Science.gov

Sample records for accelerated cleanup mission

  1. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    This report describes the status of Environmental Management`s (EM`s) cleanup program and a direction forward to complete achievement of the 2006 vision. Achieving the 2006 vision results in significant benefits related to accomplishing EM program objectives. As DOE sites accelerate cleanup activities, risks to public health, the environment, and worker safety and health are all reduced. Finding more efficient ways to conduct work can result in making compliance with applicable environmental requirements easier to achieve. Finally, as cleanup activities at sites are completed, the EM program can focus attention and resources on the small number of sites with more complex cleanup challenges. Chapter 1 describes the process by which this report has been developed and what it hopes to accomplish, its relationship to the EM decision-making process, and a general background of the EM mission and program. Chapter 2 describes how the site-by-site projections were constructed, and summarizes, for each of DOE`s 11 Operations/Field Offices, the projected costs and schedules for completing the cleanup mission. Chapter 3 presents summaries of the detailed cleanup projections from three of the 11 Operations/Field Offices: Rocky Flats (Colorado), Richland (Washington), and Savannah River (South Carolina). The remaining eight Operations/Field Office summaries are in Appendix E. Chapter 4 reviews the cost drivers, budgetary constraints, and performance enhancements underlying the detailed analysis of the 353 projects that comprise EM`s accelerated cleanup and closure effort. Chapter 5 describes a management system to support the EM program. Chapter 6 provides responses to the general comments received on the February draft of this document.

  2. Accelerating cleanup: Paths to closure

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, C.

    1998-06-30

    This document was previously referred to as the Draft 2006 Plan. As part of the DOE`s national strategy, the Richland Operations Office`s Paths to Closure summarizes an integrated path forward for environmental cleanup at the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site underwent a concerted effort between 1994 and 1996 to accelerate the cleanup of the Site. These efforts are reflected in the current Site Baseline. This document describes the current Site Baseline and suggests strategies for further improvements in scope, schedule and cost. The Environmental Management program decided to change the name of the draft strategy and the document describing it in response to a series of stakeholder concerns, including the practicality of achieving widespread cleanup by 2006. Also, EM was concerned that calling the document a plan could be misconstrued to be a proposal by DOE or a decision-making document. The change in name, however, does not diminish the 2006 vision. To that end, Paths to Closure retains a focus on 2006, which serves as a point in time around which objectives and goals are established.

  3. Accelerated cleanup Initiatives Putting the Acceleration Plans into Action

    SciTech Connect

    TYREE, G.T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes project successes during the last year and presents strategies for accomplishing work required to accelerate waste retrieval, treatment and closure of 177 large underground waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The tanks contain approximately 53 million gallons of liquid, sludge, and solid waste resulting from decades of national defense production. The Hanford Site is a 560 square-mile area in southeastern Washington State. One of the nation's largest rivers, the Columbia River, flows through the site and within seven miles of the waste tanks. The US. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection and CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CH2M HILL) drew upon the recommendations in the DOE's Top-To-Bottom Review and the ideas that emerged from the Cleanup Challenges and Constraints Team (C3T) when creating new initiatives last fall in accelerated tank cleanup. The initiatives reflect discussions and planning during the last year by the DOE, regulatory,agencies, Hanford stakeholders, and CH2M HILL on how to accelerate tank cleanup and closure. The initiatives focus on near-term risk reduction, deployment of proven cleanup technologies, and completing the feed delivery and waste storage systems needed to support Hanford's Waste Treatment Plant. Working with the Office of River Protection, CH2M HILL is changing the way it does business to align with the new focus on accelerated tank cleanup initiatives. A key concept of this new approach is to deploy simple, proven technologies whenever possible to accomplish program goals. Finding existing technologies and evaluating whether they can be applied to or adapted to Hanford tank cleanup provide the best chance for success in achieving treatment of all of Hanford's tank waste by 2028.

  4. Colorado and the Accelerated Cleanup at Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Spreng, C.

    2007-07-01

    When the Rocky Flats closure project was declared complete in October 2005, it was the largest environmental cleanup to date. Even more impressive, it was ahead of schedule and well under budget. Several factors combined to produce this success including a performance-based contract with financial incentives, development and application of innovative technologies, and a regulator-backed accelerated approach to the cleanup process. The factor in this success in which the State of Colorado had the largest role was in developing and enforcing the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement. In compliance with this agreement, cleanup was accomplished by means of multiple interim actions that led to a comprehensive final decision at the end. A key element that allowed the accelerated cleanup was constant consultation among DOE, its contractor, and the regulators plus collaboration with stakeholders. (authors)

  5. Recent trends at the state and federal level in accelerating CERCLA clean-ups

    SciTech Connect

    Clegg, B.

    1996-12-31

    Efforts at accelerating remedial action at the federal level focus on the following: the Superfund accelerated clean-up model (SCAM); Brownfields economic redevelopment initiative; guidance documents and policies; and collaboration with state voluntary cleanup programs. At the state level efforts involved in accelerating clean-ups include voluntary clean-up programs and Brownfields initiatives.

  6. Accelerating Cleanup: Focus on 2006. Discussion draft

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    This executive summary addresses the activities associated with the National Transuranic (TRU) Program managed by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). The CAO programmatically reports to the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management and receives administrative support through the Albuquerque Operations Office. The mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for site disposal of TRU waste and by establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. It includes personnel assigned to the CAO, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site operations, and other activities associated with the National TRU Program. The CAO develops and directs implementation of the program, while the DOE Headquarters establishes policy and guidelines. The CAO assesses compliance with the program guidance, as well as the commonality of activities and assumptions among all the sites. Since the development of the February 28, 1997, database used to develop this Discussion Draft, the opening of the WIPP facility for receipt of Contact Handled waste has been delayed from November 1997 to May 1998. This slippage is significant enough to require a change in the milestones and volumes included in the documents to be reviewed by our stakeholders. Changes have been incorporated into this Discussion Draft and its supporting Project Baseline Summaries (PBSs).

  7. Development and Use of Life-Cycle Analysis Capabilites To Evaluate, Select, and Implement Plans to Accelerate Hanford Site Cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, Michael R.; Johnson, Wayne L.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2004-02-28

    Over the past year the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has made significant progress in developing and executing plans to transform and accelerate cleanup of the Hanford Site. Notable progress has been in the cleanup of the River Corridor, including the relocation of spent nuclear fuel to the Central Plateau, and the stabilization of plutonium materials. However, difficult work still remains. DOE has already accelerated the completion of the Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission from 2070 to 2035 and believes its completion can be achieved even sooner by reducing excess conservatism, substantively changing technical strategy and management approach, and making new front-end investments. Work is well under way in the detailed planning, analyses and decision making required to implement and support the execution of the accelerated cleanup program at Hanford. Various cleanup, contract, and regulatory approaches are being explored. DOE has instituted a process that allows DOE to efficiently explore and test alternative cleanup approaches using a life-cycle model. This paper provides a means to share the planning approach and the life-cycle modeling and analysis tools used with other sites and interested parties. This paper will be of particular interest to analysts performing similar planning and evaluations at other sites as well as provide insight into the current status of Hanford’s cleanup program and DOE’s plans for the future.

  8. The strategic planning initiative for accelerated cleanup of Rocky Flats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.; Timm, C.; Corrigan, W.

    1994-12-31

    The difficulties associated with the congressional funding cycles, regulatory redirection, remediation schedule deadlines, and the lack of a mixed waste (MW) repository have adversely impacted the environmental restoration (ER) program across the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex including Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). In an effort to counteract and reduce the impacts of these difficulties, RFP management saw the need for developing a revised ER Program. The objective of the revised ER approach is to identify an initiative that would accelerate the cleanup process and reduce costs without compromising either protection of human health or the environment. A special analysis with that assigned objective was initiated in June 1993 using a team that included DOE Headquarters and Rocky Flats Field Office (RFFO), EG&G personnel, and experts from nationally recognized ER firms. The analysis relied on recent regulatory and process innovations such as DOE`s Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) and EPA`s Superfund Accelerated Cleanup Model (SACM) and Corrective Action Management Units (CAMU). The analysis also incorporated other ongoing improvements efforts initiated by RFP, such as the Quality Action Team and the Integrated Planning Process.

  9. Systems engineering functions and requirements for the Hanford cleanup mission. First issue, Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    This addendum provides the technical detail of a systems engineering functional analysis for the Hanford cleanup mission. Details of the mission analysis including mission statement, scope, problem statement, initial state definition, and final state definition are provided in the parent document. The functional analysis consists of Input Computer Automated Manufacturing Definition (IDEFO) diagrams an definitions, which will be understood by systems engineers, but which may be difficult for others to comprehend. For a more complete explanation of this work, refer to the parent document. The analysis covers the total Hanford cleanup mission including the decomposition levels at which the various Hanford programs or integrated activities are encountered.

  10. Systems engineering product description report for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First issue

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.J.; Bailey, K.B.; Collings, J.L.; Hubbard, A.B.; Niepke, T.M.

    1994-06-01

    This document describes the upper level physical and administrative (nonphysical) products that, when delivered, complete the Hanford Cleanup Mission. Development of product descriptions is a continuation of the Sitewide Systems Engineering work described in the Sitewide functional analysis, the architecture synthesis, and is consistent with guidance contained in the mission plan. This document provides a bridge between all three documents and the products required to complete the mission of cleaning up the Hanford Site.

  11. Systems engineering functions and requirements for the Hanford cleanup mission: First issue. Addendum 3, Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.J.; Bailey, K.B.; Collings, J.L.; Hubbard, A.B.; Niepke, T.M.

    1994-05-01

    This addendum provides additional information, in the form of Functional Flow Block Diagrams (FFBD), concerning the system engineering functional analysis for the Hanford cleanup mission. Details of the mission analysis including mission statement, scope, problem statement, initial state definition, and final state definition are provided in the parent document. The results of the functional analysis as depicted in Integrated Definition language notation (IDEFO) diagrams are provided in Addendum 2 to the parent document. The FFBDs provided herein cover the total Hanford cleanup mission and depict the decomposition of functions to a reasonable level for understanding (generally level 3 or 4). Functional definitions are contained in Section 3.0 of Addendum 2 to the parent document. Specific programs such as the Tank Waste Remediation System and Environmental Restoration, whose IDEFO diagrams were presented as part of their specific baseline documentation and not included in Addendum 2, have their FFBDs included in this addendum. The information contained in this addendum will remain tied to the overall Hanford cleanup mission through the top-level (``Capstone``) functional analysis so that a complete, top-to-bottom functional documentation set always exists for all mission activities. This linkage is accomplished through the use of the Requirements Driven Design (RDD-100{reg_sign}) design tool. Through the use of RDD-100{reg_sign}, this addendum supports and is traceable to the information presented in Addendum 2 to the parent document.

  12. A remediation contractor`s view of accelerating the cleanup process

    SciTech Connect

    Librizzi, W.J.; Phelps, G.S.

    1994-12-31

    Superfund, since its passage in December, 1980, has been under continual evaluation and change. Progress has been made over the past 13 years. To date, EPA under Superfund has completed 220 long term cleanups with 1,100 in various stages of completion. In addition, Superfund has been a catalyst for the development of new innovative cleanup technologies. In this regard, EPA has identified more than 150 innovative technologies now being used to treat contaminated soil, groundwater, sludge and sediments. Despite these noted accomplishments, continued criticisms of the program focus on Superfund weaknesses. They include: inconsistent cleanups; high transactional costs; perceived unfairness in liability; overlapping federal/state relationship; Inadequate community involvement; impediments to economic development. Techniques that can accelerate the hazardous waste cleanup process are discussed further in this paper. They include: strengthened interrelationships between the design and remediation contractors; role of the remediation contractor in the implementation of presumptive remedies; a proactive community relations program, partnering and early and frequent interface with regulatory agencies.

  13. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  14. Economic impact of accelerated cleanup on regions surrounding the U.S. DOE's major nuclear weapons sites.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M; Solitare, L; Frisch, M; Lowrie, K

    1999-08-01

    The regional economic impacts of the U.S. Department of Energy's accelerated environmental cleanup plan are estimated for the major nuclear weapons sites in Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Washington. The analysis shows that the impact falls heavily on the three relatively rural regions around the Savannah River (SC), Hanford (WA), and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (ID) sites. A less aggressive phase-down of environmental management funds and separate funds to invest in education and infrastructure in the regions helps buffer the impacts on jobs, personal income, and gross regional product. Policy options open to the federal and state and local governments are discussed.

  15. Space acceleration measurement system description and operations on the First Spacelab Life Sciences Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; Finley, Brian D.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) project and flight units are briefly described. The SAMS operations during the STS-40 mission are summarized, and a preliminary look at some of the acceleration data from that mission are provided. The background and rationale for the SAMS project is described to better illustrate its goals. The functions and capabilities of each SAMS flight unit are first explained, then the STS-40 mission, the SAMS's function for that mission, and the preparation of the SAMS are described. Observations about the SAMS operations during the first SAMS mission are then discussed. Some sample data are presented illustrating several aspects of the mission's microgravity environment.

  16. DOE Hanford Network Upgrades and Disaster Recovery Exercise Support the Cleanup Mission Now and into the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Eckman, Todd J.; Hertzel, Ali K.; Lane, James J.

    2013-11-07

    and data. The primary objective of the exercise was to test COOP around the emergency operations at Hanford to provide information on capabilities and dependencies of the current system to insure improved focus of emergency, safety and security capacity in a disaster situation. The integration of the DR test into the ET-50 project allowed the testing of COOP at Hanford and allowed the lessons learned to be defined. These lessons learned have helped improve the understanding of Hanford's COOP capabilities and will be critical for future planning. With the completion of the Hanford Federal Cloud network upgrades and the disaster recovery exercise, the MSA has a clearer path forward for future technology implementations as well as network improvements to help shape the usability and reliability of the Hanford network in support of the cleanup mission.

  17. Accelerated Clean-up of the United States Department of Energy, Mound Nuclear Weapons Facility in Miamisburg, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Lehew, J.G.; Bradford, J.D.; Cabbil, C.C.

    2006-07-01

    CH2M HILL is executing a performance-based contract with the United States Department of Energy to accelerate the safe closure of the nuclear facilities at the former Mound plant in Miamisburg, Ohio. The contract started in January 2003 with a target completion date of March 31, 2006. Our accelerated baseline targets completion of the project 2 years ahead of the previous baseline schedule, by spring 2006, and for $200 million less than previous estimates. This unique decommissioning and remediation project is located within the City of Miamisburg proper and is designed for transfer of the property to the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation for industrial reuse. The project is being performed with the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation and their tenants co-located on the site creating significant logistical, safety and stakeholder challenges. The project is also being performed in conjunction with the United States Department of Energy, United States Environmental Protection Agency, and the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency under the Mound 2000 regulatory cleanup process. The project is currently over 95% complete. To achieve cleanup and closure of the Mound site, CH2M HILL's scope includes: - Demolition of 64 nuclear, radiological and commercial facilities - Preparation for Transfer of 9 facilities (including a Category 2 nuclear facility) to the Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation for industrial reuse - Removal of all above ground utility structures and components, and preparation for transfer of 9 utility systems to Miamisburg Mound Community Improvement Corporation - Investigation, remediation, closure, and documentation of all known Potential Release Sites contaminated with radiological and chemical contamination (73 identified in original contract) - Storage, characterization, processing, packaging and shipment of all waste and excess nuclear materials - Preparation for Transfer of the 306 acre site to the

  18. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-78. Launched June 20, 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakimzadeh, Roshanak; Hrovat, Kenneth; McPherson, Kevin M.; Moskowitz, Milton E.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1997-01-01

    The microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Columbia was measured during the STS-78 mission using accelerometers from three different instruments: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment, the Space Acceleration Measurement System and the Microgravity Measurement Assembly. The quasi-steady environment was also calculated in near real-time during the mission by the Microgravity Analysis Workstation. The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment provided investigators with real-time quasi-steady acceleration measurements. The Space Acceleration Measurement System recorded higher frequency data on-board for post-mission analysis. The Microgravity Measurement Assembly provided investigators with real-time quasi-steady and higher frequency acceleration measurements. The Microgravity Analysis Workstation provided calculation of the quasi-steady environment. This calculation was presented to the science teams in real-time during the mission. The microgravity environment related to several different Orbiter, crew and experiment operations is presented and interpreted in this report. A radiator deploy, the Flight Control System checkout, and a vernier reaction control system reboost demonstration had minimal effects on the acceleration environment, with excitation of frequencies in the 0.01 to 10 Hz range. Flash Evaporator System venting had no noticeable effect on the environment while supply and waste water dumps caused excursions of 2 x lO(exp -6) to 4 x 10(exp -6) g in the Y(sub b) and Z(sub b) directions. Crew sleep and ergometer exercise periods can be clearly seen in the acceleration data, as expected. Accelerations related to the two Life Science Laboratory Equipment Refrigerator/Freezers were apparent in the data as are accelerations caused by the Johnson Space Center Projects Centrifuge. As on previous microgravity missions, several signals are present in the acceleration data for which a source has not been identified. The causes of these accelerations

  19. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurement for STS-87, Launched November 19, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Hrovat, Kenneth; McPherson, Kevin; DeLombard, Richard; Reckart, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    Two accelerometer systems, the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment and the Space Acceleration Measurement System, were used to measure and record the microgravity environment of the Orbiter Columbia during the STS-87 mission in November-December 1997. Data from two separate Space Acceleration Measurement System units were telemetered to the ground during the mission and data plots were displayed for investigators of the Fourth United States Microgravity Payload experiments in near real-time using the World Wide Web. Plots generated using Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment data (telemetered to the ground using a tape delay) were provided to the investigators using the World Wide Web approximately twelve hours after data recording. Disturbances in the microgravity environment as recorded by these instruments are grouped by source type: Orbiter systems, on-board activities, payload operations, and unknown sources. The environment related to the Ku-band antenna dither, Orbiter structural modes, attitude deadband collapses, water dump operations, crew sleep, and crew exercise was comparable to the effects of these sources on previous Orbiter missions. Disturbances related to operations of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment and Space Acceleration Measurement Systems that were not observed on previous missions are detailed. The effects of Orbiter cabin and airlock depressurization and extravehicular activities are also reported for the first time. A set of data plots representing the entire mission is included in the CD-ROM version of this report.

  20. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurement for STS-87: Launched November 19, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Hrovat, Kenneth; McPherson, Kevin; DeLombard, Richard; Reckart, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    Two accelerometer systems, the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment and the Space Acceleration Measurement System, were used to measure and record the microgravity environment of the Orbiter Columbia during the STS-87 mission in November-December 1997. Data from two separate Space Acceleration Measurement System units were telemetered to the ground during the mission and data plots were displayed for investigators of the Fourth United States Microgravity Payload experiments in near real-time using the World Wide Web. Plots generated using Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment data (telemetered to the ground using a tape delay) were provided to the investigators using the World Wide Web approximately twelve hours after data recording. Disturbances in the microgravity environment as recorded by these instruments are grouped by source type: Orbiter systems, on-board activities, payload operations, and unknown sources. The environment related to the Ku-band antenna dither, Orbiter structural modes, attitude deadband collapses, water dump operations, crew sleep, and crew exercise was comparable to the effects of these sources on previous Orbiter missions. Disturbances related to operations of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment and Space Acceleration Measurement Systems that were not observed on previous missions are detailed. The effects of Orbiter cabin and airlock depressurization and extravehicular activities are also reported for the first time. A set of data plots representing the entire mission is included in the CD-ROM version of this report.

  1. Impact of Interstellar Vehicle Acceleration and Cruise Velocity on Total Mission Mass and Trip Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    Far-term interstellar missions, like their near-term solar system exploration counterparts, seek to minimize overall mission trip time and transportation system mass. Trip time is especially important in interstellar missions because of the enormous distances between stars and the finite limit of the speed of light (c). In this paper, we investigate the impact of vehicle acceleration and maximum or cruise velocity (Vcruise) on the total mission trip time. We also consider the impact that acceleration has on the transportation system mass (M) and power (P) (e.g., acceleration approx. power/mass and mass approx. power), as well as the impact that the cruise velocity has on the vehicle mass (e.g., the total mission change in velocity ((Delta)V) approx. Vcruise). For example, a Matter-Antimatter Annihilation Rocket's wet mass (Mwet) with propellant (Mp) will be a function of the dry mass of the vehicle (Mdry) and (Delta)V through the Rocket Equation. Similarly, a laser-driven LightSail's sail mass and laser power and mass will be a function of acceleration, Vcruise, and power-beaming distance (because of the need to focus the laser beam over interstellar distances).

  2. Solar Particle Acceleration Radiation and Kinetics (SPARK). A mission to understand the nature of particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Sarah A.; Williams, David R.; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Kontar, Eduard P.; Smith, David M.; Lagg, Andreas; Krucker, Sam; Hurford, Gordon J.; Vilmer, Nicole; MacKinnon, Alexander L.; Zharkova, Valentina V.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hannah, Iain G.; Browning, Philippa K.; Innes, Davina E.; Trottet, Gerard; Foullon, Clare; Nakariakov, Valery M.; Green, Lucie M.; Lamoureux, Herve; Forsyth, Colin; Walton, David M.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis; Gandorfer, Achim; Martinez-Pillet, Valentin; Limousin, Olivier; Verwichte, Erwin; Dalla, Silvia; Mann, Gottfried; Aurass, Henri; Neukirch, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Energetic particles are critical components of plasma populations found throughout the universe. In many cases particles are accelerated to relativistic energies and represent a substantial fraction of the total energy of the system, thus requiring extremely efficient acceleration processes. The production of accelerated particles also appears coupled to magnetic field evolution in astrophysical plasmas through the turbulent magnetic fields produced by diffusive shock acceleration. Particle acceleration is thus a key component in helping to understand the origin and evolution of magnetic structures in, e.g. galaxies. The proximity of the Sun and the range of high-resolution diagnostics available within the solar atmosphere offers unique opportunities to study the processes involved in particle acceleration through the use of a combination of remote sensing observations of the radiative signatures of accelerated particles, and of their plasma and magnetic environment. The SPARK concept targets the broad range of energy, spatial and temporal scales over which particle acceleration occurs in the solar atmosphere, in order to determine how and where energetic particles are accelerated. SPARK combines highly complementary imaging and spectroscopic observations of radiation from energetic electrons, protons and ions set in their plasma and magnetic context. The payload comprises focusing-optics X-ray imaging covering the range from 1 to 60 keV; indirect HXR imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 200 keV, γ-ray spectroscopic imaging with high-resolution LaBr3 scintillators, and photometry and source localisation at far-infrared wavelengths. The plasma environment of the regions of acceleration and interaction will be probed using soft X-ray imaging of the corona and vector magnetography of the photosphere and chromosphere. SPARK is designed for solar research. However, in addition it will be able to provide exciting new insights into the origin of particle acceleration in

  3. Electron studies of acceleration processes in the corona. [solar probe mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    The solar probe mission can obtain unique and crucially important measurements of electron acceleration, storage, and propagation processes in the corona and can probe the magnetic field structure of the corona below the spacecraft. The various energetic electron phenomena which will be sampled by the Solar Probe are described and some new techniques to probe coronal structures are suggested.

  4. Summary report of mission acceleration measurements for Spacehab-01, STS-57 launched 21 June 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finley, Brian; Grodsinsky, Carlos; Delombard, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The maiden voyage of the commercial Spacehab laboratory module onboard the STS-57 mission was integrated with several accelerometer packages, one of which was the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS). The June 21st 1993, launch was the seventh successful mission for the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Application's (OLMSA) SAMS unit. This flight was also complemented by a second accelerometer system. The Three Dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer (3-DMA), a Code C funded acceleration measurement system, offering an on-orbit residual calibration as a reference for the unit's four triaxial accelerometers. The SAMS accelerometer unit utilized three remote triaxial sensor heads mounted on the forward Spacehab module bulkhead and on one centrally located experiment locker door. These triaxial heads had filter cut-offs set to 5, 50, and 1000 Hz. The mission also included other experiment specific accelerometer packages in various locations.

