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Sample records for accelerate manufacturing cost

  1. Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elzey, Dana M.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1996-01-01

    Processes for the manufacture of advanced metal matrix composites are rapidly approaching maturity in the research laboratory and there is growing interest in their transition to industrial production. However, research conducted to date has almost exclusively focused on overcoming the technical barriers to producing high-quality material and little attention has been given to the economical feasibility of these laboratory approaches and process cost issues. A quantitative cost modeling (QCM) approach was developed to address these issues. QCM are cost analysis tools based on predictive process models relating process conditions to the attributes of the final product. An important attribute, of the QCM approach is the ability to predict the sensitivity of material production costs to product quality and to quantitatively explore trade-offs between cost and quality. Applications of the cost models allow more efficient direction of future MMC process technology development and a more accurate assessment of MMC market potential. Cost models were developed for two state-of-the art metal matrix composite (MMC) manufacturing processes: tape casting and plasma spray deposition. Quality and Cost models are presented for both processes and the resulting predicted quality-cost curves are presented and discussed.

  2. Manufacturing Large Membrane Mirrors at Low Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Relatively inexpensive processes have been developed for manufacturing lightweight, wide-aperture mirrors that consist mainly of reflectively coated, edge-supported polyimide membranes. The polyimide and other materials in these mirrors can withstand the environment of outer space, and the mirrors have other characteristics that make them attractive for use on Earth as well as in outer space: With respect to the smoothness of their surfaces and the accuracy with which they retain their shapes, these mirrors approach the optical quality of heavier, more expensive conventional mirrors. Unlike conventional mirrors, these mirrors can be stowed compactly and later deployed to their full sizes. In typical cases, deployment would be effected by inflation. Potential terrestrial and outer-space applications for these mirrors include large astronomical telescopes, solar concentrators for generating electric power and thermal power, and microwave reflectors for communication, radar, and short-distance transmission of electric power. The relatively low cost of manufacturing these mirrors stems, in part, from the use of inexpensive tooling. Unlike in the manufacture of conventional mirrors, there is no need for mandrels or molds that have highly precise surface figures and highly polished surfaces. The surface smoothness is an inherent property of a polyimide film. The shaped area of the film is never placed in contact with a mold or mandrel surface: Instead the shape of a mirror is determined by a combination of (1) the shape of a fixture that holds the film around its edge and (2) control of manufacturing- process parameters. In a demonstration of this manufacturing concept, spherical mirrors having aperture diameters of 0.5 and 1.0 m were fabricated from polyimide films having thicknesses ranging from <20 m to 150 m. These mirrors have been found to maintain their preformed shapes following deployment.

  3. Cost Models for MMC Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elzey, Dana M.; Wadley, Haydn N. G.

    1996-01-01

    The quality cost modeling (QCM) tool is intended to be a relatively simple-to-use device for obtaining a first-order assessment of the quality-cost relationship for a given process-material combination. The QCM curve is a plot of cost versus quality (an index indicating microstructural quality), which is unique for a given process-material combination. The QCM curve indicates the tradeoff between cost and performance, thus enabling one to evaluate affordability. Additionally, the effect of changes in process design, raw materials, and process conditions on the cost-quality relationship can be evaluated. Such results might indicate the most efficient means to obtain improved quality at reduced cost by process design refinements, the implementation of sensors and models for closed loop process control, or improvement in the properties of raw materials being fed into the process. QCM also allows alternative processes for producing the same or similar material to be compared in terms of their potential for producing competitively priced, high quality material. Aside from demonstrating the usefulness of the QCM concept, this is one of the main foci of the present research program, namely to compare processes for making continuous fiber reinforced, metal matrix composites (MMC's). Two processes, low pressure plasma spray deposition and tape casting are considered for QCM development. This document consists of a detailed look at the design of the QCM approach, followed by discussion of the application of QCM to each of the selected MMC manufacturing processes along with results, comparison of processes, and finally, a summary of findings and recommendations.

  4. Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Industrial Technologies Program

    2011-01-05

    This brochure describes the 31 R&D projects that AMO supports to accelerate the commercial manufacture and use of nanomaterials for enhanced energy efficiency. These cost-shared projects seek to exploit the unique properties of nanomaterials to improve the functionality of industrial processes and products.

  5. ICAM Manufacturing Cost/Design Guide. Volume 3. Computerization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    for the aluminum 2024 beaded panel manufactured with rubber press process require no other 43 manufacturing complexities, such as joggles , flanges...lineal aluminum part 2B, length= 24 inches, to compare the BPCOST and JOGGLES cost (cost of the base part plus joggles ) as a function of the cost...base part, plus joggles for the three manufacturing methods, shows that the minimum cost (by the rubber press method) is about 0.3 man-hours per part

  6. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL MANUFACTURING COST MODEL: SIMULATING RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERFORMANCE, MANUFACTURING, AND COST OF PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Eric J. Carlson; Yong Yang; Chandler Fulton

    2004-04-20

    The successful commercialization of fuel cells will depend on the achievement of competitive system costs and efficiencies. System cost directly impacts the capital equipment component of cost of electricity (COE) and is a major contributor to the O and M component. The replacement costs for equipment (also heavily influenced by stack life) is generally a major contributor to O and M costs. In this project, they worked with the SECA industrial teams to estimate the impact of general manufacturing issues of interest on stack cost using an activities-based cost model for anode-supported planar SOFC stacks with metallic interconnects. An earlier model developed for NETL for anode supported planar SOFCs was enhanced by a linkage to a performance/thermal/mechanical model, by addition of Quality Control steps to the process flow with specific characterization methods, and by assessment of economies of scale. The 3-dimensional adiabatic performance model was used to calculate the average power density for the assumed geometry and operating conditions (i.e., inlet and exhaust temperatures, utilization, and fuel composition) based on publicly available polarizations curves. The SECA team provided guidance on what manufacturing and design issues should be assessed in this Phase I demonstration of cost modeling capabilities. They considered the impact of the following parameters on yield and cost: layer thickness (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) on cost and stress levels, statistical nature of ceramic material failure on yield, and Quality Control steps and strategies. In this demonstration of the capabilities of the linked model, only the active stack (i.e., anode, electrolyte, and cathode) and interconnect materials were included in the analysis. Factory costs are presented on an area and kilowatt basis to allow developers to extrapolate to their level of performance, stack design, materials, seal and system configurations, and internal corporate overheads and margin

  7. Manufacturing R&D Initiative Lowers Costs and Boosts Quality

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-30

    Fact sheet that provides an overview of DOE's Manufacturing R&D Initiative, which supports projects aimed at developing better-performing, lower-cost solid-state lighting while encouraging engineering and manufacturing in the United States.

  8. Manufacturing cost/design system: A CAD/CAM dialogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loshigian, H. H.; Rachowitz, B. I.; Judson, D.

    1980-01-01

    The development of the Manufacturing Cost/Design System (MC/DS) will provide the aerospace design engineer a tool with which to perform heretofore impractical design manufacturing cost tradeoffs. The Air Force Integrated Computer Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Office has initiated the development and demonstration of an MC/DS which, when fully implemented, will integrate both design and manufacturing data bases to provide real time visibility into the manufacturing costs associated with various design options. The first release of a computerized system will be made before the end of 1981.

  9. Low Cost Manufacturing of Composite Cryotanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, Brent; Palm, Tod; Deo, Ravi; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews research and development of cryotank manufacturing conducted by Northrup Grumman. The objectives of the research and development included the development and validation of manufacturing processes and technology for fabrication of large scale cryogenic tanks, the establishment of a scale-up and facilitization plan for full scale cryotanks, the development of non-autoclave composite manufacturing processes, the fabrication of subscale tank joints for element tests, the performance of manufacturing risk reduction trials for the subscale tank, and the development of full-scale tank manufacturing concepts.

  10. A review of the solar array manufacturing industry costing standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The solar array manufacturing industry costing standards model is designed to compare the cost of producing solar arrays using alternative manufacturing processes. Constructive criticism of the methodology used is intended to enhance its implementation as a practical design tool. Three main elements of the procedure include workbook format and presentation, theoretical model validity and standard financial parameters.

  11. Cost Accounting in the Automated Manufacturing Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    current cost accounting systems...Bennett et al., 1987]. First, users of cost accounting information express different levels of satisfaction with the 65 effectiveness of current cost accounting systems...Bennett et al., 1987). For example, it was found that, ආ percent of the users are unhappy with current cost accounting

  12. Cost analysis of advanced turbine blade manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. F.; Blake, D. E.; Stelson, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous analysis was conducted to estimate relative manufacturing costs for high technology gas turbine blades prepared by three candidate materials process systems. The manufacturing costs for the same turbine blade configuration of directionally solidified eutectic alloy, an oxide dispersion strengthened superalloy, and a fiber reinforced superalloy were compared on a relative basis to the costs of the same blade currently in production utilizing the directional solidification process. An analytical process cost model was developed to quantitatively perform the cost comparisons. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  13. Low Cost Lithography Tool for High Brightness LED Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Hawryluk; Emily True

    2012-06-30

    The objective of this activity was to address the need for improved manufacturing tools for LEDs. Improvements include lower cost (both capital equipment cost reductions and cost-ofownership reductions), better automation and better yields. To meet the DOE objective of $1- 2/kilolumen, it will be necessary to develop these highly automated manufacturing tools. Lithography is used extensively in the fabrication of high-brightness LEDs, but the tools used to date are not scalable to high-volume manufacturing. This activity addressed the LED lithography process. During R&D and low volume manufacturing, most LED companies use contact-printers. However, several industries have shown that these printers are incompatible with high volume manufacturing and the LED industry needs to evolve to projection steppers. The need for projection lithography tools for LED manufacturing is identified in the Solid State Lighting Manufacturing Roadmap Draft, June 2009. The Roadmap states that Projection tools are needed by 2011. This work will modify a stepper, originally designed for semiconductor manufacturing, for use in LED manufacturing. This work addresses improvements to yield, material handling, automation and throughput for LED manufacturing while reducing the capital equipment cost.

  14. An analysis of glass–glass CIGS manufacturing costs

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, Kelsey A. W.; Fu, Ran; Woodhouse, Michael

    2016-09-01

    This article examines current cost drivers and potential avenues to reduced cost for monolithic, glass-glass Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) modules by constructing a comprehensive bottom-up cost model. For a reference case where sputtering plus batch sulfurization after selenization (SAS) is employed, we compute a manufacturing cost of $69/m2 if the modules are made in the United States at a 1 GW/year production volume. At 14% module efficiency, this corresponds to a manufacturing cost of $0.49/WDC and a minimum sustainable price (MSP) of $0.67/WDC. We estimate that MSP could vary within +/-20% of this value given the range of quoted input prices, and existing variations in module design, manufacturing processes, and manufacturing location. Potential for reduction in manufacturing costs to below $0.40/WDC may be possible if average production module efficiencies can be increased above 17% without increasing $/m2 costs; even lower costs could be achieved if $/m2 costs could be reduced, particularly via innovations in the CIGS deposition process or balance-of-module elements. We present the impact on cost of regional factors, CIGS deposition method, device design, and price fluctuations. One metric of competitiveness-levelized cost of energy (LCOE) -- is also assessed for several U.S. locations and compared to that of standard multi-crystalline silicon (m(c-Si)) and cadmium telluride (CdTe).

  15. Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model – A User’s Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William R.; Shehabi, Arman; Smith, Sarah Josephine

    2015-08-01

    The Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model is a cost-performance techno-economic model that estimates total large-scale manufacturing costs for necessary to produce a given product. It is designed to provide production cost estimates for technology researchers to help guide technology research and development towards an eventual cost-effective product. The model presented in this user’s guide is generic and can be tailored to the manufacturing of any product, including the generation of electricity (as a product). This flexibility, however, requires the user to develop the processes and process efficiencies that represents a full-scale manufacturing facility. The generic model is comprised of several modules that estimate variable costs (material, labor, and operating), fixed costs (capital & maintenance), financing structures (debt and equity financing), and tax implications (taxable income after equipment and building depreciation, debt interest payments, and expenses) of a notional manufacturing plant. A cash-flow method is used to estimate a selling price necessary for the manufacturing plant to recover its total cost of production. A levelized unit sales price ($ per unit of product) is determined by dividing the net-present value of the manufacturing plant’s expenses ($) by the net present value of its product output. A user defined production schedule drives the cash-flow method that determines the levelized unit price. In addition, an analyst can increase the levelized unit price to include a gross profit margin to estimate a product sales price. This model allows an analyst to understand the effect that any input variables could have on the cost of manufacturing a product. In addition, the tool is able to perform sensitivity analysis, which can be used to identify the key variables and assumptions that have the greatest influence on the levelized costs. This component is intended to help technology researchers focus their research attention on tasks

  16. Comparison of indirect cost multipliers for vehicle manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, A.; Santini, D.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-05-16

    In the process of manufacturing and selling vehicles, a manufacturer incurs certain costs. Among these costs are those incurred directly as a part of manufacturing operations and those incurred indirectly in the processes of manufacturing and selling. The indirect costs may be production-related, such as R and D and engineering; business-related, such as corporate staff salaries and pensions; or retail-sales-related, such as dealer support and marketing. These indirect costs are recovered by allocating them to each vehicle. Under a stable, high-volume production process, the allocation of these indirect costs can be approximated as multipliers (or factors) applied to the direct cost of manufacturing. A manufacturer usually allocates indirect costs to finished vehicles according to a corporation-specific pricing strategy. Because the volumes of sales and production vary widely by model within a corporation, the internal corporate percent allocation of various accounting categories (such as profit or corporate overheat) can vary widely among individual models. Approaches also vary across corporations. For these purposes, an average value is constructed, by means of a generic representative method, for vehicle models produced at high volume. To accomplish this, staff at Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) Center for Transportation Research analyzed the conventional vehicle cost structure and developed indirect cost multipliers for passenger vehicles. This memorandum summarizes the results of an effort to compare and put on a common basis the cost multipliers used in ANL's electric and hybrid electric vehicle cost estimation procedures with those resulting from two other methodologies. One of the two compared methodologies is derived from a 1996 presentation by Dr. Chris Borroni-Bird of Chrysler Corporation, the other is by Energy and Environmental Analysis, Inc. (EEA), as described in a 1995 report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), Congress of the United

  17. SAMICS: Input data preparation. [Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Aster, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    The Solar Array Manufacturing Industry Costing Standards (SAMICS) provide standard formats, data, assumptions, and procedures for estimating the price that a manufacturer would have to charge for the product of a specified manufacturing process sequence. A line-by-line explanation is given of those standard formats which describe the economically important characteristics of the manufacturing processes and the technological structure of the companies and the industry. This revision provides an updated presentation of Format A Process Description, consistent with the October 1978 version of that form. A checklist of items which should be entered on Format A as direct expenses is included.

  18. Manufacturing and Cost Considerations in Multidisciplinary Aircraft Design (Research on Mathematical Modeling of Manufacturability Factors)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rais-Rohani, Masoud

    1996-01-01

    The identification of airframe Manufacturability Factors/Cost Drivers (MFCD) and the method by which the relationships between MFCD and designer-controlled parameters could be properly modeled are described.

  19. Cost Estimation of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piili, Heidi; Happonen, Ari; Väistö, Tapio; Venkataramanan, Vijaikrishnan; Partanen, Jouni; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a layer wise fabrication method in which a laser beam melts metallic powder to form solid objects. Although 3D printing has been invented 30 years ago, the industrial use is quite limited whereas the introduction of cheap consumer 3D printers, in recent years, has familiarized the 3D printing. Interest is focused more and more in manufacturing of functional parts. Aim of this study is to define and discuss the current economic opportunities and restrictions of LAM process. Manufacturing costs were studied with different build scenarios each with estimated cost structure by calculated build time and calculating the costs of the machine, material and energy with optimized machine utilization. All manufacturing and time simulations in this study were carried out with a research machine equal to commercial EOS M series equipment. The study shows that the main expense in LAM is the investment cost of the LAM machine, compared to which the relative proportions of the energy and material costs are very low. The manufacturing time per part is the key factor to optimize costs of LAM.

  20. Increase Productivity and Cost Optimization in CNC Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musca, Gavril; Mihalache, Andrei; Tabacaru, Lucian

    2016-11-01

    The advantage of the technological assisted design consists in easy modification of the machining technologies for obtaining machine alternation, tool changing, working parameters variation or the modification of loads to which the tools are subjected. By determining tool movement inside machining and by using tool related moving speeds needed for both positioning and manufacturing we are able to compute the required machining time for each component of the machining operation in progress. The present study describes a cost optimization model for machining operations which uses the following components: machine and its operator related cost, set-up and adjustment, unproductive costs (idle state), direct and indirect costs. By using manufacturing technologies assisted design procedures we may obtain various variants for the technological model by modifying the machining strategy, tooling, working regimes or the machine-tool that are used. Simulating those variants allows us to compare and establish the optimal manufacturing variant as well as the most productive one.

  1. Cost-efficient manufacturing of composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, W. Tom; Davis, John G.; Johnston, Norman J.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) program is seeking research breakthroughs that will allow structures made of graphite epoxy materials to replace metals in the wings and fuselages of future aircrafts. NASA's goals are to reduce acquisition cost by 20 to 25 percent, structural weight for a resized aircraft by 40 to 50 percent, and the number of parts by half compared to current production aluminum aircraft. The innovative structural concepts, materials, and fabrication techniques emerging from the ACT program are described, and the relationship between aerospace developments and industrial, commercial, and sporting goods applications are discussed.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  3. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs: Cost Assessment of Manufacturing/Design Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metschan, S.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) program was to demonstrate, for an integrally stiffened structural concept, performance and weight equal to "built-up" structure with lower manufacturing cost. This report presents results of the cost assessment for several design configuration/manufacturing method combinations. The attributes of various cost analysis models were evaluated and COSTRAN selected for this study. A process/design cost evaluation matrix was developed based on material, forming, machining, and assembly of structural sub-elements and assembled structure. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current built-up technology baseline. This would correspond to a total cost reduction of $1.7 million per ship set for a 777-sized airplane. However, there are important outstanding issues with regard to the cost of capacity of high technology machinery, and the ability to cost-effectively provide surface finish acceptable to the commercial aircraft industry. The projected high raw material cost of large extrusions also played an important role in the trade-off between plate and extruded concepts.

  4. Accelerating Industrial Adoption of Metal Additive Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartanian, Kenneth; McDonald, Tom

    2016-03-01

    While metal additive manufacturing (AM) technology has clear benefits, there are still factors preventing its adoption by industry. These factors include the high cost of metal AM systems, the difficulty for machinists to learn and operate metal AM machines, the long approval process for part qualification/certification, and the need for better process controls; however, the high AM system cost is the main barrier deterring adoption. In this paper, we will discuss an America Makes-funded program to reduce AM system cost by combining metal AM technology with conventional computerized numerical controlled (CNC) machine tools. Information will be provided on how an Optomec-led team retrofitted a legacy CNC vertical mill with laser engineered net shaping (LENS®—LENS is a registered trademark of Sandia National Labs) AM technology, dramatically lowering deployment cost. The upgraded system, dubbed LENS Hybrid Vertical Mill, enables metal additive and subtractive operations to be performed on the same machine tool and even on the same part. Information on the LENS Hybrid system architecture, learnings from initial system deployment and continuing development work will also be provided to help guide further development activities within the materials community.

  5. Reducing the Manufacturing Cost of Tubular SOFC Technology

    SciTech Connect

    George, R.A.; Bessette, N.F.

    1997-12-31

    In recent years, Westinghouse Electric Corporation has made great strides in advancing tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology towards commercialization by the year 2001. In 1993, Westinghouse initiated a program to develop a `MWe Class` (1-3 MWe) pressurized SOFC (PSOFC) gas turbine (GT) combined cycle power system for distributed power applications because of its: (1) ultra high efficiency (approx. 63% net AC/LHV CH{sub 4}), (2) its compatibility with a factory packaged, minimum site work philosophy, and (3) its cost effectiveness. Since then two cost studies on this market entry product performed by consultants to the U.S. Department of Energy have confirmed Westinghouse cost studies that fully installed costs of under $1300/kWe can be achieved in the early commercialization years for such small PSOFC/GT power systems. The paper will present the results of these cost studies in the areas of cell manufacturing cost, PSOFC generator manufacturing cost, balance-of-plant (BOP) cost, and system installation cost. In addition, cost of electricity calculations will be presented.

  6. A phenomenological cost model for high energy particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiltsev, V.

    2014-07-01

    Accelerator-based facilities have enabled forefront research in high-energy physics for more than half a century. The accelerator technology of colliders has progressed immensely, while beam energy, luminosity, facility size, and cost have grown by several orders of magnitude. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. In this paper we derive a simple scaling model for the cost of large accelerators and colliding beam facilities based on costs of 17 big facilities which have been either built or carefully estimated. Although this approach cannot replace an actual cost estimate based on an engineering design, this parameterization is to indicate a somewhat realistic cost range for consideration of what future frontier accelerator facilities might be fiscally realizable.

  7. Cost effective manufacturing of the SEA 10X concentrator array

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminar, N.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. )

    1991-11-01

    This report describes a low-cost, mass-producible 10X concentrator system that has been claimed to produce electricity at $0.04/kWh. It details changes in manufacturing techniques that could produce a concentrator system at a selling price of $0.71/W. (A simple design and a minimum number of parts and manufacturing steps reduced production costs.) Present production techniques, changes to improve these techniques, impediments to changes, and solutions to the impediments are described. This 10X concentrator system uses available components and manufacturing processes and one-sun solar cells in conjunction with inexpensive plastic lenses to generate about eight times the amount of electricity normally produced by these cells.

  8. Cost Estimation in Engineer-to-Order Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshmand, Yousef; Köhler, Peter; Korff-Krumm, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    In Engineer-to-Order (ETO) manufacturing the price of products must be defined during early stages of product design and during the bidding process, thus an overestimation of product development (PD) costs may lead to the loss of orders and an underestimation causes a profit loss. What many ETO systems have in common is that the products have to be developed based on different customer requirements so that each order usually results in a new variant. Furthermore, many customer requirement change-requests may arise in different phases of the PD, which is to be considered properly. Thus it is utmost important for ETO systems to have an accurate cost estimation in first stages of the product design and to be able to determine the cost of customer requirement changes in different phases of PD. This paper aims to present a cost estimation methodology as well as a cost estimation model, which estimate the cost of products by relative comparison of the attributes of new product variants with the attributes of standard product variants. In addition, as a necessity in ETO manufacturing, the cost calculation of customer requirement changes in different phases of PD is integrated in the presented method.

  9. Additively Manufactured Low Cost Upper Stage Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Cooper, Ken; Ellis, David; Fikes, John; Jones, Zachary; Kim, Tony; Medina, Cory; Taminger, Karen; Willingham, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two years NASA's Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) project has developed Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. High pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design fabrication to be costly and time consuming due to the number of individual steps and different processes required. Under LCUSP, AM technologies in Sintered Laser Melting (SLM) GRCop-84 and Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) Inconel 625 have been significantly advanced, allowing the team to successfully fabricate a 25k-class regenerative chamber. Estimates of the costs and schedule of future builds indicate cost reductions and significant schedule reductions will be enabled by this technology. Characterization of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLM-produced GRCop-84, EBF3 Inconel 625 and the interface layer between the two has been performed and indicates the properties will meet the design requirements. The LCUSP chamber is to be tested with a previously demonstrated SLM injector in order to advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and demonstrate the capability of the application of these processes. NASA is advancing these technologies to reduce cost and schedule for future engine applications and commercial needs.

  10. Cost analysis of composite fan blade manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelson, T. S.; Barth, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The relative manufacturing costs were estimated for large high technology fan blades prepared by advanced composite fabrication methods using seven candidate materials/process systems. These systems were identified as laminated resin matrix composite, filament wound resin matrix composite, superhybrid solid laminate, superhybrid spar/shell, metal matrix composite, metal matrix composite with a spar and shell, and hollow titanium. The costs were calculated utilizing analytical process models and all cost data are presented as normalized relative values where 100 was the cost of a conventionally forged solid titanium fan blade whose geometry corresponded to a size typical of 42 blades per disc. Four costs were calculated for each of the seven candidate systems to relate the variation of cost on blade size. Geometries typical of blade designs at 24, 30, 36 and 42 blades per disc were used. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  11. Cost Savings Analysis Guidelines for Manufacturing Technology Projects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-28

    Corporation .’-"- 2828 Pennsylvania Ave, N.W. ’- Washington, D.C. 20007 _ DTIC "" 28 June 1985 EECTE Final Report for 1985 MAY I .- Contract Number N00024...wae"ITI CLAMSP IgeTbm of Vg.S ph" PE.. * . *,. _d % I I- COST SAVINGS ANALYSIS GUIDELINES FOR MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY PROJECTS SYSCON Corporation I...Burlington. NA 01003 Candidate applications: 0 GaAs is in high dmnd for use in advanced electronic commnication . countermasure. and high speed computer

  12. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Steven

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  13. Manufacturing and wetting low-cost microfluidic cell separation devices

    PubMed Central

    Pawell, Ryan S.; Inglis, David W.; Barber, Tracie J.; Taylor, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a microfluidic size-based particle separation or filter technology with applications in cell separation and enrichment. Currently, there are no cost-effective manufacturing methods for this promising microfluidic technology. In this fabrication paper, however, we develop a simple, yet robust protocol for thermoplastic DLD devices using regulatory-approved materials and biocompatible methods. The final standalone device allowed for volumetric flow rates of 660 μl min−1 while reducing the manufacturing time to <1 h. Optical profilometry and image analysis were employed to assess manufacturing accuracy and precision; the average replicated post height was 0.48% less than the average post height on the master mold and the average replicated array pitch was 1.1% less than the original design with replicated posts heights of 62.1 ± 5.1 μm (mean ± 6 standard deviations) and replicated array pitches of 35.6 ± 0.31 μm. PMID:24404077

  14. Manufactured Homes Simulated Thermal Analysis and Cost Effectiveness Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Baylon, David

    1990-05-17

    In 1988 and 1989, 150 manufactured homes were built to comply with Super Good Cents (SGC) specifications adapted from the existing specifications for site-built homes under the Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP). Engineering calculations and computer simulations were used to estimate the effects of the SGC specifications on the thermal performance of the homes. These results were compared with consumer costs to establish the cost-effectiveness of individual measures. Heat loss U-factors for windows, walls, floors and ceilings were established using the standard ASHRAE parallel heat flow method. Adjustments resulted in higher U-factors for ceilings and floors than assumed at the time the homes were approved as meeting the SGC specifications. Except for those homes which included heat pumps, most of the homes did not meet the SGC compliance standards. Nonetheless these homes achieved substantial reductions in overall heat loss rate (UA) compared to UAs estimated for the same homes using the standard insulation packages provided by the manufacturers in the absence of the RCDP program. Homes with conventional electric furnaces showed a 35% reduction in total UA while homes with heat pumps had a 25% reduction. A regression analysis showed no significant relationship between climate zone, manufacturer and UA. A modified version of SUNDAY building simulation program which simulates duct and heat pump performance was used to model the thermal performance of each RCDP home as built and the same home as it would have been built without SGC specifications (base case). Standard assumptions were used for thermostat setpoint, thermal mass, internal gains and infiltration rates. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Computer-based manufacturing cost analysis for the fabrication of thermoplastic composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Michael; Bernardon, Edward

    1990-01-01

    Advanced composite structures are very expensive to manufacture. Cost estimation techniques are useful as tools for increasing cost effectiveness in part design, in selecting materials, and in the design of automated systems and manufacturing processes. A computer-based cost estimation model has been developed for analyzing the manufacturing costs involved in the fabrication of thermoplastic composite structures. The model, described in detail in this paper, evaluates existing manual and automated techniques for manufacturing a thermoplastic composite skin. Cost analysis results and their relevance to increasing cost effectiveness are discussed.

  16. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  17. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  18. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  19. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manufacturing and... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  20. Assessment of low-cost manufacturing process sequences. [photovoltaic solar arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    An extensive research and development activity to reduce the cost of manufacturing photovoltaic solar arrays by a factor of approximately one hundred is discussed. Proposed and actual manufacturing process descriptions were compared to manufacturing costs. An overview of this methodology is presented.

  1. Modular Exhaust Design and Manufacturing Techniques for Low Cost Mid Volume Rapid Buidl to Order Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-06

    technical data package will contain the following pieces of information: • Manufacturing Drawings • Code for running CNC machinery • Documentation...MODULAR EXHAUST DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES FOR LOW COST MID VOLUME RAPID BUILD TO ORDER SYSTEMS Kevin Nelson Project Engineer...customizable mufflers, as well as modular manufacturing techniques targeted at mid volume manufacturing quantities. A successful solution would reduce

  2. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong

    2001-10-30

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report discusses and illustrates all progress in the first two years of this NETL/DOE supported program. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: (1) Specifications for both 5 5/16 inch and 3 3/8 inch composite drill pipe have been finalized. (2) All basic laboratory testing has been completed and has provide sufficient data for the selection of materials for the composite tubing, adhesives, and abrasion coatings. (3) Successful demonstration of composite/metal joint interfacial connection. (4) Upgrade of facilities to provide a functional pilot plant manufacturing facility. (5) Arrangements to have the 3 3/8 inch CDP used in a drilling operation early in C.Y. 2002. (6) Arrangements to have the 5 5/16 inch CDP marketed and produced by a major drill pipe manufacturer.

  3. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2002-09-29

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report reiterates the presentation made to DOE/NETL in Morgantown, WV on August 1st, 2002 with the addition of accomplishments made from that time forward until the issue date. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: {sm_bullet} Specifications for both 5-1/2'' and 1-5/8'' composite drill pipe have been finalized. {sm_bullet} Full scale testing of Short Radius (SR) CDP has been conducted. {sm_bullet} Successful demonstration of metal to composite interface (MCI) connection. {sm_bullet} Preparations for full scale manufacturing of ER/DW CDP have begun. {sm_bullet} Manufacturing facility rearranged to accommodate CDP process flow through plant. {sm_bullet} Arrangements to have the 3 3/8'' CDP used in 4 separate drilling applications in Oman, Oklahoma, and Texas.

  4. Diamond field emitter array cathodes and possibilities of employing additive manufacturing for dielectric laser accelerating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Andrews, Heather L.; Herman, Matthew J.; Hubbard, Kevin M.; Weis, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Demonstration of a stand-alone practical dielectric laser accelerator (DLA) requires innovation in two major critical components: high-current ultra-low-emittance cathodes and efficient laser accelerator structures. LANL develops two technologies that in our opinion are applicable to the novel DLA architectures: diamond field emitter array (DFEA) cathodes and additive manufacturing of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures. This paper discusses the results of testing of DFEA cathodes in the field-emission regime and the possibilities for their operation in the photoemission regime, and compares their emission characteristics to the specific needs of DLAs. We also describe recent advances in additive manufacturing of dielectric woodpile structures using a Nanoscribe direct laser-writing device capable of maskless lithography and additive manufacturing, and the development of novel infrared dielectric materials compatible with additive manufacturing.

  5. Low Cost Manufacturing Approach of High Temperature PMC Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kannmacher, Kevin

    1997-01-01

    The overall objective is to develop a satisfactory sheet molding compound (SMC) of a high temperature polyimide, such as PMR-11-50, VCAP-75, or NB2-76, and to develop compression molding processing parameters for a random, chopped fiber, high temperature, sheet molding compound that will be more affordable than the traditional hand lay-up fabrication methods. Compression molding will reduce manufacturing costs of composites by: (1) minimizing the conventional machining required after fabrication due to the use of full 360 deg matched tooling, (2) reducing fabrication time by minimizing the intensive hand lay-up operations associated with individual ply fabrication techniques, such as ply orientation and ply count and (3) possibly reducing component mold time by advanced B-staging prior to molding. This program is an integral part of Allison's T406/AE engine family's growth plan, which will utilize technologies developed under NASA's Sub-sonic Transport (AST) programs, UHPTET initiatives, and internally through Allison's IR&D projects. Allison is aggressively pursuing this next generation of engines, with both commercial and military applications, by reducing the overall weight of the engine through the incorporation of advanced, lightweight, high temperature materials, such as polymer matrix composites. This infusion of new materials into the engine is also a major factor in reducing engine cost because it permits the use of physically smaller structural components to achieve the same thrust levels as the generation that it replaced. A lighter, more efficient propulsion system translates to a substantial cost and weight savings to an airframe's structure.

  6. 48 CFR 31.205-25 - Manufacturing and production engineering costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... production engineering costs. 31.205-25 Section 31.205-25 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Commercial Organizations 31.205-25 Manufacturing and production engineering costs. (a) The costs of manufacturing and production engineering effort as described in (1) through (4) below are all allowable:...

  7. TOWARD LOW-COST FABRICATION OF MICROCHANNEL PROCESS TECHNOLOGIES - COST MODELING FOR MANUFACTURING DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, Steven D.; King, Dale A.; Paul, Brian

    2010-11-07

    Chemical and energy conversion systems based on microchannel process technology (MPT) demonstrate high performance in applications in which rates are controlled by diffusive heat and mass transfer flux. The performance of MPT-based heat exchangers, absorbers/desorbers and chemical reactors all benefit from process intensification and have been used in a variety of mobile energy conversion systems including fuel reformers/converters, heat pumps and waste heat scavenging technologies. The service environments typical of MPTs often require the devices to be fabricated from metals such as aluminum, titanium, stainless steel or high temperature super alloys. Flow channels and associated critical dimensions in these devices can be as small as 50 um, but generally range from 100 to 1000 um in width and height with characteristic flow channel lengths normally in the mm to cm range. High surface area architectures (e.g. wicks or textured surfaces) are often included in the flow channels as well for enhanced mass transfer and/or catalytic functionality. Fabrication of MPT devices has historically been performed using a stacked-shim approach in which individual metal sheets are first patterned with micro- and meso-scale flow channels and subsequently bonded in a stack to create an array of miniaturized, parallel flow paths. Typical proof-of-concept fabrication efforts have utilized photo chemical machining (PCM) for shim patterning and diffusion bonding or diffusion brazing for joining of shim stacks. While flexible and capable of supporting technology demonstration, however, these techniques can be expensive at prototyping volumes. The high fabrication cost associated with these prototyping processes has contributed to a perception that MPT technology is expensive and will be relegated to a small application space. Recent work at the Microproducts Breakthrough Institute (MBI) has focused on exploring the cost structure of high volume manufacturing of MPT devices in effort to

  8. Development of advanced manufacturing technologies for low cost hydrogen storage vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick

    2014-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) defined a need for low-cost gaseous hydrogen storage vessels at 700 bar to support cost goals aimed at 500,000 units per year. Existing filament winding processes produce a pressure vessel that is structurally inefficient, requiring more carbon fiber for manufacturing reasons, than would otherwise be necessary. Carbon fiber is the greatest cost driver in building a hydrogen pressure vessel. The objective of this project is to develop new methods for manufacturing Type IV pressure vessels for hydrogen storage with the purpose of lowering the overall product cost through an innovative hybrid process of optimizing composite usage by combining traditional filament winding (FW) and advanced fiber placement (AFP) techniques. A numbers of vessels were manufactured in this project. The latest vessel design passed all the critical tests on the hybrid design per European Commission (EC) 79-2009 standard except the extreme temperature cycle test. The tests passed include burst test, cycle test, accelerated stress rupture test and drop test. It was discovered the location where AFP and FW overlap for load transfer could be weakened during hydraulic cycling at 85°C. To design a vessel that passed these tests, the in-house modeling software was updated to add capability to start and stop fiber layers to simulate the AFP process. The original in-house software was developed for filament winding only. Alternative fiber was also investigated in this project, but the added mass impacted the vessel cost negatively due to the lower performance from the alternative fiber. Overall the project was a success to show the hybrid design is a viable solution to reduce fiber usage, thus driving down the cost of fuel storage vessels. Based on DOE’s baseline vessel size of 147.3L and 91kg, the 129L vessel (scaled to DOE baseline) in this project shows a 32% composite savings and 20% cost savings when comparing Vessel 15 hybrid design and the Quantum

  9. Manufacturing of Monolithic Electrodes from Low-Cost Renewable Resources

    SciTech Connect

    McNutt, Nichiolas William; Rios, Orlando; Johs, Alexander; Tenhaeff, Wyatt E; Chatterjee, Sabornie; Keffer, David

    2014-01-01

    Lignin, a low-cost, biomass derived precursor, was selected as an alternative for carbon based free standing anodes in Li-ion batteries. Industrially scalable melt-spinning and melt-blowing synthesis methods were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory that are compatible with industrially viable production. Engineering studies predict that LCFs can be manufactured at $3/lb using these technologies, which compares favorably to $12/lb for battery grade graphite. The physical properties of lignin carbon fibers, specifically the tunable electrochemical and thermal transport, are suitable for energy storage applications as both an active material and current collector. The elimination of inactive components in the slurry-coated electrodes was enabled by LCF processing parameters modifications to produce monolithic mats in which the fibers are electrically interconnected. These mats were several hundreds of micrometers thick, and the fibers functioned as both current collector and active material by virtue of their mixed ionic/electronic conductivities. The LCFs were coated onto copper current collectors with PVDF binder and conductive carbon additive through conventional slurry processing. Galvanostatic cycling of the LCFs against Li revealed reversible capacities greater than 300 mAh/g. The coulombic efficiencies were over 99.8%. The mats were galvanostatically cycled in half cells against Li. Specific capacities as high as 250 mAh/g were achieved approximately 17% lower than the capacities of the same fibers in slurries. However, there were no inactive materials reducing the practical specific capacity of the entire electrode construction. Lithiation and delithiation of the LCFs proceeded with coulombic efficiencies greater than 99.9%, and the capacity retention was greater than 99% over 100 cycles at a rate of 15 mA/g. Research sponsored by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for

  10. V1.6 Development of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Low Cost Hydrogen Storage Vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Leavitt, Mark; Lam, Patrick; Nelson, Karl M.; johnson, Brice A.; Johnson, Kenneth I.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Ruiz, Antonio; Adams, Jesse

    2012-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an innovative manufacturing process for Type IV high-pressure hydrogen storage vessels, with the intent to significantly lower manufacturing costs. Part of the development is to integrate the features of high precision AFP and commercial FW. Evaluation of an alternative fiber to replace a portion of the baseline fiber will help to reduce costs further.

  11. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  12. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2016-04-01

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) — which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles — is heavily concentrated in East Asia. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. The study shows that factors driving the cost competitiveness of LIB manufacturing locations are mostly built—supply chain developments and competition, access to materials, and production expertise. Some regional costs — including cost of capital, labor, and materials — are significant and should be considered.

  13. Flat plate vs. concentrator solar photovoltaic cells - A manufacturing cost analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    The choice of which photovoltaic system (flat plate or concentrator) to use for utilizing solar cells to generate electricity depends mainly on the cost. A detailed, comparative manufacturing cost analysis of the two types of systems is presented. Several common assumptions, i.e., cell thickness, interest rate, power rate, factory production life, polysilicon cost, and direct labor rate are utilized in this analysis. Process sequences, cost variables, and sensitivity analyses have been studied, and results of the latter show that the most important parameters which determine manufacturing costs are concentration ratio, manufacturing volume, and cell efficiency. The total cost per watt of the flat plate solar cell is $1.45, and that of the concentrator solar cell is $1.85, the higher cost being due to the increased process complexity and material costs.

  14. Diamond field emitter array cathodes and possibilities for employing additive manufacturing for dielectric laser accelerating structures

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna; Andrews, Heather Lynn; Herman, Matthew Joseph; Hubbard, Kevin Mark; Weis, Eric

    2016-09-20

    These are slides for a presentation at Stanford University. The outline is as follows: Motivation: customers for compact accelerators, LANL's technologies for laser acceleration, DFEA cathodes, and additive manufacturing of micron-size structures. Among the stated conclusions are the following: preliminary study identified DFEA cathodes as promising sources for DLAs--high beam current and small emittance; additive manufacturing with Nanoscribe Professional GT can produce structures with the right scale features for a DLA operating at micron wavelengths (fabrication tolerances need to be studied, DLAs require new materials). Future plans include DLA experiment with a beam produced by the DFEA cathode with field emission, demonstration of photoemission from DFEAs, and new structures to print and test.

  15. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31

    Advanced Composite Products and Technology, Inc. (ACPT) has developed composite drill pipe (CDP) that matches the structural and strength properties of steel drill pipe, but weighs less than 50 percent of its steel counterpart. Funding for the multiyear research and development of CDP was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy through the Natural Gas and Oil Projects Management Division at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Composite materials made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin offer mechanical properties comparable to steel at less than half the weight. Composite drill pipe consists of a composite material tube with standard drill pipe steel box and pin connections. Unlike metal drill pipe, composite drill pipe can be easily designed, ordered, and produced to meet specific requirements for specific applications. Because it uses standard joint connectors, CDP can be used in lieu of any part of or for the entire steel drill pipe section. For low curvature extended reach, deep directional drilling, or ultra deep onshore or offshore drilling, the increased strength to weight ratio of CDP will increase the limits in all three drilling applications. Deceased weight will reduce hauling costs and increase the amount of drill pipe allowed on offshore platforms. In extreme extended reach areas and high-angle directional drilling, drilling limits are associated with both high angle (fatigue) and frictional effects resulting from the combination of high angle curvature and/or total weight. The radius of curvature for a hole as small as 40 feet (12.2 meters) or a build rate of 140 degrees per 100 feet is within the fatigue limits of specially designed CDP. Other properties that can be incorporated into the design and manufacture of composite drill pipe and make it attractive for specific applications are corrosion resistance, non-magnetic intervals, and abrasion resistance coatings. Since CDP has little or no electromagnetic force

  16. Additive Manufacturing for Superalloys - Producibility and Cost Validation (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    cell located at Advanced Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC) Sheffield . The rationale was to implement development in production standard conditions...inspections were completed, a rough dimensional inspection was performed with a surface plate and manual gages to verify that the level of distortion

  17. Present and Future Silver Cost Component in Crystalline Silicon PV Module Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Redlinger, Michael; Eggert, Roderick G.; Woodhouse, Michael

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine how increased c-Si PV module production might affect future silver demand and prices, as well as the impacts on total c-Si module manufacturing costs. To evaluate how PV's changing demand for silver might affect future silver prices, and the impact in terms of manufacturing costs, some scenarios of silver's contribution to c-Si PV cell manufacturing costs are compiled on the basis of projected changes in demand and price as a result of changes in material intensity. The analysis indicates that an expansion of c-Si production from 55GW/year to 250GW/year results in a 0.05-0.7 cent/W increase in manufacturing costs because of higher silver prices.

