMS) drying process were investigated through experiments conducted on a lab-scale tubular drying furnace and a pilot-scale paddle dryer, respectively. The result indicated that five kinds of VCs, i.e. CO(2), NH(3), C(7)H(16) (n-heptane), volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and CH(4) were emitted during the drying process. It was found that the NH(3) and CO(2) were the primary compound released from the MSS drying process. In the case of the PMS, the VFAs and CO(2) were the main compounds released. The temperature and water content of sludge had great effects on the emission rates of NH(3), C(7)H(16), CO(2) and VFAs. The pH and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of condensate from the paddle dryer were also studied. It showed that pH and COD of condensate from MSS were much higher than that from the PMS, and that the higher COD value of the MSS condensate interrelated to the higher ammonium and sulfur content of it.

  8. Ultrasonic acceleration of enzymatic processing of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic bio-processing of cotton generates significantly less hazardous wastewater effluents, which are readily biodegradable, but it also has several critical shortcomings that impede its acceptance by industries: expensive processing costs and slow reaction rates. It has been found that the intr...

  9. Accelerated thermokarst formation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, J. S.; Fountain, A. G.; Dickson, J. L.; Head, J. W.; Okal, M. H.; Marchant, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Thermokarst is a land surface lowered and disrupted by melting ground ice. Thermokarst is a major consequence of climate change in the Arctic, but has been considered to be a minor process in Antarctica. Garwood Valley (78°S, 164°E) is a coastal valley in the McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) of Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica and is a natural laboratory in which competing models of Antarctic thermokarst erosion can be tested. Garwood Valley is partially filled with a remnant of the Ross Sea Ice Sheet, a debris-covered ice mass that lodged in the valley during the Pleistocene. Rapid ablation of this buried ice mass via melting and block calving has recently been detected at a large retrogressive thaw feature referred to as the Garwood Valley ice cliff. Curiously, regional air temperatures in the MDV have been declining or stable on decadal timescales. Despite no increase in thawing degree days in Garwood Valley, biannual LiDAR scans show large-scale thermokarst backwasting occurring along the entire face of the ice cliff. Since ground-based data collection began in November 2010 to January, 2012, the ~400 m long ice cliff has backwasted ~1-3 m. Since airborne LiDAR data were first collected in 2001-2002 to January, 2012, backwasting along the ice cliff has ranged from 10-55 m, totaling 44,900 × 900 m3, or on average, 5,000 × 100 m3/year. From November 2010 to January 2011, 6,700 × 130 m3 of ice and capping sediment was removed from the Garwood Valley ice cliff; from January 2011 to January 2012, 11,300 × 230 m3 of material was removed. These melt and calving rates are comparable to the low end of retrogressive thaw slump erosion in Arctic and alpine environments, and suggest that some coastal MDV ground ice may no longer be stable under current climate conditions. Here, we combine this ground-based and airborne LiDAR data with with timelapse imaging and meteorological data to show that 1) thermokarst formation has accelerated in Garwood Valley; 2) the rate of

  10. Effect of processing on ochratoxin A content in dried beans.

    PubMed

    Iha, M H; Trucksess, M W; Tournas, V H

    2009-10-01

    Dried pink beans naturally contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA) and dried carioca beans artificially contaminated with OTA by inoculation with Aspergillus ochraceus (ATCC 22947) were tested for ochratoxin A levels as follows: dried beans were washed with water for 2, 60 or 120 min, soaked in water for 60, 120 min or 10 h, and cooked for 60 or 120 min. At each step, test water and beans were separated. Test water, raw beans and cooked beans were analyzed for OTA. The amount of OTA partitioned into water and in residual beans was determined by methanol-sodium bicarbonate extraction, buffer dilution, immunoaffinity column cleanup, liquid chromatographic separation and fluorescence detection. The results demonstrated that the distribution of OTA in processing water and beans depends on the method of preparation. All treatments (washing, soaking and cooking) when applied individually reduced the amounts of OTA retained in bean flour and whole beans. Higher amounts of OTA remained in whole beans than in bean flour after removing the processing water. The combination of the three treatments eliminated about 50% of the toxin from whole beans. This study provides evidence that discarding the washing, soaking and cooking water leads to a significant reduction in OTA contamination in dried beans. PMID:19693718

  11. Effect of processing on ochratoxin A content in dried beans.

    PubMed

    Iha, M H; Trucksess, M W; Tournas, V H

    2009-10-01

    Dried pink beans naturally contaminated with ochratoxin A (OTA) and dried carioca beans artificially contaminated with OTA by inoculation with Aspergillus ochraceus (ATCC 22947) were tested for ochratoxin A levels as follows: dried beans were washed with water for 2, 60 or 120 min, soaked in water for 60, 120 min or 10 h, and cooked for 60 or 120 min. At each step, test water and beans were separated. Test water, raw beans and cooked beans were analyzed for OTA. The amount of OTA partitioned into water and in residual beans was determined by methanol-sodium bicarbonate extraction, buffer dilution, immunoaffinity column cleanup, liquid chromatographic separation and fluorescence detection. The results demonstrated that the distribution of OTA in processing water and beans depends on the method of preparation. All treatments (washing, soaking and cooking) when applied individually reduced the amounts of OTA retained in bean flour and whole beans. Higher amounts of OTA remained in whole beans than in bean flour after removing the processing water. The combination of the three treatments eliminated about 50% of the toxin from whole beans. This study provides evidence that discarding the washing, soaking and cooking water leads to a significant reduction in OTA contamination in dried beans.

  12. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David; Sahinidis, N V; Cozad, A; Lee, A; Kim, H; Morinelly, J; Eslick, J; Yuan, Z

    2013-06-04

    This presentation reports development of advanced computational tools to accelerate next generation technology development. These tools are to develop an optimized process using rigorous models. They include: Process Models; Simulation-Based Optimization; Optimized Process; Uncertainty Quantification; Algebraic Surrogate Models; and Superstructure Optimization (Determine Configuration).

  13. A CLASSIFICATION SCHEME FOR TURBULENT ACCELERATION PROCESSES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Nicolas; Kontar, Eduard P.; Emslie, A. Gordon E-mail: eduard@astro.gla.ac.uk

    2012-08-01

    We establish a classification scheme for stochastic acceleration models involving low-frequency plasma turbulence in a strongly magnetized plasma. This classification takes into account both the properties of the accelerating electromagnetic field, and the nature of the transport of charged particles in the acceleration region. We group the acceleration processes as either resonant, non-resonant, or resonant-broadened, depending on whether the particle motion is free-streaming along the magnetic field, diffusive, or a combination of the two. Stochastic acceleration by moving magnetic mirrors and adiabatic compressions are addressed as illustrative examples. We obtain expressions for the momentum-dependent diffusion coefficient D(p), both for general forms of the accelerating force and for the situation when the electromagnetic force is wave-like, with a specified dispersion relation {omega} = {omega}(k). Finally, for models considered, we calculate the energy-dependent acceleration time, a quantity that can be directly compared with observations of the time profile of the radiation field produced by the accelerated particles, such as those occuring during solar flares.

  14. Application of Dynamic Speckle Techniques in Monitoring Biofilms Drying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enes, Adilson M.; Júnior, Roberto A. Braga; Dal Fabbro, Inácio M.; da Silva, Washington A.; Pereira, Joelma

    2008-04-01

    Horticultural crops exhibit losses far greater than grains in Brazil which are associated to inappropriate maturation, mechanical bruising, infestation by microorganisms, wilting, etc. Appropriate packing prevents excessive mass loss associated to transpiration as well as to respiration, by controlling gas exchanging with outside environment. Common packing materials are identified as plastic films, waxes and biofilms. Although research developed with edible films and biopolymers has increased during last years to attend the food industry demands, avoiding environmental problems, little efforts have been reported on biofilm physical properties investigations. These properties, as drying time and biofilm interactions with environment are considered of basic importance. This research work aimed to contribute to development of a methodology to evaluate yucca (Maniot vulgaris) based biofilms drying time supported by a biospeckle technique. Biospeckle is a phenomenon generated by a laser beam scattered on a dynamic active surface, producing a time varying pattern which is proportional to the surface activity level. By capturing and processing the biospeckle image it is possible to attribute a numerical quantity to the surface bioactivity. Materials exhibiting high moisture content will also show high activity, which will support the drying time determination. Tests were set by placing biofilm samples on polyetilen plates and further submitted to laser exposition at four hours interval to capture the pattern images, generating the Intensities Dispersion Modulus. Results indicates that proposed methodology is applicable in determining biofilm drying time as well as vapor losses to environment.

  15. Electron accelerators for industrial processing--a review

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Waldemar; Wieszczycka, Wioletta

    1999-06-10

    The applications of over 1000 electron beam (EB) accelerator processors used recently worldwide span technological fields from material modification to medical sterilization and food processing. The performance level achieved by the main manufacturers is demonstrated by some selected parameters of processors in the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 10 MeV. The design of the new generation of low cost compact in-line and stand-alone accelerators is discussed.

  16. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  17. [Characteristics of odors and VOCs from sludge direct drying process].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-He; Deng, Ming-Jia; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Jing-Ying; Ding, Wen-Jie; Liu, Jun-Xin; Liu, Jun-Xin

    2014-08-01

    Co-processing sewage sludge by using the high-temperature feature of cement kiln can realize harmless disposal and energy recycling. In this paper, investigation on characteristics of the flue gas from sludge drying process was carried out in Guangzhou Heidelberg Yuexiu Cement Co., LTD. The composition and the main source of odors and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during the drying process were analyzed, aimed to provide scientific basis for the treatment of sewage sludge. Results showed that there were a large number of malodorous substances and VOCs in the flue gas. Sulfur dioxide and other sulfur-containing compounds were the main components in the malodorous substances, while benzene derivatives were predominant in VOCs. The compositions of odors and VOCs were influenced by the characteristics of the sludge and the heat medium (kiln tail gas). Total organic compounds in the sludge were significantly decreased after drying. Other organic substances such as volatile fatty acid, protein, and polysaccharide were also obviously reduced. The organic matter in sludge was the main source of VOCs in the flue gas. Part of sulfurous substances, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon disulfide, were from sulfur-containing substances in the sludge, and the rest were from the kiln tail gas itself. PMID:25338358

  18. Effect of drying parameters on physiochemical and sensory properties of fruit powders processed by PGSS-, Vacuum- and Spray-drying.

    PubMed

    Feguš, Urban; Žigon, Uroš; Petermann, Marcus; Knez, Željko

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this experimental work was to investigate the possibility of producing fruit powders without employing drying aid and to investigate the effect of drying temperatures on the final powder characteristics. Raw fruit materials (banana puree, strawberry puree and blueberry concentrate) were processed using three different drying techniques each operating at a different temperature conditions: vacuum-drying (-27-17 °C), Spray-drying (130-160 °C) and PGSS-drying (112-152 °C). Moisture content, total colour difference, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics of the processed fruit powders were analysed. The results obtained from the experimental work indicate that investigated fruit powders without or with minimal addition of maltodextrin can be produced. Additionally, it was observed that an increase in process temperature results in a higher loss of colour, antioxidant activity and intensity of the flavour profile.

  19. The hydro nuclear services dry active waste processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Bunker, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    There is a real need for a dry active waste processing system that can separate clean trash and recoverable items from radwaste safely and efficiently. This paper reports that Hydro Nuclear Services has produced just such a system and is marketing it as a DAW Segregation/Volume Reduction Process. The system is a unique, semi-automated package of sensitive monitoring instruments of volume reduction equipment that separates clean trash from contaminated and recoverable items in the waste stream and prepares the clean trash for unrestricted release. What makes the HNS system truly unique is its end product - clean trash.

  20. Accelerated simulation of stochastic particle removal processes in particle-resolved aerosol models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, J. H.; Michelotti, M. D.; Riemer, N.; Heath, M. T.; West, M.

    2016-10-01

    Stochastic particle-resolved methods have proven useful for simulating multi-dimensional systems such as composition-resolved aerosol size distributions. While particle-resolved methods have substantial benefits for highly detailed simulations, these techniques suffer from high computational cost, motivating efforts to improve their algorithmic efficiency. Here we formulate an algorithm for accelerating particle removal processes by aggregating particles of similar size into bins. We present the Binned Algorithm for particle removal processes and analyze its performance with application to the atmospherically relevant process of aerosol dry deposition. We show that the Binned Algorithm can dramatically improve the efficiency of particle removals, particularly for low removal rates, and that computational cost is reduced without introducing additional error. In simulations of aerosol particle removal by dry deposition in atmospherically relevant conditions, we demonstrate about 50-times increase in algorithm efficiency.

  1. Recent Advances in Understanding Particle Acceleration Processes in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkova, V. V.; Arzner, K.; Benz, A. O.; Browning, P.; Dauphin, C.; Emslie, A. G.; Fletcher, L.; Kontar, E. P.; Mann, G.; Onofri, M.; Petrosian, V.; Turkmani, R.; Vilmer, N.; Vlahos, L.

    2011-09-01

    We review basic theoretical concepts in particle acceleration, with particular emphasis on processes likely to occur in regions of magnetic reconnection. Several new developments are discussed, including detailed studies of reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic field configurations (e.g., current sheets, collapsing traps, separatrix regions) and stochastic acceleration in a turbulent environment. Fluid, test-particle, and particle-in-cell approaches are used and results compared. While these studies show considerable promise in accounting for the various observational manifestations of solar flares, they are limited by a number of factors, mostly relating to available computational power. Not the least of these issues is the need to explicitly incorporate the electrodynamic feedback of the accelerated particles themselves on the environment in which they are accelerated. A brief prognosis for future advancement is offered.

  2. Plasma acceleration processes in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Noji, Ryosuke; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2007-03-15

    Plasma acceleration processes in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster (APPT) were investigated. APPTs are space propulsion options suitable for microspacecraft, and have recently attracted much attention because of their low electric power requirements and simple, compact propellant system. The plasma acceleration mechanism, however, has not been well understood. In the present work, emission spectroscopy, high speed photography, and magnetic field measurements are conducted inside the electrode channel of an APPT with rectangular geometry. The successive images of neutral particles and ions give us a comprehensive understanding of their behavior under electromagnetic acceleration. The magnetic field profile clarifies the location where the electromagnetic force takes effect. As a result, it is shown that high density, ablated neutral gas stays near the propellant surface, and only a fraction of the neutrals is converted into plasma and electromagnetically accelerated, leaving the residual neutrals behind.

  3. Dry Machining Process of Milling Machine using Axiomatic Green Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspita Andriani, Gita; Akbar, Muhammad; Irianto, Dradjad

    2016-02-01

    Most of companies know that there are strategies to become green industry, and they realize that green efforts have impacts on product quality and cost. Axiomatic Green Methodology models the relationship between green, quality, and cost. This methodology starts with determining the green improvement objective and then continues with mapping the functional, economic, and green requirements. From the mapping, variables which affect the requirements are identified. Afterwards, the effect of each variable is determined by performing experiments and regression modelling. In this research, axiomatic green methodology was implemented to dry machining of milling machine in order to reduce the amount of coolant. Dry machining will be feasible if it is not worse than the minimum required quality. As a result, dry machining is feasible without producing any defect. The proposed machining parameter is to reduce the coolant flow rate from 6.882 ml/minute to 0 ml/minute, set the depth of cut at 1.2 mm, spindle rotation speed at 500 rpm, and feed rate at 128 mm/minute. This solution is also resulted in reduction of cost for 200.48 rupiahs for each process.

  4. Observation of laser multiple filamentation process and multiple electron beams acceleration in a laser wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wentao; Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Wentao; Chen, Qiang; Zhang, Hui; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Zhijun; Qi, Rong; Wang, Cheng; Leng, Yuxin; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-11-15

    The multiple filaments formation process in the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) was observed by imaging the transmitted laser beam after propagating in the plasma of different density. During propagation, the laser first self-focused into a single filament. After that, it began to defocus with energy spreading in the transverse direction. Two filaments then formed from it and began to propagate independently, moving away from each other. We have also demonstrated that the laser multiple filamentation would lead to the multiple electron beams acceleration in the LWFA via ionization-induced injection scheme. Besides, its influences on the accelerated electron beams were also analyzed both in the single-stage LWFA and cascaded LWFA.

  5. Radiation processing of dry food ingredients - a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farkas, J.

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives, does not leave residues and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3 to 10 kGy proved to be sufficient to reduce the viable cell counts to a satisfactory level. Ionizing radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature and the flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for a satisfactory decontamination. The microflora surviving the cell-count reduction by irradiation is more sensitive to subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of untreated ingredients. Recontamination can be prevented since the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation can be carried out in commercial containers and it results in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of dry ingredients is an emerging technology in several countries and more-and-more clearances on irradiated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future.

  6. Surface modification of magnesium hydroxide using vinyltriethoxysilane by dry process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Shengjie; Li, Lijuan; Xu, Defang; Zhu, Donghai; Liu, Zhiqi; Nie, Feng

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve the compatibility between magnesium hydroxide (MH) and polymer matrix, the surface of MH was modified using vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) by dry process and the interfacial interaction between MH and VTES was also studied. Zeta potential measurements implied that the MH particles had better dispersion and less aggregation after modification. Sedimentation tests showed that the surface of MH was transformed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, and the dispersibility and the compatibility of MH particles significantly improved in the organic phase. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that a thin layer had formed on the surface of the modified MH, but did not alter the material's crystalline phase. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the VTES molecules bound strongly to the surface of MH after modification. Chemical bonds (Sisbnd Osbnd Mg) formed by the reaction between Si-OC2H5 and hydroxyl group of MH, also there have physical adsorption effect in the interface simultaneously. A modification mechanism of VTES on the MH surface by dry process was proposed, which different from the modification mechanism by wet process.

  7. Comparison of the macroscopic properties of field-accelerated electrons in dry air and in pure oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, G.; Bonnet, J.; Pigache, D.

    1980-06-01

    The numerical solution of the Boltzmann equation for an ionized gas yields the macroscopic properties of electrons accelerated by an electric field in dry air and in pure oxygen. For the purpose of ozone generation, the stronger the field, the better the efficiency of oxygen dissociation. In air, the oxygen dissociation is found to be much less easy than that at the same amount of pure oxygen.

  8. Accelerated thermokarst formation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Joseph S.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Dickson, James L.; Head, James W.; Okal, Marianne; Marchant, David R.; Watters, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    Thermokarst is a land surface lowered and disrupted by melting ground ice. Thermokarst is a major driver of landscape change in the Arctic, but has been considered to be a minor process in Antarctica. Here, we use ground-based and airborne LiDAR coupled with timelapse imaging and meteorological data to show that 1) thermokarst formation has accelerated in Garwood Valley, Antarctica; 2) the rate of thermokarst erosion is presently ~ 10 times the average Holocene rate; and 3) the increased rate of thermokarst formation is driven most strongly by increasing insolation and sediment/albedo feedbacks. This suggests that sediment enhancement of insolation-driven melting may act similarly to expected increases in Antarctic air temperature (presently occurring along the Antarctic Peninsula), and may serve as a leading indicator of imminent landscape change in Antarctica that will generate thermokarst landforms similar to those in Arctic periglacial terrains. PMID:23881292

  9. Accelerated thermokarst formation in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Levy, Joseph S; Fountain, Andrew G; Dickson, James L; Head, James W; Okal, Marianne; Marchant, David R; Watters, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    Thermokarst is a land surface lowered and disrupted by melting ground ice. Thermokarst is a major driver of landscape change in the Arctic, but has been considered to be a minor process in Antarctica. Here, we use ground-based and airborne LiDAR coupled with timelapse imaging and meteorological data to show that 1) thermokarst formation has accelerated in Garwood Valley, Antarctica; 2) the rate of thermokarst erosion is presently ~ 10 times the average Holocene rate; and 3) the increased rate of thermokarst formation is driven most strongly by increasing insolation and sediment/albedo feedbacks. This suggests that sediment enhancement of insolation-driven melting may act similarly to expected increases in Antarctic air temperature (presently occurring along the Antarctic Peninsula), and may serve as a leading indicator of imminent landscape change in Antarctica that will generate thermokarst landforms similar to those in Arctic periglacial terrains. PMID:23881292

  10. Recent developments in the application of electron accelerators for polymer processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Al-Sheikhly, M.; Berejka, A. J.; Cleland, M. R.; Antoniak, M.

    2014-01-01

    There are now over 1700 high current, electron beam (EB) accelerators being used world-wide in industrial applications, most of which involve polymer processing. In contrast to the use of heat, which transfers only about 5-10% of input energy into energy useful for materials modification, radiation processing is very energy efficient, with 60% or more of the input energy to an accelerator being available for affecting materials. Historic markets, such as the crosslinking of wire and cable jacketing, of heat shrinkable tubings and films, of partial crosslinking of tire components and of low-energy EB to cure or dry inks and coatings remain strong. Accelerator manufacturers have made equipment more affordable by down-sizing units while maintaining high beam currents. Very powerful accelerators with 700 kW output have made X-ray conversion a practical alternative to the historic use of radioisotopes, mainly cobalt-60, for applications as medical device sterilization. New EB end-uses are emerging, such as the development of nano-composites and nano-gels and the use of EB processing to facilitate biofuel production. These present opportunities for future research and development.

  11. Secondary electron emission from plasma processed accelerating cavity grade niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basovic, Milos

    Advances in the particle accelerator technology have enabled numerous fundamental discoveries in 20th century physics. Extensive interdisciplinary research has always supported further development of accelerator technology in efforts of reaching each new energy frontier. Accelerating cavities, which are used to transfer energy to accelerated charged particles, have been one of the main focuses of research and development in the particle accelerator field. Over the last fifty years, in the race to break energy barriers, there has been constant improvement of the maximum stable accelerating field achieved in accelerating cavities. Every increase in the maximum attainable accelerating fields allowed for higher energy upgrades of existing accelerators and more compact designs of new accelerators. Each new and improved technology was faced with ever emerging limiting factors. With the standard high accelerating gradients of more than 25 MV/m, free electrons inside the cavities get accelerated by the field, gaining enough energy to produce more electrons in their interactions with the walls of the cavity. The electron production is exponential and the electron energy transfer to the walls of a cavity can trigger detrimental processes, limiting the performance of the cavity. The root cause of the free electron number gain is a phenomenon called Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). Even though the phenomenon has been known and studied over a century, there are still no effective means of controlling it. The ratio between the electrons emitted from the surface and the impacting electrons is defined as the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY). A SEY ratio larger than 1 designates an increase in the total number of electrons. In the design of accelerator cavities, the goal is to reduce the SEY to be as low as possible using any form of surface manipulation. In this dissertation, an experimental setup was developed and used to study the SEY of various sample surfaces that were treated

  12. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... free of flies, insects, and rodents. (b) Drying units, racks, and trucks shall be kept in a clean and... clean condition. (d) Oils and waxes used in oiling drying pans or trays shall be of edible quality....

  13. Mechanisms of placement and stability of dry process shotcrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolin, Marc

    The knowledge available today in shotcrete technology usually permits the production of strong and durable shotcretes. Unfortunately, very few research projects have focused on the development of the shotcrete process itself. Consequently, the fundamental knowledge on the properties and behaviour of fresh dry-mix shotcrete is very limited. The objective of this research project is thus to develop methods to evaluate the properties of fresh dry-mix shotcrete in order to better understand its behaviour, or its shootability. Shootability is defined by the ease and efficiency with which a shotcrete mix can be placed; the main parameters which characterise shootability are rebound, maximum buildup thickness and reinforcement encasement. To understand and control these characteristics requires an understanding of the mechanisms involved in the placement and the stability of a shotcrete layer. These mechanisms involve both rheological and mechanical concepts: the dynamic placement of the material, without external vibration, implies high shear rates, whereas the in-place stability of the fresh material is more closely related to plasticity in terms of shear resistance. The consistency of fresh dry-mix shotcrete is considerably stiffer than that of conventional concrete, and therefore special apparatus and new testing procedures had to be created or adapted to evaluate the fresh properties of this unique material. The tests included the penetration test, fresh tensile strength test and fresh shear strength test. These tests along with detailed analysis of the in-place proportions of the mixtures helped to provide an understanding of the mechanisms needed to optimise the shootability of dry-mix shotcrete. Apart from the properties related to shootability, fundamental properties such as the yield value, the cohesion and the angle of friction were also determined. Additional information has also been gathered on the fresh dynamic properties of shotcrete, which are especially

  14. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  15. Freeze-dried snake antivenoms formulated with sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol: comparison of their stability in an accelerated test.

    PubMed

    Herrera, María; Tattini, Virgilio; Pitombo, Ronaldo N M; Gutiérrez, José María; Borgognoni, Camila; Vega-Baudrit, José; Solera, Federico; Cerdas, Maykel; Segura, Alvaro; Villalta, Mauren; Vargas, Mariángela; León, Guillermo

    2014-11-01

    Freeze-drying is used to improve the long term stability of pharmaceutical proteins. Sugars and polyols have been successfully used in the stabilization of proteins. However, their use in the development of freeze-dried antivenoms has not been documented. In this work, whole IgG snake antivenom, purified from equine plasma, was formulated with different concentrations of sorbitol, sucrose or mannitol. The glass transition temperatures of frozen formulations, determined by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), ranged between -13.5 °C and -41 °C. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the different stabilizers, the freeze-dried samples were subjected to an accelerated stability test at 40 ± 2 °C and 75 ± 5% relative humidity. After six months of storage at 40 °C, all the formulations presented the same residual humidity, but significant differences were observed in turbidity, reconstitution time and electrophoretic pattern. Moreover, all formulations, except antivenoms freeze-dried with mannitol, exhibited the same potency for the neutralization of lethal effect of Bothrops asper venom. The 5% (w:v) sucrose formulation exhibited the best stability among the samples tested, while mannitol and sorbitol formulations turned brown. These results suggest that sucrose is a better stabilizer than mannitol and sorbitol in the formulation of freeze-dried antivenoms under the studied conditions.

  16. Dry Process Based Infrared Sensors with CNT Film Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Kum-Pyo; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Lim, Lee-Taek; Choi, Chang-Seon; Lee, Dong Il; Lee, Cheol Jin; Park, Chan-Won; Min, Nam Ki

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication and characterization of a front-side micromachined thermopiles consisting of a suspended membrane and a carbon nanotube (CNT) film absorber. Thermocouples of 52 pairs which are composed of phosphorous-doped silicon and aluminum were formed and connected in series. A CNT film collected by filter was transferred on hot junction. A CNT absorber has an absorptance of about 50% in the midinfrared region. The suspended membrane was fabricated by an isotropic silicon dry etching process with XeF2 gas at the front side of the substrates. The output voltage with the CNT film is found to be 250.2 mV at 7 mW of incident power, approximately 1.8 times higher than that of one without an absorber.

  17. Induction linear accelerators for commercial photon irradiation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, S.M.

    1989-01-13

    A number of proposed irradiation processes requires bulk rather than surface exposure with intense applications of ionizing radiation. Typical examples are irradiation of food packaged into pallet size containers, processing of sewer sludge for recycling as landfill and fertilizer, sterilization of prepackaged medical disposals, treatment of municipal water supplies for pathogen reduction, etc. Volumetric processing of dense, bulky products with ionizing radiation requires high energy photon sources because electrons are not penetrating enough to provide uniform bulk dose deposition in thick, dense samples. Induction Linear Accelerator (ILA) technology developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory promises to play a key role in providing solutions to this problem. This is discussed in this paper.

  18. Enzyme clustering accelerates processing of intermediates through metabolic channeling

    PubMed Central

    Castellana, Michele; Wilson, Maxwell Z.; Xu, Yifan; Joshi, Preeti; Cristea, Ileana M.; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Gitai, Zemer; Wingreen, Ned S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantitative model to demonstrate that coclustering multiple enzymes into compact agglomerates accelerates the processing of intermediates, yielding the same efficiency benefits as direct channeling, a well-known mechanism in which enzymes are funneled between enzyme active sites through a physical tunnel. The model predicts the separation and size of coclusters that maximize metabolic efficiency, and this prediction is in agreement with previously reported spacings between coclusters in mammalian cells. For direct validation, we study a metabolic branch point in Escherichia coli and experimentally confirm the model prediction that enzyme agglomerates can accelerate the processing of a shared intermediate by one branch, and thus regulate steady-state flux division. Our studies establish a quantitative framework to understand coclustering-mediated metabolic channeling and its application to both efficiency improvement and metabolic regulation. PMID:25262299

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic Particle Acceleration Processes: SSX Experiments, Theory, and Astrophysical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Michael R.

    2006-11-16

    Project Title: Magnetohydrodynamic Particle Acceleration Processes: SSX Experiments, Theory, and Astrophysical Applications PI: Michael R. Brown, Swarthmore College The purpose of the project was to provide theoretical and modeling support to the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX). Accordingly, the theoretical effort was tightly integrated into the SSX experimental effort. During the grant period, Michael Brown and his experimental collaborators at Swarthmore, with assistance from W. Matthaeus as appropriate, made substantial progress in understanding the physics SSX plasmas.

  20. Modeling the Acceleration Process of Dust in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y. D.; Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.; Wei, H.

    2015-12-01

    In previous studies we have identified structures created by nano-dust in the solar wind, and we have observed the expected draping and diverting signatures of such structures using well-spaced multi-spacecraft observations. In this study, we reproduce such an interaction event with our multi-fluid MHD model, modeling the dust particles as a fluid. When the number density of dust particles is comparable to the solar wind ions, a significant draping in the IMF is created, with amplitude larger than the ambient fluctuations. We note that such a density is well above several nano dust particles per Debye sphere and a dusty fluid is appropriate for modeling the dust-solar wind interaction. We assume a spherical cloud of dust travelling with 90% solar wind speed. In addition to reproducing the IMF response to the nano-dust at the end-stage of dust acceleration, we model the entire process of such acceleration in the gravity field of the inner heliosphere. It takes hours for the smallest dust with 3000 amu per proton charge to reach the solar wind speed. We find the dust cloud stretched along the solar wind flow. Such stretching enhances the draping of IMF, compared to the spherical cloud we used in an earlier stage of this study. This model will be further used to examine magnetic perturbations at an earlier stage of dust cloud acceleration, and then determine the size, density, and total mass of dust cloud, as well as its creation and acceleration.

  1. Effects of Freeze-Dried Vegetable Products on the Technological Process and the Quality of Dry Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Vinauskiene, Rimante; Viskelis, Pranas; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of freeze-dried vegetable powders: celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek. The effect of different freeze-dried vegetables onto the ripening process and the properties of dry fermented sausages was also evaluated. Vegetable products significantly (p < 0.05) differed in their chemical composition: celery products contained higher amounts of nitrates, total phenolic compounds and lower amounts of sucrose, parsnip had higher concentration of proteins, leek was rich in fat. The analysis of pH, water activity, lactic acid bacteria, coagulase-positive staphylococci and coliforms content showed that the incorporation of freeze-dried vegetables had no negative effect on the fermentation and ripening process of dry fermented sausages. In addition, the color parameters for sausages with the added lyophilised celery products were considerable (p < 0.05) more stable during these processes. At the end of the ripening process the sausages made with lyophilised celery juice were characterised by higher lightness and lower hardness than those made with the addition of other vegetable products and control. Freeze-dried celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek have some potential for the usage as a functional ingredient or as a source for indirect addition of nitrate in the production of fermented sausages.

  2. Effects of Freeze-Dried Vegetable Products on the Technological Process and the Quality of Dry Fermented Sausages.

    PubMed

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Vinauskiene, Rimante; Viskelis, Pranas; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of freeze-dried vegetable powders: celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek. The effect of different freeze-dried vegetables onto the ripening process and the properties of dry fermented sausages was also evaluated. Vegetable products significantly (p < 0.05) differed in their chemical composition: celery products contained higher amounts of nitrates, total phenolic compounds and lower amounts of sucrose, parsnip had higher concentration of proteins, leek was rich in fat. The analysis of pH, water activity, lactic acid bacteria, coagulase-positive staphylococci and coliforms content showed that the incorporation of freeze-dried vegetables had no negative effect on the fermentation and ripening process of dry fermented sausages. In addition, the color parameters for sausages with the added lyophilised celery products were considerable (p < 0.05) more stable during these processes. At the end of the ripening process the sausages made with lyophilised celery juice were characterised by higher lightness and lower hardness than those made with the addition of other vegetable products and control. Freeze-dried celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek have some potential for the usage as a functional ingredient or as a source for indirect addition of nitrate in the production of fermented sausages. PMID:27526658

  3. Optical signal acquisition and processing in future accelerator diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.P. ); Elliott, A. )

    1992-01-01

    Beam detectors such as striplines and wall current monitors rely on matched electrical networks to transmit and process beam information. Frequency bandwidth, noise immunity, reflections, and signal to noise ratio are considerations that require compromises limiting the quality of the measurement. Recent advances in fiber optics related technologies have made it possible to acquire and process beam signals in the optical domain. This paper describes recent developments in the application of these technologies to accelerator beam diagnostics. The design and construction of an optical notch filter used for a stochastic cooling system is used as an example. Conceptual ideas for future beam detectors are also presented.

  4. Optical signal acquisition and processing in future accelerator diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, G.P.; Elliott, A.

    1992-12-31

    Beam detectors such as striplines and wall current monitors rely on matched electrical networks to transmit and process beam information. Frequency bandwidth, noise immunity, reflections, and signal to noise ratio are considerations that require compromises limiting the quality of the measurement. Recent advances in fiber optics related technologies have made it possible to acquire and process beam signals in the optical domain. This paper describes recent developments in the application of these technologies to accelerator beam diagnostics. The design and construction of an optical notch filter used for a stochastic cooling system is used as an example. Conceptual ideas for future beam detectors are also presented.

  5. Accelerating sino-atrium computer simulations with graphic processing units.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Xiao, Zheng; Lin, Shien-fong

    2015-01-01

    Sino-atrial node cells (SANCs) play a significant role in rhythmic firing. To investigate their role in arrhythmia and interactions with the atrium, computer simulations based on cellular dynamic mathematical models are generally used. However, the large-scale computation usually makes research difficult, given the limited computational power of Central Processing Units (CPUs). In this paper, an accelerating approach with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) is proposed in a simulation consisting of the SAN tissue and the adjoining atrium. By using the operator splitting method, the computational task was made parallel. Three parallelization strategies were then put forward. The strategy with the shortest running time was further optimized by considering block size, data transfer and partition. The results showed that for a simulation with 500 SANCs and 30 atrial cells, the execution time taken by the non-optimized program decreased 62% with respect to a serial program running on CPU. The execution time decreased by 80% after the program was optimized. The larger the tissue was, the more significant the acceleration became. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed GPU-accelerating methods and their promising applications in more complicated biological simulations. PMID:26406070

  6. Accelerating sino-atrium computer simulations with graphic processing units.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Xiao, Zheng; Lin, Shien-fong

    2015-01-01

    Sino-atrial node cells (SANCs) play a significant role in rhythmic firing. To investigate their role in arrhythmia and interactions with the atrium, computer simulations based on cellular dynamic mathematical models are generally used. However, the large-scale computation usually makes research difficult, given the limited computational power of Central Processing Units (CPUs). In this paper, an accelerating approach with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) is proposed in a simulation consisting of the SAN tissue and the adjoining atrium. By using the operator splitting method, the computational task was made parallel. Three parallelization strategies were then put forward. The strategy with the shortest running time was further optimized by considering block size, data transfer and partition. The results showed that for a simulation with 500 SANCs and 30 atrial cells, the execution time taken by the non-optimized program decreased 62% with respect to a serial program running on CPU. The execution time decreased by 80% after the program was optimized. The larger the tissue was, the more significant the acceleration became. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed GPU-accelerating methods and their promising applications in more complicated biological simulations.

  7. [Effects of different drying methods on processing performance and quality in bulbus of Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-hua; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Zhu, Zai-biao; Chen, Jun; Miao, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Ying; Sun, Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Effects of different drying methods including sun drying, steamed, boiled, constant temperature drying (at 40, 50, 60 °C) on appearance, hardness, rehydration ratio, dry rate, moisture, total ash, extractive and polysaccharides contents were studied to provide the basis of standard processing method for Tulipa edulis bulbus. The results showed that the treatments of sun drying and 40 °C drying showed higher rehydration ratios, but lower dry rate, higher hardness, worse color, longer time and obvious distortion and shrinkage in comparison with other drying methods. The treatments of 60 °C constant temperature drying resulted in shorter drying time, lower water and higher polysaccharides content. Drying time is shorter and appearance quality is better in the treatment of steaming and boiling compared with other treatments, but the content of extractive and polysaccharides decreased significantly. The treatments of 50 °C constant temperature drying led to similar appearance quality of bulb to commercial bulb, and it resulted in lowest hardness and highest dry rate as well as higher rehydration ratio, extractive and polysaccharides content, moderate moisture and total ash contents among these treatments. Based on the results obtained, 50 °C constant temperature drying is the better way for the processing of T. edulis bulbus. PMID:27062812

  8. [Effects of different drying methods on processing performance and quality in bulbus of Tulipa edulis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-hua; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Zhu, Zai-biao; Chen, Jun; Miao, Yuan-yuan; Yang, Ying; Sun, Yuan

    2015-10-01

    Effects of different drying methods including sun drying, steamed, boiled, constant temperature drying (at 40, 50, 60 °C) on appearance, hardness, rehydration ratio, dry rate, moisture, total ash, extractive and polysaccharides contents were studied to provide the basis of standard processing method for Tulipa edulis bulbus. The results showed that the treatments of sun drying and 40 °C drying showed higher rehydration ratios, but lower dry rate, higher hardness, worse color, longer time and obvious distortion and shrinkage in comparison with other drying methods. The treatments of 60 °C constant temperature drying resulted in shorter drying time, lower water and higher polysaccharides content. Drying time is shorter and appearance quality is better in the treatment of steaming and boiling compared with other treatments, but the content of extractive and polysaccharides decreased significantly. The treatments of 50 °C constant temperature drying led to similar appearance quality of bulb to commercial bulb, and it resulted in lowest hardness and highest dry rate as well as higher rehydration ratio, extractive and polysaccharides content, moderate moisture and total ash contents among these treatments. Based on the results obtained, 50 °C constant temperature drying is the better way for the processing of T. edulis bulbus.

  9. Energy-efficient regenerative liquid desiccant drying process

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Suk M.; Grodzka, Philomena G.; McCormick, Paul O.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of desiccants in conjunction with an open oop drying cycle and a closed loop drying cycle to reclaim the energy expended in vaporizing moisture in harvested crops. In the closed loop cycle, the drying air is brought into contact with a desiccant after it exits the crop drying bin. Water vapor in the moist air is absorbed by the desiccant, thus reducing the relative humidity of the air. The air is then heated by the used desiccant and returned to the crop bin. During the open loop drying cycle the used desiccant is heated (either fossil or solar energy heat sources may be used) and regenerated at high temperature, driving water vapor from the desiccant. This water vapor is condensed and used to preheat the dilute (wet) desiccant before heat is added from the external source (fossil or solar). The latent heat of vaporization of the moisture removed from the desiccant is reclaimed in this manner. The sensible heat of the regenerated desiccant is utilized in the open loop drying cycle. Also, closed cycle operation implies that no net energy is expended in heating drying air.

  10. Particle Acceleration via Reconnection Processes in the Supersonic Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.; le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.; Dosch, A.; Khabarova, O.

    2014-12-01

    An emerging paradigm for the dissipation of magnetic turbulence in the supersonic solar wind is via localized small-scale reconnection processes, essentially between quasi-2D interacting magnetic islands. Charged particles trapped in merging magnetic islands can be accelerated by the electric field generated by magnetic island merging and the contraction of magnetic islands. We derive a gyrophase-averaged transport equation for particles experiencing pitch-angle scattering and energization in a super-Alfvénic flowing plasma experiencing multiple small-scale reconnection events. A simpler advection-diffusion transport equation for a nearly isotropic particle distribution is derived. The dominant charged particle energization processes are (1) the electric field induced by quasi-2D magnetic island merging and (2) magnetic island contraction. The magnetic island topology ensures that charged particles are trapped in regions where they experience repeated interactions with the induced electric field or contracting magnetic islands. Steady-state solutions of the isotropic transport equation with only the induced electric field and a fixed source yield a power-law spectrum for the accelerated particles with index α = -(3 + MA )/2, where MA is the Alfvén Mach number. Considering only magnetic island contraction yields power-law-like solutions with index -3(1 + τ c /(8τdiff)), where τ c /τdiff is the ratio of timescales between magnetic island contraction and charged particle diffusion. The general solution is a power-law-like solution with an index that depends on the Alfvén Mach number and the timescale ratio τdiff/τ c . Observed power-law distributions of energetic particles observed in the quiet supersonic solar wind at 1 AU may be a consequence of particle acceleration associated with dissipative small-scale reconnection processes in a turbulent plasma, including the widely reported c -5 (c particle speed) spectra observed by Fisk & Gloeckler and Mewaldt et

  11. Process for preparing negative plates for use in a dry charge battery

    SciTech Connect

    Wegner, P.C.

    1986-02-11

    This patent describes a process for the production of lead-containing negative plates for use in a dry charge battery. The process cnsists of drying wet negative plates while protecting them from oxidation. This improvement is accomplished by treating the wet negative plates prior to the drying operation with an aqueous soluton of an oxidation inhibiting agent selected from salicylic acid, and 2-naphtol. The plates are then protected against oxidation during drying; and dry negative plates are obtained which are resistant to the absorption of water from the atmosphere on storage but are wet immediately by battery acid in use.

  12. Technical note: The equivalency of sodium results in cheese digested by either dry ashing or microwave-accelerated digestion.

    PubMed

    Schoenfuss, T C; Metz, Z P; Pataky, A E; Schoenfuss, H L

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of dairy products for minerals such as sodium requires mineralization of the sample, which is typically done by either dry ashing or atmospheric wet ashing; both methods are time consuming and wet ashing requires the repeated handling of hot acid. A rapid method using microwave-accelerated acid digestion before atomic absorption spectrometry to measure sodium was compared with dry ashing in 138 samples of blue cheese (in duplicate) that varied in sodium content and age. Linear regression of the results obtained within different cheese salting treatments and sampling locations over time showed that the methods were equivalent in terms of linearity and the slope of the line. A consistent bias was observed, with lower sodium concentrations being quantified during atomic absorption spectrometry for the microwave-digested samples. Evaluation of this difference by the 2 one-sided test (TOST) procedure showed that the confidence intervals of the percentage difference between the methods fell within the predetermined acceptable percentage difference. We conclude that this rapid microwave digestion procedure of blue cheese yielded equivalent results to dry ashing.

  13. Critical processing parameters of carbon dioxide spray drying for the production of dried protein formulations: A study with myoglobin.

    PubMed

    Nuchuchua, O; Every, H A; Jiskoot, W

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to gain fundamental insight into protein destabilization induced by supercritical CO2 spray drying processing parameters. Myoglobin was used as a model protein (5mg/ml with 50mg/ml trehalose in 10mM phosphate buffer, pH 6.2). The solution was exposed to sub- and supercritical CO2 conditions (65-130bar and 25-50°C), and CO2 spray drying under those conditions. The heme binding of myoglobin was determined by UV/Vis, fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectroscopy, while myoglobin aggregation was studied by using size-exclusion chromatography and flow imaging microscopy. It was found that pressure and temperature alone did not influence myoglobin's integrity. However, when pressurized CO2 was introduced into myoglobin solutions at any condition, the pH of the myoglobin formulation shifted to about 5 (measured after depressurization), resulting in heme binding destabilization and aggregation of myoglobin. When exposed to CO2, these degradation processes were enhanced by increasing temperature. Heme binding destabilization and myoglobin aggregation were also seen after CO2 spray drying, and to a greater extent. Moreover, the CO2 spray drying induced the partial loss of heme. In conclusion, pressurized CO2 destabilizes the myoglobin, leading to heme loss and protein aggregation upon spray drying. PMID:27080205

  14. Process and composition for drying of gaseous hydrogen halides

    DOEpatents

    Tom, Glenn M.; Brown, Duncan W.

    1989-08-01

    A process for drying a gaseous hydrogen halide of the formula HX, wherein X is selected from the group consisting of bromine, chlorine, fluorine, and iodine, to remove water impurity therefrom, comprising: contacting the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide with a scavenger including a support having associated therewith one or more members of the group consisting of: (a) an active scavenging moiety selected from one or more members of the group consisting of: (i) metal halide compounds dispersed in the support, of the formula MX.sub.y ; and (ii) metal halide pendant functional groups of the formula -MX.sub.y-1 covalently bonded to the support, wherein M is a y-valent metal, and y is an integer whose value is from 1 to 3; (b) corresponding partially or fully alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, of the metal halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); wherein the alkylated compounds and/or pendant functional groups, when present, are reactive with the gaseous hydrogen halide to form the corresponding halide compounds and/or pendant functional groups of (a); and M being selected such that the heat of formation, .DELTA.H.sub.f of its hydrated halide, MX.sub.y.(H.sub.2 O).sub.n, is governed by the relationship: .DELTA.H.sub.f .gtoreq.n.times.10.1 kilocalories/mole of such hydrated halide compound wherein n is the number of water molecules bound to the metal halide in the metal halide hydrate. Also disclosed is an appertaining scavenger composition and a contacting apparatus wherein the scavenger is deployed in a bed for contacting with the water impurity-containing gaseous hydrogen halide.

  15. Evaporator fouling tendencies of thin stillage and concentrates from the dry grind process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the US, more than 200 maize processing plants use multiple effect evaporators to remove water from thin stillage and steepwater during dry grind and wet milling processes, respectively. During the dry grind process, unfermentables are centrifuged and the liquid fraction, thin stillage, is concen...

  16. Graphics processing unit accelerated computation of digital holograms.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hoonjong; Yaraş, Fahri; Onural, Levent

    2009-12-01

    An approximation for fast digital hologram generation is implemented on a central processing unit (CPU), a graphics processing unit (GPU), and a multi-GPU computational platform. The computational performance of the method on each platform is measured and compared. The computational speed on the GPU platform is much faster than on a CPU, and the algorithm could be further accelerated on a multi-GPU platform. In addition, the accuracy of the algorithm for single- and double-precision arithmetic is evaluated. The quality of the reconstruction from the algorithm using single-precision arithmetic is comparable with the quality from the double-precision arithmetic, and thus the implementation using single-precision arithmetic on a multi-GPU platform can be used for holographic video displays.

  17. The spinning disc: studying radial acceleration and its damping process with smartphone acceleration sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochberg, K.; Gröber, S.; Kuhn, J.; Müller, A.

    2014-03-01

    Here, we show the possibility of analysing circular motion and acceleration using the acceleration sensors of smartphones. For instance, the known linear dependence of the radial acceleration on the distance to the centre (a constant angular frequency) can be shown using multiple smartphones attached to a revolving disc. As a second example, the decrease of the radial acceleration and the rotation frequency due to friction can be measured and fitted with a quadratic function, in accordance with theory. Finally, because the disc is not set up exactly horizontal, each smartphone measures a component of the gravitational acceleration that adds to the radial acceleration during one half of the period and subtracts from the radial acceleration during the other half. Hence, every graph shows a small modulation, which can be used to determine the rotation frequency, thus converting a ‘nuisance effect’ into a source of useful information, making additional measurements with stopwatches or the like unnecessary.

  18. Optimization of frozen sour cherries vacuum drying process.

    PubMed

    Sumić, Zdravko; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vidović, Senka; Jokić, Stela; Malbaša, Radomir

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum-drying of frozen sour cherries in order to preserve health-beneficial phytochemicals, as well as textural characteristics. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and, of pressure, 17-583mbar, in a new design of vacuum-dryer equipment. The total solids, a(w) value, total phenolics, vitamin C, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin content, total colour change and firmness were used as quality indicators of dried sour cherry. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 54.03°C and 148.16mbar were established for vacuum drying of sour cherry. Separate validation experiments were conducted, under optimum conditions, to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 744mg CAE/100 dw, vitamin C 1.44mg/100g per dry weight (g dw), anthocyanin content 125mg/100g dw, IC(50) 3.23mg/ml, total solids 70.72%, a(w) value 0.646, total colour change 52.61 and firmness 3395.4g. The investigated parameters had a significant effect on the quality of the dried sour cherries. PMID:23017392

  19. Optimization of frozen sour cherries vacuum drying process.

    PubMed

    Sumić, Zdravko; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vidović, Senka; Jokić, Stela; Malbaša, Radomir

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum-drying of frozen sour cherries in order to preserve health-beneficial phytochemicals, as well as textural characteristics. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and, of pressure, 17-583mbar, in a new design of vacuum-dryer equipment. The total solids, a(w) value, total phenolics, vitamin C, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin content, total colour change and firmness were used as quality indicators of dried sour cherry. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 54.03°C and 148.16mbar were established for vacuum drying of sour cherry. Separate validation experiments were conducted, under optimum conditions, to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 744mg CAE/100 dw, vitamin C 1.44mg/100g per dry weight (g dw), anthocyanin content 125mg/100g dw, IC(50) 3.23mg/ml, total solids 70.72%, a(w) value 0.646, total colour change 52.61 and firmness 3395.4g. The investigated parameters had a significant effect on the quality of the dried sour cherries.

  20. Plasma Processing of SRF Cavities for the next Generation Of Particle Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Vuskovic, Leposava

    2015-11-23

    The cost-effective production of high frequency accelerating fields are the foundation for the next generation of particle accelerators. The Ar/Cl2 plasma etching technology holds the promise to yield a major reduction in cavity preparation costs. Plasma-based dry niobium surface treatment provides an excellent opportunity to remove bulk niobium, eliminate surface imperfections, increase cavity quality factor, and bring accelerating fields to higher levels. At the same time, the developed technology will be more environmentally friendly than the hydrogen fluoride-based wet etching technology. Plasma etching of inner surfaces of standard multi-cell SRF cavities is the main goal of this research in order to eliminate contaminants, including niobium oxides, in the penetration depth region. Successful plasma processing of multi-cell cavities will establish this method as a viable technique in the quest for more efficient components of next generation particle accelerators. In this project the single-cell pill box cavity plasma etching system is developed and etching conditions are determined. An actual single cell SRF cavity (1497 MHz) is plasma etched based on the pill box cavity results. The first RF test of this plasma etched cavity at cryogenic temperature is obtained. The system can also be used for other surface modifications, including tailoring niobium surface properties, surface passivation or nitriding for better performance of SRF cavities. The results of this plasma processing technology may be applied to most of the current SRF cavity fabrication projects. In the course of this project it has been demonstrated that a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge can be successfully used for etching curved niobium surfaces, in particular the inner walls of SRF cavities. The results could also be applicable to the inner or concave surfaces of any 3D structure other than an SRF cavity.

  1. Processes of heat and mass transfer in straw bales using flue gasses as a drying medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryl, Wojciech; Szubel, Mateusz; Filipowicz, Mariusz

    2016-03-01

    Moisture content is a main problem of using straw in form of bales for energy production. The paper presents possibility of straw drying in dedicated, innovative and patented in Poland straw dryers which using flue gasses as a drying medium. Paper presents an improved way of drying which proved to be very sufficient. Temperature and humidity of straw during the process of drying were measured. The measurements helped understand and perform numerical model of heat and mass transfer inside the straw bale. By using CFD codes it was possible to perform analysis of phenomenon occurring inside the dried straw bale. Based on the CFD model, proposals of the optimization and improvement process of drying have been discussed. Experimental and computational data have been compared in terms of convergence. A satisfying degree of agreement has been achieved. Applying improved drying method, homogenous field of moisture content and temperature in the straw bale is achieved in a very cost effective way.

  2. Accelerated ketoprofen release from spray-dried polymeric particles: importance of phase transitions and excipient distribution.

    PubMed

    Gue, Emilie; Muschert, Susanne; Willart, Jean-Francois; Danede, Florence; Delcourt-Debruyne, Elisabeth; Descamps, Marc; Siepmann, Juergen

    2015-05-01

    HPMC-, PVPVA- and PVP-based microparticles loaded with 30% ketoprofen were prepared by spray drying suspensions or solutions in various water:ethanol blends. The inlet temperature, drying gas and feed flow rates were varied. The resulting differences in the ketoprofen release rates in 0.1 M HCl could be explained based on X-ray diffraction, mDSC, SEM and particle size analysis. Importantly, long term stable drug release could be provided, being much faster than: (i) drug release from a commercial reference product, (ii) the respective physical drug:polymer mixtures, as well as (iii) the dissolution of ketoprofen powder as received. In addition, highly supersaturated release media were obtained, which did not show any sign for re-crystallization during the observation period. Surprisingly, spraying suspensions resulted in larger microparticles exhibiting faster drug release compared to spraying solutions, which resulted in smaller particles exhibiting slower drug release. These effects could be explained based on the physico-chemical characteristics of the systems.

  3. Engineering functionality gradients by dip coating process in acceleration mode.

    PubMed

    Faustini, Marco; Ceratti, Davide R; Louis, Benjamin; Boudot, Mickael; Albouy, Pierre-Antoine; Boissière, Cédric; Grosso, David

    2014-10-01

    In this work, unique functional devices exhibiting controlled gradients of properties are fabricated by dip-coating process in acceleration mode. Through this new approach, thin films with "on-demand" thickness graded profiles at the submillimeter scale are prepared in an easy and versatile way, compatible for large-scale production. The technique is adapted to several relevant materials, including sol-gel dense and mesoporous metal oxides, block copolymers, metal-organic framework colloids, and commercial photoresists. In the first part of the Article, an investigation on the effect of the dip coating speed variation on the thickness profiles is reported together with the critical roles played by the evaporation rate and by the viscosity on the fluid draining-induced film formation. In the second part, dip-coating in acceleration mode is used to induce controlled variation of functionalities by playing on structural, chemical, or dimensional variations in nano- and microsystems. In order to demonstrate the full potentiality and versatility of the technique, original graded functional devices are made including optical interferometry mirrors with bidirectional gradients, one-dimensional photonic crystals with a stop-band gradient, graded microfluidic channels, and wetting gradient to induce droplet motion.

  4. Particle acceleration via reconnection processes in the supersonic solar wind

    SciTech Connect

    Zank, G. P.; Le Roux, J. A.; Webb, G. M.; Dosch, A.; Khabarova, O.

    2014-12-10

    An emerging paradigm for the dissipation of magnetic turbulence in the supersonic solar wind is via localized small-scale reconnection processes, essentially between quasi-2D interacting magnetic islands. Charged particles trapped in merging magnetic islands can be accelerated by the electric field generated by magnetic island merging and the contraction of magnetic islands. We derive a gyrophase-averaged transport equation for particles experiencing pitch-angle scattering and energization in a super-Alfvénic flowing plasma experiencing multiple small-scale reconnection events. A simpler advection-diffusion transport equation for a nearly isotropic particle distribution is derived. The dominant charged particle energization processes are (1) the electric field induced by quasi-2D magnetic island merging and (2) magnetic island contraction. The magnetic island topology ensures that charged particles are trapped in regions where they experience repeated interactions with the induced electric field or contracting magnetic islands. Steady-state solutions of the isotropic transport equation with only the induced electric field and a fixed source yield a power-law spectrum for the accelerated particles with index α = –(3 + M{sub A} )/2, where M{sub A} is the Alfvén Mach number. Considering only magnetic island contraction yields power-law-like solutions with index –3(1 + τ {sub c}/(8τ{sub diff})), where τ {sub c}/τ{sub diff} is the ratio of timescales between magnetic island contraction and charged particle diffusion. The general solution is a power-law-like solution with an index that depends on the Alfvén Mach number and the timescale ratio τ{sub diff}/τ {sub c}. Observed power-law distributions of energetic particles observed in the quiet supersonic solar wind at 1 AU may be a consequence of particle acceleration associated with dissipative small-scale reconnection processes in a turbulent plasma, including the widely reported c {sup –5} (c particle

  5. Stepwise drying of medicinal plants as alternative to reduce time and energy processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuervo-Andrade, S. P.; Hensel, O.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of drying medicinal plants is to extend the shelf life and conserving the fresh characteristics. This is achieved by reducing the water activity (aw) of the product to a value which will inhibit the growth and development of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, significantly reducing enzyme activity and the rate at which undesirable chemical reactions occur. The technical drying process requires an enormous amount of thermal and electrical energy. An improvement in the quality of the product to be dried and at the same time a decrease in the drying cost and time are achieved through the utilization of a controlled conventional drying method, which is based on a good utilization of the renewable energy or looking for other alternatives which achieve lower processing times without sacrificing the final product quality. In this work the method of stepwise drying of medicinal plants is presented as an alternative to the conventional drying that uses a constant temperature during the whole process. The objective of stepwise drying is the decrease of drying time and reduction in energy consumption. In this process, apart from observing the effects on decreases the effective drying process time and energy, the influence of the different combinations of drying phases on several characteristics of the product are considered. The tests were carried out with Melissa officinalis L. variety citronella, sowed in greenhouse. For the stepwise drying process different combinations of initial and final temperature, 40/50°C, are evaluated, with different transition points associated to different moisture contents (20, 30, 40% and 50%) of the product during the process. Final quality of dried foods is another important issue in food drying. Drying process has effect in quality attributes drying products. This study was determining the color changes and essential oil loses by reference the measurement of the color and essential oil content of the fresh product was

  6. The effect of thermal processing condition on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages dried by Quick-Dry-Slice process®.

    PubMed

    Ferrini, G; Arnau, J; Guàrdia, M D; Comaposada, J

    2014-02-01

    The effect of different thermal processing conditions just after fermentation on physicochemical parameters and sensory attributes of salami and chorizo slices dried by Quick-Dry-Slice process®, was evaluated. Meat and common additives were mixed, stuffed and fermented. Previous to drying the sausages were subjected to thermal treatment at 53 °C at different exposure times (0, 50, 65, 80, 95 and 110 min). Finally, the sausages were sliced and dried using QDS process®. Color, instrumental texture and sensory analysis were performed. Lightness (L*) after fermentation increased with thermal processing in both products while redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) decreased only in salami. Thermal treatment after fermentation increased the initial force (F0). Cooked appearance, cooked fat odor, cooked flavor and stringiness increased when the thermal processing time was increased. Thermal processing of salami and chorizo at 53 °C for 50 min and drying up to 30% of weight loss resulted in a similar product to that obtained without thermal processing.