  5. Summary report of mission acceleration measurements for Spacehab-01, STS-57 launched 21 June 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, Brian; Grodsinsky, Carlos; Delombard, Richard

    1994-03-01

    The maiden voyage of the commercial Spacehab laboratory module onboard the STS-57 mission was integrated with several accelerometer packages, one of which was the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS). The June 21st 1993, launch was the seventh successful mission for the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Application's (OLMSA) SAMS unit. This flight was also complemented by a second accelerometer system. The Three Dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer (3-DMA), a Code C funded acceleration measurement system, offering an on-orbit residual calibration as a reference for the unit's four triaxial accelerometers. The SAMS accelerometer unit utilized three remote triaxial sensor heads mounted on the forward Spacehab module bulkhead and on one centrally located experiment locker door. These triaxial heads had filter cut-offs set to 5, 50, and 1000 Hz. The mission also included other experiment specific accelerometer packages in various locations.

  6. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-65, Launched 8 July 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Delombard, Richard

    1995-01-01

    The second flight of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) payload on board the STS-65 mission was supported by three accelerometer instruments: The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) located close to the orbiter center of mass; the Quasi-Steady Acceleration Measurement experiment, and the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), both in the Spacelab module. A fourth accelerometer, the Microgravity Measuring Device recorded data in the middeck in support of exercise isolation tests.Data collected by OARE and SAMS during IML-2 are displayed in this report. The OARE data represent the microgravity environment below 1 Hz. The SAMS data represent the environment in the 0.01 Hz to 100 Hz range. Variations in the environment caused by unique activities are presented. Specific events addressed are: crew activity, crew exercise, experiment component mixing activities, experiment centrifuge operations, refrigerator/freezer operations and circulation pump operations. The analyses included in this report complement analyses presented in other mission summary reports.

  7. Summary report of mission acceleration measurements for STS-60, SPACEHAB2, launched 11 February 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Delombard, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The STS-60 mission, which launched on 11 February 1994, carried seven accelerometer systems. This report describes the configuration of each of these systems, where they were located on the Orbiter and the name of a contact person for each system. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) was one of the accelerometer systems on-board and this mission marked its eighth successful flight. Acceleration data are provided here for SAMS which flew under an agreement between the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications division and the NASA office of Advanced Concepts and Technology. Acceleration data for the other accelerometer systems are not presented here. SAMS was located in the commercial SPACEHAB laboratory, on its second flight. The SAMS system was configured with three triaxial sensor heads with filter cut-offs of 5, 10, and 50 Hz. The acceleration environment related to an experiment centrifuge, an experiment refrigerator freezer unit, a SAMS sensor head rotation, an Orbiter shudder, and payload deploy activities are discussed. In the Appendices, all of the data from SAMS Head B (10 Hz) are plotted to provide an overview of the environment during the majority of the STS-60 mission. An evaluation form is included at the end of the report to solicit users' comments about the usefulness of this series of reports.

  8. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-73, Launched October 20, 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; DeLombard, Richard

    1996-01-01

    The microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Columbia was measured during the STS-73 mission using accelerometers from five different instruments: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment, the Space Acceleration Measurement System, the Three-dimensional Microgravity Accelerometer, the Microgravity Measuring Device, and Suppression of Transient Accelerations by Levitation Evaluation System. The Microgravity Analysis Workstation quasi-steady environment calculation and comparison of this calculation with Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment data was used to assess how appropriate a planned attitude was expected to be for one Crystal Growth Facility experiment sample. The microgravity environment related to several different Orbiter, crew, and experiment operations is presented and interpreted in this report. Data are examined to show the effects of vernier reaction control system jet firings for Orbiter attitude control. This is compared to examples of data when no thrusters were firing, when the primary reaction control system jets were used for attitude control, and when single vernier jets were fired for test purposes. In general, vernier jets, when used for attitude control, cause accelerations in the 3 x 10(exp -4) g to 7 x 10(exp -4) g range. Primary jets used in this manner cause accelerations in the 0.01 to 0.025 g range. Other significant disturbance sources characterized are water dump operations, with Y(sub b) axis acceleration deviations of about 1 x 10(exp -6) g; payload bay door opening motion, with Y(sub o) and Z(sub o) axis accelerations of frequency 0.4 Hz; and probable Glovebox fan operations with notable frequency components at 20, 38, 43, 48, and 53 Hz. The STS-73 microgravity environment is comparable to the environments measured on earlier microgravity science missions.

  9. Mission Assessment of the Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2008-01-01

    Pulsed inductive thrusters have typically been considered for future, high-power, missions requiring nuclear electric propulsion. These high-power systems, while promising equivalent or improved performance over state-of-the-art propulsion systems, presently have no planned missions for which they are well suited. The ability to efficiently operate an inductive thruster at lower energy and power levels may provide inductive thrusters near term applicability and mission pull. The Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge concept demonstrated potential for a high-efficiency, low-energy pulsed inductive thruster. The added benefits of energy recapture and/or pulse compression are shown to enhance the performance of the pulsed inductive propulsion system, yielding a system that con compete with and potentially outperform current state-of-the-art electric propulsion technologies. These enhancements lead to mission-level benefits associated with the use of a pulsed inductive thruster. Analyses of low-power near to mid-term missions and higher power far-term missions are undertaken to compare the performance of pulsed inductive thrusters with that delivered by state-of-the-art and development-level electric propulsion systems.

  10. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-89: Launched January 22, 1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrovat, Kenneth; McPherson, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Support of microgravity research on the 89th flight of the Space Transportation System (STS-89) and a continued effort to characterize the acceleration environment of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and the Mir Space Station form the basis for this report. For the STS-89 mission, the Space Shuttle Endeavour was equipped with a Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) unit, which collected more than a week's worth of data. During docked operations with Mir, a second SAMS unit collected approximately a day's worth of data yielding the only set of acceleration measurements recorded simultaneously on the two spacecraft. Based on the data acquired by these SAMS units, this report serves to characterize a number of acceleration events and quantify their impact on the local nature of the accelerations experienced at the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment location. Crew activity was shown to nearly double the median root-mean-square (RMS) acceleration level calculated below 10 Hz, while the Enhanced Orbiter Refrigerator/Freezer operating at about 22 Hz was a strong acceleration source in the vicinity of the MGM location. The MGM science requirement that the acceleration not exceed q I mg was violated numerous times during their experiment runs; however, no correlation with sample instability has been found to this point. Synchronization between the SAMS data from Endeavour and from Mir was shown to be close much of the time, but caution with respect to exact timing should be exercised when comparing these data. When orbiting as a separate vehicle prior to docking, Endeavour had prominent structural modes above 3 Hz, while Mir exhibited a cluster of modes around 1 Hz. When mated, a transition to common modes was apparent in the two SAMS data sets. This report is not a comprehensive analysis of the acceleration data, so those interested in further details should contact the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services team at the National Aeronautics and Space

  11. Recommendation for Supplemental Technologies for Hanford River Protection Project Potential Mission Acceleration (RPP-11838)

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D. I.; Raymond, R. E.; CH2M Hill Hanford Group; Brouns, T. M.; Choho, A. F.; Numatec Hanford Corporation; Mauss, B. M.

    2003-02-26

    In May of 2002, the River Protection Project at Hanford proposed as part of the accelerated cleanup for the entire Hanford Site to ''accelerate waste stabilization by developing and deploying alternative treatment and immobilization solutions that are aligned with the waste characteristics to add assurance that overall waste treatment/immobilization will be completed 20 or more years sooner.'' This paper addresses one of these elements: development of recommendations for the supplemental technologies that have the greatest potential to supplement the River Protection Project's new Waste Treatment Plant throughput and achieve completion of waste processing by 2028. Low-activity waste treatment in the Waste Treatment Plant needs either to be enhanced or supplemented to enable the full amount of low-activity feed in the single-shell and double-shell tanks to be processed by 2028. The supplemental technologies are considered for low-activity waste feed that represents the maximum effectiveness of treatment compared with Waste Treatment Plant processing. During the Spring of 2002, over two dozen candidate technologies were assessed by staff from the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Hanford Office of River Protection, representatives from the Washington State Department of Ecology and Region 10 of the Environmental Protection Agency, staff from many national laboratories, as well as contractor and independent experts.

  12. High Voltage Hall Accelerator Propulsion System Development for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Mathers, Alex

    2013-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorates In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.8 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn Research Center and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the HiVHAc engineering development unit thruster have been performed. In addition, the HiVHAc project is also pursuing the development of a power processing unit (PPU) and xenon feed system (XFS) for integration with the HiVHAc engineering development unit thruster. Colorado Power Electronics and NASA Glenn Research Center have tested a brassboard PPU for more than 1,500 hours in a vacuum environment, and a new brassboard and engineering model PPU units are under development. VACCO Industries developed a xenon flow control module which has undergone qualification testing and will be integrated with the HiVHAc thruster extended duration tests. Finally, recent mission studies have shown that the HiVHAc propulsion system has sufficient performance for four Discovery- and two New Frontiers-class NASA design reference missions.

  13. High voltage hall accelerator propulsion system development for NASA science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Dankanich, John; Mathers, Alex

    NASA Science Mission Directorate's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.8 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn Research Center and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the HiVHAc engineering development unit thruster have been performed. In addition, the HiVHAc project is also pursuing the development of a power processing unit (PPU) and xenon feed system for integration with the HiVHAc engineering development unit thruster. Colorado Power Electronics and NASA Glenn Research Center have tested a brassboard PPU for more than 1,500 hours in a vacuum environment, and a new brassboard and engineering model PPU units are under development. VACCO Industries developed a xenon flow control module which has undergone qualification testing and will be integrated with the HiVHAc thruster extended duration tests. Finally, recent mission studies have shown that the HiVHAc propulsion system has sufficient performance for four Discovery- and two New Frontiers-class NASA design reference missions.

  14. Summary Report of mission acceleration measurements for STS-66. Launched November 3, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Delombard, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Experiments flown in the middeck of Atlantis during the STS-66 mission were supported by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS). In particular, the three triaxial SAMS sensor heads collected data in support of protein crystal growth experiments. Data collected during STS-66 are reviewed in this report. The STS-66 SAMS data represent the microgravity environment in the 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz range. Variations in the environment related to differing levels of crew activity are discussed in the report. A comparison is made among times when the crew was quiet during a public affairs conference, working quietly, and exercising. These levels of activity are also compared to levels recorded by a SAMS unit in the Spacelab on Columbia during the STS-65 mission.

  15. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-79. Launched 16 Sep. 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Moskowitz, Milton E.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Reckart, Timothy A.

    1997-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) collected acceleration data in support of the Mechanics of Granular Materials experiment during the STS-79 Mir docking mission, September 1996. STS-79 was the first opportunity to record SAMS data on an Orbiter while it was docked to Mir. Crew exercise activities in the Atlantis middeck and the Mir base module are apparent in the data. The acceleration signals related to the Enhanced Orbiter Refrigerator Freezer had different characteristics when comparing the data recorded on Atlantis on STS-79 with the data recorded on Mir during STS-74. This is probably due, at least in part, to different transmission paths and SAMS sensor head mounting mechanisms. Data collected on Atlantis during the STS-79 docking indicate that accelerations due to vehicle and solar array structural modes from Mir transfer to Atlantis and that the structural modes of the Atlantis-Mir complex are different from those of either vehicle independently. A 0.18 Hz component of the SAMS data, present while the two vehicles were docked, was probably caused by the Mir solar arrays. Compared to Atlantis structural modes of about 3.9 and 4.9 Hz, the Atlantis-Mir complex has structural components of about 4.5 and 5.1 Hz. After docking, apparent structural modes appeared in the data at about 0.8 and 1.8 Hz. The appearance, disappearance, and change in the structural modes during the docking and undocking phases of the joint Atlantis-Mir operations indicates that the structural modes of the two spacecraft have an effect on the microgravity environment of each other. The transfer of structural and equipment related accelerations between vehicles is something that should be considered in the International Space Station era.

  16. Achieving Accelerated Cleanup of Cesium Contaminated Stream at the Savannah River Site; Collaboration between Stakeholders, Regulators, and the Federal Government - 13182

    SciTech Connect

    Bergren, Chris; Flora, Mary; Socha, Ron; Burch, Joseph; Freeman, Candice; Hennessey, Brian

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy (US DOE) nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina that contains six primary stream/river systems. The Lower Three Runs Stream (LTR) is one of the primary streams within the site that is located in the southeast portion of the Savannah River Site and is a large black water stream system that originates in the northeast portion of SRS and follows a southerly direction before it enters the Savannah River. During reactor operations, secondary reactor cooling water, storm sewer discharges, and miscellaneous wastewater was discharged and contaminated a 36 kilometer stretch of Lower Three Runs Stream that narrows providing a limited buffer of US DOE property along the stream and flood plain. Based on data collected during 2009 and 2010 under Recover Act Funding, the stream was determined to be contaminated with cesium-137 at levels that exceeded acceptable risk based limits. As efficiencies were realized within the SRS Recovery Act Program, funding was made available to design, permit and execute remediation of the LTR. This accelerated Project allowed for the remediation of 36 kilometers of LTR in only nine months from inception to completion, contributing significantly to the Foot Print Reduction of SRS. The scope consisted of excavation and disposal of more than 2064 cubic meters of contaminated soil, and installing 11 kilometers of fence and 2,000 signs at 1000 locations. Confirmatory sampling and analysis, and radiological surveying were performed demonstrating that soil concentrations met the cleanup goals. The project completed with a very good safety record considering the harsh conditions including, excessive rain in the early stages of the project, high summer temperatures, swampy terrain, snakes, wild boar, insects and dense vegetation. The regulatory approval process was compressed by over 75% and required significant efforts from SRS

  17. HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU CLEANUP COMPLETION STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMAN TB

    2011-01-14

    Cleanup of the Hanford Site is a complex and challenging undertaking. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a comprehensive vision for completing Hanford's cleanup mission including transition to post-cleanup activities. This vision includes 3 principle components of cleanup: the {approx}200 square miles ofland adjacent to the Columbia River, known as the River Corridor; the 75 square miles of land in the center of the Hanford Site, where the majority of the reprocessing and waste management activities have occurred, known as the Central Plateau; and the stored reprocessing wastes in the Central Plateau, the Tank Wastes. Cleanup of the River Corridor is well underway and is progressing towards completion of most cleanup actions by 2015. Tank waste cleanup is progressing on a longer schedule due to the complexity of the mission, with construction of the largest nuclear construction project in the United States, the Waste Treatment Plant, over 50% complete. With the progress on the River Corridor and Tank Waste, it is time to place increased emphasis on moving forward with cleanup of the Central Plateau. Cleanup of the Hanford Site has been proceeding under a framework defmed in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). In early 2009, the DOE, the State of Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency signed an Agreement in Principle in which the parties recognized the need to develop a more comprehensive strategy for cleanup of the Central Plateau. DOE agreed to develop a Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy as a starting point for discussions. This DOE Strategy was the basis for negotiations between the Parties, discussions with the State of Oregon, the Hanford Advisory Board, and other Stakeholder groups (including open public meetings), and consultation with the Tribal Nations. The change packages to incorporate the Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy were signed by

  18. Participation in the definition, conduct, and analysis of particle accelerator experiments for the first Spacelab Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC) is a joint endeavor between NASA and the Institute of Space and Aeronautical Sciences (ISAS) in Japan. Its objectives are to use energetic electron beams to investigate beam-atmosphere interactions and beam-plasma interactions in the earth's upper atmosphere and ionosphere using the shuttle Spacelab. Two flights of SEPAC have occurred to date (Spacelab 1 on STS-9 in Nov.-Dec. 1983 and ATLAS 1 on STS-45 in Mar.-Apr. 1992). The SEPAC instrumentation is available for future missions, and the scientific results of the first two missions justify further investigations; however, at present there are no identifiable future flight opportunities. As specified in the contract, the primary purpose of this report is to review the scientific accomplishments of the ATLAS 1 SEPAC experiments, which have been documented in the published literature, with only a brief review of the earlier Spacelab 1 results. One of the main results of the Spacelab 1 SEPAC experiments was that the ejection of plasma from the magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arcjet was effective in maintaining vehicle charge neutralization during electron beam firings, but only for a brief period of 10 ms or so. Therefore, a xenon plasma contactor, which can provide continuous vehicle charge neutralization, was developed for the ATLAS 1 SEPAC experiments. Because of the successful operation of the plasma contactor on ATLAS 1, it was possible to perform experiments on beam-plasma interactions and beam-atmosphere interactions at the highest beam power levels of SEPAC. In addition, the ability of the plasma contactor to eject neutral xenon led to a successful experiment on the critical ionization velocity (CIV) phenomena on ATLAS 1.

  19. Regional systems of care demonstration project: Mission: Lifeline STEMI Systems Accelerator: design and methodology.

    PubMed

    Bagai, Akshay; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Sherwood, Matthew W; Muñoz, Daniel; Roettig, Mayme L; Jollis, James G; Granger, Christopher B

    2014-01-01

    ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) systems of care have been associated with significant improvement in use and timeliness of reperfusion. Consequently, national guidelines recommend that each community should develop a regional STEMI care system. However, significant barriers continue to impede widespread establishment of regional STEMI care systems in the United States. We designed the Regional Systems of Care Demonstration Project: Mission: Lifeline STEMI Systems Accelerator, a national educational outcome research study in collaboration with the American Heart Association, to comprehensively accelerate the implementation of STEMI care systems in 17 major metropolitan regions encompassing >1,500 emergency medical service agencies and 450 hospitals across the United States. The goals of the program are to identify regional gaps, barriers, and inefficiencies in STEMI care and to devise strategies to implement proven recommendations to enhance the quality and consistency of care. The study interventions, facilitated by national faculty with expertise in regional STEMI system organization in partnership with American Heart Association representatives, draw upon specific resources with proven past effectiveness in augmenting regional organization. These include bringing together leading regional health care providers and institutions to establish common commitment to STEMI care improvement, developing consensus-based standardized protocols in accordance with national professional guidelines to address local needs, and collecting and regularly reviewing regional data to identify areas for improvement. Interventions focus on each component of the reperfusion process: the emergency medical service, the emergency department, the catheterization laboratory, and inter-hospital transfer. The impact of regionalization of STEMI care on clinical outcomes will be evaluated.

  20. Effects of rectilinear acceleration, caloric and optokinetic stimulation of human subjects in the Spacelab D-1 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzig, J.; von Baumgarten, R.

    A set of vestibular experiments was performed during the course of the German Spacelab D-1 mission from 30 October to 6 November 1985 by a consortium of experimenters from various european countries. Similar to the Spacelab SL-1 mission all of the scientific crew members were theoretically and practically trained for the experiments. Baseline measurements for all tests were collected 113, 86, 44, 30 and 18 days prior to the mission and compared with data taken inflight, on the landing day and the consecutive 7 to 14 days. The hardware comprised mainly a motordriven accelerating platform, the SPACE SLED, and the vestibular helmet, a multi-purpose instrument in support of a variety of vestibular experiments including air-calorisation of the ears, optokinetic stimulation pattern presentation and optical and nystagmographic recording of eye movements. Measurements of the threshold for the perception of detection of whole body movement did not reveal any dramatic changes in the 2 measured axes inflight when compared to preflight values. Early postflight values show a significantly elevated threshold for all axes in 3 out of 4 subjects. The caloric nystagmus, already found during the SL-1 mission, was confirmed on all three tested subjects during the D-1 mission. It's amplitude and in some instances it's direction were influenced by horizontal acceleration on the SLED. The amplitude of optokinetic nystagmus increased when subjects were allowed to free-float over that seen when subjects were fixed. Stimulation of the neck receptors by roll movements of the body against the fixated head resulted in illusory object motion to the contralateral side. Torsional movements of the eyes during such neck receptor stimulation was present inflight and postflight, while it had not been observed preflight. Most results point to a reduction of otolithic effects in favour of visual and proprioceptive influences for spatial orientation.

  1. Temperature and current accelerated lifetime conditions and testing of laser diodes for ESA BepiColombo space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumel, Genady; Karni, Yoram; Cohen, Shalom; Rech, Markus; Weidlich, Kai

    2011-03-01

    System designers and end users of diode pumped solid state lasers often require knowledge of the operability limits of QCW laser diode pump sources and their predicted reliability performance as a function of operating conditions. Accelerated ageing at elevated temperatures, duty cycles and/or currents allows extended lifetime testing of diode stacks to be executed on compressed timescales with high confidence. We present a novel, time-efficient technique for the determination of accelerated lifetime test conditions using degradation rate data, rather than the traditionally used failures against time data. To assess the effect of thermally accelerated ageing, 4 groups of 4 stacks each were operated for 60 million pulses at different temperature stress levels by varying the pulse repetition rate from 100Hz to 250Hz. The measured power degradation rates fitted to an Arrhenius type model, result in activation energy of 0.47- 0.74eV, apparently indicating two thermally activated degradation modes with different activation energies. Similarly, for current accelerated ageing, another 4 groups of 4 stacks were tested at operation currents from 120A to 150A. The optical power degradation rates due to current stress follow a power law behavior with a current acceleration factor of 1.7. The obtained acceleration parameters allowed considerable reduction of the lifetime test duration, which would have otherwise taken an unacceptably long time under nominal operating conditions. The successful results of the accelerated lifetime have been a major milestone enabling qualification of SCD stacks as pump sources for the laser altimeter in ESA Bepi-Colombo space mission. The presented reliability analysis allows life test qualification programs to be accelerated for generic QCW stacks and their lifetime to be predicted in various operating environments.

  2. Plutonium mining for cleanup.

    PubMed

    Bramlitt, E T

    1988-08-01

    Cleanup is the act of making a contaminated site relatively free of Pu so it may be used without radiological safety restrictions. Contaminated ground is the focus of major cleanups. Cleanup traditionally involves determining Pu content of soil, digging up soil in which radioactivity exceeds guidelines, and relocating excised soil to a waste-disposal site. Alternative technologies have been tested at Johnston Atoll (JA), where there is as much as 100,000 m3 of Pu-contaminated soil. A mining pilot plant operated for the first 6 mo of 1986 and made 98% of soil tested "clean", from more than 40 kBq kg-1 (1000 pCi g-1) to less than about 500 Bq kg-1 (15 pCi g-1) by concentrating Pu in 2% of the soil. The pilot plant is now installed at the U.S. Department of Energy Nevada Test Site for evaluating cleanup of other contaminated soils and refining cleanup effectiveness. A full-scale cleanup plant has been programmed for JA in 1988. In this paper, previous cleanups are reviewed, and the mining endeavor at JA is detailed. "True soil cleanup" is contrasted with the classical "soil relocation cleanup." The mining technology used for Pu cleanup has been in use for more than a century. Mining for cleanup, however, is unique. It is envisioned as being prominent for radiological and other cleanups in the future.

  3. Architecture synthesis basis for the Hanford Cleanup system: First issue

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, J.J.

    1994-06-01

    This document describes a set of candidate alternatives proposed to accomplish the Hanford Cleanup system functions defined in a previous work. Development of alternatives is part of a sequence of system engineering activities which lead to definition of all the products which, when completed, accomplish the cleanup mission. The alternative set is developed to functional level four or higher depending on need.

  4. Understanding of particle acceleration and loss in Jupiter's magnetosphere from Juno mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, Scott

    2016-07-01

    Juno is the first Jupiter polar mission. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. Juno's extensive suite of fields and particle experiments along with the UV and IR imagers will provide the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The set of six microwave radiometers on Juno provide an unprecedented view of Jupiter's synchrotron emission from inside Jupiter's powerful radiation belts. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the magnetosphere and radiation belts of Jupiter will be presented.

  5. An Overview of Early Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission: Acceleration and Heating at Electron Diffusion Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torbert, Roy; Burch, James

    2016-07-01

    The NASA Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission was launched on March 13, 2015 UT to investigate magnetic reconnection in near-Earth space. During the first dayside phase ( 1A ), the four MMS spacecraft were deployed in a tetrahedral configuration with separations ranging from 400 km down to 10 km, a scale close to that of electron reconnection diffusion regions. Data is available from very high time resolution 3D plasma measurements (<30 keV, with a cadence of 30 ms and 150 ms for electrons and ions, respectively), 3D magnetic and electric fields (greater than with 1 ms time resolution) and waves (<6 kHz), 3D energetic particles with composition up to 500 keV, and plasma ion composition (< 30 keV/q). This talk with review the results of the first dayside encounters with electron diffusion regions and the acceleration observed during these encounters, where the dissipation during reconnection appears to be significant.