  18. Establishment of reference costs for occupational health services and implementation of cost management in Japanese manufacturing companies

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Tomohisa; Mori, Koji; Aratake, Yutaka; Ide, Hiroshi; Nobori, Junichiro; Kojima, Reiko; Odagami, Kiminori; Kato, Anna; Hiraoka, Mika; Shiota, Naoki; Kobayashi, Yuichi; Ito, Masato; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Matsuda, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We developed a standardized cost estimation method for occupational health (OH) services. The purpose of this study was to set reference OH services costs and to conduct OH services cost management assessments in two workplaces by comparing actual OH services costs with the reference costs. Methods: Data were obtained from retrospective analyses of OH services costs regarding 15 OH activities over a 1-year period in three manufacturing workplaces. We set the reference OH services costs in one of the three locations and compared OH services costs of each of the two other workplaces with the reference costs. Results: The total reference OH services cost was 176,654 Japanese yen (JPY) per employee. The personnel cost for OH staff to conduct OH services was JPY 47,993, and the personnel cost for non-OH staff was JPY 38,699. The personnel cost for receipt of OH services-opportunity cost-was JPY 19,747, expense was JPY 25,512, depreciation expense was 34,849, and outsourcing cost was JPY 9,854. We compared actual OH services costs from two workplaces (the total OH services costs were JPY 182,151 and JPY 238,023) with the reference costs according to OH activity. The actual costs were different from the reference costs, especially in the case of personnel cost for non-OH staff, expense, and depreciation expense. Conclusions: Using our cost estimation tool, it is helpful to compare actual OH services cost data with reference cost data. The outcomes help employers make informed decisions regarding investment in OH services. PMID:27170449

  19. Manufacturing costs for planar solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krist, K.; Wright, J.D.; Romero, C.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper the authors calculate how much one can afford to pay for a fuel cell, and set quantitative performance and cost targets that if met, will result in SOFC technology where the performance is high enough and the cost is low enough to generate commercial interest. To do this, the authors first calculate how much one can afford to pay for a fuel cell stack in two important applications: small scale cogeneration (200 kW{sub e}) and large scale power generation (50 MW{sub e}). They then compare the cost of the materials needed to fabricate the fuel cell with the allowable cost. Finally, they use a mathematical model of fuel cell performance to quantify some of the improvements that will be needed if planar fuel cells are to operate efficiently at 800 C or below.

  20. Analysis of the influence of advanced materials for aerospace products R&D and manufacturing cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, A. W.; Guo, J. L.; Wang, Z. J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional cost estimation model about aerospace products Research & Development (R&D) and manufacturing based on analyzing the widely use of advanced materials in aviation products. Then we put up with the estimating formulas of cost factor, which representing the influences of advanced materials on the labor cost rate and manufacturing materials cost rate. The values ranges of the common advanced materials such as composite materials, titanium alloy are present in the labor and materials two aspects. Finally, we estimate the R&D and manufacturing cost of F/A-18, F/A- 22, B-1B and B-2 aircraft based on the common DAPCA IV model and the modified model proposed by this paper. The calculation results show that the calculation precision improved greatly by the proposed method which considering advanced materials. So we can know the proposed method is scientific and reasonable.

  1. 26 CFR 1.168(a)-1 - Modified accelerated cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Modified accelerated cost recovery system. 1.168(a)-1 Section 1.168(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Corporations § 1.168(a)-1 Modified accelerated cost recovery system. (a) Section 168 determines...

  2. 26 CFR 1.168(a)-1 - Modified accelerated cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Modified accelerated cost recovery system. 1.168(a)-1 Section 1.168(a)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Corporations § 1.168(a)-1 Modified accelerated cost recovery system. (a) Section 168 determines...

  3. Space system production cost benefits from contemporary philosophies in management and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosmait, Russell L.

    1991-01-01

    The cost of manufacturing space system hardware has always been expensive. The Engineering Cost Group of the Program Planning office at Marshall is attempting to account for cost savings that result from new technologies in manufacturing and management. The objective is to identify and define contemporary philosophies in manufacturing and management. The seven broad categories that make up the areas where technological advances can assist in reducing space system costs are illustrated. Included within these broad categories is a list of the processes or techniques that specifically provide the cost savings within todays design, test, production and operations environments. The processes and techniques listed achieve savings in the following manner: increased productivity; reduced down time; reduced scrap; reduced rework; reduced man hours; and reduced material costs. In addition, it should be noted that cost savings from production and processing improvements effect 20 to 40 pct. of production costs whereas savings from management improvements effects 60 to 80 of production cost. This is important because most efforts in reducing costs are spent trying to reduce cost in the production.

  4. Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, R. G.; Wang, J. J.; Toh, C.

    2000-01-01

    The continual need to reduce airframe cost and the emergence of high speed machining and other manufacturing technologies has brought about a renewed interest in large-scale integral structures for aircraft applications. Applications have been inhibited, however, because of the need to demonstrate damage tolerance, and by cost and manufacturing risks associated with the size and complexity of the parts. The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) Program identified a feasible integrally stiffened fuselage concept and evaluated performance and manufacturing cost compared to conventional designs. An integral skin/stiffener concept was produced both by plate hog-out and near-net extrusion. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511 extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Mechanical properties, structural details, and joint performance were evaluated as well as repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Crack turning behavior was characterized through panel tests and improved methods for predicting crack turning were developed. Manufacturing cost was evaluated using COSTRAN. A hybrid design, made from high-speed machined extruded frames that are mechanically fastened to high-speed machined plate skin/stringer panels, was identified as the most cost-effective manufacturing solution. Recurring labor and material costs of the hybrid design are up to 61 percent less than the current technology baseline.

  5. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. James C. Leslie; Mr. Jeffrey R. Jean; Hans Neubert; Lee Truong

    2000-10-30

    This annual, technical report will discuss the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report discusses and illustrates the first iteration design of the tube and the tool joint interface. The report discusses standards and specifications to which the CDP design will be tailored and tested, and discusses conclusions of the first iteration design for future design enhancements.

  6. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie, II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2006-09-29

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006 and contains the following discussions: Qualification Testing; Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; Field Test Demonstration; Development of Ultra-Short Radius Composite Drill Pipe (USR-CDP); and Development of Smart USR-CDP.

  7. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Steve Loya

    2006-02-20

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005 and contains the following discussions: (1) Qualification Testing; (2) Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; (3) Field Test Demonstration; and (4) Commercial order for SR-CDP from Torch International. The objective of this contract is to develop and demonstrate ''cost effective'' Composite Drill Pipe. It is projected that this drill pipe will weigh less than half of its steel counter part. The resultant weight reduction will provide enabling technology that will increase the lateral distance that can be reached from an offshore drilling platform and the depth of water in which drilling and production operations can be carried out. Further, composite drill pipe has the capability to carry real time signal and power transmission within the pipe walls. CDP can also accommodate much shorter drilling radius than is possible with metal drill pipe. As secondary benefits, the lighter weight drill pipe can increase the storage capability of floating off shore drilling platforms and provide substantial operational cost savings.

  8. Utilization of UV Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce the Manufacturing Cost of LIB Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, Gary; Arnold, John

    2015-11-30

    Previously identified novel binders and associated UV curing technology have been shown to reduce the time required to apply and finish electrode coatings from tens of minutes to less than one second. This revolutionary approach can result in dramatic increases in process speeds, significantly reduced capital (a factor of 10 to 20) and operating costs, reduced energy requirements, and reduced environmental concerns and costs due to the virtual elimination of harmful volatile organic solvents and associated solvent dryers and recovery systems. The accumulated advantages of higher speed, lower capital and operating costs, reduced footprint, lack of VOC recovery, and reduced energy cost is a reduction of 90% in the manufacturing cost of cathodes. When commercialized, the resulting cost reduction in Lithium batteries will allow storage device manufacturers to expand their sales in the market and thereby accrue the energy savings of broader utilization of HEVs, PHEVs and EVs in the U.S., and a broad technology export market is also envisioned.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Peter Manekas

    2005-03-18

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2003 through September 30, 2004 and contains the following discussions: (1) Direct Electrical Connection for Rotary Shoulder Tool Joints; (2) Conductors for inclusion in the pipe wall (ER/DW-CDP); (3) Qualify fibers from Zoltek; (4) Qualify resin from Bakelite; (5) First commercial order for SR-CDP from Integrated Directional Resources (SR-CDP); and (6) Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2003-03-30

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents accomplishments made from October 1, 2002 through September 30, 2003. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: Metal-to-Composite Interface (MCI) redesign and testing; Successful demonstration of MCI connection for both SR and ER/DW CDP; Specifications for a 127mm (5 inch) ID by 152.4 mm (6 inch) OD composite drill pipe have been finalized for Extended Reach/Deep Water applications (ER/DW); Field testing of Short Radius CDP (SR); Sealing composite laminate to contain high pressure; Amendments; Amendment for ''Smart'' feature added to ER/DW development along with time and funding to complete battery of qualification tests with option for field demonstration; and Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

  11. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  12. Low-cost manufacturing of the point focus concentrating module and its key component, the Fresnel lens

    SciTech Connect

    Saifee, T.; Konnerth, A. III )

    1991-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) has been developing point-focus concentrating PV modules since 1986. SKI is currently in position to manufacture between 200 to 600 kilowatts annually of the current design by a combination of manual and semi-automated methods. This report reviews the current status of module manufacture and specifies the required approach to achieve a high-volume manufacturing capability and low cost. The approach taken will include process development concurrent with module design for automated manufacturing. The current effort reviews the major manufacturing costs and identifies components and processes whose improvements would produce the greatest effect on manufacturability and cost reduction. The Fresnel lens is one such key component. Investigating specific alternative manufacturing methods and sources has substantially reduced the lens costs and has exceeded the DOE cost-reduction goals. 15 refs.

  13. Reducing the manufacturing cost of tubular solid oxide fuel cell technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Raymond A.; F. Bessette, Norman

    In recent years, Westinghouse Electric Corporation has made great strides in advancing tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology towards commercialization by the year 2001. In 1993, Westinghouse initiated a program to develop a `MWe-Class' (1-3 MWe) pressurized SOFC (PSOFC)/gas turbine (GT) combined cycle power system for distributed power applications because of its (1) ultra-high efficiency (˜63% net AC/LHV CH4), (2) its compatibility with a factory packaged, minimum site work philosophy, and (3) its cost effectiveness. Since then two cost studies on this market entry product performed by consultants to the US Department of Energy have confirmed Westinghouse cost studies that fully installed costs of under $1300/kWe can be achieved in the early commercialization years for such small PSOFC/GT power systems. The paper will present the results of these cost studies in the areas of cell manufacturing cost, PSOFC generator manufacturing cost, balance-of-plant (BOP) cost, and system installation cost. In addition, cost of electricity calculations will be presented.

  14. Wastewater from the manufacture of rubber vulcanization accelerators: characterization, downstream monitoring and chemical treatment.

    PubMed

    Puig, A; Ormad, P; Roche, P; Sarasa, J; Gimeno, E; Ovelleiro, J L

    1996-05-10

    The content of wastewater resulting from the manufacture of rubber antioxidants and accelerators by a factory situated in the Ebro basin (Spain) has been determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The change in the pollutants was studied in the riverbed via two modules which continuously gathered pollutants on various solid supports (activated carbon and XAD-2 resins). These modules were located in Bocal Station, lying a further 100 km downstream from the factory, and from the Zaragoza water supply. Forty-six different compounds were identified at Bocal Station, the majority resulting from the production of rubber additives. Due to the immunity of different waste substances, and to the toxic nature of some, we studied their reaction when subjected to techniques of chemical oxidation using ozone.

  15. High performance/low cost accelerator control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyary, S.; Glatz, J.; Lancaster, H.; Selph, F.; Fahmie, M.; Ritchie, A.; Timossi, C.; Hinkson, C.; Benjegerdes, R.

    1980-10-01

    Implementation of a high performance computer control system tailored to the requirements of the Super HILAC accelerator is described. This system uses a distributed structure with fiber optic data links; multiple CPUs operate in parallel at each node. A large number of the latest 16 bit microcomputer boards are used to get a significant processor bandwidth. Dynamically assigned and labeled knobs together with touch screens allow a flexible and efficient operator interface. An X-Y vector graphics system allows display and labeling of real time signals as well as general plotting functions. Both the accelerator parameters and the graphics system can be driven from BASIC interactive programs in addition to the precanned user routines.

  16. Cost model relationships between textile manufacturing processes and design details for transport fuselage elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metschan, Stephen L.; Wilden, Kurtis S.; Sharpless, Garrett C.; Andelman, Rich M.

    1993-01-01

    Textile manufacturing processes offer potential cost and weight advantages over traditional composite materials and processes for transport fuselage elements. In the current study, design cost modeling relationships between textile processes and element design details were developed. Such relationships are expected to help future aircraft designers to make timely decisions on the effect of design details and overall configurations on textile fabrication costs. The fundamental advantage of a design cost model is to insure that the element design is cost effective for the intended process. Trade studies on the effects of processing parameters also help to optimize the manufacturing steps for a particular structural element. Two methods of analyzing design detail/process cost relationships developed for the design cost model were pursued in the current study. The first makes use of existing databases and alternative cost modeling methods (e.g. detailed estimating). The second compares design cost model predictions with data collected during the fabrication of seven foot circumferential frames for ATCAS crown test panels. The process used in this case involves 2D dry braiding and resin transfer molding of curved 'J' cross section frame members having design details characteristic of the baseline ATCAS crown design.

  17. Powder Injection Molding (PIM) for Low Cost Manufacturing of Intricate Parts to Net-Shape

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Molding (PIM) for Low Cost Manufacturing of Intricate Parts to Net-Shape 7 - 6 RTO-MP-AVT-139 high temperature materials find applications in...offers significant cost savings, increased design and materials flexibility, increased possibility of miniaturization, high mechanical properties, good...surface finish and high speed production. The activities and expertise in powder metallurgy as well as in process numerical modeling related to

  18. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    Delivering high performance integrated optical components at low cost is critical to the continuing recovery and growth of the optical communications industry. In today's market, network equipment vendors need to provide their customers with new solutions that reduce operating expenses and enable new revenue generating IP services. They must depend on the availability of highly integrated optical modules exhibiting high performance, small package size, low power consumption, and most importantly, low cost. The cost of typical optical system hardware is dominated by linecards that are in turn cost-dominated by transmitters and receivers or transceivers and transponders. Cost effective packaging of optical components in these small size modules is becoming the biggest challenge to be addressed. For many traditional component suppliers in our industry, the combination of small size, high performance, and low cost appears to be in conflict and not feasible with conventional product design concepts and labor intensive manual assembly and test. With the advent of photonic integration, there are a variety of materials, optics, substrates, active/passive devices, and mechanical/RF piece parts to manage in manufacturing to achieve high performance at low cost. The use of automation has been demonstrated to surpass manual operation in cost (even with very low labor cost) as well as product uniformity and quality. In this paper, we will discuss the value of using an automated packaging platform.for the assembly and test of high performance active components, such as 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s sources and receivers. Low cost, high performance manufacturing can best be achieved by leveraging a flexible packaging platform to address a multitude of laser and detector devices, integration of electronics and handle various package bodies and fiber configurations. This paper describes the operation and results of working robotic assemblers in the manufacture of a Laser Optical Subassembly

  19. Cost comparisons for the use of nonterrestrial materials in space manufacturing of large structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, E. H.; Risley, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study sponsored by NASA to evaluate the relative merits of constructing solar power satellites (SPS) using resources obtained from the earth and from the moon. Three representative lunar resources utilization (LRU) concepts are developed and compared with a previously defined earth baseline concept. Economic assessment of the alternatives includes cost determination, economic threshold sensitivity to manufacturing cost variations, cost uncertainties, program funding schedule, and present value of costs. Results indicate that LRU for space construction is competitive with the earth baseline approach for a program requiring 100,000 metric tons per year of completed satellites. LRU can reduce earth-launched cargo requirements to less than 10% of that needed to build satellites exclusively from earth materials. LRU is potentially more cost-effective than earth-derived material utilization, due to significant reductions in both transportation and manufacturing costs. Because of uncertainties, cost-effectiveness cannot be ascertained with great confidence. The probability of LRU attaining a lower total program cost within the 30-year program appears to range from 57 to 93%.

  20. Impact Injury Caused by Linear Acceleration: Mechanisms, Prevention and Cost

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-29

    ä faible etendue de mesure et ä forte sensibilite sont utilises pour les etüdes ä bas niveauxd1acceleration. II s’agit de capteurs ENTRAN (pont de...distan- permet, ä partir de ces neuf vite de la tete. e debut de son utilisation , en ses des capteurs . De ce fait, elquefois retouchees . conforme ä...e temps mais ä son contenu en frequence. Les caracteristiques de trans- 6-2 fert sont alors analysees en utilisant la Transformed de Fourier

  1. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loans to finance the... Manufactured Home Lot Loans § 36.4251 Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds...

  2. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loans to finance the... Manufactured Home Lot Loans § 36.4251 Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds...

  3. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loans to finance the... Manufactured Home Lot Loans § 36.4251 Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF LOW-COST MANUFACTURING PROCESSES FOR PLANAR, MULTILAYER SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Harlan Anderson; Tim Armstrong; Michael Cobb; Kirby Meacham; James Stephan; Russell Bennett; Bob Remick; Chuck Sishtla; Scott Barnett; John Lannutti

    2004-06-12

    This report summarizes the results of a four-year project, entitled, ''Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'', jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the State of Ohio, and by project participants. The project was led by NexTech Materials, Ltd., with subcontracting support provided by University of Missouri-Rolla, Michael A. Cobb & Co., Advanced Materials Technologies, Inc., Edison Materials Technology Center, Gas Technology Institute, Northwestern University, and The Ohio State University. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, though not formally a subcontractor on the program, supported the effort with separate DOE funding. The objective of the program was to develop advanced manufacturing technologies for making solid oxide fuel cell components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. The program was carried out in three phases. In the Phase I effort, several manufacturing approaches were considered and subjected to detailed assessments of manufacturability and development risk. Estimated manufacturing costs for 5-kW stacks were in the range of $139/kW to $179/kW. The risk assessment identified a number of technical issues that would need to be considered during development. Phase II development work focused on development of planar solid oxide fuel cell elements, using a number of ceramic manufacturing methods, including tape casting, colloidal-spray deposition, screen printing, spin-coating, and sintering. Several processes were successfully established for fabrication of anode-supported, thin-film electrolyte cells, with performance levels at or near the state-of-the-art. The work in Phase III involved scale-up of cell manufacturing methods, development of non-destructive evaluation methods, and comprehensive electrical and electrochemical testing of solid oxide fuel cell materials and components.

  5. Manufacture of an Ultrafine-Grained TiN-Cu Composition Using an Erosion-Type Coaxial Hybrid Magnetoplasma Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivkov, A. A.; Gerasimov, D. Yu.; Evdokimov, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    It is shown that a TiN+Cu powder mixture could be manufactured using a combined barel of a coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator. The method is proved to ensure a wide-range regulation over the copper-to-titanium nitride ratio in the final product yield.

  6. Materials Testing and Cost Modeling for Composite Parts Through Additive Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 246 - Panel 17. Reducing Life- Cycle Costs: Adopting Emerging Manufacturing Technologies...chain. Introduction Modern manufacturing processes tend to reflect globalization, a concentration on core activities, shorter product life- cycles ... cycle perspective, a number of organizations recognize that environmental benefits and performance improvements can be achieved (Horn & Harrysson, 2012

  7. ICAM ’Manufacturing Cost/Design Guide’ (MC/DG). Volume 1. Demonstration Sections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    The base part is an element in its simplest form and with designer-influenced cost elements (DICE) such as, in the case of sheet metal, joggles , cut...introducing manufacturing complexities. This is shown below: * Added standard manufacturing operations - Joggles Flanged holes - Special lineal trim...Percentage Brake Form 71.4 Hydro Form 17.1 Die Form 6.0 Stretch Form 1.7 Roll Form 1.3 Hammer Form 1.1 Joggle Form 1.0 Other Methods 0.4 Distribution by

  8. Manufacturing of high performance, low cost dual mirror lamp reflector modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li

    The Lamp Reflector Module (LRM) is a key component in every micro display projection system, which has played a dominant role in the large-screen display market today. The goal of this research is to (1) improve the Dual Mirror prototype's light output performance, (2) investigate the underlying principles of its slow output deterioration so as to help develop effective and efficient LRM thermal management for maximized lifetime performance, and (3) improve/enable low cost mass LRM manufacturing for the projection display market. The first part of this research addresses the prototype's low output problem. More sophisticated 3D Optical Ray Tracing (ORT) models were generated to provide the output prediction depending on the arc gap, system collection etendue, etc. It was concluded that upgrading the manufacturing processes, particularly the reflector shape, surface and cold mirror coating, could effectively improve the output performance. Additionally, these theoretical models are shown to be used to design a LRM with 16% output gain for the consumer Rear Projection display market. The second part of this research focuses on the issue of lifetime performance. The electrode, arc attachment and envelope evolution were monitored by camera systems. The upgraded ORT models confirmed the arc length insensitivity property of the Dual Mirror LRM being one of the major reasons for its longer native lifetime. The third part of this research focuses on issues related to the entire LRM manufacturing. A series of quality control tools were developed to help implement manufacturing process optimization. LRMs made with the upgraded manufacturing processes showed about 25% output gain over the previous prototypes. Based on the imaging property of the Dual Mirror LRM, a lower cost lamp reflector alignment method, called cold alignment, was developed. In this method, the etendue efficiency is maintained and a slower degrading and more stable lifetime output performance are achieved

  9. Real time and accelerated stability studies of Tetanus toxoid manufactured in public sector facilities of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Ghazala; Hussain, Shahzad; Malik, Farnaz; Begum, Anwar; Mahmood, Sidra; Raza, Naeem

    2013-11-01

    Tetanus is an acute illness represented by comprehensive increased inflexibility and spastic spasms of skeletal muscles. The poor quality tetanus toxoid vaccine can raise the prevalence of neonatal tetanus. WHO has taken numerous steps to assist national regulatory authorities and vaccine manufacturers to ensure its quality and efficacy. It has formulated international principles for stability evaluation of each vaccine, which are available in the form of recommendations and guidelines. The aim of present study was to ensure the stability of tetanus vaccines produced by National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan by employing standardized methods to ensure constancy of tetanus toxoid at elevated temperature, if during storage/transportation cold chain may not be maintained in hot weather. A total of three batches filled during full-scale production were tested. All Stability studies determination were performed on final products stored at 2-8°C and elevated temperatures in conformance with the ICH Guideline of Stability Testing of Biological Products. These studies gave comparison between real time shelf-life stability and accelerated stability studies. The findings indicate long﷓term thermo stability and prove that this tetanus vaccine can remain efficient under setting of routine use when suggested measures for storage and handling are followed in true spirit.

  10. Disk drive flat optics:design factors affecting manufacturing and cost in volume.

    PubMed

    Westney, R P; Swaby, B L

    1988-02-15

    Polarizers and beam splitters for optical drives are small but expensive. Crystalline, prismatic, or cemented optics can often be replaced with coated flats of comparable performance- Cost drivers are examined, and spectral comparison is made between a plate and cube polarizer. Moisture stability of thin film coatings is discussed, and related applications examined, especially those involving control of the relative phase shift between S and P polarization on reflection. Processes now exist enabling the volume manufacture of these optics.

  11. Development of hybrid lifecycle cost estimating tool (HLCET) for manufacturing influenced design tradeoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirirojvisuth, Apinut

    In complex aerospace system design, making an effective design decision requires multidisciplinary knowledge from both product and process perspectives. Integrating manufacturing considerations into the design process is most valuable during the early design stages since designers have more freedom to integrate new ideas when changes are relatively inexpensive in terms of time and effort. Several metrics related to manufacturability are cost, time, and manufacturing readiness level (MRL). Yet, there is a lack of structured methodology that quantifies how changes in the design decisions impact these metrics. As a result, a new set of integrated cost analysis tools are proposed in this study to quantify the impacts. Equally important is the capability to integrate this new cost tool into the existing design methodologies without sacrificing agility and flexibility required during the early design phases. To demonstrate the applicability of this concept, a ModelCenter environment is used to develop software architecture that represents Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) methodology used in several aerospace systems designs. The environment seamlessly integrates product and process analysis tools and makes effective transition from one design phase to the other while retaining knowledge gained a priori. Then, an advanced cost estimating tool called Hybrid Lifecycle Cost Estimating Tool (HLCET), a hybrid combination of weight-, process-, and activity-based estimating techniques, is integrated with the design framework. A new weight-based lifecycle cost model is created based on Tailored Cost Model (TCM) equations [3]. This lifecycle cost tool estimates the program cost based on vehicle component weights and programmatic assumptions. Additional high fidelity cost tools like process-based and activity-based cost analysis methods can be used to modify the baseline TCM result as more knowledge is accumulated over design iterations. Therefore, with this

  12. Affordable Design: A Methodolgy to Implement Process-Based Manufacturing Cost into the Traditional Performance-Focused Multidisciplinary Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Han P.; Samareh, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the use of process-based manufacturing and assembly cost models in a traditional performance-focused multidisciplinary design and optimization process. The use of automated cost-performance analysis is an enabling technology that could bring realistic processbased manufacturing and assembly cost into multidisciplinary design and optimization. In this paper, we present a new methodology for incorporating process costing into a standard multidisciplinary design optimization process. Material, manufacturing processes, and assembly processes costs then could be used as the objective function for the optimization method. A case study involving forty-six different configurations of a simple wing is presented, indicating that a design based on performance criteria alone may not necessarily be the most affordable as far as manufacturing and assembly cost is concerned.

  13. Accelerated longitudinal designs: An overview of modelling, power, costs and handling missing data

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Sally; Bowden, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal studies are often used to investigate age-related developmental change. Whereas a single cohort design takes a group of individuals at the same initial age and follows them over time, an accelerated longitudinal design takes multiple single cohorts, each one starting at a different age. The main advantage of an accelerated longitudinal design is its ability to span the age range of interest in a shorter period of time than would be possible with a single cohort longitudinal design. This paper considers design issues for accelerated longitudinal studies. A linear mixed effect model is considered to describe the responses over age with random effects for intercept and slope parameters. Random and fixed cohort effects are used to cope with the potential bias accelerated longitudinal designs have due to multiple cohorts. The impact of other factors such as costs and the impact of dropouts on the power of testing or the precision of estimating parameters are examined. As duration-related costs increase relative to recruitment costs the best designs shift towards shorter duration and eventually cross-sectional design being best. For designs with the same duration but differing interval between measurements, we found there was a cutoff point for measurement costs relative to recruitment costs relating to frequency of measurements. Under our model of 30% dropout there was a maximum power loss of 7%. PMID:25147228

  14. A discounted-cost continuous-time flexible manufacturing and operator scheduling model solved by deconvexification over time

    SciTech Connect

    Eaves, B.C.; Rothblum, U.G.

    1990-08-01

    A discounted-cost, continuous-time, infinite-horizon version of a flexible manufacturing and operator scheduling model is solved. The solution procedure is to convexify the discrete operator-assignment constraints to obtain a linear program, and then to regain the discreteness and obtain an approximate manufacturing schedule by deconvexification of the solution of the linear program over time. The strong features of the model are the accommodation of linear inequality relations among the manufacturing activities and the discrete manufacturing scheduling, whereas the weak features are intra-period relaxation of inventory availability constraints, and the absence of inventory costs, setup times, and setup charges.

  15. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Watkins, Thomas R.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Carver, Keith; England, Roger

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the proposed project between Cummins and ORNL is to significantly reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create injection molds to make plastic components. Presently, the high cost of this tooling forces the design decision to make cast aluminum parts because Cummins typical production volumes are too low to allow injection molded plastic parts to be cost effective with the amortized cost of the injection molding tooling. In addition to reducing the weight of components, polymer injection molding allows the opportunity for the alternative cooling methods, via nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas cooling offers an environmentally and economically attractive cooling option, if the mold can be manufactured economically. In this project, a current injection molding design was optimized for cooling using nitrogen gas. The various components of the injection mold tooling were fabricated using the Renishaw powder bed laser additive manufacturing technology. Subsequent machining was performed on the as deposited components to form a working assembly. The injection mold is scheduled to be tested in a projection setting at a commercial vendor selected by Cummins.

  16. Cost Study for Manufacturing of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, Mark R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Gotthold, David W.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-09-30

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power systems can be designed to produce electricity from fossil fuels at extremely high net efficiencies, approaching 70%. However, in order to penetrate commercial markets to an extent that significantly impacts world fuel consumption, their cost will need to be competitive with alternative generating systems, such as gas turbines. This report discusses a cost model developed at PNNL to estimate the manufacturing cost of SOFC power systems sized for ground-based distributed generation. The power system design was developed at PNNL in a study on the feasibility of using SOFC power systems on more electric aircraft to replace the main engine-mounted electrical generators [Whyatt and Chick, 2012]. We chose to study that design because the projected efficiency was high (70%) and the generating capacity was suitable for ground-based distributed generation (270 kW).

  17. Technology Needs for Reduced Design and Manufacturing Cost of Commercial Transport Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohn, Douglas A.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the needs in the design and manufacturing processes and identify areas where technology could impact in cost and cycle-time reduction. At the highest level, the team first identified the goals that were in line with long-range needs of the aeropropulsion industry, and to which technology and process improvements would be required to contribute. These goals are to reduce the time and costs in the development cycle of aircraft engines by a factor of two, reduce production cycle time by a factor of four, and to reduce production costs by 25%. Also, it was the intent of the team to identify the highest impact technologies that could be developed and demonstrated in five years.

  18. Automotive Lithium-ion Cell Manufacturing: Regional Cost Structures and Supply Chain Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    2016-04-08

    Manufacturing capacity for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)--which power many consumer electronics and are increasingly used to power electric vehicles--is heavily concentrated in east Asia. Currently, China, Japan, and Korea collectively host 88% of all LIB cell and 79% of automotive LIB cell manufacturing capacity. Mature supply chains and strong cumulative production experience suggest that most LIB cell production will remain concentrated in Asia. However, other regions--including North America--could be competitive in the growing automotive LIB cell market under certain conditions. To illuminate the factors that drive regional competitiveness in automotive LIB cell production, this study models cell manufacturing cost and minimum sustainable price, and examines development of LIB supply chains and current LIB market conditions. Modeled costs are for large format, 20-Ah stacked pouch cells with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt-oxide (NMC) cathodes and graphite anodes suitable for automotive application. Production volume is assumed to be at commercial scale, 600 MWh per year.

  19. 26 CFR 1.168(a)-1 - Modified accelerated cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Modified accelerated cost recovery system. 1.168... provided in section 167(a) and that is placed in service after December 31, 1986 (or after July 31, 1986, if the taxpayer made an election under section 203(a)(1)(B) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986; 100...

  20. 26 CFR 1.168(a)-1 - Modified accelerated cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Modified accelerated cost recovery system. 1.168... provided in section 167(a) and that is placed in service after December 31, 1986 (or after July 31, 1986, if the taxpayer made an election under section 203(a)(1)(B) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986; 100...

  1. Design and high-volume manufacture of low-cost molded IR aspheres for personal thermal imaging devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelazny, A. L.; Walsh, K. F.; Deegan, J. P.; Bundschuh, B.; Patton, E. K.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for infrared optical elements, particularly those made of chalcogenide materials, is rapidly increasing as thermal imaging becomes affordable to the consumer. The use of these materials in conjunction with established lens manufacturing techniques presents unique challenges relative to the cost sensitive nature of this new market. We explore the process from design to manufacture, and discuss the technical challenges involved. Additionally, facets of the development process including manufacturing logistics, packaging, supply chain management, and qualification are discussed.

  2. Advanced Materials and Manufacturing for Low-Cost, High-Performance Liquid Rocket Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian E.; Arrieta, Victor M.

    2013-01-01

    A document describes the low-cost manufacturing of C103 niobium alloy combustion chambers, and the use of a high-temperature, oxidation-resistant coating that is superior to the standard silicide coating. The manufacturing process involved low-temperature spray deposition of C103 on removable plastic mandrels produced by rapid prototyping. Thin, vapor-deposited platinum-indium coatings were shown to substantially improve oxidation resistance relative to the standard silicide coating. Development of different low-cost plastic thrust chamber mandrel materials and prototyping processes (selective laser sintering and stereolithography) yielded mandrels with good dimensional accuracy (within a couple of mils) for this stage of development. The feasibility of using the kinetic metallization cold-spray process for fabrication of free-standing C1O3 thrusters on removable plastic mandrels was also demonstrated. The ambient and elevated temperature mechanical properties of the material were shown to be reasonably good relative to conventionally processed C103, but the greatest potential benefit is that coldsprayed chambers require minimal post-process machining, resulting in substantially lower machining and material costs. The platinum-iridium coating was shown to provide greatly increased oxidation resistance over the silicide when evaluated through oxyacetylene torch testing to as high as 300 F (= 150 C). The iridium component minimizes reaction with the niobium alloy chamber at high temperatures, and provides the high-temperature oxidation resistance needed at the throat.

  3. Design of a low-cost, compact SRF accelerator for flue gas and wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ciovati, Gianluigi

    2016-04-01

    Funding is being requested pursuant to a proposal that was submitted and reviewed through the Portfolio Analysis and Management System (PAMS). PAMS Proposal ID: 222439. The proposed project consists of the design of a novel superconducting continuous-wave accelerator capable of providing a beam current of ~1 A at an energy of 1-2 MeV for the treatment of flue gases and wastewater streams. The novel approach consists on studying the feasibility of using a single-cell Nb cavity coated with a thin Nb3Sn layer of the inner surface and conductively cooled by to 4.2 K by cryocoolers inside a compact cryomodule. The proposed study will include beam transport simulations, thermal and mechanical engineering analysis of the cryomodule and a cost analysis for both the fabrications costs and the operational and maintenance costs of such accelerator. The outcome of the project will be a report summarizing the analysis and results from the design study.

  4. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and Lots, Including Site Preparation Combination and... necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds (or be augmented by a separate loan) to pay all or a part of the cost of the necessary site...

  5. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and Lots, Including Site Preparation Combination and... necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds (or be augmented by a separate loan) to pay all or a part of the cost of the necessary site...

  6. Investigation of an accident in a resins manufacturing site: the role of accelerator on polymerisation of methyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Casson, Valeria; Snee, Tim; Maschio, Giuseppe

    2014-04-15

    This paper analyzes the effect of an accelerator on the polymerisation of methyl methacrylate (MMA). This study is based on the results of an investigation of an accident in a manufacturing site for resins located in the United Kingdom. As sequence of event to cause the accident the following was assumed: during an unattended batch process a runaway undesired polymerisation of methyl methacrylate occurred, generating rapid vaporisation of monomer, which in contact with an ignition source, led to an explosion followed by a fire. Since no initiator for the polymerisation reaction had been jet added to the blend, it was supposed that the accelerator contributed to the onset of the undesired polymerisation. The accelerator involved in the accident t has therefore been tested by differential scanning calorimetry and adiabatic calorimetry. The experimental data allowed the authors to prove the hypothesis made and to define safety ranges for the polymerisation reaction.

  7. PEM fuel cell cost minimization using ``Design For Manufacture and Assembly`` techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lomax, F.D. Jr.; James, B.D.; Mooradian, R.P.

    1997-12-31

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells fueled with direct hydrogen have demonstrated substantial technical potential to replace Internal Combustion Engines (ICE`s) in light duty vehicles. Such a transition to a hydrogen economy offers the potential of substantial benefits from reduced criteria and greenhouse emissions as well as reduced foreign fuel dependence. Research conducted for the Ford Motor Co. under a US Department of Energy contract suggests that hydrogen fuel, when used in a fuel cell vehicle (FCV), can achieve a cost per vehicle mile less than or equal to the gasoline cost per mile when used in an ICE vehicle. However, fuel cost parity is not sufficient to ensure overall economic success: the PEM fuel cell power system itself must be of comparable cost to the ICE. To ascertain if low cost production of PEM fuel cells is feasible, a powerful set of mechanical engineering tools collectively referred to as Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) has been applied to several representative PEM fuel cell designs. The preliminary results of this work are encouraging, as presented.

  8. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly; Ross, Nicole

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  9. Low-cost small scale parabolic trough collector design for manufacturing and deployment in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orosz, Matthew; Mathaha, Paul; Tsiu, Anadola; Taele, B. M.; Mabea, Lengeta; Ntee, Marcel; Khakanyo, Makoanyane; Teker, Tamer; Stephens, Jordan; Mueller, Amy

    2016-05-01

    Concentrating Solar Power is expanding its deployment on the African subcontinent, highlighting the importance of efforts to indigenize manufacturing of this technology to increase local content and therefore local economic benefits of these projects. In this study a design for manufacturing (DFM) exercise was conducted to create a locally produced parabolic trough collector (the G4 PTC). All parts were sourced or fabricated at a production facility in Lesotho, and several examples of the design were prototyped and tested with collaborators in the Government of Lesotho's Appropriate Technology Services division and the National University of Lesotho. Optical and thermal performance was simulated and experimentally validated, and pedagogical pre-commercial versions of the PTC have been distributed to higher education partners in Lesotho and Europe. The cost to produce the PTC is 180 USD/m2 for a locally manufactured heat collection element (HCE) capable of sustaining 250C operation at ~65% efficiency. A version with an imported evacuated HCE can operate at 300°C with 70% efficiency. Economically relevant applications for this locally produced PTC include industrial process heat and distributed generation scenarios where cogeneration is required.

  10. III-Vs at Scale: A PV Manufacturing Cost Analysis of the Thin Film Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Maxwell; Horowitz, Kelsey; Woodhouse, Michael; Battaglia, Corsin; Kapadia, Rehan; Javey, Ali

    2016-06-01

    The authors present a manufacturing cost analysis for producing thin-film indium phosphide modules by combining a novel thin-film vapor-liquid-solid (TF-VLS) growth process with a standard monolithic module platform. The example cell structure is ITO/n-TiO2/p-InP/Mo. For a benchmark scenario of 12% efficient modules, the module cost is estimated to be $0.66/W(DC) and the module cost is calculated to be around $0.36/W(DC) at a long-term potential efficiency of 24%. The manufacturing cost for the TF-VLS growth portion is estimated to be ~$23/m2, a significant reduction compared with traditional metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. The analysis here suggests the TF-VLS growth mode could enable lower-cost, high-efficiency III-V photovoltaics compared with manufacturing methods used today and open up possibilities for other optoelectronic applications as well.

  11. Comparative study on cost evaluation and network visualization of particle accelerator components for heavy ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, A.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob; Barnard, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    By visualizing accelerator system components in heavy ion inertial fusion, the connection between the components becomes clear. We clarify an influential component on the entire cost by the relation of node connections due to the visualization result. Since a low cost component affects a high cost component, not only the cost estimation but also the relation between the components is considerable and important issue. A cost estimation result changing with an induction core cost indicates no influences in the rate of details.

  12. Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators

    DOE PAGES

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current,more » 90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.« less

  13. Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current, 90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  14. Optical Metrology for CIGS Solar Cell Manufacturing and its Cost Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunkoju, Sravan Kumar

    Solar energy is a promising source of renewable energy which can meet the demand for clean energy in near future with advances in research in the field of photovoltaics and cost reduction by commercialization. Availability of a non-contact, in-line, real time robust process control strategies can greatly aid in reducing the gap between cell and module efficiencies, thereby leading to cost-effective large-scale manufacturing of high efficiency CIGS solar cells. In order to achieve proper process monitoring and control for the deposition of the functional layers of CuIn1-xGaxSe 2 (CIGS) based thin film solar cell, optical techniques such as spectroscopic reflectometry and polarimetry are advantageous because they can be set up in an unobtrusive manner in the manufacturing line, and collect data in-line and in-situ. The use of these techniques requires accurate optical models that correctly represent the properties of the layers being deposited. In this study, Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been applied for the characterization of each individual stage of CIGS layers deposited using the 3-stage co-evaporation process along with the other functional layers. Dielectric functions have been determined for the energy range from 0.7 eV to 5.1 eV. Critical-point line-shape analysis was used in this study to determine the critical point energies of the CIGS based layers. To control the compositional and thickness uniformity of all the functional layers during the fabrication of CIGS solar cells over large areas, multilayer photovoltaics (PV) stack optical models were developed with the help of extracted dielectric functions. In this study, mapping capability of RC2 spectroscopic ellipsometer was used to map all the functional layer thicknesses of a CIGS solar cell in order to probe the spatial non-uniformities that can affect the performance of a cell. The optical functions for each of the stages of CIGS 3-stage deposition process along with buffer layer and transparent

  15. On Comparing the Quality of Head and Neck Imrt Plans Delivered with Two Different Linear Accelerator Manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    Basran, Parminder S.; Balogh, Judith; Poon, Ian; MacKenzie, Robert; Chan, Timothy

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine whether 2 different types of linear accelerators manufacturers with similar MLC leaf widths deliver equivalent IMRT distributions for head and neck radiotherapy patients. In this study, plans delivered with Siemens linacs were re-optimized with an Elekta linac and vice versa. To test for significance, paired t-tests were computed to examine differences in target and normal tissue doses and monitor units. Dose distributions, dose-volume histograms, and dose to targets and normal tissues were found to be equivalent irrespective of the linac type. However, approximately 15% more monitor units were delivered when planned on the Elekta machine (p < 0.002). Both linear accelerators provide plans of comparable dosimetric quality; however, Elekta machines deliver slightly more monitor units than Siemens machines. This increase is likely due differences in geometric properties of the machine head designs, as modeled in the treatment planning system.

  16. Low Cost and Energy Efficient Methods for the Manufacture of Semi-Solid (SSM) Feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Diran Apelian; Qingyue Pan; Makhlouf Makhlouf

    2005-11-07

    The SSM Consortium (now ACRC) at WPI has been carrying out fundamental, pre-competitive research in SSM for several years. Current and past research (at WPI) has generated many results of fundamental and applied nature, which are available to the SSM community. These include materials characterization, yield stress effects, alloy development, rheological properties, process modeling/simulation, semi-solid slurry formation, etc. Alternative method to produce SSM slurries at lower processing costs and with reduced energy consumption is a critical need. The production of low cost SSM feedstock will certainly lead to a dramatic increase in the tonnage of castings produced by SSM, and will provide end users such as the transportation industry, with lighter, cheaper and high performance materials. In this program, the research team has addressed three critical issues in semi-solid processing. They are: (1) Development of low cost, reliable slurry-on-demand approaches for semi-solid processing; (2) Application of the novel permanent grain refining technology-SiBloy for the manufacture of high-quality SSM feedstock, and (3) Development of computational and modeling tools for semi-solid processing to enhance SSM process control. Salient results from these studies are summarized and detailed in our final technical report.

  17. Low cost method for manufacturing a data acquisition system with USB connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, V.; Dobre, R. A.; Popovici, E.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of designing and manufacturing an electronic system the digital oscilloscope plays an essential role but it also represents one of the most expensive equipment present on the typical workbench. In order to make electronic design more accessible to students and hobbyists, an affordable data acquisition system was imagined. The paper extensively presents the development and testing of a low cost, medium speed, data acquisition system which can be used in a wide range of electronic measurement and debugging applications, assuring also great portability due to the small physical dimensions. Each hardware functional block and is thoroughly described, highlighting the challenges that occurred as well as the solutions to overcome them. The entire system was successfully manufactured using high quality components to assure increased reliability, and high frequency PCB materials and techniques were preferred. The measured values determined based on test signals were compared to the ones obtained using a digital oscilloscope available on the market and differences less than 1% were observed.

  18. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  19. Sustainable chemical manufacturing: a matter of resources, wastes, hazards, and costs.

    PubMed

    Lange, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable development is gaining importance in the chemical industry. It encompasses social, environmental, and economical aspects. Herein, sustainable development is translated into four basic dimensions, called "sustainability stresses": resources, wastes, hazards, and costs. These sustainability stresses are discussed in some detail and their usefulness is illustrated by applying them to three manufacturing processes applied commercially by Shell, namely Shell's OMEGA, SMPO, and "low monol" technologies for producing ethene diol, styrene/propene oxide, and polyether polyols, respectively. These examples show that large reductions in sustainable stresses have been achieved in a few decades. They also show that the economical, environmental, and social issues are not in conflict when tackled at their roots: they can be all addressed simultaneously.