  7. Microstructural and bulk property changes in hardened cement paste during the first drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, Ippei; Nishioka, Yukiko; Igarashi, Go; Matsui, Kunio

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports the microstructural changes and resultant bulk physical property changes in hardened cement paste (hcp) during the first desorption process. The microstructural changes and solid-phase changes were evaluated by water vapor sorption, nitrogen sorption, ultrasonic velocity, and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al nuclear magnetic resonance. Strength, Young's modulus, and drying shrinkage were also examined. The first drying process increased the volume of macropores and decreased the volume of mesopores and interlayer spaces. Furthermore, in the first drying process globule clusters were interconnected. During the first desorption, the strength increased for samples cured at 100% to 90% RH, decreased for 90% to 40% RH, and increased again for 40% to 11% RH. This behavior is explained by both microstructural changes in hcp and C–S–H globule densification. The drying shrinkage strains during rapid drying and slow drying were compared and the effects of the microstructural changes and evaporation were separated.

  8. MEASUREMENT OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM DRY-PROCESS PHOTOCOPY MACHINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article provides background information on indoor air emissions from office equipment, with emphasis on dry-process photocopy machines. The test method is described in detail along with results of a study to evaluate the test method using four dry-process photocopy machines. ...

  9. Noninteracting control of dynamically tuned dry gyro and its application to measurement of two-axis angular accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingu, H.; Otsuki, M.

    This paper presents a method of reducing the interaction effect between the input and output peculiar to the dynamically tuned dry gyro (TDG), and the possibility of measuring angular accelerations about two axes, through improvements of the rebalance control circuit (RCC) installed on the TDG. First, the use of the TDG as a two-axis rate sensor is shown along with direct and cross transfer functions relating two outputs and two inputs; and it is shown that the TDG makes it possible to simultaneously measure two-axis angular velocities and two-axis angular accelerations if the RCC is improved to facilitate noninteracting control. Next, the design procedure and the results of the trial manufacture on the hardware of each element of the RCC necessary to meet its capability are shown. Third, from the results of the experiments using this manufactured RCC it is clarified that the frequency characteristics of direct transfer functions which prescribe the system performance are hardly influenced by the manufacturing accuracy of the RCC, but the gain characteristics of cross transfer functions, which correspond to the degree of reduction of the interaction effect, are significantly influenced by the manufacturing accuracy.

  10. Accelerating sparse linear algebra using graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnoli, Kyle E.; Humphrey, John R.; Price, Daniel K.; Kelmelis, Eric J.

    2011-06-01

    The modern graphics processing unit (GPU) found in many standard personal computers is a highly parallel math processor capable of over 1 TFLOPS of peak computational throughput at a cost similar to a high-end CPU with excellent FLOPS-to-watt ratio. High-level sparse linear algebra operations are computationally intense, often requiring large amounts of parallel operations and would seem a natural fit for the processing power of the GPU. Our work is on a GPU accelerated implementation of sparse linear algebra routines. We present results from both direct and iterative sparse system solvers. The GPU execution model featured by NVIDIA GPUs based on CUDA demands very strong parallelism, requiring between hundreds and thousands of simultaneous operations to achieve high performance. Some constructs from linear algebra map extremely well to the GPU and others map poorly. CPUs, on the other hand, do well at smaller order parallelism and perform acceptably during low-parallelism code segments. Our work addresses this via hybrid a processing model, in which the CPU and GPU work simultaneously to produce results. In many cases, this is accomplished by allowing each platform to do the work it performs most naturally. For example, the CPU is responsible for graph theory portion of the direct solvers while the GPU simultaneously performs the low level linear algebra routines.

  11. GPU accelerated processing of astronomical high frame-rate videosequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vítek, Stanislav; Švihlík, Jan; Krasula, Lukáš; Fliegel, Karel; Páta, Petr

    2015-09-01

    Astronomical instruments located around the world are producing an incredibly large amount of possibly interesting scientific data. Astronomical research is expanding into large and highly sensitive telescopes. Total volume of data rates per night of operations also increases with the quality and resolution of state-of-the-art CCD/CMOS detectors. Since many of the ground-based astronomical experiments are placed in remote locations with limited access to the Internet, it is necessary to solve the problem of the data storage. It mostly means that current data acquistion, processing and analyses algorithm require review. Decision about importance of the data has to be taken in very short time. This work deals with GPU accelerated processing of high frame-rate astronomical video-sequences, mostly originating from experiment MAIA (Meteor Automatic Imager and Analyser), an instrument primarily focused to observing of faint meteoric events with a high time resolution. The instrument with price bellow 2000 euro consists of image intensifier and gigabite ethernet camera running at 61 fps. With resolution better than VGA the system produces up to 2TB of scientifically valuable video data per night. Main goal of the paper is not to optimize any GPU algorithm, but to propose and evaluate parallel GPU algorithms able to process huge amount of video-sequences in order to delete all uninteresting data.

  12. Process and apparatus for indirect-fired heating and drying

    DOEpatents

    Abbasi, Hamid Ali; Chudnovsky, Yaroslav

    2005-04-12

    A method for heating flat or curved surfaces comprising injecting fuel and oxidant along the length, width or longitudinal side of a combustion space formed between two flat or curved plates, transferring heat from the combustion products via convection and radiation to the surface being heated on to the material being dried/heated, and recirculating at least 20% of the combustion products to the root of the flame.

  13. Modified dry limestone process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions

    DOEpatents

    Shale, Correll C.; Cross, William G.

    1976-08-24

    A method and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from flue gas comprise cooling and conditioning the hot flue gas to increase the degree of water vapor saturation prior to passage through a bed of substantially dry carbonate chips or lumps, e.g., crushed limestone. The reaction products form as a thick layer of sulfites and sulfates on the surface of the chips which is easily removed by agitation to restore the reactive surface of the chips.

  14. Quality characteristics of a dry-cured lamb leg as affected by tumbling after dry-salting and processing time.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-Delgado, Luz H; Caro, Irma; Blanco, Carolina; Morán, Lara; Prieto, Nuria; Bodas, Raul; Giráldez, Francisco J; Mateo, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate selected quality characteristics of a dry-cured lamb leg with different tumbling treatments after salting. The characteristics were measured at different processing times. Three batches of dry-cured lamb legs (nine legs per batch) were prepared with no-, short- and long-tumbling treatments, and microbial counts, NaCl, aw, proximate composition, pH, free fatty acids, water soluble nitrogen, volatile compounds, texture and colour were evaluated at days 1, 22 and 71 of processing. Furthermore, a descriptive sensory analysis (flavour and texture) was performed in the final product (day 71). Time-related changes were observed for most of the characteristics studied. The effect of tumbling was only observed for the sensory attribute pastiness that was higher in tumbled legs. Methyl-branched butanal was only detected in tumbled legs. PMID:24553493

  15. Quality characteristics of a dry-cured lamb leg as affected by tumbling after dry-salting and processing time.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-Delgado, Luz H; Caro, Irma; Blanco, Carolina; Morán, Lara; Prieto, Nuria; Bodas, Raul; Giráldez, Francisco J; Mateo, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate selected quality characteristics of a dry-cured lamb leg with different tumbling treatments after salting. The characteristics were measured at different processing times. Three batches of dry-cured lamb legs (nine legs per batch) were prepared with no-, short- and long-tumbling treatments, and microbial counts, NaCl, aw, proximate composition, pH, free fatty acids, water soluble nitrogen, volatile compounds, texture and colour were evaluated at days 1, 22 and 71 of processing. Furthermore, a descriptive sensory analysis (flavour and texture) was performed in the final product (day 71). Time-related changes were observed for most of the characteristics studied. The effect of tumbling was only observed for the sensory attribute pastiness that was higher in tumbled legs. Methyl-branched butanal was only detected in tumbled legs.

  16. Modeling and optimization of red currants vacuum drying process by response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Šumić, Zdravko; Vakula, Anita; Tepić, Aleksandra; Čakarević, Jelena; Vitas, Jasmina; Pavlić, Branimir

    2016-07-15

    Fresh red currants were dried by vacuum drying process under different drying conditions. Box-Behnken experimental design with response surface methodology was used for optimization of drying process in terms of physical (moisture content, water activity, total color change, firmness and rehydratation power) and chemical (total phenols, total flavonoids, monomeric anthocyanins and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity) properties of dried samples. Temperature (48-78 °C), pressure (30-330 mbar) and drying time (8-16 h) were investigated as independent variables. Experimental results were fitted to a second-order polynomial model where regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to determine model fitness and optimal drying conditions. The optimal conditions of simultaneously optimized responses were temperature of 70.2 °C, pressure of 39 mbar and drying time of 8 h. It could be concluded that vacuum drying provides samples with good physico-chemical properties, similar to lyophilized sample and better than conventionally dried sample.

  17. Modeling and optimization of red currants vacuum drying process by response surface methodology (RSM).

    PubMed

    Šumić, Zdravko; Vakula, Anita; Tepić, Aleksandra; Čakarević, Jelena; Vitas, Jasmina; Pavlić, Branimir

    2016-07-15

    Fresh red currants were dried by vacuum drying process under different drying conditions. Box-Behnken experimental design with response surface methodology was used for optimization of drying process in terms of physical (moisture content, water activity, total color change, firmness and rehydratation power) and chemical (total phenols, total flavonoids, monomeric anthocyanins and ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity) properties of dried samples. Temperature (48-78 °C), pressure (30-330 mbar) and drying time (8-16 h) were investigated as independent variables. Experimental results were fitted to a second-order polynomial model where regression analysis and analysis of variance were used to determine model fitness and optimal drying conditions. The optimal conditions of simultaneously optimized responses were temperature of 70.2 °C, pressure of 39 mbar and drying time of 8 h. It could be concluded that vacuum drying provides samples with good physico-chemical properties, similar to lyophilized sample and better than conventionally dried sample. PMID:26948639

  18. Sensory profiles for dried fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars commercially grown and processed in California.

    PubMed

    Haug, Megan T; King, Ellena S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-08-01

    A trained sensory panel evaluated the 6 fig cultivars currently sold in the California dried fig market. The main flavor and aroma attributes determined by the sensory panel were "caramel," "honey," "raisin," and "fig," with additional aroma attributes: "common date," "dried plum," and "molasses." Sensory differences were observed between dried fig cultivars. All figs were processed by 2 commercial handlers. Processing included potassium sorbate as a preservative and SO2 application as an antibrowning agent for white cultivars. As a consequence of SO2 use during processing, high sulfite residues affected the sensory profiles of the white dried fig cultivars. Significant differences between dried fig cultivars and sources demonstrate perceived differences between processing and storage methods. The panel-determined sensory lexicon can help with California fig marketing. PMID:23957419

  19. Sensory profiles for dried fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars commercially grown and processed in California.

    PubMed

    Haug, Megan T; King, Ellena S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-08-01

    A trained sensory panel evaluated the 6 fig cultivars currently sold in the California dried fig market. The main flavor and aroma attributes determined by the sensory panel were "caramel," "honey," "raisin," and "fig," with additional aroma attributes: "common date," "dried plum," and "molasses." Sensory differences were observed between dried fig cultivars. All figs were processed by 2 commercial handlers. Processing included potassium sorbate as a preservative and SO2 application as an antibrowning agent for white cultivars. As a consequence of SO2 use during processing, high sulfite residues affected the sensory profiles of the white dried fig cultivars. Significant differences between dried fig cultivars and sources demonstrate perceived differences between processing and storage methods. The panel-determined sensory lexicon can help with California fig marketing.

  20. Analyzing Collision Processes with the Smartphone Acceleration Sensor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    It has been illustrated several times how the built-in acceleration sensors of smartphones can be used gainfully for quantitative experiments in school and university settings (see the overview in Ref. 1 ). The physical issues in that case are manifold and apply, for example, to free fall, radial acceleration, several pendula, or the exploitation…

  1. An Unusual Process of Accelerated Weathering of a Marly Limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercoli, L.; Rizzo, G.; Algozzini, G.

    2003-04-01

    This work deals with a singular case of stone deterioration, which occurred during the restoration of the Cathedral of Cefalù. In particular, a significant process of stone decohesion started after a consolidation treatment on ashlars of the external face of the cloister portico. A study was carried out to characterize the stone and to investigate the deterioration process. Petrographical, chemical and physical analyses were performed on samples taken from the wall. The results indicate that the medieval monument was built using a Pliocene marly limestone, called "trubo", quarried from outcrops of the environs of Cefalù. The rock is soft and uniformely cemented. The carbonatic fraction of the rock is due to foraminifera shells; the rock also contains detritic quartz, feldspate and glauconite. The clay minerals, mainly illite and montmorillonite, are widespread in the rock in the form of thin layers. The use of such a stone in a building of relevant artistic value is definitely unusual. In fact, the "trubo" is a rock subjected to natural decay because of its mineralogical composition and fabric; as effect of natural weathering, in the outcrops the rock disaggregates uniformely, producing silt. In the cloister this effect was magnified by extreme environmental conditions (marine spray, severe excursions of both relative humidity and temperature). Furthermore, after soluble salts removing and subsequent consolidation with ethyl silicate, a significant acceleration of the decay process was observed, producing friable scales detach for a depth of about 3 cm into the ashlars. The stone appeared corroded and uneven. Experimental tests were performed in laboratory in order to evidence any origin of incompatibility between such stone composition and the treatments carried out, which on the other hand are the most generally adopted in restoration interventions.

  2. Process and formulation effects on the quality of flat plate dried pomace (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pomace is a co-product of the fruit and vegetable processing industry; it has potential applications as a source of food ingredients but is currently underutilized. Drum drying is one method that could be used to dry and stabilize pomace. However, the quality effects of the dryer surface temperature...

  3. [Optimization for vacuum belt drying process of Qibai Pingfei granule through response surface methodology].

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-feng; Xu, Zhen-qiu; Yan, Ming; Shang, Jing; Zhang, Yan-jun; Mi, Hui-juan; Xiao, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Based on single factor tests,the optimum vacuum belt drying conditions of Qibai Pingfei granule were obtained through Box-Benhnken central combination design and RSM. In this study, drying time, drying temperature and extract density were chosen as independent variables, while transferring rate ginsenoside Rg₁, Re, Rb₁and astragaloside IV were taken as dependent variables. The optimum parameters are as follows: drying time of 112 min, drying temperature of 87 °C and extract density of 1.30 g · mL⁻¹. At the optimum condition, transferring rate ginsenoside Rg₁+ Re, Rb₁and astragaloside IV were 88.01%, 87.31%, 84. 34%. Above all, the optimum processing parameters of vacuum belt drying of Qibai Pingfei granule is reasonable and feasible, which can provide reliable basis for production.

  4. Study of a microwave assisted vacuum drying process applied to the granulated pharmaceutical drug hydrochlorthiazide.

    PubMed

    Berteli, Michele N; Marsaioli, Antonio Júnior; Rodier, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Drying processes have evolved considerably over the years, aiming at the best conditions to shorten the processing time, but maintaining the highest final product quality. The application of vacuums to the microwave drying process might be interesting, especially for thermally sensitive products because the reduced boiling point of the solvent allows a lower temperature processing. The objective of the present work is to study and evaluate the process of drying a granulated product that is the basis of the drug hydrochlorthiazide, with an initial moisture content of 21% in dry basis. This study monitored the drying kinetics, product temperature and power absorbed by the sample using a bench scale vacuum microwave dryer. The equipment consisted of a cylindrical pressure vessel crossed by a wave guide, setting up a system whereby the vacuum pressure, the sample weight and the incident, reflected and residual microwave powers could be measured and evaluated, throughout the entire process. The experimental runs were established with an approximate incident microwave power at 20 W for absolute pressure levels of 50 and 75 mbar, working with samples of about 1.4 g. It was observed that the vacuum microwave process kinetics at both pressure levels showed little difference. The processes were carried out almost entirely in a regime of water evaporation, the product's temperature remaining below the solvent boiling temperature. The drying times were similar for both processes, whereas the absorbed power was slightly higher at the pressure of 75 mbar.

  5. Improved shelf life of dried Beauveria bassiana blastospores using convective drying and active packaging processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The yeast form (blastospore) of the dimorphic insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can be rapidly produced using liquid fermentation methods but is generally unable to survive rapid dehydration processes or storage under non-refrigerated conditions. In this study, we evaluated the influence o...

  6. Fast dynamics and relaxation of colloidal drops during the drying process using multispeckle diffusing wave spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong Yong; Hwang, Ji Won; Jung, Hyun Wook; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seong Jae; Yoon, Kisun; Weitz, David A

    2013-01-22

    The fast dynamics generated by the Brownian motion of particles in colloidal drops, and the related relaxation during drying, which play key roles in suspension systems, were investigated incorporating multispeckle diffusing wave spectroscopy (MSDWS). MSDWS equipment was implemented to analyze the relaxation properties of suspensions under a nonergodic and nonstationary drying process, which cannot be elucidated by conventional light scattering methods, such as dynamic light scattering and diffusing wave spectroscopy. Rapid particle movement can be identified by the characteristic relaxation time, which is closely related to the Brownian motion due to thermal fluctuations of the particles. In the compacting stage of the drying process, the characteristic relaxation time increased gradually with the drying time because the particles in the colloidal drop were constrained by themselves. Moreover, variations of the initial concentration and particle size considerably affected the complete drying time and characteristic relaxation time, producing a shorter relaxation time for a low concentrated suspension with small particles. PMID:23281633

  7. Dry plasma processing for industrial crystalline silicon solar cell production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, M.; Rentsch, J.; Preu, R.

    2010-10-01

    This paper gives an overview on the standard crystalline silicon solar cell manufacturing processes typically applied in industry. Main focus has been put on plasma processes which can replace existing, mainly wet chemical processes within the standard process flow. Finally, additional plasma processes are presented which are suited for higher-efficient solar cells, i.e. for the “passivated emitter and rear cell” concept (PERC) or the “heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer” approach (HIT). Plasma processes for the deposition of thin dielectric or semiconducting layers for surface passivation, emitter deposition or anti-reflective coating purposes are presented. Plasma etching processes for the removal of phosphorus silicate glass or parasitic emitters, for wafer cleaning and masked and mask-free surface texturisation are discussed.

  8. Anomalous/Fractional Diffusion in Particle Acceleration Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    This talk is aimed at reviewing a certain number of theoretical aspects concerning the relation between stochastic acceleration and anomalous/fractional transport of particles. As a matter of fact, anomalous velocity-space diffusion is required within any stochastic acceleration scenario to explain the formation of the ubiquitous power-law tail of non-thermal particles, as observed e.g. in the accelerated distribution of electrons during solar flares. I will establish a classification scheme for stochastic acceleration models involving turbulence in magnetized plasmas. This classification takes into account both the properties of the accelerating electromagnetic field, and the nature of the spatial transport (possibly fractional) of charged particles in the acceleration region. I will also discuss recent attempts to obtain spatially non-local and fractional diffusion equations directly from first principles, starting either from the Fokker-Planck equation in the large mean free-path regime or the Boltzmann equation involving velocity-space relaxation toward the kappa distribution instead of the standard Maxwellian distribution.

  9. Criticality safety evaluation report for the cold vacuum drying facility's process water handling system

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, J.V.

    1999-05-12

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  10. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facilities Process Water Handling System

    SciTech Connect

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-08-10

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified.

  11. Formulation Development, Process Optimization, and In Vitro Characterization of Spray-Dried Lansoprazole Enteric Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Vora, Chintan; Patadia, Riddhish; Mittal, Karan; Mashru, Rajashree

    2016-01-01

    This research focuses on the development of enteric microparticles of lansoprazole in a single step by employing the spray drying technique and studies the effects of variegated formulation/process variables on entrapment efficiency and in vitro gastric resistance. Preliminary trials were undertaken to optimize the type of Eudragit and its various levels. Further trials included the incorporation of plasticizer triethyl citrate and combinations of other polymers with Eudragit S 100. Finally, various process parameters were varied to investigate their effects on microparticle properties. The results revealed Eudragit S 100 as the paramount polymer giving the highest gastric resistance in comparison to Eudragit L 100-55 and L 100 due to its higher pH threshold and its polymeric backbone. Incorporation of plasticizer not only influenced entrapment efficiency, but diminished gastric resistance severely. On the contrary, polymeric combinations reduced entrapment efficiency for both sodium alginate and glyceryl behenate, but significantly influenced gastric resistance for only sodium alginate and not for glyceryl behenate. The optimized process parameters were comprised of an inlet temperature of 150°C, atomizing air pressure of 2 kg/cm(2), feed solution concentration of 6% w/w, feed solution spray rate of 3 ml/min, and aspirator volume of 90%. The SEM analysis revealed smooth and spherical shape morphologies. The DSC and PXRD study divulged the amorphous nature of the drug. Regarding stability, the product was found to be stable under 3 months of accelerated and long-term stability conditions as per ICH Q1A(R2) guidelines. Thus, the technique offers a simple means to generate polymeric enteric microparticles that are ready to formulate and can be directly filled into hard gelatin capsules. PMID:27222612

  12. Freeze-drying process monitoring using a cold plasma ionization device.

    PubMed

    Mayeresse, Y; Veillon, R; Sibille, P H; Nomine, C

    2007-01-01

    A cold plasma ionization device has been designed to monitor freeze-drying processes in situ by monitoring lyophilization chamber moisture content. This plasma device, which consists of a probe that can be mounted directly on the lyophilization chamber, depends upon the ionization of nitrogen and water molecules using a radiofrequency generator and spectrometric signal collection. The study performed on this probe shows that it is steam sterilizable, simple to integrate, reproducible, and sensitive. The limitations include suitable positioning in the lyophilization chamber, calibration, and signal integration. Sensitivity was evaluated in relation to the quantity of vials and the probe positioning, and correlation with existing methods, such as microbalance, was established. These tests verified signal reproducibility through three freeze-drying cycles. Scaling-up studies demonstrated a similar product signature for the same product using pilot-scale and larger-scale equipment. On an industrial scale, the method efficiently monitored the freeze-drying cycle, but in a larger industrial freeze-dryer the signal was slightly modified. This was mainly due to the positioning of the plasma device, in relation to the vapor flow pathway, which is not necessarily homogeneous within the freeze-drying chamber. The plasma tool is a relevant method for monitoring freeze-drying processes and may in the future allow the verification of current thermodynamic freeze-drying models. This plasma technique may ultimately represent a process analytical technology (PAT) approach for the freeze-drying process. PMID:17722483

  13. Accelerating Cardiac Bidomain Simulations Using Graphics Processing Units

    PubMed Central

    Neic, Aurel; Liebmann, Manfred; Hoetzl, Elena; Mitchell, Lawrence; Vigmond, Edward J.; Haase, Gundolf

    2013-01-01

    Anatomically realistic and biophysically detailed multiscale computer models of the heart are playing an increasingly important role in advancing our understanding of integrated cardiac function in health and disease. Such detailed simulations, however, are computationally vastly demanding, which is a limiting factor for a wider adoption of in-silico modeling. While current trends in high-performance computing (HPC) hardware promise to alleviate this problem, exploiting the potential of such architectures remains challenging since strongly scalable algorithms are necessitated to reduce execution times. Alternatively, acceleration technologies such as graphics processing units (GPUs) are being considered. While the potential of GPUs has been demonstrated in various applications, benefits in the context of bidomain simulations where large sparse linear systems have to be solved in parallel with advanced numerical techniques are less clear. In this study, the feasibility of multi-GPU bidomain simulations is demonstrated by running strong scalability benchmarks using a state-of-the-art model of rabbit ventricles. The model is spatially discretized using the finite element methods (FEM) on fully unstructured grids. The GPU code is directly derived from a large pre-existing code, the Cardiac Arrhythmia Research Package (CARP), with very minor perturbation of the code base. Overall, bidomain simulations were sped up by a factor of 11.8 to 16.3 in benchmarks running on 6–20 GPUs compared to the same number of CPU cores. To match the fastest GPU simulation which engaged 20GPUs, 476 CPU cores were required on a national supercomputing facility. PMID:22692867

  14. Infrared thermography for monitoring of freeze-drying processes: instrumental developments and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Emteborg, Håkan; Zeleny, Reinhard; Charoud-Got, Jean; Martos, Gustavo; Lüddeke, Jörg; Schellin, Holger; Teipel, Katharina

    2014-07-01

    Coupling an infrared (IR) camera to a freeze dryer for on-line monitoring of freeze-drying cycles is described for the first time. Normally, product temperature is measured using a few invasive Pt-100 probes, resulting in poor spatial resolution. To overcome this, an IR camera was placed on a process-scale freeze dryer. Imaging took place every 120 s through a Germanium window comprising 30,000 measurement points obtained contact-free from -40 °C to 25 °C. Results are presented for an empty system, bulk drying of cheese slurry, and drying of 1 mL human serum in 150 vials. During freezing of the empty system, differences of more than 5 °C were measured on the shelf. Adding a tray to the empty system, a difference of more than 8 °C was observed. These temperature differences probably cause different ice structures affecting the drying speed during sublimation. A temperature difference of maximum 13 °C was observed in bulk mode during sublimation. When drying in vials, differences of more than 10 °C were observed. Gradually, the large temperature differences disappeared during secondary drying and products were transformed into uniformly dry cakes. The experimental data show that the IR camera is a highly versatile on-line monitoring tool for different kinds of freeze-drying processes. PMID:24902839

  15. Infrared thermography for monitoring of freeze-drying processes: instrumental developments and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Emteborg, Håkan; Zeleny, Reinhard; Charoud-Got, Jean; Martos, Gustavo; Lüddeke, Jörg; Schellin, Holger; Teipel, Katharina

    2014-07-01

    Coupling an infrared (IR) camera to a freeze dryer for on-line monitoring of freeze-drying cycles is described for the first time. Normally, product temperature is measured using a few invasive Pt-100 probes, resulting in poor spatial resolution. To overcome this, an IR camera was placed on a process-scale freeze dryer. Imaging took place every 120 s through a Germanium window comprising 30,000 measurement points obtained contact-free from -40 °C to 25 °C. Results are presented for an empty system, bulk drying of cheese slurry, and drying of 1 mL human serum in 150 vials. During freezing of the empty system, differences of more than 5 °C were measured on the shelf. Adding a tray to the empty system, a difference of more than 8 °C was observed. These temperature differences probably cause different ice structures affecting the drying speed during sublimation. A temperature difference of maximum 13 °C was observed in bulk mode during sublimation. When drying in vials, differences of more than 10 °C were observed. Gradually, the large temperature differences disappeared during secondary drying and products were transformed into uniformly dry cakes. The experimental data show that the IR camera is a highly versatile on-line monitoring tool for different kinds of freeze-drying processes.

  16. Infrared Thermography for Monitoring of Freeze-Drying Processes: Instrumental Developments and Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Emteborg, Håkan; Zeleny, Reinhard; Charoud-Got, Jean; Martos, Gustavo; Lüddeke, Jörg; Schellin, Holger; Teipel, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Coupling an infrared (IR) camera to a freeze dryer for on-line monitoring of freeze-drying cycles is described for the first time. Normally, product temperature is measured using a few invasive Pt-100 probes, resulting in poor spatial resolution. To overcome this, an IR camera was placed on a process-scale freeze dryer. Imaging took place every 120 s through a Germanium window comprising 30,000 measurement points obtained contact-free from −40°C to 25°C. Results are presented for an empty system, bulk drying of cheese slurry, and drying of 1 mL human serum in 150 vials. During freezing of the empty system, differences of more than 5°C were measured on the shelf. Adding a tray to the empty system, a difference of more than 8°C was observed. These temperature differences probably cause different ice structures affecting the drying speed during sublimation. A temperature difference of maximum 13°C was observed in bulk mode during sublimation. When drying in vials, differences of more than 10°C were observed. Gradually, the large temperature differences disappeared during secondary drying and products were transformed into uniformly dry cakes. The experimental data show that the IR camera is a highly versatile on-line monitoring tool for different kinds of freeze-drying processes. © 2014 European Union 103:2088–2097, 2014 PMID:24902839

  17. Effect of process conditions on recovery of protein activity after freezing and freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Nail, S L

    1998-05-01

    The objective of this research was to gain a better understanding of the degree to which recovery of activity of model proteins after freeze-drying can be maximized by manipulation of freeze-dry process conditions in the absence of protective solutes. Catalase, beta-galactosidase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were used as model proteins. All of the three proteins exhibited a concentration-dependent loss of activity after freezing, with significantly higher recovery at higher concentration. The freezing method and the type of buffer were also important, with sodium phosphate buffer and freezing by immersion of vials in liquid nitrogen associated with the lowest recovery of activity. Differential scanning calorimetry was predictive of the onset of collapse during freeze-drying only for beta-galactosidase. For the other proteins, either no Tg' transition was observed, or the apparent glass transition did not correlate with the microscopically-observed collapse temperature. The time course of activity loss for beta-galactosidase and LDH was compared during freeze-drying under conditions which produced collapse of the dried matrix and conditions which produced retention of microstructure in the dried solid. Recovery of activity decreased continuously during primary drying, with no sharp drop in recovery of activity associated with the onset of collapse. The most important drying process variable affecting recovery of activity was residual moisture level, with a dramatic drop in activity recovery associated with residual moisture levels less than about 10%. PMID:9653629

  18. Fluid bed drying of guarana (Paullinia cupana HBK) extract: effect of process factors on caffeine content.

    PubMed

    Pagliarussi, Renata S; Bastos, Jairo K; Freitas, Luis A P

    2006-06-16

    The aim of this study was to study the convective drying of the hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from powdered guarana seeds in a spouted bed dryer. The influence of process variables, such as the convective airflow rate, extract feed rate, and air inlet temperature, on the quality of the dry extract was determined using the caffeine and moisture content for the process evaluation. The caffeine content in the alcoholic and dried extracts was determined by capillary gas chromatography. The experiments were performed following a 3(3) factorial design and the data analyzed by response surface. The analysis of dry extract showed that the air and extract feed rates did not significantly affect (25% level) the caffeine content, but that drying temperature is a major factor to consider when the extract is submitted to fluid bed drying. Caffeine losses were significant (1% level) for drying temperatures above 120 degrees C, while moisture content was lower than 3% for temperatures above 120 degrees C. The data showed that there is an optimum temperature for the drying of guarana extracts in spouted beds, and under the conditions used in this study it was 120 degrees C.

  19. Gene expression of coffee seed oxidation and germination processes during drying.

    PubMed

    Santos, G C; Von Pinho, E V R; Rosa, S D V F

    2013-12-19

    Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) seeds are sensitive to desiccation and oxidative stress during drying processes. We investigated the effect of drying and moisture levels on germination-related gene expressions associated with enzymatic systems that prevent oxidative stress in coffee seeds. Coffee seeds collected at physiological maturity were subjected to slow and quick drying to 40, 30, 20, and 12% moisture levels (wet basis), and as the control, seeds without drying were used. The seeds' physiological quality was calculated as percentage of normal seedlings at 15 and 30 days, normal vigorous seedlings at 30 days, and cotyledonary leaves at 45 days. The isoenzymes esterase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), and endo-β-mannanase expressions were electrophoretically analyzed. CAT and POX expressions were analyzed using RT-qPCR with specific primers constructed from the target gene sequences from the Brazilian Coffee Genome Database. Slow drying showed better physiological quality for seeds at 40 and 12% moisture levels, while quick drying was the most effective for seeds with 20% moisture. Sensitivity to water loss was confirmed by quick drying and activation of enzymes. CAT and POX transcriptions reduced during drying. RT-qPCR revealed a complex gene-expression pattern during the oxidative process, with high gene expression in wet seeds.

  20. Hierarchical structure in microbial cellulose: what happens during the drying process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Koizumi, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Kondo, Tetsuo

    2014-12-01

    We present a time-resolved investigation of the natural drying process of microbial cellulose (MC) by means of simultaneous small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), intermediate-angle neutron scattering (IANS) and weighing techniques. SANS was used to elucidate the microscopic structure of the MC sample. The coherent scattering length density of the water penetrating amorphous domains varied with time during the drying process to give a tunable scattering contrast to the water-resistant cellulose crystallites, thus the contrast variation was automatically performed by simply drying. IANS and weighing techniques were used to follow the macroscopic structural changes of the sample, i.e., the composition variation and the loss of the water. Thus, both the structure and composition changes during the whole drying process were resolved. In particular, the quantitative crosscheck of composition variation by IANS and weighing provides a full description of the drying process. Our results show that: i) The natural drying process could be divided into three time regions: a 3-dimensional shrinkage in region I, a 1-dimensional shrinkage along the thickness of the sample in region II, and completion in region III; ii) the further crystallization and aggregation of the cellulose fibrils are observed in both the rapid drying and natural drying methods, and the rapid drying even induces obvious structural changes in the length scale of 7-125 nm; iii) the amount of "bound water", which is an extremely thin layer of water surrounding the surfaces of cellulose fibrils, was estimated to be ∼ 0.35 wt% by the weighing measurement and was verified by the quantitative analysis of SANS results. PMID:25537094

  1. Accelerating molecular docking calculations using graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Korb, Oliver; Stützle, Thomas; Exner, Thomas E

    2011-04-25

    The generation of molecular conformations and the evaluation of interaction potentials are common tasks in molecular modeling applications, particularly in protein-ligand or protein-protein docking programs. In this work, we present a GPU-accelerated approach capable of speeding up these tasks considerably. For the evaluation of interaction potentials in the context of rigid protein-protein docking, the GPU-accelerated approach reached speedup factors of up to over 50 compared to an optimized CPU-based implementation. Treating the ligand and donor groups in the protein binding site as flexible, speedup factors of up to 16 can be observed in the evaluation of protein-ligand interaction potentials. Additionally, we introduce a parallel version of our protein-ligand docking algorithm PLANTS that can take advantage of this GPU-accelerated scoring function evaluation. We compared the GPU-accelerated parallel version to the same algorithm running on the CPU and also to the highly optimized sequential CPU-based version. In terms of dependence of the ligand size and the number of rotatable bonds, speedup factors of up to 10 and 7, respectively, can be observed. Finally, a fitness landscape analysis in the context of rigid protein-protein docking was performed. Using a systematic grid-based search methodology, the GPU-accelerated version outperformed the CPU-based version with speedup factors of up to 60. PMID:21434638

  2. Peptidomics as a tool for quality control in dry-cured ham processing.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Marta; Mora, Leticia; Toldrá, Fidel

    2016-09-16

    Spanish dry-cured ham is a high quality product whose economic value is mainly given by its curing time. An intense proteolysis takes place throughout the dry-cured processing, which results in the generation of a high amount of peptides and free amino acids responsible for the final quality of dry-cured hams. In this work, a peptidomics approach has been used to study the evolution of peptides throughout the ham dry-curing process, identifying and quantifying the generated peptides in order to define potential quality biomarkers. For this purpose, dry-cured ham extracts at different processing times (0, 2, 3.5, 5, 6.5 and 9months) were fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography and analysed by nanoliquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Differences obtained in the relative quantification of peptides by using a label-free methodology were useful to establish differences between processing times, being peptides generated by the degradation of myosin light chain 1 protein mainly responsible for the observed differences during the last stages of curing. In particular, APAPAPAPPKEEKI and PAPAPAPAPAPAPAPPKE, exclusively identified at 9months of curing, would be potential markers to control the time of curing and thus the final quality of dry-cured hams. Biological significance A peptidomics approach has been used to study the evolution of peptides throughout the ham dry-curing process, identifying peptides APAPAPAPPKEEKI and PAPAPAPAPAPAPAPPKE, which were only detected at 9months of process. So, they would constitute good potential markers to control the time of processing and thus the final quality of dry-cured hams. PMID:26926439

  3. Influence of process parameters and equipment on dry foam formulation properties using indomethacin as model drug.

    PubMed

    Sprunk, Angela; Page, Susanne; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2013-10-15

    Dry foam technology was developed to overcome insufficient oral bioavailability of poorly soluble and wettable active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). It is intended to enable a faster and more efficient dissolution by avoiding API agglomeration and floating of non-wetted API particles. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of process parameters, such as paste water content and type of equipment used on dry foam morphology, granule characteristics and dissolution behavior of the corresponding tablets using indomethacin as model compound. Multiple analytical methods, namely scanning electron microscopy, X-ray micro-computed tomography and mercury porosimetry, specific surface area analysis and sieve analysis were employed. Dissolution of dry foam formulation tablets was compared to a reference formulation in biorelevant media. Process parameters proved to have a distinct influence on dry foam morphology and granule characteristics, correlations between paste viscosity and pore size distribution could be observed. Dissolution behavior of indomethacin was improved by dry foam technology compared to the reference formulation. Variation of process parameters within the studied ranges did not alter the characteristics of the dry foam formulation dissolution behavior. Therefore, dry foam technology seems a promising future technology with the option of continuous manufacturing. PMID:23891743

  4. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compressor and then exchanged heat with feed and bottom stream in the distillation column. Energy and mass balance of the intensified process is investigated and compared with the conventional microalgae drying-extraction process. The simulation results indicated that the total energy consumption of the intensified process can be saved by 52.4% of the conventional route.

  5. Observation of drying process of multilayered paint using fOCT based on dynamic speckles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukai, T.; Kadono, H.

    2015-08-01

    Recently, a demand for the precise observation of a multilayered paint system have been increasing such as in car industry. However, conventional methods can observe only the surface condition of the paint. In this study, we propose a new method to observe a three dimensional drying process of the multilayered paint using functional Optical Coherence Tomography (fOCT). In this method, the dynamic speckles that appear in OCT signal were utilized. The temporal properties of the dynamic speckle is related to the Brownian motion of the scattering particles in the paint, and thus depends on the drying condition. Autocorrelation function of the speckle signal was calculated and its width, i.e., correlation length (CL), was used as a measure. In the experiment, two layer system consisting of different paints on the thin glass plate, and the drying process was observed for two hours. In the second layer exposed to the air, CL showed a monotonic increment indicating a steady progress of the drying process while in the first layer (deeper layer), CL decreased slightly for the first 50min. and then started to increase. This implies that drying process has been reversed due to the transport of the solvent from the second layer in the early stage. Such a complicated drying process of the multilayer system could also be confirmed from OCT signal image of the interface between the layers. This analysis was performed using the phase term obtained in the OCT interference signal with an accuracy of 0.1μm.

  6. Short-term post-wildfire dry-ravel processes in a chaparral fluvial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florsheim, Joan L.; Chin, Anne; O'Hirok, Linda S.; Storesund, Rune

    2016-01-01

    Dry ravel, the transport of sediment by gravity, transfers material from steep hillslopes to valley bottoms during dry conditions. Following wildfire, dry ravel greatly increases in the absence of vegetation on hillslopes, thereby contributing to sediment supply at the landscape scale. Dry ravel has been documented as a dominant hillslope erosion mechanism following wildfire in chaparral environments in southern California. However, alteration after initial deposition is not well understood, making prediction of post-fire flood hazards challenging. The majority of Big Sycamore Canyon burned during the May 2013 Springs Fire leaving ash and a charred layer that covered hillslopes and ephemeral channels. Dry-ravel processes following the fire produced numerous deposits in the hillslope-channel transition zone. Field data focus on: 1) deposition from an initial post-wildfire dry-ravel pulse; and 2) subsequent alteration of dry ravel deposits over a seven-month period between September 2013 and April 2014. We quantify geomorphic responses in dry ravel deposits including responses during the one small winter storm that generated runoff following the fire. Field measurements document volumetric changes after initial post-wildfire deposition of sediment derived from dry ravel. Erosion and deposition mechanisms that occurred within dry-ravel deposits situated in the hillslope-channel transition zone included: 1) mobilization and transport of a portion or the entire deposit by fluvial erosion; 2) rilling on the surface of the unconsolidated deposits; 3) deposition on deposits via continued hillslope sediment supply; and 4) mass wasting that transfers sediment within deposits where surface profiles are near the angle of repose. Terrestrial LiDAR scanning point clouds were analyzed to generate profiles quantifying depth of sediment erosion or deposition over remaining dry ravel deposits after the first storm season. This study contributes to the understanding of potential

  7. High-Throughput Dry Processes for Large-Area Devices

    SciTech Connect

    BUSS,RICHARD J.; HEBNER,GREGORY A.; RUBY,DOUGLAS S.; YANG,PIN

    1999-11-01

    In October 1996, an interdisciplinary team began a three-year LDRD project to study the plasma processes of reactive ion etching and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on large-area silicon devices. The goal was to develop numerical models that could be used in a variety of applications for surface cleaning, selective etching, and thin-film deposition. Silicon solar cells were chosen as the experimental vehicle for this project because an innovative device design was identified that would benefit from immediate performance improvement using a combination of plasma etching and deposition processes. This report presents a summary of the technical accomplishments and conclusions of the team.

  8. New Method for Monitoring the Process of Freeze Drying of Biological Materials.

    PubMed

    Alkeev, Nikolay; Averin, Stanislav; von Gratowski, Svetlana

    2015-12-01

    A capacitive sensor was proposed and tested for the monitoring and control of a freeze drying process of a vaccine against the Newcastle disease of birds. The residual moisture of the vaccine was measured by the thermogravimetric method. The vaccine activity was determined by titration in chicken embryos. It was shown that, at the stages of freezing and primary drying, a capacitive sensor measured the fraction of unfrozen liquid phase in a material and allowed one to control the sublimation stage of drying in an optimal way. This prevented the foaming of the material and shortened the total drying time approximately twice. The control range at the sublimation stage of drying expanded up to -70°C. It was found at the final stage of drying that the signal of a capacitive sensor passed through a maximum value. We supposed that this maximum corresponds to the minimum of intramolecular mobility of biological macromolecules and hence to the optimal residual moisture of the material, which ensures long-term preservation of its activity. We also suppose that using the capacitive sensor at the final stage of drying allows one to more precisely detect the time when the residual moisture of dried material reaches the optimal value.

  9. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor to Monitor Stress Kinetics in Drying Process of Commercial Latex Paints

    PubMed Central

    de Lourenço, Ivo; Possetti, Gustavo R. C.; Muller, Marcia; Fabris, José L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report a study about the application of packaged fiber Bragg gratings used as strain sensors to monitor the stress kinetics during the drying process of commercial latex paints. Three stages of drying with distinct mechanical deformation and temporal behaviors were identified for the samples, with mechanical deformation from 15 μm to 21 μm in the longitudinal film dimension on time intervals from 370 to 600 minutes. Drying time tests based on human sense technique described by the Brazilian Technical Standards NBR 9558 were also done. The results obtained shows that human sense technique has a limited perception of the drying process and that the optical measurement system proposed can be used to characterize correctly the dry-through stage of paint. The influence of solvent (water) addition in the drying process was also investigated. The paint was diluted with four parts paint and one part water (80% paint), and one part paint and one part water (50% paint). It was observed that the increase of the water ratio mixed into the paint decreases both the mechanical deformation magnitude and the paint dry-through time. Contraction of 5.2 μm and 10.4 μm were measured for concentrations of 50% and 80% of paint in the mixture, respectively. For both diluted paints the dry-through time was approximately 170 minutes less than undiluted paint. The optical technique proposed in this work can contribute to the development of new standards to specify the drying time of paint coatings. PMID:22399906

  10. Doping suppression and mobility enhancement of graphene transistors fabricated using an adhesion promoting dry transfer process

    SciTech Connect

    Cheol Shin, Woo; Hun Mun, Jeong; Yong Kim, Taek; Choi, Sung-Yool; Jin Cho, Byung E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr; Yoon, Taeshik; Kim, Taek-Soo E-mail: tskim1@kaist.ac.kr

    2013-12-09

    We present the facile dry transfer of graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on copper film to a functional device substrate. High quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to oxidized silicon substrate was achieved by exploiting the beneficial features of a poly(4-vinylphenol) adhesive layer involving a strong adhesion energy to graphene and negligible influence on the electronic and structural properties of graphene. The graphene field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the dry transfer process exhibit excellent electrical performance in terms of high FET mobility and low intrinsic doping level, which proves the feasibility of our approach in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

  11. Doping suppression and mobility enhancement of graphene transistors fabricated using an adhesion promoting dry transfer process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheol Shin, Woo; Yoon, Taeshik; Hun Mun, Jeong; Yong Kim, Taek; Choi, Sung-Yool; Kim, Taek-Soo; Jin Cho, Byung

    2013-12-01

    We present the facile dry transfer of graphene synthesized via chemical vapor deposition on copper film to a functional device substrate. High quality uniform dry transfer of graphene to oxidized silicon substrate was achieved by exploiting the beneficial features of a poly(4-vinylphenol) adhesive layer involving a strong adhesion energy to graphene and negligible influence on the electronic and structural properties of graphene. The graphene field effect transistors (FETs) fabricated using the dry transfer process exhibit excellent electrical performance in terms of high FET mobility and low intrinsic doping level, which proves the feasibility of our approach in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

  12. Hanford spent nuclear fuel cold vacuum drying process equipment skid modification work plan

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, D.B.

    1998-05-04

    This document provides the work plan for modifications to be made to the first article Process Equipment Skid for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) process. The primary objective is to provide engineering configuration control for any modifications made to the Process Equipment Skid during proof of performance testing at the 306E Facility. Development Control procedures will be used to complete the design drawings and Procurement Specification W-441-Pl-FA. The Process Equipment Skid is a system for removing water and drying Spent Nuclear Fuel contained in Multi-Canister Overpacks. The skid contains the Vacuum Purge System and the Tempered Water System (VPS/TWS). The first article Process Equipment Skid, and subsequent production skids, will later be installed in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  13. Flavor and texture of banana chips dried by combinations of hot air, vacuum, and microwave processing.

    PubMed

    Mui, Winnie W Y; Durance, Timothy D; Scaman, Christine H

    2002-03-27

    The behavior of 16 volatile compounds of banana during a combination of air-drying (AD) and vacuum microwave-drying (VMD) of banana chips was characterized. Samples were AD to remove 60, 70, 80, or 90% of moisture (wet basis) and then subjected to VMD to achieve a final moisture content of 3% (dry basis). Banana slices were also dehydrated using only AD, VMD, and freeze-drying (FD) for comparison. Samples that underwent more VMD had significantly lower levels of volatile compounds, which is attributed to the decreased formation of an impermeable solute layer on the surface of the chips. High values for water solubility and relative volatility of compounds correlated with losses during VMD; however, additional factors appear to influence the behavior of compounds during VMD processing. The optimal process of 90%AD/10%VMD yielded crisper banana chips with significantly higher volatile levels and sensory ratings than AD chips.

  14. High-intensity drying processes -- Impulse drying: Report 14 (progress report). Status of the pilot-scale research program

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1998-04-01

    As of April 1998, the project was behind on schedule. This was as a result of the need for additional process development work. Work has focused on evaluating nip decompression and post-nip depressurization techniques as used on the Beloit X2 pilot paper machine. The authors have also concentrated on implementing impulse drying technology on Beloit`s No. 4 and No. 2 pilot paper machines. Experiments on Beloit`s X4 pilot paper machine demonstrated that roll coating durability problems have been solved. They also showed that further development work on sheet picking, implementation of delamination suppression techniques and CD temperature control are necessary in order to ensure success on the X4 machine. Experiments on the Beloit`s X2 pilot paper machine were carried out to resolve issues identified on the X4 machine. Two methods of implementing press nip decompression were investigated. The results confirmed that the technology can be used to increase impulse drying operating temperatures. The work also led to the development of techniques to minimize picking.

  15. Development of an advanced process for drying fine coal in an inclined fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Boysen, J.E.; Cha, C.Y.; Barbour, F.A.; Turner, T.F.; Kang, T.W.; Berggren, M.H.; Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1990-02-01

    The objective of this research project was to demonstrate a technically feasible and economically viable process for drying and stabilizing high-moisture subbituminous coal. Controlled thermal drying of coal fines was achieved using the inclined fluidized-bed drying and stabilization process developed by the Western Research Institute. The project scope of work required completion of five tasks: (1) project planning, (2) characterization of two feed coals, (3) bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed drying studies, (4) product characterization and testing, and (5) technical and economic evaluation of the process. High moisture subbituminous coals from AMAX Eagle Butte mine located in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and from Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. in Healy, Alaska were tested in a 10-lb/hr bench-scale inclined fluidized-bed. Experimental results show that the dried coal contains less than 1.5% moisture and has a heating value over 11,500 Btu/lb. The coal fines entrainment can be kept below 15 wt % of the feed. The equilibrium moisture of dried coal was less than 50% of feed coal equilibrium moisture. 7 refs., 60 figs., 47 tabs.

  16. Accelerators for E-beam and X-ray processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auslender, V. L.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Faktorovich, B. L.; Gorbunov, V. A.; Kokin, E. N.; Korobeinikov, M. V.; Krainov, G. S.; Lukin, A. N.; Maximov, S. A.; Nekhaev, V. E.; Panfilov, A. D.; Radchenko, V. N.; Tkachenko, V. O.; Tuvik, A. A.; Voronin, L. A.

    2002-03-01

    During last years the demand for pasteurization and desinsection of various food products (meat, chicken, sea products, vegetables, fruits, etc.) had increased. The treatment of these products in industrial scale requires the usage of powerful electron accelerators with energy 5-10 MeV and beam power at least 50 kW or more. The report describes the ILU accelerators with energy range up to 10 MeV and beam power up to 150 kW.The different irradiation schemes in electron beam and X-ray modes for various products are described. The design of the X-ray converter and 90° beam bending system are also given.

  17. Process for drying calcium chloride generated in high chloride flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, R.J.; Sui, C.T.

    1982-03-30

    Some flue gas desulfurization processes applied to fuels containing high chloride concentrations are utilizing, or plan to utilize, by-product gypsum from the process stream. The utilization of such a process results in a calcium chloride buildup in the flue gas desulfurization system from fuels or water resource containing significant chlorides which interferes with the absorption and utilization of the lime or limestone reagent. In this invention, a method is used to convert the calcium chloride to a dry material by utilizing flue gas at elevated temperatures, normally found before an air preheater on steam generators used to produce power or any other conventional large size steam boilers. The monohydrate is produced at temperatures above 3500 F. By applying this drying process with a power plant system, energy consumed for this drying operation is very efficient.

  18. Effects of drying process on the physicochemical properties of nopal cladodes at different maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; Valderrama-Bravo, María Del Carmen; Rojas-Molina, Isela; Espinosa-Arbeláez, Diego Germán; Suárez-Vargas, Raúl; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2012-03-01

    Chemical proximate analysis was done in order to determine the changes of nutritional characteristics of nopal powders from three different maturity stages 50, 100, and 150 days and obtained by three different drying processes: freeze dried, forced air oven, and tunnel. Results indicate that nopal powder obtained by the process of freeze dried retains higher contents of protein, soluble fiber, and fat than the other two processes. Also, freeze dried process had less effect on color hue variable. No changes were observed in insoluble fiber content, chroma and lightness with the three different drying processes. Furthermore, the soluble fibers decreased with the age of nopal while insoluble fibers and ash content shows an opposite trend. In addition, the luminosity and hue values did not show differences among the maturity stages studied. The high content of dietary fibers of nopal pad powder could to be an interesting source of these important components for human diets and also could be used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:22183868

  19. Evaluation of hyperspectral reflectance for estimating dry matter and sugar concentration in processing potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The measurement of sugar concentration and dry matter in processing potatoes is a time and resource intensive activity, cannot be performed in the field, and does not easily measure within tuber variation. A proposed method to improve the phenotyping of processing potatoes is to employ hyperspectral...

  20. Stevia rebaudiana Leaves: Effect of Drying Process Temperature on Bioactive Components, Antioxidant Capacity and Natural Sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Ah-Hen, Kong; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Honores, Carolina; Moraga, Nelson O

    2016-03-01

    Stevia leaves are usually used in dried state and undergo the inevitable effect of drying process that changes the quality characteristics of the final product. The aim of this study was to assess temperature effect on Stevia leaves through analysis of relevant bioactive components, antioxidant capacity and content of natural sweeteners and minerals. The drying process was performed in a convective dryer at constant temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C. Vitamin C was determined in the leaves and as expected showed a decrease during drying proportional to temperature. Phenolics and flavonoids were also determined and were found to increase during drying below 50 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ORAC assays, and the latter showed the highest value at 40 °C, with a better correlation with the phenolics and flavonoids content. The content of eight natural sweeteners found in Stevia leaves was also determined and an increase in the content of seven of the sweeteners, excluding steviol bioside, was found at drying temperature up to 50 °C. At temperatures between 60 and 80 °C the increase in sweeteners content was not significant. Stevia leaves proved to be an excellent source of antioxidants and natural sweeteners. PMID:26650384

  1. Stevia rebaudiana Leaves: Effect of Drying Process Temperature on Bioactive Components, Antioxidant Capacity and Natural Sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Ah-Hen, Kong; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Honores, Carolina; Moraga, Nelson O

    2016-03-01

    Stevia leaves are usually used in dried state and undergo the inevitable effect of drying process that changes the quality characteristics of the final product. The aim of this study was to assess temperature effect on Stevia leaves through analysis of relevant bioactive components, antioxidant capacity and content of natural sweeteners and minerals. The drying process was performed in a convective dryer at constant temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C. Vitamin C was determined in the leaves and as expected showed a decrease during drying proportional to temperature. Phenolics and flavonoids were also determined and were found to increase during drying below 50 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ORAC assays, and the latter showed the highest value at 40 °C, with a better correlation with the phenolics and flavonoids content. The content of eight natural sweeteners found in Stevia leaves was also determined and an increase in the content of seven of the sweeteners, excluding steviol bioside, was found at drying temperature up to 50 °C. At temperatures between 60 and 80 °C the increase in sweeteners content was not significant. Stevia leaves proved to be an excellent source of antioxidants and natural sweeteners.

  2. Mechanistic modelling of fluidized bed drying processes of wet porous granules: a review.

    PubMed

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; De Beer, Thomas; Gernaey, Krist V; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris; Nopens, Ingmar

    2011-10-01

    Fluidized bed dryers are frequently used in industrial applications and also in the pharmaceutical industry. The general incentives to develop mechanistic models for pharmaceutical processes are listed, and our vision on how this can particularly be done for fluidized bed drying processes of wet granules is given. This review provides a basis for future mechanistic model development for the drying process of wet granules in pharmaceutical processes. It is intended for a broad audience with a varying level of knowledge on pharmaceutical processes and mathematical modelling. Mathematical models are powerful tools to gain process insight and eventually develop well-controlled processes. The level of detail embedded in such a model depends on the goal of the model. Several models have therefore been proposed in the literature and are reviewed here. The drying behaviour of one single granule, a porous particle, can be described using the continuum approach, the pore network modelling method and the shrinkage of the diameter of the wet core approach. As several granules dry at a drying rate dependent on the gas temperature, gas velocity, porosity, etc., the moisture content of a batch of granules will reside in a certain interval. Population Balance Model (ling) (PBM) offers a tool to describe the distribution of particle properties which can be of interest for the application. PBM formulation and solution methods are therefore reviewed. In a fluidized bed, the granules show a fluidization pattern depending on the geometry of the gas inlet, the gas velocity, characteristics of the particles, the dryer design, etc. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allows to model this behaviour. Moreover, turbulence can be modelled using several approaches: Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Another important aspect of CFD is the choice between the Eulerian-Lagrangian and the Eulerian-Eulerian approach. Finally, the PBM and CFD frameworks

  3. New high-current Dynamitron accelerators for electron beam processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, M. R.; Thompson, C. C.; Saito, H.; Lisanti, T. F.; Burgess, R. G.; Malone, H. F.; Loby, R. J.; Galloway, R. A.

    1993-06-01

    The material throughput capabilities of RDI's new 550 keV and 800 keV Dynamitron R accelerators have been enhanced by increasing their beam current ratings from 100 mA to 160 mA. Future requirements up to 200 mA have been anticipated in the designs. The high-voltage power supply, beam scanner and beam window have all been modified to accommodate the higher current ratings. A new programmable control system has also been developed. The basic design concepts are described and performance data are presented in this paper.

  4. Next generation tools to accelerate the synthetic biology process.

    PubMed

    Shih, Steve C C; Moraes, Christopher

    2016-05-16

    Synthetic biology follows the traditional engineering paradigm of designing, building, testing and learning to create new biological systems. While such approaches have enormous potential, major challenges still exist in this field including increasing the speed at which this workflow can be performed. Here, we present recently developed microfluidic tools that can be used to automate the synthetic biology workflow with the goal of advancing the likelihood of producing desired functionalities. With the potential for programmability, automation, and robustness, the integration of microfluidics and synthetic biology has the potential to accelerate advances in areas such as bioenergy, health, and biomaterials. PMID:27146265

  5. Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars: 'Dry' Processes on One Slope; 'Wet' Processes on Another

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    How can martian gullies--thought to be caused in part by seepage and runoff of liquid water--be distinguished from the more typical, 'dry' slope erosion processes that also occur on Mars? For one thing, most--though not all--of the gully landforms occur on slopes that face away from the martian equator and toward the pole. For another, slopes that face toward the equator exhibit the same types of features as seen on nearly every other non-gullied slope on Mars.

    The example shown here comes from northwestern Elysium Planitia in the martian northern hemisphere. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) high resolution view (A, left) shows a portion of a 10 kilometer-(6.2 mi)-diameter meteor impact crater at a resolution of about 9 meters (29.5 ft) per pixel. The crater is shown in the context image (B, middle). The north-facing (or, pole-ward) slope in the MOC view is shadowed because sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left. In this shadowed area, a series of martian gullies--defined by their erosional alcoves, deep channels, and apron deposits--are seen. On the sunlit south-facing (or equator-ward) slope, a scene more typical of most martian impact craters is present--the upper slopes show layered bedrock, the lower slopes show light-toned streaks of dry debris that has slid down the slope forming talus deposits that are distinctly different from the lobe-like form of gully aprons. The picture in (C) has been rotated so that the two slopes--one with gullies (right) and one without (left)--can be compared.