  6. HARVESTING EMSP RESEARCH RESULTS FOR WASTE CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect

    Guillen, Donna Post; Nielson, R. Bruce; Phillips, Ann Marie; Lebow, Scott

    2003-02-27

    The extent of environmental contamination created by the nuclear weapons legacy combined with expensive, ineffective waste cleanup strategies at many U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites prompted Congress to pass the FY96 Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, which directed the DOE to: ''provide sufficient attention and resources to longer-term basic science research, which needs to be done to ultimately reduce cleanup costs'', ''develop a program that takes advantage of laboratory and university expertise, and'' ''seek new and innovative cleanup methods to replace current conventional approaches which are often costly and ineffective.'' In response, the DOE initiated the Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP)-a targeted, long-term research program intended to produce solutions to DOE's most pressing environmental problems. EMSP funds basic research to lower cleanup cost and reduce risk to workers, the public, and the environment; direct the nation's scientific infrastructure towards cleanup of contaminated waste sites; and bridge the gap between fundamental research and technology development activities. EMSP research projects are competitively awarded based on the project's scientific, merit coupled with relevance to addressing DOE site needs. This paper describes selected EMSP research projects with long, mid, and short-term deployment potential and discusses the impacts, focus, and results of the research. Results of EMSP research are intended to accelerate cleanup schedules, reduce cost or risk for current baselines, provide alternatives for contingency planning, or provide solutions to problems where no solutions exist.

  7. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for MSL-1: STS-83, Launched April 14, 1997; STS-94, Launched July 1, 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskowitz, Milton E.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Tschen, Peter; McPherson, Kevin; Nati, Maurizio; Reckart, Timothy A.

    1998-01-01

    The microgravity environment of the Space Shuttle Columbia was measured during the STS-83 and STS-94 flights of the Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission using four different accelerometer systems: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), the Microgravity Measurement Assembly (MMA), and the Quasi-Steady Acceleration Measurement (QSAM) system. All four accelerometer systems provided investigators with acceleration measurements downlinked in near-real-time. Data from each system was recorded for post-mission analysis. The OARE measured the Shuttle's acceleration with high resolution in the quasi-steady frequency regime below about 0.1 Hz. The SAMS provided investigators with higher frequency acceleration measurements up to 25 Hz. The QSAM and MMA systems provided investigators with quasi-steady and higher frequency (up to 100 Hz) acceleration measurements, respectively. The microgravity environment related to various Orbiter maneuvers, crew activities, and experiment operations as measured by the OARE and MMA is presented and interpreted in section 8 of this report.

  8. HANFORD SITE RIVER CORRIDOR CLEANUP

    SciTech Connect

    BAZZELL, K.D.

    2006-02-01

    In 2005, the US Department of Energy (DOE) launched the third generation of closure contracts, including the River Corridor Closure (RCC) Contract at Hanford. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made on cleaning up the river shore that bordes Hanford. However, the most important cleanup challenges lie ahead. In March 2005, DOE awarded the Hanford River Corridor Closure Contract to Washington Closure Hanford (WCH), a limited liability company owned by Washington Group International, Bechtel National and CH2M HILL. It is a single-purpose company whose goal is to safely and efficiently accelerate cleanup in the 544 km{sup 2} Hanford river corridor and reduce or eliminate future obligations to DOE for maintaining long-term stewardship over the site. The RCC Contract is a cost-plus-incentive-fee closure contract, which incentivizes the contractor to reduce cost and accelerate the schedule. At $1.9 billion and seven years, WCH has accelerated cleaning up Hanford's river corridor significantly compared to the $3.2 billion and 10 years originally estimated by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Predictable funding is one of the key features of the new contract, with funding set by contract at $183 million in fiscal year (FY) 2006 and peaking at $387 million in FY2012. Another feature of the contract allows for Washington Closure to perform up to 40% of the value of the contract and subcontract the balance. One of the major challenges in the next few years will be to identify and qualify sufficient subcontractors to meet the goal.

  9. M.I.T./Canadian vestibular experiments on the Spacelab-1 mission: 6. Vestibular reactions to lateral acceleration following ten days of weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrott, A. P.; Young, L. R.

    1986-01-01

    Tests of otolith function were performed pre-flight and post-flight on the science crew of the first Spacelab Mission with a rail-mounted linear acceleration sled. Four tests were performed using horizontal lateral (y-axis) acceleration: perception of linear motion, a closed loop nulling task, dynamic ocular torsion, and lateral eye deviations. The motion perception test measured the time to detect the onset and direction of near threshold accelerations. Post-flight measures of threshold and velocity constant obtained during the days immediately following the mission showed no consistent pattern of change among the four crewmen compared to their pre-flight baseline other than an increased variability of response. In the closed loop nulling task, crewmen controlled the motion of the sled and attempted to null a computer-generated random disturbance motion. When performed in the light, no difference in ability was noted between pre-flight and post-flight. In the dark, however, two of the four crewmen exhibited somewhat enhanced performance post-flight. Dynamic ocular torsion was measured in response to sinusoidal lateral acceleration which produces a gravitionertial stimulus equivalent to lateral head tilt without rotational movement of the head. Results available for two crewmen suggest a decreased amplitude of sinusoidal ocular torsion when measured on the day of landing (R+0) and an increasing amplitude when measured during the week following the mission.

  10. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, D.M.; Taft, W.E.

    1994-12-20

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling. 1 figure.

  11. Reactor water cleanup system

    DOEpatents

    Gluntz, Douglas M.; Taft, William E.

    1994-01-01

    A reactor water cleanup system includes a reactor pressure vessel containing a reactor core submerged in reactor water. First and second parallel cleanup trains are provided for extracting portions of the reactor water from the pressure vessel, cleaning the extracted water, and returning the cleaned water to the pressure vessel. Each of the cleanup trains includes a heat exchanger for cooling the reactor water, and a cleaner for cleaning the cooled reactor water. A return line is disposed between the cleaner and the pressure vessel for channeling the cleaned water thereto in a first mode of operation. A portion of the cooled water is bypassed around the cleaner during a second mode of operation and returned through the pressure vessel for shutdown cooling.

  12. Environmental compliance and cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed.

  13. Louisiana's statewide beach cleanup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindstedt, Dianne M.; Holmes, Joseph C.

    1989-01-01

    Litter along Lousiana's beaches has become a well-recognized problem. In September 1987, Louisiana's first statewide beach cleanup attracted about 3300 volunteers who filled 16,000 bags with trash collected along 15 beaches. An estimated 800,173 items were gathered. Forty percent of the items were made of plastic and 11% were of polystyrene. Of all the litter collected, 37% was beverage-related. Litter from the oil and gas, commercial fishing, and maritime shipping industries was found, as well as that left by recreational users. Although beach cleanups temporarily rid Louisiana beaches of litter, the real value of the effort is in public participation and education. Civic groups, school children, and individuals have benefited by increasing their awareness of the problems of trash disposal.

  14. Gas stream cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Bossart, S.J.; Cicero, D.C.; Zeh, C.M.; Bedick, R.C.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of gas stream cleanup (GSCU) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Gas Stream Cleanup Program is to develop contaminant control strategies that meet environmental regulations and protect equipment in advanced coal conversion systems. Contaminant control systems are being developed for integration into seven advanced coal conversion processes: Pressurized fludized-bed combustion (PFBC), Direct coal-fueled turbine (DCFT), Intergrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC), Gasification/molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), Gasification/solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), Coal-fueled diesel (CFD), and Mild gasification (MG). These advanced coal conversion systems present a significant challenge for development of contaminant control systems because they generate multi-contaminant gas streams at high-pressures and high temperatures. Each of the seven advanced coal conversion systems incorporates distinct contaminant control strategies because each has different contaminant tolerance limits and operating conditions. 59 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Hanford Long Term Stewardship Program and Transition [Preparing for Environmental Management Cleanup Completion

    SciTech Connect

    DAILY, J.L.

    2003-08-01

    Long-term stewardship (LTS) at the Hanford Site begins at the completion of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) cleanup mission and is the management of the risks (human health and environmental) associated with any residual contamination and the management of the Site's cultural, biological, and natural resources that remain after the Site is reduced to its post-cleanup-mission size. This document describes the anticipated post-cleanup LTS program, the preparations planned to facilitate the safe and timely transition from the completion of the cleanup program to a future LTS program, and when LTS is complete. Although the completion of cleanup remains several decades away, actions are being taken now to ensure the following: DOE's commitment to meet its long-term, post-cleanup obligations is reaffirmed and that its planning efforts to comply with those obligations are visible; The interface between the cleanup program and the LTS program will be clearly defined; Cleanup decisions will include careful and well-documented consideration of their long-term ramifications (e.g., long-term effectiveness and costs) and Potential impediments to a safe and timely turnover from cleanup to LTS are anticipated and a risk management approach is developed and implemented.

  16. The 1996 Hunger Cleanup Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Julie A.

    This manual provides basic information to help organize a "Hunger Cleanup." Written for the 1996 campaign, the publication contains an overall organizing plan, descriptions and responsibilities of different committees, a sample time line, general advice from previous "Hunger Cleanup" organizers, and appendices which can be reproduced or used as a…

  17. Texas Coastal Cleanup Report, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Kathryn; And Others

    During the 1986 Coastweek, a national event dedicated to improvement of the marine environment, a large beach cleanup was organized on the Texas coast. The goals of the cleanup were to create public awareness of the problems caused by marine debris, and to collect data on the types and quantities of debris found on the Texas coastline. The…

  18. The Effects of Acceleration Noise Performance on the Determination of the Earth's Time-varying Gravity Field for Low-low satellite-to-satellite Tracking missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. H.; Conklin, J. W.

    2015-12-01

    GRACE provides monthly average gravity field solutions in spherical harmonic coefficients, which gives us information about land and ocean mass variations with a spatial resolution of 1 degree and with an accuracy within 2 cm throughout the entire Earth. GRACE-FO is expected to be launched in 2017 to continue the work of GRACE and to test a new laser ranging interferometer (LRI) which measures the range between the two satellites with higher precision than the K-Band ranging system used in GRACE. Moreover, there have been simulation studies that show that an additional pair of satellites in an inclined orbit increases the sampling frequency and reduces temporal aliasing errors. On the other hand, GOCE used an electrostatic gravity gradiometer and a drag-free control system to compensate for the non-gravitational forces which had better performance than the electrostatic accelerometers of GRACE. Given the fact that future missions will likely continue to use the low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking formation with LRI onboard, it is expected that acceleration noise caused by non-gravitational forces will become a limiting factor for the time-varying gravity field solution. This research evaluates the effects of acceleration noise on the estimation of the time-varying gravity field for a single pair and the optimal double pairs of satellites, assuming that the satellites fly in collinear pairs with LRI. Spherical harmonic coefficients are used to represent the solution and a batch computation Kalman filter is used to estimate the solutions. Various levels of residual noise for existing drag-free systems are applied as acceleration noise to find suitable drag-free performance requirements for upcoming geodesy missions.

  19. Central Plateau Cleanup at DOE's Hanford Site - 12504

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, Jonathan

    2012-07-01

    wells. As a companion to the Hanford Site Cleanup Completion Framework document, DOE issued its draft Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy in September 2009 to provide an outline of DOE's vision for completion of cleanup activities across the Central Plateau. As major elements of the Hanford cleanup along the Columbia River Corridor near completion, DOE believed it appropriate to articulate the agency vision for the remainder of the cleanup mission. The Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy and the Hanford Site Cleanup Completion Framework were provided to the regulatory community, the Tribal Nations, political leaders, the public, and Hanford stakeholders to promote dialogue on Hanford's future. The Central Plateau Cleanup Completion Strategy describes DOE's vision for completion of Central Plateau cleanup and outlines the decisions needed to achieve the vision. The Central Plateau strategy involves steps to: (1) contain and remediate contaminated groundwater, (2) implement a geographic cleanup approach that guides remedy selection from a plateau-wide perspective, (3) evaluate and deploy viable treatment methods for deep vadose contamination to provide long-term protection of the groundwater, and (4) conduct essential waste management operations in coordination with cleanup actions. The strategy will also help optimize Central Plateau readiness to use funding when it is available upon completion of River Corridor cleanup projects. One aspect of the Central Plateau strategy is to put in place the process to identify the final footprint for permanent waste management and containment of residual contamination within the 20-square-mile Industrial-Exclusive Area. The final footprint identified for permanent waste management and containment of residual contamination should be as small as practical and remain under federal ownership and control for as long as a potential hazard exists. Outside the final footprint, the remainder of the Central Plateau will be

  20. Development of a risk-based approach to Hanford Site cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Hesser, W.A.; Daling, P.M.; Baynes, P.A.

    1995-06-01

    In response to a request from Mr. Thomas Grumbly, Assistant Secretary of Energy for Environmental Management, the Hanford Site contractors developed a conceptual set of risk-based cleanup strategies that (1) protect the public, workers, and environment from unacceptable risks; (2) are executable technically; and (3) fit within an expected annual funding profile of 1.05 billion dollars. These strategies were developed because (1) the US Department of Energy and Hanford Site budgets are being reduced, (2) stakeholders are dissatisfied with the perceived rate of cleanup, (3) the US Congress and the US Department of Energy are increasingly focusing on risk and riskreduction activities, (4) the present strategy is not integrated across the Site and is inconsistent in its treatment of similar hazards, (5) the present cleanup strategy is not cost-effective from a risk-reduction or future land use perspective, and (6) the milestones and activities in the Tri-Party Agreement cannot be achieved with an anticipated funding of 1.05 billion dollars annually. The risk-based strategies described herein were developed through a systems analysis approach that (1) analyzed the cleanup mission; (2) identified cleanup objectives, including risk reduction, land use, and mortgage reduction; (3) analyzed the existing baseline cleanup strategy from a cost and risk perspective; (4) developed alternatives for accomplishing the cleanup mission; (5) compared those alternatives against cleanup objectives; and (6) produced conclusions and recommendations regarding the current strategy and potential risk-based strategies.

  1. U-PLANT GEOGRAPHIC ZONE CLEANUP PROTOTYPE

    SciTech Connect

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as ''cleanup items'') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  2. U Plant Geographic Zone Cleanup Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, L.D.; Leary, K.D.; Lackey, M.B.; Robertson, J.R.

    2006-07-01

    The U Plant geographic zone (UPZ) occupies 0.83 square kilometers on the Hanford Site Central Plateau (200 Area). It encompasses the U Plant canyon (221-U Facility), ancillary facilities that supported the canyon, soil waste sites, and underground pipelines. The UPZ cleanup initiative coordinates the cleanup of the major facilities, ancillary facilities, waste sites, and contaminated pipelines (collectively identified as 'cleanup items') within the geographic zone. The UPZ was selected as a geographic cleanup zone prototype for resolving regulatory, technical, and stakeholder issues and demonstrating cleanup methods for several reasons: most of the area is inactive, sufficient characterization information is available to support decisions, cleanup of the high-risk waste sites will help protect the groundwater, and the zone contains a representative cross-section of the types of cleanup actions that will be required in other geographic zones. The UPZ cleanup demonstrates the first of 22 integrated zone cleanup actions on the Hanford Site Central Plateau to address threats to groundwater, the environment, and human health. The UPZ contains more than 100 individual cleanup items. Cleanup actions in the zone will be undertaken using multiple regulatory processes and decision documents. Cleanup actions will include building demolition, waste site and pipeline excavation, and the construction of multiple, large engineered barriers. In some cases, different cleanup actions may be taken at item locations that are immediately adjacent to each other. The cleanup planning and field activities for each cleanup item must be undertaken in a coordinated and cohesive manner to ensure effective execution of the UPZ cleanup initiative. The UPZ zone cleanup implementation plan (ZCIP) [1] was developed to address the need for a fundamental integration tool for UPZ cleanup. As UPZ cleanup planning and implementation moves forward, the ZCIP is intended to be a living document that will

  3. Cleanup at Los Alamos National Laboratory - the challenges - 9493

    SciTech Connect

    Stiger, Susan G; Hargis, Kenneth M; Graham, Michael J; Rael, George J

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of environmental cleanup at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and some of the unique aspects and challenges. Cleanup of the 65-year old Department of Energy Laboratory is being conducted under a RCRA Consent Order with the State of New Mexico. This agreement is one of the most recent cleanup agreements signed in the DOE complex and was based on lessons learned at other DOE sites. A number of attributes create unique challenges for LANL cleanup -- the proximity to the community and pueblos, the site's topography and geology, and the nature of LANL's on-going missions. This overview paper will set the stage for other papers in this session, including papers that present: Plans to retrieve buried waste at Material Disposal Area B, across the street from oen of Los Alamos' commercial districts and the local newspaper; Progress to date and joint plans with WIPP for disposal of the remaining inventory of legacy transuranic waste; Reviews of both groundwater and surface water contamination and the factors complicating both characterization and remediation; Optimizing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste from ongoing LANL missions; A stakeholder environmental data transparency project (RACER), with full public access to all available information on contamination at LANL, and A description of the approach to waste processing cost recovery from the programs that generate hazardous and radioactive waste at LANL.

  4. Compressive Acceleration of Solar Energetic Particles within Coronal Mass Ejections: Observations and Theory Relevant to the Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelof, E. C.

    2015-12-01

    observational technique by which (divV) may be extracted directly from coronograph white-light movies of out-going CMEs, thus offering observational closure of the new theory for SEP acceleration/injection that should be relevant to the Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter missions.

  5. Hanford's Cleanup Constraints and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichmuth, Barbara A.; Lesperance, Ann M.; Adams, J. F.; Schlender, Michael H.

    2002-08-02

    The framework for the environmental cleanup decisions made at the Hanford is complex and multi-faceted. There are numerous interfaces and decision pathways. In recent years, the complexities and inter-relatedness of the various interfaces have fostered an environment of frustration and distrust amongst the decision makers. The major stakeholders for the Hanford Cleanup are The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 10. DOE has two field offices at Hanford, the Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Office of River Protection (ORP). Each party has a legitimate jurisdiction over the cleanup and none of the parties can make key decision independent of the other parties. In 1989, DOE entered into a compliance agreement with the regulators (the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order), which established a regulatory framework and compliance milestones for cleanup of the Hanford Site. The purpose of this paper will be to articulate: 1) The process used to collect and analyze the information on cleanup constraints, 2) The technical analysis provided to Hanford decision makers, 3) The principles used to enhance decision making among the decision makers and stakeholders, and 4)How this process is leading to outcomes and eliminating barriers to Hanford cleanup.

  6. ISA - An Accelerometer to Detect the Disturbing Accelerations Acting on the Mercury Planetary Orbiter of the BepiColombo ESA Cornerstone Mission to Mercury: on Ground Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D. M.; Nozzoli, S.; Santoli, F.; Fois, M.; Persichini, M.

    2006-06-01

    To reach the ambitious goals of the Radio Science Experiment of the BepiColombo space mission to Mercury, among which the planet structure and rotation and test Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) to an unprecedented accuracy, an accelerometer has been selected to fly on-board the MPO (Mercury Planetary Orbiter), the main spacecraft of the two to be placed around the innermost planet of our solar system around 2017. The key role of the on-board accelerometer is to remove from the list of unknowns the non-gravitational accelerations that disturbs the pure gravitational orbit of the MPO spacecraft in the strong radiation environment of Mercury. In this way the ``corrected'' orbit of the MPO may be regarded as a geodesic in the field of Mercury. Then, thanks to the very precise tracking from Earth, the possibility to study Mercury's center-of-mass around the Sun and estimate several parameters related to the planet structure and verify the theory of GR. The selected accelerometer named ISA (Italian Spring Accelerometer) is an high sensitive instrument with an intrinsic noise of 10-10 g⊕ / Hz (with g⊕ ≅ 9.8 m / s2) in the frequency band 3 . 10-5 -10-1 Hz. ISA is a three axis accelerometer with a characteristic configuration, in order to minimize the disturbing accelerations due to the gravity-gradients and the apparent forces on the Nadir pointing MPO spacecraft. Because of the complex and strong radiation environment of Mercury, the modelling of the non-gravitational acceleration is quite difficult, while, with the use of ISA accelerometer we are able to gain a factor 100 in accuracy. In this brief paper we will focus on the characteristics of the ISA accelerometer, on its positioning on-board the MPO and in particularly to the techniques for on ground calibration, avoiding the effects of the Earth gravity.

  7. Innovative technologies for soil cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1992-09-01

    These notes provide a broad overview of current developments in innovative technologies for soil cleanup. In this context, soil cleanup technologies include site remediation methods that deal primarily with the vadose zone and with relatively shallow, near-surface contamination of soil or rock materials. This discussion attempts to emphasize approaches that may be able to achieve significant improvements in soil cleanup cost or effectiveness. However, since data for quantitative performance and cost comparisons of new cleanup methods are scarce, preliminary comparisons must be based on the scientific approach used by each method and on the sits-specific technical challenges presented by each sold contamination situation. A large number of technical alternatives that are now in research, development, and testing can be categorized by the scientific phenomena that they employ and by the site contamination situations that they treat. After cataloging a representative selection of these technologies, one of the new technologies, Dynamic Underground Stripping, is discussed in more detail to highlight a promising soil cleanup technology that is now being field tested.

  8. Needs for Risk Informing Environmental Cleanup Decision Making - 13613

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Ming; Moorer, Richard

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses the needs for risk informing decision making by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). The mission of the DOE EM is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from the nation's five decades of nuclear weapons development and production and nuclear energy research. This work represents some of the most technically challenging and complex cleanup efforts in the world and is projected to require the investment of billions of dollars and several decades to complete. Quantitative assessments of health and environmental risks play an important role in work prioritization and cleanup decisions of these challenging environmental cleanup and closure projects. The risk assessments often involve evaluation of performance of integrated engineered barriers and natural systems over a period of hundreds to thousands of years, when subject to complex geo-environmental transformation processes resulting from remediation and disposal actions. The requirement of resource investments for the cleanup efforts and the associated technical challenges have subjected the EM program to continuous scrutiny by oversight entities. Recent DOE reviews recommended application of a risk-informed approach throughout the EM complex for improved targeting of resources. The idea behind this recommendation is that by using risk-informed approaches to prioritize work scope, the available resources can be best utilized to reduce environmental and health risks across the EM complex, while maintaining the momentum of the overall EM cleanup program at a sustainable level. In response to these recommendations, EM is re-examining its work portfolio and key decision making with risk insights for the major sites. This paper summarizes the review findings and recommendations from the DOE internal reviews, discusses the needs for risk informing the EM portfolio and makes an attempt to identify topics for R and D in integrated

  9. Turning the Corner on Hanford Tank Waste Cleanup from Safe Storage to Closure

    SciTech Connect

    CRUZ, E.J.; BOSTON, H.L.

    2002-02-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is leading the River Protection Project (RPP) which is responsible for the disposition of 204,000 cubic meters (54 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste that have accumulated in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site since 1944. ORP continues to make good progress on improving the capability to treat Hanford tank waste. Design of the waste vitrification facilities is proceeding well and construction will begin within the next year. Progress is also being made in reducing risk to the worker and the environment from the waste currently stored in the tank farms. Removal of liquids from single-shell tanks (SSTs) is on schedule and we will begin removing solids (salt cake) from a tank (241-U-107) in 2002. There is a sound technical foundation for the waste vitrification facilities. These initial facilities will be capable of treating (vitrifying) the bulk of Hanford tank waste and are the cornerstone of the clean-up strategy. ORP recognizes that as the near-term work is performed, it is vital that there be an equally strong and defensible plan for completing the mission. ORP is proceeding on a three-pronged approach for moving the mission forward. First, ORP will continue to work aggressively to complete the waste vitrification facilities. ORP intends to provide the most capable and robust facilities to maximize the amount of waste treated by these Initial facilities by 2028 (regulatory commitment for completion of waste treatment). Second, and in parallel with completing the waste vitrification facilities, ORP is beginning to consider how best to match the hazard of the waste to the disposal strategy. The final piece of our strategy is to continue to move forward with actions to reduce risk in the tank farms and complete cleanup. The goal of these efforts is to keep the RPP on a success path for completing cleanup of Hanford tank waste. While all parties are aggressively moving

  10. Energy Implications of Cleanup Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Eric

    1975-01-01

    Energy needs for environmental cleanup are assessed. Among the conclusions are: the quantities of energy required to achieve various environmental quality goals are small; energy needs for environmental protection can be offset by conservation measures and the conclusions in regard to primary energy closely correspond to those for electrical…

  11. Great cleanup skims the surface

    SciTech Connect

    Dillingham, S.

    1990-09-03

    Appalled by the pollution of the Great Lakes, the United States embarked on a multibillion-dollar cleanup. Twenty years later the nation's largest freshwater source is teeming with life, but problems caused by man and nature remain. Amid the finger-pointing, states in the region and Congress are continuing to clean up the mess.