  20. Economic Evaluation of Munitions Manufacturing Pink Wastewater Treatment Alternatives Using a Present Value-Unit Cost Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    present value- unit cost (PVUC) methodology and compares seven state -of-the- art processes: activated granular carbon adsorption with and without...The United States Army controls seventeen Army Ammunition Plants (AAP) engaged in explosive or propellant manufacture. Seven AAP’s engage only in mar...Army manufactures all explosives (except nitroglycerin) employed by the United States Air Force and the Army LAP facilities process Air Force munitions

  1. Low-cost manufacturing of the point focus concentrating module and its key component, the Fresnel lens. Final subcontract report, 31 January 1991--6 May 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Saifee, T.; Konnerth, A. III

    1991-11-01

    Solar Kinetics, Inc. (SKI) has been developing point-focus concentrating PV modules since 1986. SKI is currently in position to manufacture between 200 to 600 kilowatts annually of the current design by a combination of manual and semi-automated methods. This report reviews the current status of module manufacture and specifies the required approach to achieve a high-volume manufacturing capability and low cost. The approach taken will include process development concurrent with module design for automated manufacturing. The current effort reviews the major manufacturing costs and identifies components and processes whose improvements would produce the greatest effect on manufacturability and cost reduction. The Fresnel lens is one such key component. Investigating specific alternative manufacturing methods and sources has substantially reduced the lens costs and has exceeded the DOE cost-reduction goals. 15 refs.

  2. Cost Based Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for Systems of Accelerator Magnets.

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Cherrill M

    2003-06-02

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) has a proposed 85% overall availability goal, the availability specifications for all its 7200 magnets and their 6167 power supplies are 97.5% each. Thus all of the electromagnets and their power supplies must be highly reliable or quickly repairable. Improved reliability or repairability comes at a higher cost. We have developed a set of analysis procedures for magnet designers to use as they decide how much effort to exert, i.e. how much money to spend, to improve the reliability of a particular style of magnet. We show these procedures being applied to a standard SLAC electromagnet design in order to make it reliable enough to meet the NLC availability specs. First, empirical data from SLAC's accelerator failure database plus design experience are used to calculate MTBF for failure modes identified through a FMEA. Availability for one particular magnet can be calculated. Next, labor and material costs to repair magnet failures are used in a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the total cost of all failures over a 30-year lifetime. Opportunity costs are included. Engineers choose from amongst various designs by comparing lifecycle costs.

  3. Warranty optimisation based on the prediction of costs to the manufacturer using neural network model and Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamenkovic, Dragan D.; Popovic, Vladimir M.

    2015-02-01

    Warranty is a powerful marketing tool, but it always involves additional costs to the manufacturer. In order to reduce these costs and make use of warranty's marketing potential, the manufacturer needs to master the techniques for warranty cost prediction according to the reliability characteristics of the product. In this paper a combination free replacement and pro rata warranty policy is analysed as warranty model for one type of light bulbs. Since operating conditions have a great impact on product reliability, they need to be considered in such analysis. A neural network model is used to predict light bulb reliability characteristics based on the data from the tests of light bulbs in various operating conditions. Compared with a linear regression model used in the literature for similar tasks, the neural network model proved to be a more accurate method for such prediction. Reliability parameters obtained in this way are later used in Monte Carlo simulation for the prediction of times to failure needed for warranty cost calculation. The results of the analysis make possible for the manufacturer to choose the optimal warranty policy based on expected product operating conditions. In such a way, the manufacturer can lower the costs and increase the profit.

  4. Doing More with Less: Cost-effective, Compact Particle Accelerators (489th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Trbojevic, Dejan

    2013-10-22

    Replace a 135-ton magnet used for cancer-fighting particle therapies with a magnet that weighs only two tons? Such a swap is becoming possible thanks to new particle accelerator advances being developed by researchers at Brookhaven Lab. With an approach that combines techniques used by synchrotron accelerators with the ability to accept more energy, these new technologies could be used for more than fighting cancer. They could also decrease the lifecycle of byproducts from nuclear power plants and reduce costs for eRHIC—a proposed electron-ion collider for Brookhaven Lab that researchers from around the world would use to explore the glue that holds together the universe’s most basic building blocks and explore the proton-spin puzzle. During this lecture, Dr. Trbojevic provides an overview of accelerator technologies and techniques—particularly a non-scaling, fixed-focused alternating gradient—to focus particle beams using fewer, smaller magnets. He discusses how these technologies will benefit eRHIC and other applications, including particle therapies being developed to combat cancer.

  5. The Relationship between National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Weight Guidelines and Concurrent Medical Costs in a Manufacturing Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feifei; Schultz, Alyssa B.; Musich, Shirley; McDonald, Tim; Hirschland, David; Edington, Dee W.

    2003-01-01

    Explored the relationship between the 1998 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) weight guidelines and concurrent medical costs among 177,971 employees, retirees, and adult dependents from a nationwide manufacturing corporation. Results indicated that the six weight groups defined by the NHLBI guidelines were consistent with concurrent…

  6. Modeling the Impact and Costs of Semiannual Mass Drug Administration for Accelerated Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    de Vlas, Sake J.; Fischer, Peter U.; Weil, Gary J.; Goldman, Ann S.

    2013-01-01

    The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) has a target date of 2020. This program is progressing well in many countries. However, progress has been slow in some countries, and others have not yet started their mass drug administration (MDA) programs. Acceleration is needed. We studied how increasing MDA frequency from once to twice per year would affect program duration and costs by using computer simulation modeling and cost projections. We used the LYMFASIM simulation model to estimate how many annual or semiannual MDA rounds would be required to eliminate LF for Indian and West African scenarios with varied pre-control endemicity and coverage levels. Results were used to estimate total program costs assuming a target population of 100,000 eligibles, a 3% discount rate, and not counting the costs of donated drugs. A sensitivity analysis was done to investigate the robustness of these results with varied assumptions for key parameters. Model predictions suggested that semiannual MDA will require the same number of MDA rounds to achieve LF elimination as annual MDA in most scenarios. Thus semiannual MDA programs should achieve this goal in half of the time required for annual programs. Due to efficiency gains, total program costs for semiannual MDA programs are projected to be lower than those for annual MDA programs in most scenarios. A sensitivity analysis showed that this conclusion is robust. Semiannual MDA is likely to shorten the time and lower the cost required for LF elimination in countries where it can be implemented. This strategy may improve prospects for global elimination of LF by the target year 2020. PMID:23301115

  7. Development of Low-Cost Manufacturing Processes for Planar, Multilayer Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Elements

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Swartz; Matthew Seabaugh; William Dawson; Tim Armstrong; Harlan Anderson; John Lannutti

    2001-09-30

    This report summarizes the results of Phase II of this program, 'Low-Cost Manufacturing Of Multilayer Ceramic Fuel Cells'. The objective of the program is to develop advanced ceramic manufacturing technologies for making planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) components that are more economical and reliable for a variety of applications. Phase II development work focused on three distinct manufacturing approaches (or tracks) for planar solid oxide fuel cell elements. Two development tracks, led by NexTech Materials and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, involved co-sintering of planar SOFC elements of cathode-supported and anode-supported variations. A third development track, led by the University of Missouri-Rolla, focused on a revolutionary approach for reducing operating temperature of SOFCs by using spin-coating to deposit ultra-thin, nano-crystalline YSZ electrolyte films. The work in Phase II was supported by characterization work at Ohio State University. The primary technical accomplishments within each of the three development tracks are summarized. Track 1--NexTech's targeted manufacturing process for planar SOFC elements involves tape casting of porous electrode substrates, colloidal-spray deposition of YSZ electrolyte films, co-sintering of bi-layer elements, and screen printing of opposite electrode coatings. The bulk of NexTech's work focused on making cathode-supported elements, although the processes developed at NexTech also were applied to the fabrication of anode-supported cells. Primary accomplishments within this track are summarized below: (1) Scale up of lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM) cathode powder production process; (2) Development and scale-up of tape casting methods for cathode and anode substrates; (3) Development of automated ultrasonic-spray process for depositing YSZ films; (4) Successful co-sintering of flat bi-layer elements (both cathode and anode supported); (5) Development of anode and cathode screen-printing processes; and (6

  8. LOW-COST COMPOSITES IN VEHICLE MANUFACTURE - Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Holbery, Jim; Houston, Dan

    2006-11-01

    In the last decade, natural fiber composites have experienced rapid growth in the European automotive market, and this trend appears to be global in scale, provided the cost and performance is justified against competing technologies. However, mass reduction, recyclability, and performance requirements can be met today by competing systems such as injection-molded unreinforced thermoplastics; natural fiber composites will continue to expand their role in automotive applications only if such technical challenges as moisture stability, fiber-polymer interface compatibility, and consistent, repeatable fiber sources are available to supply automotive manufacturers. Efforts underway by Tier I and II automotive suppliers to explore hybrid glass-natural fiber systems, as well as applications that exploit such capabilities as natural fiber sound dampening characteristics, could very well have far-reaching effects. In addition, the current development underway of bio-based resins such as Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biodegradable polyesters and bio-based polyols could provide fully bio-based composite options to future automotive designers. In short, the development of the natural fiber composite market would make a positive impact on farmers and small business owners on a global scale, reduce US reliance on foreign oil, improve environmental quality through the development of a sustainable resource supply chain, and achieve a better CO2 balance over the vehicle?s lifetime with near-zero net greenhouse gas emissions.

  9. High Temperature Thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing Using Low-Cost, Open-Source Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, John M.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Yashin, Edward A.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) via Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), also known as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), is a process where material is placed in specific locations layer-by-layer to create a complete part. Printers designed for FFF build parts by extruding a thermoplastic filament from a nozzle in a predetermined path. Originally developed for commercial printers, 3D printing via FFF has become accessible to a much larger community of users since the introduction of Reprap printers. These low-cost, desktop machines are typically used to print prototype parts or novelty items. As the adoption of desktop sized 3D printers broadens, there is increased demand for these machines to produce functional parts that can withstand harsher conditions such as high temperature and mechanical loads. Materials meeting these requirements tend to possess better mechanical properties and higher glass transition temperatures (Tg), thus requiring printers with high temperature printing capability. This report outlines the problems and solutions, and includes a detailed description of the machine design, printing parameters, and processes specific to high temperature thermoplastic 3D printing.

  10. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) for Cost Effective Near-Net Shape Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing of structural metal parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data has been investigated by numerous researchers over the past decade. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center are developing a new solid freeform fabrication process, electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3), as a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. EBF3 deposits of 2219 aluminium and Ti-6Al-4V have exhibited a range of grain morphologies depending upon the deposition parameters. These materials have exhibited excellent tensile properties comparable to typical handbook data for wrought plate product after post-processing heat treatments. The EBF3 process is capable of bulk metal deposition at deposition rates in excess of 2500 cubic centimeters per hour (150 in3/hr) or finer detail at lower deposition rates, depending upon the desired application. This process offers the potential for rapidly adding structural details to simpler cast or forged structures rather than the conventional approach of machining large volumes of chips to produce a monolithic metallic structure. Selective addition of metal onto simpler blanks of material can have a significant effect on lead time reduction and lower material and machining costs.

  11. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication for Cost Effective Near-Net Shape Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Manufacturing of structural metal parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data has been investigated by numerous researchers over the past decade. Researchers at NASA Langley Research Center are developing a new solid freeform fabrication process, electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3), as a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. EBF3 deposits of 2219 aluminium and Ti-6Al-4V have exhibited a range of grain morphologies depending upon the deposition parameters. These materials have exhibited excellent tensile properties comparable to typical handbook data for wrought plate product after post-processing heat treatments. The EBF3 process is capable of bulk metal deposition at deposition rates in excess of 2500 cm3/hr (150 in3/hr) or finer detail at lower deposition rates, depending upon the desired application. This process offers the potential for rapidly adding structural details to simpler cast or forged structures rather than the conventional approach of machining large volumes of chips to produce a monolithic metallic structure. Selective addition of metal onto simpler blanks of material can have a significant effect on lead time reduction and lower material and machining costs.

  12. Manufacturing Cost Analysis for YSZ-Based FlexCells at Pilot and Full Scale Production Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Swartz; Lora Thrun; Robin Kimbrell; Kellie Chenault

    2011-05-01

    Significant reductions in cell costs must be achieved in order to realize the full commercial potential of megawatt-scale SOFC power systems. The FlexCell designed by NexTech Materials is a scalable SOFC technology that offers particular advantages over competitive technologies. In this updated topical report, NexTech analyzes its FlexCell design and fabrication process to establish manufacturing costs at both pilot scale (10 MW/year) and full-scale (250 MW/year) production levels and benchmarks this against estimated anode supported cell costs at the 250 MW scale. This analysis will show that even with conservative assumptions for yield, materials usage, and cell power density, a cost of $35 per kilowatt can be achieved at high volume. Through advancements in cell size and membrane thickness, NexTech has identified paths for achieving cell manufacturing costs as low as $27 per kilowatt for its FlexCell technology. Also in this report, NexTech analyzes the impact of raw material costs on cell cost, showing the significant increases that result if target raw material costs cannot be achieved at this volume.

  13. Preliminary estimate of the manufacturing cost for lithium/metal sulfide cells for stationary and mobile applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chilenskas, A. A.; Schaefer, J. C.; Towle, W. L.; Barney, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary estimate has been made of the manufacturing cost for lithium/iron sulfide cells for stationary energy-storage and electric-vehicle applications. This preliminary cost analysis indicated that the manufacturing cost (in 1979 dollars) is $24 to 41/kW-h for stationary energy-storage cells and $31 to 55/kW-h for electric-vehicle cells. The materials cost was found to contribute between 52 and 65% of this manufacturing cost. The most expensive materials and components were lithium (metal and compounds), $4.61 to $14.26/kW-h; BN felt, $4.00 to 8.50/kW-h; feed-through components, $2.40/kW-h; positive current collectors, $1.48 to 2.20/kW-h; and aluminum, $1.43 to 1.66/kW-h. The projected lithium requirements were determined for use in lithium/iron sulfide batteries and conventional uses to the year 2006. The results showed that the lithium requirements were about 275,000 short tons by 2006, which is equivalent to about 51% of presently known US resources. Of this amount, about 33% would be used in battery production and 67% consumed in conventional uses. It is expected that the lithium used in battery production would be recycled.

  14. Industrialization of Biology. A Roadmap to Accelerate the Advanced Manufacturing of Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Douglas C.

    2015-09-01

    The report stresses the need for efforts to inform the public of the nature of industrial biotechnology and of its societal benefits, and to make sure that concerns are communicated effectively between the public and other stakeholders. In addition to scientific advances, a number of governance and societal factors will influence the industrialization of biology. Industry norms and standards need to be established in areas such as read/write accuracy for DNA, data and machine technology specifications, and organism performance in terms of production rates and yields. An updated regulatory regime is also needed to accelerate the safe commercialization of new host organisms, metabolic pathways, and chemical products, and regulations should be coordinated across nations to enable rapid, safe, and global access to new technologies and products.

  15. The Effect of Adopting New Storage Methods for Extending Product Validity Periods on Manufacturers Expected Inventory Costs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Po-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The validness of the expiration dates (validity period) that manufacturers provide on food product labels is a crucial food safety problem. Governments must study how to use their authority by implementing fair awards and punishments to prompt manufacturers into adopting rigorous considerations, such as the effect of adopting new storage methods for extending product validity periods on expected costs. Assuming that a manufacturer sells fresh food or drugs, this manufacturer must respond to current stochastic demands at each unit of time to determine the purchase amount of products for sale. If this decision maker is capable and an opportunity arises, new packaging methods (e.g., aluminum foil packaging, vacuum packaging, high-temperature sterilization after glass packaging, or packaging with various degrees of dryness) or storage methods (i.e., adding desiccants or various antioxidants) can be chosen to extend the validity periods of products. To minimize expected costs, this decision maker must be aware of the processing costs of new storage methods, inventory standards, inventory cycle lengths, and changes in relationships between factors such as stochastic demand functions in a cycle. Based on these changes in relationships, this study established a mathematical model as a basis for discussing the aforementioned topics. PMID:25302332

  16. Low-cost Design and Manufacturing of Surgical Guides for Mandibular Reconstruction Using a Fibula

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Hiroko; Sowa, Yoshihiro; Nishino, Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgical cutting guides are used in mandibular reconstruction involving osteotomy of the mandible and fibula. Cutting guides produced using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technologies have been reported recently. These guides aim to increase the benefits to patients by improving the accuracy, shortening the operating time, and correcting occlusion. However, the availability of these advanced technologies is limited in some regions of the world. To test whether we could produce low-cost surgical cutting guides, we made surgical guides and investigated their accuracy. Methods: Using free CAD software, we designed surgical cutting guides for the mandible and fibula and used these to perform virtual mandibular segmental osteotomies and fibula transplants in 12 model surgeries. The cutting guides were printed on a 3-dimensional (3D) printer. The model surgeries were performed using 3D mandibular models and cutting guides to check their accuracy. Deviations between the virtually simulated plan and the actual model surgery were investigated. Results: CAD and CAM technologies were used to design and 3D print the cutting guides and models. The guided surgeries were performed. The deviations were about 1.3 mm for mandibular osteotomy, less than 1 mm for fibular osteotomy, and within 2.4 mm for reconstructions of the mandible. Conclusions: Without using expensive software or products, we were able to design surgical cutting guides for the mandible and fibula and used these to perform virtual simulation of mandibular segmental osteotomy and fibular reconstruction. Model surgeries using 3D-printed surgical guides showed that the accuracy of reconstruction was within a 3-mm deviation. In circumstances where commercial CAD/CAM guides are not available, it may be possible to use CAD/CAM surgical guides in the clinic if doctors are willing to volunteer their time for the design and printing. PMID:27536484

  17. Make or Buy: Cost Impacts of Additive Manufacturing, 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management on Ship Maintenance and Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    1 Make or Buy: Cost Impacts of Additive Manufacturing , 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management on Ship...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Make or Buy: Cost Impacts of Additive Manufacturing , 3D Laser Scanning Technology...management during operations 4 Potential Technology 3: Additive Manufacturing (“3D Printing”) 5 • 3D design/image (e.g. from 3D LS) of final part

  18. Value and manufacturing costs of planar solid oxide fuel cell stacks. Topical report, January 1994-July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, C.A.; Wright, J.D.

    1996-07-01

    In the first part of this report, the authors analyze the economics of three different fuel cell applications, 200 kW cogeneration, 50 MW stand alone power generation, and a central power plant application of a fuel cell integrated into a 225 MW gas turbine/combined cycle power plant. In the second part of this report, the authors estimated the cost of fabricating a planar SOFC stack using a variety of manufacturing techniques. For a facility producing 200 MW/year of fuel cell systems, the authors obtained vendor equipment quotations, material cost estimates, utility requirements, and projected labor and overhead costs. The authors used a minimum after tax rate of return requirement of 20% to estimate SOFC stack costs.

  19. Determination of the optimal time and cost of manufacturing flow of an assembly using the Taguchi method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrila, S.; Brabie, G.; Chirita, B.

    2016-08-01

    The optimization of the parts and assembly manufacturing operation was carried out in order to minimize both the time and cost of production as appropriate. The optimization was made by using the Taguchi method. The Taguchi method is based on the plans of experiences that vary the input and outputs factors. The application of the Taguchi method in order to optimize the flow of the analyzed assembly production is made in the following: to find the optimal combination between the manufacturing operations; to choose the variant involving the use of equipment performance; to delivery operations based on automation. The final aim of the Taguchi method application is that the entire assembly to be achieved at minimum cost and in a short time. Philosophy Taguchi method of optimizing product quality is synthesized from three basic concepts: quality must be designed into the product and not he product inspected after it has been manufactured; the higher quality is obtained when the deviation from the proposed target is low or when uncontrollable factors action has no influence on it, which translates robustness; costs entailed quality are expressed as a function of deviation from the nominal value [1]. When determining the number of experiments involving the study of a phenomenon by this method, follow more restrictive conditions [2].

  20. Costs incurred by applying computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing techniques for the reconstruction of maxillofacial defects.

    PubMed

    Rustemeyer, Jan; Melenberg, Alex; Sari-Rieger, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the additional costs incurred by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technique for reconstructing maxillofacial defects by analyzing typical cases. The medical charts of 11 consecutive patients who were subjected to the CAD/CAM technique were considered, and invoices from the companies providing the CAD/CAM devices were reviewed for every case. The number of devices used was significantly correlated with cost (r = 0.880; p < 0.001). Significant differences in mean costs were found between cases in which prebent reconstruction plates were used (€3346.00 ± €29.00) and cases in which they were not (€2534.22 ± €264.48; p < 0.001). Significant differences were also obtained between the costs of two, three and four devices, even when ignoring the cost of reconstruction plates. Additional fees provided by statutory health insurance covered a mean of 171.5% ± 25.6% of the cost of the CAD/CAM devices. Since the additional fees provide financial compensation, we believe that the CAD/CAM technique is suited for wide application and not restricted to complex cases. Where additional fees/funds are not available, the CAD/CAM technique might be unprofitable, so the decision whether or not to use it remains a case-to-case decision with respect to cost versus benefit.

  1. Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, William G.; Rios, Orlando; Akers, Ronald R.; Morrison, William A.

    2016-01-07

    To improve the flow of materials used in in polymer additive manufacturing, ORNL and Ajax Tocco created an induction system for heating fused deposition modeling (FDM) nozzles used in polymer additive manufacturing. The system is capable of reaching a temperature of 230 C, a typical nozzle temperature for extruding ABS polymers, in 17 seconds. A prototype system was built at ORNL and sent to Ajax Tocco who analyzed the system and created a finalized power supply. The induction system was mounted to a PrintSpace Altair desktop printer and used to create several test parts similar in quality to those created using a resistive heated nozzle.

  2. Low-Cost Nanocellulose-Reinforced High-Temperature Polymer Composites for Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Ozcan, Soydan; Tekinalp, Halil L.; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Nelson, Kim

    2016-07-13

    ORNL worked with American Process Inc. to demonstrate the potential use of bio-based BioPlus® lignin-coated cellulose nanofibrils (L-CNF) as a reinforcing agent in the development of polymer feedstock suitable for additive manufacturing. L-CNF-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) testing coupons were prepared and up to 69% increase in tensile strength and 133% increase in elastic modulus were demonstrated.

  3. Handbook of estimating data, factors, and procedures. [for manufacturing cost studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, L. M.

    1977-01-01

    Elements to be considered in estimating production costs are discussed in this manual. Guidelines, objectives, and methods for analyzing requirements and work structure are given. Time standards for specific specfic operations are listed for machining, sheet metal working, electroplating and metal treating; painting; silk screening, etching and encapsulating; coil winding; wire preparation and wiring; soldering; and the fabrication of etched circuits and terminal boards. The relation of the various elements of cost to the total cost as proposed for various programs by various contractors is compared with government estimates.

  4. PV Inverter Products Manufacturing and Design Improvements for Cost Reduction and Performance Enhancements: Final Subcontract Report, November 2003 (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    West, R.

    2004-04-01

    The specific objectives of this subcontracted development work by Xantrex Technology Inc. were to: (1) Capture the newest digital signal processor (DSP) technology to create high-impact,''next generation'' power conversion equipment for the PV industry; (2) Create a common resource base for three PV product lines. This standardized approach to both hardware and software control platforms will provide significant market advantage over foreign competition; (3) Achieve cost reductions through increased volume of common components, reduced assembly labor, and the higher efficiency of producing more products with fewer design, manufacturing, and production test variations; (4) Increase PV inverter product reliability. Reduce inverter size, weight and conversion losses. The contract goals were to achieve an overall cost reduction of 10% to 20% for the three inverters and with no compromise in performance. The cost of the 10-kW inverter was reduced by 56%, and the cost of the 25-kW inverter was reduced by 53%. The 2.5-kW inverter has no basis for comparison, but should benefit equally from this design approach. Not only were the contract cost reduction goals exceeded by a wide margin, but the performance and reliability of the products were also enhanced. The conversion efficiency improvement, as reflected in the 50% conversion loss reduction, adds significant value in renewable energy applications. The size and weight reductions also add value by providing less cumbersome product solutions for system designers.

  5. Manufacturing Cost Analysis of Novel Steel/Concrete Composite Vessel for Stationary Storage of High-Pressure Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhili; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jy-An John; Ren, Fei

    2012-09-01

    A novel, low-cost, high-pressure, steel/concrete composite vessel (SCCV) technology for stationary storage of compressed gaseous hydrogen (CGH2) is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) sponsored by DOE s Fuel Cell Technologies (FCT) Program. The SCCV technology uses commodity materials including structural steels and concretes for achieving cost, durability and safety requirements. In particular, the hydrogen embrittlement of high-strength low-alloy steels, a major safety and durability issue for current industry-standard pressure vessel technology, is mitigated through the use of a unique layered steel shell structure. This report presents the cost analysis results of the novel SCCV technology. A high-fidelity cost analysis tool is developed, based on a detailed, bottom-up approach which takes into account the material and labor costs involved in each of the vessel manufacturing steps. A thorough cost study is performed to understand the SCCV cost as a function of the key vessel design parameters, including hydrogen pressure, vessel dimensions, and load-carrying ratio. The major conclusions include: The SCCV technology can meet the technical/cost targets set forth by DOE s FCT Program for FY2015 and FY2020 for all three pressure levels (i.e., 160, 430 and 860 bar) relevant to the hydrogen production and delivery infrastructure. Further vessel cost reduction can benefit from the development of advanced vessel fabrication technologies such as the highly automated friction stir welding (FSW). The ORNL-patented multi-layer, multi-pass FSW can not only reduce the amount of labor needed for assembling and welding the layered steel vessel, but also make it possible to use even higher strength steels for further cost reductions and improvement of vessel structural integrity. It is noted the cost analysis results demonstrate the significant cost advantage attainable by the SCCV technology for different pressure levels when compared to the

  6. Real Cost Of He-Ne Lasers For The Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) User

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, Dale E.

    1982-07-01

    The real cost of He-Ne Lasers in systems is made up of many factors, only one of which is the actual purchase price of the laser itself. It behooves the system designer to thoroughly understand both the requirements of his system and the capabilities and limitations of the various lasers available in the market. Only in this way can the designer minimize the overall cost of his system and provide the best possible value to his customer.

  7. Next generation grinding spindle for cost-effective manufacture of advanced ceramic components

    SciTech Connect

    Kovach, J.A.; Laurich, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Finish grinding of advanced structural ceramics has generally been considered an extremely slow and costly process. Recently, however, results from the High-Speed, Low-Damage (HSLD) program have clearly demonstrated that numerous finish-process performance benefits can be realized by grinding silicon nitride at high wheel speeds. A new, single-step, roughing-process capable of producing high-quality silicon nitride parts at high material removal rates while dramatically reducing finishing costs has been developed.

  8. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  9. Compensation of the impact of low-cost manufacturing techniques in the design of E-plane multiport waveguide junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San-Blas, A. A.; Roca, J. M.; Cogollos, S.; Morro, J. V.; Boria, V. E.; Gimeno, B.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a full-wave tool for the accurate analysis and design of compensated E-plane multiport junctions is proposed. The implemented tool is capable of evaluating the undesired effects related to the use of low-cost manufacturing techniques, which are mostly due to the introduction of rounded corners in the cross section of the rectangular waveguides of the device. The obtained results show that, although stringent mechanical effects are imposed, it is possible to compensate for the impact of the cited low-cost manufacturing techniques by redesigning the matching elements considered in the original device. Several new designs concerning a great variety of E-plane components (such as right-angled bends, T-junctions and magic-Ts) are presented, and useful design guidelines are provided. The implemented tool, which is mainly based on the boundary integral-resonant mode expansion technique, has been successfully validated by comparing the obtained results to simulated data provided by a commercial software based on the finite element method.

  10. Low-cost high-manufacturability and thermal stability optical front-end for 10-Gb ethernet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shin-Ge; Lee, Chun-Hsing; Liao, Li-Chun; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Chih-Li; Huang, Min-Fa; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Cheng, Fu-Yi; Kao, Min-Sheng; Wang, Chiung-Hung

    2004-05-01

    With the drastic expansion of internet usage, the demand of 10Gb/s transmission optoelectronic devices for local-area-network (LAN) and storage-area-network (SAN) are increasing. The key issues of these applications are to improve cost, manufacturability and reliability of optoelectronic devices in high speed transmission. The authors have demonstrated extremely low cost, high manufacturability and thermal stability optical fron-end for 10Gb/s Ethernet applications in this paper. High performance and high sensitivity of 10Gb/s transmitter optical sub-assembly (TOSA) and receiver optical sub-assembly (ROSA) with TO-Can packages are discussed and demonstrated to overcome the critical points in high speed applications, respectively. Moreover, 10km interconnection of 10Gb/s optical front-end without isolated elements inside are also proved to be error free at 10.3125Gb/s. In order to improve the signal integrity and manufacturability of 10Gb/s OSA in small form factor transceiver modules assembly, the authors also integrate high speed flex board and OSA package to extend the signal path, and to minimize the effect of crosstalk in modules. Furthermore, the integration of flex board and OSA package more release the difficulties in conjuunction OSA and electrical sub-assembly (ESA) in module to fulfill the request of 10Gb/s transeivers' Multi-Source Agreement (MSA). The performance of temperature stabilized TOSA over wide case temperature range is also experimented. The optical eye diagram of 10Gb/s TOSA developed in this study showing excellent eye quality passing 10Gb/s Ethernet mask test between 0°C to 85°C.

  11. Comparison Study of Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet Systems for an Accelerator Using Cost-Based Failure Modes and Effects Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, C

    2004-02-19

    The next generation of particle accelerators will be one-of-a-kind facilities, and to meet their luminosity goals they must have guaranteed availability over their several decade lifetimes. The Next Linear Collider (NLC) is one viable option for a 1 TeV electron-positron linear collider, it has an 85% overall availability goal. We previously showed how a traditional Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) of a SLAC electromagnet leads to reliability-enhancing design changes. Traditional FMEA identifies failure modes with high risk but does not consider the consequences in terms of cost, which could lead to unnecessarily expensive components. We have used a new methodology, ''Life Cost-Based FMEA'', which measures risk of failure in terms of cost, in order to evaluate and compare two different technologies that might be used for the 8653 NLC magnets: electromagnets or permanent magnets. The availabilities for the two different types of magnet systems have been estimated using empirical data from SLAC's accelerator failure database plus expert opinion on permanent magnet failure modes and industry standard failure data. Labor and material costs to repair magnet failures are predicted using a Monte Carlo simulation of all possible magnet failures over a 30-year lifetime. Our goal is to maximize up-time of the NLC through magnet design improvements and the optimal combination of electromagnets and permanent magnets, while reducing magnet system lifecycle costs.

  12. Manufacturing Cost/Design Guide (MC/DG) for Aerospace Applications.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-02

    prevent removal without distortion if driven into the impression while the metal was hot. Underfill : The portion of a forging which does not have its...monitoring) - Laminate (quality/ voids /porosity). 3.4 Diffusion bonding e Complexity e Size -Available equipment capacity -Support tooling * Equipment costs a

  13. ICAM Manufacturing Cost/Design Guide. Volume 2. Appendices to Demonstration Sections.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    case of sheet metal, joggles , cut-outs, and heat treatment, a discrete part is defined. Typical DICE analyzed for mechanically fastened assemblies are...Discrete Parts (1) Drawings of the sheet-metal aerospace discrete parts showing configurations, dimensions, joggles , holes, trim, heat treatment, etc...elements (DICE) which might include joggles , holes, bends, lightening holes, and special tolerances, that add cost to the base part con- figuration. These

  14. Manufacturing Cost/Design Guide (MC/DG) for Conceptual Design. Supplement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    ELEMENTS DESIGNER FUNCTION *(COMPLEXITIES i~e. JOGGLES , LIGHTENING HOLES. tc) L D F IJ FIGURE 2.1-8 tIANUFACTURII1G COST/DESIGN GUIDE AND DESIGN PROCESS...1 6+ 0 1 4.10 0 1+ + ++ - .-.I.+ JOGGLE -I 1 Ii 2 PL.ACES/ + + + + + + 4+ 4 4 + + + 8 SECTION B-B DOUBLER 14.0" x 16.0" x 0.060" - 2024 - T81 SECTION

  15. Manufacture of patient-specific vascular replicas for endovascular simulation using fast, low-cost method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Naoki; Mashiko, Toshihiro; Ohnishi, Taihei; Ohta, Makoto; Namba, Katsunari; Watanabe, Eiju; Kawai, Kensuke

    2016-12-01

    Patient-specific vascular replicas are essential to the simulation of endovascular treatment or for vascular research. The inside of silicone replica is required to be smooth for manipulating interventional devices without resistance. In this report, we demonstrate the fabrication of patient-specific silicone vessels with a low-cost desktop 3D printer. We show that the surface of an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) model printed by the 3D printer can be smoothed by a single dipping in ABS solvent in a time-dependent manner, where a short dip has less effect on the shape of the model. The vascular mold is coated with transparent silicone and then the ABS mold is dissolved after the silicone is cured. Interventional devices can pass through the inside of the smoothed silicone vessel with lower pushing force compared to the vessel without smoothing. The material cost and time required to fabricate the silicone vessel is about USD $2 and 24 h, which is much lower than the current fabrication methods. This fast and low-cost method offers the possibility of testing strategies before attempting particularly difficult cases, while improving the training of endovascular therapy, enabling the trialing of new devices, and broadening the scope of vascular research.

  16. Manufacture of patient-specific vascular replicas for endovascular simulation using fast, low-cost method

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Naoki; Mashiko, Toshihiro; Ohnishi, Taihei; Ohta, Makoto; Namba, Katsunari; Watanabe, Eiju; Kawai, Kensuke

    2016-01-01

    Patient-specific vascular replicas are essential to the simulation of endovascular treatment or for vascular research. The inside of silicone replica is required to be smooth for manipulating interventional devices without resistance. In this report, we demonstrate the fabrication of patient-specific silicone vessels with a low-cost desktop 3D printer. We show that the surface of an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) model printed by the 3D printer can be smoothed by a single dipping in ABS solvent in a time-dependent manner, where a short dip has less effect on the shape of the model. The vascular mold is coated with transparent silicone and then the ABS mold is dissolved after the silicone is cured. Interventional devices can pass through the inside of the smoothed silicone vessel with lower pushing force compared to the vessel without smoothing. The material cost and time required to fabricate the silicone vessel is about USD $2 and 24 h, which is much lower than the current fabrication methods. This fast and low-cost method offers the possibility of testing strategies before attempting particularly difficult cases, while improving the training of endovascular therapy, enabling the trialing of new devices, and broadening the scope of vascular research. PMID:27976687

  17. Manufacture of patient-specific vascular replicas for endovascular simulation using fast, low-cost method.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Naoki; Mashiko, Toshihiro; Ohnishi, Taihei; Ohta, Makoto; Namba, Katsunari; Watanabe, Eiju; Kawai, Kensuke

    2016-12-15

    Patient-specific vascular replicas are essential to the simulation of endovascular treatment or for vascular research. The inside of silicone replica is required to be smooth for manipulating interventional devices without resistance. In this report, we demonstrate the fabrication of patient-specific silicone vessels with a low-cost desktop 3D printer. We show that the surface of an acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) model printed by the 3D printer can be smoothed by a single dipping in ABS solvent in a time-dependent manner, where a short dip has less effect on the shape of the model. The vascular mold is coated with transparent silicone and then the ABS mold is dissolved after the silicone is cured. Interventional devices can pass through the inside of the smoothed silicone vessel with lower pushing force compared to the vessel without smoothing. The material cost and time required to fabricate the silicone vessel is about USD $2 and 24 h, which is much lower than the current fabrication methods. This fast and low-cost method offers the possibility of testing strategies before attempting particularly difficult cases, while improving the training of endovascular therapy, enabling the trialing of new devices, and broadening the scope of vascular research.

  18. Integral Airframe Structures (IAS): Validated Feasibility Study of Integrally Stiffened Metallic Fuselage Panels for Reducing Manufacturing Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munroe, J.; Wilkins, K.; Gruber, M.; Domack, Marcia S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Integral Airframe Structures (IAS) program investigated the feasibility of using "integrally stiffened" construction for commercial transport fuselage structure. The objective of the program was to demonstrate structural performance and weight equal to current "built-up" structure with lower manufacturing cost. Testing evaluated mechanical properties, structural details, joint performance, repair, static compression, and two-bay crack residual strength panels. Alloys evaluated included 7050-T7451 plate, 7050-T74511 extrusion, 6013-T6511x extrusion, and 7475-T7351 plate. Structural performance was evaluated with a large 7475-T7351 pressure test that included the arrest of a two-bay longitudinal crack, and a measure of residual strength for a two-bay crack centered on a broken frame. Analysis predictions for the two-bay longitudinal crack panel correlated well with the test results. Analysis activity conducted by the IAS team strongly indicates that current analysis tools predict integral structural behavior as accurately as built-up structure. The cost study results indicated that, compared to built-up fabrication methods, high-speed machining structure from aluminum plate would yield a recurring cost savings of 61%. Part count dropped from 78 individual parts on a baseline panel to just 7 parts for machined IAS structure.

  19. Make or buy analysis model based on tolerance allocation to minimize manufacturing cost and fuzzy quality loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosyidi, C. N.; Puspitoingrum, W.; Jauhari, W. A.; Suhardi, B.; Hamada, K.

    2016-02-01

    The specification of tolerances has a significant impact on the quality of product and final production cost. The company should carefully pay attention to the component or product tolerance so they can produce a good quality product at the lowest cost. Tolerance allocation has been widely used to solve problem in selecting particular process or supplier. But before merely getting into the selection process, the company must first make a plan to analyse whether the component must be made in house (make), to be purchased from a supplier (buy), or used the combination of both. This paper discusses an optimization model of process and supplier selection in order to minimize the manufacturing costs and the fuzzy quality loss. This model can also be used to determine the allocation of components to the selected processes or suppliers. Tolerance, process capability and production capacity are three important constraints that affect the decision. Fuzzy quality loss function is used in this paper to describe the semantic of the quality, in which the product quality level is divided into several grades. The implementation of the proposed model has been demonstrated by solving a numerical example problem that used a simple assembly product which consists of three components. The metaheuristic approach were implemented to OptQuest software from Oracle Crystal Ball in order to obtain the optimal solution of the numerical example.

  20. ICAM Manufacturing Cost/Design Guide. Volume 3. Airframes. User’s Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    PER MATERIAL CUBIC INCH POUND ALUMINUM 705F -T6 -T652 r-T7352 TITANIUM 0.16 $30Ti6AI-4V LOW ALLOY STEEL 0.28 $3 4340 PH CRES $0.28 $7 15 - 5PH FIGURE...DG ...... ................ ... 3-3 3.3 Utilization of Learning Curve . . . . . . . . . 3-6 3.4 Cost Worksheet for Airframe Designers ...... 3-9 3.4.1...for Airframe Assemblies . 4.2- 15 4.2.5 Ground Rules for Mechanically Fastened Assembly Section .............. 4.2-27 4.2.5.1 General Ground Rules

  1. A low-cost technique to manufacture a container to process meiofauna for scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Abolafia, J

    2015-09-01

    An easy and low-cost method to elaborate a container to dehydrate nematodes and other meiofauna in order to process them for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is presented. Illustrations of its elaboration, step by step, are included. In addition, a brief methodology to process meiofauna, especially nematodes and kinorhynchs, and illustrations are provided. With this methodology it is possible to easily introduce the specimens, to lock them in a closed chamber allowing the infiltration of fluids and gases (ethanol, acetone, carbon dioxide) but avoiding losing the specimens. After using this meiofauna basket for SEM the results are efficient. Examples of nematode and kinorhynch SEM pictures obtained using this methodology are also included.

  2. The cost of transport of human running is not affected, as in walking, by wide acceleration/deceleration cycles.

    PubMed

    Minetti, Alberto E; Gaudino, Paolo; Seminati, Elena; Cazzola, Dario

    2013-02-15

    Although most of the literature on locomotion energetics and biomechanics is about constant-speed experiments, humans and animals tend to move at variable speeds in their daily life. This study addresses the following questions: 1) how much extra metabolic energy is associated with traveling a unit distance by adopting acceleration/deceleration cycles in walking and running, with respect to constant speed, and 2) how can biomechanics explain those metabolic findings. Ten males and ten females walked and ran at fluctuating speeds (5 ± 0, ± 1, ± 1.5, ± 2, ± 2.5 km/h for treadmill walking, 11 ± 0, ± 1, ± 2, ± 3, ± 4 km/h for treadmill and field running) in cycles lasting 6 s. Field experiments, consisting of subjects following a laser spot projected from a computer-controlled astronomic telescope, were necessary to check the noninertial bias of the oscillating-speed treadmill. Metabolic cost of transport was found to be almost constant at all speed oscillations for running and up to ±2 km/h for walking, with no remarkable differences between laboratory and field results. The substantial constancy of the metabolic cost is not explained by the predicted cost of pure acceleration/deceleration. As for walking, results from speed-oscillation running suggest that the inherent within-stride, elastic energy-free accelerations/decelerations when moving at constant speed work as a mechanical buffer for among-stride speed fluctuations, with no extra metabolic cost. Also, a recent theory about the analogy between sprint (level) running and constant-speed running on gradients, together with the mechanical determinants of gradient locomotion, helps to interpret the present findings.

  3. High Efficiency, Low Cost Solar Cells Manufactured Using 'Silicon Ink' on Thin Crystalline Silicon Wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniadis, H.

    2011-03-01

    Reported are the development and demonstration of a 17% efficient 25mm x 25mm crystalline Silicon solar cell and a 16% efficient 125mm x 125mm crystalline Silicon solar cell, both produced by Ink-jet printing Silicon Ink on a thin crystalline Silicon wafer. To achieve these objectives, processing approaches were developed to print the Silicon Ink in a predetermined pattern to form a high efficiency selective emitter, remove the solvents in the Silicon Ink and fuse the deposited particle Silicon films. Additionally, standard solar cell manufacturing equipment with slightly modified processes were used to complete the fabrication of the Silicon Ink high efficiency solar cells. Also reported are the development and demonstration of a 18.5% efficient 125mm x 125mm monocrystalline Silicon cell, and a 17% efficient 125mm x 125mm multicrystalline Silicon cell, by utilizing high throughput Ink-jet and screen printing technologies. To achieve these objectives, Innovalight developed new high throughput processing tools to print and fuse both p and n type particle Silicon Inks in a predetermined pat-tern applied either on the front or the back of the cell. Additionally, a customized Ink-jet and screen printing systems, coupled with customized substrate handling solution, customized printing algorithms, and a customized ink drying process, in combination with a purchased turn-key line, were used to complete the high efficiency solar cells. This development work delivered a process capable of high volume producing 18.5% efficient crystalline Silicon solar cells and enabled the Innovalight to commercialize its technology by the summer of 2010.

  4. Self Aligned Cell: Scaling Up Manufacture of a Cost Effective Cell Architecture for Multicrystalline Silicon Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Gabor, A.; van Mierlo, F.

    2010-12-01

    Two areas of technology for fabrication of higher efficiency Si-wafer solar cells were addressed: (1) the formation of structured texturing that is an improvement over the industry-standard isotexture process for multicrystalline wafers. (2) the formation of fine line (<50 micron) metallization seed layers in a self-aligned manner where the fingers can be automatically and perfectly lined up to a selective emitter and where expensive silver screen printing paste can be mostly replaced by plating up the seed layers with silver or copper. The benefits are: a) Lower reflectivity , b) Decoupling the performance of the texture from the saw damage, thus allowing for better advances in sawing and a more robust wet process. 1366 Technologies developed 2 pilot machines for 1) deposition and patterning of low-cost resist layers to enable simultaneous Honeycomb front texturing and groove formation for multicrystalline Si wafers, and 2) fine-line dispensing of materials that are self aligned to the grooves.