    The crater is located at 36.7oN, 252.3oW. The MOC image was acquired in November 1999 and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide by 14 km (8.7 mi) long; north is toward the upper right (in A) and it is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left. The Viking 1 orbiter context image (B) was obtained in 1978 and is illuminated from the left

  6. Application of exopolysaccharides to improve the performance of ceramic bodies in the unidirectional dry pressing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caneira, Inês; Machado-Moreira, Bernardino; Dionísio, Amélia; Godinho, Vasco; Neves, Orquídia; Dias, Diamantino; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Miller, Ana Z.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramic industry represents an important sector of economic activity in the European countries and involves complex and numerous manufacturing processes. The unidirectional dry pressing process includes milling and stirring of raw materials (mainly clay and talc minerals) in aqueous suspensions, followed by spray drying to remove excess water obtaining spray-dried powders further subjected to dry pressing process (conformation). However, spray-dried ceramic powders exhibit an important variability in their performance when subjected to the dry pressing process, particularly in the adhesion to the mold and mechanical strength, affecting the quality of the final conformed ceramic products. Therefore, several synthetic additives (deflocculants, antifoams, binders, lubricants and plasticizers) are introduced in the ceramic slips to achieve uniform and homogeneous pastes, conditioning their rheological properties. However, an important variability associated with the performance of the conformed products is still reported. Exopolysaccharides or Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) are polymers excreted by living organisms, such as bacteria, fungi and algae, which may confer unique and potentially interesting properties with potential industrial uses, such as viscosity control, gelation, and flocculation. Polysaccharides, such as pullulan, gellan, carrageenan and xanthan have found a wide range of applications in food, pharmaceutical, petroleum, and in other industries. The aim of this study was the assessment of exopolysaccharides as natural additives to optimize the performance of spray-dried ceramic powders during the unidirectional dry pressing process, replacing the synthetic additives used in the ceramic production process. Six exopolysaccharides, namely pullulan, gellan, xanthan gum, κappa- and iota-carrageenan, and guar gum were tested in steatite-based spray-dried ceramic powders at different concentrations. Subsequently, these ceramic powders were

  7. Biogenic amine profile in unripe Arabica coffee beans processed according to dry and wet methods.

    PubMed

    Dias, Eduardo C; Pereira, Rosemary G F A; Borém, Flávio M; Mendes, Eulália; de Lima, Renato R; Fernandes, José O; Casal, Susana

    2012-04-25

    Immature coffee fruit processing contributes to a high amount of defective beans, which determines a significant amount of low-quality coffee sold in the Brazilian internal market. Unripe bean processing was tested, taking the levels of bioactive amines as criteria for evaluating the extent of fermentation and establishing the differences between processing methods. The beans were processed by the dry method after being mechanically depulped immediately after harvest or after a 12 h resting period in a dry pile or immersed in water. Seven bioactive amines were quantified: putrescine, spermine, spermidine, serotonin, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine, with global amounts ranging from 71.8 to 80.3 mg/kg. The levels of spermine and spermidine were lower in the unripe depulped coffee than in the natural coffee. The specific conditions of dry and wet processing also influenced cadaverine levels, and histamine was reduced in unripe depulped coffee. A resting period of 12 h does not induce significant alteration on the beans and can be improved if performed in water. These results confirm that peeling immature coffee can decrease fermentation processes while providing more uniform drying, thus reducing the number of defects and potentially increasing beverage quality. PMID:22429054

  8. Accelerate!

    PubMed

    Kotter, John P

    2012-11-01

    The old ways of setting and implementing strategy are failing us, writes the author of Leading Change, in part because we can no longer keep up with the pace of change. Organizational leaders are torn between trying to stay ahead of increasingly fierce competition and needing to deliver this year's results. Although traditional hierarchies and managerial processes--the components of a company's "operating system"--can meet the daily demands of running an enterprise, they are rarely equipped to identify important hazards quickly, formulate creative strategic initiatives nimbly, and implement them speedily. The solution Kotter offers is a second system--an agile, networklike structure--that operates in concert with the first to create a dual operating system. In such a system the hierarchy can hand off the pursuit of big strategic initiatives to the strategy network, freeing itself to focus on incremental changes to improve efficiency. The network is populated by employees from all levels of the organization, giving it organizational knowledge, relationships, credibility, and influence. It can Liberate information from silos with ease. It has a dynamic structure free of bureaucratic layers, permitting a level of individualism, creativity, and innovation beyond the reach of any hierarchy. The network's core is a guiding coalition that represents each level and department in the hierarchy, with a broad range of skills. Its drivers are members of a "volunteer army" who are energized by and committed to the coalition's vividly formulated, high-stakes vision and strategy. Kotter has helped eight organizations, public and private, build dual operating systems over the past three years. He predicts that such systems will lead to long-term success in the 21st century--for shareholders, customers, employees, and companies themselves. PMID:23155997

  9. Accelerate!

    PubMed

    Kotter, John P

    2012-11-01

    The old ways of setting and implementing strategy are failing us, writes the author of Leading Change, in part because we can no longer keep up with the pace of change. Organizational leaders are torn between trying to stay ahead of increasingly fierce competition and needing to deliver this year's results. Although traditional hierarchies and managerial processes--the components of a company's "operating system"--can meet the daily demands of running an enterprise, they are rarely equipped to identify important hazards quickly, formulate creative strategic initiatives nimbly, and implement them speedily. The solution Kotter offers is a second system--an agile, networklike structure--that operates in concert with the first to create a dual operating system. In such a system the hierarchy can hand off the pursuit of big strategic initiatives to the strategy network, freeing itself to focus on incremental changes to improve efficiency. The network is populated by employees from all levels of the organization, giving it organizational knowledge, relationships, credibility, and influence. It can Liberate information from silos with ease. It has a dynamic structure free of bureaucratic layers, permitting a level of individualism, creativity, and innovation beyond the reach of any hierarchy. The network's core is a guiding coalition that represents each level and department in the hierarchy, with a broad range of skills. Its drivers are members of a "volunteer army" who are energized by and committed to the coalition's vividly formulated, high-stakes vision and strategy. Kotter has helped eight organizations, public and private, build dual operating systems over the past three years. He predicts that such systems will lead to long-term success in the 21st century--for shareholders, customers, employees, and companies themselves.

  10. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-11-30

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  11. Albedo Drop on the Greenland Ice Sheet: Relative Impacts of Wet and Dry Snow Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Polashenski, C.

    2014-12-01

    The energy balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) is strongly impacted by changes in snow albedo. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) observations indicate that the GIS albedo has dropped since the early part of this century. We analyze data from the MODIS products MOD10A1 for broadband snow albedo and MOD09A1 for surface spectral reflectance since 2001 to better explain the physical mechanisms driving these changes. The MODIS products are filtered, and the data is masked using microwave-derived surface melt maps to isolate albedo changes due to dry snow processes from those driven by melt impacts. Results show that the majority of recent changes in the GIS albedo - even at high elevations - are driven by snow wetting rather than dry snow processes such as grain metamorphosis and aerosol impurity deposition. The spectral signature of the smaller changes occurring within dry snow areas suggests that grain metamorphosis dominates the albedo decline in these regions.

  12. True density and apparent density during the drying process for vegetables and fruits: a review.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, J; Méndez-Lagunas, L; López-Ortiz, A; Torres, S Sandoval

    2012-12-01

    This review presents the concepts involved in determining the density of foodstuffs, and summarizes the volumetric determination techniques used to calculate true density and apparent density in foodstuffs exposed to the drying process. The behavior of density with respect to moisture content (X) and drying temperature (T) is presented and explained with a basis in changes in structure, conformation, chemical composition, and second-order phase changes that occur in the processes of mass and heat transport, as reported to date in the literature. A review of the empirical and theoretical equations that represent density is presented, and their application in foodstuffs is discussed. This review also addresses cases with nonideal density behavior, including variations in ρ(s) and ρ(w) as a function of the inside temperature of the material, depending on drying conditions (X, T). A compilation of studies regarding the density of dehydrated foodstuffs is also presented.

  13. Measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of spent nuclear fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, D. L.; Hong, J.-S.; Kim, H.-D.; Persiani, P. J.; Wolf, S. F.

    1999-07-21

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detection, {alpha}-spectrometry ({alpha}-S), and {gamma}-spectrometry ({gamma}-S) were used for the determination of nuclide content in five samples excised from a high-burnup fuel rod taken from a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The samples were prepared for analysis by dissolution of dry-powdered samples. The measurement techniques required no separation of the plutonium, uranium, and fission products. The sample preparation and analysis techniques showed promise for in-line analysis of highly-irradiated spent fuels in a dry-powdered process. The analytical results allowed the determination of fuel burnup based on {sup 148}Nd, Pu, and U content. A goal of this effort is to develop the HPLC-ICPMS method for direct fissile material accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent nuclear fuel.

  14. Novel process windows for enabling, accelerating, and uplifting flow chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hessel, Volker; Kralisch, Dana; Kockmann, Norbert; Noël, Timothy; Wang, Qi

    2013-05-01

    Novel Process Windows make use of process conditions that are far from conventional practices. This involves the use of high temperatures, high pressures, high concentrations (solvent-free), new chemical transformations, explosive conditions, and process simplification and integration to boost synthetic chemistry on both the laboratory and production scale. Such harsh reaction conditions can be safely reached in microstructured reactors due to their excellent transport intensification properties. This Review discusses the different routes towards Novel Process Windows and provides several examples for each route grouped into different classes of chemical and process-design intensification.

  15. Degradation of carotenoids in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) during drying process.

    PubMed

    Fratianni, Alessandra; Albanese, Donatella; Mignogna, Rossella; Cinquanta, Luciano; Panfili, Gianfranco; Di Matteo, Marisa

    2013-09-01

    Carotenoids are natural compounds whose nutritional importance comes from the provitamin A activity of some of them and their protection against several serious human disorders. The degradation of carotenoids was investigated during apricot drying by microwave and convective hot-air at 60 and 70 °C. Seven carotenoids were identified: antheraxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, 13-cis-β-carotene, all-trans-β-carotene and 9-cis-β-carotene; among these, all-trans-β-carotene was found to be about 50 % of total carotenoids. First-order kinetic models were found to better describe all-trans-β-carotene reduction during drying, with a degradation rate constant (k1) that increased two folds when temperatures increased by 10 °C, in both methods. No differences were found in k1 between apricots dried by hot air at 70 °C (k1 = 0.0340 h(-1)) and by microwave at 60 °C. The evolution of total carotenoids (117.1 mg/kg on dry basis) during drying highlighted a wider decrease (about 50%) when microwave heating was employed, for both set temperatures. Antheraxantin was found to be the carotenoid most susceptible to heat, disappearing at 6 h during both trials with microwave as well as during convective hot-air at 70 °C. For this reason, antheraxanthin could be a useful marker for the evaluation of thermal damage due to the drying process. Also the degree of isomerization of all-trans-β-carotene could be a useful marker for the evaluation of the drying process.

  16. 77 FR 21991 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP)-Lender and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Federal Housing Administration (FHA): Multifamily Accelerated Processing (MAP)--Lender and Underwriter Eligibility Criteria and Credit Watch for MAP Lenders AGENCY: Office of the...

  17. Study of a dry room in a battery manufacturing plant using a process model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2016-09-01

    The manufacture of lithium ion batteries requires some processing steps to be carried out in a dry room, where the moisture content should remain below 100 parts per million. The design and operation of such a dry room adds to the cost of the battery. This paper studied the humidity management of the air to and from the dry room to understand the impact of design and operating parameters on the energy demand and the cost contribution towards the battery manufacturing cost. The study was conducted with the help of a process model for a dry room with a volume of 16,000 cubic meters. For a defined base case scenario it was found that the dry room operation has an energy demand of approximately 400 kW. The paper explores some tradeoffs in design and operating parameters by looking at the humidity reduction by quenching the make-up air vs. at the desiccant wheel, and the impact of the heat recovery from the desiccant regeneration cycle.

  18. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying modeling of fluid flow and heat transfer in a crown compensated impulse drying press roll, The lubrication problem. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.; Hojjatie, B.; Bloom, F.

    1994-08-01

    Although evaporative drying is currently used to dry paper, research has showed that significant energy savings could be realized with the newer impulse drying technology in drying heavy weight grades of paper. This report analyzes the lubrication problem which arises in modeling impulse drying employing a crown compensated roll. The geometry for the associated steady flow problem is constructed and expressions are derived for the relevant velocity fields, mass flow rates, and normal and tangential forces acting on both the bottom surface of an internal hydrostatic shoe and the inside surface of the crown-compensated roll. Results from the analytical model agreed well with experimental data from Beloit Corp. for the small shoe/roll configuration. The model can be used to predict effect of design and physical parameters on the performance of the press roll (lubricant thickness, pressure distributions, mechanical power required to operate the roll, etc.) and to determine optimal performance under various operating conditions.

  19. Study on parameters affecting the mechanical properties of dry fiber bundles during continuous composite manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, A.; Schledjewski, R.

    2016-07-01

    For continuous manufacturing processes mechanical preloading of the fibers occurs during the delivery of the fibers from the spool creel to the actual manufacturing process step. Moreover preloading of the dry roving bundles might be mandatory, e.g. during winding, to be able to produce high quality components. On the one hand too high tensile loads within dry roving bundles might result in a catastrophic failure and on the other hand the part produced under too low pre-tension might have low quality and mechanical properties. In this work, load conditions influencing mechanical properties of dry glass fiber bundles during continuous composite manufacturing processes were analyzed. Load conditions, i.e. fiber delivery speed, necessary pre-tension and other effects of the delivery system during continuous fiber winding, were chosen in process typical ranges. First, the strain rate dependency under static tensile load conditions was investigated. Furthermore different free gauge lengths up to 1.2 m, interactions between fiber points of contact regarding influence of sizing as well as impregnation were tested and the effect of twisting on the mechanical behavior of dry glass fiber bundles during the fiber delivery was studied.

  20. Moisture diffusivity in the lean tissue of dry-cured ham at different process times.

    PubMed

    Gou, P; Comaposada, J; Arnau, J

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effective moisture diffusivity coefficient (D(e)) during dry-cured ham processing in two muscles, an internal one (Biceps femoris, BF) and an external one (Semimembranosus, SM), at different temperatures. Two adjacent samples, which included both SM and BF muscles, were selected after salting (PS), after resting (PR), after 4 months of drying (D1) and at the end of the process (D2). One was used to determine the initial profiles of moisture and NaCl/moisture and the other to determine D(e) at different temperatures (1 and 5°C in PS; 5 and 12°C in PR; 12, 19 and 26°C in D1; 19 and 33°C in D2). D(e) was higher in the muscle with the higher moisture content (BF) except in PS and PR, where a gradient of NaCl/moisture ratio was observed in SM muscle. There was a positive effect of temperature on D(e), but it decreased during processing of the dry-cured ham. A simple diffusive model, with a unique and constant moisture diffusivity coefficient or with a coefficient depending only on temperature, does not explain the whole drying process correctly. The effects of moisture content and the gradient of NaCl/moisture ratio on D(e) have to be considered. PMID:22061315

  1. EVALUATION OF A TEST METHOD FOR MEASURING INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM DRY-PROCESS PHOTOCOPIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large chamber test method for measuring indoor air emissions from office equipment was developed, evaluated, and revised based on the initial testing of four dry-process photocopiers. Because all chambers may not necessarily produce similar results (e.g., due to differences in ...

  2. Influence of Water Content on Mechanical Properties of Rock in Both Saturation and Drying Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zilong; Cai, Xin; Cao, Wenzhuo; Li, Xibing; Xiong, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Water content has a pronounced influence on the properties of rock materials, which is responsible for many rock engineering hazards, such as landslides and karst collapse. Meanwhile, water injection is also used for the prevention of some engineering disasters like rock-bursts. To comprehensively investigate the effect of water content on mechanical properties of rocks, laboratory tests were carried out on sandstone specimens with different water contents in both saturation and drying processes. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance technique was applied to study the water distribution in specimens with variation of water contents. The servo-controlled rock mechanics testing machine and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar technique were used to conduct both compressive and tensile tests on sandstone specimens with different water contents. From the laboratory tests, reductions of the compressive and tensile strength of sandstone under static and dynamic states in different saturation processes were observed. In the drying process, all of the saturated specimens could basically regain their mechanical properties and recover its strength as in the dry state. However, for partially saturated specimens in the saturation and drying processes, the tensile strength of specimens with the same water content was different, which could be related to different water distributions in specimens.

  3. Improving flow ability of distillers dried grains by novel processing techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A distillers dried grains (DDG) sample obtained from MCP Corporation was processed by jet cooking at various pH levels and fractionated. Among the various fractions, free flowing particles were obtained that appear to have several opportunities for a range of industrial applications. Rheological p...

  4. Laser cutting eliminates nucleic acid cross-contamination in dried-blood-spot processing.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Sean C; Daza, Glenda; Chang, Ming; Coombs, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) are useful for molecular assays but are prone to false positives from cross-contamination. In our malaria DBS assay, cross-contamination was encountered despite cleaning techniques suitable for HIV-1. We therefore developed a contact-free laser cutting system that effectively eliminated cross-contamination during DBS processing.

  5. Design of solar thermal dryers for 24-hour food drying processes (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar drying is a ubiquitous method that has been adopted for many years as a food preservation method. Most of the published articles in the literature provide insight on the performance of solar dryers in service but little information on the dryer construction material selection process or mater...

  6. Computational Tools for Accelerating Carbon Capture Process Development

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the work reported are: to develop new computational tools and models to enable industry to more rapidly develop and deploy new advanced energy technologies; to demonstrate the capabilities of the CCSI Toolset on non-proprietary case studies; and to deploy the CCSI Toolset to industry. Challenges of simulating carbon capture (and other) processes include: dealing with multiple scales (particle, device, and whole process scales); integration across scales; verification, validation, and uncertainty; and decision support. The tools cover: risk analysis and decision making; validated, high-fidelity CFD; high-resolution filtered sub-models; process design and optimization tools; advanced process control and dynamics; process models; basic data sub-models; and cross-cutting integration tools.

  7. Final report to US Department of Energy: Cyclotron autoresonance accelerator for electron beam dry scrubbing of flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, J.L.

    2001-05-25

    Several designs have been built and operated of microwave cyclotron autoresonance accelerators (CARA's) with electron beam parameters suitable for remediation of pollutants in flue gas emissions from coal-burning power plants. CARA designs have also been developed with a TW-level 10.6 micron laser driver for electron acceleration from 50 to 100 MeV, and with UHF drivers for proton acceleration to over 500 MeV. Dose requirements for reducing SO2, NOx, and particulates in flue gas emissions to acceptable levels have been surveyed, and used to optimize the design of an electron beam source to deliver this dose.

  8. Freeze-drying processes and wind erodibility of a clay loam soil in southern Alberta

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, M S.; Larney, F. J.; McGinn, Sean M.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    1999-01-01

    Freeze-drying has been implicated as a factor causing soil aggregate breakdown on the Canadian Prairies and northern Great Plains. Aggregates of a Dark Brown Chernozemic clay loam soil sampled in October 1993 and January and April 1994 were subjected to repeated cycles of wetting (to 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 kg kg-1 water contents) freezing, and freeze-drying under laboratory conditions. The October 1993 samples showed less disruption when initially exposed to freeze-drying cycles compared to samples taken in January and April 1994. Using regression analysis, we predicted that 31 freeze-dry cycles were required for the 0.1 kg kg-1 water content aggregates to reach 60% erodible fraction (EF, % aggregates <0.86 mm), 9 cycles for the 0.2 kg kg-1 aggregates and 2 for 0.3 kg kg-1 aggregates. In a field study, conducted over the 1994-1995 winter on a similar clay loam soil, we estimated the number of freeze-drying cycles using large vapor pressure (VPL) and small vapor pressure (VPS) gradients bet ween the soil surface (which had a mean winter water content of {approx}0.1 kg kg-1) and the atmosphere. With solar energy adjustments, we predicted that the number of freeze-dry cycles required for the soil to reach 60% EF was 60 for VPL and 37 for VPS conditions. The latter number was similar to the 31 cycles predicted in the laboratory study of aggregates at 0.1 water content. Our results demonstrate that freeze-drying is an important overwinter process in the breakdown of soil aggregates and hence wind erosion risk in the Canadian prairie region.

  9. Biotherapeutics in orthopaedic medicine: accelerating the healing process?

    PubMed

    Puleo, David

    2003-01-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries have a significant human and financial impact on society. In particular, fractures that lead to delayed union or even nonunion represent a serious clinical challenge for which few treatment options are available. The multiple surgical procedures often needed are associated with patient morbidity and reduced quality of life. Biotechnological advances have made possible a host of potential treatments for enhancing and accelerating the repair of bone. By stimulating the body's own healing mechanisms, clinical outcomes may be improved while also containing procedural costs. Biotherapeutics may take the form of proteins, genes or cells that can be used to treat the injury. Protein biotherapeutics have received the greatest attention. Using recombinant DNA techniques, growth factors that play important roles in bone development and repair are being produced. By delivering exogenous growth factors to the site of injury in an appropriate manner, bone formation can be stimulated. Although individual proteins have been the primary focus of investigation, combinations of biomolecules can have additive, and perhaps synergistic, effects. Alternatively, genes coding for osteotropic growth factors can be delivered to the site of injury. Expression of the gene effectively results in localised delivery of the growth factor. Delivery of cells having osteogenic potential can also result in bone formation. Furthermore, it may be possible to obtain additional benefits by combining biotherapeutic approaches, such as by introducing cells genetically modified to overexpress therapeutic proteins of interest. Although biotherapeutics have great potential for stimulating bone repair, only a limited number of treatments have been approved by governmental regulatory agencies for clinical use. Bone morphogenetic activity was initially described in 1965, but not until 2001 and 2002 did two protein biotherapeutics, utilising bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 7, receive

  10. Acceleration of the GAMESS-UK electronic structure package on graphical processing units.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Karl A; Sherwood, Paul; Guest, Martyn F; Naidoo, Kevin J

    2011-07-30

    The approach used to calculate the two-electron integral by many electronic structure packages including generalized atomic and molecular electronic structure system-UK has been designed for CPU-based compute units. We redesigned the two-electron compute algorithm for acceleration on a graphical processing unit (GPU). We report the acceleration strategy and illustrate it on the (ss|ss) type integrals. This strategy is general for Fortran-based codes and uses the Accelerator compiler from Portland Group International and GPU-based accelerators from Nvidia. The evaluation of (ss|ss) type integrals within calculations using Hartree Fock ab initio methods and density functional theory are accelerated by single and quad GPU hardware systems by factors of 43 and 153, respectively. The overall speedup for a single self consistent field cycle is at least a factor of eight times faster on a single GPU compared with that of a single CPU. PMID:21541963

  11. Using pattern enumeration to accelerate process development and ramp yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Linda; Pang, Jenny; Xu, Jessy; Tsai, Mengfeng; Wang, Amy; Zhang, Yifan; Sweis, Jason; Lai, Ya-Chieh; Ding, Hua

    2016-03-01

    During a new technology node process setup phase, foundries do not initially have enough product chip designs to conduct exhaustive process development. Different operational teams use manually designed simple test keys to set up their process flows and recipes. When the very first version of the design rule manual (DRM) is ready, foundries enter the process development phase where new experiment design data is manually created based on these design rules. However, these IP/test keys contain very uniform or simple design structures. This kind of design normally does not contain critical design structures or process unfriendly design patterns that pass design rule checks but are found to be less manufacturable. It is desired to have a method to generate exhaustive test patterns allowed by design rules at development stage to verify the gap of design rule and process. This paper presents a novel method of how to generate test key patterns which contain known problematic patterns as well as any constructs which designers could possibly draw based on current design rules. The enumerated test key patterns will contain the most critical design structures which are allowed by any particular design rule. A layout profiling method is used to do design chip analysis in order to find potential weak points on new incoming products so fab can take preemptive action to avoid yield loss. It can be achieved by comparing different products and leveraging the knowledge learned from previous manufactured chips to find possible yield detractors.

  12. Investigation of the processes of impregnation and drying of granular silica gel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. V.; Zhilin, A. A.; Korobeinikov, Yu. G.

    2011-09-01

    The process of capillary impregnation and drying of silica gel grains in the acousto-convective drier of the ITPM of the Siberian branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences has been investigated experimentally. Two methods for humidifying a material with developed surface and internal structures have been considered. A comparison of these methods has been made and the influence of the impregnation rate on the geometry of silica gel grains has been analyzed. Silica gel grains were dried by three methods: microwave, convective, and acousto-convective. The dependence of the drying rate and the quality of the dried material on the chosen drying method has been shown. To describe the moisture extraction, we propose a mathematical model based on a two-dimensional diffusion equation written in the cylindrical system of coordinates. The moisture distribution in cylindrical samples consisting of silica gel grains has been obtained numerically for various values of the initial moisture content with the use of certain diffusion coefficients and the dependence of the moisture transfer coefficient on the frequency of acousto-convective action.

  13. Effect of drying processes and curing time of chitosan-lysine semi-IPN beads on chlorpheniramine maleate delivery.

    PubMed

    Kumari, K; Kundu, P P

    2009-02-01

    Beads of semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN) have been synthesized from chitosan and lysine with varying amounts of glutaraldehyde solution used as a cross-linker. The cross-linked beads are dried by different drying processes such as air-drying, oven-drying and freeze-drying. These semi-IPNs are characterized under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Swelling studies of these beads are carried out in different pH (2.0 and 7.4) solutions. The effect of concentration of cross-linking agent and curing period on the swelling as well as on the drug release is analysed. The results indicate that the size of matrix depend on the curing time of beads, concentration of glutaraldehyde and technique of drying. The freeze-dried beads exhibit a relatively higher percentage of swelling in the range of 66-89% as compared to oven-dried beads (53-74%) and air-dried beads (39-61%). The drug loaded beads which are cured for different time intervals followed by drying are tested for in-vitro release of chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) drug. The rate of drug release from freeze-dried beads is much faster than that from the oven-dried and air-dried beads.

  14. Refining each process step to accelerate the development of biorefineries

    DOE PAGES

    Chandra, Richard P.; Ragauskas, Art J.

    2016-06-21

    Research over the past decade has been mainly focused on overcoming hurdles in the pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation steps of biochemical processing. Pretreatments have improved significantly in their ability to fractionate and recover the cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin components of biomass while producing substrates containing carbohydrates that can be easily broken down by hydrolytic enzymes. There is a rapid movement towards pretreatment processes that incorporate mechanical treatments that make use of existing infrastructure in the pulp and paper industry, which has experienced a downturn in its traditional markets. Enzyme performance has also made great strides with breakthrough developments inmore » nonhydrolytic protein components, such as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases, as well as the improvement of enzyme cocktails.The fermentability of pretreated and hydrolyzed sugar streams has been improved through strategies such as the use of reducing agents for detoxification, strain selection, and strain improvements. Although significant progress has been made, tremendous challenges still remain to advance each step of biochemical conversion, especially when processing woody biomass. In addition to technical and scale-up issues within each step of the bioconversion process, biomass feedstock supply and logistics challenges still remain at the forefront of biorefinery research.« less

  15. Inactivation of Serratia liquefaciens on dry-cured ham by high pressure processing.

    PubMed

    Belletti, N; Garriga, M; Aymerich, T; Bover-Cid, S

    2013-08-01

    To quantify the inactivation of Serratia liquefaciens exerted by high pressure processing (HPP), slices of dry-cured ham were inoculated and processed combining different levels of technological parameters: pressure (347-852 MPa), time (2.3-15.8 min) and temperature (7.6-24.4 °C) according to a central composite design. Bacterial inactivation, as logarithmic reduction, indicated that S. liquefaciens was relatively sensitive to HPP. Six log reductions were achieved in a total of 10 trials combining pressures of 600 MPa or above with different holding times and temperatures. The inactivation of S. liquefaciens was analysed through the multiple regression analysis to generate a second order polynomial equation. Pressure and time were the two factors which significantly determined the inactivation of S. liquefaciens on dry-cured ham. Temperature did not significantly affect the lethality of the process. The response surface methodology was used to determine optimum process conditions to maximize the inactivation of S. liquefaciens in the experimental range tested. The maximum inactivation of S. liquefaciens in dry-cured ham was achieved by combining a pressure of 650 MPa with a holding time of 8 min. Combinations above these values (i.e. 750 MPa for 13 min) would not significantly improve the lethality of the process.

  16. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration.

  17. Modeling of the process of moisture loss during the storage of dried apricots.

    PubMed

    Miranda, G; Berna, A; Bon, J; Mulet, A

    2011-10-01

    Moisture content is a reference parameter for dried food because the growth of most microorganisms is inhibited below certain water activity levels. In addition, it has a determining influence on the evolution of important parameters, such as color and flavor, and on other properties and deterioration reactions, such as texture, oxidation processes and nutritional value. During the storage of some dried fruits, moisture is produced due to Maillard reactions and exchanged with the surrounding environment through the packaging. The evolution of dried foods during their shelf life depends on the storage conditions. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution of the moisture content in dried apricots packaged in different types of containers, namely glass and thermosealed polypropylene trays. The samples were stored at constant temperatures: 5, 15, 25 and 35 °C and were analyzed periodically over a period of 12 months. The sorption isotherms of apricots used in this study were also determined. In order to model how the moisture evolved, an empirical kinetic model was tested. This model considers both water transfer from the fruit and also water production as a result of the Maillard processes. The explained variance was higher than 95% in the samples stored in trays, which were thermosealed with film. PMID:21954317

  18. Accelerated space object tracking via graphic processing unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Bin; Liu, Kui; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a hybrid Monte Carlo Gauss mixture Kalman filter is proposed for the continuous orbit estimation problem. Specifically, the graphic processing unit (GPU) aided Monte Carlo method is used to propagate the uncertainty of the estimation when the observation is not available and the Gauss mixture Kalman filter is used to update the estimation when the observation sequences are available. A typical space object tracking problem using the ground radar is used to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with the popular cubature Kalman filter (CKF). The simulation results show that the ordinary CKF diverges in 5 observation periods. In contrast, the proposed hybrid Monte Carlo Gauss mixture Kalman filter achieves satisfactory performance in all observation periods. In addition, by using the GPU, the computational time is over 100 times less than that using the conventional central processing unit (CPU).

  19. Analysis of the moisture evaporation process during vacuum freeze-drying of koumiss and shubat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shingisov, Azret Utebaevich; Alibekov, Ravshanbek Sultanbekovich

    2016-10-01

    The equation for the calculating of a moisture evaporation rate in the vacuum freeze-drying, wherein as a driving force instead of the generally accepted in the drying theory of ∆t temperature difference, ∆p pressure difference, ∆c concentration difference, a difference of water activity in the product and the relative air humidity (a_{w} - φ) is suggested. By using the proposed equation, the processes of vacuum freeze-drying of koumiss and shubat were analyzed, and it was found two drying periods: constant and falling. On the first drying period, a moisture evaporation rate of koumiss is j = 2.75 × 10-3 kg/(m2 h) and of shubat is j = 2.37 × 10-3 kg/(m2 h). On the second period, values decrease for koumiss from j = 2.65 × 10-3 kg/(m2 h) to j = 1.60 × 10-3 kg/(m2 h), and for shubat from j = 2.25 × 10-3 kg/(m2 h) to j = 1.62 × 10-3 kg/(m2 h). Specific humidity for koumiss is ueq = 0.61 kg/kg and for shubat is ueq = 0.58 kg/kg. The comparative analyze of the experimental data of the moisture evaporation rate versus the theoretical calculation shows that the approximation reliability is R2 = 0.99. Consequently, the proposed equation is useful for the analyzing a moisture evaporation rate during a vacuum freeze-drying of dairy products, including cultured milk foods.

  20. Accelerating radio astronomy cross-correlation with graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. A.; LaPlante, P. C.; Greenhill, L. J.

    2013-05-01

    We present a highly parallel implementation of the cross-correlation of time-series data using graphics processing units (GPUs), which is scalable to hundreds of independent inputs and suitable for the processing of signals from 'large-Formula' arrays of many radio antennas. The computational part of the algorithm, the X-engine, is implemented efficiently on NVIDIA's Fermi architecture, sustaining up to 79% of the peak single-precision floating-point throughput. We compare performance obtained for hardware- and software-managed caches, observing significantly better performance for the latter. The high performance reported involves use of a multi-level data tiling strategy in memory and use of a pipelined algorithm with simultaneous computation and transfer of data from host to device memory. The speed of code development, flexibility, and low cost of the GPU implementations compared with application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and field programmable gate array (FPGA) implementations have the potential to greatly shorten the cycle of correlator development and deployment, for cases where some power-consumption penalty can be tolerated.

  1. Kilogram-scale production of SnO(2) yolk-shell powders by a spray-drying process using dextrin as carbon source and drying additive.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-05-01

    A simple and general method for the large-scale production of yolk-shell powders with various compositions by a spray-drying process is reported. Metal salt/dextrin composite powders with a spherical and dense structure were obtained by spray drying and transformed into yolk-shell powders by simple combustion in air. Dextrin plays a key role in the preparation of precursor powders for fabricating yolk-shell powders by spray drying. Droplets containing metal salts and dextrin show good drying characteristics even in a severe environment of high humidity. Sucrose, glucose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone are widely used as carbon sources in the preparation of metal oxide/carbon composite powders; however, they are not appropriate for large-scale spray-drying processes because of their caramelization properties and adherence to the surface of the spray dryer. SnO2 yolk-shell powders were studied as the first target material in the spray-drying process. Combustion of tin oxalate/dextrin composite powders at 600 °C in air produced single-shelled SnO2 yolk-shell powders with the configuration SnO2 @void@SnO2 . The SnO2 yolk-shell powders prepared by the simple spray-drying process showed superior electrochemical properties, even at high current densities. The discharge capacities of the SnO2 yolk-shell powders at a current density of 2000 mA g(-1) were 645 and 570 mA h g(-1) for the second and 100th cycles, respectively; the corresponding capacity retention measured for the second cycle was 88 %.

  2. Graphics processing units accelerated semiclassical initial value representation molecular dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Tamascelli, Dario; Dambrosio, Francesco Saverio; Conte, Riccardo; Ceotto, Michele

    2014-05-07

    This paper presents a Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) implementation of the Semiclassical Initial Value Representation (SC-IVR) propagator for vibrational molecular spectroscopy calculations. The time-averaging formulation of the SC-IVR for power spectrum calculations is employed. Details about the GPU implementation of the semiclassical code are provided. Four molecules with an increasing number of atoms are considered and the GPU-calculated vibrational frequencies perfectly match the benchmark values. The computational time scaling of two GPUs (NVIDIA Tesla C2075 and Kepler K20), respectively, versus two CPUs (Intel Core i5 and Intel Xeon E5-2687W) and the critical issues related to the GPU implementation are discussed. The resulting reduction in computational time and power consumption is significant and semiclassical GPU calculations are shown to be environment friendly.

  3. Graphics processing units accelerated semiclassical initial value representation molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamascelli, Dario; Dambrosio, Francesco Saverio; Conte, Riccardo; Ceotto, Michele

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) implementation of the Semiclassical Initial Value Representation (SC-IVR) propagator for vibrational molecular spectroscopy calculations. The time-averaging formulation of the SC-IVR for power spectrum calculations is employed. Details about the GPU implementation of the semiclassical code are provided. Four molecules with an increasing number of atoms are considered and the GPU-calculated vibrational frequencies perfectly match the benchmark values. The computational time scaling of two GPUs (NVIDIA Tesla C2075 and Kepler K20), respectively, versus two CPUs (Intel Core i5 and Intel Xeon E5-2687W) and the critical issues related to the GPU implementation are discussed. The resulting reduction in computational time and power consumption is significant and semiclassical GPU calculations are shown to be environment friendly.

  4. Graphics processing units accelerated semiclassical initial value representation molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tamascelli, Dario; Dambrosio, Francesco Saverio; Conte, Riccardo; Ceotto, Michele

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) implementation of the Semiclassical Initial Value Representation (SC-IVR) propagator for vibrational molecular spectroscopy calculations. The time-averaging formulation of the SC-IVR for power spectrum calculations is employed. Details about the GPU implementation of the semiclassical code are provided. Four molecules with an increasing number of atoms are considered and the GPU-calculated vibrational frequencies perfectly match the benchmark values. The computational time scaling of two GPUs (NVIDIA Tesla C2075 and Kepler K20), respectively, versus two CPUs (Intel Core i5 and Intel Xeon E5-2687W) and the critical issues related to the GPU implementation are discussed. The resulting reduction in computational time and power consumption is significant and semiclassical GPU calculations are shown to be environment friendly. PMID:24811627

  5. Dry Process for Making Polyimide/ Carbon-and-Boron-Fiber Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, Harry L.; Cano, Roberto J.; Johnston, Norman J.; Marchello, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    A dry process has been invented as an improved means of manufacturing composite prepreg tapes that consist of high-temperature thermoplastic polyimide resin matrices reinforced with carbon and boron fibers. Such tapes are used (especially in the aircraft industry) to fabricate strong, lightweight composite-material structural components. The inclusion of boron fibers results in compression strengths greater than can be achieved by use of carbon fibers alone. The present dry process is intended to enable the manufacture of prepreg tapes (1) that contain little or no solvent; (2) that have the desired dimensions, fiber areal weight, and resin content; and (3) in which all of the fibers are adequately wetted by resin and the boron fibers are fully encapsulated and evenly dispersed. Prepreg tapes must have these properties to be useable in the manufacture of high-quality composites by automated tape placement. The elimination of solvent and the use of automated tape placement would reduce the overall costs of manufacturing.

  6. Manufacturing of solid dispersions of poorly water soluble drugs by spray drying: formulation and process considerations.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Amrit; Worku, Zelalem Ayenew; Meeus, Joke; Guns, Sandra; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2013-08-30

    Spray drying is an efficient technology for solid dispersion manufacturing since it allows extreme rapid solvent evaporation leading to fast transformation of an API-carrier solution to solid API-carrier particles. Solvent evaporation kinetics certainly contribute to formation of amorphous solid dispersions, but also other factors like the interplay between the API, carrier and solvent, the solution state of the API, formulation parameters (e.g. feed concentration or solvent type) and process parameters (e.g. drying gas flow rate or solution spray rate) will influence the final physical structure of the obtained solid dispersion particles. This review presents an overview of the interplay between manufacturing process, formulation parameters, physical structure, and performance of the solid dispersions with respect to stability and drug release characteristics.

  7. Accelerating the scientific exploration process with scientific workflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altintas, Ilkay; Barney, Oscar; Cheng, Zhengang; Critchlow, Terence; Ludaescher, Bertram; Parker, Steve; Shoshani, Arie; Vouk, Mladen

    2006-09-01

    Although an increasing amount of middleware has emerged in the last few years to achieve remote data access, distributed job execution, and data management, orchestrating these technologies with minimal overhead still remains a difficult task for scientists. Scientific workflow systems improve this situation by creating interfaces to a variety of technologies and automating the execution and monitoring of the workflows. Workflow systems provide domain-independent customizable interfaces and tools that combine different tools and technologies along with efficient methods for using them. As simulations and experiments move into the petascale regime, the orchestration of long running data and compute intensive tasks is becoming a major requirement for the successful steering and completion of scientific investigations. A scientific workflow is the process of combining data and processes into a configurable, structured set of steps that implement semi-automated computational solutions of a scientific problem. Kepler is a cross-project collaboration, co-founded by the SciDAC Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center, whose purpose is to develop a domain-independent scientific workflow system. It provides a workflow environment in which scientists design and execute scientific workflows by specifying the desired sequence of computational actions and the appropriate data flow, including required data transformations, between these steps. Currently deployed workflows range from local analytical pipelines to distributed, high-performance and high-throughput applications, which can be both data- and compute-intensive. The scientific workflow approach offers a number of advantages over traditional scripting-based approaches, including ease of configuration, improved reusability and maintenance of workflows and components (called actors), automated provenance management, ''smart'' re-running of different versions of workflow instances, on-the-fly updateable parameters

  8. Using Qualitative Observation To Document Group Processes in Accelerated Schools Training: Techniques and Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Katherine; Batten, Constance

    This paper describes the use of qualitative observation techniques for gathering and analyzing data related to group processes during an Accelerated Schools Model training session. The purposes for this research were to observe the training process in order better to facilitate present continuation and future training, to develop questions for…

  9. Accelerator Production of Tritium project process waste assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1995-09-01

    DOE has made a commitment to compliance with all applicable environmental regulatory requirements. In this respect, it is important to consider and design all tritium supply alternatives so that they can comply with these requirements. The management of waste is an integral part of this activity and it is therefore necessary to estimate the quantities and specific wastes that will be generated by all tritium supply alternatives. A thorough assessment of waste streams includes waste characterization, quantification, and the identification of treatment and disposal options. The waste assessment for APT has been covered in two reports. The first report was a process waste assessment (PWA) that identified and quantified waste streams associated with both target designs and fulfilled the requirements of APT Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Item 5.5.2.1. This second report is an expanded version of the first that includes all of the data of the first report, plus an assessment of treatment and disposal options for each waste stream identified in the initial report. The latter information was initially planned to be issued as a separate Waste Treatment and Disposal Options Assessment Report (WBS Item 5.5.2.2).

  10. Alginate-hyaluronan composite hydrogels accelerate wound healing process.

    PubMed

    Catanzano, O; D'Esposito, V; Acierno, S; Ambrosio, M R; De Caro, C; Avagliano, C; Russo, P; Russo, R; Miro, A; Ungaro, F; Calignano, A; Formisano, P; Quaglia, F

    2015-10-20

    In this paper we propose polysaccharide hydrogels combining alginate (ALG) and hyaluronan (HA) as biofunctional platform for dermal wound repair. Hydrogels produced by internal gelation were homogeneous and easy to handle. Rheological evaluation of gelation kinetics of ALG/HA mixtures at different ratios allowed understanding the HA effect on ALG cross-linking process. Disk-shaped hydrogels, at different ALG/HA ratio, were characterized for morphology, homogeneity and mechanical properties. Results suggest that, although the presence of HA does significantly slow down gelation kinetics, the concentration of cross-links reached at the end of gelation is scarcely affected. The in vitro activity of ALG/HA dressings was tested on adipose derived multipotent adult stem cells (Ad-MSC) and an immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT). Hydrogels did not interfere with cell viability in both cells lines, but significantly promoted gap closure in a scratch assay at early (1 day) and late (5 days) stages as compared to hydrogels made of ALG alone (p<0.01 and 0.001 for Ad-MSC and HaCaT, respectively). In vivo wound healing studies, conducted on a rat model of excised wound indicated that after 5 days ALG/HA hydrogels significantly promoted wound closure as compared to ALG ones (p<0.001). Overall results demonstrate that the integration of HA in a physically cross-linked ALG hydrogel can be a versatile strategy to promote wound healing that can be easily translated in a clinical setting.

  11. Material accountancy measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of nuclear spent fuels.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, S. F.

    1999-03-24

    The paper addresses the development of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha-spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry techniques for in-line analysis of highly irradiated (18 to 64 GWD/T) PWR spent fuels in a dry-powdered processing cycle. The dry-powdered technique for direct elemental and isotopic accountancy assay measurements was implemented without the need for separation of the plutonium, uranium and fission product elements in the bulk powdered process. The analyses allow the determination of fuel burn-up based on the isotopic composition of neodymium and/or cesium. An objective of the program is to develop the ICPMS method for direct fissile nuclear materials accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent fuel. The ICPMS measurement system may be applied to the KAERI DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) experiment, and in a near-real-time mode for international safeguards verification and non-proliferation policy concerns.

  12. Method of drying passivated micromachines by dewetting from a liquid-based process

    DOEpatents

    Houston, Michael R.; Howe, Roger T.; Maboudian, Roya; Srinivasan, Uthara

    2000-01-01

    A method of fabricating a micromachine includes the step of constructing a low surface energy film on the micromachine. The micromachine is then rinsed with a rinse liquid that has a high surface energy, relative to the low surface energy film, to produce a contact angle of greater than 90.degree. between the low surface energy film and the rinse liquid. This relatively large contact angle causes any rinse liquid on the micromachine to be displaced from the micromachine when the micromachine is removed from the rinse liquid. In other words, the micromachine is dried by dewetting from a liquid-based process. Thus, a separate evaporative drying step is not required, as the micromachine is removed from the liquid-based process in a dry state. The relatively large contact angle also operates to prevent attractive capillary forces between micromachine components, thereby preventing contact and adhesion between adjacent microstructure surfaces. The low surface energy film may be constructed with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer film. The processing of the invention avoids the use of environmentally harmful, health-hazardous chemicals.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of a dry-processed Candu fuel pellet's design parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hangbok; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2007-07-01

    Sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to investigate the effect of a fuel pellet's design parameters on the performance of a dry-processed Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) fuel and to suggest the optimum design modifications. Under a normal operating condition, a dry-processed fuel has a higher internal pressure and plastic strain due to a higher fuel centerline temperature when compared with a standard natural uranium CANDU fuel. Under a condition that the fuel bundle dimensions do not change, sensitivity calculations were performed on a fuel's design parameters such as the axial gap, dish depth, gap clearance and plenum volume. The results showed that the internal pressure and plastic strain of the cladding were most effectively reduced if a fuel's element plenum volume was increased. More specifically, the internal pressure and plastic strain of the dry-processed fuel satisfied the design limits of a standard CANDU fuel when the plenum volume was increased by one half a pellet, 0.5 mm{sup 3}/K. (authors)

  14. Nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs using a novel spray-drying process.

    PubMed

    Schafroth, Nina; Arpagaus, Cordin; Jadhav, Umesh Y; Makne, Sushil; Douroumis, Dennis

    2012-02-01

    In the current study nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs was conducted using a novel piezoelectric spray-drying approach. Cyclosporin A (CyA) and dexamethasone (DEX) were encapsulated in biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) grades of different molecular weights. Spray-drying studies carried out with the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 employed with piezoelectric driven actuator. The processing parameters including inlet temperature, spray mesh diameter, sample flow rate, spray rate, applied pressure and sample concentration were examined in order to optimize the particle size and the obtained yield. The process parameters and the solute concentration showed a profound effect on the particle engineering and the obtained product yield. The produced powder presented consistent and reproducible spherical particles with narrow particle size distribution. Cyclosporin was found to be molecularly dispersed while dexamethasone was in crystalline state within the PLGA nanoparticles. Further evaluation revealed excellent drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and production yield. In vitro studies demonstrated sustained release patterns for the active substances. This novel spray-drying process proved to be efficient for nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble active substances.

  15. Drying process of sodium alginate films studied by two-dimensional correlation ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Qian; Gu, Xiaohong; Tan, Suo

    2014-12-01

    Drying process of aqueous sodium alginate solutions at 50°C was investigated by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy. Two-dimensional asynchronous spectrum at 1,800-1,350 cm(-1) wavenumber could be resolved into five separate bands, which were assigned to O-H bending vibrations in water (around 1,645 cm(-1)), antisymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations of free and hydrogen-bonded COO(-) groups of alginate (around 1,595, 1,412, 1,572 and 1,390 cm(-1), respectively). As the drying process progressed, absorbance bands at around 1,127 and 1,035 cm(-1) significantly shifted to lower wavenumbers (1120 and 1027cm(-1), respectively). Suggesting that oxygen atoms at the 2th and 3th position in the pyranose ring might have hydrogen bonded with water or alginate chains. Further analysis using 2D asynchronous correlation spectroscopy between 1800-1500 and 1200-960 cm(-1) wavenumber regions revealed the sequence of spectral changes during the drying process.

  16. Characterization Of Conditions Required To Implement Submicron Processes Over Topography Using Dry Develop Method(S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Allen C.; Grunwald, John J.; Cordes, William F.; Moffatt, William; Latchford, Ian; Ma, Tso-Ping; Chen, Bomy

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes problems encountered in VLSI imaging and pattern transfer, via dry develop, over topography steps up to 1.5 μ in height. The dry develop method studied in this paper involves a vapor-phase silylation process, with consideration being given relative to overall production needs. Specifically, the following issues are considered: a. The choice of the resist to be used in the silylation process: for example, it was noted that the rate/degree of silylation varies with spectral sensitivity of the photoresist (see Table I), i.e. I-line/mid UV systems have shown to be more successful than conventional G-line photoresists. Specifically, positive photoresists that contain coupled, 2-1-4 diazoquinone/novolak esters as sensi-tizers, appear less prone to residual "grass" formation. This being unwanted SiO, formation in the unexposed areas which are then transferred to the wafer surface. b. The type of silylating equipment, the silylating agent, silylating conditions relative to time, temperature, and pressure were evaluated. For this study, the incorporation of hexamethyldisilizane was utilized in a piece of equipment modified to heat the "HMDS", thereby increasing its vapor pressure. c. Processing conditions required for dry developing in Reactive Ion Etch (RIE) vs Magnetron Ion Etch (MIE) were evaluated such as power, pressure, gases, flow and time. d. The potential effects of other variables were also addressed, such as the "HMDS" vapor time and exposure energy requirements needed for adequate silicon/oxide formation. The effects of such variables were studied relative to their impact on the dry development/etch conditions needed.

  17. A Design of Experiment approach to predict product and process parameters for a spray dried influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Willems, Geert-Jan; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kersten, Gideon F A; Soema, Peter C; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-25

    Spray dried vaccine formulations might be an alternative to traditional lyophilized vaccines. Compared to lyophilization, spray drying is a fast and cheap process extensively used for drying biologicals. The current study provides an approach that utilizes Design of Experiments for spray drying process to stabilize whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine. The approach included systematically screening and optimizing the spray drying process variables, determining the desired process parameters and predicting product quality parameters. The process parameters inlet air temperature, nozzle gas flow rate and feed flow rate and their effect on WIV vaccine powder characteristics such as particle size, residual moisture content (RMC) and powder yield were investigated. Vaccine powders with a broad range of physical characteristics (RMC 1.2-4.9%, particle size 2.4-8.5μm and powder yield 42-82%) were obtained. WIV showed no significant loss in antigenicity as revealed by hemagglutination test. Furthermore, descriptive models generated by DoE software could be used to determine and select (set) spray drying process parameter. This was used to generate a dried WIV powder with predefined (predicted) characteristics. Moreover, the spray dried vaccine powders retained their antigenic stability even after storage for 3 months at 60°C. The approach used here enabled the generation of a thermostable, antigenic WIV vaccine powder with desired physical characteristics that could be potentially used for pulmonary administration. PMID:27523619

  18. A Design of Experiment approach to predict product and process parameters for a spray dried influenza vaccine.

    PubMed

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Willems, Geert-Jan; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kersten, Gideon F A; Soema, Peter C; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-25

    Spray dried vaccine formulations might be an alternative to traditional lyophilized vaccines. Compared to lyophilization, spray drying is a fast and cheap process extensively used for drying biologicals. The current study provides an approach that utilizes Design of Experiments for spray drying process to stabilize whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine. The approach included systematically screening and optimizing the spray drying process variables, determining the desired process parameters and predicting product quality parameters. The process parameters inlet air temperature, nozzle gas flow rate and feed flow rate and their effect on WIV vaccine powder characteristics such as particle size, residual moisture content (RMC) and powder yield were investigated. Vaccine powders with a broad range of physical characteristics (RMC 1.2-4.9%, particle size 2.4-8.5μm and powder yield 42-82%) were obtained. WIV showed no significant loss in antigenicity as revealed by hemagglutination test. Furthermore, descriptive models generated by DoE software could be used to determine and select (set) spray drying process parameter. This was used to generate a dried WIV powder with predefined (predicted) characteristics. Moreover, the spray dried vaccine powders retained their antigenic stability even after storage for 3 months at 60°C. The approach used here enabled the generation of a thermostable, antigenic WIV vaccine powder with desired physical characteristics that could be potentially used for pulmonary administration.

  19. Supercritical fluid drying of carbohydrates: selection of suitable excipients and process conditions.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Andréanne; Jovanović, Natasa; Hofland, Gerard W; Jiskoot, Wim; Mendes, Eduardo; Crommelin, Daan J A; Witkamp, Geert-Jan

    2008-03-01

    The processibility of 15 carbohydrates, more or less commonly used, was investigated as excipients in supercritical fluid drying. The focus was on the ability to produce amorphous powder, the stability of the powders towards crystallisation, and the residual water and ethanol content. The aqueous solutions were sprayed into a pressurised carbon dioxide-ethanol mixture flowing cocurrently through a coaxial two-fluid nozzle. The powder characteristics appeared to be influenced by the supersaturation level reached during the SCF-drying process and by the properties of the sugar species, such as water solubility and glass transition temperature, or the solution viscosities. The stability and the residual solvent content of a selected set of sugars and some mixtures were further analysed. The stability of amorphous powders was investigated at 4 degrees C, room temperature, 40 and 50 degrees C. Lactose, maltose, trehalose, raffinose, cyclodextrin, low-molecular-weight dextran and inulin could form free-flowing powders that remained amorphous during the 3-month stability study. Sucrose had to be mixed with other sugars to form a stable amorphous powder. Ethanol could be entrapped in supercritical fluid dried low-molecular-weight sugars, whereas polysaccharide powders were free of ethanol. Measures to prevent or overcome the presence of ethanol are discussed. PMID:17702554

  20. Automatic humidification system to support the assessment of food drying processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz Hernández, B. D.; Carreño Olejua, A. R.; Castellanos Olarte, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    This work shows the main features of an automatic humidification system to provide drying air that match environmental conditions of different climate zones. This conditioned air is then used to assess the drying process of different agro-industrial products at the Automation and Control for Agro-industrial Processes Laboratory of the Pontifical Bolivarian University of Bucaramanga, Colombia. The automatic system allows creating and improving control strategies to supply drying air under specified conditions of temperature and humidity. The development of automatic routines to control and acquire real time data was made possible by the use of robust control systems and suitable instrumentation. The signals are read and directed to a controller memory where they are scaled and transferred to a memory unit. Using the IP address is possible to access data to perform supervision tasks. One important characteristic of this automatic system is the Dynamic Data Exchange Server (DDE) to allow direct communication between the control unit and the computer used to build experimental curves.

  1. Hydrophobicity control by a supercritical drying technique in a sol–gel process with hybrid materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Hongbo; Qiao, Zemin; Liu, Xiao; Cui, Xudong

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Sol–gel route is combined with polymerization without using modifier. • Supercritical drying control is the key to obtain super-hydrophobic surfaces. • The whole fabrication is technologically controllable and with low costs. • The production rate is higher than 90%. • The method provides a cost-effective way for industry applications. - Abstract: We successfully synthesized one type of cheap super-hydrophobic hybrid porous materials in a sol–gel process. In this route, hydrophilic polymers and TEOS-base sol are used as precursors, the ultraviolet ray-initiated polymerization and supercritical fluid drying techniques are combined together to fulfill this task. All fabricated samples exhibit lotus-leaf-like surface structures with super-hydrophobicity. The underlying mechanisms are carefully investigated using a field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We found that a well-controlled drying process is crucial to the formation of such super-hydrophobic surfaces. As high as 90% production rate is obtained in our route and thus, it might provide a cost-effective way to produce super-hydrophobic hybrid materials for industry applications.

  2. Swarm accelerometer data processing from raw accelerations to thermospheric neutral densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemes, Christian; de Teixeira da Encarnação, João; Doornbos, Eelco; van den IJssel, Jose; Kraus, Jiří; Pereštý, Radek; Grunwaldt, Ludwig; Apelbaum, Guy; Flury, Jakob; Holmdahl Olsen, Poul Erik

    2016-05-01

    The Swarm satellites were launched on November 22, 2013, and carry accelerometers and GPS receivers as part of their scientific payload. The GPS receivers do not only provide the position and time for the magnetic field measurements, but are also used for determining non-gravitational forces like drag and radiation pressure acting on the spacecraft. The accelerometers measure these forces directly, at much finer resolution than the GPS receivers, from which thermospheric neutral densities can be derived. Unfortunately, the acceleration measurements suffer from a variety of disturbances, the most prominent being slow temperature-induced bias variations and sudden bias changes. In this paper, we describe the new, improved four-stage processing that is applied for transforming the disturbed acceleration measurements into scientifically valuable thermospheric neutral densities. In the first stage, the sudden bias changes in the acceleration measurements are manually removed using a dedicated software tool. The second stage is the calibration of the accelerometer measurements against the non-gravitational accelerations derived from the GPS receiver, which includes the correction for the slow temperature-induced bias variations. The identification of validity periods for calibration and correction parameters is part of the second stage. In the third stage, the calibrated and corrected accelerations are merged with the non-gravitational accelerations derived from the observations of the GPS receiver by a weighted average in the spectral domain, where the weights depend on the frequency. The fourth stage consists of transforming the corrected and calibrated accelerations into thermospheric neutral densities. We present the first results of the processing of Swarm C acceleration measurements from June 2014 to May 2015. We started with Swarm C because its acceleration measurements contain much less disturbances than those of Swarm A and have a higher signal-to-noise ratio

  3. Sabah snake grass extract pre-processing: Preliminary studies in drying and fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solibun, A.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. F.) Lindau which also known as ‘Sabah Snake Grass’ among Malaysians have been studied in terms of its medicinal and chemical properties in Asian countries which is used to treat various diseases from cancer to viral-related diseases such as varicella-zoster virus lesions. Traditionally, this plant has been used by the locals to treat insect and snake bites, skin rashes, diabetes and dysentery. In Malaysia, the fresh leaves of this plant are usually boiled with water and consumed as herbal tea. The objectives of this study are to determine the key process parameters for Sabah Snake Grass fermentation which affect the chemical and biological constituent concentrations within the tea, extraction kinetics of fermented and unfermented tea and the optimal process parameters for the fermentation of this tea. Experimental methods such as drying, fermenting and extraction of C.nutans leaves were conducted before subjecting them to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Conventional oven- dried (40, 45 and 50°C) and fermented (6, 12 and 18 hours) whole C.nutans leaves were subjected to tea infusion extraction (water temperature was 80°C, duration was 90 minutes) and the sample liquid was extracted for every 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 40th, 60th and 90th minute. Analysis for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) were conducted by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltheu reagent, respectively. The 40°C dried leaves sample produced the highest phenolic content at 0.1344 absorbance value in 15 minutes of extraction while 50°C dried leaves sample produced 0.1298 absorbance value in 10 minutes of extraction. The highest antioxidant content was produced by 50°C dried leaves sample with absorbance value of 1.6299 in 5 minutes of extraction. For 40°C dried leaves sample, the highest antioxidant content could be observed in 25 minutes of extraction with the absorbance value of 1.1456. The largest diameter of disc

  4. FAST Observations of Acceleration Processes in the Cusp--Evidence for Parallel Electric Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfaff, R. F.. Jr.; Carlson, C.; McFadden, J.; Ergun, R.; Clemmons, J.; Klumpar D.; Strangeway, R.

    1999-01-01

    The existence of precipitating keV ions in the Earth's cusp originating at the magnetosheath provide unique means to test our understanding of particle acceleration and parallel electric fields in the lower altitude acceleration region. On numerous occasions, the FAST (The Fast Auroral Snapshot) spacecraft has encountered the Earth's cusp regions near its apogee of 4175 km which are characterized by their signatures of dispersed keV ion injections. The FAST instruments also reveal a complex microphysics inherent to many, but not all, of the cusp regions encountered by the spacecraft, that include upgoing ion beams and conics, inverted-V electrons, upgoing electron beams, and spikey DC-coupled electric fields and plasma waves. Detailed inspection of the FAST data often show clear modulation of the precipitating magnetosheath ions that indicate that they are affected by local electric potentials. For example, the magnetosheath ion precipitation is sometimes abruptly shut off precisely in regions where downgoing localized inverted-V electrons are observed. Such observations support the existence of a localized process, such as parallel electric fields, above the spacecraft which accelerate the electrons downward and consequently impede the precipitating ion precipitation. Other acceleration events in the cusp are sometimes organized with an apparent cellular structure that suggests Alfven waves or other large-scale phenomena are controlling the localized potentials. We examine several cusp encounters by the FAST satellite where the modulation of energetic session on acceleration particle populations reveals evidence of localized acceleration, most likely by parallel electric fields.