  12. Value engineering, community relations speed Superfund site cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R.E.; Thomson, P.; Yunaska, M.

    1996-11-01

    Value engineering provides contractors an opportunity to modify a project`s design to lower costs while maintaining the desired design function. The project thus benefits from the contractor`s expertise, and all parties benefit financially by sharing in the savings. Applying value engineering principles to cleanup of offsite areas at the former Lipari industrial waste landfill reduced costs and also accelerated remediation time. Containment of the landfill (once listed as the nation`s No. 1 Superfund site) and cleanup of offsite locations enabled Alcyon lake in Pitman, NJ, to regain its status as the town`s principal recreation center. An ecologically significant marsh and the adjoining Chestnut Branch, a stream flowing behind homes in the scenic and historic town, also were restored.

  13. "Hanford: A Conversation About Nuclear Waste and Cleanup"

    SciTech Connect

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2003-05-10

    In ''Hanford: A Conversation about Nuclear Waste and Cleanup'', Roy Gephart takes us on a journey through a world of facts, values, conflicts, and choices facing the most complex environmental cleanup project in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Starting with the top-secret Manhattan Project, Hanford was used to create tons of plutonium for nuclear weapons. Hundreds of tons of waste remain. In an easy-to-read, illustrated text, Gephart crafts the story of Hanford becoming the world's first nuclear weapons site to release large amounts of contaminants into the environment. This was at a time when radiation biology was in its infancy, industry practiced unbridled waste dumping, and the public trusted what it was told. The plutonium market stalled with the end of the Cold War. Public accountability and environmental compliance ushered in a new cleanup mission. Today, Hanford is driven by remediation choices whose outcomes remain uncertain. It's a story whose epilogue will be written by future generations. This book is an information resource, written for the general reader as well as the technically trained person wanting an overview of Hanford and cleanup issues facing the nuclear weapons complex. Each chapter is a topical mini-series. It's an idea guide that encourages readers to be informed consumers of Hanford news, to recognize that knowledge, high ethical standards, and social values are at the heart of coping with Hanford's past and charting its future. Hanford history is a window into many environmental conflicts facing our nation; it's about building upon success and learning from failure. And therein lies a key lesson, when powerful interests are involved, no generation is above pretense. Roy E. Gephart is a geohydrologist and senior program manager at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. He has 30 years experience in environmental studies and the nuclear waste industry.

  14. Planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, William I.

    1989-01-01

    The scientific and engineering aspects of near-term missions for planetary exploration are outlined. The missions include the Voyager Neptune flyby, the Magellan survey of Venus, the Ocean Topography Experiment, the Mars Observer mission, the Galileo Jupiter Orbiter and Probe, the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby mission, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Cassini mission to Saturn and Titan, and the Daedalus probe to Barnard's star. The spacecraft, scientific goals, and instruments for these missions are noted.

  15. Bioavailability: implications for science/cleanup policy

    SciTech Connect

    Denit, Jeffery; Planicka, J. Gregory

    1998-12-01

    This paper examines the role of bioavailability in risk assessment and cleanup decisions. Bioavailability refers to how chemicals ''behave'' and their ''availability'' to interact with living organisms. Bioavailability has significant implications for exposure risks, cleanup goals, and site costs. Risk to human health and the environment is directly tied to the bioavailability of the chemicals of concern.

  16. Mars mission concepts and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie C.

    1986-01-01

    Trajectory and mission requirement data are presented for Earth Mars opposition and conjunction class roundtrip flyby and stopover mission opportunities available between 1997 and 2045. The opposition class flyby mission uses direct transfer trajectories to and on return from Mars. The opposition class stopover mission employs the gravitational field of Venus to accelerate the space vehicle on either the outbound or inbound leg in order to reduce the propulsion requirement associated with the opposition class mission. The conjunction class mission minimizes propulsion requirements by optimizing the stopover time at Mars.

  17. Oil spill cleanup using graphene.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Muhammad Z; Abdala, Ahmed A

    2013-05-01

    In this article, we study the use of thermally reduced graphene (TRG) for oil spill cleanup. TRG was synthesized by thermal exfoliation of graphite oxide and characterized by X-ray diffusion, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, elemental analysis, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement. Various aspects of the sorption process have been studied including the sorption capacity, the recovery of the adsorbed oil, and the recyclability of TRG. Our results shows that TRG has a higher sorption capacity than any other carbon-based sorbents, with sorption capacity as high as 131 g of oil per gram TRG. With recovery of the sorbed oil via filtration and reuse of TRG for up to six cycles, 1 g of TRG collectively removes approximately 300 g of crude oil. Moreover, the effects of TRG bulk density, pore volume, and carbon/oxygen ratio and the oil viscosity on the sorption process are also discussed.

  18. Amps particle accelerator definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Particle Accelerator System of the AMPS (Atmospheric, Magnetospheric, and Plasmas in Space) payload is a series of charged particle accelerators to be flown with the Space Transportation System Shuttle on Spacelab missions. In the configuration presented, the total particle accelerator system consists of an energetic electron beam, an energetic ion accelerator, and both low voltage and high voltage plasma acceleration devices. The Orbiter is illustrated with such a particle accelerator system.

  19. Bioventing reduces soil cleanup costs

    SciTech Connect

    Leahy, M.C.; Erickson, G.P.

    1995-08-01

    An offshoot technology from soil venting, bioventing offers a win-win solution for soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nonvolatile contaminants such as diesel and fuel oil. Using low air flowrates through permeable soils, bioventing injects sufficient oxygen to support naturally-occurring bacteria, which biodegraded the VOCs and other contaminants into benign byproducts. Waste gas can be directly discharged to atmosphere without further treatment. This results in no offgas treatment required. Bioventing is a cost-effective alternative to traditional soil-venting techniques. Soil venting uses air to volatilize organic-compound contamination from the vadose zone, the unsaturated soil layer above groundwater. Unfortunately, this simple-and-fast approach creates a waste offgas that requires further treatment before discharge, thus adding significantly to overall project costs. In contrast, bioventing uses low air flowrates, which require lower capital and operating costs. No offgas treatment further reduces equipment and operating costs and often eliminates air permitting. As in all treatment strategies, the process must meet the cleanup objectives. Bioventing is an alternative technique making inroads into refining and petrochemical soil-remediation applications.

  20. Nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting

    DOEpatents

    Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Dardenne, Yves M.

    2016-02-02

    Apparatus, systems, and methods for nuclear radiation cleanup and uranium prospecting include the steps of identifying an area; collecting samples; sample preparation; identification, assay, and analysis; and relating the samples to the area.

  1. The Great Oil Spill Cleanup Contest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, Elaine

    1993-01-01

    Presents an exciting way to acquaint students with current methods to clean up oil spills. Students also have the freedom to create new clean-up methods as they think through the problem and experiment to find effective solutions. (PR)

  2. The Secretary's Vision of the Cleanup Program

    SciTech Connect

    Golan, Paul

    2003-02-24

    This paper discusses the Secretary of Energy's vision of the cleanup program. Topics include development a new plan to swiftly clean up serious problems at sites and reduce the risks to human health, safety and the environment.

  3. Increased leukemia risk in Chernobyl cleanup workers

    Cancer.gov

    A new study found a significantly elevated risk for chronic lymphocytic leukemia among workers who were engaged in recovery and clean-up activities following the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986.

  4. Mission and vehicle sizing sensitivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie C.

    1986-01-01

    Representative interplanetary space vehicle systems are sized to compare and show sensitivity of the initial mass required in low Earth orbit to one mission mode and mission opportunity. Data are presented to show the requirements for Earth-Mars opposition and conjunction class roundtrip flyby and stopover mission opportunities available during the time period from year 1997 to year 2045. The interplanetary space vehicle consists of a spacecraft and a space vehicle acceleration system. Propellant boil-off for the various mission phases is given for the Lox/LH (Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Hydrogen) propulsion systems. Mission abort information is presented for the 1999 Venus outbound swingby trajectory, transfer profile.

  5. Aircraft mission analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauge, D. S.; Rosendaal, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Aircraft missions, from low to hypersonic speeds, are analyzed rapidly using the FORTRAN IV program NSEG. Program employs approximate equations of motion that vary in form with type of flight segment. Takeoffs, accelerations, climbs, cruises, descents, decelerations, and landings are considered.

  6. Document image cleanup and binarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Victor; Manmatha, Raghaven

    1998-04-01

    Image binarization is a difficult task for documents with text over textured or shaded backgrounds, poor contrast, and/or considerable noise. Current optical character recognition (OCR) and document analysis technology do not handle such documents well. We have developed a simple yet effective algorithm for document image clean-up and binarization. The algorithm consists of two basic steps. In the first step, the input image is smoothed using a low-pass filter. The smoothing operation enhances the text relative to any background texture. This is because background texture normally has higher frequency than text does. The smoothing operation also removes speckle noise. In the second step, the intensity histogram of the smoothed image is computed and a threshold automatically selected as follows. For black text, the first peak of the histogram corresponds to text. Thresholding the image at the value of the valley between the first and second peaks of the histogram binarizes the image well. In order to reliably identify the valley, the histogram is smoothed by a low-pass filter before the threshold is computed. The algorithm has been applied to some 50 images from a wide variety of source: digitized video frames, photos, newspapers, advertisements in magazines or sales flyers, personal checks, etc. There are 21820 characters and 4406 words in these images. 91 percent of the characters and 86 percent of the words are successfully cleaned up and binarized. A commercial OCR was applied to the binarized text when it consisted of fonts which were OCR recognizable. The recognition rate was 84 percent for the characters and 77 percent for the words.

  7. Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites

    SciTech Connect

    S. J. Nacht

    2000-02-01

    The Sectored Clean-up Work Plan (SCWP) replaces the Housekeeping Category Corrective Action Unit Work Plan and provides a strategy to be used for conducting housekeeping activities using a sectored clean-up approach. This work plan provides a process by which one or more existing housekeeping category Corrective Action Sites (CASS) from the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and/or non-FFACO designated waste site(s) are grouped into a sector for simultaneous remediation and cleanup. This increases effectiveness and efficiencies in labor, materials, equipment, cost, and time. This plan is an effort by the U.S. Department of Energy to expedite work in a more organized and efficient approach. The objectives of this plan are to: Group housekeeping FFACO CASS and non-FFACO housekeeping sites into sectors and remediate during the same field visit; Provide consistent documentation on FFACO CAS and non-FFACO clean-up activities; Perform similar activities under one approved document; Remediate areas inside the Deactivation and Decommissioning facilities and compounds in a campaign-style remediation; and Increase efficiencies and cost-effectiveness, accelerate cleanups, reduce mobilization, demobilization, and remediation costs.

  8. Defining departmental mission.

    PubMed

    Hartman, M D; Barrow, J A; Sawyer, W R

    1990-02-01

    Mission statements have long been recognized by corporate America as a way to define an enterprise. The necessary business orientation of the health care industry requires that hospitals and hospital departments define their scope of services and reason for existence. The accelerating reprofessionalization affecting departments of pharmacy requires the same. "Improving the quality of patient care" can no longer represent a euphemism for simply reacting to external factors or acting on a whim without clear meaningful intent. Professional departments and hospitals must demonstrate a sense of direction and purpose and be able to justify costs to a budget-conscious management and skeptical public. Mission statements are not substitutes for a clearly defined sense of professional mission. However, well-constructed mission statements contribute to clarity of departmental and professional purpose and effective achievement of goals. PMID:10128549

  9. The OASIS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Binns, W. robert; Christl, Mark; Cosse, Charles B.; Guzik, T. Gregory; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Hams,Thomas; Isbert, Joachim; Israel, Martin H.; Krizmanic, John F.; Labrador, Allan W.; Link, Jason T.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Mitchell, Martin H.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Sasaki, Makoto; Stochaj, Steven J.; Stone, Edward C.; Steitmatter, Robert E.; Waddington, C. Jake; Watts, John W.; Wefel, John P.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    The Orbiting Astrophysical Observatory in Space (OASIS) is a mission to investigate Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), a major feature of our galaxy. OASIS will use measurements of GCRs to determine the cosmic ray source, where they are accelerated, to investigate local accelerators and to learn what they can tell us about the interstellar medium and the processes that occur in it. OASIS will determine the astrophysical sources of both the material and acceleration of GCRs by measuring the abundances of the rare actinide nuclei and make direct measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of electrons at energies up to approx.10 TeV, well beyond the range of the Fermi and AMS missions. OASIS has two instruments. The Energetic Trans-Iron Composition Experiment (ENTICE) instrument measures elemental composition. It resolves individual elements with atomic number (Z) from 10 to 130 and has a collecting power of 60m2.str.yrs, >20 times larger than previous instruments, and with improved resolution. The sample of 10(exp 10) GCRs collected by ENTICE will include .100 well-resolved actinides. The High Energy Particle Calorimeter Telescope (HEPCaT) is an ionization calorimeter that will extend the electron spectrum into the TeV region for the first time. It has 7.5 sq m.str.yrs of collecting power. This talk will describe the scientific objectives of the OASIS mission and its discovery potential. The mission and its two instruments which have been designed to accomplish this investigation will also be described.

  10. Accelerator Technology Division

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

  11. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  12. Ecological impact of land cleanup and restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The report is concerned with the ecological impacts of specific cleanup treatments on the land where they are carried out. The report provides guidance to rational selection among the cleanup procedures likely to be suggested by State, Federal or local government officials, industrial representatives of the entity responsible for the contaminating accident, concerned citizenss' groups, or local environmental managers called in for their expertise. The priorities of these groups are most likely to be divergent and emotionally intense under the stress of immediate, local, present danger.

  13. The Use of the Hanford Onsite Packaging and Transportation Safety Program to Meet Cleanup Milestones Under the Hanford Site Cleanup 2015 Vision and the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 - 12403

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, John C.; Edwards, W. Scott; Macbeth, Paul J.; Self, Richard J.; West, Lori D.

    2012-07-01

    The Hanford Site presents unique challenges in meeting the U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) 2015 Cleanup Vision. CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), its subcontractors, and DOE-RL were challenged to retrieve, transport and remediate a wide range of waste materials. Through a collaborative effort by all Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members, disposition pathways for diverse and seemingly impossible to ship wastes were developed under a DOE Order 460.1C-compliant Hanford Onsite Transportation Safety Program. The team determined an effective method for transporting oversized compliant waste payloads to processing and disposition facilities. The use of the onsite TSD packaging authorizations proved to be vital to safely transporting these materials for processing and eventual final disposition. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided additional resources to expedite planning and execution of these important cleanup milestones. Through the innovative and creative use of the TSD, the Hanford Onsite Central Plateau Cleanup Team Members have developed and are executing an integrated project plan that enables the safe and compliant transport of a wide variety of difficult-to-transport waste items, accelerating previous cleanup schedules to meet cleanup milestones. (authors)

  14. Assessment of synfuel spill cleanup options

    SciTech Connect

    Petty, S.E.; Wakamiya, W.; English, C.J.; Strand, J.A.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1982-04-01

    Existing petroleum-spill cleanup technologies are reviewed and their limitations, should they be used to mitigate the effects of synfuels spills, are discussed. The six subsections of this report address the following program goals: synfuels production estimates to the year 2000; possible sources of synfuel spills and volumes of spilled fuel to the year 2000; hazards of synfuels spills; assessment of existing spill cleanup technologies for oil spills; assessment of cleanup technologies for synfuel spills; and disposal of residue from synfuel spill cleanup operations. The first goal of the program was to obtain the most current estimates on synfuel production. These estimates were then used to determine the amount of synfuels and synfuel products likely to be spilled, by location and by method of transportation. A review of existing toxicological studies and existing spill mitigation technologies was then completed to determine the potential impacts of synthetic fuel spills on the environment. Data are presented in the four appendixes on the following subjects: synfuel production estimates; acute toxicity of synfuel; acute toxicity of alcohols.

  15. Federal cleanups: Good news from bad

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, T.

    1994-03-01

    This article examines the roles of the Department of Energy weapons laboratories in developing environmental remediation technology for their own use and for private cleanups. The topics of the article include the events leading up to the technology development and transfer, creating cooperative research and development agreements, and DOE development of new products.

  16. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  17. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  18. IMP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program requirements and operations requirements for the IMP mission are presented. The satellite configuration is described and the missions are analyzed. The support equipment, logistics, range facilities, and responsibilities of the launching organizations are defined. The systems for telemetry, communications, satellite tracking, and satellite control are identified.

  19. The OHMIC Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, R.; Burch, J. L.; Lotko, W.; Frey, H. U.; Chaston, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Observatory for Heteroscale Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (OHMIC) investigates the coupling of Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere (MI) focusing on the conversion of electromagnetic energy into particle energy in auroral acceleration regions. Energy conversion and acceleration are universal processes that are a critical part of MI coupling and govern the energy deposition into Earth's upper atmosphere. These same processes are known to occur in planetary magnetospheres and in the magnetized plasmas of stars. Energy conversion and acceleration in the auroral regions are known to occur on small spatial scales through dispersive Alfvén waves and nonlinear plasma structures such as double layers. OHMIC advances our understanding of MI coupling over previous missions using two spacecraft equipped with high-time resolution measurements of electron distributions, ion distributions, and vector electric and magnetic fields. One of the spacecraft will carry two high-time and high-spatial resolution imagers and a wide-angle imager in the far ultraviolet. The mission has two phases. The first phase investigates meridional phenomena by using the combination of two-point measurements and high-resolution to distinguishing spatial and temporal phenomena. The second phase investigates field-aligned phenomena with spacecraft separations between 10 and 1100 km. Primary science objectives include (1) determining how energy conversion and transport vary along the magnetic field, (2) determining how ionospheric outflow is mediated by ion heating, convection and field-aligned transport, and (3) determining how charged-particle acceleration and injection vary in time and space.

  20. Groundwater cleanup demonstrations at Complex 34, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At Launch Complex 34, representatives from environmental and Federal agencies head for the block house during presentations about the environmental research project that involves the Department of Defense, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy and NASA in a groundwater cleanup effort. Concentrations of trichloroethylene solvent have been identified in the soil at the complex as a result of cleaning methods for rocket parts during the Apollo Program, which used the complex, in the 60s. The group formed the Interagency NDAPL Consortium (IDC) to study three contamination cleanup technologies: Six Phase Soil Heating, Steam Injection and In Situ Oxidation with Potassium Permanganate. All three methods may offer a way to remove the contaminants in months instead of decades. KSC hosted a two-day conference that presented information and demonstrations of the three technologies being tested at the site.

  1. Groundwater cleanup demonstrations at Complex 34, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At Launch Complex 34, the Six-Phase Soil Heating site that is involved in a groundwater cleanup project can be seen. The project involves the Department of Defense, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy and NASA. Concentrations of trichloroethylene solvent have been identified in the soil at the complex as a result of cleaning methods for rocket parts during the Apollo Program, which used the complex, in the 60s. The group formed the Interagency NDAPL Consortium (IDC) to study three contamination cleanup technologies: Six-Phase Soil Heating, Steam Injection and In Situ Oxidation with Potassium Permanganate. All three methods may offer a way to remove the contaminants in months instead of decades. In the background is the block house for the complex. KSC hosted a two-day conference that presented information and demonstrations of the three technologies being tested at the site.

  2. Groundwater cleanup demonstrations at Complex 34, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At Launch Complex 34, Cape Canaveral Air Station, several studies are under way for groundwater cleanup of trichloroethylene at the site. Shown here is monitoring equipment for one of the methods, potassium permanganate oxidation. Concentrations of trichloroethylene solvent have been identified in the soil at the complex as a result of cleaning methods for rocket parts during the Apollo Program in the 60s. The environmental research project involves the Department of Defense, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy and NASA, who formed the Interagency NDAPL Consortium (IDC), to study three contamination cleanup technologies: Six Phase Soil Heating, Steam Injection and In Situ Oxidation with Potassium Permanganate. All three methods may offer a way to remove the contaminants in months instead of decades. KSC hosted a two-day conference that presented information and demonstrations of the three technologies for representatives from environmental and federal agencies.

  3. Groundwater cleanup demonstrations at Complex 34, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At Launch Complex 34, Greg Beyke, with Current Environmental Solutions, talks to representatives from environmental and federal agencies about the environmental research project that involves the Department of Defense, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy and NASA in a groundwater cleanup effort. Concentrations of trichloroethylene solvent have been identified in the soil at the complex as a result of cleaning methods for rocket parts during the Apollo Program, which used the complex, in the 60s. The group formed the Interagency NDAPL Consortium (IDC) to study three contamination cleanup technologies: Six Phase Soil Heating, Steam Injection and In Situ Oxidation with Potassium Permanganate. All three methods may offer a way to remove the contaminants in months instead of decades. KSC hosted a two-day conference that presented information and demonstrations of the three technologies being tested at the site.

  4. Expediting contaminated site cleanup in California

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, B.S.; Conlan, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    California generally has been considered a leader in the advocacy of policies for the cleanup and abatement of environmental pollution. Many of the more innovative programs and policies were developed within the broad framework of California`s Brownfields Initiative. Because both the public and private sectors recognize that environmental cleanup and reuse of California`s industrial properties are major components of economic revitalization, the state has used administrative and legislative tools to provide incentives for redeveloping brownfields contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and other industrial operations. However, it is the broader reach of various state and local policies, programs, agreements and management communication that provide benefits to the majority of the regulated community.

  5. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in Chornobyl Cleanup Workers.

    PubMed

    Bazyka, Dimitry; Gudzenko, Natalya; Dyagil, Iryna; Goroh, Eugeny; Polyschuk, Oksana; Trotsuk, Natalya; Babkina, Nataly; Romanenko, Anatoly

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) incidence in a cohort of 110,645 (enlarged later to 152,520) male Ukrainian cleanup workers of the Chornobyl (Chernobyl) accident who were exposed to a range of radiation doses over the 1986-1990 time period. The standardized incidence rates are presented for a 27-y period after the exposure. For 2007-2012 period, the authors have identified the incident CLL cases in an enlarged cohort of 152,520 persons by linkage of the cohort file with the Ukrainian National Cancer Registry (NCRU). CLL data for the previous period (1987-2006) were identified in a frame of the Ukrainian-American leukemia study in the original cohort of 110,645 male clean-up workers. A significant CLL incidence excess was shown for the entire study period 1987-2012, with more prominent levels for the earliest years (1987-1996) when the standardized incidence rate (SIR) value was estimated to be 3.61 with 95% confidence interval from 2.32 to 4.91. In 2007-2012, the CLL incidence decreased substantially but still exceeded the national level although not significantly. In parallel, the several studies were performed at the National Research Center for Radiation Medicine (NRCRM) to explore if any clinical and cytogenetic features of CLL existed in the clean-up workers. The clinical study included 80 exposed and 70 unexposed CLL cases. Among the major clinical differences of the CLL course in the clean-up workers were a shorter period of white blood cells (WBC) doubling (10.7 vs. 18.0; p<0.001), frequent infectious episodes, lymphoadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly (37 vs. 16), higher expression for CD38, and lower expression for ZAP-70 antigen. PMID:27356063

  6. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  7. Defining the framework for environmentally compliant cleanup: The Hanford site tri-party agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, B.A.; Wisness, S.H.

    1994-12-31

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, commonly called the Tri-Party Agreement, was signed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the State of Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in May of 1989. It was the first three-party agreement of its magnitude in the country and was touted as a landmark agreement. It was one of the most significant actions that has been taken to define the framework for environmentally compliant cleanup actions at the Hanford Site. Accomplishments thus far represent a lot of planning, permitting, and development activities either required by regulation or necessary to ensure an adequate infrastructure to support cleanup activities. Actual cleanup work and construction of new facilities are beginning to accelerate as the Hanford Site moves out of study and development phases into actual cleanup activities. Significant changes to the Hanford Tri-Party Agreement were negotiated between May 1993 and January 1994. These negotiations were precipitated by the completion of a 15-month rebaselining study of the Hanford Site`s Tank Waste Remediation System. The revised agreement is based on comments and values the three agencies heard from people of the region during the negotiation process. The recent renegotiation reflected an ability of the agencies and the agreement to change commensurate with technical, economic, and political realities of today. Hanford has moved into a new era of public participation which will continue to watch and guide cleanup efforts in manners satisfactory to regional concerns and values.