  5. Can Low-Cost Support Programmes with Coaching Accelerate Doctoral Completion in Health Science Faculty Academics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Bentley, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Career development for full-time Health Sciences academics through to doctoral studies is a monumental task. Many academics have difficulty completing their studies in the minimum time as well as publishing after obtaining their degree. As this problem is particularly acute in the Health Sciences, the PhD Acceleration Programme in Health Sciences…

  6. System-Cost-Optimized Smart EVSE for Residential Application: Final Technical Report including Manufacturing Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Charles

    2015-05-15

    In the 2nd quarter of 2012, a program was formally initiated at Delta Products to develop smart-grid-enabled Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) product for residential use. The project was funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), under award DE-OE0000590. Delta products was the prime contractor to DOE during the three year duration of the project. In addition to Delta Products, several additional supplier-partners were engaged in this research and development (R&D) program, including Detroit Edison DTE, Mercedes Benz Research and Development North America, and kVA. This report summarizes the program and describes the key research outcomes of the program. A technical history of the project activities is provided, which describes the key steps taken in the research and the findings made at successive stages in the multi-stage work. The evolution of an EVSE prototype system is described in detail, culminating in prototypes shipped to Department of Energy Laboratories for final qualification. After the program history is reviewed, the key attributes of the resulting EVSE are described in terms of functionality, performance, and cost. The results clearly demonstrate the ability of this EVSE to meet or exceed DOE's targets for this program, including: construction of a working product-intent prototype of a smart-grid-enabled EVSE, with suitable connectivity to grid management and home-energy management systems, revenue-grade metering, and related technical functions; and cost reduction of 50% or more compared to typical market priced EVSEs at the time of DOE's funding opportunity announcement (FOA), which was released in mid 2011. In addition to meeting all the program goals, the program was completed within the original budget and timeline established at the time of the award. The summary program budget and timeline, comparing plan versus actual values, is provided for reference, along with several supporting explanatory notes. Technical information

  7. The costs and benefits of getting the ISO 9000 certification in the manufacturing sector in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mezher, T; Ramadan, H

    1998-01-01

    Many Saudi companies, in their journey to improve quality, efficiency and competitiveness, are pursuing and obtaining the ISO 9000 certificate. Many studies have evaluated how to implement ISO 9000 in different sectors, but none have analyzed the effectiveness of ISO 9000 certification (costs and benefits) on improving the overall quality and on meeting expectations. This study addressed these issues by investigating manufacturing organizations in Saudi Arabia that have the ISO 9000 certification. A survey questionnaire was distributed to firms throughout the kingdom. Thirty-two firms participated in the study. Results indicate that increased consistency of operations, improved service, and product quality are among the top motivators for pursuing the ISO certificate. The benefits most often experienced were improved awareness of procedural problems, better management control, keeping existing customers, increased customer satisfaction, and improved customer service. Difficulties experienced during the certification process involved time and cost, but these were not considered to be major problems. A high volume of paperwork was the main problem experienced following initial certification. Respondents in general said that the ISO 9000 certification met their expectations and that their level of satisfaction regarding the impact of ISO 9000 was high. Most recommended that other organizations pursue the certificate.

  8. Laser generated microstructures in tape cast electrodes for rapid electrolyte wetting: new technical approach for cost efficient battery manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfleging, W.; Kohler, R.; Pröll, J.

    2014-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) battery architectures are under current scientific investigation since they can achieve large areal energy capacities while maintaining high power densities. A main objective of surface patterning is the enhancement of lithium-ion diffusion which is often a limiting factor in lithium-ion cells. By using a rather new approach, laser material processing of thick-film electrodes has been investigated for the precise adjustment of 3D surface topography. Besides lithium-ion diffusion in electrode materials as an electrochemically limited process, a critical step in lithium-ion pouch cell manufacturing is the homogeneous electrolyte wetting of stacked electrodes and separators. This process requires cost expensive and time-consuming vacuum and storage processes at elevated temperatures. A new and cost efficient laser process has been successfully applied in order to significantly improve the electrode wetting and the battery operation. Preliminary investigations for testing the process on pouch cell geometry revealed higher capacities and increased cell life-time compared to standard cells without storage processes at elevated temperatures. The laser structuring process can be applied to commercial electrode materials and integrated into existing production lines.

  9. Design, development and manufacture of high-efficiency low-cost solar modules based on CIGS PVICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldada, Louay

    2010-02-01

    We describe the design, development and manufacture of solar power panels based on photovoltaic integrated circuits (PVICs) with high-quality high-uniformity Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) thin films produced with the unique combination of low-cost ink-based and physical vapor deposition (PVD) based nanoengineered precursor thin films and a reactive transfer printing method. Reactive transfer is a two-stage process relying on chemical reaction between two separate precursor films to form CIGS, one deposited on the substrate and the other on a printing plate in the first stage. In the second stage, these precursors are brought into intimate contact and rapidly reacted under pressure in the presence of an electrostatic field while heat is applied. The use of two independent thin films provides the benefits of independent composition and flexible deposition technique optimization, and eliminates pre-reaction prior to the synthesis of CIGS. High quality CIGS with large grains on the order of several microns, and of preferred crystallographic orientation, are formed in just several minutes based on compositional and structural analysis by XRF, SIMS, SEM and XRD. Cell efficiencies of 14% and module efficiencies of 12% have been achieved using this method. When atmospheric pressure deposition of inks is utilized for the precursor films, the approach additionally provides lower energy consumption, higher throughput, and further reduced capital equipment cost with higher uptime.

  10. High Performance Packaging Solutions for Low Cost, Reliable PV Modules: Final Subcontract Report, 26 May 2005 - 30 November 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Keotla, B. M.; Marinik, B. J.

    2009-06-01

    During this research effort, Dow Corning Corporation has addressed the PV manufacturing goals of: (i) improving PV manufacturing processes and equipment; (ii) accelerating manufacturing cost reductions of PV modules; (iii) increasing commercial product performance and reliability; and (iv) scaling up U.S. manufacturing capacity.

  11. Cable manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, P.

    1972-01-01

    A survey is presented of flat electrical cable manufacturing, with particular reference to patented processes. The economics of manufacture based on an analysis of material and operating costs is considered for the various methods. Attention is given to the competitive advantages of the several processes and their resulting products. The historical area of flat cable manufacture is presented to give a frame of reference for the survey.

  12. Manufacturing cost analysis of a parabolic dish concentrator (General Electric design) for solar thermal electric power systems in selected production volumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of a General Electric 12 meter diameter concentrator was estimated. This parabolic dish concentrator for solar thermal system was costed in annual production volumes of 100 - 1,000 - 5,000 - 10,000 - 50,000 100,000 - 400,000 and 1,000,000 units. Presented for each volume are the costs of direct labor, material, burden, tooling, capital equipment and buildings. Also presented is the direct labor personnel and factory space requirements. All costs are based on early 1981 economics.

  13. The potential for reducing the cost of a heavy ion accelerator for ICF: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monsler, M.J.

    1987-02-25

    This study was initiated to identify the high leverage areas for reducing the cost of a 10 MJ heavy ion beam driver for a high gain target development facility. Our efforts to innovate to reach affordable cost have been mostly successful, in that it looks like the $500 M range may indeed be possible. We conclude that heavy ion beams do have substantial promise for an inertial fusion driver. However, the pace of R and D would have to be substantially increased to realize this promise on a timescale necessary for a High Gain Test Facility.

  14. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; Chu, S.

    2014-11-01

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.

  15. Resolving Inadequacies of the Navy Industrial Fund Cost Accounting System to Enable Its Use in the RAMP SMP (Rapid Acquisition of Manufactured Parts Small Manufactured Parts) Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    development is drawn from current cost accounting practices, and theoretical cost accounting principles in the commercial workplace. A detailed...production or service output. These definitions are sound in the man-paced environment. However, current cost accounting practices create the

  16. Analysis of Garment Production Methods. Part 2: Comparison of Cost and Production between a Traditional Bundle System and Modular Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-01

    also saw this project as an opportunity for our manufacturing management students to see first hand how companies respond to changes in their economic...Modular Manufacturing . We wanted to see if it was just a fad or a new business strategy that could be added to a manufacturer’s arsenal in the master...Fashion Industries 227 West 27 Street 000301 New York, NY 10001 Defense Logistics Agency DLA Manufacturing Engineering Branch Cameron Station (DLA

  17. Accelerated Infliximab Infusion: Safety, Factors Predicting Adverse Events, Patients’ Satisfaction and Cost Analysis. A Cohort Study in IBD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuoli, S.; Tricarico, D.; Demma, F.; Furneri, G.; Guglielmi, F. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Standard Infliximab infusion consists of a 2-hour intravenous administration. Recently, Infliximab shortened infusion has been included in the Infliximab label as possible maintenance regimen for patients tolerating Infliximab induction therapy. Aim To verify if accelerated 1-hour Infliximab infusions are as safe as standard administrations, in patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Methods Seventy-four patients treated between September 2008 and November 2014 were evaluated. Patients were eligible for 1-hour infusion if they had no history of infusion reactions during the previous 2-hour infusions. Results Twenty-three patients received 2-hour infusions, 16 patients received 1-hour infusions, 35 patients received 2-hour infusions followed by 1-hour infusions. A total of 1,123 Infliximab infusions were administered. The proportion of patients experiencing infusion reaction was: 4% over the 1-hour infusions and 9% over the 2-hour (P = 0.318). Adverse reaction/infusion rate was 0.55% over the 1-hour infusions and 0.66% over the 2-hour (P = 0.835). In the logistic model, accelerated infusion was the only statistically significant predictor of infusion reaction risk reduction (-90%; P = 0.024). Mean satisfaction was 8/10 (±0.84) with 1-hour regimen and 6/10 (±0.56) with 2-hour infusions (P = 0.000). The mean total cost was reduced by 47% with the 1-hour regimen (133.54€ and 250.86€ for 1-hour and 2-hour infusions, respectively). Conclusions Accelerated Infliximab infusion does not increase the acute infusion reaction incidence. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, the 1-hour regimen should be preferred to 2-hour protocol also due to positive effects on indirect costs and patient’s satisfaction. PMID:27851772

  18. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John

    2016-01-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) is developing and maturing innovative and advanced manufacturing technologies that will enable more capable and lower-cost spacecraft, launch vehicles and infrastructure to enable exploration missions. The technologies will utilize cutting edge materials and emerging capabilities including metallic processes, additive manufacturing, composites, and digital manufacturing. The AMT project supports the National Manufacturing Initiative involving collaboration with other government agencies.

  19. Accelerating PV Cost Effectiveness Through Systems Design, Engineering, and Quality Assurance: Phase I Annual Technical Report, 4 November 2004 - 3 November 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, J.

    2006-07-01

    During Phase I of this PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract, PowerLight Corporation has made significant progress toward the reduction of installed costs for commercial-scale, rooftop PV systems. PowerLight has worked to reduce operating costs by improving long-term reliability and performance through the development of more sophisticated tools used in system design and monitoring. Additionally, PowerLight has implemented design improvements with the goal of reducing cost while maintaining and/or improving product quality. As part of this effort, PowerLight also modified manufacturing and shipping processes to accommodate these design changes, streamline material flow, reduce cost, and decrease waste streams. During Phase II of this project, PowerLight plans to continue this work with the goal of reducing system cost and improving system performance.

  20. Effective seismic acceleration measurements for low-cost Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos; Makris, John P.

    2015-04-01

    There is increasing demand on cost effective Structural Health Monitoring systems for buildings as well as important and/or critical constructions. The front end for all these systems is the accelerometer. We present a comparative study of two low cost MEMS accelaration sensors against a very sensitive, high dynamic range strong motion accelerometer of force balance type but much more expensive. A real experiment was realized by deploying the three sesnors in a reinforced concrete building of the premises of TEI of Crete at Chania Crete, an earthquake prone region. The analysis of the collected accelararion data from many seismic events indicates that all sensors are able to efficiently reveal the seismic response of the construction in terms of PSD. Furthermore, it is shown that coherence diagrams between excitation and response of the building under study, depict structural characteristics but also the seismic energy distribution. This work is supported by the Archimedes III Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece, through the Operational Program "Educational and Lifelong Learning", in the framework of the project entitled "Interdisciplinary Multi-Scale Research of Earthquake Physics and Seismotectonics at the front of the Hellenic Arc (IMPACT-ARC)" and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds.

  1. Process-Based Cost Modeling of Photonics Manufacture: The Cost Competitiveness of Monolithic Integration of a 1550-nm DFB Laser and an Electroabsorptive Modulator on an InP Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Erica R. H.; Bruce, E. J.; Ram, R. J.; Kirchain, Randolph E.

    2006-08-01

    The monolithic integration of components holds promise to increase network functionality and reduce packaging expense. Integration also drives down yield due to manufacturing complexity and the compounding of failures across devices. Consensus is lacking on the economically preferred extent of integration. Previous studies on the cost feasibility of integration have used high-level estimation methods. This study instead focuses on accurate-to-industry detail, basing a process-based cost model of device manufacture on data collected from 20 firms across the optoelectronics supply chain. The model presented allows for the definition of process organization, including testing, as well as processing conditions, operational characteristics, and level of automation at each step. This study focuses on the cost implications of integration of a 1550-nm DFB laser with an electroabsorptive modulator on an InP platform. Results show the monolithically integrated design to be more cost competitive over discrete component options regardless of production scale. Dominant cost drivers are packaging, testing, and assembly. Leveraging the technical detail underlying model projections, component alignment, bonding, and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are identified as processes where technical improvements are most critical to lowering costs. Such results should encourage exploration of the cost advantages of further integration and focus cost-driven technology development.

  2. New techniques in large scale metrology toolset data mining to accelerate integrated chip technology development and increase manufacturing efficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solecky, Eric; Rana, Narender; Minns, Allan; Gustafson, Carol; Lindo, Patrick; Cornell, Roger; Llanos, Paul

    2014-04-01

    Today, metrology toolsets report out more information than ever. This information applies not only to process performance but also metrology toolset and recipe performance through various diagnostic metrics. This is most evident on the Critical Dimension Scanning Electron Microscope (CD-SEM). Today state of the art CD-SEMs report out over 250 individual data points and several images per measurement. It is typical for a state of the art fab with numerous part numbers to generate at least 20TB of information over the course of a year on the CD-SEM fleet alone pushing metrology toolsets into the big data regime. Most of this comes from improvements in throughput, increased sampling and new data outputs relative to previous generations of tools. Oftentimes, these new data outputs are useful for helping to determine if the process, metrology recipe or tool is deviating from an ideal state. Many issues could be missed by singularly looking at the key process control metric like the bottom critical dimension (CD) or a small subset of this available information. By leveraging the entire data set the mean time to detect and finding the root cause of issues can be significantly reduced. In this paper a new data mining system is presented that achieves this goal. Examples are shown with a focus on the benefits realized using this new system which helps speed up development cycles of learning and reducing manufacturing cycle-time. This paper concludes discussing future directions to make this capability more effective.

  3. Solder technology in the manufacturing of electronic products

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.

    1993-08-01

    The electronics industry has relied heavily upon the use of soldering for both package construction and circuit assembly. The solder attachment of devices onto printed circuit boards and ceramic microcircuits has supported the high volume manufacturing processes responsible for low cost, high quality consumer products and military hardware. Defects incurred during the manufacturing process are minimized by the proper selection of solder alloys, substrate materials and process parameters. Prototyping efforts are then used to evaluate the manufacturability of the chosen material systems. Once manufacturing feasibility has been established, service reliability of the final product is evaluated through accelerated testing procedures.

  4. ACCELERATED SITE TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT COMPARABILITY OF ISOCS INSTRUMENT IN RADIONUCLIDE CHARACTERICATION AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    KALB,P.; LUCKETT,L.; MILLER,K.; GOGOLAK,C.; MILIAN,L.

    2001-03-01

    This report describes a DOE Accelerated Site Technology Deployment project being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to deploy innovative, radiological, in situ analytical techniques. The technologies are being deployed in support of efforts to characterize the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) facility, which is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning. This report focuses on the deployment of the Canberra Industries In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) and assesses its data comparability to baseline methods of sampling and laboratory analysis. The battery-operated, field deployable gamma spectrometer provides traditional spectra of counts as a function of gamma energy. The spectra are then converted to radionuclide concentration by applying innovative efficiency calculations using monte carlo statistical methods and pre-defined geometry templates in the analysis software. Measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides has been accomplished during characterization of several BGRR components including the Pile Fan Sump, Above Ground Ducts, contaminated cooling fans, and graphite pile internals. Cs-137 is the predominant gamma-emitting radionuclide identified, with smaller quantities of Co-60 and Am-241 detected. The Project used the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual guidance and the Data Quality Objectives process to provide direction for survey planning and data quality assessment. Analytical results have been used to calculate data quality indicators (DQI) for the ISOCS measurements. Among the DQIs assessed in the report are sensitivity, accuracy, precision, bias, and minimum detectable concentration. The assessment of the in situ data quality using the DQIs demonstrates that the ISOCS data quality can be comparable to definitive level laboratory analysis when the field instrument is supported by an appropriate Quality Assurance Project Plan. A discussion of the results obtained by ISOCS analysis of

  5. Efficient manufacturing technology of metal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jizhen; Wu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Lingjie; Qu, Hemeng

    2015-10-01

    The efficient manufacturing technologies greatly accelerate the development and production process. Optical components have higher precision requirements than mechanical parts. This provides great challenge for rapid manufacturing. Metallic optical system is featured high resolution, wide spectral range, light weight, compact design, low cost and short manufacturing period. Reflective mirrors and supporting structures can be made from the same material to improve athermal performance of the system. Common materials for metal mirrors in optical applications include aluminum, copper, beryllium, aluminum beryllium alloy and so on. Their physical characteristics and relative advantages are presented. Most kinds of metals have good machinability and can be manufactured by many kinds of producing methods. This makes metallic optical system saving 30%~60% cost and time than others. The manufacturing process of metal mirror is different due to its working spectral. The metal mirror can be directly manufactured by single point diamond turning. This is an outstanding technique in point of ultra-precision as well as economical manufacture of mirrors. The roughness values and form accuracy of optical surfaces after diamond turning can satisfy the quality level for applications in the near infrared and infrared range. And for visible light spectral the turning structures must be removed with a smoothing procedure in order to minimize the scatter losses. Some smoothing methods to obtain visible quality metal mirrors are given in this paper. Some new manufacturing technology, such as 3D printing, can be used for metallic optical system and several promising techniques are presented.

  6. Additive manufacturing of liquid/gas diffusion layers for low-cost and high-efficiency hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, Jingke; Zhang, Feng -Yuan; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Toops, Todd J.; Green, Jr., Johney Boyd

    2016-01-14

    The electron beam melting (EBM) additive manufacturing technology was used to fabricate titanium liquid/gas diffusion media with high-corrosion resistances and well-controllable multifunctional parameters, including two-phase transport and excellent electric/thermal conductivities, has been first demonstrated. Their applications in proton exchange membrane eletrolyzer cells have been explored in-situ in a cell and characterized ex-situ with SEM and XRD. Compared with the conventional woven liquid/gas diffusion layers (LGDLs), much better performance with EBM fabricated LGDLs is obtained due to their significant reduction of ohmic loss. The EBM technology components exhibited several distinguished advantages in fabricating gas diffusion layer: well-controllable pore morphology and structure, rapid prototyping, fast manufacturing, highly customizing and economic. In addition, by taking advantage of additive manufacturing, it possible to fabricate complicated three-dimensional designs of virtually any shape from a digital model into one single solid object faster, cheaper and easier, especially for titanium. More importantly, this development will provide LGDLs with control of pore size, pore shape, pore distribution, and therefore porosity and permeability, which will be very valuable to develop modeling and to validate simulations of electrolyzers with optimal and repeatable performance. Further, it will lead to a manufacturing solution to greatly simplify the PEMEC/fuel cell components and to couple the LGDLs with other parts, since they can be easily integrated together with this advanced manufacturing process

  7. Additive manufacturing of liquid/gas diffusion layers for low-cost and high-efficiency hydrogen production

    DOE PAGES

    Mo, Jingke; Zhang, Feng -Yuan; Dehoff, Ryan R.; ...

    2016-01-14

    The electron beam melting (EBM) additive manufacturing technology was used to fabricate titanium liquid/gas diffusion media with high-corrosion resistances and well-controllable multifunctional parameters, including two-phase transport and excellent electric/thermal conductivities, has been first demonstrated. Their applications in proton exchange membrane eletrolyzer cells have been explored in-situ in a cell and characterized ex-situ with SEM and XRD. Compared with the conventional woven liquid/gas diffusion layers (LGDLs), much better performance with EBM fabricated LGDLs is obtained due to their significant reduction of ohmic loss. The EBM technology components exhibited several distinguished advantages in fabricating gas diffusion layer: well-controllable pore morphology and structure,more » rapid prototyping, fast manufacturing, highly customizing and economic. In addition, by taking advantage of additive manufacturing, it possible to fabricate complicated three-dimensional designs of virtually any shape from a digital model into one single solid object faster, cheaper and easier, especially for titanium. More importantly, this development will provide LGDLs with control of pore size, pore shape, pore distribution, and therefore porosity and permeability, which will be very valuable to develop modeling and to validate simulations of electrolyzers with optimal and repeatable performance. Further, it will lead to a manufacturing solution to greatly simplify the PEMEC/fuel cell components and to couple the LGDLs with other parts, since they can be easily integrated together with this advanced manufacturing process« less

  8. Smart Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  9. Manufacture of ammonium sulfate fertilizer from gypsum-rich byproduct of flue gas desulfurization - A prefeasibility cost estimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lytle, J.M.; Achorn, F.P.

    1996-01-01

    Costs for constructing and operating a conceptual plant based on a proposed process that converts flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum to ammonium sulfate fertilizer has been calculated and used to estimate a market price for the product. The average market price of granular ammonium sulfate ($138/ton) exceeds the rough estimated cost of ammonium sulfate from the proposed process ($111/ ton), by 25 percent, if granular size ammonium sulfate crystals of 1.2 to 3.3 millimeters in diameters can be produced by the proposed process. However, there was at least ??30% margin in the cost estimate calculations. The additional costs for compaction, if needed to create granules of the required size, would make the process uneconomical unless considerable efficiency gains are achieved to balance the additional costs. This study suggests the need both to refine the crystallization process and to find potential markets for the calcium carbonate produced by the process.

  10. Advanced manufacturing technologies for reduced cost and weight in portable ruggedized VIS-IR and multi-mode optical systems for land, sea, and air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Michael; Spinazzola, Robert; Morrison, Donald; Macklin, Dennis; Marion, Jared

    2011-06-01

    Homeland security systems, special forces, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), and marine patrols require low cost, high performance, multi-mode visible through infrared (VIS-IR) wavelength optical systems to identify and neutralize potential threats that often arise at long ranges and under poor visibility conditions. Long range and wide spectral performance requirements favor reflective optical system design solutions. The limited field of view of such designs can be significantly enhanced by the use of catadioptric optical solutions that utilize molded or diamond point machined VIS-IR lenses downstream from reflective objective optics. A common optical aperture that services multiple modes of field-of-view, operating wavelength, and includes laser ranging and spotting, provides the highest utility and is most ideal for size and weight. Such a design also often requires fast, highly aspheric, reflective, refractive, and sometimes diffractive surfaces using high performance and aggressively light-weighted materials that demand the finest of manufacturing technologies. Visible wavelength performance sets the bar for component optical surface irregularity on the order of 20 nm RMS and surface finishes less than 3.0 nm RMS. Aluminum mirrors and structures can also be precision machined to yield "snap together alignment" or limited compensation assembly approaches to reduce cost and enhance interchangeability. Diamond point turning, die cast and investment cast mirror substrates and structures, computerized optical polishing, mirror replication, lens molding and other advanced manufacturing technologies can all be used to minimize the cost of this type of optical equipment. This paper discusses the tradeoffs among materials and process selection for catadioptric, multi-mode systems that are under development for a variety of DoD and Homeland Security applications. Several examples are profiled to illuminate the confluence of applicable design and manufacturing

  11. Advanced Manufacturing Process for Lower Cost Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries for DOD Including the BB2590

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-30

    Nickelate in 18650 Cell 24 8. Installation of Resistance Welder 25 9. Bi-Cell Vacuum Dryer and with Activation Box 26 10. Semi...DOD lithium-ion rechargeable cells/batteries are composed of combinations using Asian 18650 cells including the BB2590. This dependence is due to the...much lower cost of the Asian and particularly the Chinese 18650 cells which are made on very large scale and also with lower labor costs. LithChem

  12. Creating Cost Growth Models for the Engineering and Manufacturing Development Phase of Acquisition Using Logistic and Multiple Regression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    actual costs method extrapolates the data gathered over the course of the program to produce a cost estimate. While this technique creates very...significantly revised over the past two years , this instruction still shapes acquisition structure, policy, and the processes for making war fighting...AFIT Theses (Gordon, 1996:2-3) Author ( Year ) Findings Sensitivity Factors Nystrom (1996) Complex non-linear EAC methods not superior to simpler

  13. Characteristic features of determining the labor input and estimated cost of the development and manufacture of equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurmanaliyev, T. I.; Breslavets, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The difficulties in obtaining exact calculation data for the labor input and estimated cost are noted. The method of calculating the labor cost of the design work using the provisional normative indexes with respect to individual forms of operations is proposed. Values of certain coefficients recommended for use in the practical calculations of the labor input for the development of new scientific equipment for space research are presented.

  14. Evaluation of the technical feasibility and effective cost of various wafer thicknesses for the manufacture of solar cells. Final report, July 15, 1978-July 15, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-20

    The principal activities in the performance of this contract effort include practical evaluation of the Yasunaga YQ-100 saw in a production environment. The wafering system is a free-abrasive multiple-loop single wire machine where the number of wafers/cm is determined by the wire pitch. In addition, the effects of wire diameter and abrasive size were studied. Solar cells were manufactured from each saw run to analyze surface damage and effects varying thickness on efficiency. It was determined that surface damage was much reduced compared to fixed abrasive saws, and as little as 5 to 10 micrometers of surface removal from each side of the wafer was sufficient to obtain optimum efficiency for the particular process which was used. Since thin wafers were produced, an analysis of panel manufacture using thin cells was made with special concern for flexibility of the panels and breakage. The saw was found to be much more labor intensive than expected, and wafering system modifications are recommended which can result in effective cost reduction for the manufacture of solar cells.

  15. Designing using manufacturing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szecsi, T.; Hoque, A. S. M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a design system that enables the composition of a part using manufacturing features. Features are selected from feature libraries. Upon insertion, the system ensures that the feature does not contradict the design-for-manufacture rules. This helps eliminating costly manufacturing problems. The system is developed as an extension to a commercial CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineer.

  16. Workforce Development for Manufacturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Rosalie

    2007-01-01

    In a recent skills gap report, the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) noted some disturbing trends in the gap between the demand for highly skilled manufacturing workers and the potential supply. The NAM report notes that smaller manufacturers rank finding qualified workers ahead of energy costs, taxes and government regulations on the…

  17. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived products: Advances towards robust, scalable and cost-effective manufacturing strategies

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Michael J; Farid, Suzanne S

    2015-01-01

    The ability to develop cost-effective, scalable and robust bioprocesses for human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) will be key to their commercial success as cell therapies and tools for use in drug screening and disease modelling studies. This review outlines key process economic drivers for hPSCs and progress made on improving the economic and operational feasibility of hPSC bioprocesses. Factors influencing key cost metrics, namely capital investment and cost of goods, for hPSCs are discussed. Step efficiencies particularly for differentiation, media requirements and technology choice are amongst the key process economic drivers identified for hPSCs. Progress made to address these cost drivers in hPSC bioprocessing strategies is discussed. These include improving expansion and differentiation yields in planar and bioreactor technologies, the development of xeno-free media and microcarrier coatings, identification of optimal bioprocess operating conditions to control cell fate and the development of directed differentiation protocols that reduce reliance on expensive morphogens such as growth factors and small molecules. These approaches offer methods to further optimise hPSC bioprocessing in terms of its commercial feasibility. PMID:25524780

  18. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  19. Individualized Positron Emission Tomography–Based Isotoxic Accelerated Radiation Therapy Is Cost-Effective Compared With Conventional Radiation Therapy: A Model-Based Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bongers, Mathilda L.; Coupé, Veerle M.H.; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Oberije, Cary; Lambin, Philippe; Uyl-de Groot, Cornelia A.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term health effects, costs, and cost-effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET)-based isotoxic accelerated radiation therapy treatment (PET-ART) compared with conventional fixed-dose CT-based radiation therapy treatment (CRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Our analysis uses a validated decision model, based on data of 200 NSCLC patients with inoperable stage I-IIIB. Clinical outcomes, resource use, costs, and utilities were obtained from the Maastro Clinic and the literature. Primary model outcomes were the difference in life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost/utility ratio (ICER and ICUR) of PET-ART versus CRT. Model outcomes were obtained from averaging the predictions for 50,000 simulated patients. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis and scenario analyses were carried out. Results: The average incremental costs per patient of PET-ART were €569 (95% confidence interval [CI] €−5327-€6936) for 0.42 incremental LYs (95% CI 0.19-0.61) and 0.33 QALYs gained (95% CI 0.13-0.49). The base-case scenario resulted in an ICER of €1360 per LY gained and an ICUR of €1744 per QALY gained. The probabilistic analysis gave a 36% probability that PET-ART improves health outcomes at reduced costs and a 64% probability that PET-ART is more effective at slightly higher costs. Conclusion: On the basis of the available data, individualized PET-ART for NSCLC seems to be cost-effective compared with CRT.

  20. Collaborative Manufacturing for Small-Medium Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irianto, D.

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing systems involve decisions concerning production processes, capacity, planning, and control. In a MTO manufacturing systems, strategic decisions concerning fulfilment of customer requirement, manufacturing cost, and due date of delivery are the most important. In order to accelerate the decision making process, research on decision making structure when receiving order and sequencing activities under limited capacity is required. An effective decision making process is typically required by small-medium components and tools maker as supporting industries to large industries. On one side, metal small-medium enterprises are expected to produce parts, components or tools (i.e. jigs, fixture, mold, and dies) with high precision, low cost, and exact delivery time. On the other side, a metal small- medium enterprise may have weak bargaining position due to aspects such as low production capacity, limited budget for material procurement, and limited high precision machine and equipment. Instead of receiving order exclusively, a small-medium enterprise can collaborate with other small-medium enterprise in order to fulfill requirements high quality, low manufacturing cost, and just in time delivery. Small-medium enterprises can share their best capabilities to form effective supporting industries. Independent body such as community service at university can take a role as a collaboration manager. The Laboratory of Production Systems at Bandung Institute of Technology has implemented shared manufacturing systems for small-medium enterprise collaboration.

  1. Fuel cycle cost, reactor physics and fuel manufacturing considerations for Erbia-bearing PWR fuel with > 5 wt% U-235 content

    SciTech Connect

    Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E. J.; Kucukboyaci, V. N.

    2012-07-01

    The efforts to reduce fuel cycle cost have driven LWR fuel close to the licensed limit in fuel fissile content, 5.0 wt% U-235 enrichment, and the acceptable duty on current Zr-based cladding. An increase in the fuel enrichment beyond the 5 wt% limit, while certainly possible, entails costly investment in infrastructure and licensing. As a possible way to offset some of these costs, the addition of small amounts of Erbia to the UO{sub 2} powder with >5 wt% U-235 has been proposed, so that its initial reactivity is reduced to that of licensed fuel and most modifications to the existing facilities and equipment could be avoided. This paper discusses the potentialities of such a fuel on the US market from a vendor's perspective. An analysis of the in-core behavior and fuel cycle performance of a typical 4-loop PWR with 18 and 24-month operating cycles has been conducted, with the aim of quantifying the potential economic advantage and other operational benefits of this concept. Subsequently, the implications on fuel manufacturing and storage are discussed. While this concept has certainly good potential, a compelling case for its short-term introduction as PWR fuel for the US market could not be determined. (authors)

  2. Life‐cycle and cost of goods assessment of fed‐batch and perfusion‐based manufacturing processes for mAbs

    PubMed Central

    Bunnak, Phumthep; Allmendinger, Richard; Ramasamy, Sri V.; Lettieri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Life‐cycle assessment (LCA) is an environmental assessment tool that quantifies the environmental impact associated with a product or a process (e.g., water consumption, energy requirements, and solid waste generation). While LCA is a standard approach in many commercial industries, its application has not been exploited widely in the bioprocessing sector. To contribute toward the design of more cost‐efficient, robust and environmentally‐friendly manufacturing process for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a framework consisting of an LCA and economic analysis combined with a sensitivity analysis of manufacturing process parameters and a production scale‐up study is presented. The efficiency of the framework is demonstrated using a comparative study of the two most commonly used upstream configurations for mAb manufacture, namely fed‐batch (FB) and perfusion‐based processes. Results obtained by the framework are presented using a range of visualization tools, and indicate that a standard perfusion process (with a pooling duration of 4 days) has similar cost of goods than a FB process but a larger environmental footprint because it consumed 35% more water, demanded 17% more energy, and emitted 17% more CO2 than the FB process. Water consumption was the most important impact category, especially when scaling‐up the processes, as energy was required to produce process water and water‐for‐injection, while CO2 was emitted from energy generation. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the perfusion process can be made more environmentally‐friendly than the FB process if the pooling duration is extended to 8 days. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1324–1335, 2016 PMID:27390260

  3. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent. PMID:25884332

  4. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture. Manufacturing Plan for Aminosilicone-based CO{sub 2} Absorption Material

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, Kirkland

    2013-02-01

    A commercially cost effective manufacturing plan was developed for GAP-1m, the aminosilicone-based part of the CO{sub 2} capture solvent described in DE-FE0007502, and the small-scale synthesis of GAP-1m was confirmed. The plan utilizes a current intermediate at SiVance LLC to supply the 2013-2015 needs for GE Global Research. Material from this process was supplied to GE Global Research for evaluation and creation of specifications. GE Global Research has since ordered larger quantities (60 liters) for the larger scale evaluations that start in first quarter, 2013. For GE’s much larger future commercial needs, an improved, more economical pathway to make the product was developed after significant laboratory and literature research. Suppliers were identified for all raw materials.

  5. Alternative bio-based solvents for extraction of fat and oils: solubility prediction, global yield, extraction kinetics, chemical composition and cost of manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop's byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  6. Manufacturing a low-cost ceramic water filter and filter system for the elimination of common pathogenic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, J. J.; Basson, A. K.

    Africa is one of the most water-scarce continents in the world but it is the lack of potable water which results in diarrhoea being the leading cause of death amongst children under the age of five in Africa (696 million children under 5 years old in Africa contract diarrhoea resulting in 2000 deaths per day: WHO and UNICEF, 2009). Most potable water treatment methods use bulk water treatment not suitable or available to the majority of rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. One simple but effective way of making sure that water is of good quality is by purifying it by means of a household ceramic water filter. The making and supply of water filters suitable for the removal of suspended solids, pathogenic bacteria and other toxins from drinking water is therefore critical. A micro-porous ceramic water filter with micron-sized pores was developed using the traditional slip casting process. This locally produced filter has the advantage of making use of less raw materials, cost, labour, energy and expertise and being more effective and efficient than other low cost produced filters. The filter is fitted with a silicone tube inserted into a collapsible bag that acts as container and protection for the filter. Enhanced flow is obtained through this filter system. The product was tested using water inoculated with high concentrations of different bacterial cultures as well as with locally polluted stream water. The filter is highly effective (log10 > 4 with 99.99% reduction efficiency) in providing protection from bacteria and suspended solids found in natural water. With correct cleaning and basic maintenance this filter technology can effectively provide drinking water to rural families affected by polluted surface water sources. This is an African solution for the more than 340 million people in Africa without access to clean drinking water (WHO and UNICEF, 2008).

  7. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods of the low-cost silicon solar array project. Study 4, task 3: Encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolyer, J. M.; Mann, N. R.

    1977-01-01

    Methods of accelerated and abbreviated testing were developed and applied to solar cell encapsulants. These encapsulants must provide protection for as long as 20 years outdoors at different locations within the United States. Consequently, encapsulants were exposed for increasing periods of time to the inherent climatic variables of temperature, humidity, and solar flux. Property changes in the encapsulants were observed. The goal was to predict long term behavior of encapsulants based upon experimental data obtained over relatively short test periods.

  8. Manufacture and optimization of low-cost tubular ceramic supports for membrane filtration: application to algal solution concentration.

    PubMed

    Issaoui, Mansour; Limousy, Lionel; Lebeau, Bénédicte; Bouaziz, Jamel; Fourati, Mohieddine

    2017-01-05

    Low-cost tubular macroporous supports for ceramic membranes were elaborated using the extrusion method, followed by curing, debinding, and sintering processes, from a powder mixture containing kaolin, starch, and sand. The obtained substrates were characterized using mercury intrusion porosimetry, water absorption test, water permeability, scanning electron microscopy, and three-point bending test to evaluate the effects of the additives on the relevant characteristics. According to experimental results, adding the starch ratio to the kaolin powder shows a notable impact on the membrane porosity and consequently on the water permeability of the tubular supports, whereas their mechanical strength decreased compared to those prepared from kaolin alone. It has been shown that the addition of an appropriate amount of starch to the ceramic paste leads to obtaining membrane supports with the desired porosity. Indeed, the water permeability increased significantly from 20 to 612 L h(-1) m(-2) bar(-1) for samples without and with 20 wt% of starch, respectively, as well as the open porosity, the apparent porosity, and the pore size distribution. The bending strength decreased slightly and reached about 4 MPa for samples with the highest starch amounts. On the other hand, the incorporation of sand in a mixture of kaolin + 10 wt% starch increased the mechanical strength and the water permeability. The samples containing 3 wt% of sand exhibited a bending strength four times higher than the supports without sand; the water permeability measured was about 221 L h(-1) m(-2) bar(-1). These elaborated tubular supports for membrane are found to be suitable for solution concentration; they were applied for algal solution and are also easily cleaned by water.

  9. Updating the evidence base on the operational costs of supplementary immunization activities for current and future accelerated disease control, elimination and eradication efforts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To achieve globally or regionally defined accelerated disease control, elimination and eradication (ADC/E/E) goals against vaccine-preventable diseases requires complementing national routine immunization programs with intensive, time-limited, and targeted Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs). Many global and country-level SIA costing efforts have historically relied on what are now outdated benchmark figures. Mobilizing adequate resources for successful implementation of SIAs requires updated estimates of non-vaccine costs per target population. Methods This assessment updates the evidence base on the SIA operational costs through a review of literature between 1992 and 2012, and an analysis of actual expenditures from 142 SIAs conducted between 2004 and 2011 and documented in country immunization plans. These are complemented with an analysis of budgets from 31 SIAs conducted between 2006 and 2011 in order to assess the proportion of total SIA costs per person associated with various cost components. All results are presented in 2010 US dollars. Results Existing evidence indicate that average SIA operational costs were usually less than US$0.50 per person in 2010 dollars. However, the evidence is sparse, non-standardized, and largely out of date. Average operational costs per person generated from our analysis of country immunization plans are consistently higher than published estimates, approaching US$1.00 for injectable vaccines. The results illustrate that the benchmarks often used to project needs underestimate the true costs of SIAs and the analysis suggests that SIA operational costs have been increasing over time in real terms. Our assessment also illustrates that operational costs vary across several dimensions. Variations in the actual costs of SIAs likely to reflect the extents to which economies of scale associated with campaign-based delivery can be attained, the underlying strength of the immunization program, sensitivities to the

  10. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  11. Accelerating Improvements in the Energy Efficiency of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in India: Potential, Cost-Benefit, and Policies (Interim Assessment)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Shah, Nihar; Park, Won Young; Phadke, Amol

    2016-06-01

    Falling AC prices, increasing incomes, increasing urbanization, and high cooling requirements due to hot climate are all driving increasing uptake of Room Air Conditioners (RACs) in the Indian market. Air conditioning already comprises 40-60% of summer peak load in large metropolitan Indian cities such as Delhi and is likely to contribute 150 GW to the peak demand in 2030. Standards and labeling policies have contributed to improving the efficiency of RACs in India by about 2.5% in the last 10 years (2.5% per year) while inflation adjusted RAC prices have continued to decline. In this paper, we assess the technical feasibility, cost-benefit, and required policy enhancements by further accelerating the efficiency improvement of RACs in India. We find that there are examples of significantly more accelerated improvements such as those in Japan and Korea where AC efficiency improved by more than 7% per year resulting in almost a doubling of energy efficiency in 7 to 10 years while inflation adjusted AC prices continued to decline. We find that the most efficient RAC sold on the Indian market is almost twice as efficient as the typical AC sold on the market and hence see no technology constraints in a similar acceleration of improvement of efficiency. If starting 2018, AC efficiency improves at a rate of 6% instead of 3%, 40-60 GW of peak load (equivalent to connected load of 5-6 billion LED bulbs), and over 75 TWh/yr (equivalent to 60 million consumers consuming 100 kWh/month) will be saved by 2030; total peak load reduction would be as high as 50 GW. The net present value (NPV) of the consumer benefit between 2018-2030 will range from Rs 18,000 Cr in the most conservative case (in which prices don’t continue to decline and increase based estimates of today’s cost of efficiency improvement) to 140,000 Cr in a more realistic case (in which prices are not affected by accelerated efficiency improvement as shown by historical experience). This benefit is achievable by

  12. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods, study 4 of task 3 (encapsulation) of the low-cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolyer, J. M.; Mann, N. R.

    1978-01-01

    Inherent weatherability is controlled by the three weather factors common to all exposure sites: insolation, temperature, and humidity. Emphasis was focused on the transparent encapsulant portion of miniature solar cell arrays by eliminating weathering effects on the substrate and circuitry (which are also parts of the encapsulant system). The most extensive data were for yellowing, which were measured conveniently and precisely. Considerable data also were obtained on tensile strength. Changes in these two properties after outdoor exposure were predicted very well from accelerated exposure data.

  13. Manufacturing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, J. A.; Floyd, H. L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high-voltage varistors. A selective laser sintering process automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves the performance of a photoresist stripper (a simulation on a Cray supercomputer reveals the path of a uniform plasma). Improved mathematical models will help make the dream of low-cost ceramic composites come true.

  14. Determining position, velocity and acceleration of free-ranging animals with a low-cost unmanned aerial system.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard J; Roskilly, Kyle; Buse, Chris; Evans, Hannah K; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs), frequently referred to as 'drones', have become more common and affordable and are a promising tool for collecting data on free-ranging wild animals. We used a Phantom-2 UAS equipped with a gimbal-mounted camera to estimate position, velocity and acceleration of a subject on the ground moving through a grid of GPS surveyed ground control points (area ∼1200 m(2)). We validated the accuracy of the system against a dual frequency survey grade GPS system attached to the subject. When compared with GPS survey data, the estimations of position, velocity and acceleration had a root mean square error of 0.13 m, 0.11 m s(-1) and 2.31 m s(-2), respectively. The system can be used to collect locomotion and localisation data on multiple free-ranging animals simultaneously. It does not require specialist skills to operate, is easily transported to field locations, and is rapidly and easily deployed. It is therefore a useful addition to the range of methods available for field data collection on free-ranging animal locomotion.