  5. Quasi-steady stages in the process of premixed flame acceleration in narrow channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiev, D. M.; Bychkov, V.; Akkerman, V.; Eriksson, L.-E.; Law, C. K.

    2013-09-01

    The present paper addresses the phenomenon of spontaneous acceleration of a premixed flame front propagating in micro-channels, with subsequent deflagration-to-detonation transition. It has recently been shown experimentally [M. Wu, M. Burke, S. Son, and R. Yetter, Proc. Combust. Inst. 31, 2429 (2007)], 10.1016/j.proci.2006.08.098, computationally [D. Valiev, V. Bychkov, V. Akkerman, and L.-E. Eriksson, Phys. Rev. E 80, 036317 (2009)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.80.036317, and analytically [V. Bychkov, V. Akkerman, D. Valiev, and C. K. Law, Phys. Rev. E 81, 026309 (2010)], 10.1103/PhysRevE.81.026309 that the flame acceleration undergoes different stages, from an initial exponential regime to quasi-steady fast deflagration with saturated velocity. The present work focuses on the final saturation stages in the process of flame acceleration, when the flame propagates with supersonic velocity with respect to the channel walls. It is shown that an intermediate stage may occur during acceleration with quasi-steady velocity, noticeably below the Chapman-Jouguet deflagration speed. The intermediate stage is followed by additional flame acceleration and subsequent saturation to the Chapman-Jouguet deflagration regime. We elucidate the intermediate stage by the joint effect of gas pre-compression ahead of the flame front and the hydraulic resistance. The additional acceleration is related to viscous heating at the channel walls, being of key importance at the final stages. The possibility of explosion triggering is also demonstrated.

  6. Spray granulation: importance of process parameters on in vitro and in vivo behavior of dried nanosuspensions.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Carlos E; Bose, Sonali

    2013-11-01

    The use of fluid bed granulation for drying of pharmaceutical nanoparticulates on micron-sized granule substrates is a relatively new technique, with limited understanding in the current literature of the effects of process parameters on the physical properties of the dried nanoparticle powders. This work evaluated the effects of spray mode, spray rate and atomizing pressure for spray granulation of drug nanosuspensions through a systematic study. Naproxen and a proprietary Novartis compound were converted into nanosuspensions through wet media milling and dried onto a mannitol based substrate using spray granulation. For naproxen, various physical properties of the granules, as well as the in vitro re-dispersion and dissolution characteristics of the nano-crystals, were measured. It was found that the spray mode had the most drastic effect, where top spray yielded smaller re-dispersed particle sizes and faster release rates of drug from granules than bottom spray. This was attributed to the co-current spraying in bottom spray resulting in denser, homogenous films on the substrate. Similar in vitro results were obtained for the proprietary molecule, Compound A. In vivo studies in beagle dogs with Compound A showed no significant difference between the liquid and the dried forms of the nanosuspension in terms of overall AUC, differences were observed in the tmax which correlated with the rank ordering observed from the in vitro dissolution profiles. These findings make spray granulation amenable to the production of powders with desired processing and handling properties, without compromising the overall exposure of the compound under investigation.

  7. Acceleration of Early-Photon Fluorescence Molecular Tomography with Graphics Processing Units

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Zhang, Bin; Cao, Xu; Liu, Fei; Luo, Jianwen; Bai, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) with early-photons can improve the spatial resolution and fidelity of the reconstructed results. However, its computing scale is always large which limits its applications. In this paper, we introduced an acceleration strategy for the early-photon FMT with graphics processing units (GPUs). According to the procedure, the whole solution of FMT was divided into several modules and the time consumption for each module is studied. In this strategy, two most time consuming modules (Gd and W modules) were accelerated with GPU, respectively, while the other modules remained coded in the Matlab. Several simulation studies with a heterogeneous digital mouse atlas were performed to confirm the performance of the acceleration strategy. The results confirmed the feasibility of the strategy and showed that the processing speed was improved significantly. PMID:23606899

  8. In-line and real-time process monitoring of a freeze drying process using Raman and NIR spectroscopy as complementary process analytical technology (PAT) tools.

    PubMed

    De Beer, T R M; Vercruysse, P; Burggraeve, A; Quinten, T; Ouyang, J; Zhang, X; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; Baeyens, W R G

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the complementary properties of Raman and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as PAT tools for the fast, noninvasive, nondestructive and in-line process monitoring of a freeze drying process. Therefore, Raman and NIR probes were built in the freeze dryer chamber, allowing simultaneous process monitoring. A 5% (w/v) mannitol solution was used as model for freeze drying. Raman and NIR spectra were continuously collected during freeze drying (one Raman and NIR spectrum/min) and the spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR). Raman spectroscopy was able to supply information about (i) the mannitol solid state throughout the entire process, (ii) the endpoint of freezing (endpoint of mannitol crystallization), and (iii) several physical and chemical phenomena occurring during the process (onset of ice nucleation, onset of mannitol crystallization). NIR spectroscopy proved to be a more sensitive tool to monitor the critical aspects during drying: (i) endpoint of ice sublimation and (ii) monitoring the release of hydrate water during storage. Furthermore, via NIR spectroscopy some Raman observations were confirmed: start of ice nucleation, end of mannitol crystallization and solid state characteristics of the end product. When Raman and NIR monitoring were performed on the same vial, the Raman signal was saturated during the freezing step caused by reflected NIR light reaching the Raman detector. Therefore, NIR and Raman measurements were done on a different vial. Also the importance of the position of the probes (Raman probe above the vial and NIR probe at the bottom of the sidewall of the vial) in order to obtain all required critical information is outlined. Combining Raman and NIR spectroscopy for the simultaneous monitoring of freeze drying allows monitoring almost all critical freeze drying process aspects. Both techniques do not only complement each other, they also

  9. Use of a continuous twin screw granulation and drying system during formulation development and process optimization.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, J; Peeters, E; Fonteyne, M; Cappuyns, P; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2015-01-01

    Since small scale is key for successful introduction of continuous techniques in the pharmaceutical industry to allow its use during formulation development and process optimization, it is essential to determine whether the product quality is similar when small quantities of materials are processed compared to the continuous processing of larger quantities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether material processed in a single cell of the six-segmented fluid bed dryer of the ConsiGma™-25 system (a continuous twin screw granulation and drying system introduced by GEA Pharma Systems, Collette™, Wommelgem, Belgium) is predictive of granule and tablet quality during full-scale manufacturing when all drying cells are filled. Furthermore, the performance of the ConsiGma™-1 system (a mobile laboratory unit) was evaluated and compared to the ConsiGma™-25 system. A premix of two active ingredients, powdered cellulose, maize starch, pregelatinized starch and sodium starch glycolate was granulated with distilled water. After drying and milling (1000 μm, 800 rpm), granules were blended with magnesium stearate and compressed using a Modul™ P tablet press (tablet weight: 430 mg, main compression force: 12 kN). Single cell experiments using the ConsiGma™-25 system and ConsiGma™-1 system were performed in triplicate. Additionally, a 1h continuous run using the ConsiGma™-25 system was executed. Process outcomes (torque, barrel wall temperature, product temperature during drying) and granule (residual moisture content, particle size distribution, bulk and tapped density, hausner ratio, friability) as well as tablet (hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution) quality attributes were evaluated. By performing a 1h continuous run, it was detected that a stabilization period was needed for torque and barrel wall temperature due to initial layering of the screws and the screw chamber walls with material. Consequently, slightly deviating

  10. Use of a continuous twin screw granulation and drying system during formulation development and process optimization.

    PubMed

    Vercruysse, J; Peeters, E; Fonteyne, M; Cappuyns, P; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2015-01-01

    Since small scale is key for successful introduction of continuous techniques in the pharmaceutical industry to allow its use during formulation development and process optimization, it is essential to determine whether the product quality is similar when small quantities of materials are processed compared to the continuous processing of larger quantities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether material processed in a single cell of the six-segmented fluid bed dryer of the ConsiGma™-25 system (a continuous twin screw granulation and drying system introduced by GEA Pharma Systems, Collette™, Wommelgem, Belgium) is predictive of granule and tablet quality during full-scale manufacturing when all drying cells are filled. Furthermore, the performance of the ConsiGma™-1 system (a mobile laboratory unit) was evaluated and compared to the ConsiGma™-25 system. A premix of two active ingredients, powdered cellulose, maize starch, pregelatinized starch and sodium starch glycolate was granulated with distilled water. After drying and milling (1000 μm, 800 rpm), granules were blended with magnesium stearate and compressed using a Modul™ P tablet press (tablet weight: 430 mg, main compression force: 12 kN). Single cell experiments using the ConsiGma™-25 system and ConsiGma™-1 system were performed in triplicate. Additionally, a 1h continuous run using the ConsiGma™-25 system was executed. Process outcomes (torque, barrel wall temperature, product temperature during drying) and granule (residual moisture content, particle size distribution, bulk and tapped density, hausner ratio, friability) as well as tablet (hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution) quality attributes were evaluated. By performing a 1h continuous run, it was detected that a stabilization period was needed for torque and barrel wall temperature due to initial layering of the screws and the screw chamber walls with material. Consequently, slightly deviating

  11. Dry development rinse (DDR) process and material for ArF/EUV extension technique toward 1Xnm hp and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigaki, Shuhei; Onishi, Ryuji; Sakamoto, Rikimaru

    2015-03-01

    Since the pattern pitch is getting smaller and smaller, the pattern collapse issue has been getting sever problem in the lithography process. Pattern collapse is one of the main reasons for minimizing of process margin at fine pitch by ArF-immersion or EUV lithography. The possible major cause of pattern collapse is the surface tension of the rinsing liquid and the shrinkage of resist pattern's surface. These surface tension or shrinkage are occurred in the spin drying process of the rinsing liquid. The influence of surface tension against very small pitch pattern is particularly severe. One of the most effective solution for this problem is thinning of the resist film thickness, however this strategy is reaching to its limits in terms of substrate etching process anymore. Recently the tri-layer resist process or hard mask processes have been used, but there is a limit to the thinning of resist film and there is no essential solution for this problem. On the other hand, dry development process such a supercritical drying method or DSA patterning by dry etching have been known as an ultimate way to suppress the pattern collapse issue. However, these processes are not applied to the mass production process right now because these have some problems such a defect issue, requirement of the special equipment and so on. We newly developed the novel process and material which can prevent the pattern collapse issue perfectly without using any special equipment. The process is Dry Development Rinse process (DDR process), and the material used in the process is Dry Development Rinse material (DDR material). DDR material is containing the special polymer which can replace the exposed and developed part. And finally, the resist pattern is developed by dry etching process without any pattern collapse issue. In this paper, we will discuss the approach for preventing the pattern collapse issue in ArF and EUV lithography process, and propose DDR process and DDR material as the

  12. Sanitizing in Dry-Processing Environments Using Isopropyl Alcohol Quaternary Ammonium Formula.

    PubMed

    Kane, Deborah M; Getty, Kelly J K; Mayer, Brian; Mazzotta, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Dry-processing environments are particularly challenging to clean and sanitize because introduced water can favor growth and establishment of pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of an isopropyl alcohol quaternary ammonium (IPAQuat) formula for eliminating potential Salmonella contamination on food contact surfaces. Clean stainless steel coupons and conveyor belt materials used in dry-processing environments were spot inoculated in the center of coupons (5 by 5 cm) with a six-serotype composite of Salmonella (approximately 10 log CFU/ml), subjected to IPAQuat sanitizer treatments with exposure times of 30 s, 1 min, or 5 min, and then swabbed for enumeration of posttreatment survivors. A subset of inoculated surfaces was soiled with a breadcrumb-flour blend and allowed to sit on the laboratory bench for a minimum of 16 h before sanitation. Pretreatment Salmonella populations (inoculated controls, 0 s treatment) were approximately 7.0 log CFU/25 cm(2), and posttreatment survivors were 1.31, 0.72, and < 0.7 (detection limit) log CFU/25 cm(2) after sanitizer exposure for 30 s, 1 min, or 5 min, respectively, for both clean (no added soil) and soiled surfaces. Treatment with the IPAQuat formula using 30-s sanitizer exposures resulted in 5.68-log reductions, whereas >6.0-log reductions were observed for sanitizer exposures of 1 and 5 min. Because water is not introduced into the processing environment with this approach, the IPAQuat formula could have sanitation applications in dry-processing environments to eliminate potential contamination from Salmonella on food contact surfaces. PMID:26735036

  13. Optimised process and formulation conditions for extended release dry polymer powder-coated pellets.

    PubMed

    Terebesi, Ildikó; Bodmeier, Roland

    2010-05-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the film formation and permeability characteristics of extended release ethylcellulose coatings prepared by dry polymer powder coating for the release of drugs of varying solubility. Ethylcellulose (7 and 10 cp viscosity grades) and Eudragit(R) RS were used for dry powder coating of pellets in a fluidised bed ball coater. Pre-plasticised ethylcellulose powder was prepared by spray-drying aqueous ethylcellulose dispersions (Surelease(R) and Aquacoat(R)) or by hot melt extrusion/cryogenic grinding of plasticised ethylcellulose. Chlorpheniramine maleate and theophylline were used as model drugs of different solubilities. The film formation process, polymeric films and coated pellets were characterised by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dissolution testing. Film formation and extended drug release was achieved with ethylcellulose, a polymer with a high glass transition temperature (T(g)) without the use of water, which is usually required in dry powder coating. DMA-measurements revealed that plasticised ethylcellulose had a modulus of elasticity (E') similar to the low T(g) Eudragit(R) RS. With increasing plasticiser concentration, the T(g) of ethylcellulose was reduced and the mechanical properties improved, thus facilitating coalescence of the polymer particles. SEM-pictures revealed the formation of a dense, homogeneous film. The lower viscosity grade ethylcellulose (7 cp) resulted in better film formation than the higher viscosity grade (10 cp) and required less stringent curing conditions. Successful extended release ethylcellulose coatings were also obtained by coating with pre-plasticised spray-dried ethylcellulose powders as an alternative to the separate application of pure ethylcellulose powder and plasticiser. The permeability of the extended release coating could be controlled by using powder blends of ethylcellulose with the

  14. Design and control of energy efficient food drying processes with specific reference to quality; evaluation of physical and quality changes in foods during drying

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, L.; Castaldi, A.; Jones, C.; Litchfield, B.; Narsimhan, G.; Singh, R.; Xiong, X.; Bogusz, J.; Franzen, K.; Kim, M.; Murakami, E.; Pflum, J.; Waananen, K.

    1989-08-01

    The ultimate goal of the project is to develop procedures, techniques, data and other information that will aid in the design of cost effective and energy efficient drying processes that produce high quality foods. This objective has been sought by performing studies to determine the pertinent properties of food products, by developing models to describe the fundamental phenomena of food drying and by testing the models at laboratory scale. Finally, this information is used to develop recommendations and strategies for improved dryer design and control. This volume emphasizes a detailed literature review and several extensive experimental studies. Since the basic principle of food dehydration is the removal of water from food, the process of removing water causes quality changes which can be categorized as physical, chemical, and nutritional. These changes often have adverse effects on the quality of the resulting dehydrated food. In this work, the types of physical and chemical changes common in food drying and the important factors for them were reviewed. Pertinent kinetic models and kinetic data reported in literature were also collected and compiled as the results of review study. The overall objectives of this study were to identify major quality change in foods caused by drying process and to get the knowledge of the relationship between the quality change and factors known to affect them. The quality parameters reviewed included: browning, lipid oxidation, color loss, shrinkage, solubility, texture, aroma and flavor, vitamin and protein loss and microbiological concerns. 54 refs., 74 figs., 49 tabs.

  15. Electron studies of acceleration processes in the corona. [solar probe mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    The solar probe mission can obtain unique and crucially important measurements of electron acceleration, storage, and propagation processes in the corona and can probe the magnetic field structure of the corona below the spacecraft. The various energetic electron phenomena which will be sampled by the Solar Probe are described and some new techniques to probe coronal structures are suggested.

  16. Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Industrial Technologies Program

    2011-01-05

    This brochure describes the 31 R&D projects that AMO supports to accelerate the commercial manufacture and use of nanomaterials for enhanced energy efficiency. These cost-shared projects seek to exploit the unique properties of nanomaterials to improve the functionality of industrial processes and products.

  17. Methods to recover value-added coproducts from dry grind processing of grains into fuel ethanol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Keshun; Barrows, Frederic T

    2013-07-31

    Three methods are described to fractionate condensed distillers solubles (CDS) into several new coproducts, including a protein-mineral fraction and a glycerol fraction by a chemical method; a protein fraction, an oil fraction and a glycerol-mineral fraction by a physical method; or a protein fraction, an oil fraction, a mineral fraction, and a glycerol fraction by a physicochemical method. Processing factors (ethanol concentration and centrifuge force) were also investigated. Results show that the three methods separated CDS into different fractions, with each fraction enriched with one or more of the five components (protein, oil, ash, glycerol and other carbohydrates) and thus having different targeted end uses. Furthermore, because glycerol, a hygroscopic substance, was mostly shifted to the glycerol or glycerol-mineral fraction, the other fractions had much faster moisture reduction rates than CDS upon drying in a forced air oven at 60 °C. Thus, these methods could effectively solve the dewatering problem of CDS, allowing elimination of the current industrial practice of blending distiller wet grains with CDS for drying together and production of distiller dried grains as a standalone coproduct in addition to a few new fractions.

  18. Non-deterministic analysis of a liquid polymeric-film drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.S.; Cairncross, R.A.

    1997-04-01

    In this study the authors employed the Monte Carlo/Latin Hypercube sampling technique to generate input parameters for a liquid polymeric-film drying model with prescribed uncertainty distributions. The one-dimensional drying model employed in this study was that developed by Cairncross et al. They found that the non-deterministic analysis with Monte Carlo/Latin Hypercube sampling provides a useful tool for characterizing the two responses (residual solvent volume and the maximum solvent partial vapor pressure) of a liquid polymeric-film drying process. More precisely, they found that the non-deterministic analysis via Monte Carlo/Latin Hypercube sampling not only provides estimates of statistical variations of the response variables but also yields more realistic estimates of mean values, which can differ significantly from those calculated using deterministic simulation. For input-parameter uncertainties in the range from 2 to 10% of their respective means, variations of response variables were found to be comparable to the mean values.

  19. Production of ethanol from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background US legislation requires the use of advanced biofuels to be made from non-food feedstocks. However, commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technology is more complex than expected and is therefore running behind schedule. This is creating a demand for non-food, but more easily converted, starch-based feedstocks other than corn that can fill the gap until the second generation technologies are commercially viable. Winter barley is such a feedstock but its mash has very high viscosity due to its high content of β-glucans. This fact, along with a lower starch content than corn, makes ethanol production at the commercial scale a real challenge. Results A new fermentation process for ethanol production from Thoroughbred, a winter barley variety with a high starch content, was developed. The new process was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process. In this process, in addition to the normal starch-converting enzymes, two accessory enzymes were used to solve the β-glucan problem. First, β-glucanases were used to hydrolyze the β-glucans to oligomeric fractions, thus significantly reducing the viscosity to allow good mixing for the distribution of the yeast and nutrients. Next, β-glucosidase was used to complete the β-glucan hydrolysis and to generate glucose, which was subsequently fermented in order to produce additional ethanol. While β-glucanases have been previously used to improve barley ethanol production by lowering viscosity, this is the first full report on the benefits of adding β-glucosidases to increase the ethanol yield. Conclusions In the EDGE process, 30% of total dry solids could be used to produce 15% v/v ethanol. Under optimum conditions an ethanol yield of 402 L/MT (dry basis) or 2.17 gallons/53 lb bushel of barley with 15% moisture was achieved. The distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) co-product had extremely low β-glucan (below 0.2%) making it suitable for use in both ruminant and mono-gastric animal

  20. In situ investigation of the shrinkage of photopolymerized micro/nanostructures: the effect of the drying process.

    PubMed

    Sun, Quan; Ueno, Kosei; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2012-02-15

    We report on experimental study of the shrinkage of photopolymerized micro/nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond direct laser writing in organic-inorganic resists. Blueshift of the stop-band positions of fabricated photonic crystals during the drying process, which follows the development and rinsing stages, indicates that the drying process plays an important role in the formation of the shrinkage. It is further confirmed that the shrinkage almost completely occurs during the drying process by in situ optical monitoring the structures. These findings will help to better understand, control, and even positively utilize the shrinkage in the applications of the photopolymerization-based direct laser writing technique. PMID:22344156

  1. Sampling frequency affects the processing of Actigraph raw acceleration data to activity counts.

    PubMed

    Brønd, Jan Christian; Arvidsson, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    ActiGraph acceleration data are processed through several steps (including band-pass filtering to attenuate unwanted signal frequencies) to generate the activity counts commonly used in physical activity research. We performed three experiments to investigate the effect of sampling frequency on the generation of activity counts. Ideal acceleration signals were produced in the MATLAB software. Thereafter, ActiGraph GT3X+ monitors were spun in a mechanical setup. Finally, 20 subjects performed walking and running wearing GT3X+ monitors. Acceleration data from all experiments were collected with different sampling frequencies, and activity counts were generated with the ActiLife software. With the default 30-Hz (or 60-Hz, 90-Hz) sampling frequency, the generation of activity counts was performed as intended with 50% attenuation of acceleration signals with a frequency of 2.5 Hz by the signal frequency band-pass filter. Frequencies above 5 Hz were eliminated totally. However, with other sampling frequencies, acceleration signals above 5 Hz escaped the band-pass filter to a varied degree and contributed to additional activity counts. Similar results were found for the spinning of the GT3X+ monitors, although the amount of activity counts generated was less, indicating that raw data stored in the GT3X+ monitor is processed. Between 600 and 1,600 more counts per minute were generated with the sampling frequencies 40 and 100 Hz compared with 30 Hz during running. Sampling frequency affects the processing of ActiGraph acceleration data to activity counts. Researchers need to be aware of this error when selecting sampling frequencies other than the default 30 Hz.

  2. Design and control of energy efficient drying processes with specific reference to foods

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, K.; Kim, M.; Liang, H.; Murakami, E.; Narsimhan, G.; Okos, M.; Singh, R.; Waananen, K.; Xiong, X.

    1988-07-15

    This report contains a detailed summary of all work performed to date. Task 10 involves a comprehensive review of drying theory. Proposed mass transfer mechanisms include liquid and vapor diffusion, capillary flow, surface diffusion, hydrodynamic flow, and evaporation/condensation processes. Pasta was chosen as a model system in this project since it is macroscopically homogenous and can be made under controlled conditions. Task 11 involves experimental drying studies. A high pressure drying apparatus is available for studies related to the revision of the fundamental drying model. The dryer will require two major modifications for the planned tests: installation of a pressure control valve and recirculation of exhaust gas. A tray dryer was used to measure the shrinkage coefficient of nonfat milk, and will be used for further tests on nonfat milk, as well as whey and tomato puree. A method of economic analysis regarding use of mechanical vapor recompression is presented. Task 12 involves food quality studies. A model of nonenzymatic browning (NEB) was developed based on NEB in skim milk samples containing 3.5--50% moisture, exposed to temperatures of 35--130{degrees}C. The browning rate was zero order after a lag period, and the temperature dependence fit an Arrhenius relation. The critical moisture occurs between 4% and 11% moisture. Task 13 addresses recommendations and strategies for dryer design and control. Moisture sensors were reviewed with specific reference to their on-line applicability. The IR sensor was found to be the most promising. Task 14 examined moisture mobility and interaction in foods. The BET adsorption method using nitrogen gas was applied to pasta, skim milk and egg albumin systems. The data obtained do not show good reproducibility, possibly due to an inadequate sample size. The possibility of using water vapor adsorption will be studied in future experiments. 210 refs., 30 figs., 22 tabs. (MHB)

  3. Graphics processing unit-accelerated double random phase encoding for fast image encryption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jieun; Yi, Faliu; Saifullah, Rao; Moon, Inkyu

    2014-11-01

    We propose a fast double random phase encoding (DRPE) algorithm using a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based stream-processing model. A performance analysis of the accelerated DRPE implementation that employs the Compute Unified Device Architecture programming environment is presented. We show that the proposed methodology executed on a GPU can dramatically increase encryption speed compared with central processing unit sequential computing. Our experimental results demonstrate that in encryption data of an image with a pixel size of 1000×1000, where one pixel has a 32-bit depth, our GPU version of the DRPE scheme can be approximately two times faster than the advanced encryption standard algorithm implemented on a GPU. In addition, the quality of parallel processing on the presented DRPE acceleration method is evaluated with performance parameters, such as speedup, efficiency, and redundancy.

  4. Preparation and pharmaceutical characterization of amorphous cefdinir using spray-drying and SAS-process.

    PubMed

    Park, Junsung; Park, Hee Jun; Cho, Wonkyung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Kang, Young-Shin; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2010-08-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of micronization and amorphorization of cefdinir on solubility and dissolution rate. The amorphous samples were prepared by spray-drying (SD) and supercritical anti-solvent (SAS) process, respectively and their amorphous natures were confirmed by DSC, PXRD and FT-IR. Thermal gravimetric analysis was performed by TGA. SEM was used to investigate the morphology of particles and the processed particle had a spherical shape, while the unprocessed crystalline particle had a needle-like shape. The mean particle size and specific surface area were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and BET, respectively. The DLS result showed that the SAS-processed particle was the smallest, followed by SD and the unprocessed cefdinir. The BET result was the same as DLS result in that the SAS-processed particle had the largest surface area. Therefore, the processed cefdinir, especially the SAS-processed particle, appeared to have enhanced apparent solubility, improved intrinsic dissolution rate and better drug release when compared with SD-processed and unprocessed crystalline cefdinir due not only to its amorphous nature, but also its reduced particle size. Conclusions were that the solubility and dissolution rate of crystalline cefdinir could be improved by physically modifying the particles using SD and SAS-process. Furthermore, SAS-process was a powerful methodology for improving the solubility and dissolution rate of cefdinir.

  5. Zeolite Formation and Weathering Processes in Dry Valleys of Antartica: Martian Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Socki, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Terrestrial weathering processes in cold-desert climates such as the Dry Valleys of Antarctica may provide an excellent analog to chemical weathering and diagenesis of soils on Mars. Detailed studies of soil development and the chemical and mineralogical alterations occurring within soil columns in Wright Valley, Antarctica show incredible complexity in the upper meter of soil. Previous workers noted the ice-free Dry Valleys are the best terrestrial approximations to contemporary Mars. Images returned from the Pathfinder and Spirit landers show similarities to surfaces observed within the Dry Valleys. Similarities to Mars that exist in these valleys are: mean temperatures always below freezing (-20 C), no rainfall, sparse snowfall-rapidly removed by sublimation, desiccating winds, diurnal freeze-thaw cycles (even during daylight hours), low humidity, oxidative environment, relatively high solar radiation and low magnetic fields . The Dry Valley soils contain irregular distributions and low abundances of soil microorganisms that are somewhat unusual on Earth. Physical processes-such as sand abrasion-are dominant mechanisms of rock weathering in Antarctica. However, chemical weathering is also an important process even in such extreme climates. For example, ionic migration occurs even in frozen soils along liquid films on individual soil particles. It has also been shown that water with liquid-like properties is present in soils at temperatures on the order of approx.-80 C and it has been observed that the percentage of oxidized iron increases with increasing soil age and enrichments in oxidized iron occurs toward the surface. The presence of evaporates is evident and appear similar to "evaporite sites" within the Pathfinder and Spirit sites. Evaporites indicate ionic migration and chemical activity even in the permanently frozen zone. The presence of evaporates indicates that chemical weathering of rocks and possibly soils has been active. Authogenic zeolites have

  6. Risk-Based Decision Process for Accelerated Closure of a Nuclear Weapons Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, L.; Norland, R. L.; DiSalvo, R.; Anderson, M.

    2003-02-25

    Nearly 40 years of nuclear weapons production at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or Site) resulted in contamination of soil and underground systems and structures with hazardous substances, including plutonium, uranium and hazardous waste constituents. The Site was placed on the National Priority List in 1989. There are more than 370 Individual Hazardous Substance Sites (IHSSs) at RFETS. Accelerated cleanup and closure of RFETS is being achieved through implementation and refinement of a regulatory framework that fosters programmatic and technical innovations: (1) extensive use of ''accelerated actions'' to remediate IHSSs, (2) development of a risk-based screening process that triggers and helps define the scope of accelerated actions consistent with the final remedial action objectives for the Site, (3) use of field instrumentation for real time data collection, (4) a data management system that renders near real time field data assessment, and (5) a regulatory agency consultative process to facilitate timely decisions. This paper presents the process and interim results for these aspects of the accelerated closure program applied to Environmental Restoration activities at the Site.

  7. Acceleration processes in the quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic discharge. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, M. J.

    1974-01-01

    The flow field characteristics within the discharge chamber and exhaust of a quasi-steady magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arcjet were examined to clarify the nature of the plasma acceleration process. The observation of discharge characteristics unperturbed by insulator ablation and terminal voltage fluctuations, first requires the satisfaction of three criteria: the use of refractory insulator materials; a mass injection geometry tailored to provide propellant to both electrode regions of the discharge; and a cathode of sufficient surface area to permit nominal MPD arcjet operation for given combinations of arc current and total mass flow. The axial velocity profile and electromagnetic discharge structure were measured for an arcjet configuration which functions nominally at 15.3 kA and 6 g/sec argon mass flow. An empirical two-flow plasma acceleration model is advanced which delineates inner and outer flow regions and accounts for the observed velocity profile and calculated thrust of the accelerator.

  8. Accelerated Stability Studies on Dried Extracts of Centella asiatica Through Chemical, HPLC, HPTLC, and Biological Activity Analyses.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Ishtdeep; Suthar, Nancy; Kaur, Jasmeen; Bansal, Yogita; Bansal, Gulshan

    2016-10-01

    Regulatory guidelines recommend systematic stability studies on a herbal product to establish its shelf life. In the present study, commercial extracts (Types I and II) and freshly prepared extract (Type III) of Centella asiatica were subjected to accelerated stability testing for 6 months. Control and stability samples were evaluated for organoleptics, pH, moisture, total phenolic content (TPC), asiatic acid, kaempherol, and high-performance thin layer chromatography fingerprints, and for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. Markers and TPC and both the activities of each extract decreased in stability samples with respect to control. These losses were maximum in Type I extract and minimum in Type III extract. Higher stability of Type III extract than others might be attributed to the additional phytoconstituents and/or preservatives in it. Pearson correlation analysis of the results suggested that TPC, asiatic acid, and kaempferol can be taken as chemical markers to assess chemical and therapeutic shelf lives of herbal products containing Centella asiatica.

  9. General description of electromagnetic radiation processes based on instantaneous charge acceleration in ''endpoints''

    SciTech Connect

    James, Clancy W.; Falcke, Heino; Huege, Tim; Ludwig, Marianne

    2011-11-15

    We present a methodology for calculating the electromagnetic radiation from accelerated charged particles. Our formulation - the 'endpoint formulation' - combines numerous results developed in the literature in relation to radiation arising from particle acceleration using a complete, and completely general, treatment. We do this by describing particle motion via a series of discrete, instantaneous acceleration events, or 'endpoints', with each such event being treated as a source of emission. This method implicitly allows for particle creation and destruction, and is suited to direct numerical implementation in either the time or frequency domains. In this paper we demonstrate the complete generality of our method for calculating the radiated field from charged particle acceleration, and show how it reduces to the classical named radiation processes such as synchrotron, Tamm's description of Vavilov-Cherenkov, and transition radiation under appropriate limits. Using this formulation, we are immediately able to answer outstanding questions regarding the phenomenology of radio emission from ultra-high-energy particle interactions in both the earth's atmosphere and the moon. In particular, our formulation makes it apparent that the dominant emission component of the Askaryan effect (coherent radio-wave radiation from high-energy particle cascades in dense media) comes from coherent 'bremsstrahlung' from particle acceleration, rather than coherent Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation.

  10. Characterization of DuPont 9015, aqueous processable dry film photoresist for printed wiring boards. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Goldammer, S.

    1995-04-01

    This report describes the evaluation of DuPont`s Riston 9015, fully aqueous processable dry film photoresist as a mask for gold plating, tin/lead plating, and print and etch patterning for printed circuit board products.

  11. Histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists accelerate skin barrier repair and prevent epidermal hyperplasia induced by barrier disruption in a dry environment.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Y; Denda, M; Hirao, T

    2001-02-01

    Keratinocytes have histamine H1 and H2 receptors, but their functions are poorly understood. To clarify the role of histamine receptors in the epidermis, we examined the effects of histamine receptor antagonists and agonists applied epicutaneously on the recovery of skin barrier function disrupted by tape stripping in hairless mice. Histamine H2 receptor antagonists famotidine and cimetidine accelerated the recovery of skin barrier function, but histamine and histamine H2 receptor agonist dimaprit delayed the barrier repair. Application of compound 48/80, a histamine releaser, also delayed the recovery. Imidazole, an analog of histamine, had no effect. The histamine H1 receptor antagonists diphenhydramine and tripelennamine accelerated the recovery. Histamine H3 receptor agonist Nalpha-methylhistamine and antagonist thioperamide had no effect. In addition, topical application of famotidine or diphenhydramine prevented epidermal hyperplasia in mice with skin barrier disrupted by acetone treatment in a dry environment (humidity < 10%) for 4 d. In conclusion, both the histamine H1 and H2 receptors in the epidermis are involved in skin barrier function and the cutaneous condition of epidermal hyperplasia.

  12. An experimental study of ammonia effects in a circulating dry scrubber process

    SciTech Connect

    Neathery, J.K.; Schaefer, J.L.; Stencel, J.M.

    1995-06-01

    Utilities and independent power plants have increased needs to install both de-NO{sub x} and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired boilers. Many de-NO{sub x} processes are based on the reduction of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) by ammonia (NH{sub 3}) to elemental nitrogen (N{sub 2}). When applied upstream of a dry FGD system the issue of NH{sub 3} slippage, which may influence the scrubbing chemistry and/or the proficiency of the particulate collector`s performance, has become a concern. This paper addresses some of those concerns as they relate to the circulating dry scrubber (CDS) process. Fundamental aspects of sulfur capture and sorbent utilization under various Ca/S ratios and inlet NH{sub 3} concentrations were investigated with a 5.6 m{sup 3} min{sup -1} (200 ft{sup 3} min{sup -1}) pilot-scale CDS reactor. The objective of this research was to elucidate possible benefits (e.g., increased sulfur capture) and adverse side-effects (e.g., increased baghouse pressure drop) resulting from trace amounts of NH{sub 3} in the flue gas.

  13. Methane potential and biodegradability of rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process.

    PubMed

    Contreras, L M; Schelle, H; Sebrango, C R; Pereda, I

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural solid residues are a potential renewable energy source. Rice harvesting and production in Sancti Spíritus province, Cuba, currently generates residues without an environmentally sustainable disposal route. Rice residues (rice straw, rice husk and rice residues from the drying process) are potentially an important carbon source for anaerobic digestion. For this paper, rice residues were placed for 36 days retention time in anaerobic batch reactor environments at both mesophilic (37 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. Biogas and methane yield were determined as well as biogas composition. The results showed that rice straw as well as rice residues from the drying process had the highest biogas and methane yield. Temperature played an important role in determining both biogas yield and kinetics. In all cases, rice straw produced the highest yields; under mesophilic conditions the biogas yield was 0.43 m(3) kg(VS)(-1), under thermophilic conditions biogas yield reached 0.52 m(3) kg(VS)(-1). In the case of the rice husk, the biodegradability was very low. Methane content in all batches was kept above 55% vol. All digested material had a high carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio, even though significant biodegradation was recorded with the exception of rice husk. A first-order model can be used to describe the rice crop residues fermentation effectively.

  14. Temperature and Relative Humidity Estimation and Prediction in the Tobacco Drying Process Using Artificial Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, Víctor; Baladrón, Carlos; Gomez-Gil, Jaime; Ruiz-Ruiz, Gonzalo; Navas-Gracia, Luis M.; Aguiar, Javier M.; Carro, Belén

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a system based on an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) for estimating and predicting environmental variables related to tobacco drying processes. This system has been validated with temperature and relative humidity data obtained from a real tobacco dryer with a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). A fitting ANN was used to estimate temperature and relative humidity in different locations inside the tobacco dryer and to predict them with different time horizons. An error under 2% can be achieved when estimating temperature as a function of temperature and relative humidity in other locations. Moreover, an error around 1.5 times lower than that obtained with an interpolation method can be achieved when predicting the temperature inside the tobacco mass as a function of its present and past values with time horizons over 150 minutes. These results show that the tobacco drying process can be improved taking into account the predicted future value of the monitored variables and the estimated actual value of other variables using a fitting ANN as proposed. PMID:23202032

  15. Effects of dry, wet, and rehydrated corn bran and corn processing method in beef finishing diets.

    PubMed

    Macken, C N; Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Stock, R A

    2004-12-01

    Two finishing trials were conducted to determine the effects of adding different types of corn bran, a component of corn gluten feed, on cattle performance. In Trial 1, 60 English crossbred yearling steers (283 +/- 6.7 kg) were used in a completely randomized design with four dietary treatments. Treatments were diets with no corn bran, dry corn bran (86% DM), wet corn bran (37% DM), and rehydrated dry bran (37% DM). Bran was fed at 40% of dietary DM. All finishing diets had (DM basis) 9% corn steep liquor with distillers solubles, 7.5% alfalfa hay, 3% tallow, and 5% supplement. Gain efficiency and ADG were greater (P < 0.01) for cattle fed no corn bran compared with all treatments containing corn bran; however, no differences were detected across corn bran types. In Trial 2, 340 English crossbred yearling steers (354 +/- 0.6 kg) were used in a randomized block design with treatments assigned based on a 2 x 4 + 2 factorial arrangement (four pens per treatment). One factor was the corn processing method used (dry-rolled corn, DRC; or steam-flaked corn, SFC). The other factor was corn bran type: dry (90% DM), wet (40% DM), or dry bran rehydrated to 40 or 60% DM. Bran was fed at 30% of dietary DM, replacing either DRC or SFC. Two control diets (DRC and SFC) were fed with no added bran. All finishing diets contained (DM basis) 10% corn steep liquor with distiller's solubles, 3.5% alfalfa hay, 3.5% sorghum silage, and 5% supplement. Corn bran type did not affect DMI (P = 0.61), ADG (P = 0.53), or G:F (P = 0.10). Dry matter intake was greater (P < 0.01) by steers fed bran compared with those fed no bran, and was greater by steers fed DRC than by steers fed SFC (P < 0.01). Interactions occurred (P < 0.01) between grain source and bran inclusion for ADG and G:F. The ADG by steers fed the SFC diet without bran was greater (P < 0.01) than by steers fed SFC diets with bran, whereas the ADG by steers fed DRC diets with or without bran was similar. Daily gain was 15.2% greater

  16. Challenges Encountered during the Processing of the BNL ERL 5 Cell Accelerating Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    A. Burrill; I. Ben-Zvi; R. Calaga; H. Hahn; V. Litvinenko; G. T. McIntyre; P. Kneisel; J. Mammosser; J. P. Preble; C. E. Reece; R. A. Rimmer; J. Saunders

    2007-08-01

    One of the key components for the Energy Recovery Linac being built by the Electron cooling group in the Collider Accelerator Department is the 5 cell accelerating cavity which is designed to accelerate 2 MeV electrons from the gun up to 15-20 MeV, allow them to make one pass through the ring and then decelerate them back down to 2 MeV prior to sending them to the dump. This cavity was designed by BNL and fabricated by AES in Medford, NY. Following fabrication it was sent to Thomas Jefferson Lab in VA for chemical processing, testing and assembly into a string assembly suitable for shipment back to BNL and integration into the ERL. The steps involved in this processing sequence will be reviewed and the deviations from processing of similar SRF cavities will be discussed. The lessons learned from this process are documented to help future projects where the scope is different from that normally encountered.

  17. Distinguishing Between Quasi-static and Alfvénic Auroral Acceleration Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysak, R. L.; Song, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Models for the acceleration of auroral particles fall into two general classes. Quasi-static processes, such as double layers or magnetic mirror supported potential drops, produce a nearly monoenergetic beam of precipitating electrons and upward flowing ion beams. Time-dependent acceleration processes, often associated with kinetic Alfvén waves, can produce a broader range of energies and often have a strongly field-aligned pitch angle distribution. Both processes are associated with strong perpendicular electric fields as well as the parallel electric fields that are largely responsible for the particle acceleration. These electric fields and the related magnetic perturbations can be characterized by the ratio of the electric field to a perpendicular magnetic perturbation, which is related to the Pedersen conductivity in the static case and the Alfvén velocity in the time-dependent case. However, these considerations can be complicated by the interaction between upward and downward propagating waves. The relevant time and space scales of these processes will be assessed and the consequences for observation by orbiting spacecraft and ground-based instrumentation will be determined. These features will be illustrated by numerical simulations of the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling with emphasis on what a virtual spacecraft passing through the simulation would be expected to observe.

  18. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    1996-01-01

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi.sub.2 Sr.sub.2 Ca.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains.

  19. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    DOEpatents

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  20. Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, B. R. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com Passador, F. R. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com Pessan, L. A. E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com

    2014-05-15

    Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Büchi, Switzerland) with 115°C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

  1. Management type affects composition and facilitative processes in altoandine dry grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catorci, Andrea; Cesaretti, Sabrina; Velasquez, Jose Luis; Burrascano, Sabina; Zeballos, Horacio

    2013-10-01

    We performed our study in the Dry Puna of the southern Peruvian Andes. Through a comparative approach we aimed to assess the effects of the two management systems, low grazing pressure by wild camelids vs. high grazing pressure by domestic livestock and periodic burning. Our general hypothesis was that the traditional high disturbance regime affects the dry Puna species diversity and composition through modifications of the magnitude of plant-plant-interactions and changes of the community structure due to shifts in species dominance. In 40 plots of 10 × 10 m, the cover value of each species was recorded and the species richness, floristic diversity, and community similarity of each treatment were compared. For each disturbance regime, differences of soil features (organic matter, carbon/nitrogen ratio, and potassium content) were tested. To evaluate plant-plant interactions, 4 linear transect divided into 500 plots of 10 × 10 cm were laid out and co-occurrence analysis was performed. We found that different disturbance regimes were associated with differences in the floristic composition, and that the high disturbance condition had lower species diversity and evenness. A decrease of tall species such as Festuca orthophylla and increase of dwarf and spiny Tetraglochin cristatum shrubs was observed as well. In addition, different disturbance intensities caused differences in the functional composition of the plant communities, since species with avoidance strategies are selected by high grazing pressure. High disturbance intensity was also associated to differences of soil features and to different clumped spatial structure of the dry Puna. Our results indicate also that: positive interactions are often species-specific mainly depending on the features of nurse and beneficiary species; the importance of positive interaction is higher at low grazing pressure than at high disturbance intensity; the magnitude and direction of the herbivory-mediated facilitation

  2. Acceleration of integral imaging based incoherent Fourier hologram capture using graphic processing unit.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyeong-Min; Kim, Hee-Seung; Hong, Sung-In; Lee, Sung-Keun; Jo, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Soo; Lim, Hong-Gi; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2012-10-01

    Speed enhancement of integral imaging based incoherent Fourier hologram capture using a graphic processing unit is reported. Integral imaging based method enables exact hologram capture of real-existing three-dimensional objects under regular incoherent illumination. In our implementation, we apply parallel computation scheme using the graphic processing unit, accelerating the processing speed. Using enhanced speed of hologram capture, we also implement a pseudo real-time hologram capture and optical reconstruction system. The overall operation speed is measured to be 1 frame per second.

  3. Effect of accelerated electron beam on mechanical properties of human cortical bone: influence of different processing methods.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Artur; Grazka, Ewelina; Jastrzebska, Anna; Marowska, Joanna; Gut, Grzegorz; Wojciechowski, Artur; Uhrynowska-Tyszkiewicz, Izabela

    2012-08-01

    Accelerated electron beam (EB) irradiation has been a sufficient method used for sterilisation of human tissue grafts for many years in a number of tissue banks. Accelerated EB, in contrast to more often used gamma photons, is a form of ionizing radiation that is characterized by lower penetration, however it is more effective in producing ionisation and to reach the same level of sterility, the exposition time of irradiated product is shorter. There are several factors, including dose and temperature of irradiation, processing conditions, as well as source of irradiation that may influence mechanical properties of a bone graft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect e-beam irradiation with doses of 25 or 35 kGy, performed on dry ice or at ambient temperature, on mechanical properties of non-defatted or defatted compact bone grafts. Left and right femurs from six male cadaveric donors, aged from 46 to 54 years, were transversely cut into slices of 10 mm height, parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bone. Compact bone rings were assigned to the eight experimental groups according to the different processing method (defatted or non-defatted), as well as e-beam irradiation dose (25 or 35 kGy) and temperature conditions of irradiation (ambient temperature or dry ice). Axial compression testing was performed with a material testing machine. Results obtained for elastic and plastic regions of stress-strain curves examined by univariate analysis are described. Based on multivariate analysis, including all groups, it was found that temperature of e-beam irradiation and defatting had no consistent significant effect on evaluated mechanical parameters of compact bone rings. In contrast, irradiation with both doses significantly decreased the ultimate strain and its derivative toughness, while not affecting the ultimate stress (bone strength). As no deterioration of mechanical properties was observed in the elastic region, the reduction of the energy

  4. Dried Blood Spots - Preparing and Processing for Use in Immunoassays and in Molecular Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Grüner, Nico; Stambouli, Oumaima; Ross, R. Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of collecting blood on a paper card and subsequently using the dried blood spots (DBS) for diagnostic purposes originated a century ago. Since then, DBS testing for decades has remained predominantly focused on the diagnosis of infectious diseases especially in resource-limited settings or the systematic screening of newborns for inherited metabolic disorders and only recently have a variety of new and innovative DBS applications begun to emerge. For many years, pre-analytical variables were only inappropriately considered in the field of DBS testing and even today, with the exception of newborn screening, the entire pre-analytical phase, which comprises the preparation and processing of DBS for their final analysis has not been standardized. Given this background, a comprehensive step-by-step protocol, which covers al the essential phases, is proposed, i.e., collection of blood; preparation of blood spots; drying of blood spots; storage and transportation of DBS; elution of DBS, and finally analyses of DBS eluates. The effectiveness of this protocol was first evaluated with 1,762 coupled serum/DBS pairs for detecting markers of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus infections on an automated analytical platform. In a second step, the protocol was utilized during a pilot study, which was conducted on active drug users in the German cities of Berlin and Essen. PMID:25867233

  5. Hardware accelerator of convolution with exponential function for image processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Ivan; Bucha, Victor

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we describe a Hardware Accelerator (HWA) for fast recursive approximation of separable convolution with exponential function. This filter can be used in many Image Processing (IP) applications, e.g. depth-dependent image blur, image enhancement and disparity estimation. We have adopted this filter RTL implementation to provide maximum throughput in constrains of required memory bandwidth and hardware resources to provide a power-efficient VLSI implementation.

  6. New Ultrasonic Controller and Characterization System for Low Temperature Drying Process Intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrés, R. R.; Blanco, A.; Acosta, V. M.; Riera, E.; Martínez, I.; Pinto, A.

    Process intensification constitutes a high interesting and promising industrial area. It aims to modify conventional processes or develop new technologies in order to reduce energy needs, increase yields and improve product quality. It has been demonstrated by this research group (CSIC) that power ultrasound have a great potential in food drying processes. The effects associated with the application of power ultrasound can enhance heat and mass transfer and may constitute a way for process intensification. The objective of this work has been the design and development of a new ultrasonic system for the power characterization of piezoelectric plate-transducers, as excitation, monitoring, analysis, control and characterization of their nonlinear response. For this purpose, the system proposes a new, efficient and economic approach that separates the effect of different parameters of the process like excitation, medium and transducer parameters and variables (voltage, current, frequency, impedance, vibration velocity, acoustic pressure and temperature) by observing the electrical, mechanical, acoustical and thermal behavior, and controlling the vibrational state.

  7. Accelerating frequency-domain diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction using graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Jaya; Chandrasekharan, Venkittarayan; Upendra, Vishwajith; Yalavarthy, Phaneendra K

    2010-01-01

    Diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction uses advanced numerical models that are computationally costly to be implemented in the real time. The graphics processing units (GPUs) offer desktop massive parallelization that can accelerate these computations. An open-source GPU-accelerated linear algebra library package is used to compute the most intensive matrix-matrix calculations and matrix decompositions that are used in solving the system of linear equations. These open-source functions were integrated into the existing frequency-domain diffuse optical image reconstruction algorithms to evaluate the acceleration capability of the GPUs (NVIDIA Tesla C 1060) with increasing reconstruction problem sizes. These studies indicate that single precision computations are sufficient for diffuse optical tomographic image reconstruction. The acceleration per iteration can be up to 40, using GPUs compared to traditional CPUs in case of three-dimensional reconstruction, where the reconstruction problem is more underdetermined, making the GPUs more attractive in the clinical settings. The current limitation of these GPUs in the available onboard memory (4 GB) that restricts the reconstruction of a large set of optical parameters, more than 13,377.

  8. Changes in mineral concentrations and phosphorus profile during dry-grind process of corn into ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For determining variation in mineral composition and phosphorus (P) profile among streams of dry-grind ethanol production, samples of ground corn, intermediate streams, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were obtained from 3 commercial plants. Most attributes (dry matter concentration...

  9. Quantitative study of the relationships among proteolysis, lipid oxidation, structure and texture throughout the dry-cured ham process.

    PubMed

    Harkouss, Rami; Astruc, Thierry; Lebert, André; Gatellier, Philippe; Loison, Olivier; Safa, Hassan; Portanguen, Stéphane; Parafita, Emilie; Mirade, Pierre-Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Temperature, salt and water contents are key processing factors in dry-cured ham production. They affect how proteolysis, lipid oxidation, structure and texture evolve, and thus determine the sensory properties and final quality of dry-cured ham. The aim of this study was to quantify the interrelationships and the time course of (i) proteolysis, (ii) lipid oxidation, (iii) five textural parameters: hardness, fragility, cohesiveness, springiness and adhesiveness and (iv) four structural parameters: fibre numbers, extracellular spaces, cross section area, and connective tissue area, during the dry-cured ham process. Applying multiple polynomial regression enabled us to build phenomenological models relating proteolysis, salt and water contents to certain textural and structural parameters investigated. A linear relationship between lipid oxidation and proteolysis was also established. All of these models and relationships, once combined with salt penetration, water migration and heat transfer models, can be used to dynamically simulate all of these phenomena throughout dry-cured ham manufacturing.

  10. Risk management for moisture related effects in dry manufacturing processes: a statistical approach.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Jorge; Strong, John; Zhang, Lanju

    2016-03-01

    A risk- and science-based approach to control the quality in pharmaceutical manufacturing includes a full understanding of how product attributes and process parameters relate to product performance through a proactive approach in formulation and process development. For dry manufacturing, where moisture content is not directly manipulated within the process, the variability in moisture of the incoming raw materials can impact both the processability and drug product quality attributes. A statistical approach is developed using individual raw material historical lots as a basis for the calculation of tolerance intervals for drug product moisture content so that risks associated with excursions in moisture content can be mitigated. The proposed method is based on a model-independent approach that uses available data to estimate parameters of interest that describe the population of blend moisture content values and which do not require knowledge of the individual blend moisture content values. Another advantage of the proposed tolerance intervals is that, it does not require the use of tabulated values for tolerance factors. This facilitates the implementation on any spreadsheet program like Microsoft Excel. A computational example is used to demonstrate the proposed method.

  11. Hepatoprotective activity of dried- and fermented-processed virgin coconut oil.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Z A; Rofiee, M S; Somchit, M N; Zuraini, A; Sulaiman, M R; Teh, L K; Salleh, M Z; Long, K

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P < .05) reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study.

  12. Hepatoprotective Activity of Dried- and Fermented-Processed Virgin Coconut Oil

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Z. A.; Rofiee, M. S.; Somchit, M. N.; Zuraini, A.; Sulaiman, M. R.; Teh, L. K.; Salleh, M. Z.; Long, K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P < .05) reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study. PMID:21318140

  13. [Treatment of Flue Gas from Sludge Drying Process by A Thermophilic Biofilter].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-he; Deng, Ming-jia; Luo, Hui; Ding, Wen-iie; Li, Lin; Lin, Jian; Liu, Jun-xin

    2016-01-15

    A thermophilic biofilter was employed to treat the flue gas generated from sludge drying process, and the performance in both the start period and the stationary phase was studied under the gas flow rate of 2 700-3 100 m3 x h(-1) and retention time of 21.88-25.10 s. The results showed that the thermophilic biofilter could effectively treat gases containing sulfur dioxide, ammonia and volatile organic compounds (VOC). The removal efficiencies could reach 100%, 93.61% and 87.01%, respectively. Microbial analysis indicated that most of the population belonged to thermophilic bacteria. Paenibacillus sp., Chelatococcus sp., Bacillus sp., Clostridium thermosuccinogenes, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. and Geobacillus debilis which were abundant in the thermophilic biofilter, had the abilities of denitrification, desulfurization and degradation of volatile organic compounds.

  14. Comparative study of denaturation of whey protein isolate (WPI) in convective air drying and isothermal heat treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Haque, M Amdadul; Aldred, Peter; Chen, Jie; Barrow, Colin J; Adhikari, Benu

    2013-11-15

    The extent and nature of denaturation of whey protein isolate (WPI) in convective air drying environments was measured and analysed using single droplet drying. A custom-built, single droplet drying instrument was used for this purpose. Single droplets having 5±0.1μl volume (initial droplet diameter 1.5±0.1mm) containing 10% (w/v) WPI were dried at air temperatures of 45, 65 and 80°C for 600s at constant air velocity of 0.5m/s. The extent and nature of denaturation of WPI in isothermal heat treatment processes was measured at 65 and 80°C for 600s and compared with those obtained from convective air drying. The extent of denaturation of WPI in a high hydrostatic pressure environment (600MPa for 600s) was also determined. The results showed that at the end of 600s of convective drying at 65°C the denaturation of WPI was 68.3%, while it was only 10.8% during isothermal heat treatment at the same medium temperature. When the medium temperature was maintained at 80°C, the denaturation loss of WPI was 90.0% and 68.7% during isothermal heat treatment and convective drying, respectively. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) fraction of WPI was found to be more stable in the convective drying conditions than β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin, especially at longer drying times. The extent of denaturation of WPI in convective air drying (65 and 80°C) and isotheral heat treatment (80°C) for 600s was found to be higher than its denaturation in a high hydrostatic pressure environment at ambient temperature (600MPa for 600s).

  15. Accelerating Correlated Quantum Chemistry Calculations Using Graphical Processing Units and a Mixed Precision Matrix Multiplication Library.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Watson, Mark A; Edgar, Richard G; Vogt, Leslie; Shao, Yihan; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2010-01-12

    Two new tools for the acceleration of computational chemistry codes using graphical processing units (GPUs) are presented. First, we propose a general black-box approach for the efficient GPU acceleration of matrix-matrix multiplications where the matrix size is too large for the whole computation to be held in the GPU's onboard memory. Second, we show how to improve the accuracy of matrix multiplications when using only single-precision GPU devices by proposing a heterogeneous computing model, whereby single- and double-precision operations are evaluated in a mixed fashion on the GPU and central processing unit, respectively. The utility of the library is illustrated for quantum chemistry with application to the acceleration of resolution-of-the-identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory calculations for molecules, which we were previously unable to treat. In particular, for the 168-atom valinomycin molecule in a cc-pVDZ basis set, we observed speedups of 13.8, 7.8, and 10.1 times for single-, double- and mixed-precision general matrix multiply (SGEMM, DGEMM, and MGEMM), respectively. The corresponding errors in the correlation energy were reduced from -10.0 to -1.2 kcal mol(-1) for SGEMM and MGEMM, respectively, while higher accuracy can be easily achieved with a different choice of cutoff parameter.

  16. Investigation of the State of Water in Energy Trees in the Process of Drying by Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mykhailyk, V. A.; Snezhkin, Yu. F.; Dmitrenko, N. V.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation of the state of water in young sprouts of energy trees (willow, poplar, and alder) in the process of drying to the limiting moisture content by differential scanning calorimetry. The content of freezing (free) and nonfreezing (bound) water in samples with various moisture contents has been determined. It has been shown that the specific content of bound water (referred to dry substance) Wb.w in the above trees in the process of their drying in the range from natural moisture to the limiting moisture content is not a constant quantity. In these trees in the state of natural moisture the Wb.w value exceeds their hygroscopicity limit, and in the process of dehydration the Wb.w value decreases. For instance, Wb.w varies from 0.419 to 0.254 g/g of dry substance for poplar, from 0.425 to 0.248 g/g of dry substance for willow, and from 0.354 g/g of dry substance for alder.

  17. In-situ plasma processing to increase the accelerating gradients of SRF cavities

    DOE PAGES

    Doleans, Marc; Afanador, Ralph; Barnhart, Debra L.; Degraff, Brian D.; Gold, Steven W.; Hannah, Brian S.; Howell, Matthew P.; Kim, Sang-Ho; Mammosser, John; McMahan, Christopher J.; et al

    2015-12-31

    A new in-situ plasma processing technique is being developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to improve the performance of the cavities in operation. The technique utilizes a low-density reactive oxygen plasma at room temperature to remove top surface hydrocarbons. The plasma processing technique increases the work function of the cavity surface and reduces the overall amount of vacuum and electron activity during cavity operation; in particular it increases the field emission onset, which enables cavity operation at higher accelerating gradients. Experimental evidence also suggests that the SEY of the Nb surface decreases after plasma processing which helps mitigating multipactingmore » issues. This article discusses the main developments and results from the plasma processing R&D are presented and experimental results for in-situ plasma processing of dressed cavities in the SNS horizontal test apparatus.« less

  18. In-situ plasma processing to increase the accelerating gradients of superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doleans, M.; Tyagi, P. V.; Afanador, R.; McMahan, C. J.; Ball, J. A.; Barnhart, D. L.; Blokland, W.; Crofford, M. T.; Degraff, B. D.; Gold, S. W.; Hannah, B. S.; Howell, M. P.; Kim, S.-H.; Lee, S.-W.; Mammosser, J.; Neustadt, T. S.; Saunders, J. W.; Stewart, S.; Strong, W. H.; Vandygriff, D. J.; Vandygriff, D. M.