  8. Action Memorandum for General Decommissioning Activities under the Idaho Cleanup Project

    SciTech Connect

    S. L. Reno

    2006-10-26

    This Action Memorandum documents the selected alternative to perform general decommissioning activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) under the Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP). Preparation of this Action Memorandum has been performed in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended by the "Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986", and in accordance with the "National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan". An engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) was prepared and released for public comment and evaluated alternatives to accomplish the decommissioning of excess buildings and structures whose missions havve been completed.

  9. Action Memorandum for the Engineering Test Reactor under the Idaho Cleanup Project

    SciTech Connect

    A. B. Culp

    2007-01-26

    This Action Memorandum documents the selected alternative for decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory under the Idaho Cleanup Project. Since the missions of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex have been completed, an engineering evaluation/cost analysis that evaluated alternatives to accomplish the decommissioning of the Engineering Test Reactor Complex was prepared adn released for public comment. The scope of this Action Memorandum is to encompass the final end state of the Complex and disposal of the Engineering Test Reactor vessol. The selected removal action includes removing and disposing of the vessel at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility and demolishing the reactor building to ground surface.

  10. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  11. Technologies for environmental cleanup: Soil and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1992-07-01

    This is the first of a series of four EUROCOURSES that will be conducted under the title of ``Technologies for Envirommental Cleanup.`` This first course will address the needs of today`s environmental protection managers who must deal with the cleanup of soil and ground water contamination. It focuses on recent developments in the areas of policies and regulations, characterization. of.contaminants, subsurface transport and fate of contaminants, cleanup technologies, contaminant risk analysis, and cleanup strategies. Until the goal of acceptable cleanup is achieved, dissemination of information about available cleanup techniques is essential - through courses such as these developed by experts in the US and Europe especially for governmental and industrial managers throughout the world.

  12. Technologies for environmental cleanup: Soil and ground water

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1992-07-01

    This is the first of a series of four EUROCOURSES that will be conducted under the title of Technologies for Envirommental Cleanup.'' This first course will address the needs of today's environmental protection managers who must deal with the cleanup of soil and ground water contamination. It focuses on recent developments in the areas of policies and regulations, characterization. of.contaminants, subsurface transport and fate of contaminants, cleanup technologies, contaminant risk analysis, and cleanup strategies. Until the goal of acceptable cleanup is achieved, dissemination of information about available cleanup techniques is essential - through courses such as these developed by experts in the US and Europe especially for governmental and industrial managers throughout the world.

  13. Cleanup of internal filter cake during flowback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suri, Ajay

    The flow initiation pressure (FIP) is used as an estimate of the differential pressure (between the reservoir and the well) required to initiate production. The standard practice to measure FIP uses a constant flowback rate. This method is shown to be inadequate to measure the FIP. An improved flowback method, which uses a series of constant differential pressures, is used instead to measure the FIP. This method closely represents the constant drawdown experienced between the reservoir and the wellbore. In addition the permeability during flowback is measured at increasing differential pressures, resulting in a spectrum of return permeability values. Two types of drilling fluids (sized calcium carbonate and bentonite) are used for conducting the filtration and flowback experiments for porous media ranging in permeability from 4 to 1500 md. Both single-phase and two-phase experiments are conducted in lab-simulated open-hole and perforated completions to better understand the factors affecting the FIP and the return permeability spectra. We observe small values for FIP in all the experiments (considerably smaller than those measured using the constant flowback method). The values of FIP yield pressure gradients that are achievable in vertical wells but may not be easily achieved in horizontal wells. The FIP and the return permeability spectra are controlled by the cleanup of the internal filter cake. A Bingham fluid in a network of pores is used to model the cleanup of the internal filter cake during flowback. The results indicate that very large pressure gradients are required during flowback to cleanup the entire internal filter cake. However, a pressure gradient of 10 psi/inch is found to yield a skin factor < 1 for most open-hole completions. For perforated completions, pressure gradients up to 20 psi/inch and flow rates up to 0.3 bbl/day/perf yield skin factors < 2.

  14. Landfill gas cleanup for fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    EPRI is to test the feasibility of using a carbonate fuel cell to generate electricity from landfill gas. Landfills produce a substantial quantity of methane gas, a natural by-product of decaying organic wastes. Landfill gas, however, contains sulfur and halogen compounds, which are known contaminants to fuel cells and their fuel processing equipment. The objective of this project is to clean the landfill gas well enough to be used by the fuel cell without making the process prohibitively expensive. The cleanup system tested in this effort could also be adapted for use with other fuel cells (e.g., solid oxide, phosphoric acid) running on landfill gas.

  15. Oil spill cleanup method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Mayes, F.M.

    1980-06-24

    A method for removing oil from the surface of water where an oil spill has occurred, particularly in obstructed or shallow areas, which comprises partially surrounding a hovercraft with a floating oil-collecting barrier, there being no barrier at the front of the hovercraft, moving the oil-barrier-surrounded-hovercraft into oil contaminated water, and collecting oil gathered within the barrier behind the hovercraft through a suction line which carries the oil to a storage tank aboard the hovercraft. The invention also embodies the hovercraft adapted to effect an oil spill cleanup.

  16. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Snyder, T.R.

    1999-09-30

    The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup particulate samples and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract were designed to address problems with filter operation that have been linked to characteristics of the collected particulate matter. One objective of this work was to generate an interactive, computerized data bank of the key physical and chemical characteristics of ash and char collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these characteristics to the operation and performance of these filters. The interactive data bank summarizes analyses of over 160 ash and char samples from fifteen pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities utilizing high-temperature, high pressure barrier filters.

  17. Mission Possible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittle, Penny, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    As teachers, our most important mission is to turn our students into readers. It sounds so simple, but it's hard work, and we're all on a deadline. Kittle describes a class in which her own expectations that students would become readers combined with a few impassioned strategies succeeded ... at least with a young man named Alan.

  18. Groundwater cleanup demonstrations at Complex 34, CCAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On top of the block house at Launch Complex 34, representatives from environmental and Federal agencies hear from Laymon Gray, with Florida State University, about the environmental research project that involves the Department of Defense, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy and NASA in a groundwater cleanup effort. Concentrations of trichloroethylene solvent have been identified in the soil at the complex as a result of cleaning methods for rocket parts during the Apollo Program, which used the complex, in the 60s. The group formed the Interagency NDAPL Consortium (IDC) to study three contamination cleanup technologies: Six Phase Soil Heating, Steam Injection and In Situ Oxidation with Potassium Permanganate. All three methods may offer a way to remove the contaminants in months instead of decades. In the background (left) can be seen the cement platform and walkway from the block house to the pad. Beyond it is the Atlantic Ocean. KSC hosted a two-day conference that presented information and demonstrations of the three technologies being tested at the site.

  19. Resting-state FMRI confounds and cleanup

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M.; Bandettini, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) is to investigate the brain’s functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain “at rest” as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of FMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state FMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO2 concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state FMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state FMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline. PMID:23571418

  20. FFTF Isotope Production and Irradiation Services Mission Waste Stream Estimates and Management

    SciTech Connect

    NIELSEN, D.L.

    1999-12-01

    The composite projected radioactive waste streams for the proposed mission and corresponding comparisons with projected Hanford Site inventories from other sources are depicted below. In all cases, the waste additions from the proposed mission are well within the error bands of the projected waste volumes from other Hanford sources. Therefore the proposed Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) mission will have insignificant impact on any aspect of Hanford cleanup.

  1. Grand Challenge Problems in Real-Time Mission Control Systems for NASA's 21st Century Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara B.; Donohue, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    Space missions of the 21st Century will be characterized by constellations of distributed spacecraft, miniaturized sensors and satellites, increased levels of automation, intelligent onboard processing, and mission autonomy. Programmatically, these missions will be noted for dramatically decreased budgets and mission development lifecycles. Current progress towards flexible, scaleable, low-cost, reusable mission control systems must accelerate given the current mission deployment schedule, and new technology will need to be infused to achieve desired levels of autonomy and processing capability. This paper will discuss current and future missions being managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. It will describe the current state of mission control systems and the problems they need to overcome to support the missions of the 21st Century.

  2. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  3. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-10

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  4. 48 CFR 49.105-4 - Cleanup of construction site.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleanup of construction site. 49.105-4 Section 49.105-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TERMINATION OF CONTRACTS General Principles 49.105-4 Cleanup of construction site....

  5. Community Cleanup. Youth in Action Bulletin, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

    Every community has areas--public parks, schoolyards, sidewalks--that are neglected, vandalized, or just plain run down. Young people can help clean up those places by getting involved in a community cleanup project. As explained in this bulletin, a community cleanup is a project in which volunteers of all ages work together to spruce up a chosen…

  6. Review of State Soil Cleanup Levels for Dioxin (December 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This final report summarizes a survey of state soil cleanup levels for dioxin and characterizes the science underlying these values. The objective of this project was to summarize existing state cleanup levels for dioxin in soil, together with their scientific bases where availa...

  7. A new tool for analysis of cleanup criteria decisions.

    PubMed

    Klemic, Gladys A; Bailey, Paul; Elcock, Deborah

    2003-08-01

    Radionuclides and other hazardous materials resulting from processes used in nuclear weapons production contaminate soil, groundwater, and buildings around the United States. Cleanup criteria for environmental contaminants are agreed on prior to remediation and underpin the scope and legacy of the cleanup process. Analysis of cleanup criteria can be relevant for future agreements and may also provide insight into a complex decision making process where science and policy issues converge. An Internet accessible database has been established to summarize cleanup criteria and related factors involved in U.S. Department of Energy remediation decisions. This paper reports on a new user interface for the database that is designed to integrate related information into graphic displays and tables with interactive features that allow exploratory data analysis of cleanup criteria. Analysis of 137Cs in surface soil is presented as an example.

  8. All-quad meshing without cleanup

    DOE PAGES

    Rushdi, Ahmad A.; Mitchell, Scott A.; Mahmoud, Ahmed H.; Bajaj, Chandrajit C.; Ebeida, Mohamed S.

    2016-08-22

    Here, we present an all-quad meshing algorithm for general domains. We start with a strongly balanced quadtree. In contrast to snapping the quadtree corners onto the geometric domain boundaries, we move them away from the geometry. Then we intersect the moved grid with the geometry. The resulting polygons are converted into quads with midpoint subdivision. Moving away avoids creating any flat angles, either at a quadtree corner or at a geometry–quadtree intersection. We are able to handle two-sided domains, and more complex topologies than prior methods. The algorithm is provably correct and robust in practice. It is cleanup-free, meaning wemore » have angle and edge length bounds without the use of any pillowing, swapping, or smoothing. Thus, our simple algorithm is fast and predictable. This paper has better quality bounds, and the algorithm is demonstrated over more complex domains, than our prior version.« less

  9. Changing the focus of Brownfields cleanups

    SciTech Connect

    Cichon, E.

    1997-04-01

    The Brownfields Tax Incentive proposed by President Clinton illustrates the remarkable evolution in the government`s view of contaminated property remediation. The current program, spearheaded by the president`s Brownfields Initiative, reflects a significant shift of emphasis. Remedial programs now pinpoint the end use of the affected property as the ultimate objective, with the required cleanup of impacted media regarded as only one of several elements. In place of enforcement, government now is employing incentives--from federal policies limiting landowner liability to proposed tax incentives--to eliminate traditional obstacles to the remediation and reuse of contaminated land. Some three dozen Brownfields Initiative pilot projects have been launched across the country. These first-generation brownfields remediation efforts demonstrate that to realize the program`s regulatory and economic advantages, practical and cost-effective remedial efforts are required.

  10. Risk management: Reducing brownfield cleanup costs

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, N.

    1997-08-01

    Balancing environmental protection with economic vitality is crucial to maintaining competitiveness in world markets. One key initiative that has been identified as important to both environmental protection and the economy is the redevelopment of brownfields. Brownfield redevelopment can stimulate local economies that have been devastated by lost jobs and can recycle industrial land use, thereby preserving undeveloped lands. Many existing brownfield sites appear on the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) National Priority List (NPL), which designates over 1200 sites and is expected to grow to more than 2000 by the end of the decade. EPA estimates the cost of remediating the sites on the current list will approach $30 billion, with the average cost of remediating a site close to $25 million. Thousands of additional brownfield sites that do not appear on the NPL are listed under state cleanup programs.

  11. Saudis map $450 million gulf spill cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-18

    This paper reports on Saudi Arabia which has earmarked about $450 million to clean up Persian Gulf beaches polluted by history's worst oil spills, created during the Persian Gulf crisis. Details of the proposed cleanup measures were outlined by Saudi environmental officials at a seminar on the environment in Dubai, OPEC News Agency reported. The seminar was sponsored by the Gulf Area Oil Companies Mutual Aid Organization, an environmental cooperative agency set up by Persian Gulf governments. Meantime, a Saudi government report has outlined early efforts designed to contain the massive oil spills that hit the Saudi coast before oil could contaminate water intakes at the huge desalination plants serving Riyadh and cooling water facilities at Al Jubail.

  12. Nanoporous polystyrene fibers for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinyou; Shang, Yanwei; Ding, Bin; Yang, Jianmao; Yu, Jianyong; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2012-02-01

    The development of oil sorbents with high sorption capacity, low cost, scalable fabrication, and high selectivity is of great significance for water environmental protection, especially for oil spillage on seawater. In this work, we report nanoporous polystyrene (PS) fibers prepared via a one-step electrospinning process used as oil sorbents for oil spill cleanup. The oleophilic-hydrophobic PS oil sorbent with highly porous structures shows a motor oil sorption capacity of 113.87 g/g, approximately 3-4 times that of natural sorbents and nonwoven polypropylene fibrous mats. Additionally, the sorbents also exhibit a relatively high sorption capacity for edible oils, such as bean oil (111.80 g/g) and sunflower seed oil (96.89 g/g). The oil sorption mechanism of the PS sorbent and the sorption kinetics were investigated. Our nanoporous material has great potential for use in wastewater treatment, oil accident remediation and environmental protection.

  13. Rocky Flats cleanup receives new deadline

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-30

    The Rocky Flats nuclear weapon plant near Denver narrowly missed a court-ordered shutdown of virtually all cleanup activities when it failed to meet an Aug. 22 deadline for a state permit to store mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes on site. US District Court Judge Lewis Babcock granted a 90-day stay of contempt charges against the US Dept. of Energy, but left open the possibility of civil penalties under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. DOE's problems stem from a lawsuit the Sierra Club won two years ago in which Babcock gave Rocky Flats until Aug. 22 to obtain a RCRA permit or interim status from Colorado to store 600 cu yd of mixed wastes. If DOE failed to do so, the court said it could not generate further hazardous wastes at the site.

  14. Improving oiled shoreline cleanup with COREXIT 9580

    SciTech Connect

    Fiocco, R.J.; Lessard, R.R.; Canevari, G.P.

    1996-08-01

    The cleanup of oiled shorelines has generally been by mechanical, labor-intensive means. The use of a chemical shoreline cleaner to assist in water-flushing oil from the surfaces can result in more complete and more rapid cleaning. Not only is the cleaning process more efficient, but it can also be less environmentally damaging since there is potentially much less human intrusion and stress on the biological community. This paper describes research and applications of COREXIT 9580 shoreline cleaner for treatment of oiled shorelines, including four recent applications in Puerto Rico, Bermuda, Texas and Nova Scotia. Research work on shoreline vegetation, such as mangroves, has also demonstrated the potential use of this product to save and restore oiled vegetation.

  15. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, james; McNamara, P. W.

    2011-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a dedicated technology demonstration space mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a NASA/ESA collaboration to operate a space-based observatory for gravitational waves in the milli-Hertz band. Although the formal partnership between the agencies was dissolved in the Spring of 2011, both agencies are actively pursuing concepts for LISA-like gravitational wave observatories. These concepts take advantage of the significant technology development efforts that have already been made, especially those of the LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder, which is in the late stages of implementation, will place two test masses in drag-free flight and measure the relative acceleration between them. This measurement will validate a number of technologies that are critical to LISA-like gravitational wave instruments including sensing and control of the test masses, drag-free control laws, microNewton thrusters, and picometer-level laser metrology. We will present the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission and associated activities.

  16. Establishing Final Cleanup Decisions for the Hanford Site River Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, J.A.; Sands, J.P.

    2007-07-01

    A major challenge in the River Corridor Closure Contract is establishing final cleanup decisions for the source operable units in the Hanford Site river corridor. Cleanup actions in the river corridor began in 1994 and have been performed in accordance with a 'bias for action' approach adopted by the Tri-Parties - the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology. This approach enabled early application of cleanup dollars on actual remediation of contaminated waste sites. Consequently, the regulatory framework authorizing cleanup actions at source operable units in the river corridor consists largely of interim action records of decision, which were supported by qualitative risk assessments. Obtaining final cleanup decisions for the source operable units is necessary to determine whether past cleanup actions in the river corridor are protective of human health and the environment and to identify any course corrections that may be needed to ensure that ongoing and future cleanup actions are protective. Because the cleanup actions are ongoing, it is desirable to establish the final cleanup decisions as early as possible to minimize the impacts of any identified course corrections to the present cleanup approach. Development of a strategy to obtain final cleanup decisions for the source operable units in a manner that is responsive to desires for an integrated approach with the groundwater and Columbia River components while maintaining the ability to evaluate each component on its own merit represents a significant challenge. There are many different options for grouping final cleanup decisions, and each involved party or stakeholder brings slightly different interests that shape the approach. Regardless of the selected approach, there are several specific challenges and issues to be addressed before making final cleanup decisions. A multi-agency and contractor working group has been established to address

  17. SAMPEX Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, G. M.

    2012-12-01

    SAMPEX was the first of the small explorer (SMEX) series of missions begun by NASA in 1989 to perform heliosphysics and astrophysics investigations with small, rapidly developed satellites. Launched in July 1992 just 39 months after selection, SAMPEX used an 82° inclination low altitude orbit selected to allow studies of solar and interplanetary particles over the polar caps, charge state measurements when the satellite slipped under the geomagnetic cutoff, and a full sampling of magnetospheric L-shells. SAMPEX's three US and one German instrument were ion and electron detectors much more sensitive than previously flown, allowing novel new studies. SAMPEX showed that the anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) component consisted of singly and doubly ionized ions whose acceleration time in the heliosphere was approximately one year, and mapped the trapped radiation belt of ACRs around Earth. SAMPEX produced the first evidence of energy dependence in solar energetic particle ionization states, providing evidence of possible ion stripping in the solar corona. Comparing the low altitude SAMPEX measurements with higher altitude Earth orbiting satellites, SAMPEX discovered a remarkable coherence of the magnetosphere, with all L-shells sampled every ~45 minutes for its 20 year lifetime. These studies helped put the magnetospheric response into context with the changing solar activity cycle, and will provide a key baseline for the new RBSP mission. SAMPEX also traced the precipitation of relativistic electrons into the polar regions and helped illustrate the role of these particles in the production of nitrogen compounds that affect the atmospheric chemistry of ozone destruction. In addition to the science goals, the SMEX program featured development of new technologies and training, including many students at Bowie State University who received NASA Mission Control certification from flying SMEX satellites. This talk will give an overview of the mission and its scientific

  18. Building organizational technical capabilities: a new approach to address the office of environmental management cleanup challenges in the 21. century

    SciTech Connect

    Fiore, J.J.; Rizkalla, E.I.

    2007-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for the nations nuclear weapons program legacy wastes cleanup. The EM cleanup efforts continue to progress, however the cleanup continues to be technologically complex, heavily regulated, long-term, and a high life cycle cost estimate (LCCE) effort. Over the past few years, the EM program has undergone several changes to accelerate its cleanup efforts with varying degrees of success. Several cleanup projects continued to experience schedule delays and cost growth. The schedule delays and cost growth have been attributed to several factors such as changes in technical scope, regulatory and safety considerations, inadequacy of acquisition approach and project management. This article will briefly review the background and schools of thought on strategic management and organizational change practiced in the United States over the last few decades to improve an organisation's competitive edge and cost performance. The article will briefly review examples such as the change at General Electric, and the recent experience obtained from the nuclear industry, namely the long-term response to the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The long-term response to Chernobyl, though not a case of organizational change, could provide some insight in the strategic management approaches used to address people issues. The article will discuss briefly EM attempts to accelerate cleanup over the past few years, and the subsequent paradigm shift. The paradigm shift targets enhancing and/or creating organizational capabilities to achieve cost savings. To improve its ability to address the 21. century environmental cleanup challenges and achieve cost savings, EM has initiated new corporate changes to develop new and enhance existing capabilities. These new and enhanced organizational capabilities include a renewed emphasis on basics, especially technical capabilities including safety, project management

  19. Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering, the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is a 0.95 m aperture photometer scheduled to be launched in 2006. It is designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the relation to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler - velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare.

  20. Payload missions integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, R. A. K.

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of the Payload Missions Integration Contract (PMIC) are summarized. Spacelab Missions no. 1 to 3, OSTA partial payloads, Astro-1 Mission, premission definition, and mission peculiar equipment support structure are addressed.

  1. Tephra fall clean-up in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Josh L.; Wilson, Thomas M.; Magill, Christina

    2015-10-01

    Tephra falls impact urban communities by disrupting transport systems, contaminating and damaging buildings and infrastructures, and are potentially hazardous to human health. Therefore, prompt and effective tephra clean-up measures are an essential component of an urban community's response to tephra fall. This paper reviews case studies of tephra clean-up operations in urban environments around the world, spanning 50 years. It identifies methods used in tephra clean-up and assesses a range of empirical relationships between level of tephra accumulation and clean-up metrics such as collected tephra volume, costs, and duration of operations. Results indicate the volume of tephra collected from urban areas is proportional to tephra accumulation. Urban areas with small tephra accumulations (1,000 m3/km2 or an average of 1 mm thickness) may collect < 1% of the total deposit, whereas urban areas which experience large accumulations (> 50,000 m3/km2 or an average of 50 mm thickness) remove up to 80%. This relationship can inform impact and risk assessments by providing an estimate of the likely response required for a given tephra fall. No strong relationship was found between tephra fall accumulation and clean-up cost or duration for urban environments which received one-off tephra falls, suggesting that these aspects of tephra fall clean-up operations are context specific. Importantly, this study highlights the advantage of effective planning for tephra clean-up and disposal in potentially exposed areas.

  2. Dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl analysis: automation and improvement of clean-up established by example of spices.

    PubMed

    Kleinhenz, Silvia; Jira, Wolfgang; Schwind, Karl-Heinz

    2006-04-01

    To analyze polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in spices by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, a new clean-up method had to be developed owing to the high content of essential oils in the samples. A solid-phase extraction (SPE) column with activated silica endowed with sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide was used. Under these conditions, clean-up was achieved using at least 5-7 g of pepper and even higher amounts of other spices. The automatized clean-up comprised three additional chromatographic steps after accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by gel permeation: chromatography on a florisil SPE column, extract cleaning with the above-mentioned silica SPE column and chromatography with an activated charcoal column. On the basis of this automatized clean-up, a method that is more effective, rapid, simplified and economical than the available methods for PCDD/PCDF and PCB analysis is proposed. In model studies, the average recoveries for PCDDs/PCDFs ranged between 82.6% and 105.6% and for the PCBs between 71.3% and 113.3%.

  3. Tritium research laboratory cleanup and transition project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, A.J.

    1997-02-01

    This Tritium Research Laboratory Cleanup and Transition Project Final Report provides a high-level summary of this project`s multidimensional accomplishments. Throughout this report references are provided for in-depth information concerning the various topical areas. Project related records also offer solutions to many of the technical and or administrative challenges that such a cleanup effort requires. These documents and the experience obtained during this effort are valuable resources to the DOE, which has more than 1200 other process contaminated facilities awaiting cleanup and reapplication or demolition.

  4. Rocky Flats Plant: Test bed for transitioning from weapons production mission to environmental restoration, waste management, and economic development missions

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, A.; Murthy, K.S.; Krenzer, R.W.; Williams, R.E.; Detamore, J.A.; Brown, C.M.; Francis, G.E.; Lucerna, J.J.

    1993-01-07

    Redirection of Rocky Flats Plant`s (RF) mission is an inevitable result of changes in the worldwide social, political, and environmental factors. These changes were exemplified in the cancellation of the W-88 Warhead in January 1992, by the President of the United States. These unprecedented changes have altered the RF`s traditional nuclear weapons production mission to the transition mission, i.e., cleanup, preparation for deactivation and decontamination, decommissioning, dismantlement and demolition, and when appropriate, economic development, of the facilities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the essentials of the technical approach and management actions advanced by EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc., to organize, staff, direct, and control the activities necessary to transition the RF from its historical weapons production mission to the transition mission.