  15. Photovoltaic manufacturing cost and throughput improvements for thin-film CIGS-based modules: Phase 1 technical report, July 1998--July 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedeman, S.; Wendt, R.G.

    2000-03-01

    The primary objectives of the Global Solar Energy (GSE) Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) subcontract are directed toward reducing cost and expanding the production rate of thin-film CuInGaSe{sub 2} (CIGS)-based PV modules on flexible substrates. Improvements will be implemented in monolithic integration, CIGS deposition, contact deposition, and in-situ CIGS control and monitoring. In Phase 1, GSE has successfully attacked many of the highest risk aspects of each task. All-laser, selective scribing processes for CIGS have been developed, and many end-of-contract goals for scribing speed have been exceeded in the first year. High-speed ink-jet deposition of insulating material in the scribes now appears to be a viable technique, again exceeding some end-of-contract goals in the first year. Absorber deposition of CIGS was reduced corresponding to throughput speeds of up to 24-in/min, also exceeding an end-of-contract goal. Alternate back-contact materials have been identified that show potential as candidates for replacement of higher-cost molybdenum, and a novel, real-time monitoring technique (parallel-detector spectroscopic ellipsometry) has shown remarkable sensitivity to relevant properties of the CIGS absorber layer for use as a diagnostic tool. Currently, one of the bilayers has been baselined by GSE for flexible CIGS on polymeric substrates. Resultant back-contacts meet sheet-resistance goals and exhibit much less intrinsic stress than Mo. CIGS has been deposited, and resultant devices are comparable in performance to pure Mo back-contacts. Debris in the chamber has been substantially reduced, allowing longer roll-length between system cleaning.

  16. A Low-Cost Environmental Monitoring System: How to Prevent Systematic Errors in the Design Phase through the Combined Use of Additive Manufacturing and Thermographic Techniques.

    PubMed

    Salamone, Francesco; Danza, Ludovico; Meroni, Italo; Pollastro, Maria Cristina

    2017-04-11

    nEMoS (nano Environmental Monitoring System) is a 3D-printed device built following the Do-It-Yourself (DIY) approach. It can be connected to the web and it can be used to assess indoor environmental quality (IEQ). It is built using some low-cost sensors connected to an Arduino microcontroller board. The device is assembled in a small-sized case and both thermohygrometric sensors used to measure the air temperature and relative humidity, and the globe thermometer used to measure the radiant temperature, can be subject to thermal effects due to overheating of some nearby components. A thermographic analysis was made to rule out this possibility. The paper shows how the pervasive technique of additive manufacturing can be combined with the more traditional thermographic techniques to redesign the case and to verify the accuracy of the optimized system in order to prevent instrumental systematic errors in terms of the difference between experimental and actual values of the above-mentioned environmental parameters.

  17. Solid state laser applications in photovoltaics manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunsky, Corey; Colville, Finlay

    2008-02-01

    Photovoltaic energy conversion devices are on a rapidly accelerating growth path driven by increasing government and societal pressure to use renewable energy as part of an overall strategy to address global warming attributed to greenhouse gas emissions. Initially supported in several countries by generous tax subsidies, solar cell manufacturers are relentlessly pushing the performance/cost ratio of these devices in a quest to reach true cost parity with grid electricity. Clearly this eventual goal will result in further acceleration in the overall market growth. Silicon wafer based solar cells are currently the mainstay of solar end-user installations with a cost up to three times grid electricity. But next-generation technology in the form of thin-film devices promises streamlined, high-volume manufacturing and greatly reduced silicon consumption, resulting in dramatically lower per unit fabrication costs. Notwithstanding the modest conversion efficiency of thin-film devices compared to wafered silicon products (around 6-10% versus 15-20%), this cost reduction is driving existing and start-up solar manufacturers to switch to thin-film production. A key aspect of these devices is patterning large panels to create a monolithic array of series-interconnected cells to form a low current, high voltage module. This patterning is accomplished in three critical scribing processes called P1, P2, and P3. Lasers are the technology of choice for these processes, delivering the desired combination of high throughput and narrow, clean scribes. This paper examines these processes and discusses the optimization of industrial lasers to meet their specific needs.

  18. Advanced Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    manufacturing will enable the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. Flexible manufacturing ...the mass customization of products and create new market opportunities in the commercial sector. One of the most promising flexible manufacturing ... manufacturing , increase efficiency and productivity. Research in leading edge technologies continues to promise exciting new manufacturing methods

  19. SMART 3D SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT CHARACTERIZATION AT THE BGRR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT. ACCELERATED SITE TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT.

    SciTech Connect

    HEISER,J.; KALB,P.; SULLIVAN,T.; MILIAN,L.

    2001-12-01

    The BGRR was the world's first nuclear reactor dedicated to the peaceful exploration of atomic energy. The reactor pile consisted of a 700-ton, 25-foot cube of graphite fueled by uranium. A total of 1,369 fuel channels were available with roughly half in use at any given time. Insertion and removal of boron steel control rods controlled reactor power levels. One or more of five fans powered air-cooling. Air was brought in through two filtered plenums, flowed through and around the reactor core, through an exhaust duct containing filters, and finally out through the 320-foot high exhaust stack. Spent fuel was temporarily stored in the spent-fuel canal, and then sent to the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Access to the canal for removing spent fuel was through the Canal House (Building 709). The BGRR ceased operation in 1968 and was placed in a shutdown mode in which all fuel was removed and sent to SRS. Penetrations in the biological shield around the graphite cube and fuel channels were sealed. The final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) process was initiated in 1999 and is scheduled for completion in 2005. An accelerated schedule was developed that combines characterization with removal actions for the various systems and structures. Before D and D work on a section of the BGRR facility begins, contaminant characterization is conducted to determine the types and amounts of contaminants present. The data are then used for project planning, including decisions affecting the extent of removal, waste designation, and health and safety plans.

  20. An Accelerated Development, Reduced Cost Approach to Lunar/Mars Exploration Using a Modular NTR-Based Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, S.; Clark, J.; Sefcik, R.; Corban, R.; Alexander, S.

    1995-01-01

    The results of integrated systems and mission studies are presented which quantify the benefits and rationale for developing a common, modular lunar/Mars space transportation system (STS) based on nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology. At present NASA's Exploration Program Office (ExPO) is considering chemical propulsion for an 'early return to the Moon' and NTR propulsion for the more demanding Mars missions to follow. The time and cost to develop these multiple systems are expected to be significant. The Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) has examined a variety of lunar and Mars missions and heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) options in an effort to determine a 'standardized' set of engine and stage components capable of satisfying a wide range of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions. By using these components in a 'building block' fashion, a variety of single and multi-engine lunar and Mars vehicles can be configured. For NASA's 'First Lunar Outpost' (FLO) mission, an expendable NTR stage powered by two 50 klbf engines can deliver approximately 96 metric tons (t) to translunar injection (TLI) conditions for an initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) of approximately 198 t compared to 250 t for a cryogenic chemical TLI stage. The NTR stage liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank has a 10 m diameter, 14.5 m length, and 66 t LH2 capacity. The NTR utilizes a UC-ZrC-graphite 'composite' fuel with a specific impulse (Isp) capability of approximately 900 s and an engine thrust-to-weight ratio of approximately 4.3. By extending the size and LH2 capacity of the lunar NTR stage to approximately 20 m and 96 t, respectively, a single launch Mars cargo vehicle capable of delivering approximately 50 t of surface payload is possible. Three 50 klbf NTR engines and the two standardized LH2 tank sizes developed for lunar and Mars cargo vehicle applications would be used to configure the Mars piloted vehicle for a mission as early as 2010. The paper describes the features of the 'common

  1. Heat pipe manufacturing study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, F.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipe manufacturing methods are examined with the goal of establishing cost effective procedures that will ultimately result in cheaper more reliable heat pipes. Those methods which are commonly used by all heat pipe manufacturers have been considered, including: (1) envelope and wick cleaning, (2) end closure and welding, (3) mechanical verification, (4) evacuation and charging, (5) working fluid purity, and (6) charge tube pinch off. The study is limited to moderate temperature aluminum and stainless steel heat pipes with ammonia, Freon-21 and methanol working fluids. Review and evaluation of available manufacturers techniques and procedures together with the results of specific manufacturing oriented tests have yielded a set of recommended cost-effective specifications which can be used by all manufacturers.

  2. Low cost back contact heterojunction solar cells on thin c-Si wafers. integrating laser and thin film processing for improved manufacturability

    SciTech Connect

    Hegedus, Steven S.

    2015-09-08

    An interdigitated back contact (IBC) Si wafer solar cell with deposited a-Si heterojunction (HJ) emitter and contacts is considered the ultimate single junction Si solar cell design. This was confirmed in 2014 by both Panasonic and Sharp Solar producing IBC-HJ cells breaking the previous record Si solar cell efficiency of 25%. But manufacturability at low cost is a concern for the complex IBC-HJ device structure. In this research program, our goals were to addressed the broad industry need for a high-efficiency c-Si cell that overcomes the dominant module cost barriers by 1) developing thin Si wafers synthesized by innovative, kerfless techniques; 2) integrating laser-based processing into most aspects of solar cell fabrication, ensuring high speed and low thermal budgets ; 3) developing an all back contact cell structure compatible with thin wafers using a simplified, low-temperature fabrication process; and 4) designing the contact patterning to enable simplified module assembly. There were a number of significant achievements from this 3 year program. Regarding the front surface, we developed and applied new method to characterize critical interface recombination parameters including interface defect density Dit and hole and electron capture cross-section for use as input for 2D simulation of the IBC cell to guide design and loss analysis. We optimized the antireflection and passivation properties of the front surface texture and a-Si/a-SiN/a-SiC stack depositions to obtain a very low (< 6 mA/cm2) front surface optical losses (reflection and absorption) while maintaining excellent surface passivation (SRV<5 cm/s). We worked with kerfless wafer manufacturers to apply defect-engineering techniques to improve bulk minority-carrier lifetime of thin kerfless wafers by both reducing initial impurities during growth and developing post-growth gettering techniques. This led insights about the kinetics of nickel, chromium, and dislocations in PV-grade silicon and to

  3. Low cost back contact heterojunction solar cells on thin c-Si wafers. Integrating laser and thin film processing for improved manufacturability

    SciTech Connect

    Hegedus, Steven S.

    2015-09-08

    An interdigitated back contact (IBC) Si wafer solar cell with deposited a-Si heterojunction (HJ) emitter and contacts is considered the ultimate single junction Si solar cell design. This was confirmed in 2014 by both Panasonic and Sharp Solar producing IBC-HJ cells breaking the previous record Si solar cell efficiency of 25%. But manufacturability at low cost is a concern for the complex IBC-HJ device structure. In this research program, our goals were to addressed the broad industry need for a high-efficiency c-Si cell that overcomes the dominant module cost barriers by 1) developing thin Si wafers synthesized by innovative, kerfless techniques; 2) integrating laser-based processing into most aspects of solar cell fabrication, ensuring high speed and low thermal budgets ; 3) developing an all back contact cell structure compatible with thin wafers using a simplified, low-temperature fabrication process; and 4) designing the contact patterning to enable simplified module assembly. There were a number of significant achievements from this 3 year program. Regarding the front surface, we developed and applied new method to characterize critical interface recombination parameters including interface defect density Dit and hole and electron capture cross-section for use as input for 2D simulation of the IBC cell to guide design and loss analysis. We optimized the antireflection and passivation properties of the front surface texture and a-Si/a-SiN/a-SiC stack depositions to obtain a very low (< 6 mA/cm2) front surface optical losses (reflection and absorption) while maintaining excellent surface passivation (SRV<5 cm/s). We worked with kerfless wafer manufacturers to apply defect-engineering techniques to improve bulk minority-carrier lifetime of thin kerfless wafers by both reducing initial impurities during growth and developing post-growth gettering techniques. This led insights about the kinetics of nickel, chromium, and dislocations in PV-grade silicon and to

  4. Management of end-of-life electronic products within environmental benign manufacturing framework: Analysis of infrastructure, cost, materials flow, and decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hai-Yong

    This research addresses a management of end-of-life (EOL) electronic products within the boundary of Environmentally Benign Manufacturing (EBM). For the comprehensive evaluation of EOL electronic products, existing recycling programs, the roles of each stakeholder in e-waste recycling, and technologies are identified. The results show that to increase the recycling rate a steady supply of collected materials is needed, as well as effective sorting techniques, proper incorporation of Design for the Environment in early product design, and valued secondary markets for recycled goods. Technical cost modeling (TCM) results provide guidance to the recycling industry on how to maximize revenue and ensure the robust economic viability of e-waste Materials Recycling Facilities. Revenue sources with higher profit-efficiency ratios are an example. Also, process automation is demonstrated to be a major hurdle to overcome because of the high labor cost in the recycling industry combined with the randomness factor associated with the input stream. The results of the materials flow analysis (MFA) indicate that the pattern of outflow and the amount do not simply depend on the inflow pattern and amount. Also, the behavior of consumers, especially of the first user, is the most critical factor that determines the outflow of personal computer systems at the EOL stage. The combination of TCM and MFA provide a tool for estimating the infrastructure needed to treat future e-waste, such as the number of treatment facilities and the total capital investment needed. Laws that are designed to minimize the generation of toxic waste and the use of toxic substances in the U.S. and Europe are reviewed. And electronic and electrical industries in California and Massachusetts are analyzed in terms of the generation of toxic waste, the size of these industries. The results of the Analytic Hierarchy Process decision-making study indicate that the current toxic waste treatment methods practiced in

  5. Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology Facility Expedites Manufacturing Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    The Composites Manufacturing Education and Technology facility (CoMET) at the National Wind Technology Center at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) paves the way for innovative wind turbine components and accelerated manufacturing. Available for use by industry partners and university researchers, the 10,000-square-foot facility expands NREL's composite manufacturing research capabilities by enabling researchers to design, prototype, and test composite wind turbine blades and other components -- and then manufacture them onsite. Designed to work in conjunction with NREL's design, analysis, and structural testing capabilities, the CoMET facility expedites manufacturing innovation.

  6. Turbine Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The machinery pictured is a set of Turbodyne steam turbines which power a sugar mill at Bell Glade, Florida. A NASA-developed computer program called NASTRAN aided development of these and other turbines manufactured by Turbodyne Corporation's Steam Turbine Division, Wellsville, New York. An acronym for NASA Structural Analysis Program, NASTRAN is a predictive tool which advises development teams how a structural design will perform under service use conditions. Turbodyne uses NASTRAN to analyze the dynamic behavior of steam turbine components, achieving substantial savings in development costs. One of the most widely used spinoffs, NASTRAN is made available to private industry through NASA's Computer Software Management Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia.

  7. Accelerating Influenza Research: Vaccines, Antivirals, Immunomodulators and Monoclonal Antibodies. The Manufacture of a New Wild-Type H3N2 Virus for the Human Viral Challenge Model

    PubMed Central

    Fullen, Daniel J.; Noulin, Nicolas; Catchpole, Andrew; Fathi, Hosnieh; Murray, Edward J.; Mann, Alex; Eze, Kingsley; Balaratnam, Ganesh; Borley, Daryl W.; Gilbert, Anthony; Lambkin-Williams, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza and its associated diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends influenza vaccination for everyone over 6 months of age. The failure of the flu vaccine in 2014–2015 demonstrates the need for a model that allows the rapid development of novel antivirals, universal/intra-seasonal vaccines, immunomodulators, monoclonal antibodies and other novel treatments. To this end we manufactured a new H3N2 influenza virus in compliance with Good Manufacturing Practice for use in the Human Viral Challenge Model. Methods and Strain Selection We chose an H3N2 influenza subtype, rather than H1N1, given that this strain has the most substantial impact in terms of morbidity or mortality annually as described by the Centre for Disease Control. We first subjected the virus batch to rigorous adventitious agent testing, confirmed the virus to be wild-type by Sanger sequencing and determined the virus titres appropriate for human use via the established ferret model. We built on our previous experience with other H3N2 and H1N1 viruses to develop this unique model. Human Challenge and Conclusions We conducted an initial safety and characterisation study in healthy adult volunteers, utilising our unique clinical quarantine facility in London, UK. In this study we demonstrated this new influenza (H3N2) challenge virus to be both safe and pathogenic with an appropriate level of disease in volunteers. Furthermore, by inoculating volunteers with a range of different inoculum titres, we established the minimum infectious titre required to achieve reproducible disease whilst ensuring a sensitive model that can be translated to design of subsequent field based studies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02525055 PMID:26761707

  8. Manufacturing Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2007-01-01

    According to the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), "manufacturing is the engine that drives American prosperity". When NAM and its research and education arm, The Manufacturing Institute, released the handbook, "The Facts About Modern Manufacturing," in October 2006, NAM President John Engler noted, that…

  9. Reducing costs in aircraft: The metals affordability initiative consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rick; Evans, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    Emerging metallic materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies offer an important opportunity to meet current aircraft-airframe and jet-engine affordability goals, due to their inherent low material costs and excellent producibility characteristics. But to successfully meet systems goals within this new affordability-driven scenario, a consolidation ofindustry and military-agency development resources and technology-implementation activities is necessary to positively impact the military-aircraft production and sustainment infrastructure. To address this need, a consortium of aircraft and engine manufacturers and key material-and engine manufacturers and key material-and component-supplier companies has been formed to identify critical affordable metal technologies, develop a strategic roadmap for accelerated development and insertion of these technologies, and oversee execution of development activities by integrated industry teams. the goal of the Metals Affordability Initiative is to reduce the cost of metallic components by 50 percent while accelerating the implementation time.

  10. Breakthrough: Fermilab Accelerator Technology

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    There are more than 30,000 particle accelerators in operation around the world. At Fermilab, scientists are collaborating with other laboratories and industry to optimize the manufacturing processes for a new type of powerful accelerator that uses superconducting niobium cavities. Experimenting with unique polishing materials, a Fermilab team has now developed an efficient and environmentally friendly way of creating cavities that can propel particles with more than 30 million volts per meter.

  11. Manufacturing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is at the core of Sandia National Laboratories' advanced manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process. The center's capabilities in product and process development are summarized in the following disciplines: (1) mechanical - rapid prototyping, manufacturing engineering, machining and computer-aided manufacturing, measurement and calibration, and mechanical and electronic manufacturing liaison; (2) electronics - advanced packaging for microelectronics, printed circuits, and electronic fabrication; and (3) materials - ceramics, glass, thin films, vacuum technology, brazing, polymers, adhesives, composite materials, and process analysis.

  12. Relativistic klystron driven compact high gradient accelerator as an injector to an X-ray synchrotron radiation ring

    DOEpatents

    Yu, David U. L.

    1990-01-01

    A compact high gradient accelerator driven by a relativistic klystron is utilized to inject high energy electrons into an X-ray synchrotron radiation ring. The high gradients provided by the relativistic klystron enables accelerator structure to be much shorter (typically 3 meters) than conventional injectors. This in turn enables manufacturers which utilize high energy, high intensity X-rays to produce various devices, such as computer chips, to do so on a cost effective basis.

  13. Cost Reduction through the Use of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing) and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management Technologies to Enhance the Navy’s Maintenance Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-30

    Intermediate Level Military and Civilian Medium Medium Depot Level Civilian High High D. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING AM, more commonly known as 3D...eutectic metals, edible materials Granular Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) Most metal alloys Electron beam melting (EBM) Titanium alloys ...Selective laser melting (SLM) Titanium alloys , cobalt chrome alloys , stainless steel, aluminum Selective heat sintering (SHS) Thermoplastic powder

  14. The photovoltaic manufacturing technology project: A government/industry partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.L.; Witt, C.E.; Mooney, G.D.

    1991-12-01

    The Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) project is a government/industry photovoltaic manufacturing research and development (R D) project composed of partnerships between the federal government (through the US Department of Energy) and members of the US photovoltaic (PV) industry. It is designed to assist the US PV industry in improving manufacturing processes, accelerating manufacturing cost reductions for PV modules, increasing commercial product performance, and generally laying the groundwork for a substantial scale-up of US-based PV manufacturing plant capabilities. The project is being carried out in three separate phases, each focused on a specific approach to solving the problems identified by the industrial participants. These participants are selected through competitive procurements. Furthermore, the PVMaT project has been specifically structured to ensure that these PV manufacturing R D subcontract awards are selected with no intention of either directing funding toward specific PV technologies (e.g., amorphous silicon, polycrystalline thin films, etc.), or spreading the awards among a number of technologies (e.g., one subcontract in each area). Each associated subcontract under any phase of this project is, and will continue to be, selected for funding on its own technical and cost merits. Phase 1, the problem identification phase, was completed early in 1991. Phase 2 is now under way. This is the solution phase of the project and addresses problems of specific manufacturers. The envisioned subcontracts under Phase 2 may be up to three years in duration and will be highly cost-shared between the US government and US industrial participants. Phase 3, is also under way. General issues related to PV module development will be studied through various teaming arrangements. 25 refs.

  15. Correlated histogram representation of Monte Carlo derived medical accelerator photon-output phase space

    DOEpatents

    Schach Von Wittenau, Alexis E.

    2003-01-01

    A method is provided to represent the calculated phase space of photons emanating from medical accelerators used in photon teletherapy. The method reproduces the energy distributions and trajectories of the photons originating in the bremsstrahlung target and of photons scattered by components within the accelerator head. The method reproduces the energy and directional information from sources up to several centimeters in radial extent, so it is expected to generalize well to accelerators made by different manufacturers. The method is computationally both fast and efficient overall sampling efficiency of 80% or higher for most field sizes. The computational cost is independent of the number of beams used in the treatment plan.

  16. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  17. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  18. Integrated Glass Coating Manufacturing Line

    SciTech Connect

    Brophy, Brenor

    2015-09-30

    This project aims to enable US module manufacturers to coat glass with Enki’s state of the art tunable functionalized AR coatings at the lowest possible cost and highest possible performance by encapsulating Enki’s coating process in an integrated tool that facilitates effective process improvement through metrology and data analysis for greater quality and performance while reducing footprint, operating and capital costs. The Phase 1 objective was a fully designed manufacturing line, including fully specified equipment ready for issue of purchase requisitions; a detailed economic justification based on market prices at the end of Phase 1 and projected manufacturing costs and a detailed deployment plan for the equipment.

  19. Accelerators-Limitations of Technology A Summary of the Snowmass Accelerator Working Group Reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigner, Maury

    1983-04-01

    Hadron colliders and accelerators in the 20 TeV energy range turned out to be the majority interest among active members of the Accelerator Row Group. While other types of accelerator and other energy ranges were discussed, largely on the basis of work done else-where, our primary creative activities at this summer study focused on the hadron facility. Examining both the economic and accelerator physics dimensions of such a facility, we were able to give some hope to the idea that a well designed and concentrated R/D program, elaborating much further on technologies we now possess, might bring a 20 TeV facility within our national reach. The central challenges for this R/D program appear to be 1. Achievement of virtual automation of superconducting magnet, accelerator housing and other accelerator component manufacture and installation. 2. Achievement of a thorough understanding of the field vs. cost relation for superconducting magnets. 3. Achievement of a thorough understanding of the luminosity-aperture-energy relation.

  20. Manufacturing information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. K.; Smith, P. R.; Smart, M. J.

    1983-12-01

    The size and cost of manufacturing equipment has made it extremely difficult to perform realistic modeling and simulation of the manufacturing process in university research laboratories. Likewise the size and cost factors, coupled with many uncontrolled variables of the production situation has even made it difficult to perform adequate manufacturing research in the industrial setting. Only the largest companies can afford manufacturing research laboratories; research results are often held proprietary and seldom find their way into the university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development of miniature prototype equipment suitable for use in an integrated CAD/CAM Laboratory. The equipment being developed is capable of actually performing production operations (e.g. drilling, milling, turning, punching, etc.) on metallic and non-metallic workpieces. The integrated CAD/CAM Mini-Lab is integrating high resolution, computer graphics, parametric design, parametric N/C parts programmings, CNC machine control, automated storage and retrieval, with robotics materials handling. The availability of miniature CAD/CAM laboratory equipment will provide the basis for intensive laboratory research on manufacturing information systems.

  1. Cost Reduction Through the Use of Additive Manufacturing (3d Printing) and Collaborative Product Life Cycle Management Technologies to Enhance the Navy’s Maintenance Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Level Military and Civilian Medium Medium Depot Level Civilian High High D. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING AM, more commonly known as 3D printing, is a...Thermoplastics (e.g., PLA, ABS), HDPE, eutectic metals, edible materials Granular Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) Most metal alloys ...Electron beam melting (EBM) Titanium alloys Selective laser melting (SLM) Titanium alloys , cobalt chrome alloys , stainless steel, aluminum Selective heat

  2. Productization and Manufacturing Scaling of High-Efficiency Solar Cell and Module Products Based on a Disruptive Low-Cost, Mono-Crystalline Technology: Final Technical Progress Report, April 1, 2009 - December 30, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Fatemi, H.

    2012-07-01

    Final report for PV incubator subcontract with Solexel, Inc. The purpose of this project was to develop Solexel's Unique IP, productize it, and transfer it to manufacturing. Silicon constitutes a significant fraction of the total solar cell cost, resulting in an industry-wide drive to lower silicon usage. Solexel's disruptive Solar cell structure got around these challenges and promised superior light trapping, efficiency and mechanical strength, despite being significantly thinner than commercially available cells. Solexel's successful participation in this incubator project became evident as the company is now moving into commercial production and position itself to be competitive for the next Technology Pathway Partnerships (TPP) funding opportunity.

  3. Integrating post-manufacturing issues into design and manufacturing decisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eubanks, Charles F.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation is conducted on research into some of the fundamental issues underlying the design for manufacturing, service and recycling that affect engineering decisions early in the conceptual design phase of mechanical systems. The investigation focuses on a system-based approach to material selection, manufacturing methods and assembly processes related to overall product requirements, performance and life-cycle costs. Particular emphasis is placed on concurrent engineering decision support for post-manufacturing issues such as serviceability, recyclability, and product retirement.

  4. Passive solar manufactured buildings development and analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekieffer, R.

    1983-11-01

    Manufactured buildings which are cost effective residential and light commercial buildings are discussed. The solar energy research institute (SERI) and the Department of Energy (DOE) worked with building manufacturers design, develop, and build passive solar manufactured buildings. This development process lead to valuable information in design development and design options, cost analysis, and estimated and monitored thermal performance on all types of manufactured buildings. The scope and content are described.

  5. Graphical simulation for aerospace manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babai, Majid; Bien, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Simulation software has become a key technological enabler for integrating flexible manufacturing systems and streamlining the overall aerospace manufacturing process. In particular, robot simulation and offline programming software is being credited for reducing down time and labor cost, while boosting quality and significantly increasing productivity.

  6. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  7. Manufacturing technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  8. Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, James L.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high school industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in manufacturing technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to manufacturing, materials processing, personnel management, production management,…

  9. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Teng, L.C.

    1960-01-19

    ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

  10. 78 FR 34346 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; NIST MEP Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge (AMJIAC) Client Impact Survey AGENCY... information collection. The purpose of the Advanced Manufacturing Jobs and Innovation Accelerator Challenge... to support job creation, encourage economic development, and enhance the competitiveness of...

  11. NIIEFA accelerators for applied purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorogushin, M. F.; Strokach, A. P.; Filatov, O. G.

    2016-12-01

    Since the foundation of the institute, we have designed and delivered more than three hundred different accelerators to Russia and abroad: cyclotrons, linear accelerators, and neutron generators. The technical characteristics of our equipment makes it competitive on the international market. Here we present the application, main parameters, and status of accelerators manufactured by NIIEFA, as well as prospects for the development of electrophysical systems for applied purposes.

  12. Metaldyne. Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Effciency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Sigificant Cost Savings

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  13. Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly Gibson; Mark Norfolk

    2012-07-30

    The program goal of the Ohio Advanced Energy Manufacturing Center (OAEMC) is to support advanced energy manufacturing and to create responsive manufacturing clusters that will support the production of advanced energy and energy-efficient products to help ensure the nation's energy and environmental security. This goal cuts across a number of existing industry segments critical to the nation's future. Many of the advanced energy businesses are starting to make the transition from technology development to commercial production. Historically, this transition from laboratory prototypes through initial production for early adopters to full production for mass markets has taken several years. Developing and implementing manufacturing technology to enable production at a price point the market will accept is a key step. Since these start-up operations are configured to advance the technology readiness of the core energy technology, they have neither the expertise nor the resources to address manufacturing readiness issues they encounter as the technology advances toward market entry. Given the economic realities of today's business environment, finding ways to accelerate this transition can make the difference between success and failure for a new product or business. The advanced energy industry touches a wide range of industry segments that are not accustomed to working together in complex supply chains to serve large markets such as automotive and construction. During its first three years, the Center has catalyzed the communication between companies and industry groups that serve the wide range of advanced energy markets. The Center has also found areas of common concern, and worked to help companies address these concerns on a segment or industry basis rather than having each company work to solve common problems individually. EWI worked with three industries through public-private partnerships to sew together disparate segments helping to promote overall industry

  14. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    The specific goals of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area are to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes, to construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability, to document our findings and models in journals, to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues, and to develop continuing relationships with industrial and academic communities to advance our collective understanding of fabrication processes. Advances in four projects are described here, namely Design of a Precision Saw for Manufacturing, Deposition of Boron Nitride Films via PVD, Manufacturing and Coating by Kinetic Energy Metallization, and Magnet Design and Application.

  15. The use of a low cost 3D scanning and printing tool in the manufacture of custom-made foot orthoses: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Custom foot orthoses are currently recognized as the gold standard for treatment of foot and lower limb pathology. While foam and plaster casting methods are most widely used in clinical practice, technology has emerged, permitting the use of 3D scanning, computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) for fabrication of foot molds and custom foot orthotic components. Adoption of 3D printing, as a form of CAM, requires further investigation for use as a clinical tool. This study provides a preliminary description of a new method to manufacture foot orthoses using a novel 3D scanner and printer and compare gait kinematic outputs from shod and traditional plaster casted orthotics. Findings One participant (male, 25 years) was included with no lower extremity injuries. Foot molds were created from both plaster casting and 3D scanning/printing methods. Custom foot orthoses were then fabricated from each mold. Lower body plug-in-gait with the Oxford Foot Model on the right foot was collected for both orthotic and control (shod) conditions. The medial longitudinal arch was measured using arch height index (AHI) where a decrease in AHI represented a drop in arch height. The lowest AHI was 21.2 mm in the running shoes, followed by 21.4 mm wearing the orthoses made using 3D scanning and printing, with the highest AHI of 22.0 mm while the participant wore the plaster casted orthoses. Conclusion This preliminary study demonstrated a small increase in AHI with the 3D printing orthotic compared to the shod condition. A larger sample size may demonstrate significant patterns for the tested conditions. PMID:25015013

  16. The Platinum Bullet: An Experimental Evaluation of CUNY's Accelerated Study in Associate Program (ASAP)--New Three-Year Impacts, Cost Analyses, and Implementation Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael; Scrivener, Susan; Fresques, Hannah; Ratledge, Alyssa; Rudd, Tim; Sommo, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The City University of New York's (CUNY's) Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) combines many of the ideas from a range of programs into a comprehensive model that requires students to attend school full-time, and provides supports and incentives for three years. ASAP's financial aid reforms, enhanced student services, and scheduling…

  17. Space Technology Mission Directorate Game Changing Development Program FY2015 Annual Program Review: Advanced Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John; Fikes, John

    2015-01-01

    The Advance Manufacturing Technology (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of the Initiative is the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO), which includes participation from all federal agencies involved in U.S. manufacturing. In support of the AMNPO the AMT Project supports building and Growing the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation through a public-private partnership designed to help the industrial community accelerate manufacturing innovation. Integration with other projects/programs and partnerships: STMD (Space Technology Mission Directorate), HEOMD, other Centers; Industry, Academia; OGA's (e.g., DOD, DOE, DOC, USDA, NASA, NSF); Office of Science and Technology Policy, NIST Advanced Manufacturing Program Office; Generate insight within NASA and cross-agency for technology development priorities and investments. Technology Infusion Plan: PC; Potential customer infusion (TDM, HEOMD, SMD, OGA, Industry); Leverage; Collaborate with other Agencies, Industry and Academia; NASA roadmap. Initiatives include: Advanced Near Net Shape Technology Integrally Stiffened Cylinder Process Development (launch vehicles, sounding rockets); Materials Genome; Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion; Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME); National Center for Advanced Manufacturing.

  18. Troubleshooting Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  19. Innovative Approaches to Low-Cost Module Manufacturing of String Ribbon Si PV Modules; Final Subcontract Report, March 2002 - January 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Hanoka, J. I.

    2005-10-01

    As a result of this work, Evergreen Solar, Inc., is now poised to take String Ribbon technology to new heights. In the ribbon growth area, Project Gemini-the growth of dual ribbons from a single crucible-has reached or exceeded all the manufacturing goals set for it. This project grew from an R&D concept to a production pilot phase and finally to a full production phase, all within the span of this subcontract. A major aspect of the overall effort was the introduction of controls and instrumentation as in-line diagnostic tools. In the ribbon production area, the result has been a 12% increase in yields, a 10% increase in machine uptime, and the flattest ribbon ever grown at Evergreen. In the cell area, advances in process development and robotic handling of Gemini wafers have contributed, along with the advances in crystal growth, to a yield improvement of 6%. Particularly noteworthy in the cell area was the refinement of the no-etch process whereby the as-grown ribbon surface could be controlled sufficiently to allow this process to succeed as well as it has. This process obviates any need for wet chemistry or etching between ribbon growth and diffusion.

  20. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods for predicting life of solar cell encapsulants to Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology for the encapsulation task of the low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolyer, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    An important principle is that encapsulants should be tested in a total array system allowing realistic interaction of components. Therefore, micromodule test specimens were fabricated with a variety of encapsulants, substrates, and types of circuitry. One common failure mode was corrosion of circuitry and solar cell metallization due to moisture penetration. Another was darkening and/or opacification of encapsulant. A test program plan was proposed. It includes multicondition accelerated exposure. Another method was hyperaccelerated photochemical exposure using a solar concentrator. It simulates 20 year of sunlight exposure in a short period of one to two weeks. The study was beneficial in identifying some cost effective encapsulants and array designs.

  1. Evaporation in space manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    'Normal evaporation' equations for predicting the compositional changes with time and temperature have been developed and correlated with actual experimental data. An evaporative congruent temperature is defined and used to explain, predict, or plan space experiments on anomalous constitutional melting (on cooling) or solidification (on heating). Uneven evaporation causes reactive jetting forces capable of initiating new convection currents, nongravitational accelerations, surface vibrations, or other disturbances. Applications of evaporation to space manufacturing are described concerning evaporative purification, surface cooling, specimen selection, particles splitting, freezing data interpretation, material loss and dimensional control, and surface contamination or compositional changes.

  2. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  3. Synchronized manufacture of composites knowledge study (SMACKS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, B.; Oliver, M.

    1990-06-01

    The need for a competitive manufacturing knowledge base for the composites industry, encompasses a change from a 'functionally' organized factory to a product-based organization, and has led to major reductions in inventories, manufacturing costs and cycle times. The net effect was that products became more price- and delivery-competitive. It is believed that composite manufacturers have an equal need to improve their competitive edge, particularly as the demand for composite products grows and more manufacturers enter the marketplace. 'SMACKS' has begun to establish these needs and market trends, with a view to establishing the advantages offered to composite manufacturers by synchronized manufacturing methods.

  4. Computer-integrated manufacturing system for OPTICAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipps, Joe D., Jr.; Czajkowski, Walter C.

    1992-01-01

    Optical design, engineering, and manufacturing operate as independent entities. Outmoded specifications for material, geometry, tolerances, and mounting add to cost, lead time, and manufacturing complexity of both military and commercial optics. The optics industry maintains outdated stand-alone design, engineering, and manufacturing systems that do not support integration or communications. This single island of technology adds greatly to the final cost of optical systems.

  5. The Economics of Big Area Addtiive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Brian; Lloyd, Peter D; Lindahl, John; Lind, Randall F; Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil

    2016-01-01

    Case studies on the economics of Additive Manufacturing (AM) suggest that processing time is the dominant cost in manufacturing. Most additive processes have similar performance metrics: small part sizes, low production rates and expensive feedstocks. Big Area Additive Manufacturing is based on transitioning polymer extrusion technology from a wire to a pellet feedstock. Utilizing pellets significantly increases deposition speed and lowers material cost by utilizing low cost injection molding feedstock. The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymers eliminates the need for a heated chamber, significantly reducing machine power requirements and size constraints. We hypothesize that the increase in productivity coupled with decrease in feedstock and energy costs will enable AM to become more competitive with conventional manufacturing processes for many applications. As a test case, we compare the cost of using traditional fused deposition modeling (FDM) with BAAM for additively manufacturing composite tooling.

  6. 49 CFR 573.14 - Accelerated remedy program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... remedy work for the manufacturer, or both. (b) The Administrator may require a manufacturer to accelerate... have the same or higher load index and speed rating, and, for passenger car tires, shall have the...

  7. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  8. Magnet cable manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Royet, J.

    1990-10-01

    The cable is the heart of a superconducting accelerator magnet. Since the initial development of the Rutherford Cable more than twenty years ago, many improvements in manufacturing techniques have increased the current carrying capacity. When the Tevatron cable was specified fifteen years ago the current carrying capacity was 1800 A/mm{sup 2} at a field of 5.3T. During the intervening years it has been increased to 3000 A/mm{sup 2}. These improvements were due to refinements in the fabrication of the strands and the formation of the cable from the strands. The metallurgists were able to impart significant gains in performance by improving the homogeneity of the conductor. The engineers and technicians who designed and built the modern cabling machines made an enormous contribution by significantly reducing the degradation of wire performance that occurs when the wire was cabled. The fact that these gains were made while increasing the speed of cabling is one of the technological advances that made accelerators like the SSC possible. This article describes the cabling machines that were built to manufacture the cable for the full scale SSC prototype magnets and the low beta quadrupoles for the Fermilab Tevatron. This article also presents a compendium of the knowledge that was gained in the struggle to make high performance cable to exacting dimensional standards and at the throughput needed for the SSC. The material is an important part of the technology transfer from the Department of energy Laboratories to Industry.

  9. Apparel Manufacture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center teamed with the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) in 1989 on a program involving development of advanced simulation software. Concurrently, the State of Alabama chartered UAH to conduct a technology advancement program in support of the state's apparel manufacturers. In 1992, under contract to Marshall, UAH developed an apparel-specific software package that allows manufacturers to design and analyze modules without making an actual investment -- it functions on ordinary PC equipment. By 1995, Marshall had responded to requests for the package from more than 400 companies in 36 states; some of which reported savings up to $2 million. The National Garment Company of Missouri, for example, uses the system to design and balance a modular line before committing to expensive hardware; for setting up sewing lines; and for determining the composition of a new team.

  10. Accelerator Structure Development for NLC/GLC

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J

    2004-03-05

    The NLC (Next Linear Collider) and GLC (Global Linear Collider) [1,2] are e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider proposals based on room-temperature accelerator technology--so called ''warm machines'' in comparison with the TESLA ''cold machine'' that is based on superconducting accelerator technology. There have been two major challenges in developing X-band (11.4 GHz) accelerator structures for the GLC/NLC. The first is to demonstrate stable, long-term operation at the high gradient (65 MV/m) that is required to optimize the machine cost. The second is to strongly suppress the beam induced long-range wakefields, which is required to achieve high luminosity. The development of high gradient structures has been a high priority in recent years. Nearly thirty X-band structures with various rf parameters, cavity shapes and coupler types have been fabricated and tested since 2000. This program has been a successful collaborative effort among groups at SLAC, KEK, FNAL and other labs. A summary of the main achievements and experiences are presented in this paper as well as a status report on the structure design, high power performance, manufacturing techniques, and other structure related issues.

  11. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  12. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  13. Accurate molecular dynamics and nuclear quantum effects at low cost by multiple steps in real and imaginary time: Using density functional theory to accelerate wavefunction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapil, V.; VandeVondele, J.; Ceriotti, M.

    2016-02-01

    The development and implementation of increasingly accurate methods for electronic structure calculations mean that, for many atomistic simulation problems, treating light nuclei as classical particles is now one of the most serious approximations. Even though recent developments have significantly reduced the overhead for modeling the quantum nature of the nuclei, the cost is still prohibitive when combined with advanced electronic structure methods. Here we present how multiple time step integrators can be combined with ring-polymer contraction techniques (effectively, multiple time stepping in imaginary time) to reduce virtually to zero the overhead of modelling nuclear quantum effects, while describing inter-atomic forces at high levels of electronic structure theory. This is demonstrated for a combination of MP2 and semi-local DFT applied to the Zundel cation. The approach can be seamlessly combined with other methods to reduce the computational cost of path integral calculations, such as high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator or generalized Langevin equation thermostats.

  14. Accurate molecular dynamics and nuclear quantum effects at low cost by multiple steps in real and imaginary time: Using density functional theory to accelerate wavefunction methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kapil, V.; Ceriotti, M.; VandeVondele, J.

    2016-02-07

    The development and implementation of increasingly accurate methods for electronic structure calculations mean that, for many atomistic simulation problems, treating light nuclei as classical particles is now one of the most serious approximations. Even though recent developments have significantly reduced the overhead for modeling the quantum nature of the nuclei, the cost is still prohibitive when combined with advanced electronic structure methods. Here we present how multiple time step integrators can be combined with ring-polymer contraction techniques (effectively, multiple time stepping in imaginary time) to reduce virtually to zero the overhead of modelling nuclear quantum effects, while describing inter-atomic forces at high levels of electronic structure theory. This is demonstrated for a combination of MP2 and semi-local DFT applied to the Zundel cation. The approach can be seamlessly combined with other methods to reduce the computational cost of path integral calculations, such as high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator or generalized Langevin equation thermostats.

  15. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    This report describes subcontracted research by the Chronar Corporation, prepared by Advanced Photovoltaic Systems, Inc. (APS) for Phase 1 of the Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology Development project. Amorphous silicon is chosen as the PV technology that Chronar Corporation and APS believe offers the greatest potential for manufacturing improvements, which, in turn, will result in significant cost reductions and performance improvements in photovoltaic products. The APS Eureka'' facility was chosen as the manufacturing system that can offer the possibility of achieving these production enhancements. The relationship of the Eureka'' facility to Chronar's batch'' plants is discussed. Five key areas are also identified that could meet the objectives of manufacturing potential that could lead to improved performance, reduced manufacturing costs, and significantly increased production. The projected long-term potential benefits of these areas are discussed, as well as problems that may impede the achievement of the hoped-for developments. A significant number of the problems discussed are of a generic nature and could be of general interest to the industry. The final section of this document addresses the cost and time estimates for achieving the solutions to the problems discussed earlier. Emphasis is placed on the number, type, and cost of the human resources required for the project.

  16. Manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennet, Jay; Brower, David; Levine, Stan; Walker, Ray; Wooten, John

    1991-01-01

    The following issues are covered: process development frequently lags behind material development, high fabrication costs, flex joints (bellows) - a continuing program, SRM fabrication-induced defects, and in-space assembly will require simplified design.