    2016-03-01

    A new in-situ plasma processing technique is being developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to improve the performance of the cavities in operation. The technique utilizes a low-density reactive oxygen plasma at room temperature to remove top surface hydrocarbons. The plasma processing technique increases the work function of the cavity surface and reduces the overall amount of vacuum and electron activity during cavity operation; in particular it increases the field emission onset, which enables cavity operation at higher accelerating gradients. Experimental evidence also suggests that the SEY of the Nb surface decreases after plasma processing which helps mitigating multipacting issues. In this article, the main developments and results from the plasma processing R&D are presented and experimental results for in-situ plasma processing of dressed cavities in the SNS horizontal test apparatus are discussed.

  19. In-situ plasma processing to increase the accelerating gradients of SRF cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Doleans, Marc; Afanador, Ralph; Barnhart, Debra L.; Degraff, Brian D.; Gold, Steven W.; Hannah, Brian S.; Howell, Matthew P.; Kim, Sang-Ho; Mammosser, John; McMahan, Christopher J.; Neustadt, Thomas S.; Saunders, Jeffrey W.; Tyagi, Puneet V.; Vandygriff, Daniel J.; Vandygriff, David M.; Ball, Jeffrey Allen; Blokland, Willem; Crofford, Mark T.; Lee, Sung-Woo; Stewart, Stephen; Strong, William Herb

    2015-12-31

    A new in-situ plasma processing technique is being developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to improve the performance of the cavities in operation. The technique utilizes a low-density reactive oxygen plasma at room temperature to remove top surface hydrocarbons. The plasma processing technique increases the work function of the cavity surface and reduces the overall amount of vacuum and electron activity during cavity operation; in particular it increases the field emission onset, which enables cavity operation at higher accelerating gradients. Experimental evidence also suggests that the SEY of the Nb surface decreases after plasma processing which helps mitigating multipacting issues. This article discusses the main developments and results from the plasma processing R&D are presented and experimental results for in-situ plasma processing of dressed cavities in the SNS horizontal test apparatus.

  20. Enhancing profitability of dry mill ethanol plants: process modeling and economics of conversion of degermed defibered corn to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; McCalla, Darold; Stowers, Mark

    2005-01-01

    An Aspen Plus modeling platform was developed to evaluate the performance of the conversion process of degermed defibered corn (DDC) to ethanol in 15- and 40-million gallons per year (MGPY) dry mill ethanol plants. Upstream corn milling equipment in conventional dry mill ethanol plants was replaced with germ and fiber separation equipment. DDC with higher starch content was fed to the existing saccharification and fermentation units, resulting in higher ethanol productivity than with regular corn. The results of the DDC models were compared with those of conventional dry mill ethanol process models. A simple financial analysis that included capital and operating costs, revenues, earnings, and return on investment was created to evaluate each model comparatively. Case studies were performed on 15- and 40-MGPY base case models with two DDC process designs and DDC with a mechanical oil extraction process.

  1. Effects of Ultrasound Assistance on Dehydration Processes and Bioactive Component Retention of Osmo-Dried Sour Cherries.

    PubMed

    Siucińska, Karolina; Mieszczakowska-Frąc, Monika; Połubok, Aleksandra; Konopacka, Dorota

    2016-07-01

    Despite having numerous health benefits, dried sour cherries have proven to be more acceptable to consumers when infused with sugar or other sweeteners to enhance their flavor, which, in turn, leads to serious anthocyanin losses. For this reason, a consideration was made for the application of ultrasound to accelerate solid gain and shorten drying time, thus favoring bioactive component retention. To determine the usefulness of ultrasound as a tool for sour cherry osmotic infusion enhancement, the effect of sonication time on dehydration effectiveness, as well as the stability of bioactive components during osmotic treatment and consecutive convective drying, was investigated. Fruits were osmo-dehydrated using a 60% sucrose solution for 120 min (40 °C), during which, ultrasound of 25 kHz (0.4 W/cm(2) ), was applied for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, after which, the fruits were convectively dried. In the range of the applied ultrasound energy no significant effect of sonication on mass transfer intensification was observed; moreover, longer acoustic treatment seemed to retard moisture removal during subsequent convective drying, which can be related to the breakdown of the parenchyma cell walls caused by the prolonged ultrasound (US) action. It was concluded that although US assistance could be considered neutral for bioactive component retention, excessive sonication time can lead to some anthocyanin deterioration. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the particular anthocyanin alterations, both during dehydration and final drying, occurred in a similar way. Sonication time prolongation caused approximately 10% more bioactive compound deterioration, than earlier, shorter trials. PMID:27299365

  2. Effects of Ultrasound Assistance on Dehydration Processes and Bioactive Component Retention of Osmo-Dried Sour Cherries.

    PubMed

    Siucińska, Karolina; Mieszczakowska-Frąc, Monika; Połubok, Aleksandra; Konopacka, Dorota

    2016-07-01

    Despite having numerous health benefits, dried sour cherries have proven to be more acceptable to consumers when infused with sugar or other sweeteners to enhance their flavor, which, in turn, leads to serious anthocyanin losses. For this reason, a consideration was made for the application of ultrasound to accelerate solid gain and shorten drying time, thus favoring bioactive component retention. To determine the usefulness of ultrasound as a tool for sour cherry osmotic infusion enhancement, the effect of sonication time on dehydration effectiveness, as well as the stability of bioactive components during osmotic treatment and consecutive convective drying, was investigated. Fruits were osmo-dehydrated using a 60% sucrose solution for 120 min (40 °C), during which, ultrasound of 25 kHz (0.4 W/cm(2) ), was applied for 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min, after which, the fruits were convectively dried. In the range of the applied ultrasound energy no significant effect of sonication on mass transfer intensification was observed; moreover, longer acoustic treatment seemed to retard moisture removal during subsequent convective drying, which can be related to the breakdown of the parenchyma cell walls caused by the prolonged ultrasound (US) action. It was concluded that although US assistance could be considered neutral for bioactive component retention, excessive sonication time can lead to some anthocyanin deterioration. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the particular anthocyanin alterations, both during dehydration and final drying, occurred in a similar way. Sonication time prolongation caused approximately 10% more bioactive compound deterioration, than earlier, shorter trials.

  3. Effect of tiger nut fibre addition on the quality and safety of a dry-cured pork sausage ("Chorizo") during the dry-curing process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Zapata, E; Zunino, V; Pérez-Alvarez, J A; Fernández-López, J

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing interest in the revalorization of co-products from the food industry. Co-products from tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus) milk production are a suitable fibre source. "Chorizo" is the most popular dry-cured meat product in Spain. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the tiger nut fibre addition (0, 5, and 7.5%) on the quality (composition, physicochemical, and sensorial properties) and safety (oxidation and microbial quality) of a Spanish dry-cured sausage, during the 28days of its dry-curing process. Tiger nut fibre (TNF) addition decreased fat and increased moisture content. The addition of TNF significantly increased (p<0.05) the total dietary fibre content of "Chorizo". Lightness (L*), yellowness (b*) and redness index (a*/b*) were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the fibre content. The addition of 5% and 7.5% TNF to chorizo provided rich fibre and a healthier product. Although there were slight changes in the physicochemical properties, its quality (traditional characteristics) and its safety remained.

  4. Effect of tiger nut fibre addition on the quality and safety of a dry-cured pork sausage ("Chorizo") during the dry-curing process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Zapata, E; Zunino, V; Pérez-Alvarez, J A; Fernández-López, J

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing interest in the revalorization of co-products from the food industry. Co-products from tiger nuts (Cyperus esculentus) milk production are a suitable fibre source. "Chorizo" is the most popular dry-cured meat product in Spain. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the tiger nut fibre addition (0, 5, and 7.5%) on the quality (composition, physicochemical, and sensorial properties) and safety (oxidation and microbial quality) of a Spanish dry-cured sausage, during the 28days of its dry-curing process. Tiger nut fibre (TNF) addition decreased fat and increased moisture content. The addition of TNF significantly increased (p<0.05) the total dietary fibre content of "Chorizo". Lightness (L*), yellowness (b*) and redness index (a*/b*) were significantly (p<0.05) affected by the fibre content. The addition of 5% and 7.5% TNF to chorizo provided rich fibre and a healthier product. Although there were slight changes in the physicochemical properties, its quality (traditional characteristics) and its safety remained. PMID:23793111

  5. Commercially processed dry ginger (Zingiber officinale): composition and effects on LPS-stimulated PGE2 production.

    PubMed

    Jolad, Shivanand D; Lantz, R Clark; Chen, Guan Jie; Bates, Robert B; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2005-07-01

    Using techniques previously employed to identify ginger constituents in fresh organically grown Hawaiian white and yellow ginger varieties, partially purified fractions derived from the silica gel column chromatography and HPLC of a methylene chloride extract of commercially processed dry ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae, which demonstrated remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In all, 115 compounds were identified, 88 with retention times (R(t)) >21 min and 27 with <21 min. Of those 88 compounds, 45 were previously reported by us from fresh ginger, 12 are cited elsewhere in the literature and the rest (31) are new: methyl [8]-paradol, methyl [6]-isogingerol, methyl [4]-shogaol, [6]-isoshogaol, two 6-hydroxy-[n]-shogaols (n=8 and 10), 6-dehydro-[6]-gingerol, three 5-methoxy-[n]-gingerols (n=4, 8 and 10), 3-acetoxy-[4]-gingerdiol, 5-acetoxy-[6]-gingerdiol (stereoisomer), diacetoxy-[8]-gingerdiol, methyl diacetoxy-[8]-gingerdiol, 6-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-nonyl-2-hydroxytetrahydropyran, 3-acetoxydihydro-[6]-paradol methyl ether, 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-2-nonadecen-1-one and its methyl ether derivative, 1,7-bis-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-5-methoxyheptan-3-one, 1,7-bis-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-5-acetoxyheptane, acetoxy-3-dihydrodemethoxy-[6]-shogaol, 5-acetoxy-3-deoxy-[6]-gingerol, 1-hydroxy-[6]-paradol, (2E)-geranial acetals of [4]- and [6]-gingerdiols, (2Z)-neral acetal of [6]-gingerdiol, acetaldehyde acetal of [6]-gingerdiol, 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2,4-dehydro-6-decanone and the cyclic methyl orthoesters of [6]- and [10]-gingerdiols. Of the 27 R(t)<21 min compounds, we had found 5 from fresh ginger, 20 others were found elsewhere in the literature, and two are new: 5-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-pent-2-en-1-al and 5-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-1-pentanal. Most of the short R(t) compounds are probably formed by thermal degradation during

  6. Processing and Quality Characteristics of Apple Slices under Simultaneous Infrared Dry-blanching and Dehydration with Intermittent Heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of three processing parameters, e.g. product surface temperature, slice thickness and processing time, on blanching and dehydration characteristics of apple slices exposed to simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD) with intermittent heating. A...

  7. Effects of different encapsulation agents and drying process on stability of betalains extract.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Kavitha; Palaniraj, Ravichandran; Saw, Nay Min Min Thaw; Gabr, Ahmed M M; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2014-09-01

    Red beet plants are rich in betalains that can be used as food natural colorants. Betalains were extracted from red beet and encapsulated with different carrier agents and freeze or spray dried. Effect of different encapsulating agents as maltodextrin, guar gum, gum Arabic, pectin and xanthan gum with different concentration (as encapsulating agents) were studied on the betalain stability. Encapsulated betalains with xanthan gum with maltodextrin showed about 65 % more recovery than the control. Encapsulation showed a higher recovery of betalains during freeze drying by 1.3 times than during spray drying. Spray dried samples has L* (lightness) higher than the freeze dried samples. The variations of maltodextrin with xanthan and guar gum freeze dried have highest chroma value of 21. The stabilization of pure betalain pigments may boost the use of these colouring molecules in the food industry and promote their application. PMID:25190886

  8. ACCELERATED PROCESSING OF SB4 AND PREPARATION FOR SB5 PROCESSING AT DWPF

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, C

    2008-12-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) in May 2007. SB4 was the first DWPF sludge batch to contain significant quantities of HM or high Al sludge. Initial testing with SB4 simulants showed potential negative impacts to DWPF processing; therefore, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed extensive testing in an attempt to optimize processing. SRNL's testing has resulted in the highest DWPF production rates since start-up. During SB4 processing, DWPF also began incorporating waste streams from the interim salt processing facilities to initiate coupled operations. While DWPF has been processing SB4, the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and the SRNL have been preparing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). SB5 has undergone low-temperature aluminum dissolution to reduce the mass of sludge for vitrification and will contain a small fraction of Purex sludge. A high-level review of SB4 processing and the SB5 preparation studies will be provided.

  9. Effects of formulation and process factors on the crystal structure of freeze-dried Myo-inositol.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Yomota, Chikako; Okuda, Haruhiro; Kawanishi, Toru; Yamaki, Takuya; Ohdate, Ryohei; Yu, Zhaokun; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate effects of formulation and process variables on the physical forms of freeze-dried myo-inositol. Physical properties of myo-inositol in frozen solutions, freeze-dried solids, and cooled heat-melt solids were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermal analysis (differential scanning calorimetry [DSC] and thermogravimetric), and simultaneous PXRD-DSC analysis. Cooling of heat-melt myo-inositol produced two forms of metastable anhydrate crystals that change to stable form (melting point 225 °C-228 °C) with transition exotherms at around 123 °C and 181 °C, respectively. Freeze-drying of single-solute aqueous myo-inositol solutions after rapid cooling induced crystallization of myo-inositol as metastable anhydrate (transition at 80 °C-125 °C) during secondary drying segment. Contrarily, postfreeze heat treatment (i.e., annealing) induced crystallization of myo-inositol dihydrate. Removal of the crystallization water during the secondary drying produced the stable-form myo-inositol anhydrate crystal. Shelf-ramp slow cooling of myo-inositol solutions resulted in the stable and metastable anhydrous crystal solids depending on the solute concentrations and the solution volumes. Colyophilization with phosphate buffer retained myo-inositol in the amorphous state. Crystallization in different process segments varies crystal form of freeze-dried myo-inositol solids.

  10. Effect of ginseng polysaccharide on the stability of lactic acid bacteria during freeze-drying process and storage.

    PubMed

    Yang, Seung-Hyun; Seo, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Wook; Choi, Seung-Ki; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2006-09-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) quickly attenuate or are killed during the freeze-drying process and storage. The effect of some natural polysaccharides, which are known as potent antitumor and immunomodulating substances, on the viability of the LAB, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium breve, on freeze-drying and storage were investigated. Among the polysaccharides tested, red ginseng polysaccharide (RGP) and chitosan significantly inhibited the cell death of the LAB during freeze-drying, and fucoidan and RGP most potently protected the cell death of the LAB during storage. The stabilities of the LAB on the addition of RGP and fucoidan were comparable to that of skimmed milk. However, white ginseng polysaccharide (WGP) did not promote storage stability. When 5% skimmed milk/5% RGP treated LAB were freeze-dried and stored, their viabilities were found to be significantly higher those treated with 5% or 10% RGP. The stabilizing effect of 5% RGP/5% skimmed milk during LAB freeze-drying and storage stability was comparable to that of treatment with 10% skimmed milk. Based on these findings, we believe that RGP beneficially improves the stability of LAB during the freeze-dry process and storage.

  11. Effects of accelerated reading rate on syntactic processing of Hebrew sentences: electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Leikin, M; Breznitz, Z

    2001-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether accelerated reading rate influences the way adult readers process sentence components with different grammatical functions. Participants were 20 male native Hebrew-speaking college students aged 18-27 years. The processing of normal word strings was examined during word-by-word reading of sentences having subject-verb-object (SVO) syntactic structure in self-paced and fast-paced conditions. In both reading conditions, the N100 (late positive) and P300 (late negative) event-related potential (ERP) components were sensitive to such internal processes as recognition of words' syntactic functions. However, an accelerated reading rate influenced the way in which readers processed these sentence elements. In the self-paced condition, the predicate-centered (morphologically based) strategy was used, whereas in the fast-paced condition an approach that was more like the word-order strategy was used. This new pattern was correlated with findings on the shortening of latency and the increasing of amplitudes in both N100 and P300 ERP components for most sentence elements. These changes seemed to be related to improved working memory functioning and maximized attention.

  12. Contents Changes of Triterpenic Acids, Nucleosides, Nucleobases, and Saccharides in Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) Fruit During the Drying and Steaming Process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhang, Ying; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Zhenhua; Wang, Hanqing

    2015-12-12

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), a medicinal and edible plant, is widely consumed in Asian countries owing to the remarkable health activities of its fruits. To facilitate selection of the suitable processing method for jujube fruits, in this study their contents of triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases and saccharides after drying and steaming treatment were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector methods. The results showed that except for sucrose, the content levels of most analytes were increasing in the jujube fruits during drying treatment at 45 °C. The levels of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, were significantly decreased after the fruits were steamed. Therefore, owing to the bioactivities of these components for human health, the dried fruits would be the better choice as medicinal material or functional food, and dried jujube fruit should not be further steamed.

  13. Two-dimensional CFD modeling of the heat and mass transfer process during sewage sludge drying in a solar dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Piotr; Badyda, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents key assumptions of the mathematical model which describes heat and mass transfer phenomena in a solar sewage drying process, as well as techniques used for solving this model with the Fluent computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Special attention was paid to implementation of boundary conditions on the sludge surface, which is a physical boundary between the gaseous phase - air, and solid phase - dried matter. Those conditions allow to model heat and mass transfer between the media during first and second drying stages. Selection of the computational geometry is also discussed - it is a fragment of the entire drying facility. Selected modelling results are presented in the final part of the paper.

  14. Effect of process variables on the quality characteristics of pelleted wheat distiller's dried grains with solubles

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Lope Tabil; Anthony Opoku; Maria Rosario Mosqueda; Olaniyi Fadeyi

    2011-04-01

    The rapid expansion of ethanol processing plants in Canada has resulted in a significant increase in the production of wheat-based distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Transportation and flowability problems associated with DDGS necessitate investigations on pelleting. In the present study, the effect of process variables like die temperature (T) and feed moisture content (Mw) on the pellet properties like pellet moisture content, durability and pellet density was explored using a single pelleting machine; further studies on pelleting DDGS using a pilot-scale pellet mill were also conducted to understand the effect of die diameter and steam conditioning on durability and bulk density of pellets. Proximate analysis of DDGS indicated that crude protein and dry matter were in the range of 37.37–40.33% and 91.27–92.60%, respectively. Linear regression models developed for pellet quality attributes like pellet moisture content, pellet density and durability adequately described the single pelleting process with R2 value of 0.97, 0.99 and 0.7, respectively. ANOVA results have indicated that linear terms T and Mw and the interaction term T × Mw were statistically significant at P < 0.01 and P < 0.1 for pellet moisture content and pellet density. Based on the trends of the surface plots, a medium T of about 50–80 °C and a low Mw of about 5.1% resulted in maximum pellet density and durability and minimum pellet moisture content. Results from pilot-scale studies indicated that bulk density, durability and throughput values were 436.8–528.9 kg m-3, 60.3–92.7% and 45.52–68.77 kg h-1, respectively. It was observed that both die diameter and steam addition had a significant effect on the bulk density and the durability values. The highest bulk density and durability were achieved with 6.4 mm die diameter with steam addition compared to 7.9 mm die with or without steam addition.

  15. Open-source graphics processing unit-accelerated ray tracer for optical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauch, Florian; Gronle, Marc; Lyda, Wolfram; Osten, Wolfgang

    2013-05-01

    Ray tracing still is the workhorse in optical design and simulation. Its basic principle, propagating light as a set of mutually independent rays, implies a linear dependency of the computational effort and the number of rays involved in the problem. At the same time, the mutual independence of the light rays bears a huge potential for parallelization of the computational load. This potential has recently been recognized in the visualization community, where graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated ray tracing is used to render photorealistic images. However, precision requirements in optical simulation are substantially higher than in visualization, and therefore performance results known from visualization cannot be expected to transfer to optical simulation one-to-one. In this contribution, we present an open-source implementation of a GPU-accelerated ray tracer, based on nVidias acceleration engine OptiX, that traces in double precision and exploits the massively parallel architecture of modern graphics cards. We compare its performance to a CPU-based tracer that has been developed in parallel.

  16. Flow Processes in the Dry Regime: The Effect on Capillary Barrier Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jansik, Danielle P.; Wildenschild, Dorthe; Rosenberg, Nina D.

    2011-11-01

    Engineered capillary barriers typically consist of two layers of granular materials designed so that the contrast in material hydraulic properties and sloping interface retains infiltrating water in the upper layer. We report here on the results of two bench-top capillary barrier experiments, interpretation, and numerical modeling. We measured hydraulic parameters for two coarse materials using standard methods and found that the materials had similar hydraulic properties despite being morphologically different (round vs. angular). The round sand provided a better functioning capillary barrier than the angular sand, but neither experiment could be characterized as a perfectly working capillary barrier. In both cases, more than 93% of the infiltrating water was successfully diverted from the lower layer, however, infiltration into the underlying layer was observed in both systems. Based on this work, we believe that non-continuum processes such as vapor diffusion and film flow contribute to the observed phenomena and are important aspects to consider with respect to capillary barrier design, as well as dry vadose zone processes in general. Using a theoretical film flow equation that incorporates the surface geometry of the porous material we found that infiltration into the coarse underlying sand layer appeared to be dominated by water film flow. The NUFT (Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport) model was used for qualitative comparison simulations. We were able to reproduce the barrier breach observed in the experiments using targeted parameter adjustment, by which pseudo-film flow was successfully simulated.

  17. Design of salmon calcitonin particles for nasal delivery using spray-drying and novel supercritical fluid-assisted spray-drying processes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Wonkyung; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Min-Sook; Park, Junsung; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Park, Hee Jun; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Velaga, Sitaram P; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2015-01-15

    The overall aim of this study was to prepare a nasal powder formulation of salmon calcitonin (sCT) using an absorption enhancer to improve its bioavailability. In this work, powder formulations for nasal delivery of sCT were studied using various absorption enhancers and stabilizers. Powders were prepared by two different methods: conventional spray-drying (SD) and novel supercritical fluid-assisted spray-drying (SASD) to investigate the role of CO2 in the particle formation process. The prepared sCT powder formulations were characterized by several analyses; powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy method. The particle size distribution was also evaluated. In vivo absorption tests were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rat using the prepared powder formulations, and the results were compared to those of raw sCT. Quantitative analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that sCT was chemically stable after both the SD and SASD processes. Results of PXRD, SEM, and FT-IR did not indicate a strong interaction or defragmentation of sCT. The in vivo absorption test showed that SD- and SASD-processed sCT powders increased the bioavailability of the drug when compared to the nasal administration of raw sCT. In addition, SASD-processed sCT exhibited higher nasal absorption when compared with SD-processed sCT in all formulations due to a reduction of particle size. The results from this study illustrate that the preparation of nasal powders using the SASD process could be a promising approach to improve nasal absorption of sCT.

  18. Monitoring oil displacement processes with k-t accelerated spin echo SPI.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Xiao, Dan; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Balcom, Bruce J

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a robust tool to monitor oil displacement processes in porous media. Conventional MRI measurement times can be lengthy, which hinders monitoring time-dependent displacements. Knowledge of the oil and water microscopic distribution is important because their pore scale behavior reflects the oil trapping mechanisms. The oil and water pore scale distribution is reflected in the magnetic resonance T2 signal lifetime distribution. In this work, a pure phase-encoding MRI technique, spin echo SPI (SE-SPI), was employed to monitor oil displacement during water flooding and polymer flooding. A k-t acceleration method, with low-rank matrix completion, was employed to improve the temporal resolution of the SE-SPI MRI measurements. Comparison to conventional SE-SPI T2 mapping measurements revealed that the k-t accelerated measurement was more sensitive and provided higher-quality results. It was demonstrated that the k-t acceleration decreased the average measurement time from 66.7 to 20.3 min in this work. A perfluorinated oil, containing no (1) H, and H2 O brine were employed to distinguish oil and water phases in model flooding experiments. High-quality 1D water saturation profiles were acquired from the k-t accelerated SE-SPI measurements. Spatially and temporally resolved T2 distributions were extracted from the profile data. The shift in the (1) H T2 distribution of water in the pore space to longer lifetimes during water flooding and polymer flooding is consistent with increased water content in the pore space. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Monitoring oil displacement processes with k-t accelerated spin echo SPI.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Xiao, Dan; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Balcom, Bruce J

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a robust tool to monitor oil displacement processes in porous media. Conventional MRI measurement times can be lengthy, which hinders monitoring time-dependent displacements. Knowledge of the oil and water microscopic distribution is important because their pore scale behavior reflects the oil trapping mechanisms. The oil and water pore scale distribution is reflected in the magnetic resonance T2 signal lifetime distribution. In this work, a pure phase-encoding MRI technique, spin echo SPI (SE-SPI), was employed to monitor oil displacement during water flooding and polymer flooding. A k-t acceleration method, with low-rank matrix completion, was employed to improve the temporal resolution of the SE-SPI MRI measurements. Comparison to conventional SE-SPI T2 mapping measurements revealed that the k-t accelerated measurement was more sensitive and provided higher-quality results. It was demonstrated that the k-t acceleration decreased the average measurement time from 66.7 to 20.3 min in this work. A perfluorinated oil, containing no (1) H, and H2 O brine were employed to distinguish oil and water phases in model flooding experiments. High-quality 1D water saturation profiles were acquired from the k-t accelerated SE-SPI measurements. Spatially and temporally resolved T2 distributions were extracted from the profile data. The shift in the (1) H T2 distribution of water in the pore space to longer lifetimes during water flooding and polymer flooding is consistent with increased water content in the pore space. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26626141

  20. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santacatalina, J. V.; Cárcel, J. A.; Simal, S.; Garcia-Perez, J. V.; Mulet, A.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that purpose, AFD experiments were carried out with carrot cubes (10 mm side) at constant air velocity (2 ms-1), temperature (-10°C) and relative humidity (10%) with (20.5 kWm-3,USAFD) and without (AFD) ultrasonic application. A diffusion model was used in order to quantify the influence of US in drying kinetics. To evaluate the quality of dry products, rehydration capacity and textural properties were determined. The US application during AFD of carrot involved the increase of drying rate. The effective moisture diffusivity identified in USAFD was 73% higher than in AFD experiments. On the other hand, the rehydration capacity was higher in USAFD than in AFD and the hardness of dried samples did not show significant (p<0.05) differences. Therefore, US application during AFD significantly (p<0.05) sped-up the drying process preserving the quality properties of the dry product.

  1. [Effect of air humidity on traditional Chinese medicine extract of spray drying process and prediction of its powder stability].

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Xie, Yin; Zheng, Long-jin; Liu, Wei; Rao, Xiao-yong; Luo, Xiao-jian

    2015-02-01

    In order to solve the adhesion and the softening problems of traditional Chinese medicine extract during spray drying, a new method of adding dehumidified air into spray drying process was proposed, and the storage stability conditions of extract powder could be predicted. Kouyanqing extract was taken as model drug to investigate on the wet air (RH = 70%) and dry air conditions of spray drying. Under the dry air condition, the influence of the spray drying result with different air compression ratio and the spray-dried powder properties (extract powder recovery rate, adhesion percentage, water content, angle of repose, compression ratio, particle size and distribution) with 100, 110, 120, 130, 140 °C inlet temperature were studied. The hygroscopic investigation and Tg value with different moisture content of ideal powder were determined. The water activity-equilibrium moisture content (aw-EMC) and the equilibrium moisture content-Tg (EMC-Tg) relationships were fitted by GAB equation and Gordon-Taylor model respectively, and the state diagram of kouyanqing powder was obtained to guide the rational storage conditions. The study found that in the condition of dry air, the extract powder water content decreased with the increase of air compression ratio and the spray drying effect with air compression ratio of 100% was the best performance; in the condition of wet air, the extract powder with high water content and low yield, and the value were 4.26% and 16.73 °C, while, in the dry air condition the values were 2.43% and 24.86 °C with the same other instru- ment parameters. From the analysis of kouyanqing powder state diagram, in order to keep the stability, the critical water content of 3.42% and the critical water content of 0.188. As the water decreased Tg value of extract powder is the major problem of causing adhesion and softening during spray drying, it is meaningful to aid dehumidified air during the process. PMID:26084164

  2. Physical processes at work in sub-30 fs, PW laser pulse-driven plasma accelerators: Towards GeV electron acceleration experiments at CILEX facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, A.; Kalmykov, S. Y.; Davoine, X.; Lifschitz, A.; Shadwick, B. A.; Malka, V.; Specka, A.

    2014-03-01

    Optimal regimes and physical processes at work are identified for the first round of laser wakefield acceleration experiments proposed at a future CILEX facility. The Apollon-10P CILEX laser, delivering fully compressed, near-PW-power pulses of sub-25 fs duration, is well suited for driving electron density wakes in the blowout regime in cm-length gas targets. Early destruction of the pulse (partly due to energy depletion) prevents electrons from reaching dephasing, limiting the energy gain to about 3 GeV. However, the optimal operating regimes, found with reduced and full three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, show high energy efficiency, with about 10% of incident pulse energy transferred to 3 GeV electron bunches with sub-5% energy spread, half-nC charge, and absolutely no low-energy background. This optimal acceleration occurs in 2 cm length plasmas of electron density below 1018 cm-3. Due to their high charge and low phase space volume, these multi-GeV bunches are tailor-made for staged acceleration planned in the framework of the CILEX project. The hallmarks of the optimal regime are electron self-injection at the early stage of laser pulse propagation, stable self-guiding of the pulse through the entire acceleration process, and no need for an external plasma channel. With the initial focal spot closely matched for the nonlinear self-guiding, the laser pulse stabilizes transversely within two Rayleigh lengths, preventing subsequent evolution of the accelerating bucket. This dynamics prevents continuous self-injection of background electrons, preserving low phase space volume of the bunch through the plasma. Near the end of propagation, an optical shock builds up in the pulse tail. This neither disrupts pulse propagation nor produces any noticeable low-energy background in the electron spectra, which is in striking contrast with most of existing GeV-scale acceleration experiments.

  3. Ground Test of the Urine Processing Assembly for Accelerations and Transfer Functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Almond, Deborah F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the ground test of the urine processing assembly for accelerations and transfer functions. Details are given on the test setup, test data, data analysis, analytical results, and microgravity assessment. The conclusions of the tests include the following: (1) the single input/multiple output method is useful if the data is acquired by tri-axial accelerometers and inputs can be considered uncorrelated; (2) tying coherence with the matrix yields higher confidence in results; (3) the WRS#2 rack ORUs need to be isolated; (4) and future work includes a plan for characterizing performance of isolation materials.

  4. Study of the near-electrode processes in quasi-steady plasma accelerators with impenetrable electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, A. N.

    2012-01-15

    Near-electrode processes in a coaxial plasma accelerator with equipotential impenetrable electrodes are simulated using a two-dimensional (generally, time-dependent) two-fluid MHD model with allowance for the Hall effect and the plasma conductivity tensor. The simulations confirm the theoretically predicted mechanism of the so-called 'crisis of current' caused by the Hall effect. The simulation results are compared with available experimental data. The influence of both the method of plasma supply to the channel and an additional longitudinal magnetic field on the development of near-electrode instabilities preceding the crisis of current is studied.

  5. A practical protocol to accelerate the breeding process of rice in semitropical and tropical regions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Hou, Xianhui; Liu, Jindi; Qian, Changgen; Gao, Rongcun; Li, Linchuan; Li, Jinjun

    2015-01-01

    Breeding of excellent rice varieties is essential for modern rice production. Typical breeding procedures to introduce and maintain valuable agricultural traits require at least 8 generations from crossing to stabilization, always taking more than 4–5 years of work. This long and tedious process is the rate-limiting step in the development of new varieties, and therefore fast culturing methods are in urgent need. Taking advantage of early flowering characteristics of light-sensitive rice under short-day conditions, we have developed a practical protocol to accelerate the breeding cycle of rice, which we have termed the “1 + 2”, “2 + 2”, “1 + 3”, and “0 + 5” methods according to the different rice varieties and different breeding purposes. We have also incorporated several techniques, including glume cutting, seed desiccation at 50°C in a drier seed dormancy breakage with low concentration of HNO3, and direct seeding. Using the above strategy, we have shortened the life cycle of light-sensitive rice varieties to about 70 days, making it possible for several rice cultivars to proliferate 4–5 generations in a single calendar year. This protocol greatly accelerates the process of new variety breeding, and can be used in rice research for shortening the process of genetic analysis and the construction of mapping populations. PMID:26175620

  6. Design of solar thermal dryers for 24-hour food drying processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solar drying is a method that has been adopted for many years as a food preservation method. To this date, significant advancements have been made in this field with the adoption of a multitude of solar thermal dryer designs for single-layer and multi-layer drying of fruit and vegetables e.g. cabine...

  7. Stochastic Modeling and Analysis of Multiple Nonlinear Accelerated Degradation Processes through Information Fusion.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fuqiang; Liu, Le; Li, Xiaoyang; Liao, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated degradation testing (ADT) is an efficient technique for evaluating the lifetime of a highly reliable product whose underlying failure process may be traced by the degradation of the product's performance parameters with time. However, most research on ADT mainly focuses on a single performance parameter. In reality, the performance of a modern product is usually characterized by multiple parameters, and the degradation paths are usually nonlinear. To address such problems, this paper develops a new s-dependent nonlinear ADT model for products with multiple performance parameters using a general Wiener process and copulas. The general Wiener process models the nonlinear ADT data, and the dependency among different degradation measures is analyzed using the copula method. An engineering case study on a tuner's ADT data is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results illustrate that the proposed method is quite effective in estimating the lifetime of a product with s-dependent performance parameters. PMID:27509499

  8. An engineering and economic evaluation of quick germ-quick fiber process for dry-grind ethanol facilities: analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Luis F; Li, Changying; Khanna, Madhu; Spaulding, Aslihan D; Lin, Tao; Eckhoff, Steven R

    2010-07-01

    An engineering economic model, which is mass balanced and compositionally driven, was developed to compare the conventional corn dry-grind process and the pre-fractionation process called quick germ-quick fiber (QQ). In this model, documented in a companion article, the distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) price was linked with its protein and fiber content as well as with the long-term average relationship with the corn price. The detailed economic analysis showed that the QQ plant retrofitted from conventional dry-grind ethanol plant reduces the manufacturing cost of ethanol by 13.5 cent/gallon and has net present value of nearly $4 million greater than the conventional dry-grind plant at an interest rate of 4% in 15years. Ethanol and feedstock price sensitivity analysis showed that the QQ plant gains more profits when ethanol price increases than conventional dry-grind ethanol plant. An optimistic analysis of the QQ process suggests that the greater value of the modified DDGS would provide greater resistance to fluctuations in corn price for QQ facilities. This model can be used to provide decision support for ethanol producers.

  9. Large scale neural circuit mapping data analysis accelerated with the graphical processing unit (GPU)

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yulin; Veidenbaum, Alexander V.; Nicolau, Alex; Xu, Xiangmin

    2014-01-01

    Background Modern neuroscience research demands computing power. Neural circuit mapping studies such as those using laser scanning photostimulation (LSPS) produce large amounts of data and require intensive computation for post-hoc processing and analysis. New Method Here we report on the design and implementation of a cost-effective desktop computer system for accelerated experimental data processing with recent GPU computing technology. A new version of Matlab software with GPU enabled functions is used to develop programs that run on Nvidia GPUs to harness their parallel computing power. Results We evaluated both the central processing unit (CPU) and GPU-enabled computational performance of our system in benchmark testing and practical applications. The experimental results show that the GPU-CPU co-processing of simulated data and actual LSPS experimental data clearly outperformed the multi-core CPU with up to a 22x speedup, depending on computational tasks. Further, we present a comparison of numerical accuracy between GPU and CPU computation to verify the precision of GPU computation. In addition, we show how GPUs can be effectively adapted to improve the performance of commercial image processing software such as Adobe Photoshop. Comparison with Existing Method(s) To our best knowledge, this is the first demonstration of GPU application in neural circuit mapping and electrophysiology-based data processing. Conclusions Together, GPU enabled computation enhances our ability to process large-scale data sets derived from neural circuit mapping studies, allowing for increased processing speeds while retaining data precision. PMID:25277633

  10. Develop apparatus and process for second-stage drying. Final technical report, September 26, 1994--September 27, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, F.

    1997-01-03

    The final technical report for this project contains detailed technical results for the various tasks performed in the projects. The project scope was to develop an apparatus and process for second-stage drying of softwoods, such as southern yellow pine, for construction lumber. The focus of the project was on increasing the efficiency of high-temperature drying. The project tasks were: (1) computer simulation refinement and extension of the theory to commercial-sized kilns, (2) detailed heat exchanger equipment design, (3) pilot-scale design and fabrication, (4) experimental evaluation of the pilot-scale system, and (5) preliminary design of a prototype system. The effort on this project has been continuous and productive in gaining a better understanding of the processes involved in the drying of softwoods. 19 refs., 41 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Spatiotemporal processing of linear acceleration: primary afferent and central vestibular neuron responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; Dickman, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    Spatiotemporal convergence and two-dimensional (2-D) neural tuning have been proposed as a major neural mechanism in the signal processing of linear acceleration. To examine this hypothesis, we studied the firing properties of primary otolith afferents and central otolith neurons that respond exclusively to horizontal linear accelerations of the head (0.16-10 Hz) in alert rhesus monkeys. Unlike primary afferents, the majority of central otolith neurons exhibited 2-D spatial tuning to linear acceleration. As a result, central otolith dynamics vary as a function of movement direction. During movement along the maximum sensitivity direction, the dynamics of all central otolith neurons differed significantly from those observed for the primary afferent population. Specifically at low frequencies (acceleration. At least three different groups of central response dynamics were described according to the properties observed for motion along the maximum sensitivity direction. "High-pass" neurons exhibited increasing gains and phase values as a function of frequency. "Flat" neurons were characterized by relatively flat gains and constant phase lags (approximately 20-55 degrees ). A few neurons ("low-pass") were characterized by decreasing gain and phase as a function of frequency. The response dynamics of central otolith neurons suggest that the approximately 90 degrees phase lags observed at low frequencies are not the result of a neural integration but rather the effect of nonminimum phase behavior, which could arise at least partly through spatiotemporal convergence. Neither afferent nor central otolith neurons discriminated between gravitational and inertial components of linear acceleration. Thus response sensitivity was indistinguishable during 0.5-Hz pitch oscillations and fore-aft movements

  12. Self-adaptive optimal control of dry dual clutch transmission (DCT) during starting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; He, Lu; Zheng, Zhengxing; Yang, Yunyun; Wu, Chaochun

    2016-02-01

    An optimal control based on the minimum principle is proposed to solve the problems with the starting process of the self-developed five-speed dry dual clutch transmission (DCT). For the slipping phase, the minimum principle and improved engine constant speed control are adopted to obtain the optimal clutch and engine torques and their rotating speeds, with the minimum jerk intensity and friction work as optimization indices. For the stable running phase, the engine torque is converted to the driver's level of demand. The Matlab/Simulink software platform was used to simulate the DCT vehicle in the starting stage. The simulation and related analysis were conducted for different engine speeds and intentions of the driver. The results showed that the proposed clutch starting control strategy not only reduces the level of jerk and the frictional energy loss but also follows the different starting intentions of the driver. The optimum clutch engagement principle was transformed into the clutch position principle, and a test was carried out on the test bench to validate the effectiveness of the optimum clutch position curve.

  13. Microbial Analysis of Australian Dry Lake Cores; Analogs For Biogeochemical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, A. V.; Baldridge, A. M.; Thomson, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Gilmore in Western Australia is an acidic ephemeral lake that is analogous to Martian geochemical processes represented by interbedded phyllosilicates and sulfates. These areas demonstrate remnants of a global-scale change on Mars during the late Noachian era from a neutral to alkaline pH to relatively lower pH in the Hesperian era that continues to persist today. The geochemistry of these areas could possibly be caused by small-scale changes such as microbial metabolism. Two approaches were used to determine the presence of microbes in the Australian dry lake cores: DNA analysis and lipid analysis. Detecting DNA or lipids in the cores will provide evidence of living or deceased organisms since they provide distinct markers for life. Basic DNA analysis consists of extraction, amplification through PCR, plasmid cloning, and DNA sequencing. Once the sequence of unknown DNA is known, an online program, BLAST, will be used to identify the microbes for further analysis. The lipid analysis approach consists of phospholipid fatty acid analysis that is done by Microbial ID, which will provide direct identification any microbes from the presence of lipids. Identified microbes are then compared to mineralogy results from the x-ray diffraction of the core samples to determine if the types of metabolic reactions are consistent with the variation in composition in these analog deposits. If so, it provides intriguing implications for the presence of life in similar Martian deposits.

  14. Inoculation of starter cultures in a semi-dry coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Cordeiro, Cecília de Souza; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of yeasts as starter cultures in coffee semi-dry processing. Arabica coffee was inoculated with one of the following starter cultures: Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA YCN727, S. cerevisiae UFLA YCN724, Candida parapsilosis UFLA YCN448 and Pichia guilliermondii UFLA YCN731. The control was not inoculated with a starter culture. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assess the microbial population, and organic acids and volatile compounds were quantified by HPLC and HS-SPME/GC, respectively. Sensory analyses were evaluated using the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). DGGE analysis showed that the inoculated yeasts were present throughout the fermentation. Other yeast species were also detected, including Debaryomyces hansenii, Cystofilobasidium ferigula and Trichosporon cavernicola. The bacterial population was diverse and was composed of the following genera: Weissella, Leuconostoc, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Erwinia and Klebsiella. Butyric and propionic acids, were not detected in any treatment A total of 47 different volatiles compounds have been identified. The coffee inoculated with yeast had a caramel flavor that was not detected in the control, as assessed by TDS. The use of starter cultures during coffee fermentation is an interesting alternative for obtaining a beverage quality with distinctive flavor. PMID:25084650

  15. UV Irradiation Accelerates Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Processing and Disrupts APP Axonal Transport

    PubMed Central

    Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Falzone, Tomas L.; Shen, Zhouxin; Lillo, Concepcion; Killian, Rhiannon L.; Arreola, Angela S.; Niederst, Emily D.; Ng, Kheng S.; Kim, Sonia N.; Briggs, Steven P.; Williams, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Overexpression and/or abnormal cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) are linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) development and progression. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating cellular levels of APP or its processing, and the physiological and pathological consequences of altered processing are not well understood. Here, using mouse and human cells, we found that neuronal damage induced by UV irradiation leads to specific APP, APLP1, and APLP2 decline by accelerating their secretase-dependent processing. Pharmacological inhibition of endosomal/lysosomal activity partially protects UV-induced APP processing implying contribution of the endosomal and/or lysosomal compartments in this process. We found that a biological consequence of UV-induced γ-secretase processing of APP is impairment of APP axonal transport. To probe the functional consequences of impaired APP axonal transport, we isolated and analyzed presumptive APP-containing axonal transport vesicles from mouse cortical synaptosomes using electron microscopy, biochemical, and mass spectrometry analyses. We identified a population of morphologically heterogeneous organelles that contains APP, the secretase machinery, molecular motors, and previously proposed and new residents of APP vesicles. These possible cargoes are enriched in proteins whose dysfunction could contribute to neuronal malfunction and diseases of the nervous system including AD. Together, these results suggest that damage-induced APP processing might impair APP axonal transport, which could result in failure of synaptic maintenance and neuronal dysfunction. PMID:24573290

  16. Physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability of amorphous atorvastatin hemi-calcium using spray-drying and SAS process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Min-Soo; Park, Hee Jun; Jin, Shun-Ji; Lee, Sibeum; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2008-07-01

    The objective of the study was to prepare amorphous atorvastatin hemi-calcium using spray-drying and supercritical antisolvent (SAS) process and evaluate its physicochemical properties and oral bioavailability. Atorvastatin hemi-calcium trihydrate was transformed to anhydrous amorphous form by spray-drying and SAS process. With the SAS process, the mean particle size and the specific surface area of amorphous atorvastatin were drastically changed to 68.7+/-15.8nm, 120.35+/-1.40m2/g and 95.7+/-12.2nm, 79.78+/-0.93m2/g from an acetone solution and a tetrahydrofuran solution, respectively and appeared to be associated with better performance in apparent solubility, dissolution and pharmacokinetic studies, compared with unprocessed crystalline atorvastatin. Oral AUC0-8h values in SD rats for crystalline and amorphous atorvastatin were as follow: 1121.4+/-212.0ngh/mL for crystalline atorvastatin, 3249.5+/-406.4ngh/mL and 3016.1+/-200.3ngh/mL for amorphous atorvastatin from an acetone solution and a tetrahydrofuran solution with SAS process, 2227.8+/-274.5 and 2099.9+/-339.2ngh/mL for amorphous atorvastatin from acetone and tetrahydrofuran with spray-drying. The AUCs of all amorphous atorvastatin significantly increased (P<0.05) compared with crystalline atorvastatin, suggesting that the enhanced bioavailability was attributed to amorphous nature and particle size reduction. In addition, the SAS process exhibits better bioavailability than spray-drying because of particle size reduction with narrow particle size distribution. It was concluded that physicochemical properties and bioavailability of crystalline atorvastatin could be improved by physical modification such as particle size reduction and generation of amorphous state using spray-drying and SAS process. Further, SAS process was a powerful methodology for improving the physicochemical properties and bioavailability of atorvastatin.

  17. Changes in the carotenoid metabolism of capsicum fruits during application of modelized slow drying process for paprika production.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Mínguez-Mosquera, María Isabel

    2004-02-11

    A temperature profile simulating the traditional slow drying process of red pepper fruits, which is conducted in La Vera region (Spain) for paprika production, was developed. Carotenoid and ascorbic acid content, as well as moisture of fruits, were monitored during the slow drying process designed. Data obtained suggested that the evolution of carotenoid concentration, the main quality trait for paprika, directly depend on the physical conditions imposed. During the drying process, three different stages could be observed in relation to the carotenoids. The first stage corresponds to a physiological adaptation to the new imposed conditions that implied a decrease (ca. 20%) in the carotenoid content during the first 24 h. After that short period and during 5 days, a second stage was noticed, recovering the biosynthetic (carotenogenic) capability of the fruits, which denotes an accommodation of the fruits to the new environmental conditions. During the following 48 h (third stage) a sharp increase in the carotenoid content was observed. This last phenomenon seems to be related with an oxidative-thermal stress, which took place during the first stage, inducing a carotenogenesis similar to that occurring in over-ripening fruits. Results demonstrate that a fine control of the temperature and moisture content would help to positively modulate carotenogenesis and minimize catabolism, making it possible to adjust the drying process to the ripeness stage of fruits with the aim of improving carotenoid retention and therefore quality of the resulting product. In the case of ascorbic acid, data demonstrated that this compound is very sensitive to the drying process, with a decrease of about 76% during the first 24 h and remaining only at trace levels during the rest of the process. Therefore, no antioxidant role should be expected from ascorbic acid during the whole process and in the corresponding final product (paprika), despite that red pepper fruit is well-known to be rich

  18. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  19. Accelerated rescaling of single Monte Carlo simulation runs with the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU).

    PubMed

    Yang, Owen; Choi, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    To interpret fiber-based and camera-based measurements of remitted light from biological tissues, researchers typically use analytical models, such as the diffusion approximation to light transport theory, or stochastic models, such as Monte Carlo modeling. To achieve rapid (ideally real-time) measurement of tissue optical properties, especially in clinical situations, there is a critical need to accelerate Monte Carlo simulation runs. In this manuscript, we report on our approach using the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) to accelerate rescaling of single Monte Carlo runs to calculate rapidly diffuse reflectance values for different sets of tissue optical properties. We selected MATLAB to enable non-specialists in C and CUDA-based programming to use the generated open-source code. We developed a software package with four abstraction layers. To calculate a set of diffuse reflectance values from a simulated tissue with homogeneous optical properties, our rescaling GPU-based approach achieves a reduction in computation time of several orders of magnitude as compared to other GPU-based approaches. Specifically, our GPU-based approach generated a diffuse reflectance value in 0.08ms. The transfer time from CPU to GPU memory currently is a limiting factor with GPU-based calculations. However, for calculation of multiple diffuse reflectance values, our GPU-based approach still can lead to processing that is ~3400 times faster than other GPU-based approaches. PMID:24298424

  20. State of polyphenols in the drying process of fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    McSweeney, M; Seetharaman, K

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of drying technologies and its impact on the polyphenol content of vegetables and fruits. Polyphenols contribute to many health benefits and can act as antioxidants. Specifically an increased intake of polyphenols has been shown to decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disease; furthermore, it has been shown to help reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Many researchers have reported on the effect of different drying techniques on the polyphenol content in fruits and vegetables. Polyphenol degradation mechanisms proposed in literature and pretreatments that potentially lead to higher retention of polyphenols during drying are also discussed.

  1. Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part II. Model validation and sensitivity analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A predictive mathematical model was developed to simulate heat transfer in a tomato undergoing double sided infrared (IR) heating in a dry-peeling process. The aims of this study were to validate the developed model using experimental data and to investigate different engineering parameters that mos...

  2. Effect of Dipping Treatments on Color Stabilization and Texture of Apple Cubes for Infrared Dry-Blanching Process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research investigated the effectiveness of dipping treatments on reducing enzymatic browning of apple cubes for the infrared dry-blanching (IDB) process. Apple cubes were dipped in solutions with various combinations of ascorbic acid (AA), citric acid (CA) and calcium chloride (CC) at differen...

  3. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Apple Slice under Simultaneous Infrared Dry-Blanching and Dehydration Process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop a new simultaneous infrared dry blanching and dehydration process for producing high-quality blanched and partially dehydrated products, apple slices with three different thicknesses, 5, 9, and 13 mm, were heated using infrared for up to 10 min at 4000W/m2 IR intensity. The surface and ce...

  4. Develop apparatus and process for second-stage drying. Quarterly progress report, September 26--December 26, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, F.

    1995-01-05

    Progress is reported on Task 1, Computer simulation refinement and extension, and its two subtasks: Verification of computer model simulation of the drying process for lumber in a superheated kiln and Establishment of energy loss predictions for specific kiln designs for the first stage kiln. A report of a trip to the Irvington Moore Corporation facility and plans for next quarter are described.

  5. Comparison of raw starch hydrolyzing enzyme with conventional liquefaction and saccharification enzymes in dry-grind corn processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a conventional dry-grind corn process, starch is converted into dextrins using liquefaction enzymes at high temperatures (90–120 deg C) during a liquefaction step. Dextrins are hydrolyzed into sugars using saccharification enzymes during a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) step...

  6. Processing and quality characteristics of apple slices under simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration with continuous heating

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of various processing parameters on apple slices exposed to infrared (IR) radiation heating in a continuous heating mode for achieving simultaneous infrared dry-blanching and dehydration (SIRDBD). The investigated parameters were radiation intensity, slice thickne...

  7. Interlock recovery during the drying, calcination and vitrification phase of Am/Cm processing

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, T.K.

    2000-01-20

    This document summarizes the results of five CIM5 [5-inch Cylindrical Induction Melter] runs designed to demonstrate power interlock recovery methods during the drying, calcination and vitrification phases of the Am/Cm melter cycle.

  8. Design and control of energy efficient drying processes with specific reference to foods

    SciTech Connect

    Franzen, K.; Kim, M.; Liang, H.; Murakami, E.; Narsimhan, G.; Okos, M.; Singh, R.; Waananen, K.

    1987-10-10

    Work on Phase 2 of the drying project was started during the last quarter. Progress on Task 10 (Revision of Drying Models) included a review of fundamental drying theory, and an investigation of experimental methods to determine model coefficients. Models for a drum dryer were also analyzed this quarter. Progress on Task 11 (Dryer Studies) included an analysis of a pressurized drying chamber, and installation of a vacuum drum dryer. Further work is needed to prepare both systems for experimental drying studies. Progress on Task 12 (Food Quality Studies) included collection of data on browning and vitamin A degradation in nonfat dried milk. Analysis and interpretation of the data are planned for the next quarter. Thermal property tests on porous food materials were also investigated during the past quarter. Progress on Task 13 (Recommendations/Strategies for Dryer Design and Control) included a review of dryer control strategies presented in the literature. A survey of available sensors for dryer control is planned for the next quarter.

  9. Surface damage correction, and atomic level smoothing of optics by Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, M.; Chau, K.; Kirkpatrick, S.; Svrluga, R.

    2014-10-01

    Surface damage and surface contamination of optics has long been a source of problems for laser, lithography and other industries. Nano-sized surface defects may present significant performance issues in optical materials for deep UV and EUV applications. The effects of nanometer sized surface damage (scratches, pits, and organics) on the surface of optics made of traditional materials and new more exotic materials is a limiting factor to high end performance. Angstrom level smoothing of materials such as calcium fluoride, spinel, zinc sulfide, BK7 and others presents a unique set of challenges. Exogenesis Corporation, using its proprietary Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) technology, is able to remove nano-scale surface damage and contamination and leaves many material surfaces with roughness typically around one angstrom. This process technology has been demonstrated on nonlinear crystals, and various other high-end optical materials. This paper describes the ANAB technology and summarizes smoothing results for various materials that have been processed with ANAB. All surface measurement data for the paper was produced via AFM analysis. Exogenesis Corporation's ANAB processing technology is a new and unique surface modification technique that has demonstrated to be highly effective at correcting nano-scale surface defects. ANAB is a non-contact vacuum process comprised of an intense beam of accelerated, electrically neutral gas atoms with average energies of a few tens of electron volts. The ANAB process does not apply normal forces associated with traditional polishing techniques. ANAB efficiently removes surface contaminants, nano-scale scratches, bumps and other asperities under low energy physical sputtering conditions as the removal action proceeds. ANAB may be used to remove a precisely controlled, uniform thickness of material without any increase of surface roughness, regardless of the total amount of material removed. The ANAB process does not

  10. Accelerated Molecular Dynamics Simulations with the AMOEBA Polarizable Force Field on Graphics Processing Units.

    PubMed

    Lindert, Steffen; Bucher, Denis; Eastman, Peter; Pande, Vijay; McCammon, J Andrew

    2013-11-12

    The accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) method has recently been shown to enhance the sampling of biomolecules in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, often by several orders of magnitude. Here, we describe an implementation of the aMD method for the OpenMM application layer that takes full advantage of graphics processing units (GPUs) computing. The aMD method is shown to work in combination with the AMOEBA polarizable force field (AMOEBA-aMD), allowing the simulation of long time-scale events with a polarizable force field. Benchmarks are provided to show that the AMOEBA-aMD method is efficiently implemented and produces accurate results in its standard parametrization. For the BPTI protein, we demonstrate that the protein structure described with AMOEBA remains stable even on the extended time scales accessed at high levels of accelerations. For the DNA repair metalloenzyme endonuclease IV, we show that the use of the AMOEBA force field is a significant improvement over fixed charged models for describing the enzyme active-site. The new AMOEBA-aMD method is publicly available (http://wiki.simtk.org/openmm/VirtualRepository) and promises to be interesting for studying complex systems that can benefit from both the use of a polarizable force field and enhanced sampling.

  11. Accelerating image reconstruction in three-dimensional optoacoustic tomography on graphics processing units

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Huang, Chao; Kao, Yu-Jiun; Chou, Cheng-Ying; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Anastasio, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Optoacoustic tomography (OAT) is inherently a three-dimensional (3D) inverse problem. However, most studies of OAT image reconstruction still employ two-dimensional imaging models. One important reason is because 3D image reconstruction is computationally burdensome. The aim of this work is to accelerate existing image reconstruction algorithms for 3D OAT by use of parallel programming techniques. Methods: Parallelization strategies are proposed to accelerate a filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm and two different pairs of projection/backprojection operations that correspond to two different numerical imaging models. The algorithms are designed to fully exploit the parallel computing power of graphics processing units (GPUs). In order to evaluate the parallelization strategies for the projection/backprojection pairs, an iterative image reconstruction algorithm is implemented. Computer simulation and experimental studies are conducted to investigate the computational efficiency and numerical accuracy of the developed algorithms. Results: The GPU implementations improve the computational efficiency by factors of 1000, 125, and 250 for the FBP algorithm and the two pairs of projection/backprojection operators, respectively. Accurate images are reconstructed by use of the FBP and iterative image reconstruction algorithms from both computer-simulated and experimental data. Conclusions: Parallelization strategies for 3D OAT image reconstruction are proposed for the first time. These GPU-based implementations significantly reduce the computational time for 3D image reconstruction, complementing our earlier work on 3D OAT iterative image reconstruction. PMID:23387778

  12. GAMER: A GRAPHIC PROCESSING UNIT ACCELERATED ADAPTIVE-MESH-REFINEMENT CODE FOR ASTROPHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Schive, H.-Y.; Tsai, Y.-C.; Chiueh Tzihong

    2010-02-01

    We present the newly developed code, GPU-accelerated Adaptive-MEsh-Refinement code (GAMER), which adopts a novel approach in improving the performance of adaptive-mesh-refinement (AMR) astrophysical simulations by a large factor with the use of the graphic processing unit (GPU). The AMR implementation is based on a hierarchy of grid patches with an oct-tree data structure. We adopt a three-dimensional relaxing total variation diminishing scheme for the hydrodynamic solver and a multi-level relaxation scheme for the Poisson solver. Both solvers have been implemented in GPU, by which hundreds of patches can be advanced in parallel. The computational overhead associated with the data transfer between the CPU and GPU is carefully reduced by utilizing the capability of asynchronous memory copies in GPU, and the computing time of the ghost-zone values for each patch is diminished by overlapping it with the GPU computations. We demonstrate the accuracy of the code by performing several standard test problems in astrophysics. GAMER is a parallel code that can be run in a multi-GPU cluster system. We measure the performance of the code by performing purely baryonic cosmological simulations in different hardware implementations, in which detailed timing analyses provide comparison between the computations with and without GPU(s) acceleration. Maximum speed-up factors of 12.19 and 10.47 are demonstrated using one GPU with 4096{sup 3} effective resolution and 16 GPUs with 8192{sup 3} effective resolution, respectively.

  13. On-site installation and shielding of a mobile electron accelerator for radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catana, Dumitru; Panaitescu, Julian; Axinescu, Silviu; Manolache, Dumitru; Matei, Constantin; Corcodel, Calin; Ulmeanu, Magdalena; Bestea, Virgil

    1995-05-01

    The development of radiation processing of some bulk products, e.g. grains or potatoes, would be sustained if the irradiation had been carried out at the place of storage, i.e. silo. A promising solution is proposed consisting of a mobile electron accelerator, installed on a couple of trucks and traveling from one customer to another. The energy of the accelerated electrons was chosen at 5 MeV, with 10 to 50 kW beam power. The irradiation is possible either with electrons or with bremsstrahlung. A major problem of the above solution is the provision of adequate shielding at the customer, with a minimum investment cost. Plans for a bunker are presented, which houses the truck carrying the radiation head. The beam is vertical downwards, through the truck floor, through a transport pipe and a scanning horn. The irradiation takes place in a pit, where the products are transported through a belt. The belt path is so chosen as to minimize openings in the shielding. Shielding calculations are presented supposing a working regime with 5 MeV bremsstrahlung. Leakage and scattered radiation are taken into account.