  5. THE ROLE OF LAND USE IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION MAKING AT THREE DOE MEGA-CLEANUP SITES FERNALD & ROCKY FLATS & MOUND

    SciTech Connect

    JEWETT MA

    2011-01-14

    This paper explores the role that future land use decisions have played in the establishment of cost-effective cleanup objectives and the setting of environmental media cleanup levels for the three major U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites for which cleanup has now been successfully completed: the Rocky Flats, Mound, and Fernald Closure Sites. At each site, there are distinct consensus-building histories throughout the following four phases: (1) the facility shut-down and site investigation phase, which took place at the completion of their Cold War nuclear-material production missions; (2) the decision-making phase, whereby stakeholder and regulatory-agency consensus was achieved for the future land-use-based environmental decisions confronting the sites; (3) the remedy selection phase, whereby appropriate remedial actions were identified to achieve the future land-use-based decisions; and (4) the implementation phase, whereby the selected remedial actions for these high-profile sites were implemented and successfully closed out. At each of the three projects, there were strained relationships and distrust between the local community and the DOE as a result of site contamination and potential health effects to the workers and local residents. To engage citizens and interested stakeholder groups - particularly in the role of final land use in the decision-making process, the site management teams at each respective site developed new public-participation strategies to open stakeholder communication channels with site leadership, technical staff, and the regulatory agencies. This action proved invaluable to the success of the projects and reaching consensus on appropriate levels of cleanup. With the implementation of the cleanup remedies now complete, each of the three DOE sites have become models for future environmental-remediation projects and associated decision making.

  6. RTOs favored to bat in cleanup position

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, R.W.

    1995-02-01

    In the volatile organic compound treatment industry, the regenerative thermal oxidizer is the cleanup hitter. In comparison to recent modest growth in the catalytic and recuperative thermal gas treatment segments, growth in RTO sales has been spectacular. An RTO uses a series of packed ceramic beds operated in a cyclical fashion to store the heat generated by VOC combustion. Heat recovery is achieved by redirecting the gas flow periodically so incoming process gas flows through a media-filled vessel that has been heated by contact with the fully combusted gas. Once the incoming gas has been pre-heated by contact with the hot ceramic media, it proceeds to the combustion chamber. After combustion, this maximally hot gas exits through a different ceramic bed, transferring its residual heat in the process. Degree of heat recovery typically approaches 90 percent, and substantially reduces the amount of supplemental fuel required to maintain the necessary temperature for proper combustion efficiency, resulting in significantly reduced operating costs.

  7. Cleanup of a jet fuel spill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesko, Steve

    1996-11-01

    Eaton operates a corporate aircraft hanger facility in Battle Creek, Michigan. Tests showed that two underground storage tanks leaked. Investigation confirmed this release discharged several hundred gallons of Jet A kerosene into the soil and groundwater. The oil moved downward approximately 30 feet and spread laterally onto the water table. Test results showed kerosene in the adsorbed, free and dissolved states. Eaton researched and investigated three clean-up options. They included pump and treat, dig and haul and bioremediation. Jet fuel is composed of readily biodegradable hydrocarbon chains. This fact coupled with the depth to groundwater and geologic setting made bioremediation the low cost and most effective alternative. A recovery well was installed at the leading edge of the dissolved contamination. A pump moved water from this well into a nutrient addition system. Nutrients added included nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium. Additionally, air was sparged into the water. The water was discharged into an infiltration gallery installed when the underground storage tanks were removed. Water circulated between the pump and the infiltration basin in a closed loop fashion. This oxygenated, nutrient rich water actively and aggressively treated the soils between the bottom of the gallery and the top of the groundwater and the groundwater. The system began operating in August of 1993 and reduced jet fuel to below detection levels. In August of 1995 The State of Michigan issued a clean closure declaration to the site.

  8. Central cortical cleanup and zonular deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Antonios, Rafic S; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete removal of the cortex has been advocated to prevent posterior capsular opacification but carries the risk of zonular dehiscence, hence there is a need for a safe maximal cortical cleanup technique in eyes with severe diffuse zonulopathy in subjects above age 90. Methods We used bimanual central cortical cleaning by elevating central fibers and aspirating them toward the periphery. Peripheral cortical fibers were removed passively only when they became loose due to copious irrigation. A one-piece foldable implant was inserted without a capsular tension ring. Postoperative corticosteroid drops were used. Results This technique was safely performed in a dozen eyes with severe pseudo-exfoliation or brunescent cataract with weak zonules. Posterior capsular rupture, iritis, vitreous loss, and lens subluxation were not observed. Moderate capsular phimosis occurred but with maintained central vision. Conclusion The dogma of “complete cortical cleanup” in severe zonulopathy needs to be revisited in favor of a clear visual axis with maximal preservation of the damaged zonules. This technique is ideal in patients above age 90 where posterior capsular opacification and late dislocation of intraocular lens–capsule bag complex are unlikely to occur until several years postoperatively. PMID:27784979

  9. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-30

    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97 ® . Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

  10. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-05

    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97 ® . Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

  11. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-05

    This is the fourth annual report describing the activities performed under Task 1 of Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This work is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. This report summarizes characterizations of ash and char samples from pressurized fluidized-bed combustion and gasification facilities. Efforts are under way to develop a method for preserving fragile filter cakes formed on ceramic filter elements. The HGCU data base was formatted for Microsoft Access 97{reg_sign}. Plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility and completion and delivery of the HGCU data base.

  12. PARTICULATE HOT GAS STREAM CLEANUP TECHNICAL ISSUES

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-26

    This quarterly report describes technical activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of hot gas stream cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under Task 1 of this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. This report includes a description of a device developed to harden a filter cake on a filter element so that the element and cake can subsequently be encapsulated in epoxy and studied in detail. This report also reviews the status of the HGCU data base of ash and char characteristics. Task 1 plans for the remainder of the project include characterization of additional samples collected during site visits to the Department of Energy/Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), encapsulation of an intact filter cake from the PSDF, and completion and delivery of the HGCU data bank. Task 2 of this project concerns the testing and failure analyses of new and used filter elements and filter materials. Task 2 work during the past quarter consisted of hoop tensile and axial compressive stress-strain responses of McDermott ceramic composite and hoop tensile testing of Techniweave candle filters as-manufactured and after exposure to the gasification environment.

  13. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300-18 Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2005-08-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-18 waste site. This site was identified as containing radiologically contaminated soil, metal shavings, nuts, bolts, and concrete.

  14. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300-8 Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2005-11-07

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300-8 waste site. This waste site was formerly used to stage scrap metal from the 300 Area in support of a program to recycle aluminum.

  15. Solvent degradation and cleanup: a survey and recent ORNL studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    This paper surveys the mechanisms for degradation of the tributyl phosphate and diluent components of Purex solvent by acid and radiation, reviews the problems encountered in plant operations resulting from the presence of these degradation products, and discusses methods for minimizing the formation of degradation products and accomplishing their removal. Scrubbing solutions containing sodium carbonate or hydroxylamine salts and secondary cleanup of solvents using solid sorbents are evaluated. Finally, recommendations for improved solvent cleanup are presented. 50 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Cleanup Verification Package for the118-F-2 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron and K. A. Anselm

    2008-02-21

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-2 Burial Ground. This burial ground, formerly called Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 1, was the original solid waste disposal site for the 100-F Area. Eight trenches contained miscellaneous solid waste from the 105-F Reactor and one trench contained solid waste from the biology facilities.

  17. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  18. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  19. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This is the thirteenth quarterly report describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. The analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance studied under this contract are designed to address problems with filter operation that are apparently linked to characteristics of the collected ash. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters and their components. APF operations have also been limited by the strength and durability of the ceramic materials that have served as barrier filters for the capture of entrained HGCU ashes. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analyses of ceramic filter elements currently used in operating APFs and the characterization and evaluation of new ceramic materials. Task I research activities during the past quarter included characterizations of additional ash samples from Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) facilities to the HGCU data base. Task I plans for the next quarter include characterization of samples collected during a site visit on January 20 to the Department of Energy / Southern Company Services Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Further work on the HGCU data base is also planned. Task 2 work during the past quarter included creep testing of a Coors P- I OOA- I specimen machined from Candle FC- 007 after 1166 hours in-service at the Karhula Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) facility. Samples are currently in preparation for microstructural evaluations of Coors P-IOOA-I.Sixteen cordierite rings manufactured by Specific Surfaces were received for testing. Three of the specimens were exposed to the PFBC environment at the PSDF. These specimens are currently being machined for testing.

  20. The Effect of Mission Location on Mission Costs and Equivalent System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Levri, Julie A.; Jones, Harry W.

    2003-01-01

    Equivalent System Mass (ESM) is used by the Advanced Life Support (ALS) community to quantify mission costs of technologies for space applications (Drysdale et al, 1999, Levri et al, 2000). Mass is used as a cost measure because the mass of an object determines propulsion (acceleration) cost (i.e. amount of fuel needed), and costs relating to propulsion dominate mission cost. Mission location drives mission cost because acceleration is typically required to initiate and complete a change in location. Total mission costs may be reduced by minimizing the mass of materials that must be propelled to each distinct location. In order to minimize fuel requirements for missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO), the hardware and astronauts may not all go to the same location. For example, on a Lunar or Mars mission, some of the hardware or astronauts may stay in orbit while the rest of the hardware and astronauts descend to the planetary surface. In addition, there may be disposal of waste or used hardware at various mission locations to avoid propulsion of mass that is no longer needed in the mission. This paper demonstrates how using location factors in the calculation of ESM can account for the effects of various acceleration events and can improve the accuracy and value of the ESM metric to mission planners. Even a mission with one location can benefit from location factor analysis if the alternative technologies under consideration consume resources at different rates. For example, a mission that regenerates resources will have a relatively constant mass compared to one that uses consumables and vents/discards mass along the way. This paper shows examples of how location factors can affect ESM calculations and how the inclusion of location factors can change the relative value of technologies being considered for development.

  1. Geotail mission to explore earth's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, A.; Uesugi, K.; Nakatani, I.; Mukai, T.; Fairfield, D. H.; Acuna, M. H.

    1992-10-01

    The Geotail satellite mission is a cooperative venture of NASA and ISAS of Japan for exploration of the magnetotail region of the earth's magnetosphere. Geotail will deepen understanding into fundamental processes, such as those of energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere, magnetotail particle acceleration, tail energy release onset, the transport of particles between the tail and the inner magnetosphere, the bow shock, and wave-particle interactions. Attention is given to both Geotail spacecraft and mission design.

  2. 2020 Vision for Tank Waste Cleanup (One System Integration) - 12506

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, Benton; Charboneau, Stacy; Olds, Erik

    2012-07-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is to safely retrieve and treat the 56 million gallons of Hanford's tank waste and close the Tank Farms to protect the Columbia River. The millions of gallons of waste are a by-product of decades of plutonium production. After irradiated fuel rods were taken from the nuclear reactors to the processing facilities at Hanford they were exposed to a series of chemicals designed to dissolve away the rod, which enabled workers to retrieve the plutonium. Once those chemicals were exposed to the fuel rods they became radioactive and extremely hot. They also couldn't be used in this process more than once. Because the chemicals are caustic and extremely hazardous to humans and the environment, underground storage tanks were built to hold these chemicals until a more permanent solution could be found. The Cleanup of Hanford's 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemical waste stored in 177 large underground tanks represents the Department's largest and most complex environmental remediation project. Sixty percent by volume of the nation's high-level radioactive waste is stored in the underground tanks grouped into 18 'tank farms' on Hanford's central plateau. Hanford's mission to safely remove, treat and dispose of this waste includes the construction of a first-of-its-kind Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), ongoing retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and building or upgrading the waste feed delivery infrastructure that will deliver the waste to and support operations of the WTP beginning in 2019. Our discussion of the 2020 Vision for Hanford tank waste cleanup will address the significant progress made to date and ongoing activities to manage the operations of the tank farms and WTP as a single system capable of retrieving, delivering, treating and disposing Hanford's tank waste. The initiation of hot operations and subsequent full operations of the WTP are not only dependent upon the successful

  3. THE ROLE OF LIQUID WASTE PRETREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES IN SOLVING THE DOE CLEAN-UP MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, B; Sheryl Bush, S

    2008-10-31

    The objective of this report is to describe the pretreatment solutions that allow treatment to be tailored to specific wastes, processing ahead of the completion schedules for the main treatment facilities, and reduction of technical risks associated with future processing schedules. Wastes stored at Hanford and Savannah River offer challenging scientific and engineering tasks. At both sites, space limitations confound the ability to effectively retrieve and treat the wastes. Additionally, the radiation dose to the worker operating and maintaining the radiochemical plants has a large role in establishing the desired radioactivity removal. However, the regulatory requirements to treat supernatant and saltcake tank wastes differ at the two sites. Hanford must treat and remove radioactivity from the tanks based on the TriParty Agreement and Waste Incidental to Reprocessing (WIR) documentation. These authorizing documents do not specify treatment technologies; rather, they specify endstate conditions. Dissimilarly, Waste Determinations prepared at SRS in accordance with Section 3116 of the 2005 National Defense Authorization Act along with state operating permits establish the methodology and amounts of radioactivity that must be removed and may be disposed of in South Carolina. After removal of entrained solids and site-specific radionuclides, supernatant and saltcake wastes are considered to be low activity waste (LAW) and are immobilized in glass and disposed of at the Hanford Site Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) or formulated into a grout for disposal at the Savannah River Site Saltstone Disposal Facility. Wastes stored at the Hanford Site or SRS comprise saltcake, supernate, and sludges. The supernatant and saltcake waste fractions contain primarily sodium salts, metals (e.g., Al, Cr), cesium-137 (Cs-137), technetium-99 (Tc-99) and entrained solids containing radionuclides such as strontium-90 (Sr-90) and transuranic elements. The sludges contain many of the transition metal hydroxides that precipitate when the spent acidic process solutions are rendered alkaline with sodium hydroxide. The sludges contain Sr-90 and transuranic elements. The wastes stored at each site have been generated and stored for over fifty years. Although the majority of the wastes were generated to support nuclear weapons production and reprocessing, the wastes differ substantially between the sites. Table 5 shows the volumes and total radioactivity (including decay daughters) of the waste phases stored in tanks at each site. At Hanford, there are 177 tanks that contain 56.5 Mgal of waste. SRS has 51 larger tanks, of which 2 are closed, that contain 36.5 Mgal. Mainly due to recovery operations, the waste stored at Hanford has less total curies than that stored at Savannah River. The total radioactivity of the Hanford wastes contains approximately 190 MCi, and the total radioactivity of the Savannah River wastes contains 400 MCi.

  4. Interplanetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A long range plan for solar system exploration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) science payload for first Jupiter orbiters, (2) Mercury orbiter mission study, (3) preliminary analysis of Uranus/Neptune entry probes for Grand Tour Missions, (4) comet rendezvous mission study, (5) a survey of interstellar missions, (6) a survey of candidate missions to explore rings of Saturn, and (7) preliminary analysis of Venus orbit radar missions.

  5. Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kevin W

    2010-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.

  6. Particulate hot gas stream cleanup technical issues

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This is the eleventh in a series of quarterly reports describing the activities performed under Contract No. DE-AC21-94MC31160. Analyses of Hot Gas Stream Cleanup (HGCU) ashes and descriptions of filter performance address aspects of filter operation that are apparently linked to the characteristics of the collected ash or the performance of the ceramic bed filter elements. Task 1 is designed to generate a data base of the key characteristics of ashes collected from operating advanced particle filters (APFS) and to relate these ash properties to the operation and performance of these filters. Task 2 concerns testing and failure analysis of ceramic filter elements. Under Task 1 during the past quarter, analyses were completed on samples obtained during a site visit to the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF). Analyses are in progress on ash samples from the Advanced Particulate Filter (APF) at the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustor (PFBC) that was in operation at Tidd and ash samples from the Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed (PCFB) system located at Karhula, Finland. An additional analysis was performed on a particulate sample from the Transport Reactor Demonstration Unit (TRDU) located at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center. A manuscript and poster were prepared for presentation at the Advanced Coal-Based Power and Environmental Systems `97 Conference scheduled for July 22 - 24, 1997. A summary of recent project work covering the mechanisms responsible for ash deposit consolidation and ash bridging in APF`s collecting PFB ash was prepared and presented at FETC-MGN in early July. The material presented at that meeting is included in the manuscript prepared for the Contractor`s Conference and also in this report. Task 2 work during the past quarter included mechanical testing and microstructural examination of Schumacher FT20 and Pall 326 as- manufactured, after 540 hr in service at Karhula, and after 1166 hr in service at

  7. Turning the Corner on Hanford Tank Waste Cleanup-From Safe Storage to Closure

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, H. L.; Cruz, E. J.; Coleman, S. J.

    2002-02-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) is leading the River Protection Project (RPP) which is responsible for the disposition of 204,000 cubic meters (54 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste that have accumulated in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site since 1944. ORP continues to make good progress on improving the capability to treat Hanford tank waste. Design of the waste vitrification facilities is proceeding well and construction will begin within the next year. Progress is also being made in reducing risk to the worker and the environment from the waste currently stored in the tank farms. Removal of liquids from single-shell tanks (SSTs) is on schedule and we will begin removing solids (salt cake) from a tank (241-U-107) in 2002. There is a sound technical foundation for the waste vitrification facilities. These initial facilities will be capable of treating (vitrifying) the bulk of Hanford tank waste and are the corners tone of the clean-up strategy. ORP recognizes that as the near-term work is performed, it is vital that there be an equally strong and defensible plan for completing the mission. ORP is proceeding on a three-pronged approach for moving the mission forward. First, ORP will continue to work aggressively to complete the waste vitrification facilities. ORP intends to provide the most capable and robust facilities to maximize the amount of waste treated by these initial facilities by 2028 (regulatory commitment for completion of waste treatment). Second, and in parallel with completing the waste vitrification facilities, ORP is beginning to consider how best to match the hazard of the waste to the disposal strategy. The final piece of our strategy is to continue to move forward with actions to reduce risk in the tank farms and complete cleanup.

  8. Hanford Cleanup... Restore the Columbia River Corridor Transition the Central Plateau Prepare and Plan for the End State

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Keith A.

    2006-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State was established during World War II to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project. In 1989, Hanford's mission changed to cleanup and closure; today the site is engaged in one of the world's largest and most aggressive programs to clean up radioactive and hazardous wastes. The size and complexity of Hanford's environmental problems are made even more challenging by the overlapping technical, political, regulatory, financial and cultural issues associated with the cleanup. The physical challenges at the Hanford Site are daunting. More than 50 million gallons of liquid radioactive waste in 177 underground storage tanks; 2,300 tons of spent nuclear fuel;12 tons of plutonium in various forms; 25 million cubic feet of buried or stored solid waste; 270 billion gallons of groundwater contaminated above drinking-water standards spread out over about 80 square miles; more than 1,700 waste sites; and approximately 500 contaminated facilities. With a workforce of approximately 7,000 and a budget of about $1.8 billion dollars this fiscal year, Hanford cleanup operations are expected to be complete by 2035, at a cost of $60 billion dollars. (authors)

  9. Measuring the total value of a river cleanup.

    PubMed

    Alam, M K; Marinova, D

    2003-01-01

    The paper estimates the total value for the community of the cleanup of the Buriganga River. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, was developed on the bank of the Buriganga River in the early 1600s. The river is now near dead mainly due to human interventions. The paper develops a hypothetical cleanup programme to improve the water quality, which will help the overall environment in and around the river. The value of this programme is estimated within the framework of total economic value; non-marketed benefits are measured through a contingent valuation survey and marketed benefits are estimated using market and shadow prices. The findings of the survey suggest that not only are a significant proportion of the residents willing to pay for the cleanup programme, but many are also willing to contribute in non-monetary ways (mainly their time). When the latter contribution is monetised, it represents 60% of the total value for the non-marketed benefits. The marketed benefits are estimated to represent 58% of the overall value of the cleanup programme (18.6 million US dollars/year). A failure to account for all benefits could lead to a gross underestimation of the desirability of providing public funding for the cleanup of dying rivers. PMID:14653645

  10. STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    This video, Part 3 of 4, shows the activities of the STS-109 crew (Scott Altman, Commander; Duane Carey, Pilot; John Grunsfeld, Payload Commander; Nancy Currie, James Newman, Richard Linnehan, Michael Massimino, Mission Specialists) during flight days 6 and 7. The activities from other flight days can be seen on 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 1 of 4 (internal ID 2002139471), 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 2 of 4 (internal ID 2002137664), and 'STS-109 Mission Highlights Resource Tape' Part 4 of 4 (internal ID 2002137577). Flight day 6 features a very complicated EVA (extravehicular activity) to service the HST (Hubble Space Telescope). Astronauts Grunsfeld and Linnehan replace the HST's power control unit, disconnecting and reconnecting 36 tiny connectors. The procedure includes the HST's first ever power down. The cleanup of spilled water from the coollant system in Grunsfeld's suit is shown. The pistol grip tool, and two other space tools are also shown. On flight day 7, Newman and Massimino conduct an EVA. They replace the HST's FOC (Faint Object Camera) with the ACS (Advanced Camera for Surveys). The video ends with crew members playing in the shuttle's cabin with a model of the HST.

  11. Interim Site Assessment and Clean-up Guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    In April 1995 an Interim Site Investigation and Clean-up Guidebook (for petroleum hydrocarbon and volatile organic compound impacted sites) was developed for public use. The purpose of the Guidebook was to offer a new approach to the site cleanup process: one that reduces time, cuts costs, and establishes a defined endpoint for investigations and cleanup actions. The Guidebook provided a matrix to screen for low-risk contaminated sites. After a year of use, the Guidebook was revised in May 1996. The most notable change was in the Petroleum Hydrocarbon Section and the modification of the screening table for petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The changes considered the strong influence of lithology on contaminant transport and recognized the large attenuation of the long chain, heavy oil and tar, hydrocarbons in soils.

  12. Evaluation of beach cleanup effects using linear system analysis.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Hinata, Hirofumi

    2015-02-15

    We established a method for evaluating beach cleanup effects (BCEs) based on a linear system analysis, and investigated factors determining BCEs. Here we focus on two BCEs: decreasing the total mass of toxic metals that could leach into a beach from marine plastics and preventing the fragmentation of marine plastics on the beach. Both BCEs depend strongly on the average residence time of marine plastics on the beach (τ(r)) and the period of temporal variability of the input flux of marine plastics (T). Cleanups on the beach where τ(r) is longer than T are more effective than those where τ(r) is shorter than T. In addition, both BCEs are the highest near the time when the remnants of plastics reach the local maximum (peak time). Therefore, it is crucial to understand the following three factors for effective cleanups: the average residence time, the plastic input period and the peak time.

  13. Implications of the KONVERGENCE Model for Difficult Cleanup Decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, Steven James; Dakins, Maxine Ellen; Gibson, Patrick Lavern; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Kerr, Thomas A; Nitschke, Robert Leon

    2002-08-04

    Abstract—Some cleanup decisions, such as cleanup of intractable contaminated sites or disposal of spent nuclear fuel, have proven difficult to make. Such decisions face high resistance to agreement from stakeholders possibly because they do not trust the decision makers, view the consequences of being wrong as too high, etc. Our project’s goal is to improve sciencebased cleanup decision-making. This includes diagnosing intractable situations, as a step to identifying a path toward sustainable solutions. Companion papers describe the underlying philosophy of the KONVERGENCE Model for Sustainable Decisions,1 and the overall framework and process steps.2 Where knowledge, values, and resources converge (the K, V, and R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision – a decision that works over time. For intractable cases, serious consideration of the adaptable class of alternatives is warranted – if properly implemented and packaged.

  14. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  15. Rail accelerator technology and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zana, L. M.; Kerslake, W. R.

    1985-01-01

    Rail accelerators offer a viable means of launching ton-size payloads from the Earth's surface to space. The results of two mission studies which indicate that an Earth-to-Space Rail Launcher (ESRL) system is not only technically feasible but also economically beneficial, particularly when large amounts of bulk cago are to be delivered to space are given. An in-house experimental program at the Lewis Research Center (LeRC) was conducted in parallel with the mission studies with the objective of examining technical feasibility issues. A 1 m long - 12.5 by 12.5 mm bore rail accelerator as designed with clear polycarbonate sidewalls to visually observe the plasma armature acceleration. The general character of plasma/projectile dynamics is described for a typical test firing.