  17. Blade Manufacturing Improvement Project: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    SHERWOOD, KENT

    2002-10-01

    The Blade Manufacturing Improvement Project explores new, unique and improved materials integrated with innovative manufacturing techniques that promise substantial economic enhancements for the fabrication of wind turbine blades. The primary objectives promote the development of advanced wind turbine blade manufacturing in ways that lower blade costs, cut rotor weight, reduce turbine maintenance costs, improve overall turbine quality and increase ongoing production reliability. Foam Matrix (FMI) has developed a wind turbine blade with an engineered foam core, incorporating advanced composite materials and using Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) processes to form a monolithic blade structure incorporating a single molding tool. Patented techniques are employed to increase blade load bearing capability and insure the uniform quality of the manufactured blade. In production quantities, FMI manufacturing innovations may return a sizable per blade cost reduction when compared to the cost of producing comparable blades with conventional methods.

  18. Space manufacturing utilizing the directional electrostatic accretion process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, A.

    1986-01-01

    The Directional Electrostatic Accretion Process (DEAP) is described with respect to both the physical process and its application to manufacturing in space. This high precision portable manufacturing method will revolutionize current practices in manufacturing and repair of spacecraft and space structures. The cost effectiveness of this process will be invaluable to future space manufacturing projects.

  19. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  20. Cellular Manufacturing Internet Performance Support System

    SciTech Connect

    Bohley, M.C.; Schwartz, M.E.

    1998-03-04

    The objective of this project was to develop an Internet-based electronic performance support system (EPSS) for cellular manufacturing providing hardware/software specifications, process descriptions, estimated cost savings, manufacturing simulations, training information, and service resources for government and industry users of Cincinnati Milacron machine tools and products. AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (ASFM and T) used expertise in the areas of Internet design and multimedia creation to develop a performance support system (PSS) for the Internet with assistance from CM's subject matter experts from engineering, manufacturing, and technical support. Reference information was both created and re-purposed from other existing formats, then made available on the Internet. On-line references on cellular manufacturing operations include: definitions of cells and cellular manufacturing; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing improves part throughput, resource utilization, part quality, and manufacturing flexibility; illustrations on how cellular manufacturing reduces labor and overhead costs; identification of critical factors driving decisions toward cellular manufacturing; a method for identifying process improvement areas using cellular manufacturing; a method for customizing the size of cells for a specific site; a simulation for making a part using cellular manufacturing technology; and a glossary of terms and concepts.

  1. Manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K L

    1998-01-01

    The mission of the Manufacturing Technology thrust area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at LLNL, to conduct their future business. The specific goals were (1) to develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) to construct general purpose process models that have wide applicability; (3) to document their findings and models in journals; (4) to transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) to develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance their collective understanding of fabrication processes. In support of this mission, two projects were reported here, each of which explores a way to bring higher precision to the manufacturing challenges that we face over the next few years. The first, ''A Spatial-Frequency-Domain Approach to Designing a Precision Machine Tools,'' is an overall view of how they design machine tools and instruments to make or measure workpieces that are specified in terms of the spatial frequency content of the residual errors of the workpiece surface. This represents an improvement of an ''error budget,'' a design tool that saw significant development in the early 1980's, and has been in active use since then. The second project, ''Micro-Drilling of ICF Capsules,'' is an attempt to define the current state in commercial industry for drilling small holes, particularly laser-drilling. The report concludes that 1-{micro}m diameter holes cannot currently be drilled to high aspect ratios, and then defines the engineering challenges that will have to be overcome to machine holes small enough for NIF capsules.

  2. Fabric Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    When rapid oscillation of blanket wearing looms at Chatham Manufacturing Company caused significant metal fatigue, the company turned to NC/STRC for a NASA data bank computer search. The search pinpointed tensile stress, and suggested a built-in residual compressive stress as a solution. "Shot peening," bombarding a part with a high velocity stream of very small shot to pound and compress the part's surface, was found to be the only practical method for creating compressive stress. The method has been successful and the company estimates its annual savings as a quarter million dollars.

  3. Warranty Policies: Consumer Value Versus Manufacturer Costs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-28

    customer pro rata (from the Latin word for propor- tional). Two generalizations of the pro rata warianty have appeared recently on the market . The...the fact that from a marketing point of view both generalizations are typically per- ceived as equivalent (by the average consumer), has led to the...policies without the use of renewal theory. Most of these deal with demand functions and market places. Glickman and Berger, for instance, consider

  4. Cost Benefit Studies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Arthur; Marson, Arthur A.

    This document applies Dr. Mehar Aurora's method for conducting cost benefit studies to the Food Manufacturing Technology-Dairy and the Food Manufacturing Technology-Canning and Freezing programs offered by the Moraine Park Technical Institute. Costs to individual students enrolled in the programs include tuition, fees, housing, travel, books,…

  5. Shared and service-oriented CNC machining system for intelligent manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yao; Liu, Qiang; Tong, Ronglei; Cui, Xiaohong

    2015-11-01

    To improve efficiency, reduce cost, ensure quality effectively, researchers on CNC machining have focused on virtual machine tool, cloud manufacturing, wireless manufacturing. However, low level of information shared among different systems is a common disadvantage. In this paper, a machining database with data evaluation module is set up to ensure integrity and update. An online monitoring system based on internet of things and multi-sensors "feel" a variety of signal features to "percept" the state in CNC machining process. A high efficiency and green machining parameters optimization system "execute" service-oriented manufacturing, intelligent manufacturing and green manufacturing. The intelligent CNC machining system is applied in production. CNC machining database effectively shares and manages process data among different systems. The prediction accuracy of online monitoring system is up to 98.8% by acquiring acceleration and noise in real time. High efficiency and green machining parameters optimization system optimizes the original processing parameters, and the calculation indicates that optimized processing parameters not only improve production efficiency, but also reduce carbon emissions. The application proves that the shared and service-oriented CNC machining system is reliable and effective. This research presents a shared and service-oriented CNC machining system for intelligent manufacturing process.

  6. The Role of Advanced Manufacturing in Our Journey to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keys, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    The National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute was launched in August 2012 as a result of President Obama's proposed need for a whole-of-government advanced manufacturing effort. Mission: To accelerate the adoption of additive manufacturing technologies to increase domestic manufacturing competitiveness. Funding: Five federal agencies - the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Commerce, the National Science Foundation, and NASA - jointly committed to invest $45 million.

  7. Process for manufacturing multilayer capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.

    1996-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method of manufacture of multilayer electrical components, especially capacitors, and components made by such a method. High capacitance dielectric materials and low cost metallizations layered with such dielectrics may be fabricated as multilayer electrical components by sintering the metallizations and the dielectrics during the fabrication process by application of microwave radiation.

  8. Process for manufacturing multilayer capacitors

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.

    1996-01-02

    The invention is directed to a method of manufacture of multilayer electrical components, especially capacitors, and components made by such a method. High capacitance dielectric materials and low cost metallizations layered with such dielectrics may be fabricated as multilayer electrical components by sintering the metallizations and the dielectrics during the fabrication process by application of microwave radiation. 4 figs.

  9. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  10. Recent Advances in Plasma Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Mark

    2007-03-19

    The costs and the time scales of colliders intended to reach the energy frontier are such that it is important to explore new methods of accelerating particles to high energies. Plasma-based accelerators are particularly attractive because they are capable of producing accelerating fields that are orders of magnitude larger than those used in conventional colliders. In these accelerators a drive beam, either laser or particle, produces a plasma wave (wakefield) that accelerates charged particles. The ultimate utility of plasma accelerators will depend on sustaining ultra-high accelerating fields over a substantial length to achieve a significant energy gain. More than 42 GeV energy gain was achieved in an 85 cm long plasma wakefield accelerator driven by a 42 GeV electron drive beam in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) Facility at SLAC. Most of the beam electrons lose energy to the plasma wave, but some electrons in the back of the same beam pulse are accelerated with a field of {approx}52 GV/m. This effectively doubles their energy, producing the energy gain of the 3 km long SLAC accelerator in less than a meter for a small fraction of the electrons in the injected bunch. Prospects for a drive-witness bunch configuration and high-gradient positron acceleration experiments planned for the SABER facility will be discussed.

  11. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  12. Controlling high-throughput manufacturing at the nano-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Khershed P.

    2013-09-01

    Interest in nano-scale manufacturing research and development is growing. The reason is to accelerate the translation of discoveries and inventions of nanoscience and nanotechnology into products that would benefit industry, economy and society. Ongoing research in nanomanufacturing is focused primarily on developing novel nanofabrication techniques for a variety of applications—materials, energy, electronics, photonics, biomedical, etc. Our goal is to foster the development of high-throughput methods of fabricating nano-enabled products. Large-area parallel processing and highspeed continuous processing are high-throughput means for mass production. An example of large-area processing is step-and-repeat nanoimprinting, by which nanostructures are reproduced again and again over a large area, such as a 12 in wafer. Roll-to-roll processing is an example of continuous processing, by which it is possible to print and imprint multi-level nanostructures and nanodevices on a moving flexible substrate. The big pay-off is high-volume production and low unit cost. However, the anticipated cost benefits can only be realized if the increased production rate is accompanied by high yields of high quality products. To ensure product quality, we need to design and construct manufacturing systems such that the processes can be closely monitored and controlled. One approach is to bring cyber-physical systems (CPS) concepts to nanomanufacturing. CPS involves the control of a physical system such as manufacturing through modeling, computation, communication and control. Such a closely coupled system will involve in-situ metrology and closed-loop control of the physical processes guided by physics-based models and driven by appropriate instrumentation, sensing and actuation. This paper will discuss these ideas in the context of controlling high-throughput manufacturing at the nano-scale.

  13. FMS: The New Wave of Manufacturing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Industrial Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are described as a marriage of all of the latest technologies--robotics, numerical control, CAD/CAM (computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing), etc.--into a cost-efficient, optimized production process yielding the greatest flexibility in making various parts. A typical curriculum to teach FMS…

  14. Manufacturing development of DC-10 advanced rudder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1979-01-01

    The design, manufacture, and ground test activities during development of production methods for an advanced composite rudder for the DC-10 transport aircraft are described. The advanced composite aft rudder is satisfactory for airline service and a cost saving in a full production manufacturing mode is anticipated.

  15. U-GAS process for chemical manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Dihu, R.; Leppin, D.; Patel, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The U-GAS coal gasification process and its potential application to the manufacture of two important industrial chemicals, methanol and ammonia, are described. Pilot plant results, the current status of the process, and economic projections for the cost of manufacture of methanol and ammonia are presented.

  16. Neutron yield of medical electron accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, R.C.

    1987-11-01

    Shielding calculations for medical electron accelerators above about 10 MeV require some knowledge of the neutron emission from the machine. This knowledge might come from the manufacturer's specifications or from published measurements of the neutron leakage of that particular model and energy of accelerator. In principle, the yield can be calculated if details of the accelerator design are known. These details are often not available because the manufacturer considers them proprietary. A broader knowledge of neutron emission would be useful and it is the purpose of this paper to present such information. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Selected Applications of Virtual Reality in Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak-Marcincin, Jozef

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has become an important and useful tool in science and engineering. VR applications cover a wide range of industrial areas from product design to analysis, from product prototyping to manufacturing. The design and manufacturing of a product can be viewed, evaluated and improved in a virtual environment before its prototype is made, which is an enormous cost saving. Virtual Manufacturing (VM) is the use of computer models and simulations of manufacturing processes to aid in the design and production of manufactured products. VM is the use of manufacturing-based simulations to optimize the design of product and processes for a specific manufacturing goal such as: design for assembly; quality; lean operations; and/or flexibility.

  18. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  19. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  20. ION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Bell, J.S.

    1959-09-15

    An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.

  1. Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, Steve

    2013-09-11

    Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

  2. Workshop Report on Additive Manufacturing for Large-Scale Metal Components - Development and Deployment of Metal Big-Area-Additive-Manufacturing (Large-Scale Metals AM) System

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh; Love, Lonnie J.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is considered an emerging technology that is expected to transform the way industry can make low-volume, high value complex structures. This disruptive technology promises to replace legacy manufacturing methods for the fabrication of existing components in addition to bringing new innovation for new components with increased functional and mechanical properties. This report outlines the outcome of a workshop on large-scale metal additive manufacturing held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on March 11, 2016. The charter for the workshop was outlined by the Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Manufacturing Office program manager. The status and impact of the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for polymer matrix composites was presented as the background motivation for the workshop. Following, the extension of underlying technology to low-cost metals was proposed with the following goals: (i) High deposition rates (approaching 100 lbs/h); (ii) Low cost (<$10/lbs) for steel, iron, aluminum, nickel, as well as, higher cost titanium, (iii) large components (major axis greater than 6 ft) and (iv) compliance of property requirements. The above concept was discussed in depth by representatives from different industrial sectors including welding, metal fabrication machinery, energy, construction, aerospace and heavy manufacturing. In addition, DOE’s newly launched High Performance Computing for Manufacturing (HPC4MFG) program was reviewed. This program will apply thermo-mechanical models to elucidate deeper understanding of the interactions between design, process, and materials during additive manufacturing. Following these presentations, all the attendees took part in a brainstorming session where everyone identified the top 10 challenges in large-scale metal AM from their own perspective. The feedback was analyzed and grouped in different categories including, (i) CAD to PART software, (ii) selection of energy source, (iii

  3. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  4. Low-Cost Illumination-Grade LEDs

    SciTech Connect

    Epler, John

    2013-08-31

    Solid State Lighting is a cost-effective, energy-conserving technology serving a rapidly expand- ing multi-billion dollar market. This program was designed to accelerate this lighting revolution by reducing the manufacturing cost of Illumination-Grade LEDs. The technical strategy was to investigate growth substrate alternatives to standard planar sapphire, select the most effective and compatible option, and demonstrate a significant increase in Lumen/$ with a marketable LED. The most obvious alternate substrate, silicon, was extensively studied in the first two years of the program. The superior thermal and mechanical properties of Si were expected to improve wavelength uniformity and hence color yield in the manufacture of high-power illumination- grade LEDs. However, improvements in efficiency and epitaxy uniformity on standard c-plane sapphire diminished the advantages of switching to Si. Furthermore, the cost of sapphire decreased significantly and the cost of processing Si devices using our thin film process was higher than expected. We concluded that GaN on Si was a viable technology but not a practical option for Philips Lumileds. Therefore in 2012 and 2013, we sought and received amendments which broadened the scope to include other substrates and extended the time of execution. Proprietary engineered substrates, off-axis (non-c-plane) sapphire, and c-plane patterned sapphire substrates (PSS) were all investigated in the final 18 months of this program. Excellent epitaxy quality was achieved on all three candidates; however we eliminated engineered substrates and non-c-plane sapphire because of their higher combined cost of substrate, device fabrication and packaging. Ultimately, by fabricating a flip-chip (FC) LED based upon c-plane PSS we attained a 42% reduction in LED manufacturing cost relative to our LUXEON Rebel product (Q1-2012). Combined with a flux gain from 85 to 102 Lm, the LUXEON Q delivered a 210% increase in Lm/$ over this time period. The

  5. Manufacturing Methods and Technology Project Summary Reports.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    Abstracts E-1 Project 276 9746 - MM& T Engineering Measure for the E-3 Production of Thin Film Aluminum Oxide Ion Barrier for 18mm Microchannel Plates...Project 277 9811 - Reduction of Manufacturing Cost E-6 for Microwave Power Transistors and In-Process Tuning ’..--’.= Project 580 1003 - MMT, Low Cost...3604 - Development of E-15 Manufacturing Methods and Technology for a Solid State Power Switch .... Project H80 3012 - Infrared Source for AN/ALQ-144 E

  6. Photovoltaic manufacturing: Present status, future prospects, and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wolden, C.A.; Fthenakis, V.; Kurtin, J.; Baxter, J.; Repins, I.; Shasheen, S.; Torvik, J.; Rocket, A.; Aydil, E.

    2011-03-29

    In May 2010 the United States National Science Foundation sponsored a two-day workshop to review the state-of-the-art and research challenges in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. This article summarizes the major conclusions and outcomes from this workshop, which was focused on identifying the science that needs to be done to help accelerate PV manufacturing. A significant portion of the article focuses on assessing the current status of and future opportunities in the major PV manufacturing technologies. These are solar cells based on crystalline silicon (c-Si), thin films of cadmium telluride (CdTe), thin films of copper indium gallium diselenide, and thin films of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon. Current trends indicate that the cost per watt of c-Si and CdTe solar cells are being reduced to levels beyond the constraints commonly associated with these technologies. With a focus on TW/yr production capacity, the issue of material availability is discussed along with the emerging technologies of dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics that are potentially less constrained by elemental abundance. Lastly, recommendations are made for research investment, with an emphasis on those areas that are expected to have cross-cutting impact.

  7. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulton, William R.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    The JTEC panel found that, after four decades of development in electronics and manufacturing technologies, Japanese electronics companies are leaders in the development, support, and management of complex, low-cost packaging and assembly technologies used in the production of a broad range of consumer electronics products. The electronics industry's suppliers provide basic materials and equipment required for electronic packaging applications. Panelists concluded that some Japanese firms could be leading U.S. competitors by as much as a decade in these areas. Japan's technology and manufacturing infrastructure is an integral part of its microelectronics industry's success.

  8. Dielectric laser accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Bane, Karl; Dowell, David H.; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Spencer, James E.; Tantawi, Sami; Wu, Ziran; Byer, Robert L.; Peralta, Edgar; Soong, Ken; Chang, Chia-Ming; Montazeri, Behnam; Wolf, Stephen J.; Cowan, Benjamin; Dawson, Jay; Gai, Wei; Hommelhoff, Peter; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Jing, Chunguang; McGuinness, Christopher; Palmer, Robert B.; Naranjo, Brian; Rosenzweig, James; Travish, Gil; Mizrahi, Amit; Schachter, Levi; Sears, Christopher; Werner, Gregory R.; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2014-10-01

    The use of infrared lasers to power optical-scale lithographically fabricated particle accelerators is a developing area of research that has garnered increasing interest in recent years. The physics and technology of this approach is reviewed, which is referred to as dielectric laser acceleration (DLA). In the DLA scheme operating at typical laser pulse lengths of 0.1 to 1 ps, the laser damage fluences for robust dielectric materials correspond to peak surface electric fields in the GV /m regime. The corresponding accelerating field enhancement represents a potential reduction in active length of the accelerator between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude. Power sources for DLA-based accelerators (lasers) are less costly than microwave sources (klystrons) for equivalent average power levels due to wider availability and private sector investment. Because of the high laser-to-particle coupling efficiency, required pulse energies are consistent with tabletop microJoule class lasers. Combined with the very high (MHz) repetition rates these lasers can provide, the DLA approach appears promising for a variety of applications, including future high-energy physics colliders, compact light sources, and portable medical scanners and radiative therapy machines.

  9. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  10. Parametric Equations for Estimating Aircraft Airframe Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    the following cost elements: engineering, tooling , nonrecurring manufacturing labor, recurring manu- facturing labor, nonrecurring manufacturing... TOOLING 23 V. MANUFACTURING LABOR 27 VI. MANUFACTURING MATERIALS 31 VII. FLIGHT TEST 36 VIII. QUALITY CONTROL 38 IX. TOTAL COST 40 X. OTHER...man-hours are higher than they would be under normal conditions. In anticipating a high produc- tion rate a contractor may expend many more tooling

  11. Cost targets for domestic fuel cell CHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staffell, I.; Green, R.; Kendall, K.

    Fuel cells have the potential to reduce domestic energy bills by providing both heat and power at the point of use, generating high value electricity from a low cost fuel. However, the cost of installing the fuel cell must be sufficiently low to be recovered by the savings made over its lifetime. A computer simulation is used to estimate the savings and cost targets for fuel cell CHP systems. Two pitfalls of this kind of simulation are addressed: the selection of representative performance figures for fuel cells, and the range of houses from which energy demand data was taken. A meta-study of the current state of the art is presented, and used with 102 house-years of demand to simulate the range of economic performance expected from four fuel cell technologies within the UK domestic CHP market. Annual savings relative to a condensing boiler are estimated at €170-300 for a 1 kWe fuel cell, giving a target cost of €350-625 kW -1 for any fuel cell technology that can demonstrate a 2.5-year lifetime. Increasing lifetime and reducing fuel cell capacity are identified as routes to accelerated market entry. The importance of energy demand is seen to outweigh both economic and technical performance assumptions, while manufacture cost and system lifetime are highlighted as the only significant differences between the technologies considered. SOFC are considered to have the greatest potential, but uncertainty in the assumptions used precludes any clear-cut judgement.

  12. Acceleration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work to support the NASA MSFC Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) was performed. Four tasks (analysis development, analysis research, analysis documentation, and acceleration analysis) were addressed by parallel projects. Work concentrated on preparation for and implementation of near real-time SAMS data analysis during the USMP-1 mission. User support documents and case specific software documentation and tutorials were developed. Information and results were presented to microgravity users. ACAP computer facilities need to be fully implemented and networked, data resources must be cataloged and accessible, future microgravity missions must be coordinated, and continued Orbiter characterization is necessary.

  13. Prepreg effects on honeycomb composite manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Cary Joseph

    Fiber reinforced composites offer many advantages over traditional materials and are widely utilized in aerospace applications. Advantages include a high stiffness to weight ratio and excellent fatigue resistance. However, the pace of new implementation is slow. The manufacturing processes used to transform composite intermediates into final products are poorly understood and are a source of much variability. This limits new implementation and increases the manufacturing costs of existing designs. One such problem is honeycomb core crush, in which a core-stiffened structure collapses during autoclave manufacture, making the structure unusable and increasing the overall manufacturing cost through increased scrap rates. Consequently, the major goal of this research was to investigate the scaling of core crush from prepreg process-structure-property relations to commercial composite manufacture. The material dependent nature of this defect was of particular interest. A methodology and apparatus were developed to measure the frictional resistance of prepreg materials under typical processing conditions. Through a characterization of commercial and experimental prepregs, it was found that core crush behavior was the result of differences in prepreg frictional resistance. This frictional resistance was related to prepreg morphology and matrix rheology and elasticity. Resin composition and prepreg manufacturing conditions were also found to affect manufacturing behavior. Mechanical and dimensional models were developed and demonstrated utility for predicting this crushing behavior. Collectively, this work explored and identified the process-structure-property relations as they relate to the manufacture of composite materials and suggested several avenues by which manufacturing-robust materials may be developed.

  14. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Stocker, Michael; Stanfield, Eric

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  15. Framework for Identifying Cybersecurity Risks in Manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Hutchins, Margot J.; Bhinge, Raunak; Micali, Maxwell K.; ...

    2015-10-21

    Increasing connectivity, use of digital computation, and off-site data storage provide potential for dramatic improvements in manufacturing productivity, quality, and cost. However, there are also risks associated with the increased volume and pervasiveness of data that are generated and potentially accessible to competitors or adversaries. Enterprises have experienced cyber attacks that exfiltrate confidential and/or proprietary data, alter information to cause an unexpected or unwanted effect, and destroy capital assets. Manufacturers need tools to incorporate these risks into their existing risk management processes. This article establishes a framework that considers the data flows within a manufacturing enterprise and throughout its supplymore » chain. The framework provides several mechanisms for identifying generic and manufacturing-specific vulnerabilities and is illustrated with details pertinent to an automotive manufacturer. Finally, in addition to providing manufacturers with insights into their potential data risks, this framework addresses an outcome identified by the NIST Cybersecurity Framework.« less

  16. Framework for Identifying Cybersecurity Risks in Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchins, Margot J.; Bhinge, Raunak; Micali, Maxwell K.; Robinson, Stefanie L.; Sutherland, John W.; Dornfeld, David

    2015-10-21

    Increasing connectivity, use of digital computation, and off-site data storage provide potential for dramatic improvements in manufacturing productivity, quality, and cost. However, there are also risks associated with the increased volume and pervasiveness of data that are generated and potentially accessible to competitors or adversaries. Enterprises have experienced cyber attacks that exfiltrate confidential and/or proprietary data, alter information to cause an unexpected or unwanted effect, and destroy capital assets. Manufacturers need tools to incorporate these risks into their existing risk management processes. This article establishes a framework that considers the data flows within a manufacturing enterprise and throughout its supply chain. The framework provides several mechanisms for identifying generic and manufacturing-specific vulnerabilities and is illustrated with details pertinent to an automotive manufacturer. Finally, in addition to providing manufacturers with insights into their potential data risks, this framework addresses an outcome identified by the NIST Cybersecurity Framework.

  17. Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Kortovich, C.

    1995-10-01

    The efficiency and effectiveness of the gas turbine engine is directly related to the turbine inlet temperatures. The ability to increase these temperatures has occurred as a result of improvements in materials, design, and processing techniques. A generic sequence indicating the relationship of these factors to temperature capability is schematically shown in Figure 1 for aircraft engine and land based engine materials. A basic contribution that is not captured by the Figure is the significant improvement in process and manufacturing capability that has accompanied each of these innovations. It is this capability that has allowed the designs and innovations to be applied on a high volume, cost effective scale in the aircraft gas turbine market.

  18. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  19. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  20. Accelerated Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

  1. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

    DOEpatents

    Pope, K.E.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

  2. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    SciTech Connect

    Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    A 200- to 500-..mu..A source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-..mu..A beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-..mu..A beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons.

  3. Manufacturing of Smart Structures Using Fiber Placement Manufacturing Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Matthew M.; Glowasky, Robert A.; McIlroy, Bruce E.; Story, Todd A.

    1996-01-01

    Smart structures research and development, with the ultimate aim of rapid commercial and military production of these structures, are at the forefront of the Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost-Effective Structures (SPICES) program. As part of this ARPA-sponsored program, MDA-E is using fiber placement processes to manufacture integrated smart structure systems. These systems comprise advanced composite structures with embedded fiber optic sensors, shape memory alloys, piezoelectric actuators, and miniature accelerometers. Cost-effective approaches and solutions to smart material synthesis in the fiber-placement process, based upon integrated product development, are discussed herein.

  4. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  5. Spraying Techniques for Large Scale Manufacturing of PEM-FC Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Casey J.

    Fuel cells are highly efficient energy conversion devices that represent one part of the solution to the world's current energy crisis in the midst of global climate change. When supplied with the necessary reactant gasses, fuel cells produce only electricity, heat, and water. The fuel used, namely hydrogen, is available from many sources including natural gas and the electrolysis of water. If the electricity for electrolysis is generated by renewable energy (e.g., solar and wind power), fuel cells represent a completely 'green' method of producing electricity. The thought of being able to produce electricity to power homes, vehicles, and other portable or stationary equipment with essentially zero environmentally harmful emissions has been driving academic and industrial fuel cell research and development with the goal of successfully commercializing this technology. Unfortunately, fuel cells cannot achieve any appreciable market penetration at their current costs. The author's hypothesis is that: the development of automated, non-contact deposition methods for electrode manufacturing will improve performance and process flexibility, thereby helping to accelerate the commercialization of PEMFC technology. The overarching motivation for this research was to lower the cost of manufacturing fuel cell electrodes and bring the technology one step closer to commercial viability. The author has proven this hypothesis through a detailed study of two non-contact spraying methods. These scalable deposition systems were incorporated into an automated electrode manufacturing system that was designed and built by the author for this research. The electrode manufacturing techniques developed by the author have been shown to produce electrodes that outperform a common lab-scale contact method that was studied as a baseline, as well as several commercially available electrodes. In addition, these scalable, large scale electrode manufacturing processes developed by the author are

  6. Hydrogen manufacturing using plasma reformers

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A.; Hochgreb, S.; O`Brien, C.

    1996-10-01

    Manufacturing of hydrogen from hydrocarbon fuels is needed for a variety of applications. These applications include fuel cells used in stationary electric power production and in vehicular propulsion. Hydrogen can also be used for various combustion engine systems. There is a wide range of requirements on the capacity of the hydrogen manufacturing system, the purity of the hydrogen fuel, and capability for rapid response. The overall objectives of a hydrogen manufacturing facility are to operate with high availability at the lowest possible cost and to have minimal adverse environmental impact. Plasma technology has potential to significantly alleviate shortcomings of conventional means of manufacturing hydrogen. These shortcomings include cost and deterioration of catalysts; limitations on hydrogen production from heavy hydrocarbons; limitations on rapid response; and size and weight requirements. In addition, use of plasma technology could provide for a greater variety of operating modes; in particular the possibility of virtual elimination of CO{sub 2} production by pyrolytic operation. This mode of hydrogen production may be of increasing importance due to recent additional evidence of global warming.

  7. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  8. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology, Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Easoz, J.R.; Herlocher, R.H. )

    1991-12-01

    This report examines the cost-effective manufacture of dendritic-web-based photovoltaic modules. It explains how process changes can increase production and reduce manufacturing costs. Long-range benefits of these improved processes are also discussed. Problems are identified that could impede increasing production and reducing costs; approaches to solve these problems are presented. These approaches involve web growth throughput, cell efficiency, process yield, silicon use, process control, automation, and module efficiency. Also discussed are the benefits of bifacial module design, unique to the dendritic web process.

  9. Particle Accelerators in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Shouxian

    As the special machines that can accelerate charged particle beams to high energy by using electromagnetic fields, particle accelerators have been widely applied in scientific research and various areas of society. The development of particle accelerators in China started in the early 1950s. After a brief review of the history of accelerators, this article describes in the following sections: particle colliders, heavy-ion accelerators, high-intensity proton accelerators, accelerator-based light sources, pulsed power accelerators, small scale accelerators, accelerators for applications, accelerator technology development and advanced accelerator concepts. The prospects of particle accelerators in China are also presented.

  10. 26 CFR 1.471-11 - Inventories of manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and property taxes on buildings and machinery incident to and necessary for manufacturing operations... manufacturing operations or processes such as insurance on production machinery and equipment. (ii) Costs not... production costs to the extent that they are incident to and necessary for production or...

  11. 26 CFR 1.471-11 - Inventories of manufacturers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and property taxes on buildings and machinery incident to and necessary for manufacturing operations... manufacturing operations or processes such as insurance on production machinery and equipment. (ii) Costs not... production costs to the extent that they are incident to and necessary for production or...

  12. Advanced Technology Composite Fuselage - Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilden, K. S.; Harris, C. G.; Flynn, B. W.; Gessel, M. G.; Scholz, D. B.; Stawski, S.; Winston, V.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Boeing's Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures (ATCAS) program is to develop the technology required for cost-and weight-efficient use of composite materials in transport fuselage structure. Carbon fiber reinforced epoxy was chosen for fuselage skins and stiffening elements, and for passenger and cargo floor structures. The automated fiber placement (AFP) process was selected for fabrication of stringer-stiffened and sandwich skin panels. Circumferential and window frames were braided and resin transfer molded (RTM'd). Pultrusion was selected for fabrication of floor beams and constant-section stiffening elements. Drape forming was chosen for stringers and other stiffening elements cocured to skin structures. Significant process development efforts included AFP, braiding, RTM, autoclave cure, and core blanket fabrication for both sandwich and stiffened-skin structure. Outer-mold-line and inner-mold-line tooling was developed for sandwich structures and stiffened-skin structure. The effect of design details, process control and tool design on repeatable, dimensionally stable, structure for low cost barrel assembly was assessed. Subcomponent panels representative of crown, keel, and side quadrant panels were fabricated to assess scale-up effects and manufacturing anomalies for full-scale structures. Manufacturing database including time studies, part quality, and manufacturing plans were generated to support the development of designs and analytical models to access cost, structural performance, and dimensional tolerance.

  13. Compact accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  14. Laser acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  15. BICEP's acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2014-10-01

    The recent Bicep2 [1] detection of, what is claimed to be primordial B-modes, opens up the possibility of constraining not only the energy scale of inflation but also the detailed acceleration history that occurred during inflation. In turn this can be used to determine the shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) for the first time — if a single, scalar inflaton is assumed to be driving the acceleration. We carry out a Monte Carlo exploration of inflationary trajectories given the current data. Using this method we obtain a posterior distribution of possible acceleration profiles ε(N) as a function of e-fold N and derived posterior distributions of the primordial power spectrum P(k) and potential V(φ). We find that the Bicep2 result, in combination with Planck measurements of total intensity Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, induces a significant feature in the scalar primordial spectrum at scales k∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc {sup -1}. This is in agreement with a previous detection of a suppression in the scalar power [2].

  16. Can Lean Manufacturing Change the Aerospace Defense Industry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    In times of decreasing orders, increasing overhead costs and fewer customers, lean manufacturing techniques may allow the aerospace defense industry...industry has shown lean manufacturing techniques can substantially reduce costs, cut development time, and produce a better product than mass production. The...Program, and the Lean Aircraft Initiative. European defense companies are also implementing the principles of lean manufacturing with results well worth noting.

  17. Accelerators for America's Future Workshop: Medicine and Biology.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Jose R

    2012-11-01

    "Medicine and Biology" was one of five working groups of the "Accelerators for America's Future" Workshop held October 2009. The recently-released workshop report stresses that the leadership position of the United States in fields where accelerators play an important part is being seriously eroded because of lack of coordinated agency support for accelerator research and development. This is particularly true for biology and medicine. Radiation therapy with beams of protons and light ions was pioneered in the United States and has proven successful in the treatment of several different tumor sites in the body. Proton therapy is available in the United States in a number of centers; however, all but one contain accelerator and beam-delivery components manufactured abroad. Light-ion therapy is only available overseas. Why has the United States lost its lead in this field? The Working Group noted that in other countries, central governments are subsidizing construction and technology development by their industries, whereas in the United States funding for purchasing and building clinical facilities must be raised from private sources. As a result, most proton facilities in the United States, by virtue of having to recover investment costs, favor reimbursable treatments, detracting from the development of research protocols. The financial hurdle for starting a light-ion facility in the United States has been totally prohibitive for the private-equity market. While technological advances are being made that will provide some reduction in capital costs, the field will not flourish in the United States until effective funding means are developed that do not put the full burden on the private sector.

  18. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  19. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  20. Advanced accelerator and mm-wave structure research at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna

    2016-06-22

    This document outlines acceleration projects and mm-wave structure research performed at LANL. The motivation for PBG research is described first, with reference to couplers for superconducting accelerators and structures for room-temperature accelerators and W-band TWTs. These topics are then taken up in greater detail: PBG structures and the MIT PBG accelerator; SRF PBG cavities at LANL; X-band PBG cavities at LANL; and W-band PBG TWT at LANL. The presentation concludes by describing other advanced accelerator projects: beam shaping with an Emittance Exchanger, diamond field emitter array cathodes, and additive manufacturing of novel accelerator structures.

  1. Neurodegeneration in accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Moren

    2016-11-01

    The growing proportion of elderly people represents an increasing economic burden, not least because of age-associated diseases that pose a significant cost to the health service. Finding possible interventions to age-associated disorders therefore have wide ranging implications. A number of genetically defined accelerated aging diseases have been characterized that can aid in our understanding of aging. Interestingly, all these diseases are associated with defects in the maintenance of our genome. A subset of these disorders, Cockayne syndrome, Xeroderma pigmentosum group A and ataxia-telangiectasia, show neurological involvement reminiscent of what is seen in primary human mitochondrial diseases. Mitochondria are the power plants of the cells converting energy stored in oxygen, sugar, fat, and protein into ATP, the energetic currency of our body. Emerging evidence has linked this organelle to aging and finding mitochondrial dysfunction in accelerated aging disorders thereby strengthens the mitochondrial theory of aging. This theory states that an accumulation of damage to the mitochondria may underlie the process of aging. Indeed, it appears that some accelerated aging disorders that show neurodegeneration also have mitochondrial dysfunction. The mitochondrial alterations may be secondary to defects in nuclear DNA repair. Indeed, nuclear DNA damage may lead to increased energy consumption, alterations in mitochondrial ATP production and defects in mitochondrial recycling, a term called mitophagy. These changes may be caused by activation of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1 (PARP1), an enzyme that responds to DNA damage. Upon activation PARP1 utilizes key metabolites that attenuate pathways that are normally protective for the cell. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of PARP1 or reconstitution of the metabolites rescues the changes caused by PARP1 hyperactivation and in many cases reverse the phenotypes associated with accelerated aging. This implies that modulation

  2. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  3. Impact accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vongierke, H. E.; Brinkley, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    The degree to which impact acceleration is an important factor in space flight environments depends primarily upon the technology of capsule landing deceleration and the weight permissible for the associated hardware: parachutes or deceleration rockets, inflatable air bags, or other impact attenuation systems. The problem most specific to space medicine is the potential change of impact tolerance due to reduced bone mass and muscle strength caused by prolonged weightlessness and physical inactivity. Impact hazards, tolerance limits, and human impact tolerance related to space missions are described.

  4. The Capital Intensity of Photovoltaics Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, Paul

    2015-10-19

    Factory capital expenditure (capex) for photovoltaic (PV) module manufacturing strongly influences the per-unit cost of a c-Si module. This provides a significant opportunity to address the U.S. DOE SunShot module price target through capex innovation. Innovation options to reduce the capex of PV manufacturing include incremental and disruptive process innovation with c-Si, platform innovations, and financial approaches. and financial approaches.

  5. Agile manufacturing from a statistical perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, R.G.

    1995-10-01

    The objective of agile manufacturing is to provide the ability to quickly realize high-quality, highly-customized, in-demand products at a cost commensurate with mass production. More broadly, agility in manufacturing, or any other endeavor, is defined as change-proficiency; the ability to thrive in an environment of unpredictable change. This report discusses the general direction of the agile manufacturing initiative, including research programs at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Department of Energy, and other government agencies, but focuses on agile manufacturing from a statistical perspective. The role of statistics can be important because agile manufacturing requires the collection and communication of process characterization and capability information, much of which will be data-based. The statistical community should initiate collaborative work in this important area.

  6. Cost Effective Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickman, Jerry L.; Kundu, Nikhil K.

    1996-01-01

    This laboratory exercise seeks to develop a cost effective prototype development. The exercise has the potential of linking part design, CAD, mold development, quality control, metrology, mold flow, materials testing, fixture design, automation, limited parts production and other issues as related to plastics manufacturing.

  7. Industrialization of Superconducting RF Accelerator Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiniger, Michael; Pekeler, Michael; Vogel, Hanspeter

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting RF (SRF) accelerator technology has basically existed for 50 years. It took about 20 years to conduct basic R&D and prototyping at universities and international institutes before the first superconducting accelerators were built, with industry supplying complete accelerator cavities. In parallel, the design of large scale accelerators using SRF was done worldwide. In order to build those accelerators, industry has been involved for 30 years in building the required cavities and/or accelerator modules in time and budget. To enable industry to supply these high tech components, technology transfer was made from the laboratories in the following three regions: the Americas, Asia and Europe. As will be shown, the manufacture of the SRF cavities is normally accomplished in industry whereas the cavity testing and module assembly are not performed in industry in most cases, yet. The story of industrialization is so far a story of customized projects. Therefore a real SRF accelerator product is not yet available in this market. License agreements and technology transfer between leading SRF laboratories and industry is a powerful tool for enabling industry to manufacture SRF components or turnkey superconducting accelerator modules for other laboratories and users with few or no capabilities in SRF technology. Despite all this, the SRF accelerator market today is still a small market. The manufacture and preparation of the components require a range of specialized knowledge, as well as complex and expensive manufacturing installations like for high precision machining, electron beam welding, chemical surface preparation and class ISO4 clean room assembly. Today, the involved industry in the US and Europe comprises medium-sized companies. In Japan, some big enterprises are involved. So far, roughly 2500 SRF cavities have been built by or ordered from industry worldwide. Another substantial step might come from the International Linear Collider (ILC) project

  8. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J; Duty, Chad E; Post, Brian K; Lind, Randall F; Lloyd, Peter D; Kunc, Vlastimil; Peter, William H; Blue, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  9. Energy Use in Manufacturing

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report addresses both manufacturing energy consumption and characteristics of the manufacturing economy related to energy consumption. In addition, special sections on fuel switching capacity and energy-management activities between 1998 and 2002 are also featured in this report.

  10. RRR Niobium Manufacturing Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Ronald A.

    2007-08-09

    ATI Wah Chang has been manufacturing RRR niobium for more than 30 years using electron beam melting techniques. Fabricated forms include plate, sheet, foil, bar, rod and tubing. This paper provides manufacturing information.

  11. Next Generation Print-based Manufacturing for Photovoltaics and Solid State Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Sue A. Carter

    2012-09-07

    For the grand challenge of reducing our energy and carbon footprint, the development of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies offer a potential solution. Energy technologies can reduce our dependence on foreign oil as well as the energy consumed by the petroleum industry, the leading consumer of energy by a U.S. industry sector. Nonetheless, the manufacturing processes utilized to manufacture equipment for alternative energy technologies often involve energy-intensive processes. This undermines some of the advantages to moving to 'green' technologies in the first place. Our answer to the Industrial Technology Program's (ITP) Grand Challenge FOA was to develop a transformational low cost manufacturing process for plastic-based photovoltaics that will lower by over 50% both energy consumption and greenhouse emissions and offer a return-of-investment of over 20%. We demonstrated a Luminescent Solar Concentrator fabricated on a plastic acrylic substrate (i.e. no glass) that increases the power output of the PV cell by 2.2x with a 2% power efficiency as well as an LSC with a 7% power efficiency that increased the power output from the PV cells by 35%. S large area 20-inch x 60-inch building-integrated photovoltaic window was fabricated using contract manufacturing with a 4% power efficiency which improved the power output of the PV cell by over 50%. In addition, accelerated lifetimes of the luminescent material demonstrate lifetimes of 20-years.

  12. Large volume manufacture of dymalloy

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-22

    The purpose of this research was to test the commercial viability and feasibility of Dymalloy, a composite material to measure thermal conductivity. Dymalloy was developed as part of a CRADA with Sun Microsystems. Sun Microsystems was a potential end user of Dymalloy as a substrate for MCMS. Sun had no desire to be involved in the manufacture of this material. The goal of this small business CRADA with Spectra Mat was to establish the high volume commercial manufacturing industry source for Dymalloy required by an end-user such as Sun Microsystems. The difference between the fabrication technique developed during the CRADA and this proposed work related to the mechanical technique of coating the diamond powder. Mechanical parts for the high-volume diamond powder coating process existed; however, they needed to be installed in an existing coating system for evaluation. Sputtering systems similar to the one required for this project were available at LLNL. Once the diamond powder was coated, both LLNL and Spectra Mat could make and test the Dymalloy composites. Spectra Mat manufactured Dymalloy composites in order to evaluate and establish a reasonable cost estimate on their existing processing capabilities. This information was used by Spectra Mat to define the market and cost-competitive products that could be commercialized from this new substrate material.

  13. Connecting American Manufacturers (CAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2013-0221 CONNECTING AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS (CAM) Nainesh B. Rathod Imaginestics, LLC SEPTEMBER 2013...SUBTITLE CONNECTING AMERICAN MANUFACTURERS (CAM) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-12-C-5515 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63680F 6...Connecting American Manufacturing (CAM) initiative sought to improve participation of small manufacturers in building components for the military by

  14. A Survey of Hadron Therapy Accelerator Technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA, T.; FLANZ, J.

    2007-06-25

    Hadron therapy has entered a new age [1]. The number of facilities grows steadily, and 'consumer' interest is high. Some groups are working on new accelerator technology, while others optimize existing designs by reducing capital and operating costs, and improving performance. This paper surveys the current requirements and directions in accelerator technology for hadron therapy.

  15. The Present, Mid-Term, and Long-Term Supply Curves for Tellurium; and Updates in the Results from NREL's CdTe PV Module Manufacturing Cost Model (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Woodhouse, M.; Goodrich, A.; Redlinger, M.; Lokanc, M.; Eggert, R.