  14. Structural changes and rheological properties of dry abalone meat ( Haliotis diversicolor) during the process of water restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin; Zhang, Yaqi; Xu, Jiachao; Sun, Yan; Zhao, Qingxi; Chang, Yaoguang

    2007-10-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological property and water content of dry abalone meat in the process of water restoration were studied. The weight and volume of dry abalone meat increased with water restoration. When observed under a light microscope, structural change in myofibrils was obvious and a distinct network was found. When water restoration time increased from 24 h to 72 h, the instantaneous modulus E 0 and viscosity η 1 increased, whereas the rupture strength and relaxation time ( τ 1) were reduced. There were no significant changes of rheological parameters ( E 0, η 1, τ 1, rupture strength) from 72 h to 96 h of water restoration. Therefore, the dry abalone meat was swollen enough at the time of 72 h. The rheological parameters were obviously influenced by the structural changes.

  15. Effect of Dietary Processed Sulfur Supplementation on Texture Quality, Color and Mineral Status of Dry-cured Ham

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the chemical composition, mineral status, oxidative stability, and texture attributes of dry-cured ham from pigs fed processed sulfur (S, 1 g/kg feed), and from those fed a basal diet (CON), during the period from weaning to slaughter (174 d). Total collagen content and soluble collagen of the S group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.05). The pH of the S group was significantly higher than that of the control group, whereas the S group had a lower expressible drip compared to the control group. The S group also showed the lower lightness compared to the control group (p<0.05). In regard to the mineral status, the S group had significantly lower Fe2+ and Ca2+ content than the control group (p<0.05), whereas the proteolysis index of the S group was significantly increased compared to the control group (p<0.05). The feeding of processed sulfur to pigs led to increased oxidative stability, related to lipids and pigments, in the dry-cured ham (p<0.05). Compared to the dry-cured ham from the control group, that from the S group exhibited lower springiness and gumminess; these results suggest that feeding processed sulfur to pigs can improve the quality of the texture and enhance the oxidative stability of dry-cured ham. PMID:26761895

  16. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  17. High-Speed Digital Signal Processing Method for Detection of Repeating Earthquakes Using GPGPU-Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Taiki; Okubo, Kan; Uchida, Naoki; Takeuchi, Nobunao; Matsuzawa, Toru

    2013-04-01

    Repeating earthquakes are occurring on the similar asperity at the plate boundary. These earthquakes have an important property; the seismic waveforms observed at the identical observation site are very similar regardless of their occurrence time. The slip histories of repeating earthquakes could reveal the existence of asperities: The Analysis of repeating earthquakes can detect the characteristics of the asperities and realize the temporal and spatial monitoring of the slip in the plate boundary. Moreover, we are expecting the medium-term predictions of earthquake at the plate boundary by means of analysis of repeating earthquakes. Although the previous works mostly clarified the existence of asperity and repeating earthquake, and relationship between asperity and quasi-static slip area, the stable and robust method for automatic detection of repeating earthquakes has not been established yet. Furthermore, in order to process the enormous data (so-called big data) the speedup of the signal processing is an important issue. Recently, GPU (Graphic Processing Unit) is used as an acceleration tool for the signal processing in various study fields. This movement is called GPGPU (General Purpose computing on GPUs). In the last few years the performance of GPU keeps on improving rapidly. That is, a PC (personal computer) with GPUs might be a personal supercomputer. GPU computing gives us the high-performance computing environment at a lower cost than before. Therefore, the use of GPUs contributes to a significant reduction of the execution time in signal processing of the huge seismic data. In this study, first, we applied the band-limited Fourier phase correlation as a fast method of detecting repeating earthquake. This method utilizes only band-limited phase information and yields the correlation values between two seismic signals. Secondly, we employ coherence function using three orthogonal components (East-West, North-South, and Up-Down) of seismic data as a

  18. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Dry Mouth What Is Dry Mouth? Dry mouth is the feeling that there is ... when a person has dry mouth. How Dry Mouth Feels Dry mouth can be uncomfortable. Some people ...

  19. Drying process optimization for an API solvate using heat transfer model of an agitated filter dryer.

    PubMed

    Nere, Nandkishor K; Allen, Kimberley C; Marek, James C; Bordawekar, Shailendra V

    2012-10-01

    Drying an early stage active pharmaceutical ingredient candidate required excessively long cycle times in a pilot plant agitated filter dryer. The key to faster drying is to ensure sufficient heat transfer and minimize mass transfer limitations. Designing the right mixing protocol is of utmost importance to achieve efficient heat transfer. To this order, a composite model was developed for the removal of bound solvent that incorporates models for heat transfer and desolvation kinetics. The proposed heat transfer model differs from previously reported models in two respects: it accounts for the effects of a gas gap between the vessel wall and solids on the overall heat transfer coefficient, and headspace pressure on the mean free path length of the inert gas and thereby on the heat transfer between the vessel wall and the first layer of solids. A computational methodology was developed incorporating the effects of mixing and headspace pressure to simulate the drying profile using a modified model framework within the Dynochem software. A dryer operational protocol was designed based on the desolvation kinetics, thermal stability studies of wet and dry cake, and the understanding gained through model simulations, resulting in a multifold reduction in drying time.

  20. Disaccharides Protect Antigens from Drying-Induced Damage in Routinely Processed Tissue Sections.

    PubMed

    Boi, Giovanna; Scalia, Carla Rossana; Gendusa, Rossella; Ronchi, Susanna; Cattoretti, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Drying of the tissue section, partial or total, during immunostaining negatively affects both the staining of tissue antigens and the ability to remove previously deposited antibody layers, particularly during sequential rounds of de-staining and re-staining for multiple antigens. The cause is a progressive loss of the protein-associated water up to the removal of the non-freezable water, a step which abolishes the immunoavailability of the epitope. In order to describe and prevent these adverse effects, we tested, among other substances, sugars, which are known to protect unicellular organisms from freezing and dehydration, and stabilize drugs and reagents in solid state form in medical devices. Disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) prevented the air drying-induced antigen masking and protected tissue-bound antigens and antibodies from air drying-induced damage. Complete removal of the bound antibody layers by chemical stripping was permitted if lactose was present during air drying. Lactose, sucrose and other disaccharides prevent air drying artifacts, allow homogeneous, consistent staining and the reuse of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections for repeated immunostaining rounds by guaranteeing constant staining quality in suboptimal hydration conditions.

  1. Disaccharides Protect Antigens from Drying-Induced Damage in Routinely Processed Tissue Sections.

    PubMed

    Boi, Giovanna; Scalia, Carla Rossana; Gendusa, Rossella; Ronchi, Susanna; Cattoretti, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Drying of the tissue section, partial or total, during immunostaining negatively affects both the staining of tissue antigens and the ability to remove previously deposited antibody layers, particularly during sequential rounds of de-staining and re-staining for multiple antigens. The cause is a progressive loss of the protein-associated water up to the removal of the non-freezable water, a step which abolishes the immunoavailability of the epitope. In order to describe and prevent these adverse effects, we tested, among other substances, sugars, which are known to protect unicellular organisms from freezing and dehydration, and stabilize drugs and reagents in solid state form in medical devices. Disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) prevented the air drying-induced antigen masking and protected tissue-bound antigens and antibodies from air drying-induced damage. Complete removal of the bound antibody layers by chemical stripping was permitted if lactose was present during air drying. Lactose, sucrose and other disaccharides prevent air drying artifacts, allow homogeneous, consistent staining and the reuse of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections for repeated immunostaining rounds by guaranteeing constant staining quality in suboptimal hydration conditions. PMID:26487185

  2. Study of drying process on starch structural properties and their effect on semolina pasta sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Padalino, Lucia; Caliandro, Rocco; Chita, Giuseppe; Conte, Amalia; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-11-20

    The influence of drying temperature on the starch crystallites and its impact on durum wheat pasta sensory properties is addressed in this work. In particular, spaghetti were produced by means of a pilot plant using 5 different drying temperature profiles. The sensory properties, as well as the cooking quality of pasta were assessed. X-ray powder diffraction was used for investigating changes in the crystallinity content of the samples. Starch crystallinity, size and density of the starch crystallites were determined from the analysis of the diffraction profiles. As expected, spaghetti sensory properties improved as the drying temperatures increased. In particular, attributes as resistance to break for uncooked samples and firmness, elasticity, bulkiness and stickiness for cooked samples, all benefit from drying temperature increase. The spaghetti cooking quality was also positively affected by the drying temperature increase. Diffraction analysis suggested that the improvement of sensory properties and cooking quality of pasta were directly related to the increase in density of both physical crosslink of starch granules and chemical crosslink of protein matrix. PMID:27561491

  3. Acceleration of Electron Repulsion Integral Evaluation on Graphics Processing Units via Use of Recurrence Relations.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yipu; Merz, Kenneth M

    2013-02-12

    Electron repulsion integral (ERI) calculation on graphical processing units (GPUs) can significantly accelerate quantum chemical calculations. Herein, the ab initio self-consistent-field (SCF) calculation is implemented on GPUs using recurrence relations, which is one of the fastest ERI evaluation algorithms currently available. A direct-SCF scheme to assemble the Fock matrix efficiently is presented, wherein ERIs are evaluated on-the-fly to avoid CPU-GPU data transfer, a well-known architectural bottleneck in GPU specific computation. Realized speedups on GPUs reach 10-100 times relative to traditional CPU nodes, with accuracies of better than 1 × 10(-7) for systems with more than 4000 basis functions. PMID:26588740

  4. Film formation from monodisperse acrylic lattices 2. Influence of drying temperature on the film formation process.

    PubMed

    te Nijenhuis, Klaas; Zohrehvand, Shiva

    2005-04-01

    The influence of drying temperature on the properties of latex films was investigated by gravimetry, turbidimetry (i.e., analysis of transmission spectra and interference), atomic force microscopy and measurement of water vapor permeability. Several pitfalls in the determination of water content of dried films that absorb water after being submerged in it have been proposed, such as fading boundaries, remaining water after drying and change of particle sizes. At moderately higher temperatures film formation is improved. This improvement follows from the formation of smoother film surfaces (AFM), lower water vapor permeabilities and smaller values for delta lambda(min). On the other hand, defects as cracks and channels also are created, especially at high temperatures. It appears, however, that these channels do not run from the one surface of a film to the other.

  5. Impact of the freeze-drying process on product appearance, residual moisture content, viability, and batch uniformity of freeze-dried bacterial cultures safeguarded at culture collections.

    PubMed

    Peiren, Jindrich; Hellemans, Ann; De Vos, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In this study, causes of collapsed bacterial cultures in glass ampoules observed after freeze-drying were investigated as well as the influence of collapse on residual moisture content (RMC) and viability. Also, the effect of heat radiation and post freeze-drying treatments on the RMC was studied. Cake morphologies of 21 bacterial strains obtained after freeze-drying with one standard protocol could be classified visually into four major types: no collapse, porous, partial collapse, and collapse. The more pronounced the collapse, the higher residual moisture content of the freeze-dried product, ranging from 1.53 % for non-collapsed products to 3.62 % for collapsed products. The most important cause of collapse was the mass of the inserted cotton plug in the ampoule. Default cotton plugs with a mass between 21 and 30 mg inside the ampoule did not affect the viability of freeze-dried Aliivibrio fischeri LMG 4414(T) compared to ampoules without cotton plugs. Cotton plugs with a mass higher than 65 mg inside the ampoule induced a full collapsed product with rubbery look (melt-back) and decreasing viability during storage. Heat radiation effects in the freeze-drying chamber and post freeze-drying treatments such as exposure time to air after freeze-drying and manifold drying time prior to heat sealing of ampoules influenced the RMC of freeze-dried products. To produce uniform batches of freeze-dried bacterial strains with intact cake structures and highest viabilities, inserted cotton plugs should not exceed 21 mg per ampoule. Furthermore, heat radiation effects should be calculated in the design of the primary drying phase and manifold drying time before heat sealing should be determined as a function of exposure time to air.

  6. The combined effect of wet granulation process parameters and dried granule moisture content on tablet quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Gabbott, Ian P; Al Husban, Farhan; Reynolds, Gavin K

    2016-09-01

    A pharmaceutical compound was used to study the effect of batch wet granulation process parameters in combination with the residual moisture content remaining after drying on granule and tablet quality attributes. The effect of three batch wet granulation process parameters was evaluated using a multivariate experimental design, with a novel constrained design space. Batches were characterised for moisture content, granule density, crushing strength, porosity, disintegration time and dissolution. Mechanisms of the effect of the process parameters on the granule and tablet quality attributes are proposed. Water quantity added during granulation showed a significant effect on granule density and tablet dissolution rate. Mixing time showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength, and mixing speed showed a significant effect on the distribution of tablet crushing strengths obtained. The residual moisture content remaining after granule drying showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength. The effect of moisture on tablet tensile strength has been reported before, but not in combination with granulation parameters and granule properties, and the impact on tablet dissolution was not assessed. Correlations between the energy input during granulation, the density of granules produced, and the quality attributes of the final tablets were also identified. Understanding the impact of the granulation and drying process parameters on granule and tablet properties provides a basis for process optimisation and scaling. PMID:27016211

  7. The combined effect of wet granulation process parameters and dried granule moisture content on tablet quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Gabbott, Ian P; Al Husban, Farhan; Reynolds, Gavin K

    2016-09-01

    A pharmaceutical compound was used to study the effect of batch wet granulation process parameters in combination with the residual moisture content remaining after drying on granule and tablet quality attributes. The effect of three batch wet granulation process parameters was evaluated using a multivariate experimental design, with a novel constrained design space. Batches were characterised for moisture content, granule density, crushing strength, porosity, disintegration time and dissolution. Mechanisms of the effect of the process parameters on the granule and tablet quality attributes are proposed. Water quantity added during granulation showed a significant effect on granule density and tablet dissolution rate. Mixing time showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength, and mixing speed showed a significant effect on the distribution of tablet crushing strengths obtained. The residual moisture content remaining after granule drying showed a significant effect on tablet crushing strength. The effect of moisture on tablet tensile strength has been reported before, but not in combination with granulation parameters and granule properties, and the impact on tablet dissolution was not assessed. Correlations between the energy input during granulation, the density of granules produced, and the quality attributes of the final tablets were also identified. Understanding the impact of the granulation and drying process parameters on granule and tablet properties provides a basis for process optimisation and scaling.

  8. Stochastic Modeling and Analysis of Multiple Nonlinear Accelerated Degradation Processes through Information Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fuqiang; Liu, Le; Li, Xiaoyang; Liao, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated degradation testing (ADT) is an efficient technique for evaluating the lifetime of a highly reliable product whose underlying failure process may be traced by the degradation of the product’s performance parameters with time. However, most research on ADT mainly focuses on a single performance parameter. In reality, the performance of a modern product is usually characterized by multiple parameters, and the degradation paths are usually nonlinear. To address such problems, this paper develops a new s-dependent nonlinear ADT model for products with multiple performance parameters using a general Wiener process and copulas. The general Wiener process models the nonlinear ADT data, and the dependency among different degradation measures is analyzed using the copula method. An engineering case study on a tuner’s ADT data is conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results illustrate that the proposed method is quite effective in estimating the lifetime of a product with s-dependent performance parameters. PMID:27509499

  9. Mineralogy of Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Implications for Pedogenic Processes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, J. E.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Tamppari, L, K.; Smith, P. H.; Zent, A. P.; Archer, P. D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADVs) located in the Transantarctic Mountains are the coldest and driest locations on Earth. The mean annual air temperature is -20 C or less and the ADVs receive 100mm or less of precipitation annually in the form of snow. The cold and dry climate in the ADVs is one of the best terrestrial analogs for the climatic conditions on Mars [2]. The soils in the ADVs have been categorized into three soil moisture zones: subxerous, xerous and ultraxerous. The subxerous zone is a coastal region in which soils have ice-cemented permafrost relatively close to the surface. Moisture is available in relatively large amounts and soil temperatures are above freezing throughout the soil profile (above ice permafrost) in summer months. The xerous zone, the most widespread of the three zones, is an inland region with a climate midway between the subxerous and ultraxerous. The soils from this zone have dry permafrost at moderate depths (30-75cm) but have sufficient water in the upper soil horizons to allow leaching of soluble materials. The ultraxerous zone is a high elevation zone, where both temperature and precipitation amounts are very low resulting in dry permafrost throughout the soil profile. The three moisture regime regions are similar to the three microclimatic zones (coastal thaw, inland mixed, stable upland) defined by Marchant and Head.

  10. Automatic disease screening method using image processing for dried blood microfluidic drop stain pattern recognition.

    PubMed

    Sikarwar, Basant S; Roy, Mukesh; Ranjan, Priya; Goyal, Ayush

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines programmed automatic recognition of infection from samples of dried stains of micro-scale drops of patient blood. This technique has the upside of being low-cost and less-intrusive and not requiring puncturing the patient with a needle for drawing blood, which is especially critical for infants and the matured. It also does not require expensive pathological blood test laboratory equipment. The method is shown in this work to be successful for ailment identification in patients suffering from tuberculosis and anaemia. Illness affects the physical properties of blood, which thus influence the samples of dried micro-scale blood drop stains. For instance, if a patient has a severe drop in platelet count, which is often the case of dengue or malaria patients, the blood's physical property of viscosity drops substantially, i.e. the blood is thinner. Thus, the blood micro-scale drop stain samples can be utilised for diagnosing maladies. This paper presents programmed automatic examination of the dried micro-scale drop blood stain designs utilising an algorithm based on pattern recognition. The samples of micro-scale blood drop stains of ordinary non-infected people are clearly recognisable as well as the samples of micro-scale blood drop stains of sick people, due to key distinguishing features. As a contextual analysis, the micro-scale blood drop stains of patients infected with tuberculosis have been contrasted with the micro-scale blood drop stains of typical normal healthy people. The paper dives into the fundamental flow mechanics behind how the samples of the dried micro-scale blood drop stain is shaped. What has been found is a thick ring like feature in the dried micro-scale blood drop stains of non-ailing people and thin shape like lines in the dried micro-scale blood drop stains of patients with anaemia or tuberculosis disease. The ring like feature at the periphery is caused by an outward stream conveying suspended particles to the edge

  11. Variability of Mass Dependence of Auroral Acceleration Processes with Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghielmetti, Arthur G.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation are to improve understanding of the mass dependent variability of the auroral acceleration processes and so to clarify apparent discrepancies regarding the altitude and local time variations with solar cycle by investigating: (1) the global morphological relationships between auroral electric field structures and the related particle signatures under varying conditions of solar activity, and (2) the relationships between the electric field structures and particle signatures in selected events that are representative of the different conditions occurring during a solar cycle. The investigation is based in part on the Lockheed UFI data base of UpFlowing Ion (UFI) events in the 5OO eV to 16keV energy range and associated electrons in the energy range 7O eV to 24 keV. This data base was constructed from data acquired by the ion mass spectrometer on the S3-3 satellite in the altitude range of I to 1.3 Re. The launch of the POLAR spacecraft in early 1996 and successful operation of its TIMAS ion mass spectrometer has provided us with data from within the auroral acceleration regions during the current solar minimum. The perigee of POLAR is at about 1 Re, comparable to that of S3-3. The higher sensitivity and time resolution of TIMAS compared to the ion mass spectrometer on S3-3 together with its wider energy range, 15 eV to 33 keV, facilitate more detailed studies of upflowing ions.

  12. Determination of sulfur and nitrogen compounds during the processing of dry fermented sausages and their relation to amino acid generation.

    PubMed

    Corral, Sara; Leitner, Erich; Siegmund, Barbara; Flores, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The identification of odor-active sulfur and nitrogen compounds formed during the processing of dry fermented sausages was the objective of this study. In order to elucidate their possible origin, free amino acids (FAAs) were also determined. The volatile compounds present in the dry sausages were extracted using solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and monitored by one and two-dimensional gas chromatography with different detectors: mass spectrometry (MS), nitrogen phosphorous (NPD), flame photometric (FPD) detectors, as well as gas chromatography-olfactometry. A total of seventeen sulfur and nitrogen compounds were identified and quantified. Among them, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline was the most potent odor active compound, followed by methional, ethylpyrazine and 2,3-dihydrothiophene characterized by toasted, cooked potato, and nutty notes. The degradation of FAAs, generated during processing, was related to the production of aroma compounds, such as methionine forming methional and benzothiazole while ornithine was the precursor compound for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and glycine for ethylpyrazine.

  13. Piling-to-buckling transition in the drying process of polymer solution drop on substrate having a large contact angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiya, Tadashi; Nishitani, Eisuke; Yamaue, Tatsuya; Doi, Masao

    2006-01-01

    We studied the drying process of polymer solution drops placed on a substrate having a large contact angle with the drop. The drying process takes place in three stages. First, the droplet evaporates keeping the contact line fixed. Second, the droplet shrinks uniformly with receding contact line. Finally the contact line is pinned again, and the droplet starts to be deformed. The shape of the final polymer deposit changes from concave dot, to flat dot, and then to concave dot again with the increase of the initial polymer concentration. This shape change is caused by the gradual transition from the solute piling mechanism proposed by Deegan to the crust buckling mechanism proposed by de Gennes and Pauchard.

  14. Kinetics of the drying process of an anti-adherent coating using Photothermal Radiometry and Micro-Raman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado-Castañeda, D. M.; Fernández, J.; Velázquez, R.; Estévez, M.; Vargas, S.; Rodríguez, R.; Rodríguez, M. E.

    2005-06-01

    The kinetics of the drying process of a new anti-adherent (anti-graffiti) polymeric coating containing organic solvent was determined using Photothermal Radiometry (PTR) and Micro-Raman (μ-R) Spectroscopy. PTR Spectroscopy was used to study, in real time, the kinetics of the drying process in samples protected with coatings with and without anti-adherent molecules. These were applied on a metal and silicon substrates. The PTR spectrum for coating without anti-adherent, shows a single relaxation time, while for coating containing anti-adherent shows two relaxation times corresponding to two different mechanisms: the solvent evaporation and the molecular re-arrangements of the two different molecular species present in the coating; the kinetic of the solvent evaporation is strongly dependent, as expected, on the solvent concentration.

  15. Volatile compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham as affected by the length of the curing process.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J; Ventanas, J; Cava, R; Andrés, A; García, C

    1999-05-01

    Volatile compounds from 10 dry-cured Iberian hams ripened for two different processing times, a prolonged traditional one (600 days) and a shortened process (420 days), were analysed by purge and trap coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Eighty-three compounds were identified which agreed with the major classes found in other ham types. The amount of methyl branched alkanes was much higher than in other dry-cured ham types, probably due to the feeding regime. The percentages of 2- and 3-methylbutanal were higher (p<0.0001 and p<0.0003, respectively) in the longer aged hams, whereas the amounts of some compounds from lipid oxidation decreased from 420 to 600 days aging. In agreement with these observations, 600-day hams had higher scores for those odour and flavour traits usually considered to be positive attributes and lower scores for rancidity. A positive and significant correlation between 2-methyl butanal and cured flavour was found.

  16. Contents Changes of Triterpenic Acids, Nucleosides, Nucleobases, and Saccharides in Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) Fruit During the Drying and Steaming Process.

    PubMed

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhang, Ying; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Zhenhua; Wang, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), a medicinal and edible plant, is widely consumed in Asian countries owing to the remarkable health activities of its fruits. To facilitate selection of the suitable processing method for jujube fruits, in this study their contents of triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases and saccharides after drying and steaming treatment were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector methods. The results showed that except for sucrose, the content levels of most analytes were increasing in the jujube fruits during drying treatment at 45 °C. The levels of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, were significantly decreased after the fruits were steamed. Therefore, owing to the bioactivities of these components for human health, the dried fruits would be the better choice as medicinal material or functional food, and dried jujube fruit should not be further steamed. PMID:26703531

  17. Acceleration of iterative Navier-Stokes solvers on graphics processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczak, Tadeusz; Zadarnowska, Katarzyna; Koza, Zbigniew; Matyka, Maciej; Mirosław, Łukasz

    2013-04-01

    While new power-efficient computer architectures exhibit spectacular theoretical peak performance, they require specific conditions to operate efficiently, which makes porting complex algorithms a challenge. Here, we report results of the semi-implicit method for pressure linked equations (SIMPLE) and the pressure implicit with operator splitting (PISO) methods implemented on the graphics processing unit (GPU). We examine the advantages and disadvantages of the full porting over a partial acceleration of these algorithms run on unstructured meshes. We found that the full-port strategy requires adjusting the internal data structures to the new hardware and proposed a convenient format for storing internal data structures on GPUs. Our implementation is validated on standard steady and unsteady problems and its computational efficiency is checked by comparing its results and run times with those of some standard software (OpenFOAM) run on central processing unit (CPU). The results show that a server-class GPU outperforms a server-class dual-socket multi-core CPU system running essentially the same algorithm by up to a factor of 4.

  18. In Vivo Hypobaric Hypoxia Performed During the Remodeling Process Accelerates Bone Healing in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Marjorie; Collombet, Jean-Marc; Frasca, Sophie; Begot, Laurent; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Le Bousse-Kerdilès, Marie-Caroline

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of respiratory hypobaric hypoxia on femoral bone-defect repair in mice because hypoxia is believed to influence both mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) and hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, a process involved in the bone-healing mechanism. To mimic conditions of non-weight-bearing limb immobilization in patients suffering from bone trauma, our hypoxic mouse model was further subjected to hind-limb unloading. A hole was drilled in the right femur of adult male C57/BL6J mice. Four days after surgery, mice were subjected to hind-limb unloading for 1 week. Seven days after surgery, mice were either housed for 4 days in a hypobaric room (FiO2 at 10%) or kept under normoxic conditions. Unsuspended control mice were housed in either hypobaric or normoxic conditions. Animals were sacrificed on postsurgery day 11 to allow for collection of both contralateral and lesioned femurs, blood, and spleen. As assessed by microtomography, delayed hypoxia enhanced bone-healing efficiency by increasing the closing of the cortical defect and the newly synthesized bone volume in the cavity by +55% and +35%, respectively. Proteome analysis and histomorphometric data suggested that bone-repair improvement likely results from the acceleration of the natural bone-healing process rather than from extended mobilization of MSC-derived osteoprogenitors. Hind-limb unloading had hardly any effect beyond delayed hypoxia-enhanced bone-healing efficiency. PMID:24944208

  19. Vibrotactile masking experiments reveal accelerated somatosensory processing in congenitally blind Braille readers

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Ye, Amanda J.; Lisak, Joy A.; Vargas, Maria G.; Goldreich, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Braille reading is a demanding task that requires the identification of rapidly varying tactile patterns. During proficient reading, neighboring characters impact the fingertip at about 100-ms intervals, and adjacent raised dots within a character at 50-ms intervals. Because the brain requires time to interpret afferent sensorineural activity, among other reasons, tactile stimuli separated by such short temporal intervals pose a challenge to perception. How, then, do proficient Braille readers successfully interpret inputs arising from their fingertips at such rapid rates? We hypothesized that somatosensory perceptual consolidation occurs more rapidly in proficient Braille readers. If so, Braille readers should outperform sighted participants on masking tasks, which demand rapid perceptual processing, but would not necessarily outperform the sighted on tests of simple vibrotactile sensitivity. To investigate, we conducted two-interval forced-choice vibrotactile detection, amplitude discrimination, and masking tasks on the index fingertips of 89 sighted and 57 profoundly blind humans. Sighted and blind participants had similar unmasked detection (25-ms target tap) and amplitude discrimination (compared to 100-micron reference tap) thresholds, but congenitally blind Braille readers, the fastest readers among the blind participants, exhibited significantly less masking than the sighted (masker: 50-Hz, 50-micron; target-masker delays ±50 and ±100 ms). Indeed, Braille reading speed correlated significantly and specifically with masking task performance, and in particular with the backward masking decay time constant. We conclude that vibrotactile sensitivity is unchanged, but that perceptual processing is accelerated in congenitally blind Braille readers. PMID:20980584

  20. Vibrotactile masking experiments reveal accelerated somatosensory processing in congenitally blind braille readers.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Arindam; Ye, Amanda J; Lisak, Joy A; Vargas, Maria G; Goldreich, Daniel

    2010-10-27

    Braille reading is a demanding task that requires the identification of rapidly varying tactile patterns. During proficient reading, neighboring characters impact the fingertip at ∼100 ms intervals, and adjacent raised dots within a character at 50 ms intervals. Because the brain requires time to interpret afferent sensorineural activity, among other reasons, tactile stimuli separated by such short temporal intervals pose a challenge to perception. How, then, do proficient Braille readers successfully interpret inputs arising from their fingertips at such rapid rates? We hypothesized that somatosensory perceptual consolidation occurs more rapidly in proficient Braille readers. If so, Braille readers should outperform sighted participants on masking tasks, which demand rapid perceptual processing, but would not necessarily outperform the sighted on tests of simple vibrotactile sensitivity. To investigate, we conducted two-interval forced-choice vibrotactile detection, amplitude discrimination, and masking tasks on the index fingertips of 89 sighted and 57 profoundly blind humans. Sighted and blind participants had similar unmasked detection (25 ms target tap) and amplitude discrimination (compared with 100 μm reference tap) thresholds, but congenitally blind Braille readers, the fastest readers among the blind participants, exhibited significantly less masking than the sighted (masker, 50 Hz, 50 μm; target-masker delays, ±50 and ±100 ms). Indeed, Braille reading speed correlated significantly and specifically with masking task performance, and in particular with the backward masking decay time constant. We conclude that vibrotactile sensitivity is unchanged but that perceptual processing is accelerated in congenitally blind Braille readers.

  1. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Acceleration of the Goddard Earth Observing System Atmospheric Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Williama

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Earth Observing System 5 (GEOS-5) is the atmospheric model used by the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) for a variety of applications, from long-term climate prediction at relatively coarse resolution, to data assimilation and numerical weather prediction, to very high-resolution cloud-resolving simulations. GEOS-5 is being ported to a graphics processing unit (GPU) cluster at the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS). By utilizing GPU co-processor technology, we expect to increase the throughput of GEOS-5 by at least an order of magnitude, and accelerate the process of scientific exploration across all scales of global modeling, including: The large-scale, high-end application of non-hydrostatic, global, cloud-resolving modeling at 10- to I-kilometer (km) global resolutions Intermediate-resolution seasonal climate and weather prediction at 50- to 25-km on small clusters of GPUs Long-range, coarse-resolution climate modeling, enabled on a small box of GPUs for the individual researcher After being ported to the GPU cluster, the primary physics components and the dynamical core of GEOS-5 have demonstrated a potential speedup of 15-40 times over conventional processor cores. Performance improvements of this magnitude reduce the required scalability of 1-km, global, cloud-resolving models from an unfathomable 6 million cores to an attainable 200,000 GPU-enabled cores.

  2. Retrospective analysis of linear accelerator output constancy checks using process control techniques.

    PubMed

    Sanghangthum, Taweap; Suriyapee, Sivalee; Srisatit, Somyot; Pawlicki, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Shewhart control charts have previously been suggested as a process control tool for use in routine linear accelerator (linac) output verifications. However, a comprehensive approach to process control has not been investigated for linac output verifications. The purpose of this work is to investigate a comprehensive process control approach to linac output constancy quality assurance (QA). The RBA-3 dose constancy check was used to verify outputs of photon beams and electron beams delivered by a Varian Clinac 21EX linac. The data were collected during 2009 to 2010. Shewhart-type control charts, exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) charts, and capability indices were applied to these processes. The Shewhart-type individuals chart (X-chart) was used and the number of data points used to calculate the control limits was varied. The parameters tested for the EWMA charts (smoothing parameter (λ) and the control limit width (L)) were λ = 0.05, L = 2.492; λ = 0.10, L = 2.703; and λ = 0.20, L = 2.860, as well as the number of points used to estimate the initial process mean and variation. Lastly, the number of in-control data points used to determine process capability (C(p)) and acceptability (C(pk)) were investigated, comparing the first in-control run to the longest in-control run of the process data. C(p) and C(pk) values greater than 1.0 were considered acceptable. The 95% confidence intervals were reported. The X-charts detected systematic errors (e.g., device setup errors). In-control run lengths on the X-charts varied from 5 to 30 output measurements (about one to seven months). EWMA charts showed in-control runs ranging from 9 to 33 output measurements (about two to eight months). The C(p) and C(pk) ratios are higher than 1.0 for all energies, except 12 and 20 MeV. However, 10 MV and 6, 9, and 16 MeV were in question when considering the 95% confidence limits. The X-chart should be calculated using 8-12 data points. For EWMA chart, using 4 data points

  3. Project Zero Delay: a process for accelerating the activation of cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kurzrock, Razelle; Pilat, Susan; Bartolazzi, Marcel; Sanders, Dwana; Van Wart Hood, Jill; Tucker, Stanley D; Webster, Kevin; Mallamaci, Michael A; Strand, Steven; Babcock, Eileen; Bast, Robert C

    2009-09-10

    Drug development in cancer research is lengthy and expensive. One of the rate-limiting steps is the initiation of first-in-human (phase I) trials. Three to 6 months can elapse between investigational new drug (IND) approval by the US Food and Drug Administration and the entry of a first patient. Issues related to patient participation have been well analyzed, but the administrative processes relevant to implementing clinical trials have received less attention. While industry and academia often partner for the performance of phase I studies, their administrative processes are generally performed independently, and their timelines driven by different priorities: safety reviews, clinical operations, regulatory submissions, and contracting of clinical delivery vendors for industry; contracts, budgets, and institutional review board approval for academia. Both processes converge on US Food and Drug Administration approval of an IND. In the context of a strategic alliance between M. D. Anderson Cancer Center and AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP, a concerted effort has been made to eliminate delays in implementing clinical trials. These efforts focused on close communications, identifying and matching key timelines, alignment of priorities, and tackling administrative processes in parallel, rather than sequentially. In a recent, first-in-human trial, the study was activated and the first patient identified in 46 days from completion of the final study protocol and about 48 hours after final US Food and Drug Administration IND approval, reducing the overall timeline by about 3 months, while meeting all clinical good practice guidelines. Eliminating administrative delays can accelerate the evaluation of new drugs without compromising patient safety or the quality of clinical research. PMID:19652061

  4. Chemical Weathering of Soils from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica: a Terrestrial Analog of Martian Weathering Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Martian soil subjected to chemical weathering processes could contain the following likely constituents: (1) fresh primary silicate material; (2) partially altered primary silicates; (3) secondary minerals, possibly including clay minerals, evaporites, carbonates, sulfates, hydrates, and zeolites; and (4) altered volcanic glass or impact glass. The soil may also include palogonite and other alteration products and secondary minerals. It is unlikely therefore that an equilibrium assemblage of minerals would be present. From the detailed study of the soils from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, it is obvious that the complex processes in operation produce major changes in the parent materials, depending upon where the constituents reside and the degree to which weathering and diagenesis operates. It is clear that natural near surface environments, even in very cold and dry regions, may produce extremely complex soils. Extreme caution must be taken when interpreting the results and drawing conclusions, especially about possible processes operating in regoliths in cold, arid environments similar to those of the Dry Valleys or Mars.

  5. BIOMASS DRYING TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines the technologies used for drying of biomass and the energy requirements of biomass dryers. Biomass drying processes, drying methods, and the conventional types of dryers are surveyed generally. Drying methods and dryer studies using superheated steam as the d...

  6. Bisphenol A exposure accelerated the aging process in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ling; Wang, Shunchang; Wang, Yun; He, Mei; Liu, Dahai

    2015-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental estrogenic disruptor that causes adverse effects. Recent studies have found that chronic exposure to BPA is associated with a high incidence of several age-related diseases. Aging is characterized by progressive function decline, which affects quality of life. However, the effects of BPA on the aging process are largely unknown. In the present study, by using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we investigated the influence of BPA exposure on the aging process. The decrease in body length, fecundity, and population size and the increased egg laying defection suggested that BPA exposure resulted in fitness loss and reproduction aging in this animal. Lifetime exposure of worms to BPA shortened the lifespan in a dose-dependant manner. Moreover, prolonged BPA exposure resulted in age-related behavior degeneration and the accumulation of lipofuscin and lipid peroxide products. The expression of mitochondria-specific HSP-6 and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-related HSP-70 exhibited hormetic decrease. The expression of ER-related HSP-4 decreased significantly while HSP-16.2 showed a dose-dependent increase. The decreased expression of GCS-1 and GST-4 implicated the reduced antioxidant ability under BPA exposure, and the increase in SOD-3 expression might be caused by elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Finally, BPA exposure increased the generation of hydrogen peroxide-related ROS and superoxide anions. Our results suggest that BPA exposure resulted in an accelerated aging process in C. elegans mediated by the induction of oxidative stress.

  7. Mitigation of prion infectivity and conversion capacity by a simulated natural process--repeated cycles of drying and wetting.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qi; Eckland, Thomas; Telling, Glenn; Bartz, Jason; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon

    2015-02-01

    Prions enter the environment from infected hosts, bind to a wide range of soil and soil minerals, and remain highly infectious. Environmental sources of prions almost certainly contribute to the transmission of chronic wasting disease in cervids and scrapie in sheep and goats. While much is known about the introduction of prions into the environment and their interaction with soil, relatively little is known about prion degradation and inactivation by natural environmental processes. In this study, we examined the effect of repeated cycles of drying and wetting on prion fitness and determined that 10 cycles of repeated drying and wetting could reduce PrP(Sc) abundance, PMCA amplification efficiency and extend the incubation period of disease. Importantly, prions bound to soil were more susceptible to inactivation by repeated cycles of drying and wetting compared to unbound prions, a result which may be due to conformational changes in soil-bound PrP(Sc) or consolidation of the bonding between PrP(Sc) and soil. This novel finding demonstrates that naturally-occurring environmental process can degrade prions. PMID:25665187

  8. Geomorphic Processes and Cold-Based Glaciers in the Antarctic Dry Valleys: Implications for Glaciation and Climate Change on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchant, D. R.; Head, J. W.

    2005-12-01

    The very low atmospheric temperatures and limited availability of liquid water in Earth's polar deserts make for compelling comparisons to a dry and cold Mars. Among polar deserts on Earth, the Dry Valleys region of Antarctica has long been considered as the most Mars-like. Classified broadly as a cold and hyper-arid region, the valleys display a diverse suite of surface landforms that provide a geomophological framework for interpreting features on Mars. New climate and geomorphological data from the Dry Valleys show that the region is best subdivided into a series of narrow climatological zones. Each microclimate zone differs from the next by slight variations in atmospheric temperature and soil-moisture. Along microclimate boundaries, subtle variations in temperature and soil-moisture are sufficient to produce remarkable variations in surface topography and geomorphic process. As is the case for most polar deserts, the geomorphic impact of minor variations in soil moisture and temperature is disproportionately large when compared to similar shifts in humid-temperate latitudes. Insight gained from the distribution and temporal migration of microclimate zones in the Dry Valleys may help shed light on the origin and, in particular, the evolution of glacial and periglacial features and climate change on Mars. Glaciers with basal temperatures well below the pressure melting point have been one of the hallmarks of the western Dry Valleys region since at least late Miocene time. These so called cold-based glaciers are generally non-erosive and tend to preserve underlying landscapes. Supra-and englacial debris carried by such glaciers is commonly deposited at the glacier snout, generally as a series of linear drop moraines. Debris-covered glaciers may form in cases where excess sublimation brings englacial material to the ice surface, forming a protective sublimation till that slows the loss of remaining ice. In several places, the martian surface shows a suite of

  9. A remediation contractor`s view of accelerating the cleanup process

    SciTech Connect

    Librizzi, W.J.; Phelps, G.S.

    1994-12-31

    Superfund, since its passage in December, 1980, has been under continual evaluation and change. Progress has been made over the past 13 years. To date, EPA under Superfund has completed 220 long term cleanups with 1,100 in various stages of completion. In addition, Superfund has been a catalyst for the development of new innovative cleanup technologies. In this regard, EPA has identified more than 150 innovative technologies now being used to treat contaminated soil, groundwater, sludge and sediments. Despite these noted accomplishments, continued criticisms of the program focus on Superfund weaknesses. They include: inconsistent cleanups; high transactional costs; perceived unfairness in liability; overlapping federal/state relationship; Inadequate community involvement; impediments to economic development. Techniques that can accelerate the hazardous waste cleanup process are discussed further in this paper. They include: strengthened interrelationships between the design and remediation contractors; role of the remediation contractor in the implementation of presumptive remedies; a proactive community relations program, partnering and early and frequent interface with regulatory agencies.

  10. Graphics processing unit accelerated one-dimensional blood flow computation in the human arterial tree.

    PubMed

    Itu, Lucian; Sharma, Puneet; Kamen, Ali; Suciu, Constantin; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2013-12-01

    One-dimensional blood flow models have been used extensively for computing pressure and flow waveforms in the human arterial circulation. We propose an improved numerical implementation based on a graphics processing unit (GPU) for the acceleration of the execution time of one-dimensional model. A novel parallel hybrid CPU-GPU algorithm with compact copy operations (PHCGCC) and a parallel GPU only (PGO) algorithm are developed, which are compared against previously introduced PHCG versions, a single-threaded CPU only algorithm and a multi-threaded CPU only algorithm. Different second-order numerical schemes (Lax-Wendroff and Taylor series) are evaluated for the numerical solution of one-dimensional model, and the computational setups include physiologically motivated non-periodic (Windkessel) and periodic boundary conditions (BC) (structured tree) and elastic and viscoelastic wall laws. Both the PHCGCC and the PGO implementations improved the execution time significantly. The speed-up values over the single-threaded CPU only implementation range from 5.26 to 8.10 × , whereas the speed-up values over the multi-threaded CPU only implementation range from 1.84 to 4.02 × . The PHCGCC algorithm performs best for an elastic wall law with non-periodic BC and for viscoelastic wall laws, whereas the PGO algorithm performs best for an elastic wall law with periodic BC.

  11. Closing the gap: accelerating the translational process in nanomedicine by proposing standardized characterization techniques

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, Ali A; Weaver, James L; Salvador-Morales, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    On the cusp of widespread permeation of nanomedicine, academia, industry, and government have invested substantial financial resources in developing new ways to better treat diseases. Materials have unique physical and chemical properties at the nanoscale compared with their bulk or small-molecule analogs. These unique properties have been greatly advantageous in providing innovative solutions for medical treatments at the bench level. However, nanomedicine research has not yet fully permeated the clinical setting because of several limitations. Among these limitations are the lack of universal standards for characterizing nanomaterials and the limited knowledge that we possess regarding the interactions between nanomaterials and biological entities such as proteins. In this review, we report on recent developments in the characterization of nanomaterials as well as the newest information about the interactions between nanomaterials and proteins in the human body. We propose a standard set of techniques for universal characterization of nanomaterials. We also address relevant regulatory issues involved in the translational process for the development of drug molecules and drug delivery systems. Adherence and refinement of a universal standard in nanomaterial characterization as well as the acquisition of a deeper understanding of nanomaterials and proteins will likely accelerate the use of nanomedicine in common practice to a great extent. PMID:25525356

  12. Acceleration of High Angular Momentum Electron Repulsion Integrals and Integral Derivatives on Graphics Processing Units.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yipu; Merz, Kenneth M

    2015-04-14

    We present an efficient implementation of ab initio self-consistent field (SCF) energy and gradient calculations that run on Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) enabled graphical processing units (GPUs) using recurrence relations. We first discuss the machine-generated code that calculates the electron-repulsion integrals (ERIs) for different ERI types. Next we describe the porting of the SCF gradient calculation to GPUs, which results in an acceleration of the computation of the first-order derivative of the ERIs. However, only s, p, and d ERIs and s and p derivatives could be executed simultaneously on GPUs using the current version of CUDA and generation of NVidia GPUs using a previously described algorithm [Miao and Merz J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 965-976.]. Hence, we developed an algorithm to compute f type ERIs and d type ERI derivatives on GPUs. Our benchmarks shows the performance GPU enable ERI and ERI derivative computation yielded speedups of 10-18 times relative to traditional CPU execution. An accuracy analysis using double-precision calculations demonstrates that the overall accuracy is satisfactory for most applications. PMID:26574356

  13. Graphics processing unit accelerated one-dimensional blood flow computation in the human arterial tree.

    PubMed

    Itu, Lucian; Sharma, Puneet; Kamen, Ali; Suciu, Constantin; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2013-12-01

    One-dimensional blood flow models have been used extensively for computing pressure and flow waveforms in the human arterial circulation. We propose an improved numerical implementation based on a graphics processing unit (GPU) for the acceleration of the execution time of one-dimensional model. A novel parallel hybrid CPU-GPU algorithm with compact copy operations (PHCGCC) and a parallel GPU only (PGO) algorithm are developed, which are compared against previously introduced PHCG versions, a single-threaded CPU only algorithm and a multi-threaded CPU only algorithm. Different second-order numerical schemes (Lax-Wendroff and Taylor series) are evaluated for the numerical solution of one-dimensional model, and the computational setups include physiologically motivated non-periodic (Windkessel) and periodic boundary conditions (BC) (structured tree) and elastic and viscoelastic wall laws. Both the PHCGCC and the PGO implementations improved the execution time significantly. The speed-up values over the single-threaded CPU only implementation range from 5.26 to 8.10 × , whereas the speed-up values over the multi-threaded CPU only implementation range from 1.84 to 4.02 × . The PHCGCC algorithm performs best for an elastic wall law with non-periodic BC and for viscoelastic wall laws, whereas the PGO algorithm performs best for an elastic wall law with periodic BC. PMID:24009129

  14. Methane production improvement by modulation of solid phase immersion in dry batch anaerobic digestion process: Dynamic of methanogen populations.

    PubMed

    André, L; Ndiaye, M; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Lamy, E; Ribeiro, T

    2016-05-01

    Several 60L dry batch anaerobic digestion (AD) reactors were implemented with or without liquid reserve on cattle manure. The immersed part modulation of cattle manure increased the methane flow of about 13%. The quantitative real time PCR and the optimized DNA extraction were implemented and validated to characterize and quantify the methanogen dynamic in dry batch AD process. Final quantities of methanogens converged toward the same level in several inocula at the end of AD. Methanogen dynamic was shown by dominance of Methanosarcinaceae for acetotrophic methanogens and Methanobacteriales for the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Overall, methanogens populations were stabilized in liquid phase, except Methanosaetaceae. Solid phase was colonized by Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinaceae populations giving a support to biofilm development. The methane increase could be explained by a raise of Methanosarcinaceae population in presence of a total contact between solid and liquid phases. Methanosarcinaceae was a bio-indicator of the methane production. PMID:26897414

  15. Calculation methodology of the heat pump in the process of oscillating vacuum-conductive drying of lumber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safin, R. R.; Khasanshin, R. R.; Shaikhutdinova, A. R.; Khakimzyanov, I. F.

    2016-04-01

    The oscillating technologies consisting in alternating of the stage of heating of the material and vacuumization are the most advanced in the process of wood drying. In this regard, the article examines the energy-saving technology of the oscillating vacuum-conductive drying of lumber, during which the thermal energy of the moisture evaporated from the material under vacuum in one chamber by using the heat pump is transferred to the heating of the material in the other chamber. The authors develop the method of calculating the rate of removal of moisture from the heated material at the stage of vacuumization depending on the depth of vacuum, temperature, humidity and thickness of the material, which is the initial condition for calculating the heat pump.

  16. Methane production improvement by modulation of solid phase immersion in dry batch anaerobic digestion process: Dynamic of methanogen populations.

    PubMed

    André, L; Ndiaye, M; Pernier, M; Lespinard, O; Pauss, A; Lamy, E; Ribeiro, T

    2016-05-01

    Several 60L dry batch anaerobic digestion (AD) reactors were implemented with or without liquid reserve on cattle manure. The immersed part modulation of cattle manure increased the methane flow of about 13%. The quantitative real time PCR and the optimized DNA extraction were implemented and validated to characterize and quantify the methanogen dynamic in dry batch AD process. Final quantities of methanogens converged toward the same level in several inocula at the end of AD. Methanogen dynamic was shown by dominance of Methanosarcinaceae for acetotrophic methanogens and Methanobacteriales for the hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Overall, methanogens populations were stabilized in liquid phase, except Methanosaetaceae. Solid phase was colonized by Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinaceae populations giving a support to biofilm development. The methane increase could be explained by a raise of Methanosarcinaceae population in presence of a total contact between solid and liquid phases. Methanosarcinaceae was a bio-indicator of the methane production.

  17. Prediction of Separation Performance of Dry High Intensity Magnetic Separator for Processing of Para-Magnetic Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Veerendra; Suresh, Nikkam

    2015-10-01

    High intensity dry magnetic separators are gaining popularity for the separation of para-magnetic minerals due to the cost economic factor. Induced roll magnetic separator is found to be an effective dry separator for the separation of fine particles. Separation efficiency of this separator depends on mineral characteristics and the design features of equipment along with the optimization of process variables. Present investigation focuses on the prediction and validation of separation performance of minerals while treating in induced roll magnetic separator. Prediction of the separation is expressed in terms of separation angle at which a particle leaves the rotor surface by using a modified particle flow model derived by Cakir. The validation of the model is carried by capturing the particle trajectory using an image analyzer. It is found that Cakir's mathematical model produces reliable results and a new model is proposed to increase the reliability of separation angle prediction by including the particle shape factor.

  18. Changes in physico-chemical properties and volatile compounds throughout the manufacturing process of dry-cured foal loin.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo, José M; Carballo, J

    2015-01-01

    Physico-chemical, textural, lipolytic and volatile compound changes that occur during the manufacture of dry-cured foal loin were studied. Hardness and chewiness increased significantly (P<0.001) from 1.67 kg and 0.48 kg ∗ mm to 18.33 kg and 5.01 kg∗mm, respectively during ripening process. The total average content of free fatty acid increased significantly (P<0.001), from 768.8 mg/100g of fat in the loins immediately after the seasoning period to 1271.1mg/100g of fat at the end of the drying-ripening period. In the final product, aldehydes became the dominant volatile compounds. PMID:25280362

  19. Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation pathway.

    PubMed

    Tooker, Brian C; Brindley, Stephen M; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L; Turteltaub, Kenneth W; Newman, Lee S

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to small amounts of beryllium (Be) can result in beryllium sensitization and progression to Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). In CBD, beryllium is presented to Be-responsive T-cells by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). This presentation drives T-cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-2, TNFα, and IFNγ) production and leads to granuloma formation. The mechanism by which beryllium enters an APC and is processed to become part of the beryllium antigen complex has not yet been elucidated. Developing techniques for beryllium detection with enough sensitivity has presented a barrier to further investigation. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is sensitive enough to quantify the amount of beryllium presented by APC to stimulate Be-responsive T-cells. To achieve this goal, APC - which may or may not stimulate Be-responsive T-cells - were cultured with Be-ferritin. Then, by utilizing AMS, the amount of beryllium processed for presentation was determined. Further, IFNγ intracellular cytokine assays were performed to demonstrate that Be-ferritin (at levels used in the experiments) could stimulate Be-responsive T-cells when presented by an APC of the correct HLA type (HLA-DP0201). The results indicated that Be-responsive T-cells expressed IFNγ only when APC with the correct HLA type were able to process Be for presentation. Utilizing AMS, it was determined that APC with HLA-DP0201 had membrane fractions containing 0.17-0.59 ng Be and APC with HLA-DP0401 had membrane fractions bearing 0.40-0.45 ng Be. However, HLA-DP0401 APC had 20-times more Be associated with the whole cells (57.68-61.12 ng) than HLA-DP0201 APC (0.90-3.49 ng). As these findings demonstrate, AMS detection of picogram levels of Be processed by APC is possible. Further, regardless of form, Be requires processing by APC to successfully stimulate Be-responsive T-cells to generate IFNγ.

  20. Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Tooker, Brian C.; Brindley, Stephen M.; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L.; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Newman, Lee S.

    2014-06-16

    We report that exposure to small amounts of beryllium (Be) can result in beryllium sensitization and progression to Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). In CBD, beryllium is presented to Be-responsive T-cells by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). This presentation drives T-cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-2, TNFα, and IFNγ) production and leads to granuloma formation. The mechanism by which beryllium enters an APC and is processed to become part of the beryllium antigen complex has not yet been elucidated. Developing techniques for beryllium detection with enough sensitivity has presented a barrier to further investigation. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is sensitive enough to quantify the amount of beryllium presented by APC to stimulate Be-responsive T-cells. To achieve this goal, APC - which may or may not stimulate Be-responsive T-cells - were cultured with Be-ferritin. Then, by utilizing AMS, the amount of beryllium processed for presentation was determined. Further, IFNγ intracellular cytokine assays were performed to demonstrate that Be-ferritin (at levels used in the experiments) could stimulate Be-responsive T-cells when presented by an APC of the correct HLA type (HLA-DP0201). The results indicated that Be-responsive T-cells expressed IFNγ only when APC with the correct HLA type were able to process Be for presentation. Utilizing AMS, we determined that APC with HLA-DP0201 had membrane fractions containing 0.17-0.59 ng Be and APC with HLA-DP0401 had membrane fractions bearing 0.40-0.45 ng Be. However, HLA-DP0401 APC had 20-times more Be associated with the whole cells (57.68-61.12 ng) then HLA-DP0201 APC (0.90-3.49 ng). As these findings demonstrate, AMS detection of picogram levels of Be processed by APC is possible. Further, regardless of form, Be requires processing by APC to successfully stimulate Be-responsive T-cells to generate IFNγ.

  1. Accelerator mass spectrometry detection of beryllium ions in the antigen processing and presentation pathway

    DOE PAGES

    Tooker, Brian C.; Brindley, Stephen M.; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L.; Turteltaub, Kenneth W.; Newman, Lee S.

    2014-06-16

    We report that exposure to small amounts of beryllium (Be) can result in beryllium sensitization and progression to Chronic Beryllium Disease (CBD). In CBD, beryllium is presented to Be-responsive T-cells by professional antigen-presenting cells (APC). This presentation drives T-cell proliferation and pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-2, TNFα, and IFNγ) production and leads to granuloma formation. The mechanism by which beryllium enters an APC and is processed to become part of the beryllium antigen complex has not yet been elucidated. Developing techniques for beryllium detection with enough sensitivity has presented a barrier to further investigation. The objective of this study was to demonstratemore » that Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) is sensitive enough to quantify the amount of beryllium presented by APC to stimulate Be-responsive T-cells. To achieve this goal, APC - which may or may not stimulate Be-responsive T-cells - were cultured with Be-ferritin. Then, by utilizing AMS, the amount of beryllium processed for presentation was determined. Further, IFNγ intracellular cytokine assays were performed to demonstrate that Be-ferritin (at levels used in the experiments) could stimulate Be-responsive T-cells when presented by an APC of the correct HLA type (HLA-DP0201). The results indicated that Be-responsive T-cells expressed IFNγ only when APC with the correct HLA type were able to process Be for presentation. Utilizing AMS, we determined that APC with HLA-DP0201 had membrane fractions containing 0.17-0.59 ng Be and APC with HLA-DP0401 had membrane fractions bearing 0.40-0.45 ng Be. However, HLA-DP0401 APC had 20-times more Be associated with the whole cells (57.68-61.12 ng) then HLA-DP0201 APC (0.90-3.49 ng). As these findings demonstrate, AMS detection of picogram levels of Be processed by APC is possible. Further, regardless of form, Be requires processing by APC to successfully stimulate Be-responsive T-cells to generate IFNγ.« less

  2. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    PubMed

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results.

  3. Comparison of alternative flue gas dry treatment technologies in waste-to-energy processes.

    PubMed

    Dal Pozzo, Alessandro; Antonioni, Giacomo; Guglielmi, Daniele; Stramigioli, Carlo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    Acid gases such as HCl and SO2 are harmful both for human health and ecosystem integrity, hence their removal is a key step of the flue gas treatment of Waste-to-Energy (WtE) plants. Methods based on the injection of dry sorbents are among the Best Available Techniques for acid gas removal. In particular, systems based on double reaction and filtration stages represent nowadays an effective technology for emission control. The aim of the present study is the simulation of a reference two-stage (2S) dry treatment system performance and its comparison to three benchmarking alternatives based on single stage sodium bicarbonate injection. A modelling procedure was applied in order to identify the optimal operating configuration of the 2S system for different reference waste compositions, and to determine the total annual cost of operation. Taking into account both operating and capital costs, the 2S system appears the most cost-effective solution for medium to high chlorine content wastes. A Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis was carried out to assess the robustness of the results. PMID:26951719

  4. Design and control of energy efficient food drying processes with specific reference to quality; Model development and experimental studies: Moisture movement and dryer design

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.; Litchfield, B.; Singh, R.; Liang, H.; Narsimhan, G.; Waananen, K.

    1989-08-01

    The ultimate goal of the project is to develop procedures, techniques, data and other information that will aid in the design of cost effective and energy efficient drying processes that produce high quality foods. This objective has been sought by performing studies to determine the pertinent properties of food products, by developing models to describe the fundamental phenomena of food drying and by testing the models at laboratory scale. Finally, this information is used to develop recommendations and strategies for improved dryer design and control. This volume, Model Development and Experimental Studies, emphasizes the direct and indirect drying processes. An extensive literature review identifies key characteristics of drying models including controlling process resistances, internal mechanisms of moisture movement, structural and thermodynamic assumptions, and methods of model coefficients and material property measurement/determination, model solution, and model validation. Similarities and differences between previous work are noted, and strategies for future drying model development are suggested.

  5. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters of dry fermented sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure processed raw meat.

    PubMed

    Omer, M K; Prieto, B; Rendueles, E; Alvarez-Ordoñez, A; Lunde, K; Alvseike, O; Prieto, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this trial was to describe physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of dry fermented sausages produced from high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pre-processed trimmings. During ripening of the meat products pH, weight, water activity (aw), and several microbiological parameters were measured at zero, eight, fifteen days and after 6weeks. Sensory characteristics were estimated at day 15 and after six weeks by a test panel by using several sensory tests. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in sausages from HHP-processed trimmings. Fermentation was little affected, but weight and aw of the HHP-processed sausages decreased faster during ripening. HHP-treated sausages were consistently less favoured than non HHP-treated sausages, but the strategy may be an alternative approach if the process is optimized.