  16. UTILIZING THE RIGHT MIX OF ENVIRONMENTAL CLEANUP TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bergren, C; Wade Whitaker, W; Mary Flora, M

    2007-05-25

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) Figure 1 is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990s), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical/pH-adjusting injection, phytoremediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baroballs, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and microblowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works proactively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  17. Cleanup/stimulation of a horizontal wellbore using propellants

    SciTech Connect

    Rougeot, J.E.; Lauterbach, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the stimulation/cleanup of a horizontal well bore (Wilson 25) using propellants. The Wilson 25 is a Bartlesville Sand well located in the Flatrock Field, Osage County, Oklahoma. The Wilson 25 was drilled to determine if horizontal drilling could be used as a means to economically recover primary oil that had been left in place in a mostly abandoned oil field because of the adverse effects of water coning. Pump testing of the Wilson 25 horizontal well bore before cleanup or stimulation produced 6 barrels of oil and .84 barrels of water per day. The high percentage of daily oil production to total daily fluid production indicated that the horizontal well bore had accessed potentially economical oil reserves if the fluid production rate could be increased by performing a cleanup/stimulation treatment. Propellants were selected as an inexpensive means to stimulate and cleanup the near well bore area in a uniform manner. The ignition of a propellant creates a large volume of gas which penetrates the formation, creating numerous short cracks through which hydrocarbons can travel into the well bore. More conventional stimulation/cleanup techniques were either significantly more expensive, less likely to treat uniformly, or could not be confined to the near well bore area. Three different propellant torpedo designs were tested with a total of 304' of horizontal well bore being shot and producible. The initial test shot caused 400' of the horizontal well bore to become plugged off, and subsequently it could not be production tested. The second and third test shots were production tested, with the oil production being increased 458% and 349%, respectively, on a per foot basis. The Wilson 25 results indicate that a propellant shot treatment is an economically viable means to cleanup/stimulate a horizontal well bore.

  18. Rail accelerator research at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, W. R.; Cybyk, B. Z.

    1982-01-01

    A rail accelerator was chosen for study as an electromagnetic space propulsion device because of its simplicity and existing technology base. The results of a mission feasibility study using a large rail accelerator for direct launch of ton-size payloads from the Earth's surface to space, and the results of initial tests with a small, laboratory rail accelerator are presented. The laboratory rail accelerator has a bore of 3 by 3 mm and has accelerated 60 mg projectiles to velocities of 300 to 1000 m/s. Rail materials of Cu, W, and Mo were tested for efficiency and erosion rate.

  19. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  20. Mir Mission Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Dockings, module additions, configuration changes, crew changes, and major mission events are tracked for Mir missions 17 through 21 (November 1994 through August 1996). The international aspects of these missions are presented, comprising joint missions with ESA and NASA, including three U.S. Space Shuttle dockings. New Mir modules described are Spektr, the Docking Module, and Priroda.

  1. Missions and Moral Judgement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushnell, Amy Turner

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the history of Spanish-American missions, discussing the view of missions in church history, their role in the Spanish conquest, and the role and ideas of Herbert E. Bolton. Focuses on differences among Spanish borderlands missions, paying particular attention to the Florida missions. (CMK)

  2. Centrifugation applied to drilling fluids and sludge pit cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Grichar, C.N.

    1987-01-01

    Solid bowl decanting centrifuges are an indispensible part of a well-designed, modern oilfield solids control system. They have application throughout the entire drilling process and during the post-drilling sludge pit cleanup operation. As drilling costs rise further, and as environmental regulations become stricter, the decanting centrifuge will become even more important and contribute more heavily to the overall cost effectiveness of the drilling process. The significance of this technology as applied to drilling fluids and sludge pit cleanup is emphasized in this paper.

  3. Toxicology of oil-spill cleanup agents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tjeerdema, R.S.; Singer, M.M.; Scelfo, G.M.; Smalheer, D.L.; Swall, L.M.

    1990-07-01

    The report describes both advanced analytical and biochemical techniques for use with surfactant-based oil spill cleanup agents. It also presents novel aquatic toxicity testing procedures, as well as the results from toxicity testing with the sensitive early life stages of diverse marine organisms. In addition, it describes the metabolic fate, including both tissue and temperature dependence, of a representative surfactant in a marine invertebrate. Finally, it delineates the in vitro effects of surfactant-based oil spill cleanup agents in both marine birds and mammals.

  4. Shared mission operations concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spradlin, Gary L.; Rudd, Richard P.; Linick, Susan H.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, new JPL flight projects have developed a Mission Operations System (MOS) as unique as their spacecraft, and have utilized a mission-dedicated staff to monitor and control the spacecraft through the MOS. NASA budgetary pressures to reduce mission operations costs have led to the development and reliance on multimission ground system capabilities. The use of these multimission capabilities has not eliminated an ongoing requirement for a nucleus of personnel familiar with a given spacecraft and its mission to perform mission-dedicated operations. The high cost of skilled personnel required to support projects with diverse mission objectives has the potential for significant reduction through shared mission operations among mission-compatible projects. Shared mission operations are feasible if: (1) the missions do not conflict with one another in terms of peak activity periods, (2) a unique MOS is not required, and (3) there is sufficient similarity in the mission profiles so that greatly different skills would not be required to support each mission. This paper will further develop this shared mission operations concept. We will illustrate how a Discovery-class mission would enter a 'partner' relationship with the Voyager Project, and can minimize MOS development and operations costs by early and careful consideration of mission operations requirements.

  5. Predicting Mission Success in Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Mark; Richie, Wayne; Rogers, John; Moore, Arlene

    1992-01-01

    In our global society with its increasing international competition and tighter financial resources, governments, commercial entities and other organizations are becoming critically aware of the need to ensure that space missions can be achieved on time and within budget. This has become particularly true for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science (OSS) which has developed their Discovery and Explorer programs to meet this need. As technologies advance, space missions are becoming smaller and more capable than their predecessors. The ability to predict the mission success of these small satellite missions is critical to the continued achievement of NASA science mission objectives. The NASA Office of Space Science, in cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center, has implemented a process to predict the likely success of missions proposed to its Discovery and Explorer Programs. This process is becoming the basis for predicting mission success in many other NASA programs as well. This paper describes the process, methodology, tools and synthesis techniques used to predict mission success for this class of mission.

  6. Superdiffusive shock acceleration and short acceleration times at interplanetary shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, Silvia; Zimbardo, Gaetano

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of time profiles of particles accelerated at interplanetary shock waves has shown evidence for superdiffusive transport in the upstream region. Superdiffusive transport is characterized by a mean square displacement that grows faster than linearly in time and by non Gaussian statistics for the distribution of the particle jump lengths. In the superdiffusive framework it has been shown that particle time profiles upstream of a planar shock decay as power laws, at variance with exponential particle time profiles predicted in the case of diffusive transport. A large number of interplanetary shocks, including coronal mass ejection driven shocks, exhibit energetic particle time profiles that decay as power laws far upstream. In order to take this evidence into account, we have extended the standard theory of diffusive shock acceleration to the case of particle superdiffusive transport (superdiffusive shock acceleration). This has allowed us to derive both hard energy spectral indices and short acceleration times. This new theory has been tested for a number of interplanetary shock waves, observed by the Ulysses and the ACE spacecraft, and for the termination shock. The superdiffusive shock acceleration leads to a strong reduction of the acceleration times (even of about one order of magnitude) with respect to the diffusive shock acceleration. Thus, this new framework provides a substantial advancement in the understanding of the processes of particle acceleration and particle transport, which are among the main objectives of the new Solar Probe and Solar Orbiter space missions.

  7. Technical papers presented at a DOE meeting on criteria for cleanup of transuranium elements in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    Transuranium element soil contamination cleanup experience gained from nuclear weapons accidents and cleanup at Eniwetok Atoll was reviewed. Presentations have been individually abstracted for inclusion in the data base. (ACR)

  8. HANDBOOK ON THE BENEFITS, COSTS, AND IMPACTS OF LAND CLEANUP AND REUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summarizes the theoretical and empirical literature addressing benefit-cost and impact assessment of the land cleanup and reuse scenario. When possible, recommendations are provided for conducting economic analysis of land cleanup and reuse sites and programs. The knowledge base ...

  9. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-2 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    W. S. Thompson

    2006-12-28

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-2 Burial Ground, also referred to as Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2; Burial Ground No. 2; 318-2; and Dry Waste Burial Site No. 2. This waste site was used primarily for the disposal of contaminated equipment, materials and laboratory waste from the 300 Area Facilities.

  10. Enewetak fact book (a resume of pre-cleanup information)

    SciTech Connect

    Bliss, W.

    1982-09-01

    The book contains a group of short treatises on the precleanup condition of the islands in Enewetak Atoll. Their purpose was to provide brief guidance to the radiological history and radiological condition of the islands for use in cleanup of the atoll. (ACR)

  11. Clean-up of lead contaminated sites - the Ontario experience

    SciTech Connect

    Rinne, R.J.; Linzon, S.N.; Stokes, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    Toronto Health Department testing of children residing near one of the smelters has continued to reveal a number of instances of elevated blood lead levels although levels have decreased significantly since the mid-1970's. Air lead emissions from the smelter have been controlled to the point where excursions of the 5 ug/m/sup 3/ Ontario ambient air quality criterion are infrequent. City of Toronto health authorities have expressed the concern that soil lead levels above 1000 ug/g may be associated with elevated blood lead levels in children. In response to this concern, the Ontario Ministry of the Environment conducted soil sampling on 389 residential properties near the smelter in 1985. The Phytoxicology Section of the Ontario Ministry of the Environment has recently recommended soil clean-up levels of lead and other metals for the decommissioning and redevelopment of industrially-contaminated sites. The recommended soil clean-up levels for lead are 1000 ug/g and 500 ug/g for industrial and residential redevelopment, respectively. The 500 ug/g residential clean-up criterion has been applied to the clean-up of land contaminated by an abandoned tannery and lead smelter complex in the city of Kingston, Ontario. 34 references, 4 tables.

  12. 30 CFR 75.400-2 - Cleanup program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cleanup program. 75.400-2 Section 75.400-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.400-2...

  13. 30 CFR 75.400-2 - Cleanup program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cleanup program. 75.400-2 Section 75.400-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.400-2...

  14. 30 CFR 75.400-2 - Cleanup program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cleanup program. 75.400-2 Section 75.400-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.400-2...

  15. The Morgantown Energy Technology Center`s particulate cleanup program

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    The development of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and pressurized fluidized-bed combustion (PFBC) power systems has made it possible to use coal while still protecting the environment. Such power systems significantly reduce the pollutants associated with coal-fired plants built before the 1970s. This superior environmental performance and related high system efficiency is possible, in part, because particulate gas-stream cleanup is conducted at high-temperature and high-pressure process conditions. A main objective of the Particulate Cleanup Program at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) is to ensure the success of the CCT demonstration projects. METC`s Particulate Cleanup Program supports research, development, and demonstration in three areas: (1) filter-system development, (2) barrier-filter component development, and (3) ash and char characterization. The support is through contracted research, cooperative agreements, Cooperative Research And Development Agreements (CRADAs), and METC`s own in-house research. This paper describes METC`s Particulate Cleanup Program.

  16. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... required. (2) Disposal of cleanup debris and materials. All concentrated soils, solvents, rags, and other...) by standard commercial wipe tests. (ii) All soil within the spill area (i.e., visible traces of soil... restored to its original configuration by back-filling with clean soil (i.e., containing less than 1...

  17. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... required. (2) Disposal of cleanup debris and materials. All concentrated soils, solvents, rags, and other...) by standard commercial wipe tests. (ii) All soil within the spill area (i.e., visible traces of soil... restored to its original configuration by back-filling with clean soil (i.e., containing less than 1...

  18. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... required. (2) Disposal of cleanup debris and materials. All concentrated soils, solvents, rags, and other...) by standard commercial wipe tests. (ii) All soil within the spill area (i.e., visible traces of soil... restored to its original configuration by back-filling with clean soil (i.e., containing less than 1...

  19. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... required. (2) Disposal of cleanup debris and materials. All concentrated soils, solvents, rags, and other...) by standard commercial wipe tests. (ii) All soil within the spill area (i.e., visible traces of soil... restored to its original configuration by back-filling with clean soil (i.e., containing less than 1...

  20. 40 CFR 761.125 - Requirements for PCB spill cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... required. (2) Disposal of cleanup debris and materials. All concentrated soils, solvents, rags, and other...) by standard commercial wipe tests. (ii) All soil within the spill area (i.e., visible traces of soil... restored to its original configuration by back-filling with clean soil (i.e., containing less than 1...

  1. 18. VIEW OF A CANYON IN THE CLEANUP PHASE. CANYONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF A CANYON IN THE CLEANUP PHASE. CANYONS WERE PROCESSING ROOMS USED TO HOUSE PLUTONIUM HANDLING OPERATIONS THAT WERE NOT CONTAINED WITHIN GLOVE BOXES. CANYONS WERE DESIGNED TO BECOME CONTAMINATED. (5/10/88) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    H. M. Sulloway

    2008-10-02

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-6 Burial Ground located in the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit of the 100-F Area on the Hanford Site. The trenches received waste from the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm, including animal manure, animal carcasses, laboratory waste, plastic, cardboard, metal, and concrete debris as well as a railroad tank car.

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 300 VTS Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Clark and T. H. Mitchell

    2006-03-13

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 300 Area Vitrification Test Site, also known as the 300 VTS site. The site was used by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a field demonstration site for in situ vitrification of soils containing simulated waste.

  4. Cleanup Verification Package for the 600-47 Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Cutlip

    2005-08-26

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of interim remedial action for the 600-47 waste site. This site consisted of several areas of surface debris and contamination near the banks of the Columbia River across from Johnson Island. Contaminated material identified in field surveys included four areas of soil, wood, nuts, bolts, and other metal debris.

  5. Marine Debris Clean-Ups as Meaningful Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepath, Carl M.; Bacon, Joseph Scott

    2010-01-01

    This seven to eight week hands-on Marine Debris Clean-up Project used a service project to provide an introduction of marine science ecology, watershed interrelationships, the scientific method, and environmental stewardship to 8th grade middle school students. It utilized inquiry based learning to introduce marine debris sources and impacts to…

  6. 30 CFR 75.400-2 - Cleanup program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cleanup program. 75.400-2 Section 75.400-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.400-2...

  7. 30 CFR 75.400-2 - Cleanup program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cleanup program. 75.400-2 Section 75.400-2 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock Dusting § 75.400-2...

  8. A risk-based approach to cleanup: Problems and pitfalls

    SciTech Connect

    Anspaugh, L.

    1995-10-01

    This paper details information dealing with the meetings of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU). Topics discussed include: Radtest program to summarize all data on radiation doses resulting from nuclear weapons testing; current status of US cleanup strategies; development of new milestones for the project due to reduced budgets; health hazards; and risk reduction.

  9. Wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The search for new methods to accelerate particle beams to high energy using high gradients has resulted in a number of candidate schemes. One of these, wakefield acceleration, has been the subject of considerable R D in recent years. This effort has resulted in successful proof of principle experiments and in increased understanding of many of the practical aspects of the technique. Some wakefield basics plus the status of existing and proposed experimental work is discussed, along with speculations on the future of wake field acceleration. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  10. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  11. Potential Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; McDonald, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  12. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  13. ION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Bell, J.S.

    1959-09-15

    An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.

  14. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  15. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  16. Microgravity acceleration measurement and environment characterization science (17-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) is a general purpose instrumentation system designed to measure the accelerations onboard the Shuttle Orbiter and Shuttle/Spacelab vehicles. These measurements are used to support microgravity experiments and investigation into the microgravity environment of the vehicle. Acceleration measurements can be made at locations remote from the SAMS main instrumentation unit by the use of up to three remote triaxial sensor heads. The prime objective for SAMS on the International Microgravity Lab (IML-1) mission will be to measure the accelerations experienced by the Fluid Experiment System (FES). The SAMS acceleration measurements for FES will be complemented by low level, low frequency acceleration measurements made by the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) installed on the shuttle. Secondary objectives for SAMS will be to measure accelerations at several specific locations to enable the acceleration transfer function of the Spacelab module to be analyzed. This analysis effort will be in conjunction with similar measurements analyses on other Spacelab missions.

  17. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  18. OVERVIEW OF IMPACTS OF TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT ON THE MISSION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, D.; Chamberlain, G.; Looney, B.; Gladden, J.

    2010-11-30

    The Environmental Management (EM) mission is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. The EM program has embraced a mission completion philosophy based on reducing risk and environmental liability over a 40-50 year lifecycle. The Department has made great progress toward safely disposing of its legacy nuclear waste. EM Research and Development (R&D) program management strategies have driven numerous technology and engineering innovations to reduce risk, minimize cleanup costs, and reduce schedules. Engineering and technology investments have provided the engineering foundation, technical assistance, approaches, and technologies that have contributed to moving the cleanup effort forward. These successes include start-up and operation of several waste treatment facilities and processes at the sites.

  19. Cubesat Gravity Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burla, Santoshkumar; Mueller, Vitali; Flury, Jakob; Jovanovic, Nemanja

    2016-04-01

    CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions have been successful in the field of satellite geodesy (especially to improve Earth's gravity field models) and have established the necessity towards the next generation gravity field missions. Especially, GRACE has shown its capabilities beyond any other gravity field missions. GRACE Follow-On mission is going to continue GRACE's legacy which is almost identical to GRACE mission with addition of laser interferometry. But these missions are not only quite expensive but also takes quite an effort to plan and to execute. Still there are few drawbacks such as under-sampling and incapability of exploring new ideas within a single mission (ex: to perform different orbit configurations with multi satellite mission(s) at different altitudes). The budget is the major limiting factor to build multi satellite mission(s). Here, we offer a solution to overcome these drawbacks using cubesat/ nanosatellite mission. Cubesats are widely used in research because they are cheaper, smaller in size and building them is easy and faster than bigger satellites. Here, we design a 3D model of GRACE like mission with available sensors and explain how the Attitude and Orbit Control System (AOCS) works. The expected accuracies on final results of gravity field are also explained here.

  20. Identification of Mission Sensitivities with Mission Modeling from the One System Organization at Hanford - 13292

    SciTech Connect

    Belsher, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Kayla L.; Gimpel, Rod F.

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford site in southeast Washington contains approximately 207 million liters of radioactive and hazardous waste stored in 177 underground tanks. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection is currently managing the Hanford waste treatment mission, which includes the storage, retrieval, treatment and disposal of the tank waste. Two recent studies, employing the modeling tools managed by the One System organization, have highlighted waste cleanup mission sensitivities. The Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator Sensitivity Study evaluated the impact that varying 21 different parameters had on the Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator model. It concluded that inaccuracies in the predicted phase partitioning of a few key components can result in significant changes in the waste treatment duration and in the amount of immobilized high-level waste that is produced. In addition, reducing the efficiency with which tank waste is retrieved and staged can increase mission duration. The 2012 WTP Tank Utilization Assessment concluded that flowsheet models need to include the latest low-activity waste glass algorithms or the waste treatment mission duration and the amount of low activity waste that is produced could be significantly underestimated. (authors)

  1. Emissions from biomass combustion in a fluidized bed combustor and gas cleanup system

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, B.; Lighty, J.S.; Inkley, D.; Eddings, E.; Overacker, D.; Davis, K.; Lee, C.; Sarofim, A.

    1999-07-01

    The University of Utah Department of Chemical and Fuels Engineering and Reaction Engineering International have designed and tested a fluidized bed for resource recovery in a Mars or lunar space station for feed streams consisting of inedible plant biomass and solid human waste. In conjunction with the combustor, the system has an extensive flue gas clean-up system to meet Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations (SMACs). This paper discusses the selection of a rich low-temperature combustion mode that minimizes the ash fusion problems with the high potassium feed and which generates sufficient unburned carbon monoxide to enable the reduction of NO. The components of the gas clean-up stream include: particle removal; HCl removal; NO{sub x} reduction; hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide destruction; sulfur capture; and a final gas polishing unit. Major developmental efforts were required to develop systems for trouble-free waste feeding and NO{sub x} reduction. The combustor is operated at temperatures below 700 C since the ash component of the hydroponically grown inedible biomass has a very low melting point. Low temperature operation results in high levels of CO and unburned hydrocarbons, which can be used as reducing agents for NO{sub x} in the downstream catalytic unit. This is more desirable than using ammonia, which is hazardous, and an expendable reagent that must be stored in sufficient quantity for the duration of a mission. The paper will discuss the results of an innovative catalyst system to reduce NO{sub x}, hydrocarbons, and CO. One important feature of this totally regenerative system is the potential reuse of potassium and sulfur captured in the ash for the hydroponic plant solution.

  2. Soviet Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo is an overall view of the Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia during the Expedition Seven mission. The Expedition Seven crew launched aboard a Soyez spacecraft on April 26, 2003. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  3. Space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Yeomans, D. K. (Editor); Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Hobbs, R. W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

  4. Editing the Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Fogg, Piper

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the decision by Columbia University's new president to reevaluate the mission of its journalism school before naming a new dean, in order to explore how the journalism school fits into the mission of a research university. (EV)

  5. A Neptune Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  6. Mission operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  7. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  8. Threads of Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  9. Utilizing the right mix of environmental cleanup technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, Wade; Bergren, Chris; Flora, Mary

    2007-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile United States Department of Energy nuclear facility located along the Savannah River near Aiken, South Carolina. During operations, which started in 1951, hazardous substances (chemicals and radionuclides) were released to the environment. The releases occurred as a result of inadvertent spills and waste disposal in unlined pits and basins which was common practice before environmental regulations existed. The hazardous substances have migrated to the vadose zone and groundwater in many areas of the SRS, resulting in 515 waste units that are required by environmental regulations, to undergo characterization and, if needed, remediation. In the initial years of the SRS environmental cleanup program (early 1990's), the focus was to use common technologies (such as pump and treat, air stripping, excavation and removal) that actively and tangibly removed contamination. Exclusive use of these technologies required continued and significant funding while often failing to meet acceptable clean-up goals and objectives. Recognizing that a more cost-effective approach was needed, SRS implemented new and complementary remediation methods focused on active and passive technologies targeted to solve specific remediation problems. Today, SRS uses technologies such as chemical / pH-adjusting injection, phyto-remediation, underground cutoff walls, dynamic underground stripping, soil fracturing, microbial degradation, baro-balls, electrical resistance heating, soil vapor extraction, and micro-blowers to more effectively treat contamination at lower costs. Additionally, SRS's remediation approach cost effectively maximizes cleanup as SRS works pro-actively with multiple regulatory agencies. Using GIS, video, animation, and graphics, SRS is able to provide an accurate depiction of the evolution of SRS groundwater and vadose zone cleanup activities to convince stakeholders and regulators of the effectiveness of various cleanup

  10. NASA - 77M prototype hall thruster built under the High Voltage Hall accelerator development project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA - 77M prototype hall thruster built under the High Voltage Hall accelerator development project funded by the Science Mission Directorate ; potential use is propulsion for deep space science missions

  11. STS-87 Mission Highlights Resources Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-87 mission the flight crew, Commander Kevin R. Kregel, Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialists Winston E. Scott, Kalpana Chawla, and Takao Doi, and Payload Specialist Leonid K. Kadenyuk present an overview of there mission. STS-87 will fly the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4), the Spartan-201, the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), the EVA Demonstration Flight Test 5 (EDFT-05). The objective of the observations are to investigate the mechanisms causing the heating of the solar corona and the acceleration of the solar wind which originates in the corona. While flying separately in the cargo bay, the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) is an integral part of USMP-04. It is a highly sensitive instrument designed to acquire and record data of low-level aerodynamic acceleration along the orbiter's principal axes in the free-molecular flow regime at orbital altitudes and in the transition regime during re-entry. OARE data will support advances in space materials processing by providing measurements of the low-level, low frequency disturbance environment affecting various microgravity experiments. OARE data will also support advances in orbital drag prediction technology by increasing the understanding of the fundamental flow phenomena in the upper atmosphere.

  12. Hazardous waste site cleanup standards: The science behind the numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Markey, T.F.; Strohm, B.C.; Neal, L.W.