    2013-09-01

    For those PV technologies that rely upon Te, In, and Ga, first-order observations and calculations hint that there may be resource constraints that could inhibit their successful deployment at a SunShot level. These are only first-order approximations, however, and the possibility for an expansion in global Te, In, and Ga supplies needs to be considered in the event that there are upward revisions in their demand and prices.In this study, we examine the current, mid-term, and long-term prospects of Tellurium (Te) for use in PV. We find that the current global supply base of Te would support <10 GW of annual traditional CdTe PV manufacturing production. But as for the possibility that the supply base for Te might be expanded, after compiling several preliminary cumulative availability curves we find that there may be significant upside potential in the supply base for this element - principally vis a vis increasing demand and higher prices. Primarily by reducing the Tellurium intensity in manufacturing and by increasing the recovery efficiency of Te in Cu refining processes, we calculate that it may prove affordable to PV manufacturers to expand the supply base for Te such that 100 GW, or greater, of annual CdTe PV production is possible in the 2030 - 2050 timeframe.

  16. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  17. Evolution of high-repetition-rate induction accelerators through advancements in switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirbie, H. C.; Caporaso, G. J.; Newton, M. A.; Yu, S. S.

    1992-08-01

    Future applications of linear and recirculating induction accelerators include microwave sources for plasma heating and linear colliders, industrial manufacturing processes, and heavy ion fusion. These applications require pulsed sources capable of sustained operation at high pulse-repetition rates. Powering these new accelerators places severe switching demands on the source, demands that often can not be met withcommercially-available technology. Consequently, several new accelerator switching schemes have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Our transition from spark-gap technology to magnetic switching has merged the formerly independent roles of source and cell into a single system and reshaped our design methods to emphasize high efficiency. Treatment of the accelerator as a system has also enabled us to optimize new accelerator designs based on cost considerations. Presently, we are developing a technology for driving a heavy-ion induction recirculator at pulse rates exceeding 100 kHz. In this case, the switching method is all solid state and the source and cell have evolved into a unified device.

  18. Additive electroplating technology as a post-CMOS process for the production of MEMS acceleration-threshold switches for transportation applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Sven; Timme, Hans-Jörg; Wycisk, Michael; Binder, Josef

    2000-06-01

    This paper presents an acceleration-threshold sensor fabricated with an electroplating technology which can be integrated on top of a pre-processed CMOS signal processing circuit. The device can be manufactured using a standard low-cost CMOS production line and then adding the mechanical sensor elements via a specialized back-end process. This makes the system especially interesting for automotive applications, such as airbag safety systems or transportation shock monitoring systems, where smaller size, improved functionality, high reliability and low costs are important.

  19. Photovoltaic manufacturing technology, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Izu, M. )

    1992-03-01

    This report examines manufacturing multiple-band-gap, multiple- junction solar cells and photovoltaic modules. Amorphous silicon alloy material is deposited (using microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition) on a stainless-steel substrate using a roll-to-roll process that is continuous and automated. Rapid thermal equilibration of the metal substrate allows rapid throughput of large-area devices in smaller production machines. Potential improvements in the design, deposition, and module fabrication process are described. Problems are also discussed that could impede using these potential improvements. Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. (ECD) proposes cost and time estimates for investigating and solving these problems. Manufacturing modules for less than $1.00 per peak watt and stable module efficiencies of greater than 10% are near-term goals proposed by ECD. 18 refs.

  20. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  1. Generative design drives manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Frank A.

    1989-04-01

    This paper reviews the collaboration that is being forced on Engineering and Manufacturing as they move from the manual translation of Engineering drawings toward automatic decoding of Product Data Definitions (PDDs), a pre-requisite to integrated manufacture. Based on case studies and implementation experience gained over the last decade, it defines the step-by-step evolution of a generative design capability that will drive manufacturing logic. It reviews the changing relationship of Engineering to Manufacturing and Industrial Engineering and the challenge this presents to manufacturing management in its struggle to remain competitive in both domestic and international markets.

  2. Space Manufacturing: The Next Great Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Ann F.; Curreri, Peter; Sharpe, Jonathan B.; Colberg, Wendell R.; Vickers, John H.

    1998-01-01

    Space manufacturing encompasses the research, development and manufacture necessary for the production of any product to be used in near zero gravity, and the production of spacecraft required for transporting research or production devices to space. Manufacturing for space, and manufacturing in space will require significant breakthroughs in materials and manufacturing technology, as well as in equipment designs. This report reviews some of the current initiatives in achieving space manufacturing. The first initiative deals with materials processing in space, e.g., processing non-terrestrial and terrestrial materials, especially metals. Some of the ramifications of the United States Microgravity Payloads fourth (USMP-4) mission are discussed. Some problems in non-terrestrial materials processing are mentioned. The second initiative is structures processing in space. In order to accomplish this, the International Space Welding Experiment was designed to demonstrate welding technology in near-zero gravity. The third initiative is advancements in earth-based manufacturing technologies necessary to achieve low cost access to space. The advancements discussed include development of lightweight material having high specific strength, and automated fabrication and manufacturing methods for these materials.

  3. Process economics of industrial monoclonal antibody manufacture.

    PubMed

    Farid, Suzanne S

    2007-03-15

    Pressures for cost-effective manufacture of antibodies are growing given their high doses and increasing market potential that have resulted in significant increases in total site capacities of up to 200,000 L. This paper focuses on the process economic issues associated with manufacturing antibodies and reviews the cost studies published in the literature; many of the issues highlighted are not only specific to antibodies but also apply to recombinant proteins. Data collated at UCL suggest current benchmark investment costs of $660-$1580/ft2 ($7130-$17,000/m2) and $1765-$4220/L for antibody manufacturing facilities with total site capacities in the range of 20,000-200,000 L; the limitations of the data are highlighted. The complications with deriving benchmark cost of goods per gram (COG/g) values are discussed, stressing the importance of stating the annual production rate and either titre or fermentation capacity with the cost so as to allow comparisons. The uses and limitations of the methods for cost analysis and the available software tools for process economics are presented. Specific examples found in the literature of process economic studies related to antibody manufacture for different expression systems are reviewed. The key economic drivers are identified; factors such as fermentation titre and overall yield are critical determinants of economic success. Future trends in antibody manufacture that are driven by economic pressures are discussed, such as the use of alternative expression systems (e.g. transgenics, E. coli and yeast), disposables, and improvements to downstream technology. The hidden costs and the challenges in each case are highlighted.

  4. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.

  5. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeV m−1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. These ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams. PMID:26439410

  6. Silicon photonics manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zortman, William A; Trotter, Douglas C; Watts, Michael R

    2010-11-08

    Most demonstrations in silicon photonics are done with single devices that are targeted for use in future systems. One of the costs of operating multiple devices concurrently on a chip in a system application is the power needed to properly space resonant device frequencies on a system's frequency grid. We asses this power requirement by quantifying the source and impact of process induced resonant frequency variation for microdisk resonators across individual die, entire wafers and wafer lots for separate process runs. Additionally we introduce a new technique, utilizing the Transverse Electric (TE) and Transverse Magnetic (TM) modes in microdisks, to extract thickness and width variations across wafers and dice. Through our analysis we find that a standard six inch Silicon on Insulator (SOI) 0.35 μm process controls microdisk resonant frequencies for the TE fundamental resonances to within 1 THz across a wafer and 105 GHz within a single die. Based on demonstrated thermal tuner technology, a stable manufacturing process exhibiting this level of variation can limit the resonance trimming power per resonant device to 231 μW. Taken in conjunction with the power to compensate for thermal environmental variations, the expected power requirement to compensate for fabrication-induced non-uniformities is 17% of that total. This leads to the prediction that thermal tuning efficiency is likely to have the most dominant impact on the overall power budget of silicon photonics resonator technology.

  7. Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors

    SciTech Connect

    Angel, Roger

    2014-12-17

    The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors less than 1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants.

  8. Improving Navy’s Buying Power Through Cost Savings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    and aircraft procurement issues .............. 45 Savings from best practices and lean manufacturing in ship building...evaluation (T&E) $80M Reducing electricity costs $1 OM Applying lean manufacturing to Navy shipbuilding $430M Applying lean manufacturing to defense...and lean manufacturing and their application to Navy shipbuilding and the defense aircraft industry could gen- erate savings. "* The 2005 Base

  9. Improved Large Aperture Collector Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, Deven; Farr, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    The parabolic trough is the most established CSP technology and carries a long history of design experimentation dating back to the 1970’s. This has led to relatively standardized collector architectures, a maturing global supply chain, and a fairly uniform cost reduction strategy. Abengoa has deployed more than 1,500MWe of CSP troughs across several countries and has built and tested full-scale prototypes of many R&D concepts. The latest trough R&D efforts involved efforts to internalize non-CSP industry experience including a preliminary DFMA principles review done with Boothroyd Dewhurst, a construction literature review by the Arizona State University School of Construction Management, and two more focused manufacturing engineering subcontracts done by Ricardo Inc. and the nonprofit Edison Welding Institute. The first two studies highlighted strong opportunities in lowering part count, standardizing components and fasteners, developing modular designs to support prefabrication and automation, and devising simple, error-proof manual assembly methods. These principles have delivered major new cost savings in otherwise “mature” products in analogous industries like automotive, truck trailer manufacture, metal building fabrication, and shipbuilding. For this reason, they were core in the design development of the SpaceTube® collector, and arguably key to its early successes. The latter two studies were applied specifically to the first-generation SpaceTube® design and were important in setting the direction of the present SolarMat project. These studies developed a methodology to analyze the costs of manufacture and assembly, and identify new tooling concepts for more efficient manufacture. Among the main opportunities identified in these studies were the automated mirror arm manufacturing concept and the need for a less infrastructure-intensive assembly line, both of which now form central pillars of the SolarMat project strategy. These new designs will be

  10. Acceleration modules in linear induction accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shao-Heng; Deng, Jian-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) is a unique type of accelerator that is capable of accelerating kilo-Ampere charged particle current to tens of MeV energy. The present development of LIA in MHz bursting mode and the successful application into a synchrotron have broadened LIA's usage scope. Although the transformer model is widely used to explain the acceleration mechanism of LIAs, it is not appropriate to consider the induction electric field as the field which accelerates charged particles for many modern LIAs. We have examined the transition of the magnetic cores' functions during the LIA acceleration modules' evolution, distinguished transformer type and transmission line type LIA acceleration modules, and re-considered several related issues based on transmission line type LIA acceleration module. This clarified understanding should help in the further development and design of LIA acceleration modules.

  11. Learning/cost-improvement curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Review guide is an aid to manager or engineer who must determine production costs for components, systems, or services. Methods are described by which manufacturers may use historical data, task characteristics, and current cost data to estimate unit prices as function of number of units to be produced.

  12. 77 FR 42310 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; City of Middletown, CT and RLO...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ..., Inc., Omo Manufacturing Site, Middletown, CT AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice... administrative settlement for recovery of response costs under CERCLA, concerning the Omo Manufacturing Superfund... the Omo Manufacturing Superfund Site in Middletown, Connecticut with the following settling...

  13. 77 FR 54777 - Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... energy efficient over the past several decades, there is an opportunity to accelerate and expand these efforts with investments to reduce energy use through more efficient manufacturing processes and... can use a CHP system to provide both types of energy in one energy-efficient step. Accelerating...

  14. Economics of Future Growth in Photovoltaics Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, Paul A.; Chung, Donald; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-06-14

    The past decade's record of growth in the photovoltaics manufacturing industry indicates that global investment in manufacturing capacity for photovoltaic modules tends to increase in proportion to the size of the industry. The slope of this proportionality determines how fast the industry will grow in the future. Two key parameters determine this slope. One is the annual global investment in manufacturing capacity normalized to the manufacturing capacity for the previous year (capacity-normalized capital investment rate, CapIR, units $/W). The other is how much capital investment is required for each watt of annual manufacturing capacity, normalized to the service life of the assets (capacity-normalized capital demand rate, CapDR, units $/W). If these two parameters remain unchanged from the values they have held for the past few years, global manufacturing capacity will peak in the next few years and then decline. However, it only takes a small improvement in CapIR to ensure future growth in photovoltaics. Any accompanying improvement in CapDR will accelerate that growth.

  15. Progress on plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1986-05-01

    Several plasma accelerator concepts are reviewed, with emphasis on the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator (PWFA). Various accelerator physics issues regarding these schemes are discussed, and numerical examples on laboratory scale experiments are given. The efficiency of plasma accelerators is then revealed with suggestions on improvements. Sources that cause emittance growth are discussed briefly.

  16. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    DOE PAGES

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; ...

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton acceleratorsmore » with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.« less

  17. CVD Diamond Dielectric Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Gat, R.

    2009-01-22

    The electrical and mechanical properties of diamond make it an ideal candidate material for use in dielectric accelerating structures: high RF breakdown field, extremely low dielectric losses and the highest available thermoconductive coefficient. Using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) cylindrical diamond structures have been manufactured with dimensions corresponding to fundamental TM{sub 01} mode frequencies in the GHz to THz range. Surface treatments are being developed to reduce the secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficient below unity to reduce the possibility of multipactor. The diamond CVD cylindrical waveguide technology developed here can be applied to a variety of other high frequency, large-signal applications.

  18. Manufacturing Information System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-22

    university classroom to aid in education and training of new manufacturing engineers. It is the purpose for this research to continue the development...PAUL R. SMITH 175 South 600 East #1 Provo, Utah 84601 (801) 377-8068 CAREER OBJECTIVE: Manufacturing Engineer using skills in development and...university classroom to aid in the education and train- ing of new manufacturing engineers. , . o i . o ., . . . . . - ,’ o . -2- 1.2. NEED There is a current

  19. Acceleration schedules for a recirculating heavy-ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-05-01

    Recent advances in solid-state switches have made it feasible to design programmable, high-repetition-rate pulsers for induction accelerators. These switches could lower the cost of recirculating induction accelerators, such as the ''small recirculator'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), by substantially reducing the number of induction modules. Numerical work is reported here to determine what effects the use of fewer pulsers at higher voltage would have on the beam quality of the LLNL small recirculator. Lattices with different numbers of pulsers are examined using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE, and several schedules for acceleration and compression are compared for each configuration. For selected schedules, the phase-space dynamics is also studied using the particle-in-cell code WARP3d.

  20. Quality cell therapy manufacturing by design.

    PubMed

    Lipsitz, Yonatan Y; Timmins, Nicholas E; Zandstra, Peter W

    2016-04-01

    Transplantation of live cells as therapeutic agents is poised to offer new treatment options for a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. However, the biological complexity of cells has hampered the translation of laboratory-scale experiments into industrial processes for reliable, cost-effective manufacturing of cell-based therapies. We argue here that a solution to this challenge is to design cell manufacturing processes according to quality-by-design (QbD) principles. QbD integrates scientific knowledge and risk analysis into manufacturing process development and is already being adopted by the biopharmaceutical industry. Many opportunities to incorporate QbD into cell therapy manufacturing exist, although further technology development is required for full implementation. Linking measurable molecular and cellular characteristics of a cell population to final product quality through QbD is a crucial step in realizing the potential for cell therapies to transform healthcare.

  1. Application of Lean Manufacturing Principles to DARHT-II Induction Cell Refurbishment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    has been transformed to support Lean Manufacturing . This paper presents and discusses the processes and facility configuration developed to apply Lean Manufacturing for cell refurbishment....commissioning milestones of the DARHT second-axis accelerator. To this end, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has adopted the principles of Lean ... Manufacturing and applied them to the cell refurbishment effort. These principles emphasize streamline thinking and methodologies for manufacturing

  2. 10 CFR 611.102 - Eligible project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE... are reasonably related to the reequipping, expanding, or establishing a manufacturing facility in the United States to produce qualifying advanced technology vehicles or qualifying components; (2) Costs...

  3. 10 CFR 611.102 - Eligible project costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE... are reasonably related to the reequipping, expanding, or establishing a manufacturing facility in the United States to produce qualifying advanced technology vehicles or qualifying components; (2) Costs...

  4. Plasmid DNA manufacturing technology.

    PubMed

    Carnes, Aaron E; Williams, James A

    2007-01-01

    Today, plasmid DNA is becoming increasingly important as the next generation of biotechnology products (gene medicines and DNA vaccines) make their way into clinical trials, and eventually into the pharmaceutical marketplace. This review summarizes recent patents and patent applications relating to plasmid manufacturing, in the context of a comprehensive description of the plasmid manufacturing intellectual property landscape. Strategies for plasmid manufacturers to develop or in-license key plasmid manufacturing technologies are described with the endpoint of efficiently producing kg quantities of plasmid DNA of a quality that meets anticipated European and FDA quality specifications for commercial plasmid products.

  5. Manufacturing with the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Lawrence M.; Hauser, Steven G.; Clyne, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Concentrated solar radiation is now a viable alternative source for many advanced manufacturing processes. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated the feasibility of processes such as solar induced surface transformation of materials (SISTM), solar based manufacturing, and solar pumped lasers. Researchers are also using sunlight to decontaminate water and soils polluted with organic compounds; these techniques could provide manufacturers with innovative alternatives to traditional methods of waste management. The solar technology that is now being integrated into today's manufacturing processes offer greater potential for tomorrow, especially as applied to the radiation abundant environment available in space and on the lunar surface.

  6. Advanced manufacturing technologies on color plasma displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betsui, Keiichi

    2000-06-01

    The mass production of the color plasma display started from 1996. However, since the price of the panel is still expensive, PDPs are not in widespread use at home. It is necessary to develop the new and low-cost manufacturing technologies to reduce the price of the panel. This paper describes some of the features of new fabrication technologies of PDPs.

  7. Flow Battery System Design for Manufacturability.

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Tracy Louise; Meacham, Paul Gregory; Perry, David; Broyles, Robin S.; Hickey, Steven; Hernandez, Jacquelynne

    2014-10-01

    Flow battery energy storage systems can support renewable energy generation and increase energy efficiency. But, presently, the costs of flow battery energy storage systems can be a significant barrier for large-scale market penetration. For cost- effective systems to be produced, it is critical to optimize the selection of materials and components simultaneously with the adherence to requirements and manufacturing processes to allow these batteries and their manufacturers to succeed in the market by reducing costs to consumers. This report analyzes performance, safety, and testing requirements derived from applicable regulations as well as commercial and military standards that would apply to a flow battery energy storage system. System components of a zinc-bromine flow battery energy storage system, including the batteries, inverters, and control and monitoring system, are discussed relative to manufacturing. The issues addressed include costs and component availability and lead times. A service and support model including setup, maintenance and transportation is outlined, along with a description of the safety-related features of the example flow battery energy storage system to promote regulatory and environmental, safety, and health compliance in anticipation of scale manufacturing.

  8. Passive-solar manufactured buildings development and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekieffer, R.; Taylor, R.; Brant, S.; Simms, D.

    1982-06-01

    Manufactured passive-solar buildings development and analysis are discussed. Manufactured buildings are quickly becoming the most cost-effective residential and light commercial buildings in the American marketplace. Over the past three years the Solar Energy Research Institute and the Department of Energy worked with building manufacturers to design, develop, and build passive solar manufactured buildings. This development process led to extremely valuable information in design development and design options, cost analysis, and estimated and monitored thermal performance on all types of manufactured buildings. Because of the tight cost/marketing restrictions in this industry, the lessons learned in this program are beneficial to all sections of the design and building community. The scope and content of this data is described by using a case study developed for the program.

  9. Lean Manufacturing Auto Cluster at Chennai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, E.

    2012-10-01

    Due the presence of lot of automotive Industry, Chennai is known as Detroit of India, that producing over 40 % of the Indian vehicle and components. Lean manufacturing concepts have been widely recognized as an important tool in improving the competitiveness of industries. This is a continuous process involving everyone, starting from management to the shop floor. Automotive Component Industries (ACIs) in Ambattur Industrial Estate, Chennai has formed special purpose vehicle (SPV) society namely Ambattur Industrial Estate Manufacturers Association (AIEMA) Technology Centre (ATC) lean manufacturing cluster (ATC-LMC) during July 2010 under lean manufacturing competitiveness scheme, that comes under National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme of Government of India. The Tripartite Agreement is taken place between National Productivity Council, consultants and cluster (ATC-LMC). The objective is to conduct diagnostic study, study on training and application of various lean manufacturing techniques and auditing in ten ACIs. The methodology adopted is collection of primary data/details from ten ACIs. In the first phase, diagnostic study is done and the areas for improvement in each of the cluster member companies are identified. In the second phase, training programs and implementation is done on 5S and other areas. In the third phase auditing is done and found that the lean manufacturing techniques implementation in ATC-LMC is sustainable and successful in every cluster companies, which will not only enhance competitiveness but also decrease cost, time and increase productivity. The technical efficiency of LMC companies also increases significantly.

  10. Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators and Accelerator Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Spentzouris, P.; Cary, J.; McInnes, L.C.; Mori, W.; Ng, C.; Ng, E.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-11-14

    for software development and applications accounts for the natural domain areas (beam dynamics, electromagnetics, and advanced acceleration), and all areas depend on the enabling technologies activities, such as solvers and component technology, to deliver the desired performance and integrated simulation environment. The ComPASS applications focus on computationally challenging problems important for design or performance optimization to all major HEP, NP, and BES accelerator facilities. With the cost and complexity of particle accelerators rising, the use of computation to optimize their designs and find improved operating regimes becomes essential, potentially leading to significant cost savings with modest investment.

  11. Diagnostic for charging and damage of dielectrics in accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2014-12-01

    Particle accelerators for discovery science, industrial and medical applications employ dielectric elements that can be altered or seriously damaged by the accelerated particles. This project is to develop a diagnostic test to anticipate when these effects can be avoided, thereby increasing the reliability and lowering the cost of the accelerators.

  12. A Statistical Perspective on Highly Accelerated Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Edward V.

    2015-02-01

    Highly accelerated life testing has been heavily promoted at Sandia (and elsewhere) as a means to rapidly identify product weaknesses caused by flaws in the product's design or manufacturing process. During product development, a small number of units are forced to fail at high stress. The failed units are then examined to determine the root causes of failure. The identification of the root causes of product failures exposed by highly accelerated life testing can instigate changes to the product's design and/or manufacturing process that result in a product with increased reliability. It is widely viewed that this qualitative use of highly accelerated life testing (often associated with the acronym HALT) can be useful. However, highly accelerated life testing has also been proposed as a quantitative means for "demonstrating" the reliability of a product where unreliability is associated with loss of margin via an identified and dominating failure mechanism. It is assumed that the dominant failure mechanism can be accelerated by changing the level of a stress factor that is assumed to be related to the dominant failure mode. In extreme cases, a minimal number of units (often from a pre-production lot) are subjected to a single highly accelerated stress relative to normal use. If no (or, sufficiently few) units fail at this high stress level, some might claim that a certain level of reliability has been demonstrated (relative to normal use conditions). Underlying this claim are assumptions regarding the level of knowledge associated with the relationship between the stress level and the probability of failure. The primary purpose of this document is to discuss (from a statistical perspective) the efficacy of using accelerated life testing protocols (and, in particular, "highly accelerated" protocols) to make quantitative inferences concerning the performance of a product (e.g., reliability) when in fact there is lack-of-knowledge and uncertainty concerning the

  13. Atomic and close-to-atomic scale manufacturing—A trend in manufacturing development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fengzhou

    2016-12-01

    Manufacturing is the foundation of a nation's economy. It is the primary industry to promote economic and social development. To accelerate and upgrade China's manufacturing sector from "precision manufacturing" to "high-performance and high-quality manufacturing", a new breakthrough should be found in terms of achieving a "leap-frog development". Unlike conventional manufacturing, the fundamental theory of "Manufacturing 3.0" is beyond the scope of conventional theory; rather, it is based on new principles and theories at the atomic and/or closeto- atomic scale. Obtaining a dominant role at the international level is a strategic move for China's progress.

  14. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  15. CRADA final report: Technical assessment of roll-to-roll operation of lamination process, thermal treatment, and alternative carbon fiber precursors for low-cost, high-efficiency manufacturing of flow battery stacks and other energy devices

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus; Madden, Thomas; Wood, III, David L; Muth, Thomas R.; Warrington, Curtis; Ozcan, Soydan; Manson, Hunter; Tekinalp, Halil L.; Smith, Mark A.; Lu, Yuan; Loretz, Jeremy

    2015-09-23

    Among the various stationary-storage technologies under development, redox flow batteries (RFBs) offer the greatest potential to deliver inexpensive, scalable, and efficient grid-scale electrical-energy storage. Unlike traditional sealed batteries, in a flow battery power and energy are decoupled. Cell area and cell count in the stack determine the device power, and the chemical storage volume determines the total energy. Grid-scale energy-storage applications require megawatt-scale devices, which require the assembly of hundreds of large-area, bipolar cells per power plant. The cell-stack is the single system component with the largest impact on capital cost (due to the large number of highly engineered components) and operating costs (determined by overall round-trip efficiency).

  16. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  17. Cost accounting in healthcare organizations: who needs it?

    PubMed

    Mendenhall, S; Shepherd, R; Kobrinski, E

    1987-01-01

    There is no question that improved cost information can lead to improved accountability in health care; however, the major proponents of borrowing cost accounting concepts from manufacturing have not gone far enough. They have ignored an important aspect of manufacturing cost accounting that is also a very important prt of hospitals and health care, namely the concern for quality.

  18. Mechanical Prototyping and Manufacturing Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    significantly reduced cost. I acquired and improved manufacturing and prototyping skills during my tour including learning about a CAD (Computer-Aided Design) program called Creo (Creo Parametric; design software), gaining valuable conventional machining experience with lathes, CNC (Computer Numerical Control) milling machines and various other tools, and improving my engineering project communication and collaboration skills. The internship also allowed me to better understand operations at NASA. I plan to work in the aerospace industry or do academic research benefitting space science and exploration, and this internship experience will enable me to have insight into manufacturing processes for research and development.

  19. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    ScienceCinema

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2016-07-12

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  20. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative Industrial Efficiency and Energy Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Selldorff, John; Atwell, Monte

    2014-09-23

    Industrial efficiency and low-cost energy resources are key components to increasing U.S. energy productivity and makes the U.S. manufacturing sector more competitive. Companies find a competitive advantage in implementing efficiency technologies and practices, and technologies developed and manufactured in the U.S. enable greater competitiveness economy-wide.

  1. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  2. Computer Aided Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insolia, Gerard

    This document contains course outlines in computer-aided manufacturing developed for a business-industry technology resource center for firms in eastern Pennsylvania by Northampton Community College. The four units of the course cover the following: (1) introduction to computer-assisted design (CAD)/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM); (2) CAM…

  3. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  4. Manufacturing Education Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umstattd, William D.

    The Manufacturing Education Curriculum Project's feasibility study concerned with industrial arts curriculum development in manufacturing for the senior high school level is described. The need for an industrial arts curriculum which meets and reflects present and future trends is discussed in the introduction, followed by a review of the…

  5. Optimization of space manufacturing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Four separate analyses are detailed: transportation to low earth orbit, orbit-to-orbit optimization, parametric analysis of SPS logistics based on earth and lunar source locations, and an overall program option optimization implemented with linear programming. It is found that smaller vehicles are favored for earth launch, with the current Space Shuttle being right at optimum payload size. Fully reusable launch vehicles represent a savings of 50% over the Space Shuttle; increased reliability with less maintenance could further double the savings. An optimization of orbit-to-orbit propulsion systems using lunar oxygen for propellants shows that ion propulsion is preferable by a 3:1 cost margin over a mass driver reaction engine at optimum values; however, ion engines cannot yet operate in the lower exhaust velocity range where the optimum lies, and total program costs between the two systems are ambiguous. Heavier payloads favor the use of a MDRE. A parametric model of a space manufacturing facility is proposed, and used to analyze recurring costs, total costs, and net present value discounted cash flows. Parameters studied include productivity, effects of discounting, materials source tradeoffs, economic viability of closed-cycle habitats, and effects of varying degrees of nonterrestrial SPS materials needed from earth. Finally, candidate optimal scenarios are chosen, and implemented in a linear program with external constraints in order to arrive at an optimum blend of SPS production strategies in order to maximize returns.

  6. Mass manufactured secondary optics for CPV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Tobias; Wiesenfarth, Maike; Hornung, Thorsten; Gremmelspacher, Matthias; Manns, Peter; Nitz, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The Fraunhofer Institutes for Solar Energy Systems ISE and for Mechanics of Materials IWM in cooperation with industrial partners have explored routes for highly cost effective mass manufacturing of dome lens shaped glass secondary optical elements (SOEs) for concentrating photovoltaics (CPV). This included optical design studies, design optimizations and outdoor measurements on prototypes by Fraunhofer ISE. Fraunhofer IWM has explored a short cycle molding process suitable for low-cost high volume production. SOEs of spherical shape can be a possible option for a cost-effective production.

  7. Computed Tomography Inspection and Analysis for Additive Manufacturing Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshears, Ronald D.

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) inspection was performed on test articles additively manufactured from metallic materials. Metallic AM and machined wrought alloy test articles with programmed flaws were inspected using a 2MeV linear accelerator based CT system. Performance of CT inspection on identically configured wrought and AM components and programmed flaws was assessed using standard image analysis techniques to determine the impact of additive manufacturing on inspectability of objects with complex geometries.

  8. NASA Game Changing Development Program Manufacturing Innovation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Carol; Vickers, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation examines the new NASA Manufacturing Innovation Project. The project is a part of the Game Changing Development Program which is one element of the Space Technology Programs Managed by Office of the Chief Technologist. The project includes innovative technologies in model-based manufacturing, digital additive manufacturing, and other next generation manufacturing tools. The project is also coupled with the larger federal initiatives in this area including the National Digital Engineering and Manufacturing Initiative and the Advanced Manufacturing Partnership. In addition to NASA, other interagency partners include the Department of Defense, Department of Commerce, NIST, Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. The development of game-changing manufacturing technologies are critical for NASA s mission of exploration, strengthening America s manufacturing competitiveness, and are highly related to current challenges in defense manufacturing activities. There is strong consensus across industry, academia, and government that the future competitiveness of U.S. industry will be determined, in large part, by a technologically advanced manufacturing sector. This presentation highlights the prospectus of next generation manufacturing technologies to the challenges faced NASA and by the Department of Defense. The project focuses on maturing innovative/high payoff model-based manufacturing technologies that may lead to entirely new approaches for a broad array of future NASA missions and solutions to significant national needs. Digital manufacturing and computer-integrated manufacturing "virtually" guarantee advantages in quality, speed, and cost and offer many long-term benefits across the entire product lifecycle. This paper addresses key enablers and emerging strategies in areas such as: Current government initiatives, Model-based manufacturing, and Additive manufacturing.

  9. A variable acceleration calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas H.

    2011-12-01

    A variable acceleration calibration system that applies loads using gravitational and centripetal acceleration serves as an alternative, efficient and cost effective method for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances. Two proof-of-concept variable acceleration calibration systems are designed, fabricated and tested. The NASA UT-36 force balance served as the test balance for the calibration experiments. The variable acceleration calibration systems are shown to be capable of performing three component calibration experiments with an approximate applied load error on the order of 1% of the full scale calibration loads. Sources of error are indentified using experimental design methods and a propagation of uncertainty analysis. Three types of uncertainty are indentified for the systems and are attributed to prediction error, calibration error and pure error. Angular velocity uncertainty is shown to be the largest indentified source of prediction error. The calibration uncertainties using a production variable acceleration based system are shown to be potentially equivalent to current methods. The production quality system can be realized using lighter materials and a more precise instrumentation. Further research is needed to account for balance deflection, forcing effects due to vibration, and large tare loads. A gyroscope measurement technique is shown to be capable of resolving the balance deflection angle calculation. Long term research objectives include a demonstration of a six degree of freedom calibration, and a large capacity balance calibration.

  10. Superconducting cavities for particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padamsee, H.

    1992-02-01

    RF Superconductivity has become an important technology for particle accelerators for high energy physics, nuclear physics, and free electron lasers. More than 100 MVolts of Superconducting RF (SRF) cavities have been installed in accelerators for heavy ions and operated at gradients of 2-3 MV/m in excess of 105 hours. More than 500 MVolts are installed in electron accelerators and operated at gradients of 4-6 MV/m in excess of 104 hours. Encouraged by this success, another 500 meters of SRF cavities are in the production line. New applications for High Energy Physics are forthcoming for high current e+e- colliders in the B-quark energy range (B-factory). For the next linear collider in the TeV energy range, there are many compelling attractions to use SRF, if the gradients can be improved substantially and the costs lowered. Substantial progress has been made in understanding performance limitations and in inventing cures through better cavity geometries, materials, and processes. Techniques are now in hand to reach 15-20 MV/m accelerating. In light of this progress, the potential of high gradient SRF for a TeV Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator (TESLA) will be explored.

  11. Electronic manufacturing and packaging in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.; Boulton, William R. (Editor); Kukowski, John A.; Meieran, Eugene S.; Pecht, Michael; Peeples, John W.; Tummala, Rao R.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of electronic manufacturing and packaging technology in Japan in comparison to that in the United States, and its impact on competition in electronic manufacturing in general. In addition to electronic manufacturing technologies, the report covers technology and manufacturing infrastructure, electronics manufacturing and assembly, quality assurance and reliability in the Japanese electronics industry, and successful product realization strategies. The panel found that Japan leads the United States in almost every electronics packaging technology. Japan clearly has achieved a strategic advantage in electronics production and process technologies. Panel members believe that Japanese competitors could be leading U.S. firms by as much as a decade in some electronics process technologies. Japan has established this marked competitive advantage in electronics as a consequence of developing low-cost, high-volume consumer products. Japan's infrastructure, and the remarkable cohesiveness of vision and purpose in government and industry, are key factors in the success of Japan's electronics industry. Although Japan will continue to dominate consumer electronics in the foreseeable future, opportunities exist for the United States and other industrial countries to capture an increasingly large part of the market. The JTEC panel has identified no insurmountable barriers that would prevent the United States from regaining a significant share of the consumer electronics market; in fact, there is ample evidence that the United States needs to aggressively pursue high-volume, low-cost electronic assembly, because it is a critical path leading to high-performance electronic systems.

  12. Advanced Engineering Environments: Implications for Aerospace Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D.

    2001-01-01

    There are significant challenges facing today's aerospace industry. Global competition, more complex products, geographically-distributed design teams, demands for lower cost, higher reliability and safer vehicles, and the need to incorporate the latest technologies quicker all face the developer of aerospace systems. New information technologies offer promising opportunities to develop advanced engineering environments (AEEs) to meet these challenges. Significant advances in the state-of-the-art of aerospace engineering practice are envisioned in the areas of engineering design and analytical tools, cost and risk tools, collaborative engineering, and high-fidelity simulations early in the development cycle. These advances will enable modeling and simulation of manufacturing methods, which will in turn allow manufacturing considerations to be included much earlier in the system development cycle. Significant cost savings, increased quality, and decreased manufacturing cycle time are expected to result. This paper will give an overview of the NASA's Intelligent Synthesis Environment, the agency initiative to develop an AEE, with a focus on the anticipated benefits in aerospace manufacturing.

  13. Future accelerator technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1986-05-01

    A general discussion is presented of the acceleration of particles. Upon this foundation is built a categorization scheme into which all accelerators can be placed. Special attention is devoted to accelerators which employ a wake-field mechanism and a restricting theorem is examined. It is shown how the theorem may be circumvented. Comments are made on various acceleration schemes.

  14. ACCELERATION AND THE GIFTED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GIBSON, ARTHUR R.; STEPHANS, THOMAS M.

    ACCELERATION OF PUPILS AND SUBJECTS IS CONSIDERED A MEANS OF EDUCATING THE ACADEMICALLY GIFTED STUDENT. FIVE INTRODUCTORY ARTICLES PROVIDE A FRAMEWORK FOR THINKING ABOUT ACCELERATION. FIVE PROJECT REPORTS OF ACCELERATED PROGRAMS IN OHIO ARE INCLUDED. ACCELERATION IS NOW BEING REGARDED MORE FAVORABLY THAN FORMERLY, BECAUSE METHODS HAVE BEEN…

  15. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2005-06-14

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  16. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2006-04-18

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  17. Dusty-Plasma Particle Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2005-01-01

    A dusty-plasma apparatus is being investigated as means of accelerating nanometer- and micrometer-sized particles. Applications for the dusty-plasma particle accelerators fall into two classes: Simulation of a variety of rapidly moving dust particles and micrometeoroids in outer-space environments that include micrometeoroid streams, comet tails, planetary rings, and nebulae and Deposition or implantation of nanoparticles on substrates for diverse industrial purposes that could include hardening, increasing thermal insulation, altering optical properties, and/or increasing permittivities of substrate materials. Relative to prior apparatuses used for similar applications, dusty-plasma particle accelerators offer such potential advantages as smaller size, lower cost, less complexity, and increased particle flux densities. A dusty-plasma particle accelerator exploits the fact that an isolated particle immersed in plasma acquires a net electric charge that depends on the relative mobilities of electrons and ions. Typically, a particle that is immersed in a low-temperature, partially ionized gas, wherein the average kinetic energy of electrons exceeds that of ions, causes the particle to become negatively charged. The particle can then be accelerated by applying an appropriate electric field. A dusty-plasma particle accelerator (see figure) includes a plasma source such as a radio-frequency induction discharge apparatus containing (1) a shallow cup with a biasable electrode to hold the particles to be accelerated and (2) a holder for the substrate on which the particles are to impinge. Depending on the specific design, a pair of electrostatic-acceleration grids between the substrate and discharge plasma can be used to both collimate and further accelerate particles exiting the particle holder. Once exposed to the discharge plasma, the particles in the cup quickly acquire a negative charge. Application of a negative voltage pulse to the biasable electrode results in the

  18. Low cost Czochralski crystal growing technology. Near implementation of the flat plate photovoltaic cost reduction of the low cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    Equipment developed for the manufacture of over 100 kg of silicon ingot from one crucible by rechanging from another crucible is described. Attempts were made to eliminate the cost of raising the furnace temperature to 250 C above the melting point of silicon by using an RF coil to melt polycrystalline silicon rod as a means of rechanging the crucible. Microprocessor control of the straight growth process was developed and domonstrated for both 4 inch and 6 inch diameter. Both meltdown and melt stabilization processes were achieved using operator prompting through the microprocessor. The use of the RF work coil in poly rod melting as a heat sink in the accelerated growth process was unsuccessful. The total design concept for fabrication and interfacing of the total cold crucible system was completed.

  19. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  20. Environmentally benign silicon solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Gee, J.M.; Menna, P.; Strebkov, D.S.; Pinov, A.; Zadde, V.

    1998-09-01

    The manufacturing of silicon devices--from polysilicon production, crystal growth, ingot slicing, wafer cleaning, device processing, to encapsulation--requires many steps that are energy intensive and use large amounts of water and toxic chemicals. In the past two years, the silicon integrated-circuit (IC) industry has initiated several programs to promote environmentally benign manufacturing, i.e., manufacturing practices that recover, recycle, and reuse materials resources with a minimal consumption of energy. Crystalline-silicon solar photovoltaic (PV) modules, which accounted for 87% of the worldwide module shipments in 1997, are large-area devices with many manufacturing steps similar to those used in the IC industry. Obviously, there are significant opportunities for the PV industry to implement more environmentally benign manufacturing approaches. Such approaches often have the potential for significant cost reduction by reducing energy use and/or the purchase volume of new chemicals and by cutting the amount of used chemicals that must be discarded. This paper will review recent accomplishments of the IC industry initiatives and discuss new processes for environmentally benign silicon solar-cell manufacturing.

  1. Flat conductor cable design, manufacture, and installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.; Hankins, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Pertinent information for hardware selection, design, manufacture, and quality control necessary for flat conductor cable interconnecting harness application is presented. Comparisons are made between round wire cable and flat conductor cable. The flat conductor cable interconnecting harness systems show major cost, weight, and space savings, plus increased system performance and reliability. The design application section includes electrical characteristics, harness design and development, and a full treatise on EMC considerations. Manufacturing and quality control sections pertain primarily to the developed conductor-contact connector system and special flat conductor cable to round wire cable transitions.

  2. Development of Advanced Ceramic Manufacturing Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pujari, V.K.

    2001-04-05

    Advanced structural ceramics are enabling materials for new transportation engine systems that have the potential for significantly reducing energy consumption and pollution in automobiles and heavy vehicles. Ceramic component reliability and performance have been demonstrated in previous U.S. DOE initiatives, but high manufacturing cost was recognized as a major barrier to commercialization. Norton Advanced Ceramics (NAC), a division of Saint-Gobain Industrial Ceramics, Inc. (SGIC), was selected to perform a major Advanced Ceramics Manufacturing Technology (ACMT) Program. The overall objectives of NAC's program were to design, develop, and demonstrate advanced manufacturing technology for the production of ceramic exhaust valves for diesel engines. The specific objectives were (1) to reduce the manufacturing cost by an order of magnitude, (2) to develop and demonstrate process capability and reproducibility, and (3) to validate ceramic valve performance, durability, and reliability. The program was divided into four major tasks: Component Design and Specification, Component Manufacturing Technology Development, Inspection and Testing, and Process Demonstration. A high-power diesel engine valve for the DDC Series 149 engine was chosen as the demonstration part for this program. This was determined to be an ideal component type to demonstrate cost-effective process enhancements, the beneficial impact of advanced ceramics on transportation systems, and near-term commercialization potential. The baseline valve material was NAC's NT451 SiAION. It was replaced, later in the program, by an alternate silicon nitride composition (NT551), which utilized a lower cost raw material and a simplified powder-processing approach. The material specifications were defined based on DDC's engine requirements, and the initial and final component design tasks were completed.

  3. Report on Toyota/Prius Motor Design and Manufacturing Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.

    2004-07-28

    In today's hybrid vehicle market the Toyota Prius drive system is currently considered the leader in electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing innovations. It is significant that in today's marketplace Toyota is able to manufacture and sell the vehicle for a profit. This project's objective is to analyze and study the Prius drive system to understand the design and manufacturing mechanisms Toyota utilized to achieved their performance and cost goals. During the course of this research effort ORNL has dissected both the 2003 and 2004 Toyota/Prius drive motors. This study is focused primarily on motor design considerations and an assessment of manufacturing issues.

  4. 75 FR 30781 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On March 16, 2010, the Department of Commerce's International Trade... the Manufacturing Council (Council). The March 16, 2010 notice provided that all applications must...

  5. 75 FR 80040 - Manufacturing Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On November 23, 2010, the Department of Commerce's International Trade... vacant position on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The November 23, 2010 notice provided that...

  6. Agile manufacturing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Steven L.

    1994-03-01

    The initial conceptualization of agile manufacturing was the result of a 1991 study -- chaired by Lehigh Professor Roger N. Nagel and California-based entrepreneur Rick Dove, President of Paradigm Shifts, International -- of what it would take for U.S. industry to regain global manufacturing competitiveness by the early twenty-first century. This industry-led study, reviewed by senior management at over 100 companies before its release, concluded that incremental improvement of the current system of manufacturing would not be enough to be competitive in today's global marketplace. Computer-based information and production technologies that were becoming available to industry opened up the possibility of an altogether new system of manufacturing, one that would be characterized by a distinctive integration of people and technologies; of management and labor; of customers, producers, suppliers, and society.