  6. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    PubMed

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  7. [Optimization of vacuum belt drying process of Gardeniae Fructus in Reduning injection by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dao-sheng; Shi, Wei; Han, Lei; Sun, Ke; Chen, Guang-bo; Wu Jian-xiong; Xu, Gui-hong; Bi, Yu-an; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-06-01

    To optimize the belt drying process conditions optimization of Gardeniae Fructus extract from Reduning injection by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology, on the basis of single factor experiment, a three-factor and three-level Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimize the drying technology of Gardeniae Fructus extract from Reduning injection. With drying temperature, drying time, feeding speed as independent variables and the content of geniposide as dependent variable, the experimental data were fitted to a second order polynomial equation, establishing the mathematical relationship between the content of geniposide and respective variables. With the experimental data analyzed by Design-Expert 8. 0. 6, the optimal drying parameter was as follows: the drying temperature was 98.5 degrees C , the drying time was 89 min, the feeding speed was 99.8 r x min(-1). Three verification experiments were taked under this technology and the measured average content of geniposide was 564. 108 mg x g(-1), which was close to the model prediction: 563. 307 mg x g(-1). According to the verification test, the Gardeniae Fructus belt drying process is steady and feasible. So single factor experiments combined with response surface method (RSM) could be used to optimize the drying technology of Reduning injection Gardenia extract.

  8. Skin formation and bubble growth during drying process of polymer solution.

    PubMed

    Arai, S; Doi, M

    2012-07-01

    When a polymer solution with volatile solvent is dried, skins are often formed at the surface of the solution. It has been observed that after the skin is formed, bubbles often appear in the solution. We conducted experiments to clarify the relation between the skin formation and the bubble formation. We measured the time dependence of the thickness of the skin layer, the size of the bubbles, and the pressure in the solution. From our experiments, we concluded that i) the gas in the bubble is a mixture of solvent vapor and air dissolved in the solution, ii) the bubble nucleation is assisted by the pressure decrease in the solution covered by the skin layer, and iii) the growth of the bubbles is diffusion limited, mainly limited by the diffusion of air molecules dissolved in the solution.

  9. Aerosolization Characteristics of Dry Powder Inhaler Formulations for the Excipient Enhanced Growth (EEG) Application: Effect of Spray Drying Process Conditions on Aerosol Performance

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Longest, P. Worth; Hindle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer® dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20% v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF1μm/ED) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. PMID:23313343

  10. Pattern and process of prescribed fires influence effectiveness at reducing wildfire severity in dry coniferous forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arkle, Robert S.; Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of three early season (spring) prescribed fires on burn severity patterns of summer wildfires that occurred 1–3 years post-treatment in a mixed conifer forest in central Idaho. Wildfire and prescribed fire burn severities were estimated as the difference in normalized burn ratio (dNBR) using Landsat imagery. We used GIS derived vegetation, topography, and treatment variables to generate models predicting the wildfire burn severity of 1286–5500 30-m pixels within and around treated areas. We found that wildfire severity was significantly lower in treated areas than in untreated areas and significantly lower than the potential wildfire severity of the treated areas had treatments not been implemented. At the pixel level, wildfire severity was best predicted by an interaction between prescribed fire severity, topographic moisture, heat load, and pre-fire vegetation volume. Prescribed fire severity and vegetation volume were the most influential predictors. Prescribed fire severity, and its influence on wildfire severity, was highest in relatively warm and dry locations, which were able to burn under spring conditions. In contrast, wildfire severity peaked in cooler, more mesic locations that dried later in the summer and supported greater vegetation volume. We found considerable evidence that prescribed fires have landscape-level influences within treatment boundaries; most notable was an interaction between distance from the prescribed fire perimeter and distance from treated patch edges, which explained up to 66% of the variation in wildfire severity. Early season prescribed fires may not directly target the locations most at risk of high severity wildfire, but proximity of these areas to treated patches and the discontinuity of fuels following treatment may influence wildfire severity and explain how even low severity treatments can be effective management tools in fire-prone landscapes.

  11. Design and control of energy efficient drying processes with specific reference to foods

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.; Liang, H.; Murakami, E.; Narsimhan, G.; Okos, M.; Singh, R.; Waananen, K.; Xiong, X.

    1988-10-14

    This report contains a summary of work performed on tasks 10 to 14. Task 10 involves revision of the drum drying model developed and revised earlier. In its completed form, the model should contain three nonlinear differential equations covering energy, mass transfer and gas phase momentum. The model currently in use now employs the vapor pressure gradient as the driving force. The vapor pressure is obtained from the isotherm of each material of interest. The revision of this model should be complete after an isotherm equation is obtained and tested. Task 11 concerns experimental studies for model verification. Extrusion of pasta at temperatures below 100{degrees}C gave a low porosity product, while higher temperatures caused puffing and increased porosities. Further variations in extrusion temperatures will enable a study of the relationship between food structure and mass transfer rates. Modification of the high pressure drying apparatus is complete; tests with the new dryer should begin next quarter. An additional improvement on the original design was installation of an oil bath, which is shown to provide better temperature control. Task 12 examines the thermal properties of foods. A comprehensive collection of thermal property equations, predictive models and measurement techniques has been compiled. A final report on viscoelasticity and thermal properties is being organized. Task 13 lists recommendations and strategies for dryer design and control. Controller design methods are reviewed, and evaluations are based on accuracy, stability, response time, and robustness of a closed loop system. Task 14 examines moisture mobility and interaction in foods. Methods to measure porosity are reviewed, and a suitable technique will be selected during next quarter. 31 refs., 4 figs. (MHB)

  12. Accelerating POCS interpolation of 3D irregular seismic data with Graphics Processing Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shu-Qin; Gao, Xing; Yao, Zhen-Xing

    2010-10-01

    Seismic trace interpolation is necessary for high-resolution imaging when the acquired data are not adequate or when some traces are missing. Projection-onto-convex-sets (POCS) interpolation can gradually recover missing traces with an iterative algorithm, but its computational cost in a 3D CPU-based implementation is too high for practical applications. We present a computing scheme to speedup 3D POCS interpolation with graphics processing units (GPUs). We accelerate the most time-consuming part of the 3D POCS algorithm (i.e. Fourier transforms) by taking advantage of a GPU-based Fourier transform library. Other parts are fine-tuned to maximize the utilization of GPU computing resources. We upload the whole input data set to the global memory of the GPUs and reuse it until the final result is obtained. This can avoid low-bandwidth data transfer between CPU and GPUs. We minimize the number of intermediate 3D arrays to save GPU global memory by optimizing the algorithm implementation. This allows us to handle a much larger input data set. When reducing the runtime of our GPU implementation, the coalescing of global memory access and the 3D CUFFT library provides us with the greatest performance improvements. Numerical results show that our scheme is 3-29× times faster than the optimized CPU-based implementation, depending on the size of 3D data set. Our GPU computing scheme allows a significant reduction of computational cost and would facilitate 3D POCS interpolation for practical applications.

  13. Characteristics of four SPE groups with different origins and acceleration processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, R.-S.; Cho, K.-S.; Lee, J.; Bong, S.-C.; Joshi, A. D.; Park, Y.-D.

    2015-09-01

    Solar proton events (SPEs) can be categorized into four groups based on their associations with flare or CME inferred from onset timings as well as acceleration patterns using multienergy observations. In this study, we have investigated whether there are any typical characteristics of associated events and acceleration sites in each group using 42 SPEs from 1997 to 2012. We find the following: (i) if the proton acceleration starts from a lower energy, a SPE has a higher chance to be a strong event (> 5000 particle flux per unit (pfu)) even if its associated flare and/or CME are not so strong. The only difference between the SPEs associated with flare and CME is the location of the acceleration site. (ii) For the former (Group A), the sites are very low (˜ 1 Rs) and close to the western limb, while the latter (Group C) have relatively higher (mean = 6.05 Rs) and wider acceleration sites. (iii) When the proton acceleration starts from the higher energy (Group B), a SPE tends to be a relatively weak event (< 1000 pfu), although its associated CME is relatively stronger than previous groups. (iv) The SPEs categorized by the simultaneous acceleration in whole energy range within 10 min (Group D) tend to show the weakest proton flux (mean = 327 pfu) in spite of strong associated eruptions. Based on those results, we suggest that the different characteristics of SPEs are mainly due to the different conditions of magnetic connectivity and particle density, which are changed with longitude and height as well as their origin.

  14. Fundamentals of freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

    2002-01-01

    --the dominant mechanism of heat transfer in freeze-drying--is inefficient at the pressures used in freeze-drying. Steps should be taken to improve the thermal contact between the product and the shelf of the freeze dryer, such as eliminating metal trays from the drying process. Quantitation of the heat transfer coefficient for the geometry used is a useful way of assessing the impact of changes in the system such as elimination of product trays and changes in the vial. Because heat transfer by conduction through the vapor increases with increasing pressure, the commonly held point of view that "the lower the pressure, the better" is not true with respect to process efficiency. The optimum pressure for a given product is a function of the temperature at which freeze-drying is carried out, and lower pressures are needed at low product temperatures. The controlling resistance to mass transfer is almost always the resistance of the partially dried solids above the submination interface. This resistance can be minimized by avoiding fill volumes of more than about half the volume of the container. The development scientist should also recognize that very high concentrations of solute may not be appropriate for optimum freeze-drying, particularly if the resistance of the dried product layer increases sharply with concentration. Although the last 10 years has seen the publication of a significant body of literature of great value in allowing development scientists and engineers to "work smarter," there is still much work needed in both the science and the technology of freeze-drying. Scientific development is needed for improving analytical methodology for characterization of frozen systems and freeze-dried solids. A better understanding of the relationship between molecular mobility and reactivity is needed to allow accurate prediction of product stability at the intended storage temperature based on accelerated stability at higher temperatures. This requires that the temperature

  15. Economic analysis of fuel ethanol production from winter hulled barley by the EDGE (Enhanced Dry Grind Enzymatic) process.

    PubMed

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Ramírez, Edna C; McAloon, Andrew J; Yee, Winnie; Johnston, David B; Hicks, Kevin B

    2011-06-01

    A process and cost model was developed for fuel ethanol production from winter barley based on the EDGE (Enhanced Dry Grind Enzymatic) process. In this process, in addition to β-glucanases, which are added to reduce the viscosity of the mash, β-glucosidase is also added to completely hydrolyze the oligomers obtained during the hydrolysis of β-glucans to glucose. The model allows determination of capital costs, operating costs, and ethanol production cost for a plant producing 40 million gallons of denatured fuel ethanol annually. A sensitivity study was also performed to examine the effects of β-glucosidase and barley costs on the final ethanol production cost. The results of this study clearly demonstrate the economic benefit of adding β-glucosidase. Lower ethanol production cost was obtained compared to that obtained without β-glucosidase addition in all cases except one where highest β-glucosidase cost allowance and lowest barley cost were used.

  16. Effects of addition of carrot dietary fibre on the ripening process of a dry fermented sausage (sobrassada).

    PubMed

    Eim, Valeria S; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Femenia, Antoni

    2008-10-01

    Four formulations of a dry fermented sausage, known as sobrassada, containing different percentages of carrot dietary fibre (DF) [3% (S3), 6% (S6), 9% (S9) and 12% (S12) (w/w)] were analyzed for various physico-chemical and microbiological parameters and sensory attributes. The ripening process was monitored throughout storage. The pH of DF-supplemented sobrassadas was critically affected during ripening by the amount of DF incorporated, the values for sobrassada samples containing over 3% of DF suggested that the fermentation process in these samples was not successful. In addition, textural parameters, such as hardness and compression work, were significantly affected by the addition of over 3% of DF. The lipolytic process, one of the major biochemical events, was only affected when relatively large percentages of DF concentrate were incorporated. Thus, S3 and S6 samples exhibited similar free fatty acid profiles to the control throughout ripening.

  17. Evolution of proteolytic and physico-chemical characteristics of Norwegian dry-cured ham during its processing.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Inna; Tolstorebrov, Ignat; Mora, Leticia; Toldrá, Fidel; Eikevik, Trygve Magne

    2016-11-01

    Proteolytic activity and physico-chemical characteristics were studied for Norwegian dry-cured ham at four different times of processing: raw hams, post-salted hams (3 months of processing), hams selected in the middle of the production (12 months of processing) and hams at the end of the processing (24 months). Cathepsin H activity decreased until negligible values after 3 months of processing, whereas cathepsins B and B+L were inactive at 12 months. AAP was the most active aminopeptidase whereas RAP and MAP were active just during the first 12 months of processing. Proteolysis index reached a value of 4.56±1.03 % with non-significant differences between 12 and 24 months of ripening. Peptide identification by LC-MS/MS was done and two peptides (GVEEPPKGHKGNKK and QAISNNKDQGSY) showing a linear response with the time of processing were found. Unfreezable water content and glass transition temperature were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique with non-significant differences in the temperature of glass transition for 12 and 24 months of processing. PMID:27371871

  18. Characterization of cationic starch flocculants synthesized by dry process with ball milling activating method.

    PubMed

    Su, Yuting; Du, Hongying; Huo, Yinqiang; Xu, Yongliang; Wang, Jie; Wang, Liying; Zhao, Siming; Xiong, Shanbai

    2016-06-01

    The cationic starch flocculants were synthesized by the reaction of maize starch which was activated by a ball-milling treatment with 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chlorides (ETMAC) using the dry method. The cationic starches were characterized by several approaches including scanning electron microscope (SEM), degree of substitution (DS), infrared spectrum (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), flocculating activity, electron spin resonance (ESR), and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The effect of mechanical activation on starch etherifying modification was investigated. The mechanical activation cracked starch granules and destructed their crystal structures. This resulted in enhancements to the reaction activity and reaction efficiency, which was approved by ESR and solid state NMR. The starch flocculants, synthesized by the reaction of mechanically activated starches at 90°C for 2.5h with ETMAC at molar ratio of 0.40:1.00, showed good flocculation activity. The substitution degree (0.300) and reaction efficiency (75.06%) of starch flocculants synthesized with mechanically activated starches were significantly greater than those of starch flocculants with native starches (P<0.05).

  19. Analysis of microcracks in dry polycrystalline NaCl by ultrasonic signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, F.M.

    1980-07-01

    The attenuation of energy and the change in shape of transient waveforms is a basic feature associated with the propagation of waves in crustal rocks. The dimensionless quality factor Q is observed as a useful quantity to characterize the attenuation of energy. Existing an elastic (attenuation) theories on the Q-determination problem are compared with experimental measurements to better understand rock properties. Experimental attenuation measurements were made on Avery Island (Louisiana) rock salt, Westerly (Rhode Island) granite, and Creighton (Ontario) quartz biotite gabbro. The attenuation mechanisms and how they affect the agreement between the an elastic theories were examined. Ultrasonic pulse methods were utilized of examine crack geometries as a function of frequency and thermal cycling temperature in dry polycrystalline rock salt. The attenuation of compressional (P) and shear (S) waves was studied in a thermally-induced, isotropic distribution of microcracks using ultrasonic-transmission techniques. These attenuation measurements led to the following series of generalities: ultrasonic or seismic attenuation depends on frequency in the rocks tested; thermal cycling of rock salt increases the porosity and attenuation; grain scattering seems to be the dominant loss mechanism at the higher frequencies in rocks; friction explains why the introduction of cracks into rock salt increases the attenuation; and attenuation appears to be independent of strain amplitude for low strains (10/sup -6/) such as those associated with these measurements. Much work remains to be done to adequately describe the attenuation loss mechanisms and the an elasticity of rocks both experimentally and theoretically.

  20. Tetrachloroethene recovery and hazard reduction of spent powders from dry cleaning process.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Elisabetta; Scarsella, Marco; De Filippis, Paolo; Di Palma, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Dry cleaning facilities using perchloroethylene produce a solid waste consisting of spent filtering powders with a high content of residual perchloroethylene, together with dyes and non-volatile residues. Untreated spent powders, classified as hazardous waste, cannot be disposed in landfill and incineration represents the only viable alternative. In this study, together with a full characterisation of the waste, the removal and recovery of the residual perchloroethylene by means of different heat treatments was investigated. In particular, tests of distillation and stripping with air and steam were carried out, evaluating the effectiveness of the treatments by quantifying the residual perchloroethylene in the samples treated. The results obtained show that the spent filtering powders contained about 25% wt. of perchloroethylene and that the maximum perchloroethylene recovery was obtained by steam stripping; approximately 98% after only 50 minutes. However, this treatment accounted for the production of a liquid mixture containing perchloroethylene and of a solid waste that required a further washing with boiling water to decrease the residual organic content below the eligibility criteria for landfill disposal.

  1. Thin Layer Drying Kinetics of By-Products from Olive Oil Processing

    PubMed Central

    Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20–50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10−11 to 1.406 × 10−9 m2/s in forced convection (ma = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10−11 to 6.277 × 10−10 m2/s in natural convection (ma = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick’s diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order. PMID:22174639

  2. Thin layer drying kinetics of by-products from olive oil processing.

    PubMed

    Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20-50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10(-11) to 1.406 × 10(-9) m(2)/s in forced convection (m(a) = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10(-11) to 6.277 × 10(-10) m(2)/s in natural convection (m(a) = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick's diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order. PMID:22174639

  3. Insights into rupture processes of a laboratory-earthquake in dry and lubricated faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayart, Elsa; Svetlizky, Ilya; Fineberg, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Our understanding of the dynamics of earthquakes requires us to understand the mechanisms of transition from static to sliding friction. The weakening of a fault is mediated by the propagation of rapid interfacial ruptures (earthquakes) that detach the solid contacts forming the frictional interface. By measuring the real contact area and strain fields near rough frictional interfaces, we have shown that these ruptures correspond to true shear cracks [1]. In particular, dynamic ruptures may spontaneously arrest at various locations along the interface. We show that a fracture-mechanics-based criterion can predict the location of the rupture arrest [2]. These results shed light on the selection of an earthquake's magnitude and arrest. Another interesting question is how interstitial fluids act to weaken a fault. By performing stick-slip experiments where the contacting surfaces are covered by a thin lubricating layer, we show that the established framework of fracture mechanics can also describe the measured strain fields when rupture of the interface takes place. A surprising result is that, although reducing the frictional strength of the interface (friction coefficient), lubricants actually significantly increase the fracture energy (amount of dissipated energy) during rupture. Thus surface lubrication, while strongly reducing the residual stresses in the wake of rupture propagation, actually toughens the contacting surfaces. [1] Svetlizky, I. & Fineberg, J. Classical shear cracks drive the onset of dry frictional motion. Nature 509, 205-208 (2014). [2] Bayart, E., Svetlizky, I. & Fineberg, J. Fracture mechanics determine the lengths of interface ruptures that mediate frictional motion. Nature Physics (2015).

  4. Porous scaffold of gelatin-starch with nanohydroxyapatite composite processed via novel microwave vacuum drying.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Jaya; Durance, Timothy D; Wang, Rizhi

    2008-07-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a fundamental mineral-based biomaterial, used for preparing composites for bone repair and regeneration. Gelatin blended with starch results in scaffold composites with enhanced mechanical properties. A gelatin-starch blend reinforced with HA nanocrystals (nHA) gave biocompatible composites with enhanced mechanical properties. In this study, a porous scaffold of gelatin-starch-nHA composites was fabricated through microwave vacuum drying and crosslinking using trisodium citrate. Three different composite scaffolds were prepared at three different percentages of nHA: 20%, 30% and 40%. The microstructures and compositions of the composites were analyzed. Within the porous structure, the nHA crystals were observed to precipitate. The interaction between the gelatin-starch network film and nHA crystalline material was studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). XRD reflections showed that there are two different minerals present in the scaffold composite. There were strong reflection peaks close to the 26 degrees and 32 degrees 2theta angles of HA, and close to the 8 degrees and 49 degrees 2theta angles for sodium citrate minerals. The FTIR result suggested that carboxyl groups, C=O and amino groups play crucial roles in HA formation on the surface of a gelatin network.

  5. Multifractality and autoregressive processes of dry spell lengths in Europe: an approach to their complexity and predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Maria-Dolors; Lana, Xavier; Burgueño, Augusto; Serra, Carina

    2015-04-01

    Dry spell lengths, DSL, defined as the number of consecutive days with daily rain amounts below a given threshold, may provide relevant information about drought regimes. Taking advantage of a daily pluviometric database covering a great extension of Europe, a detailed analysis of the multifractality of the dry spell regimes is achieved. An autoregressive process is applied with the aim of predicting DSL. A set of parameters, namely Hurst exponent, H, critical Hölder exponent, α0, spectral width, W , and spectral asymmetry, B, permit a first clustering of European rain gauges in terms of the complexity of their DSL series. This set of parameters also allows distinguishing between time series describing fine- or smooth-structure of the DSL regime by using the Complexity Index, CI. Results of previous monofractal analyses also permit establishing comparisons between fine and smooth-structures, correlation dimensions, predictive instability and anti-persistence of DSL for European areas. Relationships are also found between the CI and the mean absolute deviation, MAD, and the optimum autoregressive order, OAO, of an AR(p) autoregressive process applied to the DSL series. The detailed analysis of the discrepancies between empiric and predicted DSL underlines the uncertainty over predictability of long DSL, particularly for the Mediterranean region.

  6. Multifractality and autoregressive processes of dry spell lengths in Europe: an approach to their complexity and predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lana, X.; Burgueño, A.; Serra, C.; Martínez, M. D.

    2015-09-01

    Dry spell lengths, DSL, defined as the number of consecutive days with daily rain amounts below a given threshold, may provide relevant information about drought regimes. Taking advantage of a daily pluviometric database covering a great extension of Europe, a detailed analysis of the multifractality of the dry spell regimes is achieved. At the same time, an autoregressive process is applied with the aim of predicting DSL. A set of parameters, namely Hurst exponent, H, estimated from multifractal spectrum, f(α), critical Hölder exponent, α 0, for which f(α) reaches its maximum value, spectral width, W, and spectral asymmetry, B, permits a first clustering of European rain gauges in terms of the complexity of their DSL series. This set of parameters also allows distinguishing between time series describing fine- or smooth-structure of the DSL regime by using the complexity index, CI. Results of previous monofractal analyses also permits establishing comparisons between smooth-structures, relatively low correlation dimensions, notable predictive instability and anti-persistence of DSL for European areas, sometimes submitted to long droughts. Relationships are also found between the CI and the mean absolute deviation, MAD, and the optimum autoregressive order, OAO, of an ARIMA(p,d,0) autoregressive process applied to the DSL series. The detailed analysis of the discrepancies between empiric and predicted DSL underlines the uncertainty over predictability of long DSL, particularly for the Mediterranean region.

  7. Effect of spray drying processing parameters on the insecticidal activity of two encapsulated formulations of baculovirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of spray dryer processing parameters on the process yield and insecticidal activity of baculovirus to support the development of this beneficial group of microbes as biopesticides. For each of two baculoviruses [granulovirus (GV) from Pieris rapae (L....

  8. Integrated micromachined thermopile IR detectors with an XeF2 dry-etching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dehui; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Yuelin; Liu, Mifeng; Li, Tie

    2009-12-01

    Based on the Seebeck effect, the CMOS compatible micromachined thermopile is widely used in infrared detection for its advantages of low-cost, high batch yield, broad spectral response and insensitivity to ambient temperature. We present two integrated thermopile IR detectors on stacked dielectric layers realized by a standard P-well CMOS technology, followed by one CMOS compatible maskless XeF2 isotropic dry-etching step. Characterizations of CMOS devices, before and after XeF2 etching, respectively, were performed to investigate the effects of XeF2 etching on the CMOS devices. With a 2.5 µm thick stacked silicon oxide-nitride-oxide layer as an absorber, the rectangular thermopile detector and the circular thermopile detector provided responsivity of 14.14 and 10.26 V W-1, specific detectivity of 4.15 × 107 and 4.54 × 107 cm Hz1/2 W-1, and time constant of 23.7 and 14.6 ms, respectively. Compared with the rectangular thermopile detector, the circular thermopile detector is mechanically more stable, because its circular structure design eases the internal stress problem in the CMOS layers. After XeF2 etching, the maximum changes of threshold voltage, maximum transconductance and switching threshold voltage were 0.97%, 1.25% and 0.08%, respectively. Experimental results show that the effects of XeF2 etching on the CMOS devices are insignificant, and XeF2 etching is suitable for post-CMOS micromachining.

  9. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy on Intact Dried Leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.): Accelerated Chemotaxonomic Discrimination and Analysis of Essential Oil Composition.

    PubMed

    Gudi, Gennadi; Krähmer, Andrea; Krüger, Hans; Schulz, Hartwig

    2015-10-01

    Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is cultivated worldwide for its aromatic leaves, which are used as herbal spice, and for phytopharmaceutical applications. Fast analytical strategies for essential oil analysis, performed directly on plant material, would reduce the delay between sampling and analytical results. This would enhance product quality by improving technical control of cultivation. The attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) method described here provides a reliable calibration model for quantification of essential oil components [EOCs; R(2) = 0.96; root-mean-square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) = 0.249 mL 100 g(-1) of dry matter (DM); and range = 1.115-5.280 mL 100 g(-1) of DM] and main constituents [e.g., α-thujone/β-thujone; R(2) = 0.97/0.86; RMSECV = 0.0581/0.0856 mL 100 g(-1) of DM; and range = 0.010-1.252/0.005-0.893 mL 100 g(-1) of DM] directly on dried intact leaves of sage. Except for drying, no further sample preparation is required for ATR-FTIR, and the measurement time of less than 5 min per sample contrasts with the most common alternative of hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatography analysis, which can take several hours per sample. PMID:26360136

  10. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy on Intact Dried Leaves of Sage (Salvia officinalis L.): Accelerated Chemotaxonomic Discrimination and Analysis of Essential Oil Composition.

    PubMed

    Gudi, Gennadi; Krähmer, Andrea; Krüger, Hans; Schulz, Hartwig

    2015-10-01

    Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is cultivated worldwide for its aromatic leaves, which are used as herbal spice, and for phytopharmaceutical applications. Fast analytical strategies for essential oil analysis, performed directly on plant material, would reduce the delay between sampling and analytical results. This would enhance product quality by improving technical control of cultivation. The attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) method described here provides a reliable calibration model for quantification of essential oil components [EOCs; R(2) = 0.96; root-mean-square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) = 0.249 mL 100 g(-1) of dry matter (DM); and range = 1.115-5.280 mL 100 g(-1) of DM] and main constituents [e.g., α-thujone/β-thujone; R(2) = 0.97/0.86; RMSECV = 0.0581/0.0856 mL 100 g(-1) of DM; and range = 0.010-1.252/0.005-0.893 mL 100 g(-1) of DM] directly on dried intact leaves of sage. Except for drying, no further sample preparation is required for ATR-FTIR, and the measurement time of less than 5 min per sample contrasts with the most common alternative of hydrodistillation followed by gas chromatography analysis, which can take several hours per sample.

  11. Production of Fe from Fe2O3 using a dry Mechanical Alloying Process

    SciTech Connect

    Waanders, F.B.; Mulaba-Bafubiandi, A.F.

    2005-04-26

    Mechanical alloying has been, and is still being employed extensively to synthesize a variety of alloy phases. The primary interest is to produce materials for scientific research and technological applications for magnetic recording media and permanent magnetic field devices. In the present investigation however the aim was not to produce a special alloy phases but to prove the viability of the production of iron from naturally occurring hematite, using mechanical alloying. Discard fines from the biggest hematite producer, Kumba Resources, Sishen, South Africa, were obtained and mixed with aluminum powder in the ratio of 25 at.% Al, balance hematite. About 50 g of the hematite-Al mixture, to be mechanically milled, was dry milled in a planetary ball milling equipment. The milling times varied between 30 min. and 30 hours and samples for Moessbauer spectroscopy, SEM analyses and Malvern sizing were obtained for each milling interval. Milling of the fine hematite with the much coarser Al resulted in a mixture with a particle size distribution of d0.5 = 54{mu}m to be extracted from the mill after 30 min. The Moessbauer spectra yielded 93% Fe2O3 and a 7% intermetallic Fe-Al component for this milling period. A final particle size of d0.5 = 20{mu}m for the milled product was obtained after milling for up to 30 h. However, within an hour all the hematite was completely converted to iron ({approx_equal} 86%) and two intermetallic Fe-Al compounds of combined intensity {approx_equal} 14%. The intensity ratio of the two intermetallic Fe-Al alloys that were observed as two doublets, changed after 3 h milling time and the averaged Moessbauer parameters for the two doublets are reported as: D1 = ({delta} = 0.50 {+-} 0.03 mm.s-1 and {delta} = 0.24 {+-} 0.03 mm.s-1) and D2 = ({delta} = 2.07 {+-} 0.03 mm.s-1 and {delta} = 0.98 {+-} 0.03 mm.s-1) respectively.

  12. High-intensity drying processes -- Impulse drying: Report 15 (final report). Production of linerboard on a pilot paper machine, subsequent commercial converting trials and preliminary economic assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1999-04-01

    In September 1998, 33{number_sign} liner was produced on the {number_sign}4 pilot machine under both single-felted wet pressing and impulse drying conditions. In October 1998, the pilot produced liner and commercial liner were converted to combined board and corrugated boxes at a commercial box plant. In January 1999, linerboard, medium, and combined board and box testing were completed. The pilot trials demonstrated that 33{number_sign} liner could be impulse dried at a reel speed of 380 m/min. Press dryness was improved by as much as 4 points, while CD STFI and CD ring crush were improved by more than 10%. Improvements to the smoothness of heated side of sheet were also realized. Commercial box plant converting trials demonstrated that impulse dried linerboard can be used to increase ECT and box compression strength by as much as 10%. As anticipated, print quality was found to be superior. A preliminary economic analysis was performed in which an impulse dryer would increase press dryness by 4 points and would allow the basis weight to be reduced by 10%. The economic model showed that the 4 points in dryness would translate to a 17% tonnage increase. Applying the 10% basis weight reduction resulted in an increase in productivity, on an area basis, of 30%. The pulp cost savings was found to outweigh any additional electric power costs.

  13. The effect of excipients on the stability and aerosol performance of salmon calcitonin dry powder inhalers prepared via the spray freeze drying process.

    PubMed

    Poursina, Narges; Vatanara, Alireza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Gilani, Kambiz; Najafabadi, Abdolhossein Rouholamini

    2016-06-01

    Spray freeze drying was developed to produce dry powders suitable for applications such as inhalation delivery. In the current study, the spray freeze drying technique was employed to produce inhalable salmon calcitonin microparticles. Effects of the carrier type, concentration of hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin and the presence of Tween 80 on the chemical and structural stability, as well as on the aerosol performance of the particles were investigated. The results indicated that hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin had the most important effect on the chemical stability of the powder and strongly increased its stability by increasing its concentration in the formulation. Chemically stable formulations (over 90 % recovery) were selected for further examinations. Fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism suggested that the formulations were structurally stable. Aerosol performance showed that the Tween-free powders produced higher fine particle fraction values than the formulations containing Tween (53.7 vs. 41.92 % for trehalose content and 52.85 vs. 43.06 % for maltose content). PMID:27279064

  14. Reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from a dry process preheater kiln with calciner through the use of the urea-based SNCR process

    SciTech Connect

    Steuch, H.E.; Hille, J.T.; Sun, W.H.; Bisnett, M.J.; Kirk, D.W.

    1996-07-01

    The post combustion reduction of NO{sub x} using urea has proven to be an effective method in controlling NO{sub x} from various combustion sources. Such a reduction process has been successfully demonstrated in a week-long test at Ash Grove`s dry process cement kiln system located in Seattle. This system is equipped with planetary coolers, a 5-stage preheater and an air-through-the-kiln calciner. Testing was done under ten different kiln/calciner operating conditions. Using three to four injectors, NO{sub x} was efficiently reduced from 350--600 lb per hour lb/ton of clinker to less than 100 lb per hour. This calculates to a NO{sub x} reduction of greater than 80% for most cases. Chemical utilization was greater than 50%. A high degree of mixing and a long residence time at an appropriate temperature present in the preheater tower contributed to these excellent results. An average ammonia slip was four ppm above a baseline level at a normalized stoichiometric ratio of 1. This demonstration confirms expectations that dry process cement kilns with 4+ preheater stages are an ideal application for the selective noncatalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with urea. NO{sub x} was efficiently and effectively reduced with minimal byproduct emissions and virtually no effect on plant operations.

  15. The effect of Dry matter content on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of citrus processing waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus processing waste (CPW) is an attractive feedstock for making fuel ethanol. In order to make ethanol production from citrus waste economically viable, it is desirable to obtain a high ethanol yield and concentration with a small amount of enzymes. In this study, we investigated the effects of ...

  16. Molecular dynamics-based virtual screening: accelerating the drug discovery process by high-performance computing.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hu; Wang, Yu; Li, Chanjuan; Chen, Nanhao; Xie, Yufang; Xu, Mengyan; He, Yingyan; Gu, Xinchun; Wu, Ruibo; Gu, Qiong; Zeng, Liang; Xu, Jun

    2013-10-28

    High-performance computing (HPC) has become a state strategic technology in a number of countries. One hypothesis is that HPC can accelerate biopharmaceutical innovation. Our experimental data demonstrate that HPC can significantly accelerate biopharmaceutical innovation by employing molecular dynamics-based virtual screening (MDVS). Without using HPC, MDVS for a 10K compound library with tens of nanoseconds of MD simulations requires years of computer time. In contrast, a state of the art HPC can be 600 times faster than an eight-core PC server is in screening a typical drug target (which contains about 40K atoms). Also, careful design of the GPU/CPU architecture can reduce the HPC costs. However, the communication cost of parallel computing is a bottleneck that acts as the main limit of further virtual screening improvements for drug innovations.

  17. Dry etched SiO2 Mask for HgCdTe Etching Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. Y.; Ye, Z. H.; Sun, C. H.; Deng, L. G.; Zhang, S.; Xing, W.; Hu, X. N.; Ding, R. J.; He, L.

    2016-09-01

    A highly anisotropic etching process with low etch-induced damage is indispensable for advanced HgCdTe (MCT) infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) detectors. The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) enhanced reactive ion etching technique has been widely adopted in manufacturing HgCdTe IRFPA devices. An accurately patterned mask with sharp edges is decisive to accomplish pattern duplication. It has been reported by our group that the SiO2 mask functions well in etching HgCdTe with high selectivity. However, the wet process in defining the SiO2 mask is limited by ambiguous edges and nonuniform patterns. In this report, we patterned SiO2 with a mature ICP etching technique, prior to which a thin ZnS film was deposited by thermal evaporation. The SiO2 film etching can be terminated at the auto-stopping point of the ZnS layer thanks to the high selectivity of SiO2/ZnS in SF6 based etchant. Consequently, MCT etching was directly performed without any other treatment. This mask showed acceptable profile due to the maturity of the SiO2 etching process. The well-defined SiO2 pattern and the etched smooth surfaces were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. This new mask process could transfer the patterns exactly with very small etch-bias. A cavity with aspect-ratio (AR) of 1.2 and root mean square roughness of 1.77 nm was achieved first, slightly higher AR of 1.67 was also get with better mask profile. This masking process ensures good uniformity and surely benefits the delineation of shrinking pixels with its high resolution.

  18. Wet cells and dry cells: In situ transmission electron microscopy of electrically-driven, dynamical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Edward Robert, IV

    Recent developments in nanofabrication techniques allow thin, wet systems to be imaged with high spatial and temporal resolution in the electron microscope. Coupling this ability with simultaneous, measured, electrical control, we cycle processes in liquid systems representing different electrochemical battery components. Dynamic processes imaged with these techniques, which represent a new state-of-the-art, include nanobubble collapse, dendrite growth, ion diffusion, and graphite intercalation. We also develop a sensitive system for measuring electron beam induced currents (EBIC) in the transmission electron microscope and apply it to graphene-MoS2 heterostructures. This new hybrid material has strong light-matter interactions, and the EBIC measurements map the minority carrier diffusion length, which we observe to decrease with increasing radiation damage. These results have direct implications for the function and service lifetime of solar cells based on molybdenum disulfide.

  19. Process control of chrome dry etching by complete characterization of the RF power delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sass, Björn; Schubert, Ralf; Jakubski, Thomas; Mauermann, Sebastian; Nesladek, Pavel; Wiswesser, Andreas; Gindra, Karl-Heinz; Malone, Ray

    2008-10-01

    In order to fulfil the upcoming requirements for photomasks there is a need for improving the process stability (reproducibility) of the unit processes in photomask fabrication. In order to understand and minimize the etch contribution to the CD stability impedance sensors integrated into the capacitively coupled radio frequency (RF) circuit (bias circuit) have shown a big potential. The last step towards a full characterization of the RF properties is the integration of impedance sensors in the inductively coupled RF circuit (source). This kind of sensor measures voltage, current and phase angle for the fundamental (13.56 MHz) and higher harmonics (up to the 5th harmonic). In this paper we are describing the integration of the Z-Scan sensors into the source RF matchbox and its impact on the RF and CD characteristics of the mask etcher. The central point is the correlation of impedance data to CD data. We will also compare the responses for bias and source impedance measurements.

  20. Ab initio nonadiabatic dynamics of multichromophore complexes: a scalable graphical-processing-unit-accelerated exciton framework.

    PubMed

    Sisto, Aaron; Glowacki, David R; Martinez, Todd J

    2014-09-16

    ("fragmenting") a molecular system and then stitching it back together. In this Account, we address both of these problems, the first by using graphical processing units (GPUs) and electronic structure algorithms tuned for these architectures and the second by using an exciton model as a framework in which to stitch together the solutions of the smaller problems. The multitiered parallel framework outlined here is aimed at nonadiabatic dynamics simulations on large supramolecular multichromophoric complexes in full atomistic detail. In this framework, the lowest tier of parallelism involves GPU-accelerated electronic structure theory calculations, for which we summarize recent progress in parallelizing the computation and use of electron repulsion integrals (ERIs), which are the major computational bottleneck in both density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The topmost tier of parallelism relies on a distributed memory framework, in which we build an exciton model that couples chromophoric units. Combining these multiple levels of parallelism allows access to ground and excited state dynamics for large multichromophoric assemblies. The parallel excitonic framework is in good agreement with much more computationally demanding TDDFT calculations of the full assembly. PMID:25186064

  1. A laser dry etch process for smooth continuous relief structures in InP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, H.; Matz, R.; Weimann, G.

    1996-11-01

    A laser induced etch process is described which uses a pulsed 248 nm KrF excimer laser and Cl2 atmosphere for the fabrication of monolithic continuously curved reliefs in InP substrate. In a bakeable processing chamber with low base pressure a wide range of laser fluences is available for damage-free etching. Especially, by photothermal heating far above the melting point, mirrorlike smooth surfaces are obtained. The etch rate characteristics are correlated to the maximum surface temperature reached during the laser pulse. The etch rate is independent of pressure and gas flux in the ranges 0.1 10 mbar and 20 300 sccm, respectively. It increases, however, with the background substrate temperature. Etch rates of up to 3.6 nm/pulse or 4.3 lm/min are possible at 20 Hz pulse repetition rate without visible surface damage. The process exhibits a smooth increase of the etch rate from 1 to 3 nm/pulse between 200 and 300 mJ/cm2, which could be used for making curved reliefs by optical transmission variations on the projection mask.

  2. Optimization of the accelerated curing process of concrete using a fibre Bragg grating-based control system and microwave technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, Matthias; Jia, Yaodong; Shi, Shi; McCague, Colum; Bai, Yun; Sun, Tong; Grattan, Kenneth T. V.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an investigation into the suitability of using fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) for monitoring the accelerated curing process of concrete in a microwave heating environment is presented. In this approach, the temperature data provided by the FBGs are used to regulate automatically the microwave power so that a pre-defined temperature profile is maintained to optimize the curing process, achieving early strength values comparable to those of conventional heat-curing techniques but with significantly reduced energy consumption. The immunity of the FBGs to interference from the microwave radiation used ensures stable readings in the targeted environment, unlike conventional electronic sensor probes.

  3. Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.

    PubMed

    Jin, Guofeng; He, Lichao; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Jianhao; Ma, Meihu

    2013-12-01

    Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (p<0.05) until the end of process; GSH-Px was the most unstable one followed by catalase. Antioxidant enzyme activities were negatively correlated with TBARS (p<0.05), but the correlations were decreased with increasing process temperature. Salt showed inhibitory effect on all antioxidant enzyme activities and was concentration dependent. These results indicated that when process temperature and salt content were low at the same time during dry-salted bacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation. PMID:23871020

  4. Extension of 193 nm dry lithography to 45-nm half-pitch node: double exposure and double processing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Abani M.; Li, Jianliang; Hiserote, Jay A.; Melvin, Lawrence S., III

    2006-10-01

    Immersion lithography and multiple exposure techniques are the most promising methods to extend lithography manufacturing to the 45nm node. Although immersion lithography has attracted much attention recently as a promising optical lithography extension, it will not solve all the problems at the 45-nm node. The 'dry' option, (i.e. double exposure/etch) which can be realized with standard processing practice, will extend 193-nm lithography to the end of the current industry roadmap. Double exposure/etch lithography is expensive in terms of cost, throughput time, and overlay registration accuracy. However, it is less challenging compared to other possible alternatives and has the ability to break through the κ I barrier (0.25). This process, in combination with attenuated PSM (att-PSM) mask, is a good imaging solution that can reach, and most likely go beyond, the 45-nm node. Mask making requirements in a double exposure scheme will be reduced significantly. This can be appreciated by the fact that the separation of tightly-pitched mask into two less demanding pitch patterns will reduce the stringent specifications for each mask. In this study, modeling of double exposure lithography (DEL) with att-PSM masks to target 45-nm node is described. In addition, mask separation and implementation issues of optical proximity corrections (OPC) to improve process window are studied. To understand the impact of OPC on the process window, Fourier analysis of the masks has been carried out as well.

  5. On the Rust Products Formed on Weathering and Carbon Steels Exposed to Chloride in Dry-Wet Cyclical Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, K. E.; Morales, A. L.; Barrero, C. A.; Greneche, J. M.

    2005-02-01

    The rust products formed on weathering and carbon steels exposed to dry-wet cyclical processes in different chloride-rich solutions are carefully examined by means of different techniques. Special emphasis is given to the methodology of analysis of the data using 300 K and 77 K Mössbauer spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. The rust that is loosely bound to the metal surface and that it is lost during the corrosion process, for both types of steel, was found to be composed of lepidocrocite, superparamagnetic goethite, hematite, and traces of akaganeite. On the other hand, the adherent rust, which is differentiated as scraped and hit according to the way it is obtained, from both steels was found to be composed of akaganeite, spinel phase, goethite exhibiting broad distribution of particle sizes and lepidocrocite. The relative abundances of rust components for both steels were very similar, suggesting similar corrosion processes. Mass loss measurements show that the corrosion rates increases with increasing the chloride concentration. The presence of large quantities of spinel phase and akaganeite are a consequence of a corrosion process under the influence of very high chloride concentrations. Our results are useful for assessing the behavior of weathering steels where the levels of chlorides are high or in contact with sea water.

  6. [Atmospheric emission of PCDD/Fs from modern dry processing cement kilns with preheating in the southwest area, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Lu, Yi; Jian, Chuan; Guo, Zhi-Shun; Zhu, Ming-Ji; Deng, Li; Sun, Jing; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Six cement kilns were measured for emissions of PCDD/Fs in the Southwest Area, China. The results indicated that the emission levels of PCDD/Fs were 0.0029-0.0062 ng-m(-3) (Average, 0.0043 ng X m(-3)) from cement kilns which did not burn solid waste, and 0.028 ng X m(-3) from co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln. The levels of PCDD/Fs emissions from cement manufacturing in the Southwest Area were significantly below the national emissions standard (0.1 ng x m(-3)). Emission factors of PCDD/Fs from the six cement kilns varied between 0.0089 and 0.084 microg x t(-1) cement, which were near or below the lowest emission factor reported by UNEP in 2005. Moreover, the emission factor of PCDD/Fs from co-processing sewage sludge in cement kiln was 7.6 times of the average factors from the other five cement kilns. Moreover,congener distribution of PCDD/F in stack gas from the two types of cement kilns was very different. The results showed that modern dry process cement kilns with preheating have lower emissions of PCDD/Fs. This suggested that the product of co-processing solid waste in cement kilns should be largely enhanced in China in future. PMID:24720182

  7. Transformation characteristics of organic pollutants in Fered-Fenton process for dry-spun acrylic fiber wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian; Song, Yonghui; Meng, Xiaoguang; Tu, Xiang; Pic, Jean-Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The Fered-Fenton process using Ti sheet as cathode and RuO2/Ti as anode was employed for the pretreatment of dry-spun acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater. The effects of feeding mode and concentration of H2O2 on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency as well as the biodegradability variation during the Fered-Fenton process were investigated. The feeding mode of H2O2 had significant influence on COD removal efficiency: the removal efficiency was 44.8% if all the 60.0 mM H2O2 was fed at once, while it could reach 54.1% if the total H2O2 was divided into six portions and fed six times. The biochemical oxygen demand/COD ratio increased from 0.29 to above 0.68 after 180 min treatment. The transformation characteristics of organic pollutants during the Fered-Fenton process were evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. Most of the refractory organic pollutants with aromatic structure or large molecular weight were decomposed during the Fered-Fenton process.

  8. Controlling the drying and film formation processes of polymer solution droplets with addition of small amount of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Wataru; Okuzono, Tohru; Doi, Masao

    2009-11-26

    We studied how the addition of surfactants alters the drying and film formation processes of polymer solution droplets with contact lines strongly fixed by bank structures. We found that even if the amount of surfactant is quite small, it drastically changes the final profile of the polymer film from a ringlike profile to a flat profile. This property is observed commonly, irrespective of the polymer concentration, droplet volume, and type of solvent. We conjecture that the inhomogeneous distribution of the surfactant caused by the outward capillary flow induces the Marangoni flow directed toward the center of the droplet, which suppresses the outward flow. The present phenomenon implies an effective method for controlling the profile of the polymer film in inkjet printing technologies.

  9. A Drying-Free, Water-Based Process for Fabricating Mixed-Matrix Membranes with Outstanding Pervaporation Performance.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu-Heng; Chen, Jung-Tsai; Chang, Chia-Hao; Liao, Kuo-Sung; Tung, Kuo-Lun; Price, William E; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Wu, Kevin C-W

    2016-10-01

    Despite much progress in the development of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) for many advanced applications, the synthesis of MMMs without particle agglomeration or phase separation at high nanofiller loadings is still challenging. In this work, we synthesized nanoporous zeolitic imidazole framework (ZIF-8) nanoparticles with a particle size of 60 nm and a pore size of 0.34 nm in water and directly added them into an aqueous solution of the organic polymer poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) without an intermediate drying process. This approach led to a high-quality PVA/ZIF-8 MMM with enhanced performance in ethanol dehydration by pervaporation. The permeability of this MMM is three times higher than that of pristine PVA, and the separation factor is nearly nine times larger than that of pristine PVA. The significantly improved separation performance was attributed to the increase in the fractional free volume in the membranes. PMID:27619343

  10. Preparation of Pt Nanocatalyst on Carbon Materials via a Reduction Reaction of a Pt Precursor in a Drying Process.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Young; Lee, Woo-Kum; Rim, Hyung-Ryul; Joung, Gyu-Bum; Weidner, John W; Lee, Hong-Ki

    2016-06-01

    Platinum (Pt) nanocatalyst for a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was prepared on a carbon black particle or a graphite particle coated with a nafion polymer via a reduction of platinum(II) bis(acetylacetonate) denoted as Pt(acac)2 as a Pt precursor in a drying process. Sublimed Pt(acac)2 adsorbed on the nafion-coated carbon materials was reduced to Pt nanoparticles in a glass reactor at 180 degrees C of N2 atmosphere. The morphology of Pt nanoparticles on carbon materials was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the distribution of Pt nanoparticles was done by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size was estimated by analyzing the TEM image using an image analyzer. It was found that nano-sized Pt particles were deposited on the surface of carbon materials, and the number density and the average particle size increased with increasing reduction time. PMID:27427723

  11. Field guide to the major organisms and processes building reefs and islands of the Dry Tortugas: the Carnegie Dry Tortugas Laboratory Centennial Celebration (1905-2005)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, Eugene A.; Jaap, Walter C.

    2005-01-01

    This guide to the geology and biology of the Dry Tortugas is divided into four sections: 1) geologic and anthropogenic features you will pass on your trip to and from the Tortugas, 2) a summary of items of Tortugas geologic, historic, and human interest and what you will experience at Loggerhead Key while walking and snorkeling, 3) a summary of recent coral-monitoring results, and 4) an Appendix with tributes to some of the significant research accomplishments of researchers at the laboratory between 1905 and 1939.

  12. Dry powder process for preparing uni-tape prepreg from polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Steven P. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Marchello, Joseph M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A process for preparing uni-tape prepreg from polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs is provided. A plurality of polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs are provided. The towpregs are collimated so that each towpreg is parallel. A material is applied to each side of the towpreg to form a sandwich. The sandwich is heated to a temperature wherein the polymer flows and intimately contacts the filaments and pressure is repeatedly applied perpendicularly to the sandwich with a longitudinal oscillating action wherein the filaments move apart and the polymer wets the filaments forming a uni-tape prepreg. The uni-tape prepreg is subsequently cooled.

  13. A Dry Powder Process for Preparing Uni-Tape Prepreg from Polymer Powder Coated Filamentary Towpregs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Steven P. (Inventor); Johnston, Norman J. (Inventor); Marchello, Joseph M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A process for preparing uni-tape prepreg from polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs is provided. A plurality of polymer powder coated filamentary towpregs are provided. The towpregs are collimated so that each towpreg is parallel. The sandwich is heated to a temperature wherein the polymer flows and intimately contacts the filaments and pressure is repeatedly applied perpendicularly to the sandwich with a longitudinal oscillating action wherein the filaments move apart and the polymer wets the filaments forming a uni-tape prepreg. The uni-tape prepreg is subsequently cooled.

  14. Hyperinflation of surfaces in lower Beacon Valley, Dry Valleys, Antarctica: new process and new clues about fluctuations of Taylor Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sletten, R. S.; Hallet, B.; Hagedorn, B.; Stone, J.

    2009-12-01

    Soil inflation in dry environments is a common occurrence in areas where extensive desert pavements overlie silt-size particles of eolian origin. Another type of surface inflation, which we term hyperinflation, has been documented in the Dry Valleys where fines drop into contraction cracks that annually open and close 0.5 to 1.5 cm. Particles of local or eolian origin that are smaller than the crack opening can fall into the cracks,. We have cored over 30 m into such a hyperinflated surface in lower Beacon Valley. Large clasts several cm to over 10 m are suspended on top of the finer sediments leading to the characteristic rocky surface of Beacon Valley. These processes have been active over at least several million years based on cosmogenic 10 Be and 26 Al profiles with depth. This new hyperinflation has much in common with the progressive addition of ice into the permafrost in Siberia forming the classic edoma or ice-wedge complexes. We propose that these “sand-wedge complexes” form in a similar way but are only sand because liquid water seldom forms in sufficient amounts to fill the contraction cracks in the hyperarid Beacon Valley. Furthermore, our analysis of a 10-m core collected earlier reveal historical waxing and waning of the Taylor Glacier over lower Beacon Valley in the past several million years; one of these incursions of ice may be responsible for the formation of buried glacial ice found in middle Beacon Valley. We are currently processing our 30-m core and believe that this will improve definition of the extent and chronology of Taylor Glacier advances.

  15. Dry hair

    MedlinePlus

    Some causes of dry hair are: Anorexia nervosa Excessive hair washing, or using harsh soaps or alcohols Excessive blow-drying Dry air Menkes kinky hair syndrome Malnutrition Underactive parathyroid ( ...

  16. Estimation of torque transmitted by clutch during shifting process for dry dual clutch transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; He, Lu; Yang, Yunyun; Wu, Chaochun; Li, Xueyan; Karl Hedrick, J.

    2016-06-01

    The key toward realizing no-impact gear shifting for dual clutch transmission (DCT) lies in the coordination control between the engine and dual clutches, as well as the accurate closed-loop control of torque transmitted by each clutch and the output torque of the engine. However, the implementation and control precision of closed-loop control are completely dependent on the effective measurement or estimation of the instant transmission torque of the clutch. This study analyzes the DCT shifting process, and builds a three-dimensional (3D) clutch model and mathematical model of a DCT vehicle powertrain system. The torque transmitted by a twin clutch during the upshifting process is estimated by applying the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm. Then, the torque estimation algorithm is verified using a DCT prototype vehicle installed with a torque sensor on the drive half-shaft. The experimental results show that the designed UKF torque estimation algorithm can estimate the transmission torques of two clutches in real time; further, it can be directly used for DCT shift control and improving the shifting quality.

  17. Molecular Mechanisms and Evolutionary Processes Contributing to Accelerated Divergence of Gene Expression on the Drosophila X Chromosome.

    PubMed

    Coolon, Joseph D; Stevenson, Kraig R; McManus, C Joel; Yang, Bing; Graveley, Brenton R; Wittkopp, Patricia J

    2015-10-01

    In species with a heterogametic sex, population genetics theory predicts that DNA sequences on the X chromosome can evolve faster than comparable sequences on autosomes. Both neutral and nonneutral evolutionary processes can generate this pattern. Complex traits like gene expression are not predicted to have accelerated evolution by these theories, yet a "faster-X" pattern of gene expression divergence has recently been reported for both Drosophila and mammals. Here, we test the hypothesis that accelerated adaptive evolution of cis-regulatory sequences on the X chromosome is responsible for this pattern by comparing the relative contributions of cis- and trans-regulatory changes to patterns of faster-X expression divergence observed between strains and species of Drosophila with a range of divergence times. We find support for this hypothesis, especially among male-biased genes, when comparing different species. However, we also find evidence that trans-regulatory differences contribute to a faster-X pattern of expression divergence both within and between species. This contribution is surprising because trans-acting regulators of X-linked genes are generally assumed to be randomly distributed throughout the genome. We found, however, that X-linked transcription factors appear to preferentially regulate expression of X-linked genes, providing a potential mechanistic explanation for this result. The contribution of trans-regulatory variation to faster-X expression divergence was larger within than between species, suggesting that it is more likely to result from neutral processes than positive selection. These data show how accelerated evolution of both coding and noncoding sequences on the X chromosome can lead to accelerated expression divergence on the X chromosome relative to autosomes.

  18. Molecular Mechanisms and Evolutionary Processes Contributing to Accelerated Divergence of Gene Expression on the Drosophila X Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Coolon, Joseph D.; Stevenson, Kraig R.; McManus, C. Joel; Yang, Bing; Graveley, Brenton R.; Wittkopp, Patricia J.

    2015-01-01

    In species with a heterogametic sex, population genetics theory predicts that DNA sequences on the X chromosome can evolve faster than comparable sequences on autosomes. Both neutral and nonneutral evolutionary processes can generate this pattern. Complex traits like gene expression are not predicted to have accelerated evolution by these theories, yet a “faster-X” pattern of gene expression divergence has recently been reported for both Drosophila and mammals. Here, we test the hypothesis that accelerated adaptive evolution of cis-regulatory sequences on the X chromosome is responsible for this pattern by comparing the relative contributions of cis- and trans-regulatory changes to patterns of faster-X expression divergence observed between strains and species of Drosophila with a range of divergence times. We find support for this hypothesis, especially among male-biased genes, when comparing different species. However, we also find evidence that trans-regulatory differences contribute to a faster-X pattern of expression divergence both within and between species. This contribution is surprising because trans-acting regulators of X-linked genes are generally assumed to be randomly distributed throughout the genome. We found, however, that X-linked transcription factors appear to preferentially regulate expression of X-linked genes, providing a potential mechanistic explanation for this result. The contribution of trans-regulatory variation to faster-X expression divergence was larger within than between species, suggesting that it is more likely to result from neutral processes than positive selection. These data show how accelerated evolution of both coding and noncoding sequences on the X chromosome can lead to accelerated expression divergence on the X chromosome relative to autosomes. PMID:26041937

  19. Accelerating the commercialization of university technologies for military healthcare applications: the role of the proof of concept process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Rosibel; DeLong, Hal; Kenyon, Jessica; Wilson, Eli

    2011-06-01

    The von Liebig Center for Entrepreneurism and Technology Advancement at UC San Diego (vonliebig.ucsd.edu) is focused on accelerating technology transfer and commercialization through programs and education on entrepreneurism. Technology Acceleration Projects (TAPs) that offer pre-venture grants and extensive mentoring on technology commercialization are a key component of its model which has been developed over the past ten years with the support of a grant from the von Liebig Foundation. In 2010, the von Liebig Entrepreneurism Center partnered with the U.S. Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), to develop a regional model of Technology Acceleration Program initially focused on military research to be deployed across the nation to increase awareness of military medical needs and to accelerate the commercialization of novel technologies to treat the patient. Participants to these challenges are multi-disciplinary teams of graduate students and faculty in engineering, medicine and business representing universities and research institutes in a region, selected via a competitive process, who receive commercialization assistance and funding grants to support translation of their research discoveries into products or services. To validate this model, a pilot program focused on commercialization of wireless healthcare technologies targeting campuses in Southern California has been conducted with the additional support of Qualcomm, Inc. Three projects representing three different universities in Southern California were selected out of forty five applications from ten different universities and research institutes. Over the next twelve months, these teams will conduct proof of concept studies, technology development and preliminary market research to determine the commercial feasibility of their technologies. This first regional program will help build the needed tools and processes to adapt and replicate this model across other regions in the

  20. Neutron activation processes simulation in an Elekta medical linear accelerator head.

    PubMed

    Juste, B; Miró, R; Verdú, G; Díez, S; Campayo, J M

    2014-01-01

    Monte Carlo estimation of the giant-dipole-resonance (GRN) photoneutrons inside the Elekta Precise LINAC head (emitting a 15 MV photon beam) were performed using the MCNP6 (general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle code, version 6). Each component of LINAC head geometry and materials were modelled in detail using the given manufacturer information. Primary photons generate photoneutrons and its transport across the treatment head was simulated, including the (n, γ) reactions which undergo activation products. The MCNP6 was used to develop a method for quantifying the activation of accelerator components. The approach described in this paper is useful in quantifying the origin and the amount of nuclear activation.

  1. Laser Processing on the Surface of Niobium Superconducting Radio-Frequency Accelerator Cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singaravelu, Senthilraja; Klopf, Michael; Krafft, Geoffrey; Kelley, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Superconducting Radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are at the heart of an increasing number of particle accelerators.~ Their performance is dominated by a several nm thick layer at the interior surface. ~Maximizing its smoothness is found to be critical and aggressive chemical treatments are employed to this end.~ We describe laser-induced surface melting as an alternative ``greener'' approach.~ Modeling guided selection of parameters for irradiation with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.~ The resulting topography was examined by SEM, AFM and Stylus Profilometry.