  7. Computers in Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Advances in factory computerization (computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing) are reviewed, including discussions of robotics, human factors engineering, and the sociological impact of automation. (JN)

  8. Photonic Crystal Laser-Driven Accelerator Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Benjamin M.

    2007-08-22

    Laser-driven acceleration holds great promise for significantly improving accelerating gradient. However, scaling the conventional process of structure-based acceleration in vacuum down to optical wavelengths requires a substantially different kind of structure. We require an optical waveguide that (1) is constructed out of dielectric materials, (2) has transverse size on the order of a wavelength, and (3) supports a mode with speed-of-light phase velocity in vacuum. Photonic crystals---structures whose electromagnetic properties are spatially periodic---can meet these requirements. We discuss simulated photonic crystal accelerator structures and describe their properties. We begin with a class of two-dimensional structures which serves to illustrate the design considerations and trade-offs involved. We then present a three-dimensional structure, and describe its performance in terms of accelerating gradient and efficiency. We discuss particle beam dynamics in this structure, demonstrating a method for keeping a beam confined to the waveguide. We also discuss material and fabrication considerations. Since accelerating gradient is limited by optical damage to the structure, the damage threshold of the dielectric is a critical parameter. We experimentally measure the damage threshold of silicon for picosecond pulses in the infrared, and determine that our structure is capable of sustaining an accelerating gradient of 300 MV/m at 1550 nm. Finally, we discuss possibilities for manufacturing these structures using common microfabrication techniques.

  9. Human Issues in Manufacturing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    conventional mass- production manufacturing and the benefits of lean manufacturing . The text details the results of a five-year, multi national study...data and comparisons between mass and lean manufacturing . The key objective is to "illustrate the transition from mass to lean production with...of reference for the transition from current manufacturing systems to the goal state of lean manufacturing . Manufacturing before change is referred to

  10. Silicon Film[trademark] photovoltaic manufacturing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bottenberg, W.R.; Hall, R.B.; Jackson, E.L.; Lampo, S.; Mulligan, W.E.; Barnett, A.M. )

    1993-04-01

    This report describes work on a project to develop an advanced low-cost manufacturing process for a new utility-scale flatplate module based on thin active layers of polycrystalline silicon on a low-cost substrate. This is called the Silicon-Film[trademark] process. This new power module is based on a new large solar cell that is 675 cm[sup 2] in area. Eighteen of these solar cells form a 170-W module. Twelve ofthese modules form a 2-kW array. The program has three components: (1) development of a Silicon-Film[trademark] wafer machine that can manufacture wafer 675 cm[sup 2] in size with a total product cost reductionof 70%; (2) development of an advanced solar cell manufacturing process that will turn the Silicon-Film[trademark] wafer into a 14%-efficient solar cell; and (3) development of an advanced module design based on these large-area, efficient silicon solar cells with an average power of 170 watts. The completion of these three tasks will lead to a new power module designed for utility and other power applications with asubstantially lower cost.

  11. Additive Manufacturing and High-Performance Computing: a Disruptive Latent Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Bruce

    2015-03-01

    This presentation will discuss the relationship between recent advances in Additive Manufacturing (AM) technology, High-Performance Computing (HPC) simulation and design capabilities, and related advances in Uncertainty Quantification (UQ), and then examines their impacts upon national and international security. The presentation surveys how AM accelerates the fabrication process, while HPC combined with UQ provides a fast track for the engineering design cycle. The combination of AM and HPC/UQ almost eliminates the engineering design and prototype iterative cycle, thereby dramatically reducing cost of production and time-to-market. These methods thereby present significant benefits for US national interests, both civilian and military, in an age of austerity. Finally, considering cyber security issues and the advent of the ``cloud,'' these disruptive, currently latent technologies may well enable proliferation and so challenge both nuclear and non-nuclear aspects of international security.

  12. Recirculating Linear Accelerators for Future Muon Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    S.A. Bogacz, K.B.Beard, R.P. Johnson

    2010-05-01

    Neutrino Factories (NF) and Muon Colliders (MC) require rapid acceleration of short-lived muons to multi-GeV and TeV energies. A Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) that uses superconducting RF structures can provide exceptionally fast and economical acceleration to the extent that the focusing range of the RLA quadrupoles allows each muon to pass several times through each high-gradient cavity. A new concept of rapidly changing the strength of the RLA focusing quadrupoles as the muons gain energy is being developed to increase the number of passes that each muon will make in the RF cavities, leading to greater cost effectiveness.

  13. Manufacturing Process Simulation of Large-Scale Cryotanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babai, Majid; Phillips, Steven; Griffin, Brian

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) is an effort to research and develop the technologies needed to build a second-generation reusable launch vehicle. It is required that this new launch vehicle be 100 times safer and 10 times cheaper to operate than current launch vehicles. Part of the SLI includes the development of reusable composite and metallic cryotanks. The size of these reusable tanks is far greater than anything ever developed and exceeds the design limits of current manufacturing tools. Several design and manufacturing approaches have been formulated, but many factors must be weighed during the selection process. Among these factors are tooling reachability, cycle times, feasibility, and facility impacts. The manufacturing process simulation capabilities available at NASA.s Marshall Space Flight Center have played a key role in down selecting between the various manufacturing approaches. By creating 3-D manufacturing process simulations, the varying approaches can be analyzed in a virtual world before any hardware or infrastructure is built. This analysis can detect and eliminate costly flaws in the various manufacturing approaches. The simulations check for collisions between devices, verify that design limits on joints are not exceeded, and provide cycle times which aide in the development of an optimized process flow. In addition, new ideas and concerns are often raised after seeing the visual representation of a manufacturing process flow. The output of the manufacturing process simulations allows for cost and safety comparisons to be performed between the various manufacturing approaches. This output helps determine which manufacturing process options reach the safety and cost goals of the SLI. As part of the SLI, The Boeing Company was awarded a basic period contract to research and propose options for both a metallic and a composite cryotank. Boeing then entered into a task agreement with the Marshall Space Flight Center to provide manufacturing

  14. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, David E.; Moon, Ji-Won; Armstrong, Beth L.; Datskos, Panos G.; Duty, Chad E.; Gresback, Ryan; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Jacobs, Christopher B.; Jellison, Gerald Earle; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Joshi, Pooran C.; Jung, Hyunsung; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Phelps, Tommy

    2015-06-30

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  15. Evaluation of advanced polymers for additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Morrison, Crystal

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and is inherently low-cost.

  16. Advanced Blade Manufacturing Project - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    POORE, ROBERT Z.

    1999-08-01

    The original scope of the project was to research improvements to the processes and materials used in the manufacture of wood-epoxy blades, conduct tests to qualify any new material or processes for use in blade design and subsequently build and test six blades using the improved processes and materials. In particular, ABM was interested in reducing blade cost and improving quality. In addition, ABM needed to find a replacement material for the mature Douglas fir used in the manufacturing process. The use of mature Douglas fir is commercially unacceptable because of its limited supply and environmental concerns associated with the use of mature timber. Unfortunately, the bankruptcy of FloWind in June 1997 and a dramatic reduction in AWT sales made it impossible for ABM to complete the full scope of work. However, sufficient research and testing were completed to identify several promising changes in the blade manufacturing process and develop a preliminary design incorporating these changes.

  17. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  18. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; ...

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  19. Means of manufacturing annular arrays

    DOEpatents

    Day, R.A.

    1985-10-10

    A method is described for manufacturing an annular acoustic transducer array from a plate of transducer material, which enables production of precision aligned arrays at low cost. The circular plate is sawed along at least two lines that are radial to the axis of the plate. At steps along each radial cut, the plate is rotated first in one direction and then in an opposite direction by a predetermined angle such as slightly less than 90/sup 0/. The cuts result in the forming of several largely ring-shaped lands, each largely ring-shaped land being joined to the other rings of different radii by thin portions of the plate, and each ring being cut into segments. The bridges that join different rings hold the transducer together until it can be mounted on a lens.

  20. Wind Turbine Manufacturing Process Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Waseem Faidi; Chris Nafis; Shatil Sinha; Chandra Yerramalli; Anthony Waas; Suresh Advani; John Gangloff; Pavel Simacek

    2012-04-26

    To develop a practical inline inspection that could be used in combination with automated composite material placement equipment to economically manufacture high performance and reliable carbon composite wind turbine blade spar caps. The approach technical feasibility and cost benefit will be assessed to provide a solid basis for further development and implementation in the wind turbine industry. The program is focused on the following technology development: (1) Develop in-line monitoring methods, using optical metrology and ultrasound inspection, and perform a demonstration in the lab. This includes development of the approach and performing appropriate demonstration in the lab; (2) Develop methods to predict composite strength reduction due to defects; and (3) Develop process models to predict defects from leading indicators found in the uncured composites.

  1. Miniature accelerator-driven gamma source concept.

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, R. W.; Chan, K. D.; Wangler, Thomas P.,; Wood R. L.; Carlsten, B. E.; Kirbie, H. C.

    2003-01-01

    Recent developments in W-band (-100 GHz) traveling wave tube technology at Los Alarnos may lead to a compact high-power W-band RE source. A conceptual design of a compact 8-MeV electron linac that codd be powered by this source is presented, including electromagnetic structure calculations, proposed rnicrojbbrication and manufacturing methods, supporting calculations to estimate accelerator performance, and gumma production rates based on preliminary target geometries and expected output beam current.

  2. Review of the thermal energy standards for manufactured housing proposed by the Manufactured Housing Institute Consensus Committee

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.C.

    1992-02-01

    Congress passed legislation that requires the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to revise the energy efficiency standards for manufactured housing contained in the Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (MHCSS). The Manufactured Housing Institute's Consensus Committee (MHICC) proposed revised standards to HUD based on an analysis contained in a 1989 report by E. Levy. This document is primarily a review of the Levy report, including the methods and inputs to that analysis. The approach to be used in developing the revised standard was specified by Congress as a cost-benefit analysis in which the costs of energy efficiency measures (EEM) were balanced against the benefits of energy savings. The resulting optimum specified an overall level of energy efficiency in terms of a maximum allowable building shell U-value (overall thermal transmittance) that produced the lowest life-cycle cost to the owner of a manufactured home. In his 1989 analysis, this was the general approach used by Levy.

  3. 15 kJ Flash Lamp, Power Conditioning Unit Designed for Safety, Reliability & Manufacturability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48. 15 KJ FLASH LAMP, POWER CONDITIONING UNIT DESIGNED FOR SAFTY, RELIABILITY & MANUFACTURABILITY * B...CA, U.S.A. Abstract A 15kJoule, Flash Lamp Power Conditioning Unit has been successfully designed, developed, and deployed in the National... manufacturability . Cost reduction over commercially equivalent systems was also achieved through an easily manufactured packaging design optimized

  4. Allergologically relevant rubber accelerators in single-use medical gloves.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, B B; Hametner, C; Seycek, O; Heese, A; Koch, H U; Peters, K P

    2000-07-01

    To prevent contact with specific rubber accelerators, sensitized patients have to know in which glove brands these accelerators are present. Additionally, quantitative measurements of the bioavailable amounts of accelerators are needed to assist consumers in selecting gloves with the lowest possible amount of residual rubber accelerators. The aim of the study was to develop an analytical method by which residuals of rubber accelerators in single-use medical gloves could be determined qualitatively and quantitatively. 19 different glove brands were analysed for content of accelerators, and the results were compared to manufacturers' ingredient claims of the identical gloves. ZDEC, ZDBC, ZMBT and ZPC were the most frequently detected chemicals. In 9 of 15 gloves discrepancies were found, usually minor, between content of accelerators declared by manufacturers to be present and accelerators detected by analysis. Both phosphate buffer and acetone were tested as extraction media. No accelerators were detectable with the described chemical analysis in phosphate extracts, whereas acetone was demonstrated to be a technically suitable medium for extraction. However, more kinetic studies of the extraction procedure and studies of skin penetration are needed to document that the extraction procedure simulates the clinical situation.

  5. National Center for Manufacturing Sciences: Environmentally conscious manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinton, Clare

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to share the results and some of the thinking of the Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing - Strategic Initiative Group (ECM-SIG) at the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS). NCMS is a consortium of more than 185 North American Manufacturing organizations comprised of about 75 percent for profit manufacturing companies and about 25 percent nonprofit organizations that support manufacturing activities. NCMS conducts collaborative R&D programs designed to improve global competitiveness of its members and other North American manufacturers to address common issues that are important to manufacturing industries. NCMS is an industry driven organization whose agenda is established by industry with input from appropriate government agencies.

  6. Novel Nanotube Manufacturing Streamlines Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Nanotubes have novel qualities that make them uniquely qualified for a plethora of uses, including applications in electronics, optics, and other scientific and industrial fields. The NASA process for creating these nanostructures involves using helium arc welding to vaporize an amorphous carbon rod and then form nanotubes by depositing the vapor onto a water-cooled carbon cathode, which then yields bundles, or ropes, of single-walled nanotubes at a rate of 2 grams per hour using a single setup. This eliminates costs associated with the use of metal catalysts, including the cost of product purification, resulting in a relatively inexpensive, high-quality, very pure end product. While managing to be less expensive, safer, and simpler, the process also increases the quality of the nanotubes. Goddard's Innovative Partnerships Program (IPP) Office promoted the technology, and in 2005, Boise-based Idaho Space Materials Inc. (ISM) was formed and applied for a nonexclusive license for the single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) manufacturing technology. ISM commercialized its products, and the inexpensive, robust nanotubes are now in the hands of the scientists who will create the next generation of composite polymers, metals, and ceramics that will impact the way we live. In fact, researchers are examining ways for these newfound materials to be used in the manufacture of transistors and fuel cells, large screen televisions, ultra-sensitive sensors, high-resolution atomic force microscopy probes, supercapacitors, transparent conducting films, drug carriers, catalysts, and advanced composite materials, to name just a few of the myriad technologies to benefit.

  7. A portable accelerator control toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.A. III

    1997-06-01

    In recent years, the expense of creating good control software has led to a number of collaborative efforts among laboratories to share this cost. The EPICS collaboration is a particularly successful example of this trend. More recently another collaborative effort has addressed the need for sophisticated high level software, including model driven accelerator controls. This work builds upon the CDEV (Common DEVice) software framework, which provides a generic abstraction of a control system, and maps that abstraction onto a number of site-specific control systems including EPICS, the SLAC control system, CERN/PS and others. In principle, it is now possible to create portable accelerator control applications which have no knowledge of the underlying and site-specific control system. Applications based on CDEV now provide a growing suite of tools for accelerator operations, including general purpose displays, an on-line accelerator model, beamline steering, machine status displays incorporating both hardware and model information (such as beam positions overlaid with beta functions) and more. A survey of CDEV compatible portable applications will be presented, as well as plans for future development.

  8. Personal computers in accelerator control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderssen, P. S.

    1988-07-01

    The advent of the personal computer has created a popular movement which has also made a strong impact on science and engineering. Flexible software environments combined with good computational performance and large storage capacities are becoming available at steadily decreasing costs. Of equal importance, however, is the quality of the user interface offered on many of these products. Graphics and screen interaction is available in ways that were only possible on specialized systems before. Accelerator engineers were quick to pick up the new technology. The first applications were probably for controllers and data gatherers for beam measurement equipment. Others followed, and today it is conceivable to make personal computer a standard component of an accelerator control system. This paper reviews the experience gained at CERN so far and describes the approach taken in the design of the common control center for the SPS and the future LEP accelerators. The design goal has been to be able to integrate personal computers into the accelerator control system and to build the operator's workplace around it.

  9. Recent developments in the economic modeling of photovoltaic module manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    Recent developments in the solar array manufacturing industry costing standards (SAMICS) are described. Consideration is given to the added capability to handle arbitrary operating schedules and the revised procedure for calculation of one-time costs. The results of an extensive validation study are summarized.

  10. Paths to future growth in photovoltaics manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Basore, Paul A.

    2016-03-01

    The past decade has seen rapid growth in the photovoltaics industry, followed in the past few years by a period of much slower growth. A simple model that is consistent with this historical record can be used to predict the future evolution of the industry. Two key parameters are identified that determine the outcome. One is the annual global investment in manufacturing capacity normalized to the manufacturing capacity for the previous year (capacity-normalized capital investment rate, CapIR, units $/W). The other is how much capital investment is required for each watt of annual manufacturing capacity, normalized to the service life of the assets (capacity-normalized capital demand rate, CapDR, units $/W). If these two parameters remain unchanged from the values they have held for the past few years, global manufacturing capacity will peak in the next few years and then decline. However, it only takes a modest improvement in CapIR to ensure future growth in photovoltaics. Several approaches are presented that can enable the required improvement in CapIR. If, in addition, there is an accompanying improvement in CapDR, the rate of growth can be substantially accelerated.

  11. Method and apparatus for manufacturing gas tags

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Laug, M.T.

    1996-12-17

    For use in the manufacture of gas tags employed in a gas tagging failure detection system for a nuclear reactor, a plurality of commercial feed gases each having a respective noble gas isotopic composition are blended under computer control to provide various tag gas mixtures having selected isotopic ratios which are optimized for specified defined conditions such as cost. Using a new approach employing a discrete variable structure rather than the known continuous-variable optimization problem, the computer controlled gas tag manufacturing process employs an analytical formalism from condensed matter physics known as stochastic relaxation, which is a special case of simulated annealing, for input feed gas selection. For a tag blending process involving M tag isotopes with N distinct feed gas mixtures commercially available from an enriched gas supplier, the manufacturing process calculates the cost difference between multiple combinations and specifies gas mixtures which approach the optimum defined conditions. The manufacturing process is then used to control tag blending apparatus incorporating tag gas canisters connected by stainless-steel tubing with computer controlled valves, with the canisters automatically filled with metered quantities of the required feed gases. 4 figs.

  12. Method and apparatus for manufacturing gas tags

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Laug, Matthew T.

    1996-01-01

    For use in the manufacture of gas tags employed in a gas tagging failure detection system for a nuclear reactor, a plurality of commercial feed gases each having a respective noble gas isotopic composition are blended under computer control to provide various tag gas mixtures having selected isotopic ratios which are optimized for specified defined conditions such as cost. Using a new approach employing a discrete variable structure rather than the known continuous-variable optimization problem, the computer controlled gas tag manufacturing process employs an analytical formalism from condensed matter physics known as stochastic relaxation, which is a special case of simulated annealing, for input feed gas selection. For a tag blending process involving M tag isotopes with N distinct feed gas mixtures commercially available from an enriched gas supplier, the manufacturing process calculates the cost difference between multiple combinations and specifies gas mixtures which approach the optimum defined conditions. The manufacturing process is then used to control tag blending apparatus incorporating tag gas canisters connected by stainless-steel tubing with computer controlled valves, with the canisters automatically filled with metered quantities of the required feed gases.

  13. Advanced materials manufacturing for solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Mierlo, Frank

    2012-02-01

    The US has a robust technical roadmap to get to a 1/W total installed cost with several potential winners in the race. We dominate in the new technology arena and there is a good chance that tomorrow's winning technology will be from the current crop of contenders. One potential breakthrough is Direct Wafer^TM a new manufacturing technique to make silicon wafers at a fraction of the traditional cost. Current wafer manufacturing is a multi-step, energy- and capital-intensive process that wastes half of the valuable silicon feedstock. 1366's Direct Wafer technology forms a standard, 156mm multi-crystalline wafer directly from molten silicon in a semi-continuous, efficient, high-throughput process that eliminates silicon waste. Direct Wafer^TM cuts the amount of consumables by a factor of four and requires only half the capital per GigaWatt production capacity thus enabling solar to compete successfully with coal generated electricity.

  14. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    ScienceCinema

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2016-07-12

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  15. Peak acceleration limiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. P.

    1972-01-01

    Device is described that limits accelerations by shutting off shaker table power very rapidly in acceleration tests. Absolute value of accelerometer signal is used to trigger electronic switch which terminates test and sounds alarm.

  16. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... equipment? How is safety ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the ... Therapy (SBRT) . top of page How does the equipment work? The linear accelerator uses microwave technology (similar ...

  17. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  18. Improved plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  19. Accelerator Technology Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  20. Layered Manufacturing: Challenges and Opportunities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADP014215 TITLE: Layered Manufacturing : Challenges and Opportunities ...Research Society LL1.4 Layered Manufacturing : Challenges and Opportunities Khershed P. Cooper Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research...Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5343, U.S.A. ABSTRACT Layered Manufacturing (LM) refers to computer-aided manufacturing processes in which parts are made

  1. Accelerators, Colliders, and Snakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courant, Ernest D.

    2003-12-01

    The author traces his involvement in the evolution of particle accelerators over the past 50 years. He participated in building the first billion-volt accelerator, the Brookhaven Cosmotron, which led to the introduction of the "strong-focusing" method that has in turn led to the very large accelerators and colliders of the present day. The problems of acceleration of spin-polarized protons are also addressed, with discussions of depolarizing resonances and "Siberian snakes" as a technique for mitigating these resonances.

  2. Real time PV manufacturing diagnostic system

    SciTech Connect

    Kochergin, Vladimir; Crawford, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    The main obstacle Photovoltaic (PV) industry is facing at present is the higher cost of PV energy compared to that of fossil energy. While solar cell efficiencies continue to make incremental gains these improvements are so far insufficient to drive PV costs down to match that of fossil energy. Improved in-line diagnostics however, has the potential to significantly increase the productivity and reduce cost by improving the yield of the process. On this Phase I/Phase II SBIR project MicroXact developed and demonstrated at CIGS pilot manufacturing line a high-throughput in-line PV manufacturing diagnostic system, which was verified to provide fast and accurate data on the spatial uniformity of thickness, an composition of the thin films comprising the solar cell as the solar cell is processed reel-to-reel. In Phase II project MicroXact developed a stand-alone system prototype and demonstrated the following technical characteristics: 1) ability of real time defect/composition inconsistency detection over 60cm wide web at web speeds up to 3m/minute; 2) Better than 1mm spatial resolution on 60cm wide web; 3) an average better than 20nm spectral resolution resulting in more than sufficient sensitivity to composition imperfections (copper-rich and copper-poor regions were detected). The system was verified to be high vacuum compatible. Phase II results completely validated both technical and economic feasibility of the proposed concept. MicroXact’s solution is an enabling technique for in-line PV manufacturing diagnostics to increase the productivity of PV manufacturing lines and reduce the cost of solar energy, thus reducing the US dependency on foreign oil while simultaneously reducing emission of greenhouse gasses.

  3. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  4. Environmentally sound manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caddy, Larry A.; Bowman, Ross; Richards, Rex A.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA/Thiokol/industry team has developed and started implementation of an environmentally sound manufacturing plan for the continued production of solid rocket motors. They have worked with other industry representatives and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to prepare a comprehensive plan to eliminate all ozone depleting chemicals from manufacturing processes and to reduce the use of other hazardous materials used to produce the space shuttle reusable solid rocket motors. The team used a classical approach for problem solving combined with a creative synthesis of new approaches to attack this problem. As our ability to gather data on the state of the Earth's environmental health increases, environmentally sound manufacturing must become an integral part of the business decision making process.

  5. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, H; Kruijswijk, Z; Molenaar, D; Kleerebezem, M; van Hylckama Vlieg, J E T

    2009-12-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing protocols are cumbersome. To reduce screening costs, several models have been developed to miniaturize the cheese manufacturing process. However, these models are not able to accommodate the throughputs required for systematic screening programs. Here, we describe a protocol that allows the parallel manufacturing of approximately 600 cheeses in individual cheese vats each with individual process specifications. Protocols for the production of miniaturized Gouda- and Cheddar-type cheeses have been developed. Starting with as little as 1.7 mL of milk, miniature cheeses of about 170 mg can be produced and they closely resemble conventionally produced cheese in terms of acidification profiles, moisture and salt contents, proteolysis, flavor profiles, and microstructure. Flavor profiling of miniature cheeses manufactured with and without mixed-strain adjunct starter cultures allowed the distinguishing of the different cheeses. Moreover, single-strain adjunct starter cultures engineered to overexpress important flavor-related enzymes revealed effects similar to those described in industrial cheese. Benchmarking against industrial cheese produced from the same raw materials established a good correlation between their proteolytic degradation products and their flavor profiles. These miniature cheeses, referred to as microcheeses, open new possibilities to study many aspects of cheese production, which will not only accelerate product development but also allow a more systematic approach to investigate the complex biochemistry and microbiology of cheese making.

  6. Design and manufacturing concepts for thermoplastic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renieri, Michael P.; Burpo, Steven J.; Roundy, Lance M.

    1991-01-01

    Results to date on the application of two manufacturing techniques, fiber placement and single diaphragm/coconsolidation, to produce cost-effective, thermoplastic composite (TPC), primary fuselage structure are presented. Applications relative to fuselage upper cover structure indicate potential cost savings relative to conventional approaches. Progress is also presented on efforts concerned with other design details which take advantage of thermoplastic composites such as fastener less stiffener/frame attachments. In addition, results are presented on the development and verification testing of a composite lug analysis program which incorporates through-the-thickness effects.

  7. Insurance recovery for manufactured gas plant liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, G.S.; Wise, K.T.; Hanser, P.

    1997-04-15

    This article addresses insurance and liability issues arising from former manufactured gas plant sites. Three issues are discussed in detail: (1) how to place a value on a potential insurance recovery or damage award, (2) how to maximize recovery through litigation or settlement, and (3) how to mediate coverage disputes to avoid litigation. The first issue, valuing potential recovery, is discussed in the most detail. An approach is outlined which includes organizing policy data, evaluating site facts relevant to coverage, estimating site costs, estimating coverage likelihoods, and assessing the expected value of litigation. Probability and cost estimate data is provided to aid in assessments.

  8. A CORBA-based manufacturing environment

    SciTech Connect

    Pancerella, C.M.; Whiteside, R.A.; Klevgard, P.A.

    1996-08-01

    A CORBA-based distributed object software system was developed for Sandia`s Agile Manufacturing Testbed (SAMT). This information architecture supports the goals of agile manufacturing: rapid response to changing requirements; small lot machining; reduction in both time and cost of the product realization process; and integration within a heterogeneous, wide-area networked enterprise. Features of the resulting software-controlled manufacturing environment are: (1) Easy plug-and-play of manufacturing devices. (2) Support for both automated and manual operations. (3) Information flow both into and out of manufacturing devices. (4) Dynamic task sequencer. Each of the heterogeneous physical objects (lathe, milling machine, robot arm, etc.) has a corresponding software object that supports a common IDL interface called IDevice. This interface provides operations for material processing, material movement, status monitoring, and other administrative tasks. CORBA objects allow for the encapsulation of a machine tool, its controller, and the network interface to the controller. Both manual and automated operations are supported by the software system. If an IDevice object receives a request for a non-automated operation, it uses an associated Console object to affect the operation by communications with a human machinist. A design goal of the Console object for a machine is to provide an information-intensive environment for the machinist, rather than just the transmittal of instructions to be carried out. In addition to the flow of information into manufacturing devices (e.g., control and NC code), the software architecture supports the easy extraction of data (e.g., sensor data or inspection reports) back out of the machine and into the broader information processing environment The task sequencer object dynamically locates devices, accepts jobs, and dispatches tasks in the manufacturing cell. A job script captures setup operations, material movement, and processing.

  9. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  10. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  11. Accelerated test design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdermott, P. P.

    1980-01-01

    The design of an accelerated life test program for electric batteries is discussed. A number of observations and suggestions on the procedures and objectives for conducting an accelerated life test program are presented. Equations based on nonlinear regression analysis for predicting the accelerated life test parameters are discussed.

  12. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  13. Demystifying the Cost Estimation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obi, Samuel C.

    2010-01-01

    In manufacturing today, nothing is more important than giving a customer a clear and straight-forward accounting of what their money has purchased. Many potentially promising return business orders are lost because of unclear, ambiguous, or improper billing. One of the best ways of resolving cost bargaining conflicts is by providing a…

  14. Manufacturing scale-up of composite fuselage crown panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willden, Kurtis; Gessel, M.; Grant, Carroll G.; Brown, T.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Boeing effort under the NASA ACT program is to reduce manufacturing costs of composite fuselage structure. Materials, fabrication of complex subcomponents and assembly issues are expected to drive the costs of composite fuselage structure. Several manufacturing concepts for the crown section of the fuselage were evaluated through the efforts of a Design Build Team (DBT). A skin-stringer-frame intricate bond design that required no fasteners for the panel assembly was selected for further manufacturing demonstrations. The manufacturing processes selected for the intricate bond design include Advanced Tow Placement (ATP) for multiple skin fabrication, resin transfer molding (RTM) of fuselage frames, innovative cure tooling, and utilization of low-cost material forms. Optimization of these processes for final design/manufacturing configuration was evaluated through the fabrication of several intricate bond panels. Panels up to 7 ft. by 10 ft. in size were fabricated to simulate half scale production parts. The qualitative and quantitative results of these manufacturing demonstrations were used to assess manufacturing risks and technology readiness for production.

  15. How much domestic quick response manufacturing can a business afford?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, Roger D. H.; Warner, Steven B.

    2000-10-01

    Employment in the U.S. apparel industry has declined dramatically since the 1960s. Will it fall inexorably to zero, or is there some base level that can endure? If so, what strategic characteristics are required to survive? There is considerable interest in Quick Response Manufacturing (QRM), not only as a reason to support domestic manufacturing, but also as part of the larger goal of reducing supply chain costs. However, since Domestic Manufacturing is more expensive, why should anyone bother considering it? This paper presents an analytical model of a team approach that includes both domestic and offshore manufacturing. Despite the additional costs associated with U.S. manufacturing, our model predicts that including a domestic contractor is legitimate and cost effective. However, the alliance must be genuinely cooperative. A partnership has to be established early in the retailer's planning cycle, and the manufacturer should participate in the planning. Also, sharing data and making timely decisions imposes a strategic business approach, and the model allows us to describe the characteristic roles and capabilities required. Using this model for guidance, we anticipate that retailers will have the stock to satisfy more customers with fewer markdowns, while manufacturers will see increased margins and lower inventories.

  16. ATS materials/manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Karnitz, M.A.; Wright, I.G.; Ferber, M.K.

    1997-11-01

    The Materials/Manufacturing Technology subelement is a part of the base technology portion of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The work in this subelement is being performed predominantly by industry with assistance from national laboratories and universities. The projects in this subelement are aimed toward hastening the incorporation of new materials and components in gas turbines. Work is currently ongoing on thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), the scale-up of single crystal airfoil manufacturing technologies, materials characterization, and technology information exchange. This paper presents highlights of the activities during the past year. 12 refs., 24 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Computers in manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hudson, C A

    1982-02-12

    Computers are now widely used in product design and in automation of selected areas in factories. Within the next decade, the use of computers in the entire spectrum of manufacturing applications, from computer-aided design to computer-aided manufacturing and robotics, is expected to be practical and economically justified. Such widespread use of computers on the factory floor awaits further advances in computer capabilities, the emergence of systems that are adaptive to the workplace, and the development of interfaces to link islands of automation and to allow effective user communications.

  18. U.S. Wind Energy Manufacturing & Supply Chain: A Competitive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fullenkamp, Patrick

    2014-06-15

    The Global Wind Network (GLWN) assessed the key factors that determine wind energy component manufacturing costs and pricing on a global basis in order to provide a better understanding of the factors that will help enhance the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers, and reduce installed system costs.

  19. Accelerated degradation of silicon metallization systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Clemson University has been engaged for the past five years in a program to determine the reliability attributes of solar cells by means of accelerated test procedures. The cells are electrically measured and visually inspected and then subjected for a period of time to stress in excess of that normally encountered in use, and then they are reinspected. Changes are noted and the process repeated. This testing has thus far involved 23 different unencapsulated cell types from 12 different manufacturers, and 10 different encapsulated cell types from 9 different manufacturers. Reliability attributes of metallization systems can be classified as major or minor, depending on the severity of the effects observed. As a result of the accelerated testing conducted under the Clemson program, major effects have been observed related to contact resistance and to mechanical adherence and solderability. This paper does not attempt a generalized survey of accelerated test results, but rather concentrates on one particular attribute of metallization that has been observed to cause electrical degradation - increased contact resistance due to Schottky barrier formation. In this example basic semiconductor theory was able to provide an understanding of the electrical effects observed during accelerated stress testing.

  20. Sweetener lowers costs

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, T.; Rosenstock, G.

    1983-10-01

    Mericat sweetening was used to get increased capacity needed by debottlenecking the FCCU at the Ruhr Refinery, Deutsche BP. A low conversion cost initiated the decision to adapt an existing copper chloride sweetener to Mericat but operating experience underscores the value of the choice because operating costs have been only 84% of design while anticipated capacity has been exceeded. Consequently, payout was accelerated to only about four months. Design specifications required that Light Cat Cracked Naphtha (LCCN) containing a maximum of 100 ppmw of mercaptan sulfur be sweetened to a maximum of 10 ppmw while caustic carryover sodium content not exceed 5 ppmw and that the sweetened LCCN meet Copper Strip No. 1 rating. Official tests based on runs with two different crude sources resulted in performance as shown in this paper. Operating costs of the copper chloride sweetening system before conversion and the Mericat system after conversion are also shown.

  1. The beam business: Accelerators in industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, Robert W.; Hamm, Marianne E.

    2011-06-15

    Most physicists know that particle accelerators are widely used for treating cancer. But few are acquainted with the depth and breadth of their use in a myriad of applications outside of pure science and medicine. Society benefits from the use of particle beams in the areas of communications, transportation, the environment, security, health, and safety - in terms both of the global economy and quality of life. On the manufacturing level, the use of industrial accelerators has resulted in the faster and cheaper production of better parts for medical devices, automobiles, aircraft, and virtually all modern electronics. Consumers also benefit from the use of accelerators to explore for oil, gas, and minerals; sterilize food, wastewater, and medical supplies; and aid in the development of drugs and biomaterials.

  2. Accelerated stress testing of terrestrial solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Hawkins, D. C.; Prince, J. L.; Walker, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    The development of an accelerated test schedule for terrestrial solar cells is described. This schedule, based on anticipated failure modes deduced from a consideration of IC failure mechanisms, involves bias-temperature testing, humidity testing (including both 85-85 and pressure cooker stress), and thermal-cycle thermal-shock testing. Results are described for 12 different unencapsulated cell types. Both gradual electrical degradation and sudden catastrophic mechanical change were observed. These effects can be used to discriminate between cell types and technologies relative to their reliability attributes. Consideration is given to identifying laboratory failure modes which might lead to severe degradation in the field through second quadrant operation. Test results indicate that the ability of most cell types to withstand accelerated stress testing depends more on the manufacturer's design, processing, and worksmanship than on the particular metallization system. Preliminary tests comparing accelerated test results on encapsulated and unencapsulated cells are described.

  3. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  4. R AND D TOPICS FOR NEUTRINO FACTORY ACCELERATION.

    SciTech Connect

    SCOTT,J.S.

    2007-08-06

    The muons in a neutrino factory must be accelerated from the energy of the capture, phase rotation, and cooling systems (around 120 MeV kinetic energy) to the energy of the storage ring (around 25 GeV). This is done with a sequence of accelerators of different types: a linac, one or more recirculating linear accelerators, and finally one or more fixed field alternating gradient accelerators (FFAGs). I discuss the R&D that is needed to arrive at a complete system which we can have confidence will accelerate the beam and for which we can obtain a cost estimate.

  5. Manufacturing Process Simulation of Large-Scale Cryotanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babai, Majid; Phillips, Steven; Griffin, Brian; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch Initiative (SLI) is an effort to research and develop the technologies needed to build a second-generation reusable launch vehicle. It is required that this new launch vehicle be 100 times safer and 10 times cheaper to operate than current launch vehicles. Part of the SLI includes the development of reusable composite and metallic cryotanks. The size of these reusable tanks is far greater than anything ever developed and exceeds the design limits of current manufacturing tools. Several design and manufacturing approaches have been formulated, but many factors must be weighed during the selection process. Among these factors are tooling reachability, cycle times, feasibility, and facility impacts. The manufacturing process simulation capabilities available at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center have played a key role in down selecting between the various manufacturing approaches. By creating 3-D manufacturing process simulations, the varying approaches can be analyzed in a virtual world before any hardware or infrastructure is built. This analysis can detect and eliminate costly flaws in the various manufacturing approaches. The simulations check for collisions between devices, verify that design limits on joints are not exceeded, and provide cycle times which aid in the development of an optimized process flow. In addition, new ideas and concerns are often raised after seeing the visual representation of a manufacturing process flow. The output of the manufacturing process simulations allows for cost and safety comparisons to be performed between the various manufacturing approaches. This output helps determine which manufacturing process options reach the safety and cost goals of the SLI.

  6. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  7. Summary report of working group 3: Laser and high-gradient structure-based acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andonian, Gerard; Simakov, Evgenya

    2017-03-01

    High-gradient particle acceleration with reduced power demands is essential for miniaturization and cost reduction of future accelerators. Applications for compact accelerators span collider research for High Energy Physics, light source development for Basic Energy Sciences and National Security, and industrial accelerators for Energy and Environmental Applications. Working Group 3 discussed and surveyed the recent advances in achieving higher gradients and better acceleration efficiency in externally powered, structure-based accelerators. The topics covered in Working Group 3 included dielectric laser acceleration, millimeter-wave accelerators, breakdown phenomena, exotic topologies such as photonic band-gap structures, artificial materials, and nanostructures, and novel rf technology.

  8. Laser Consolidation - A Novel One-Step Manufacturing Process for Making Net-Shape Functional Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    addition , this computer-aided manufacturing process provides an excellent opportunity for manufacturing complex parts that are difficult to make by...consolidation process, more unique features can be added to the components to provide additional functionality, reduce manufacturing time and cost...Functional Prototypes IN-625 alloy 316L S.S Stellite 6 alloy LC IN-738 Applications - Manufacturing Complex Net-Shape Parts LC IN-625LC IN-625 Applications

  9. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.; Iyer, N.C.; Louthan, M.R. Jr.

    1994-08-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes the manufacturing technologies evaluated and presents the model for tritium retention in aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy tritium production targets.

  10. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    SciTech Connect

    Peacock, H. B. Jr.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R. Jr.

    1995-09-15

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  11. Materials considerations in accelerator targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, H. B.; Iyer, N. C.; Louthan, M. R.

    1995-09-01

    Future nuclear materials production and/or the burn-up of long lived radioisotopes may be accomplished through the capture of spallation produced neutrons in accelerators. Aluminum clad-lead and/or lead alloys has been proposed as a spallation target. Aluminum was the cladding choice because of the low neutron absorption cross section, fast radioactivity decay, high thermal conductivity, and excellent fabricability. Metallic lead and lead oxide powders were considered for the target core with the fabrication options being casting or powder metallurgy (PM). Scoping tests to evaluate gravity casting, squeeze casting, and casting and swaging processes showed that, based on fabricability and heat transfer considerations, squeeze casting was the preferred option for manufacture of targets with initial core cladding contact. Thousands of aluminum clad aluminum-lithium alloy core targets and control rods for tritium production have been fabricated by coextrusion processes and successfully irradiated in the SRS reactors. Tritium retention in, and release from, the coextruded product was modeled from experimental and operational data. The model assumed that tritium atoms, formed by the 6Li(n,a)3He reaction, were produced in solid solution in the Al-Li alloy. Because of the low solubility of hydrogen isotopes in aluminum alloys, the irradiated Al-Li rapidly became supersaturated in tritium. Newly produced tritium atoms were trapped by lithium atoms to form a lithium tritide. The effective tritium pressure required for trap or tritide stability was the equilibrium decomposition pressure of tritium over a lithium tritide-aluminum mixture. The temperature dependence of tritium release was determined by the permeability of the cladding to tritium and the local equilibrium at the trap sites. The model can be used to calculate tritium release from aluminum clad, aluminum-lithium alloy targets during postulated accelerator operational and accident conditions. This paper describes

  12. 19 CFR 10.814 - Direct costs of processing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., the growth, production, or manufacture of the good in the territory of one or both of the Parties... into a Party, the following: (1) All actual labor costs involved in the growth, production, or... attributable to the good or are not costs of growth, production, or manufacture of the good. These include,...

  13. 19 CFR 10.774 - Direct costs of processing operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., the growth, production, or manufacture of the good in the territory of one or both of the Parties... into a Party, the following: (1) All actual labor costs involved in the growth, production, or... attributable to the good or are not costs of growth, production, or manufacture of the good. These include,...

  14. Rationale for practical medical device accelerated aging programs in AAMI TIR 17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Byron J.; Tang, Fuh-Wei

    2000-03-01

    A Technical Information Report, TIR 17, entitled, "Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification" has been published by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) to provide guidance in order to increase the quality and reduce the cost and amount of time required for performing medical device material qualifications. It contains four sections that cover the fundamentals of material selection, processing, testing and accelerated aging programs. The last of these sections, entitled "Accelerating Aging Programs," provides step-by-step guidance for simple, empirical accelerated programs of use to the medical device industry. The methods are based on van't Hoff's observation that the rate of chemical reactions increases by a factor of two for every 10°C increase in temperature, the Q10=2 rule. With critical patient safety concerns in the medical device industry, it is appropriate for both device manufacturers and regulators to ask if simple, empirical methods such as those outlined in TIR 17 are reasonable and responsible. One reason for confidence in the methods is their success when used in aging environments that are much more severe than those commonly used in the medical device industry. Another reason for confidence in the methods is found from the observation that the working equations of the method can be derived from theory. This paper provides an overview of the thermal accelerated aging theory that forms the basis for the working equations of the accelerated aging programs of TIR 17. Assumptions used are examined and found reasonable; the theoretical foundation is established. While this foundation provides added confidence for the application of the methods of TIR 17 to the medical device industry, it is emphasized that application of the methods within appropriate boundaries is critical. Theoretical boundaries are explained and demonstrated by means of Arrhenius plots, and practical boundaries discussed.

  15. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-31

    manufacturer, now recycle used soda bottles , unusable second quality fabrics and worn out garments into polyester fibers to produce many of their clothes... Recycling .............................. B1-FB7-1 Warehouse Layout Design at Shady Peeps...Analysis and Recommendations .......................................... B1-FB11-1 NextStep Recycling Supply Chain and Ops Analysis and

  16. Manufacturing Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota State Board for Vocational Education, Bismarck.

    This guide provides the basic foundation to develop a one-semester course based on the cluster concept, manufacturing technology. One of a set of six guides for an industrial arts curriculum at the junior high school level, it suggests activities that allow students (1) to become familiar with and use some of the tools, materials, and processes…

  17. Drug development and manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Burrell, Anthony K.

    2015-10-13

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry has been used for detecting binding events and measuring binding selectivities between chemicals and receptors. XRF may also be used for estimating the therapeutic index of a chemical, for estimating the binding selectivity of a chemical versus chemical analogs, for measuring post-translational modifications of proteins, and for drug manufacturing.

  18. Advanced Computing for Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erisman, Albert M.; Neves, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses ways that supercomputers are being used in the manufacturing industry, including the design and production of airplanes and automobiles. Describes problems that need to be solved in the next few years for supercomputers to assume a major role in industry. (TW)

  19. Reusing Old Manufacturing Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an interesting design challenge for students, one that will certainly let them integrate subject matter and get a sense of pride for doing something useful in their own community. The author would be willing to bet that the average town or city has some old red brick manufacturing building(s) that have seen much better days.…

  20. Illinois Manufacturing Technology Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cliffe, Roger; And Others

    This manufacturing technology curriculum involves students in learning problem-solving, communication, team building, quality control, safety, math, science, and technical skills. The document begins with a section on implementation, which gives background information on the purposes and development of the curriculum, explains its rationale,…