  2. A review of advanced small-scale parallel bioreactor technology for accelerated process development: current state and future need.

    PubMed

    Bareither, Rachel; Pollard, David

    2011-01-01

    The pharmaceutical and biotech industries face continued pressure to reduce development costs and accelerate process development. This challenge occurs alongside the need for increased upstream experimentation to support quality by design initiatives and the pursuit of predictive models from systems biology. A small scale system enabling multiple reactions in parallel (n ≥ 20), with automated sampling and integrated to purification, would provide significant improvement (four to fivefold) to development timelines. State of the art attempts to pursue high throughput process development include shake flasks, microfluidic reactors, microtiter plates and small-scale stirred reactors. The limitations of these systems are compared to desired criteria to mimic large scale commercial processes. The comparison shows that significant technological improvement is still required to provide automated solutions that can speed upstream process development.

  3. Evaluation of Drying Process on the Composition of Black Pepper Ethanolic Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography With Diode Array Detector

    PubMed Central

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Hejazi, Hoda; Ramezani, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is one of the well-known spices extensively used worldwide especially in India, and Southeast Asia. The presence of alkaloids in the pepper, namely, piperine and its three stereoisomers, isopiperine, chavicine and isochavicine are well noticed. Objectives The current study evaluated the effect of lyophilization and oven drying on the stability and decomposition of constituents of black pepper ethanolic extract. Materials and Methods In the current study ethanolic extract of black pepper obtained by maceration method was dried using two methods. The effect of freeze and oven drying on the chemical composition of the extract especially piperine and its three isomers were evaluated by HPLC analysis of the ethanolic extract before and after drying processes using diode array detector. The UV Vis spectra of the peaks at piperine retention time before and after each drying methods indicated maximum absorbance at 341.2 nm corresponding to standard piperine. Results The results indicated a decrease in intensity of the chromatogram peaks at approximately all retention times after freeze drying, indicating a few percent loss of piperine and its isomers upon lyophilization. Two impurity peaks were completely removed from the extract. Conclusions In oven dried samples two of the piperine stereoisomers were completely removed from the extract and the intensity of piperine peak was increased. PMID:24624176

  4. Improved laser damage threshold performance of calcium fluoride optical surfaces via Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, S.; Walsh, M.; Svrluga, R.; Thomas, M.

    2015-11-01

    Optics are not keeping up with the pace of laser advancements. The laser industry is rapidly increasing its power capabilities and reducing wavelengths which have exposed the optics as a weak link in lifetime failures for these advanced systems. Nanometer sized surface defects (scratches, pits, bumps and residual particles) on the surface of optics are a significant limiting factor to high end performance. Angstrom level smoothing of materials such as calcium fluoride, spinel, magnesium fluoride, zinc sulfide, LBO and others presents a unique challenge for traditional polishing techniques. Exogenesis Corporation, using its new and proprietary Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) technology, is able to remove nano-scale surface damage and particle contamination leaving many material surfaces with roughness typically around one Angstrom. This surface defect mitigation via ANAB processing can be shown to increase performance properties of high intensity optical materials. This paper describes the ANAB technology and summarizes smoothing results for calcium fluoride laser windows. It further correlates laser damage threshold improvements with the smoothing produced by ANAB surface treatment. All ANAB processing was performed at Exogenesis Corporation using an nAccel100TM Accelerated Particle Beam processing tool. All surface measurement data for the paper was produced via AFM analysis on a Park Model XE70 AFM, and all laser damage testing was performed at Spica Technologies, Inc. Exogenesis Corporation's ANAB processing technology is a new and unique surface modification technique that has demonstrated to be highly effective at correcting nano-scale surface defects. ANAB is a non-contact vacuum process comprised of an intense beam of accelerated, electrically neutral gas atoms with average energies of a few tens of electron volts. The ANAB process does not apply mechanical forces associated with traditional polishing techniques. ANAB efficiently removes surface

  5. Monitoring of NMR porosity changes in the full-size core salvage through the drying process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattakhov, Artur; Kosarev, Victor; Doroginitskii, Mikhail; Skirda, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    between the measurements is from 1 hour to 48 hours. Making the measurements it possible to draw conclusions about that the processes of NMR porosity changes in time as a result of evaporation of the part of fluid from the surface layer of the core salvage and suggest a core analysis technique directly on the well. This work is supported by the grant of Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (project No. 02.G25.31.0029).

  6. Acceleration{endash}deceleration process of thin foils confined in water and submitted to laser driven shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Romain, J.P.; Auroux, E.

    1997-08-01

    An experimental, numerical, and analytical study of the acceleration and deceleration process of thin metallic foils immersed in water and submitted to laser driven shocks is presented. Aluminum and copper foils of 20 to 120 {mu}m thickness, confined on both sides by water, have been irradiated at 1.06 {mu}m wavelength by laser pulses of {approximately}20ns duration, {approximately}17J energy, and {approximately}4GW/cm{sup 2} incident intensity. Time resolved velocity measurements have been made, using an electromagnetic velocity gauge. The recorded velocity profiles reveal an acceleration{endash}deceleration process, with a peak velocity up to 650 m/s. Predicted profiles from numerical simulations reproduce all experimental features, such as wave reverberations, rate of increase and decrease of velocity, peak velocity, effects of nature, and thickness of the foils. A shock pressure of about 2.5 GPa is inferred from the velocity measurements. Experimental points on the evolution of plasma pressure are derived from the measurements of peak velocities. An analytical description of the acceleration{endash}deceleration process, involving multiple shock and release waves reflecting on both sides of the foils, is presented. The space{endash}time diagrams of waves propagation and the successive pressure{endash}particle velocity states are determined, from which theoretical velocity profiles are constructed. All characteristics of experimental records and numerical simulations are well reproduced. The role of foil nature and thickness, in relation with the shock impedance of the materials, appears explicitly. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Analysis of Pseudo-polymorphism Conversion of Theophylline During Wet Granulation and Drying Processes and Effect of Binder on Dehydration and Amorphization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Katori, Noriko; Goda, Yukihiro

    2016-05-01

    We conducted a time-course analysis of the pseudo-polymorphism conversion (i.e., the hydration and dehydration) of the xanthine-related compound theophylline during wet granulation and drying processes, using terahertz spectroscopy. We also investigated the amorphization mechanism of theophylline hydrate during a drying process in a vacuum using terahertz, mid-infrared (mid-IR), and near-infrared (near-IR) spectroscopy. After a high-shear granulation process using a mixture of theophylline, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), and water, the terahertz spectrum (which was similar to that of an anhydride) was changed to a spectrum that was quite similar to that of a monohydrate. This result suggests that (1) an anhydride was converted to a monohydrate during the wet granulation process and (2) the spectrum was changed to the original waveform after the drying process with heat. This phenomenon indicates that the theophylline monohydrate was reconverted to an anhydride during the drying process. When wet granules were dried in a vacuum, the terahertz absorption lessened and finally disappeared with the passage of time, suggesting that the theophylline monohydrate in the granules was converted to an amorphous state. During the drying process with heat, the dehydration progressed temperature dependently regardless of the presence/absence of HPC. In addition, the reconversion from a monohydrate to an anhydride was completed concurrently with the completion of dehydration. The conversion rate of theophylline from a monohydrate to an amorphous form in granules (with HPC) was faster than that without HPC. This observation suggests that HPC promotes the amorphization of theophylline.

  8. Analysis of Pseudo-polymorphism Conversion of Theophylline During Wet Granulation and Drying Processes and Effect of Binder on Dehydration and Amorphization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Tetsuo; Katori, Noriko; Goda, Yukihiro

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a time-course analysis of the pseudo-polymorphism conversion (i.e., the hydration and dehydration) of the xanthine-related compound theophylline during wet granulation and drying processes, using terahertz spectroscopy. We also investigated the amorphization mechanism of theophylline hydrate during a drying process in a vacuum using terahertz, mid-infrared (mid-IR), and near-infrared (near-IR) spectroscopy. After a high-shear granulation process using a mixture of theophylline, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), and water, the terahertz spectrum (which was similar to that of an anhydride) was changed to a spectrum that was quite similar to that of a monohydrate. This result suggests that (1) an anhydride was converted to a monohydrate during the wet granulation process and (2) the spectrum was changed to the original waveform after the drying process with heat. This phenomenon indicates that the theophylline monohydrate was reconverted to an anhydride during the drying process. When wet granules were dried in a vacuum, the terahertz absorption lessened and finally disappeared with the passage of time, suggesting that the theophylline monohydrate in the granules was converted to an amorphous state. During the drying process with heat, the dehydration progressed temperature dependently regardless of the presence/absence of HPC. In addition, the reconversion from a monohydrate to an anhydride was completed concurrently with the completion of dehydration. The conversion rate of theophylline from a monohydrate to an amorphous form in granules (with HPC) was faster than that without HPC. This observation suggests that HPC promotes the amorphization of theophylline.

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-11 - Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN... vegetables), including cured figs and dates, raisins, nuts, and dried beans and peas, may be imported...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-11 - Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN... vegetables), including cured figs and dates, raisins, nuts, and dried beans and peas, may be imported...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-11 - Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN... vegetables), including cured figs and dates, raisins, nuts, and dried beans and peas, may be imported...

  12. 7 CFR 319.56-11 - Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN... vegetables), including cured figs and dates, raisins, nuts, and dried beans and peas, may be imported...

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-11 - Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN... vegetables), including cured figs and dates, raisins, nuts, and dried beans and peas, may be imported...

  14. Impact absorption of four processed soft denture liners as influenced by accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Kawano, F; Koran, A; Nuryanti, A; Inoue, S

    1997-01-01

    The cushioning effect of soft denture liners was evaluated by using a free drop test with an accelerometer. Materials tested included SuperSoft (Coe Laboratories, Chicago, IL), Kurepeet-Dough (Kreha Chemical, Tokyo), Molteno Soft (Molten, Hiroshima, Japan), and Molloplast-B (Molloplast Regneri, Karlsruhe, Germany). All materials were found to reduce the impact force when compared to acrylic denture base resin. A 2.4-mm layer of soft denture material demonstrated good impact absorption, and Molloplast-B and Molteno had excellent impact absorption. When the soft denture liner was kept in an accelerated aging chamber for 900 hours, the damping effect recorded increased for all materials tested. Aging of all materials also affected the cushioning effect.

  15. Studies of $${\\rm Nb}_{3}{\\rm Sn}$$ Strands Based on the Restacked-Rod Process for High Field Accelerator Magnets

    DOE PAGES

    Barzi, E.; Bossert, M.; Gallo, G.; Lombardo, V.; Turrioni, D.; Yamada, R.; Zlobin, A. V.

    2011-12-21

    A major thrust in Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D program is the development of Nb3Sn wires which meet target requirements for high field magnets, such as high critical current density, low effective filament size, and the capability to withstand the cabling process. The performance of a number of strands with 150/169 restack design produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology was studied for round and deformed wires. To optimize the maximum plastic strain, finite element modeling was also used as an aid in the design. Results of mechanical, transport and metallographic analyses are presented for round and deformed wires.

  16. Young coconut juice can accelerate the healing process of cutaneous wounds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Estrogen has been reported to accelerate cutaneous wound healing. This research studies the effect of young coconut juice (YCJ), presumably containing estrogen-like substances, on cutaneous wound healing in ovairectomized rats. Methods Four groups of female rats (6 in each group) were included in this study. These included sham-operated, ovariectomized (ovx), ovx receiving estradiol benzoate (EB) injections intraperitoneally, and ovx receiving YCJ orally. Two equidistant 1-cm full-thickness skin incisional wounds were made two weeks after ovariectomy. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the third and the fourth week of the study, and their serum estradiol (E2) level was measured by chemiluminescent immunoassay. The skin was excised and examined in histological sections stained with H&E, and immunostained using anti-estrogen receptor (ER-α an ER-β) antibodies. Results Wound healing was accelerated in ovx rats receiving YCJ, as compared to controls. This was associated with significantly higher density of immunostaining for ER-α an ER-β in keratinocytes, fibroblasts, white blood cells, fat cells, sebaceous gland, skeletal muscles, and hair shafts and follicles. This was also associated with thicker epidermis and dermis, but with thinner hypodermis. In addition, the number and size of immunoreactive hair follicles for both ER-α and ER-β were the highest in the ovx+YCJ group, as compared to the ovx+EB group. Conclusions This study demonstrates that YCJ has estrogen-like characteristics, which in turn seem to have beneficial effects on cutaneous wound healing. PMID:23234369

  17. Real-time dual-mode standard/complex Fourier-domain OCT system using graphics processing unit accelerated 4D signal processing and visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kang; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-03-01

    We realized a real-time dual-mode standard/complex Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system using graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated 4D (3D+time) signal processing and visualization. For both standard and complex FD-OCT modes, the signal processing tasks were implemented on a dual-GPUs architecture that included λ-to-k spectral re-sampling, fast Fourier transform (FFT), modified Hilbert transform, logarithmic-scaling, and volume rendering. The maximum A-scan processing speeds achieved are >3,000,000 line/s for the standard 1024-pixel-FD-OCT, and >500,000 line/s for the complex 1024-pixel-FD-OCT. Multiple volumerendering of the same 3D data set were preformed and displayed with different view angles. The GPU-acceleration technique is highly cost-effective and can be easily integrated into most ultrahigh speed FD-OCT systems to overcome the 3D data processing and visualization bottlenecks.

  18. Effect of chemical composition and high pressure processing on the volatile fraction of Serrano dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Onandi, Nerea; Rivas-Cañedo, Ana; Nuñez, Manuel; Picon, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    The volatile fraction of 30 Serrano dry-cured hams with different salt and intramuscular fat contents was investigated. In addition, the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) at 600 MPa for 6 min at 21°C on the volatile compounds of those hams was studied. One hundred volatile compounds were identified and their levels subjected to analysis of variance with ham chemical composition (aw, salt content, intramuscular fat content and salt in lean ratio) and HPP treatment as main effects. Chemical composition mainly affected the relative abundance of acids, alcohols, branched-chain aldehydes, ketones, benzene compounds, sulfur compounds and some miscellaneous compounds. Salt content and fat content influenced a greater number of volatile compounds than aw. High pressure processing had a significant effect on only 8 volatile compounds, with higher levels of methanethiol and sulfur dioxide in HPP-treated samples and higher levels of ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide in control untreated samples. PMID:26398007

  19. Effect of chemical composition and high pressure processing on the volatile fraction of Serrano dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Onandi, Nerea; Rivas-Cañedo, Ana; Nuñez, Manuel; Picon, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    The volatile fraction of 30 Serrano dry-cured hams with different salt and intramuscular fat contents was investigated. In addition, the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) at 600 MPa for 6 min at 21°C on the volatile compounds of those hams was studied. One hundred volatile compounds were identified and their levels subjected to analysis of variance with ham chemical composition (aw, salt content, intramuscular fat content and salt in lean ratio) and HPP treatment as main effects. Chemical composition mainly affected the relative abundance of acids, alcohols, branched-chain aldehydes, ketones, benzene compounds, sulfur compounds and some miscellaneous compounds. Salt content and fat content influenced a greater number of volatile compounds than aw. High pressure processing had a significant effect on only 8 volatile compounds, with higher levels of methanethiol and sulfur dioxide in HPP-treated samples and higher levels of ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide in control untreated samples.

  20. Optimization of spray-drying conditions for the large-scale preparation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis after downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Prabakaran, G; Hoti, S L

    2008-05-01

    Reduction of water activity in the formulations of mosquito biocontrol agent, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis is very important for long term and successful storage. A protocol for spray drying of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis was developed through optimizing parameters such as inlet temperature and atomization type. A indigenous isolate of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis (VCRC B-17) was dried by freeze and spray drying methods and the moisture content and mosquito larvicidal activity of materials produced by the two methods were compared. The larvicidal activity was checked against early fourth instars Aedes aegypti larvae. Results showed that the freeze-dried powders retained the larvicidal activity fairly well. The spray-dried powder moderately lost its larvicidal activity at different inlet temperatures. Between the two types of atomization, centrifugal atomization retained more activity than the nozzle type atomization. Optimum inlet temperature for both centrifugal and nozzle atomization was 160 degrees C. Keeping the outlet temperature constant at 70 degrees C the moisture contents for the spray-dried powders through centrifugal atomization and freeze-dried powders were 10.23% and 11.80%, respectively. The LC(50) values for the spray-dried and freeze-dried powders were 17.42 and 16.18 ng/mL, respectively. Spore count of materials before drying was 3 x 10(10) cfu/mL and after spray drying through nozzle and centrifugal atomization at inlet and outlet temperature of 160 degrees C/70 degrees C were 2.6 x 10(9) and 5.0 x 10(9) cfu/mL, respectively.

  1. Freeze-Drying of L-Arginine/Sucrose-Based Protein Formulations, Part 2: Optimization of Formulation Design and Freeze-Drying Process Conditions for an L-Arginine Chloride-Based Protein Formulation System.

    PubMed

    Stärtzel, Peter; Gieseler, Henning; Gieseler, Margit; Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad M; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Goldbach, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    We recently reported that the presence of chloride counter ions in freeze-dried l-arginine/sucrose formulations provided the greatest protein stability, but led to low collapse temperatures and glass transition temperatures of the freeze concentrates. The objectives of this study were to identify l-arginine chloride-based formulations and optimize freeze-drying process conditions to deliver a freeze-dried product with good physical quality attributes (including cake appearance, residual moisture, and reconstitution time). Additional properties were tested such as thermal properties, cake microstructure, and protein physical stability. Excipient concentrations were varied with and without a model protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA). Formulations were frozen with and without annealing or with and without controlled nucleation. Primary drying was conducted at high and low shelf temperature. Cakes with least defects and optimum physical attributes were achieved when protein to excipient ratios were high. Controlled nucleation led to elegant cakes for most systems at a low shelf temperature. Replacing BSA by a monoclonal antibody showed that protein (physical) stability was slightly improved under stress storage temperature (i.e., 40°C) in the presence of a low concentration of l-arginine in a sucrose-based formulation. At higher l-arginine concentrations, cake defects increased. Using optimized formulation design, addition of l-arginine chloride to a sucrose-based formulation provided elegant cakes and benefits for protein stability.

  2. Changes in the phenolic acid content during commercial dry-grind processing of corn to ethanol and DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine fractions (ground corn-1, cooked slurry-2, liquefied slurry-3, fermented mash-4, whole stillage-5, thin stillage-6, condensed distillers soluble (CDS)-7, distillers wet grains (DWG)-8, and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS)-9) were collected from three commercial dry-grind bioethanol ...

  3. Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli show strain dependent reductions under dry-fermented sausage production and post-processing conditions.

    PubMed

    Rode, Tone Mari; Holck, Askild; Axelsson, Lars; Høy, Martin; Heir, Even

    2012-04-16

    Dry-fermented sausages (DFS) are considered possible risk products regarding Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC). We have compared the reduction of 11 E. coli isolates of various serogroups in salami during the sausage production process and during post-process measures including storage, heating and freezing. The 11 E. coli isolates, mainly STEC, included enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) outbreak strains linked to DFS along with apathogenic E. coli. During sausage production, there was a statistically significant difference in reduction between the E. coli strains ranging from 1.3 to 2.4 log₁₀ (p<0.001). When sausages were subjected to post-process heat treatment of 43 °C for 24 h, a total reduction of more than 5 log₁₀ was obtained for all E. coli isolates. Freezing and thawing of DFS with subsequent storage for 1 month at 16 or 20 °C generally contributed to large E. coli reductions with the latter conditions giving an average additional 3.9 log₁₀ reduction, with a range from 3.4 to 4.4 log₁₀. The combination of freezing and 1 month of storage gave higher reductions compared with storage for 2 months for all examined temperatures. No systematic differences in survival of E. coli of different serogroups were detected for the different post-process measures. The reductions were also similar to those of apathogenic control isolates. Isolates showing higher survival during the ripening process did not have a lower reduction when exposed to post-process stress like storage, heating and freezing. The ability of the isolates to survive in salami was also compared with their survival at equivalent conditions in a tryptic soy broth (TSB) model. There was a low and not significant correlation (p>0.1) between the reductions of E. coli in salami and in the TSB broth model. Results based on broth models and/or single or surrogate strains must therefore be interpreted with caution. The EHEC reducing post-processing measures tested can easily be

  4. Effect of co-solutes and process variables on crystallinity and the crystal form of freeze-dried myo-inositol.

    PubMed

    Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Kusano, Riho; Arai, Ryoko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Ito, Masataka; Shibata, Hiroko; Sugano, Kiyohiko; Goda, Yukihiro; Terada, Katsuhide

    2016-07-25

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate how co-solutes affect the crystallization of small solute molecules during freeze-drying and subsequent storage. Crystallization profiles of myo-inositol and its mixture with dextran 40k in frozen solutions and dried solids were assessed by thermal analysis (DSC), powder-X-ray diffraction, and simultaneous DSC and PXRD analysis. Higher mass ratios of dextran maintained myo-inositol in the non-crystalline mixture state, in frozen solutions, during freeze-drying process, and exposure of dried solids to higher temperatures. Co-lyophilization with a lower mass ratio of dextran resulted in solids containing a variety of myo-inositol crystal forms and crystallinity depending on the composition and thermal history of the process. Heating of some inositol-rich amorphous solids showed crystallization of myo-inositol in the metastable form and its transition to stable form before melting. Heat-treatment of inositol-rich frozen solutions resulted in high crystallinity stable-form inositol solids, leaving dextran in the amorphous state. Sufficient direct molecular interactions (e.g., hydrogen bonding) should explain the stability of dextran-rich amorphous solids. Optimizing solute composition and processes should be a potent way to control crystal form and crystallinity of components in freeze-dried formulations. PMID:27282535

  5. Evaluation of polyphenol contents in differently processed apricots using accelerated solvent extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Selım; Erdemoğlu, Sema

    2011-11-01

    Concentrations of 17 polyphenols in ripe-fresh, sun-dried and sulfited-dried apricots either harvested from organic or pesticide-treated trees before harvest were determined using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-Vis diode array detector, and the change of polyphenol profile with origin of the apricot product was established. Extraction of polyphenols was achieved using the accelerated solvent extraction technique (ASE). A mixture of methanol, water (70:30 v/v) including 0.1 g of tert-butylhydroquinone as solvent, 60 min extraction time, 60°C temperature and 1,500 psi pressure were found the most productive operating conditions for ASE. Concentrations of polyphenols in organic apricots were higher than pesticide-treated samples, and roughly the same in ripe-fresh and sun-dried apricots. Polyphenol concentrations of either organic or pesticide-treated sulfited-dried apricots were lower than the ripe-fresh apricots. Considering the organic ripe-fresh apricots, there was a decrease in some polyphenol concentration in the sulfited-dried apricots compared with the ripe-fresh apricot, and the range of decrease is between 1.4 and 53%.

  6. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  7. Effects of ripening stage and steaming time on quality attributes of fat free banana snack obtained from drying process including fluidized bed puffing.

    PubMed

    Prachayawarakorn, Somkiat; Raikham, Chonlada; Soponronnarit, Somchart

    2016-02-01

    Healthy snacks have increasingly been interested in consumers. Puffing technique is an alternative to produce healthy snacks. Effects of ripening stage of banana and steaming time on quality of banana slices obtained from drying process including fluidized bed puffing were investigated. Bananas at the ripening stages 1 and 3 were steamed at 100 °C for 30 s up to 2 min and dried at 90 °C to moisture content of 25 % dry basis (d.b.). The samples were then puffed by fluidized bed dryer at 160 °C for 2 min and dried at the same temperature as the first stage drying. The experimental results showed that shrinkage, drying time, color, glycemic index and textural properties were affected by steaming time and ripening stage. Steaming provided more uniformity of banana color. Steaming positively or negatively affected the degree shrinkage of banana depending on the ripening stage. The banana texture in particular crispiness could be improved by the steaming for the ripening stage 1 banana whilst it did not improve for the ripening stage 3. During steaming, the C-type crystalline structure of banana starch disappeared and thus the value of glycemic index was increased. The ripening stage 1 banana was recommended for producing healthy snack in order to control glycemic response. PMID:27162374

  8. Application of Low Level, Uniform Ultrasound Field for Acceleration of Enzymatic Bio-processing of Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic bio-processing of cotton generates significantly less hazardous wastewater effluents, which are readily biodegradable, but it also has several critical shortcomings that impede its acceptance by industries: expensive processing costs and slow reaction rates. Our research has found that th...

  9. Implications of acceleration environments on scaling materials processing in space to production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demel, Ken

    1990-01-01

    Some considerations regarding materials processing in space are covered from a commercial perspective. Key areas include power, proprietary data, operational requirements (including logistics), and also the center of gravity location, and control of that location with respect to materials processing payloads.

  10. Topographic power spectral density study of the effect of surface treatment processes on niobium for superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Reece, Hui Tian, Michael Kelley, Chen Xu

    2012-04-01

    Microroughness is viewed as a critical issue for attaining optimum performance of superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. The principal surface smoothing methods are buffered chemical polish (BCP) and electropolish (EP). The resulting topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power spectral density (PSD) of AFM data provides a more thorough description of the topography than a single-value roughness measurement. In this work, one dimensional average PSD functions derived from topography of BCP and EP with different controlled starting conditions and durations have been fitted with a combination of power law, K correlation, and shifted Gaussian models to extract characteristic parameters at different spatial harmonic scales. While the simplest characterizations of these data are not new, the systematic tracking of scale-specific roughness as a function of processing is new and offers feedback for tighter process prescriptions more knowledgably targeted at beneficial niobium topography for superconducting radio frequency applications.

  11. Effects of accelerated reading rate on processing words' syntactic functions by normal and dyslexic readers: event related potentials evidence.

    PubMed

    Breznitz, Z; Leikin, M

    2001-09-01

    In the present study, the authors examined differences in brain activity, as measured by amplitudes and latencies of event related potentials (ERP) components, in Hebrew-speaking adult dyslexic and normal readers when processing sentence components with different grammatical functions. Participants were 20 dyslexic and 20 normally reading male college students aged 18-27 years. The authors examined the processing of normal word strings in word-by-word reading of sentences having subject-verb-object (SVO) syntactic structure in self- and fast-paced conditions. Data revealed that in both reading conditions, the N100 and P300 ERP components were sensitive to internal processes such as recognition of words' grammatical functions. However, the results revealed that fast-paced reading rate might affect this process, as was reflected in the systematic changes of amplitudes and latencies of both ERP components. In accelerated reading, a significant decrease of latencies and increase of amplitudes in dyslexics were shown. It was also found that influence of fast-paced reading rate was realized in the full usage of the word-order strategy in sentence processing. In turn, this fact confirmed the hypothesis concerning a syntactic processing "weakness" in dyslexia.

  12. Accelerating solidification process simulation for large-sized system of liquid metal atoms using GPU with CUDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Liang; Li, KenLi; Shi, Lin; Liu, RangSu; Mei, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is a powerful tool to simulate and analyze complex physical processes and phenomena at atomic characteristic for predicting the natural time-evolution of a system of atoms. Precise simulation of physical processes has strong requirements both in the simulation size and computing timescale. Therefore, finding available computing resources is crucial to accelerate computation. However, a tremendous computational resource (GPGPU) are recently being utilized for general purpose computing due to its high performance of floating-point arithmetic operation, wide memory bandwidth and enhanced programmability. As for the most time-consuming component in MD simulation calculation during the case of studying liquid metal solidification processes, this paper presents a fine-grained spatial decomposition method to accelerate the computation of update of neighbor lists and interaction force calculation by take advantage of modern graphics processors units (GPU), enlarging the scale of the simulation system to a simulation system involving 10 000 000 atoms. In addition, a number of evaluations and tests, ranging from executions on different precision enabled-CUDA versions, over various types of GPU (NVIDIA 480GTX, 580GTX and M2050) to CPU clusters with different number of CPU cores are discussed. The experimental results demonstrate that GPU-based calculations are typically 9∼11 times faster than the corresponding sequential execution and approximately 1.5∼2 times faster than 16 CPU cores clusters implementations. On the basis of the simulated results, the comparisons between the theoretical results and the experimental ones are executed, and the good agreement between the two and more complete and larger cluster structures in the actual macroscopic materials are observed. Moreover, different nucleation and evolution mechanism of nano-clusters and nano-crystals formed in the processes of metal solidification is observed with large-sized system.

  13. Accelerating solidification process simulation for large-sized system of liquid metal atoms using GPU with CUDA

    SciTech Connect

    Jie, Liang; Li, KenLi; Shi, Lin; Liu, RangSu; Mei, Jing

    2014-01-15

    Molecular dynamics simulation is a powerful tool to simulate and analyze complex physical processes and phenomena at atomic characteristic for predicting the natural time-evolution of a system of atoms. Precise simulation of physical processes has strong requirements both in the simulation size and computing timescale. Therefore, finding available computing resources is crucial to accelerate computation. However, a tremendous computational resource (GPGPU) are recently being utilized for general purpose computing due to its high performance of floating-point arithmetic operation, wide memory bandwidth and enhanced programmability. As for the most time-consuming component in MD simulation calculation during the case of studying liquid metal solidification processes, this paper presents a fine-grained spatial decomposition method to accelerate the computation of update of neighbor lists and interaction force calculation by take advantage of modern graphics processors units (GPU), enlarging the scale of the simulation system to a simulation system involving 10 000 000 atoms. In addition, a number of evaluations and tests, ranging from executions on different precision enabled-CUDA versions, over various types of GPU (NVIDIA 480GTX, 580GTX and M2050) to CPU clusters with different number of CPU cores are discussed. The experimental results demonstrate that GPU-based calculations are typically 9∼11 times faster than the corresponding sequential execution and approximately 1.5∼2 times faster than 16 CPU cores clusters implementations. On the basis of the simulated results, the comparisons between the theoretical results and the experimental ones are executed, and the good agreement between the two and more complete and larger cluster structures in the actual macroscopic materials are observed. Moreover, different nucleation and evolution mechanism of nano-clusters and nano-crystals formed in the processes of metal solidification is observed with large

  14. Brightest Fermi-LAT flares of PKS 1222+216: implications on emission and acceleration processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Sahayanathan, Sunder

    2014-11-20

    We present a high time resolution study of the two brightest γ-ray outbursts from a blazar PKS 1222+216 observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in 2010. The γ-ray light curves obtained in four different energy bands, 0.1-3, 0.1-0.3, 0.3-1, and 1-3 GeV, with time bins of six hours, show asymmetric profiles with similar rise times in all the bands but a rapid decline during the April flare and a gradual one during the June flare. The light curves during the April flare show an ∼2 day long plateau in 0.1-0.3 GeV emission, erratic variations in 0.3-1 GeV emission, and a daily recurring feature in 1-3 GeV emission until the rapid rise and decline within a day. The June flare shows a monotonic rise until the peak, followed by a gradual decline powered mainly by the multi-peak 0.1-0.3 GeV emission. The peak fluxes during both the flares are similar except in the 1-3 GeV band in April, which is twice the corresponding flux during the June flare. Hardness ratios during the April flare indicate spectral hardening in the rising phase followed by softening during the decay. We attribute this behavior to the development of a shock associated with an increase in acceleration efficiency followed by its decay leading to spectral softening. The June flare suggests hardening during the rise followed by a complicated energy dependent behavior during the decay. Observed features during the June flare favor multiple emission regions while the overall flaring episode can be related to jet dynamics.

  15. Use of neural image analysis methods in the process to determine the dry matter content in the compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcieszak, D.; Przybył, J.; Lewicki, A.; Ludwiczak, A.; Przybylak, A.; Boniecki, P.; Koszela, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Przybył, K.; Witaszek, K.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was investigate the possibility of using methods of computer image analysis and artificial neural networks for to assess the amount of dry matter in the tested compost samples. The research lead to the conclusion that the neural image analysis may be a useful tool in determining the quantity of dry matter in the compost. Generated neural model may be the beginning of research into the use of neural image analysis assess the content of dry matter and other constituents of compost. The presented model RBF 19:19-2-1:1 characterized by test error 0.092189 may be more efficient.

  16. Influences of process and formulation parameters on powder flow properties and immunogenicity of spray dried polymer particles entrapping recombinant pneumococcal surface protein A.

    PubMed

    Anish, Chakkumkal; Upadhyay, Arun K; Sehgal, Devinder; Panda, Amulya Kumar

    2014-05-15

    Particle size, antigen load and its release characteristic are the three the main attributes of polymer particles based vaccine delivery systems. The present studies focus on the formulation of spray dried polylactide microparticles entrapping pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA). Influence of process variables during polymer particle formation were optimized by using half-factorial design. Feed rate and atomization pressure during spray drying were found to be the most important parameters for achieving uniform size particles. Spray drying of preformed particles from different stages of solvent evaporation method resulted in formation of particle having different porosity and protein release profile. Presence of polyvinyl alcohol in the external aqueous phase not only contributed towards regulating the size of particles but also influenced the burst release of protein from particles. Polymer particles entrapping PspA elicited robust IgG responses both in mice and in rats. Antigen load in microparticles correlated with the antibody titer indicating the maintenance of protein integrity during particle formation using spray drying. Both, process engineering and formulation parameters during spray drying influenced the particles in terms of size, load and antigen release characteristics.

  17. Torque coordinating robust control of shifting process for dry dual clutch transmission equipped in a hybrid car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.-G.; Chen, H.-J.; Yang, Y.-Y.; He, L.

    2015-09-01

    For a hybrid car equipped with dual clutch transmission (DCT), the coordination control problems of clutches and power sources are investigated while taking full advantage of the integrated starter generator motor's fast response speed and high accuracy (speed and torque). First, a dynamic model of the shifting process is established, the vehicle acceleration is quantified according to the intentions of the driver, and the torque transmitted by clutches is calculated based on the designed disengaging principle during the torque phase. Next, a robust H∞ controller is designed to ensure speed synchronisation despite the existence of model uncertainties, measurement noise, and engine torque lag. The engine torque lag and measurement noise are used as external disturbances to initially modify the output torque of the power source. Additionally, during the torque switch phase, the torque of the power sources is smoothly transitioned to the driver's demanded torque. Finally, the torque of the power sources is further distributed based on the optimisation of system efficiency, and the throttle opening of the engine is constrained to avoid sharp torque variations. The simulation results verify that the proposed control strategies effectively address the problem of coordinating control of clutches and power sources, establishing a foundation for the application of DCT in hybrid cars.

  18. Parametric Study of Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite Produced by a Novel Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Pardeep; Sharma, Satpal; Khanduja, Dinesh

    2015-07-01

    In the present research work, silicon nitride (Si3N4) and graphite (Gr) ceramic powders are ball milled to obtain homogeneous mixing and consistent density of combined powder. The ball-milled powder is used as reinforcement for hybrid composite development by stir casting process in the inert atmosphere. After mixing by ball milling for 100 hours, the density of ball-milled (Si3N4 + Gr) powder is measured as 2.81 g/cm3, which is approximately equal to the density of aluminum (2.7 g/cm3). The microstructures and hardness of the manufactured hybrid composites are analyzed and compared with Si3N4- and Gr-reinforced composites. Scanning electron micrograph reveals a reasonably uniform dispersion of ball-milled (Si3N4 + Gr) reinforcement in the metal matrix composites. Hardness results reveal that hybrid composites have more hardness than Gr-reinforced and lower hardness than Si3N4-reinforced composites. The dry sliding wear behavior of aluminum matrix hybrid composites has also been investigated. Response surface methodology is used to develop wear model of hybrid composites using reinforcement percentage ( R), load ( L), sliding speed ( S), and sliding distance ( D) as the process parameters. The results of wear investigation show that increase in sliding speed ( S) and percentage reinforcement ( R) reduce the wear, while increase in sliding distance ( D) or load ( L) increases the wear of the hybrid composites. Further, the load-sliding distance and load-sliding speed interactions increase the wear, while the wear reduces due to sliding speed-sliding distance interaction in the high range. The errors between the modeled and experimental results are found within 3 to 7 pct.

  19. Hardware acceleration of lucky-region fusion (LRF) algorithm for image acquisition and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maignan, William; Koeplinger, David; Carhart, Gary W.; Aubailly, Mathieu; Kiamilev, Fouad; Liu, J. Jiang

    2013-05-01

    "Lucky-region fusion" (LRF) is an image processing technique that has proven successful in enhancing the quality of images distorted by atmospheric turbulence. The LRF algorithm extracts sharp regions of an image obtained from a series of short exposure frames, and "fuses" them into a final image with improved quality. In previous research, the LRF algorithm had been implemented on a PC using a compiled programming language. However, the PC usually does not have sufficient processing power to handle real-time extraction, processing and reduction required when the LRF algorithm is applied not to single picture images but rather to real-time video from fast, high-resolution image sensors. This paper describes a hardware implementation of the LRF algorithm on a Virtex 6 field programmable gate array (FPGA) to achieve real-time video processing. The novelty in our approach is the creation of a "black box" LRF video processing system with a standard camera link input, a user controller interface, and a standard camera link output.

  20. Processes, Techniques, and Successes in Welding the Dry Shielded Canisters of the TMI-2 Reactor Core Debris

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R.; Rankin, R.A.; Ferrell, L.J.

    2002-01-29

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is operated by Bechtel-BWXT Idaho LLC (BBWI), which recently completed a very successful $100 million Three-Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) program for the Department of Energy (DOE). This complex and challenging program used an integrated multidisciplinary team approach that loaded, welded, and transported an unprecedented 25 dry shielded canisters (DSC) in seven months, and did so ahead of schedule. The program moved over 340 canisters of TMI-2 core debris that had been in wet storage into a dry storage facility at the INEEL. The main thrust of this paper is relating the innovations, techniques, approaches, and lessons learned associated to welding of the DSC's. This paper shows the synergism of elements to meet program success and shares these lessons learned that will facilitate success with welding of dry shielded canisters in other DOE complex dry storage programs.

  1. Process, Techniques, and Successes in Welding the Dry Shielded Canister Welds of the TMI-2 Reactor Core Debris

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, Laurence R; Rankin, Richard Allen; Ferrell, Larry Joseph

    2002-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is operated by Bechtel-BWXT Idaho LLC (BBWI), which recently completed a very successful $100 million Three-Mile Island-2 (TMI-2) program for the Department of Energy (DOE). This complex and challenging program used an integrated multidisciplinary team approach that loaded, welded, and transported an unprecedented 25 dry shielded canisters (DSC) in seven months, and did so ahead of schedule. The program moved over 340 canisters of TMI-2 core debris that had been in wet storage into a dry storage facility at the INEEL. The main thrust of this paper is relating the innovations, techniques, approaches, and lessons learned associated to welding of the DSC's. This paper shows the synergism of elements to meet program success and shares these lessons learned that will facilitate success with welding of dry shielded canisters in other DOE complex dry storage programs.

  2. Fundamentals of freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

    2002-01-01

    --the dominant mechanism of heat transfer in freeze-drying--is inefficient at the pressures used in freeze-drying. Steps should be taken to improve the thermal contact between the product and the shelf of the freeze dryer, such as eliminating metal trays from the drying process. Quantitation of the heat transfer coefficient for the geometry used is a useful way of assessing the impact of changes in the system such as elimination of product trays and changes in the vial. Because heat transfer by conduction through the vapor increases with increasing pressure, the commonly held point of view that "the lower the pressure, the better" is not true with respect to process efficiency. The optimum pressure for a given product is a function of the temperature at which freeze-drying is carried out, and lower pressures are needed at low product temperatures. The controlling resistance to mass transfer is almost always the resistance of the partially dried solids above the submination interface. This resistance can be minimized by avoiding fill volumes of more than about half the volume of the container. The development scientist should also recognize that very high concentrations of solute may not be appropriate for optimum freeze-drying, particularly if the resistance of the dried product layer increases sharply with concentration. Although the last 10 years has seen the publication of a significant body of literature of great value in allowing development scientists and engineers to "work smarter," there is still much work needed in both the science and the technology of freeze-drying. Scientific development is needed for improving analytical methodology for characterization of frozen systems and freeze-dried solids. A better understanding of the relationship between molecular mobility and reactivity is needed to allow accurate prediction of product stability at the intended storage temperature based on accelerated stability at higher temperatures. This requires that the temperature

  3. Monte Carlo-based fluorescence molecular tomography reconstruction method accelerated by a cluster of graphic processing units.

    PubMed

    Quan, Guotao; Gong, Hui; Deng, Yong; Fu, Jianwei; Luo, Qingming

    2011-02-01

    High-speed fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) reconstruction for 3-D heterogeneous media is still one of the most challenging problems in diffusive optical fluorescence imaging. In this paper, we propose a fast FMT reconstruction method that is based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and accelerated by a cluster of graphics processing units (GPUs). Based on the Message Passing Interface standard, we modified the MC code for fast FMT reconstruction, and different Green's functions representing the flux distribution in media are calculated simultaneously by different GPUs in the cluster. A load-balancing method was also developed to increase the computational efficiency. By applying the Fréchet derivative, a Jacobian matrix is formed to reconstruct the distribution of the fluorochromes using the calculated Green's functions. Phantom experiments have shown that only 10 min are required to get reconstruction results with a cluster of 6 GPUs, rather than 6 h with a cluster of multiple dual opteron CPU nodes. Because of the advantages of high accuracy and suitability for 3-D heterogeneity media with refractive-index-unmatched boundaries from the MC simulation, the GPU cluster-accelerated method provides a reliable approach to high-speed reconstruction for FMT imaging.

  4. Effects of diet, time since defecation, and drying process of the droppings on corticosterone metabolite measurements in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, S; Busso, J M; Lèche, A; Marin, R H

    2015-05-01

    The use of noninvasive methods for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites is a useful tool for endocrine assessment particularly in studies where animals cannot be captured, when they should be sampled without disturbing their activities, and/or when welfare needs to be maximized. However, still no complete standardization exists for the methodology, and some confounding variables may play an important role affecting measurements and interpretation of results. The present study focused on whether two different diets (laying feed or seed mixture), the time since defecation (0, 4, 24, or 48 h) and the drying method of those samples (oven-dried or naturally nonoven-dried) may affect concentrations of corticosterone metabolites (CM) measured in male Japanese quail. Half of the birds were provided with plain water (control) and the other half received a corticosterone solution. Birds fed with a seed mixture exhibited higher values of CM (nanogram/gram) in droppings than quail that received a laying feed diet suggesting that diet should be carefully considered as a potential source of variation. As expected both groups exhibited higher CM concentration after corticosterone treatment. While CM concentrations increased significantly in nonoven-dried samples over time (0 < 4 < 24 = 48 h), oven-dried samples exhibited similar high CM values. At 24 and 48 h postdefecation, nonoven-dried samples had similar CM concentrations as all oven-dried samples. Drying of samples may be considered a reliable method to reduce variations due to water loss over time, facilitating comparisons up to 48 h postdefecation. This finding would allow to enhance the range of application of this noninvasive and welfare friendly method to situations where samples cannot be collected or frozen shortly after defecation.

  5. Analysis of the Sensitivity of GEM-MACH PM2.5 Forecasts to the Representation of Wet and Dry Deposition Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Gong, Wanmin; Moran, Mike; Menard, Sylvain; Anselmo, David; Davignon, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Environment Canada produces 48-hour operational air quality forecasts for Canada twice daily (at 00 and 12 UTC). At the core of the forecast system is the GEM-MACH model, an on-line coupled meteorology and chemistry model that considers gas-phase, aqueous-phase, and heterogeneous chemistry and a number of size-resolved particulate matter (PM) processes, including wet and dry deposition. Predicting PM concentrations, especially for fine particular matter (PM2.5), remains a challenge for air quality models. In this poster we analyze the maximum sensitivity of predicted PM2.5 concentrations to the representation of both wet and dry deposition. For wet deposition, both in-cloud and below-cloud scavenging are considered. An analysis of the impact of wet and dry deposition on PM2.5 concentrations was performed using GEM-MACH model output over the summer and winter seasons of 2012 for a base case and two sensitivity runs, one in which the parameterization of dry deposition was turned off and one in which the parameterization of wet deposition was turned off. The results obtained show that the predicted wet deposition of PM2.5 over North America is generally greater than predicted dry deposition, but both processes can reduce predicted PM2.5 concentration by 25% or more on average. However, the impact of both processes varies significantly from one region to another and is strongly dependent on modelled meteorology, especially the occurrence of precipitation. These results suggest that the details of the treatments of wet and dry deposition of PM2.5 do matter and can enhance or detract from model performance.

  6. NREL Develops Accelerated Sample Activation Process for Hydrogen Storage Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in developing a new sample activation process that reduces the time to prepare samples for measurement of hydrogen storage from several days to five minutes and provides more uniform samples. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center.

  7. Single-step affinity purification of enzyme biotherapeutics: a platform methodology for accelerated process development.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kevin P; Ryakala, Venkat K; Bird, Ryan; Godawat, Rahul; Riske, Frank J; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Warikoo, Veena; Gamble, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Downstream sample purification for quality attribute analysis is a significant bottleneck in process development for non-antibody biologics. Multi-step chromatography process train purifications are typically required prior to many critical analytical tests. This prerequisite leads to limited throughput, long lead times to obtain purified product, and significant resource requirements. In this work, immunoaffinity purification technology has been leveraged to achieve single-step affinity purification of two different enzyme biotherapeutics (Fabrazyme® [agalsidase beta] and Enzyme 2) with polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, respectively, as ligands. Target molecules were rapidly isolated from cell culture harvest in sufficient purity to enable analysis of critical quality attributes (CQAs). Most importantly, this is the first study that demonstrates the application of predictive analytics techniques to predict critical quality attributes of a commercial biologic. The data obtained using the affinity columns were used to generate appropriate models to predict quality attributes that would be obtained after traditional multi-step purification trains. These models empower process development decision-making with drug substance-equivalent product quality information without generation of actual drug substance. Optimization was performed to ensure maximum target recovery and minimal target protein degradation. The methodologies developed for Fabrazyme were successfully reapplied for Enzyme 2, indicating platform opportunities. The impact of the technology is significant, including reductions in time and personnel requirements, rapid product purification, and substantially increased throughput. Applications are discussed, including upstream and downstream process development support to achieve the principles of Quality by Design (QbD) as well as integration with bioprocesses as a process analytical technology (PAT).

  8. Dehydration kinetics of salmon and trout fillets using ultrasonic vacuum drying as a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Başlar, Mehmet; Kılıçlı, Mahmut; Yalınkılıç, Barış

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a novel ultrasonic vacuum (USV) drying technique was used to shorten the drying time of fish fillets. For this purpose, ultrasonic treatment and vacuum-drying were simultaneously performed to dehydrate salmon and trout fillets at 55°C, 65°C, and 75°C. In addition, the USV technique was compared with vacuum-drying and oven-drying techniques. The dehydration kinetics of the fillets was successfully described by seven thin-layer drying models with R(2) range between 0.944 and 1.000. Depending on drying temperatures and fish species, the drying times could be shortened using the USV technique between 7.4% and 27.4% compared with vacuum-drying. The highest effective moisture diffusivity was determined in the fillets dried with the USV technique and they increased with increasing drying temperatures. Ultrasonic treatment accelerated the vacuum drying process for the fillets; therefore, this technique could be used to improve the efficiency of vacuum-drying for the fillets.

  9. Dehydration kinetics of salmon and trout fillets using ultrasonic vacuum drying as a novel technique.

    PubMed

    Başlar, Mehmet; Kılıçlı, Mahmut; Yalınkılıç, Barış

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a novel ultrasonic vacuum (USV) drying technique was used to shorten the drying time of fish fillets. For this purpose, ultrasonic treatment and vacuum-drying were simultaneously performed to dehydrate salmon and trout fillets at 55°C, 65°C, and 75°C. In addition, the USV technique was compared with vacuum-drying and oven-drying techniques. The dehydration kinetics of the fillets was successfully described by seven thin-layer drying models with R(2) range between 0.944 and 1.000. Depending on drying temperatures and fish species, the drying times could be shortened using the USV technique between 7.4% and 27.4% compared with vacuum-drying. The highest effective moisture diffusivity was determined in the fillets dried with the USV technique and they increased with increasing drying temperatures. Ultrasonic treatment accelerated the vacuum drying process for the fillets; therefore, this technique could be used to improve the efficiency of vacuum-drying for the fillets. PMID:26186871

  10. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    Dry mouth is the feeling that there is not enough saliva in your mouth. Everyone has a dry mouth once in a while - if they are nervous, ... under stress. But if you have a dry mouth all or most of the time, it can ...

  11. Modelling multi-phase liquid-sediment scour and resuspension induced by rapid flows using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) accelerated with a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourtakas, G.; Rogers, B. D.

    2016-06-01

    A two-phase numerical model using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) is applied to two-phase liquid-sediments flows. The absence of a mesh in SPH is ideal for interfacial and highly non-linear flows with changing fragmentation of the interface, mixing and resuspension. The rheology of sediment induced under rapid flows undergoes several states which are only partially described by previous research in SPH. This paper attempts to bridge the gap between the geotechnics, non-Newtonian and Newtonian flows by proposing a model that combines the yielding, shear and suspension layer which are needed to predict accurately the global erosion phenomena, from a hydrodynamics prospective. The numerical SPH scheme is based on the explicit treatment of both phases using Newtonian and the non-Newtonian Bingham-type Herschel-Bulkley-Papanastasiou constitutive model. This is supplemented by the Drucker-Prager yield criterion to predict the onset of yielding of the sediment surface and a concentration suspension model. The multi-phase model has been compared with experimental and 2-D reference numerical models for scour following a dry-bed dam break yielding satisfactory results and improvements over well-known SPH multi-phase models. With 3-D simulations requiring a large number of particles, the code is accelerated with a graphics processing unit (GPU) in the open-source DualSPHysics code. The implementation and optimisation of the code achieved a speed up of x58 over an optimised single thread serial code. A 3-D dam break over a non-cohesive erodible bed simulation with over 4 million particles yields close agreement with experimental scour and water surface profiles.

  12. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  13. [Acceleration of osmotic dehydration process through ohmic heating of foods: raspberries (Rubus idaeus)].

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ricardo R; Jiménez, Maite P; Carevic, Erica G; Grancelli, Romina M

    2007-06-01

    Raspberries (Rubus idaeus) were osmotically dehydrated by applying a conventional method under the supposition of a homogeneous solution, all in a 62% glucose solution at 50 degrees C. Raspberries (Rubus idaeus) were also osmotically dehydrated by using ohmic heating in a 57% glucose solution at a variable voltage (to maintain temperature between 40 and 50 degrees C) and an electric field intensity <100 V/cm. When comparing the results from both experiments it was evident that processing time is reduced when ohmic heating technique was used. In some cases this reduction reached even 50%. This is explained by the additional effect to the thermal damage that is generated in an ohmic process, denominated electroporation.

  14. Denoising NMR time-domain signal by singular-value decomposition accelerated by graphics processing units.

    PubMed

    Man, Pascal P; Bonhomme, Christian; Babonneau, Florence

    2014-01-01

    We present a post-processing method that decreases the NMR spectrum noise without line shape distortion. As a result the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of a spectrum increases. This method is called Cadzow enhancement procedure that is based on the singular-value decomposition of time-domain signal. We also provide software whose execution duration is a few seconds for typical data when it is executed in modern graphic-processing unit. We tested this procedure not only on low sensitive nucleus (29)Si in hybrid materials but also on low gyromagnetic ratio, quadrupole nucleus (87)Sr in reference sample Sr(NO3)2. Improving the spectrum S/N ratio facilitates the determination of T/Q ratio of hybrid materials. It is also applicable to simulated spectrum, resulting shorter simulation duration for powder averaging. An estimation of the number of singular values needed for denoising is also provided. PMID:24880899

  15. Asymmetric neighborhood functions accelerate ordering process of self-organizing maps

    SciTech Connect

    Ota, Kaiichiro; Aoki, Takaaki; Kurata, Koji; Aoyagi, Toshio

    2011-02-15

    A self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm can generate a topographic map from a high-dimensional stimulus space to a low-dimensional array of units. Because a topographic map preserves neighborhood relationships between the stimuli, the SOM can be applied to certain types of information processing such as data visualization. During the learning process, however, topological defects frequently emerge in the map. The presence of defects tends to drastically slow down the formation of a globally ordered topographic map. To remove such topological defects, it has been reported that an asymmetric neighborhood function is effective, but only in the simple case of mapping one-dimensional stimuli to a chain of units. In this paper, we demonstrate that even when high-dimensional stimuli are used, the asymmetric neighborhood function is effective for both artificial and real-world data. Our results suggest that applying the asymmetric neighborhood function to the SOM algorithm improves the reliability of the algorithm. In addition, it enables processing of complicated, high-dimensional data by using this algorithm.

  16. The acceleration of spoken-word processing in children's native-language acquisition: an ERP cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Nakamura, Naoko; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-04-01

    Healthy adults can identify spoken words at a remarkable speed, by incrementally analyzing word-onset information. It is currently unknown how this adult-level speed of spoken-word processing emerges during children's native-language acquisition. In a picture-word mismatch paradigm, we manipulated the semantic congruency between picture contexts and spoken words, and recorded event-related potential (ERP) responses to the words. Previous similar studies focused on the N400 response, but we focused instead on the onsets of semantic congruency effects (N200 or Phonological Mismatch Negativity), which contain critical information for incremental spoken-word processing. We analyzed ERPs obtained longitudinally from two age cohorts of 40 primary-school children (total n=80) in a 3-year period. Children first tested at 7 years of age showed earlier onsets of congruency effects (by approximately 70ms) when tested 2 years later (i.e., at age 9). Children first tested at 9 years of age did not show such shortening of onset latencies 2 years later (i.e., at age 11). Overall, children's onset latencies at age 9 appeared similar to those of adults. These data challenge the previous hypothesis that word processing is well established at age 7. Instead they support the view that the acceleration of spoken-word processing continues beyond age 7.

  17. Inline real-time near-infrared granule moisture measurements of a continuous granulation-drying-milling process.

    PubMed

    Chablani, Lipika; Taylor, Michael K; Mehrotra, Amit; Rameas, Patrick; Stagner, William C

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to use inline real-time near-infrared (NIR) to measure the moisture content of granules manufactured using a commercial production scale continuous twin-screw granulator fluid-bed dryer milling process. A central composite response surface statistical design was used to study the effect of inlet air temperature and dew point on granule moisture content. The NIR moisture content was compared to Karl Fischer (KF) and loss on drying (LOD) moisture determinations. Using multivariate analysis, the data showed a statistically significant correlation between the conventional methods and NIR. The R(2) values for predicted moisture content by NIR versus KF and predicted moisture values by NIR versus LOD were 0.94 (p < 0.00001) and 0.85 (p < 0.0002), respectively. The adjusted R(2) for KF versus LOD correlation was 0.85 (p < 0.0001). Analysis of the response surface design data showed that inlet air temperature over a range of 35-55°C had a significant linear impact on granule moisture content as measured by predicted NIR (adjusted R(2) = 0.84, p < 0.02), KF (adjusted R(2) = 0.91, p < 0.0001), and LOD (adjusted R(2) = 0.85, p < 0.0006). The inlet air dew point range of 10-20°C did not have a significant impact on any of the moisture measurements.

  18. The effect of NaCl-free processing and high pressure on the fate of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella on sliced smoked dry-cured ham.

    PubMed

    Stollewerk, Katharina; Jofré, Anna; Comaposada, Josep; Arnau, Jacint; Garriga, Margarita

    2012-02-01

    NaCl is an important multifunctional ingredient applied in dry-cured ham elaboration. However, its excessive intake has been linked to serious cardiovascular diseases causing a recent increase in the development of reduced salt products. In the present study Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, food-borne pathogens which can cross-contaminate post processed products, were spiked with <100 CFU/g on slices of both standard (S) and NaCl-free processed (F) (elaborated with KCl+potassium lactate instead of NaCl) smoked dry-cured ham. Although L. monocytogenes and Salmonella counts decreased faster in S ham, pathogens were present in both types of non-pressure treated ham during the entire refrigerated storage period (112 days). Pressurisation at 600 MPa for 5 min caused the elimination of both pathogens in S ham after 14 days. In contrast, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were present in F ham until days 28 and 56, respectively, indicating that the NaCl-free processed dry-cured ham had lower stability than standard smoked dry-cured ham.

  19. Continuous and scalable fabrication of bioinspired dry adhesives via a roll-to-roll process with modulated ultraviolet-curable resin.

    PubMed

    Yi, Hoon; Hwang, Insol; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Dael; Lim, Haneol; Tahk, Dongha; Sung, Minho; Bae, Won-Gyu; Choi, Se-Jin; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Jeong, Hoon Eui

    2014-08-27

    A simple yet scalable strategy for fabricating dry adhesives with mushroom-shaped micropillars is achieved by a combination of the roll-to-roll process and modulated UV-curable elastic poly(urethane acrylate) (e-PUA) resin. The e-PUA combines the major benefits of commercial PUA and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). It not only can be cured within a few seconds like commercial PUA but also possesses good mechanical properties comparable to those of PDMS. A roll-type fabrication system equipped with a rollable mold and a UV exposure unit is also developed for the continuous process. By integrating the roll-to-roll process with the e-PUA, dry adhesives with spatulate tips in the form of a thin flexible film can be generated in a highly continuous and scalable manner. The fabricated dry adhesives with mushroom-shaped microstructures exhibit a strong pull-off strength of up to ∼38.7 N cm(-2) on the glass surface as well as high durability without any noticeable degradation. Furthermore, an automated substrate transportation system equipped with the dry adhesives can transport a 300 mm Si wafer over 10,000 repeating cycles with high accuracy.

  20. Modulation of the phenolic composition and colour of red wines subjected to accelerated ageing by controlling process variables.

    PubMed

    González-Sáiz, J M; Esteban-Díez, I; Rodríguez-Tecedor, S; Pérez-Del-Notario, N; Arenzana-Rámila, I; Pizarro, C

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the main factors conditioning accelerated ageing processes (oxygen dose, chip dose, wood origin, toasting degree and maceration time) on the phenolic and chromatic profiles of red wines by using a multivariate strategy based on experimental design methodology. The results obtained revealed that the concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols could be modified through the application of particular experimental conditions. This fact was particularly remarkable since changes in phenolic profile were closely linked to changes observed in chromatic parameters. The main strength of this study lies in the possibility of using its conclusions as a basis to make wines with specific colour properties based on quality criteria. To our knowledge, the influence of such a large number of alternative ageing parameters on wine phenolic composition and chromatic attributes has not been studied previously using a comprehensive experimental design methodology.