    1994-12-31

    This paper reviews two of the more progressive state approaches to establishing risk-based environmental cleanup standards and compares them to federal risk assessment guidance and methods. The objective is to provide a comparative evaluation of the scientific approach used by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) and the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection (MADEP). To accomplish this the assumptions used in developing generic cleanup criteria were reviewed. This review supported the scientific justification and rationale of regulatory policies which permit the use of site-specific risk assessments in establishing site remediation goals. The benefits of which can be the selection of more cost-effective remedial alternatives which afford comparable levels of protection of the public health and environment.

  13. San Diego perspective on UST clean-ups

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    In June 1994, CalEPA State Water Resources Control Board (State Board) contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/University of California (LLNL/UC) to review the current UST regulatory framework and cleanup process. As a result of their review, LLNL/UC recommended changes to expedite the cleanup process at leaking UST sites. The LLNL/UC report concludes that natural attenuation of petroleum is an important factor in stabilizing plumes and may be the only remedial activity necessary in the absence of the source. After a review of existing literature and a study of selected leaking UST cases primarily from Coastal Range sedimentary or valley alluvium hydrogeochemical provinces, the LLNL/UC report found that petroleum plumes tend to stabilize close to the source, generally occur in shallow groundwater, and rarely impact drinking water wells in the state. The study and report recommendations focused solely on fuel petroleum hydrocarbon constituents.

  14. Site Cleanup Report for Sites PBF-33 and PBF-34

    SciTech Connect

    W. L. Jolley

    2007-01-16

    This document summaries the actions taken to remove asbestos-reinforced-concrete (transite) pipe and miscellaneous debris from Power Purst Facility (PBF)-33 and PBF-34 sites. Removal of pipe and debris were performed in November 2006 in accordance with the requirements discussed in notice of soil disturbance NSD-PBF-07-01. Debris at these two sites were classified as industrial waste that could be disposed at the Central Facilities Area (CFA) landfill at the Idaho National Laboratory. Asbestos removal was performed as Class IV asbestos cleanup work. All transite pipe was double bagged and dispositioned in the INL Landfill Complex at CFA. The remaining miscellaneous debris was loaded into dump trucks and taken to the INL Landfill Complex at CFA for final disposition. Cleanup actions are complete for both sites, and no debris or hazardous constituents remain. Therefore, both sites will be classified as No action sites.

  15. Environmental liability protection and other advantages of voluntary cleanup programs

    SciTech Connect

    Bost, R.C.; Linton, K.E.

    1997-06-01

    Historically, regulatory agencies have required that contaminated sites be returned to pristine conditions, often at very high costs. Fear of these enormous environmental liabilities has resulted in abandonment of many industrial and commercial properties, referred to as brownfields. The development of Risk-Based Corrective Action programs has provided a means for regulatory agencies to evaluate contaminated sites based on risk to human health and the environment, resulting in more reasonable remedial measures and costs. Governmental bodies have created a more flexible means of addressing contaminated sites using Risk-Based Corrective Action and other incentives to encourage the redevelopment of sites through Voluntary Cleanup Programs. This study describes the development of Voluntary Cleanup Programs, and the successful implementation of Risk-Based Corrective Action with a focus on the states of Texas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma.

  16. RWQCB`s new site assessment and cleanup guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, A.; Nupen, E.

    1995-12-31

    In December 1994, the staff of the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (Regional Board), assisted by its Technical Review Committee (TRC), developed an Interim Site Assessment and Cleanup Guidebook to serve the regulated community in the Region. The regulated community consist of businesses, industries, wastewater treatment plant operators, agriculture and mining industries, stormwater and urban runoff management agencies, etc. The TRC and Regional Board staff were challenged with the task of identifying and recommending ways to reduce the cost incurred by businesses and public agencies as they strive to meet clean water laws--without compromising water quality and public health. During several public workshops, complaints were heard regarding soil and groundwater work plans. In response to the complaints, action was taken to develop a site assessment and cleanup guidebook that provides clear and consistent work plan procedures.

  17. The coast guard's cleanup of hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1989-11-01

    GAO concluded that the Coast Guard still has most of its major hazardous waste cleanup work to do - an effort that will cost millions and will take decades to complete. Yet the Coast Guard cannot confidently estimate long-term cleanup costs until it assesses and investigates potential hazardous waste locations. While Coast Guard data suggest that it is complying with hazardous waste regulations, this GAO report maintains that the Coast Guard may not be collecting the type of information needed to support long-term budget requests. The Coast Guard is planning to reissue reporting instructions in order to stress the importance of reporting violations and related costs. If successful, this effort could help ensure that the Coast Guard has the information necessary to estimate future funding needs.

  18. CERCLA reauthorization 1994: Insuring the cleanup of hazardous substance pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Eubank, K.T.

    1993-12-31

    Authorizing legislation for the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 ({open_quotes}CERCLA{close_quotes} or, more popularly, {open_quotes}Superfund{close_quotes}) will expire September 30, 1994. Enacted more than a decade ago, the CERCLA program is ripe for scrutiny prior to reauthorization. The following questions deserve consideration: has the CERCLA program accomplished its goals, do the benefits of the CERCLA program justify the costs involved, and what administrative or legislative changes will maximize the benefits of the CERCLA program as compared to its costs. Definitive answers to these questions may be impossible to ascertain, but by focusing on basic risk management principles and the issue of insurance coverage for CERCLA cleanups, this article illustrates that inefficiencies and unnecessary costs will plague the cleanup program until CERCLA`s site-specific, strict, retroactive, and joint and several liability scheme is discarded. 78 refs.

  19. Groundwater clean-up: The Savannah River Site experience

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.G.; Surovchak, S.R.

    1991-12-31

    Protection of the Earth`s valuable resources is of great concern to the public in relation to safety and health. One of the resources receiving extensive attention is groundwater. Past waste disposal practices have impacted groundwater quality in many locations throughout the nation. In response, the Federal Government has passed legislation to protect and restore the environment. In many cases, application of this legislation has lead to strict clean-up standards. Savannah River Site (SRS) experiences suggest that meeting clean-up standards is a challenge in light of technical realities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the corrective action program that is addressing a plume of volatile organics beneath the A/M Area of the SRS. The history and status of the program, costs, measures of performance, lessons learned, and challenges faced are presented.

  20. Groundwater clean-up: The Savannah River Site experience

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, J.G. ); Surovchak, S.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Protection of the Earth's valuable resources is of great concern to the public in relation to safety and health. One of the resources receiving extensive attention is groundwater. Past waste disposal practices have impacted groundwater quality in many locations throughout the nation. In response, the Federal Government has passed legislation to protect and restore the environment. In many cases, application of this legislation has lead to strict clean-up standards. Savannah River Site (SRS) experiences suggest that meeting clean-up standards is a challenge in light of technical realities. The purpose of this paper is to describe the corrective action program that is addressing a plume of volatile organics beneath the A/M Area of the SRS. The history and status of the program, costs, measures of performance, lessons learned, and challenges faced are presented.

  1. Advanced solar space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The space missions in solar physics planned for the next decade are similar in that they will have, for the most part, distinct, unifying science objectives in contrast to the more general 'exploratory' nature of the Orbiting Solar Observatory and Skylab/ATM missions of the 1960's and 70's. In particular, the strategy for advanced solar physics space missions will focus on the quantitative understanding of the physical processes that create and control the flow of electromagnetic and particulate energy from the sun and through interplanetary space at all phases of the current sunspot cycle No. 21. Attention is given to the Solar Maximum Mission, the International Solar Polar Mission, solar physics on an early Shuttle mission, principal investigator class experiments for future spacelabs, the Solar Optical Telescope, the Space Science Platform, the Solar Cycle and Dynamics Mission, and an attempt to send a spacecraft to within 4 solar radii of the sun's surface.

  2. Mars landing exploration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzaki, Megumi

    1991-07-01

    The overall concept for Mars observation missions and the systems to implement the missions are reviewed. Reviews are conducted on the following items: (1) profiles of the candidate missions; (2) aerodynamic capture deceleration estimates; (3) prospective Mars orbit decisions; (4) landing methods as the prerequisites for mission accomplishment; and (5) explorer systems to accomplish the missions. The major processes involved in the mission, from the launch to the beginning of observation of the surface, are outlined. Reviews of possible orbits taken by the explorer from Mars transfer orbit (Hohmann orbit) to Mars revolving orbit are presented. Additionally, the possible orbits for the landing vehicle from departing from the revolving orbit through landing are presented. Transportation and landing module design concepts concerning the structure, weight, and electric power balances of the explorer system are presented. Critical Mars mission technologies are cited as follows: (1) inter-planet navigation; (2) aerodynamic capture; (3) automatic and autonomous operation; and (4) landing technology.

  3. LUST update: Petroleum cleanup standards may be eased

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.L.

    1996-10-01

    The California STate Water Resources Control Board recently announced a significant policy shift in cleanup of petroleum pollution from leaking underground storage tanks (LUSTs). This change may indicate a change nationwide toward cost effectiveness in environmental remediation. Specific recommendations from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories triggered this change. This article discusses the recommendations and the follow up: California response, EPA response, other state programs, and recommended individual response.

  4. Myelodysplastic syndromes in Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, Daniil F; Sklyarenko, Lilia M; Koval, Stella V; Rodionova, Nataliia K; Zavelevich, Michael P; Ivanivskaya, Tetiana S; Poludnenko, Liudmyla Yu; Ukrainskaya, Nataliia I

    2015-10-01

    The studies of the recent decades posed the question of the association between radiation exposure and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). This association has been proved in secondary MDS originating upon exposure to chemotherapeutics and/or radiation therapy. The long-term study in Japanese atomic (A)-bomb survivors demonstrated the significant linear dose-response for MDS confirming the link between radiation exposure and this form of hematopoietic malignancies. All these findings provide the strong basis for studying MDS in the persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl disaster, especially those in the cohort of Chernobyl clean-up workers of 1986-1987. The data on MDS among Chernobyl clean-up workers (1986-1987) diagnosed in 1996-2012 at the reference laboratory of RE Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology are summarized. MDS cases were diagnosed in 23 persons (21 males and 2 females) having been exposed to radiation as clean-up workers of 1986-1987. Refractory anemia (RA) has been detected in 13, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS)-in 2, and refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-in 8 patients. The median age of those MDS patients was 62.0 years. In addition, 5 cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) were recorded in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers with the median time of 14.8 years from 1986-1987 to diagnosis. The association between radiation exposure and MDS is discussed. The suggested life-long risk for myelodysplastic syndromes among A-bomb survivors in Japan highlights the importance of the continuing follow-up studies in the affected populations in the post-Chernobyl period. PMID:26208666

  5. Cleanup Verification Package for the 618-8 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Appel

    2006-08-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 618-8 Burial Ground, also referred to as the Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 8, 318-8, and the Early Solid Waste Burial Ground. During its period of operation, the 618-8 site is speculated to have been used to bury uranium-contaminated waste derived from fuel manufacturing, and construction debris from the remodeling of the 313 Building.

  6. Myelodysplastic syndromes in Chernobyl clean-up workers.

    PubMed

    Gluzman, Daniil F; Sklyarenko, Lilia M; Koval, Stella V; Rodionova, Nataliia K; Zavelevich, Michael P; Ivanivskaya, Tetiana S; Poludnenko, Liudmyla Yu; Ukrainskaya, Nataliia I

    2015-10-01

    The studies of the recent decades posed the question of the association between radiation exposure and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). This association has been proved in secondary MDS originating upon exposure to chemotherapeutics and/or radiation therapy. The long-term study in Japanese atomic (A)-bomb survivors demonstrated the significant linear dose-response for MDS confirming the link between radiation exposure and this form of hematopoietic malignancies. All these findings provide the strong basis for studying MDS in the persons exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl disaster, especially those in the cohort of Chernobyl clean-up workers of 1986-1987. The data on MDS among Chernobyl clean-up workers (1986-1987) diagnosed in 1996-2012 at the reference laboratory of RE Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology are summarized. MDS cases were diagnosed in 23 persons (21 males and 2 females) having been exposed to radiation as clean-up workers of 1986-1987. Refractory anemia (RA) has been detected in 13, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS)-in 2, and refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB)-in 8 patients. The median age of those MDS patients was 62.0 years. In addition, 5 cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) were recorded in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers with the median time of 14.8 years from 1986-1987 to diagnosis. The association between radiation exposure and MDS is discussed. The suggested life-long risk for myelodysplastic syndromes among A-bomb survivors in Japan highlights the importance of the continuing follow-up studies in the affected populations in the post-Chernobyl period.

  7. Tritium storage/delivery and associated cleanup systems for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Anderson, B.E.; Watkins, R.A.; Pierce, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Tritium Storage and Delivery System (TSDS) will provide the tritium for high power plasmas in TFTR. TSDS will store tritium as solid uranium tritide at room temperature. At greater than or equal to 400/sup 0/C gas may be released from uranium and pumped through a metal bellows pump to a holding volume. Acceptably pure T/sub 2/ will be passed along a 40 m manifold into the storage volumes of three piezoelectric gas injection valves above the torus. Tests on several above components are described. Process components are contained within evacuable housings and three seismically qualified gloveboxes. Two of these boxes are serviced by catalytic oxidation/dessicant adsorption-based T/sub 2/ cleanup systems, one of which is dedicated and the other also detritiating torus and neutral beam exhaust gases. TSDS is located in a sealable vault, its air purifiable by a third such system. Emergency dehumidification of the torus test cell and its basement is also provided. TSDS and the cleanup systems will operate remotely under hardwired interlocks and operator-interactive computer control. Interlocks are safety-oriented and, e.g., prevent overheating of uranium, overpressurization of bellows pumps, and large glovebox pressure excursions. Tritium monitors are important to cleanup interlocks.

  8. Tritium storage/delivery and associated cleanup systems for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.T.; Anderson, B.E.; Watkins, R.A.; Pierce, C.W.

    1983-04-01

    The tritium storage and delivery system (TSDS) will provide the tritium for high power plasmas in TFTR. TSDS will store tritium as solid uranium tritide at room temperature. At > or approx. =400 /sup 0/C gas may be released from uranium and pumped through a metal bellows pump to a holding volume. Acceptably pure T/sub 2/ will be passed along a approx.100-ft manifold into the storage volumes of three piezoelectric gas injection valves above the torus. Tests on several above components are described. Process components are contained within evacuable housings and three seismically qualified gloveboxes. Two of these boxes are serviced by catalytic oxidation/dessicant adsorption-based T/sub 2/ cleanup systems, one of which is dedicated and the other also detritiating torus and neutral beam exhaust gases. TSDS is located in a sealable vault, it is air purifiable by a third such system. Emergency dehumidification of the torus test cell and its basement is also provided. TSDS and the cleanup systems will operate remotely under hardwired interlocks and operator--interactive computer control. Interlocks are safety-oriented and, e.g., prevent overheating of uranium, overpressurization of bellows pumps, and large glovebox pressure excursions. Tritium monitors are important to cleanup interlocks.

  9. Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement implementation successes and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, D.C.

    1997-02-01

    On July 19, 1996 the US Department of Energy (DOE), State of Colorado (CDPHE), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) entered into an agreement called the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) for the cleanup and closure of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS or Rocky Flats). Major elements of the agreement include: an Integrated Site-Wide Baseline; up to twelve significant enforceable milestones per year; agreed upon soil and water action levels and standards for cleanup; open space as the likely foreseeable land use; the plutonium and TRU waste removed by 2015; streamlined regulatory process; agreement with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) to coordinate activities; and a risk reduction focus. Successful implementation of RFCA requires a substantial effort by the parties to change their way of thinking about RFETS and meet the deliverables and commitments. Substantial progress toward Site closure through the implementation of RFCA has been accomplished in the short time since the signing, yet much remains to be done. Much can be learned from the Rocky Flats experience by other facilities in similar situations.

  10. Accelerated Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

  11. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

    DOEpatents

    Pope, K.E.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

  12. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  13. The ASTRO-H Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dotani, Tadayasu; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2012-07-01

    ASTRO-H, the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission, planed for launch in 2014. ASTRO-H is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector based on a narrow-FOV semiconductor Compton Camera. With these instruments, ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The simultaneous broad band pass, coupled with high spectral resolution of <7 eV by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued. The ASTRO-H mission objectives are to study the evolution of yet-unknown obscured super massive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei; trace the growth history of the largest structures in the Universe; provide insights into the behavior of material in extreme gravitational fields; trace particle acceleration structures in clusters of galaxies and SNRs; and investigate the detailed physics of jets. In this presentation, we will describe the mission, scientific goal and the recent progress of the project.

  14. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  15. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2. Rev. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Masnik, M.T.; Snyder, B.J.

    1984-03-01

    This report updates a plan that defines NRC's role in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) and outlines NRC's regulatory responsibilities in fulfilling this role. These responsibilities include reviewing and approving General Public Utilities Nuclear Corporation (the licensee) proposals for cleanup actions, overseeing the licensee's implementation of approved activities, coordinating wih other federal and state governmental agencies on their activities in the cleanup, and informing local officials and the public about the status of the cleanup. Since the initial issuance of this NRC Plan in July 1980, this office has issued the Final NRC Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) related to the entire TMI-2 cleanup and a draft Supplement to the PEIS related to occupational radiation exposure. Additionally, a number of developments have occurred which will have an impact on the course of cleanup operations. This revision provides a discussion of these developments, specifically in the areas of the functinal role of the NRC in cleanup operations, the cleanup schedule, and the current status of the cleanup. The plan also discusses NRC's perceived role in future cleanup activities.

  16. Manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Terrapin Technologies proposes a Manned Mars Mission design study. The purpose of the Manned Mars Mission is to transport ten people and a habitat with all required support systems and supplies from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the surface of Mars and, after an expedition of three months to return the personnel safely to LEO. The proposed hardware design is based on systems and components of demonstrated high capability and reliability. The mission design builds on past mission experience but incorporates innovative design approaches to achieve mission priorities. These priorities, in decreasing order of importance, are safety, reliability, minimum personnel transfer time, minimum weight, and minimum cost. The design demonstrates the feasibility and flexibility of a waverider transfer module. Information is given on how the plan meets the mission requirements.

  17. The First Spacelab Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H.

    1984-01-01

    The role of the mission manager in coordinating the payload with the space transportation system is studied. The establishment of the investigators working group to assist in achieving the mission objectives is examined. Analysis of the scientific requirements to assure compatibility with available resources, and analysis of the payload in order to define orbital flight requirements are described. The training of payload specialists, launch site integration, and defining the requirements for the operation of the integrated payload and the payload operations control center are functions of the mission manager. The experiences gained from the management of the Spacelab One Mission, which can be implemented in future missions, are discussed. Examples of material processing, earth observations, and life sciences advances from the First Spacelab Mission are presented.

  18. End of Mission Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    While a great deal of effort goes into planning and executing successful mission operations, it is also important to consider the End of the Mission during the planning, design, and operations phases of any mission. Spacecraft and launch vehicles must be disposed of properly in order to limit the generation of orbital debris, and better preserve the orbital environment for all future missions. Figure 30-1 shows a 1990's projected growth of debris with and without the use of responsible disposal techniques. This requires early selection of a responsible disposal scenario, so that the necessary capabilities can be incorporated into the hardware designs. The mission operations must then be conducted in such a way as to preserve, and then actually perform, the planned, appropriate end of mission disposal.

  19. SAMS Acceleration Measurements on MIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskowitz, Milton E.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Finkelstein, Robert; Reckart, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    During NASA Increment 3 (September 1996 to January 1997), about 5 gigabytes of acceleration data were collected by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) onboard the Russian Space Station, Mir. The data were recorded on 11 optical disks and were returned to Earth on STS-81. During this time, SAMS data were collected in the Priroda module to support the following experiments: the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE) and Binary Colloidal Alloy Tests (BCAT). This report points out some of the salient features of the microgravity environment to which these experiments were exposed. Also documented are mission events of interest such as the docked phase of STS-81 operations, a Progress engine burn, attitude control thruster operation, and crew exercise. Also included are a description of the Mir module orientations, and the panel notations within the modules. This report presents an overview of the SAMS acceleration measurements recorded by 10 Hz and 100 Hz sensor heads. Variations in the acceleration environment caused by unique activities such as crew exercise and life-support fans are presented. The analyses included herein complement those presented in previous mission summary reports published by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) group.

  20. Compact accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  1. BICEP's acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2014-10-01

    The recent Bicep2 [1] detection of, what is claimed to be primordial B-modes, opens up the possibility of constraining not only the energy scale of inflation but also the detailed acceleration history that occurred during inflation. In turn this can be used to determine the shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) for the first time — if a single, scalar inflaton is assumed to be driving the acceleration. We carry out a Monte Carlo exploration of inflationary trajectories given the current data. Using this method we obtain a posterior distribution of possible acceleration profiles ε(N) as a function of e-fold N and derived posterior distributions of the primordial power spectrum P(k) and potential V(φ). We find that the Bicep2 result, in combination with Planck measurements of total intensity Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, induces a significant feature in the scalar primordial spectrum at scales k∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc {sup -1}. This is in agreement with a previous detection of a suppression in the scalar power [2].

  2. Juno Mission Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The Juno spacecraft is planned to launch in August of 2012 and would arrive at Jupiter four years later. The spacecraft would spend more than one year orbiting the planet and investigating the existence of an ice-rock core; determining the amount of global water and ammonia present in the atmosphere, studying convection and deep- wind profiles in the atmosphere; investigating the origin of the Jovian magnetic field, and exploring the polar magnetosphere. Juno mission management is responsible for mission and navigation design, mission operation planning, and ground-data-system development. In order to ensure successful mission management from initial checkout to final de-orbit, it is critical to share a common vision of the entire mission operation phases with the rest of the project teams. Two major challenges are 1) how to develop a shared vision that can be appreciated by all of the project teams of diverse disciplines and expertise, and 2) how to continuously evolve a shared vision as the project lifecycle progresses from formulation phase to operation phase. The Juno mission simulation team addresses these challenges by developing agile and progressive mission models, operation simulations, and real-time visualization products. This paper presents mission simulation visualization network (MSVN) technology that has enabled a comprehensive mission simulation suite (MSVN-Juno) for the Juno project.

  3. Cassini Solstice Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda J.; Pappalardo, R.; Scientists, Cassini

    2009-09-01

    Our understanding of the Saturn system has been greatly enhanced by the Cassini-Huygens mission. Fundamental new discoveries have altered our views of Saturn, Titan, the rings, moons, and magnetosphere of the system. The proposed 7-year Cassini Solstice Mission will address new questions that have arisen during the Prime and Equinox Missions, and observe seasonal and temporal change in the Saturn system to prepare for future missions. The proposed Solstice Mission will provide new science in three ways: first, by observing seasonally and temporally dependent processes on Titan, Saturn, and other icy satellites, and within the rings and magnetosphere, in a hitherto unobserved seasonal phase from equinox to solstice; second, by addressing new questions that have arisen during the mission thus far, for example providing qualitatively new measurements of Enceladus which could not be accommodated in the earlier mission phases, and third, by conducting a close-in mission at Saturn that will provide a unique comparison to the Juno observations at Jupiter. These types of observations, absent Cassini, will not be fulfilled for decades to come. This poster summarizes a white paper that has been prepared for the Space Studies Board 2013-2022 Planetary Science Decadal Survey on the Cassini Solstice mission. This work was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA. Copyright 2009 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  4. STEREO Mission Design Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Dunham, David W.; Sharer, Peter J.; Hunt, Jack W.; Ray, J. Courtney; Shapiro, Hongxing S.; Ossing, Daniel A.; Eichstedt, John E.

    2007-01-01

    STEREO (Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory) is the third mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate Sun-Earth Connection theme. This paper describes the successful implementation (lunar swingby targeting) of the mission following the first phasing orbit to deployment into the heliocentric mission orbits following the two lunar swingbys. The STEREO Project had to make some interesting trajectory decisions in order to exploit opportunities to image a bright comet and an unusual lunar transit across the Sun.

  5. Preliminary analysis of space mission applications for electromagnetic launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L. A.; Rice, E. E.; Earhart, R. W.; Conlon, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using electromagnetically launched EML payloads propelled from the Earth's surface to LEO, GEO, lunar orbit, or to interplanetary space was assessed. Analyses of the designs of rail accelerators and coaxial magnetic accelerators show that each is capable of launching to space payloads of 800 KG or more. A hybrid launcher in which EML is used for the first 2 KM/sec followed by chemical rocket stages was also tested. A cost estimates study shows that one to two EML launches per day are needed to break even, compared to a four-stage rocket. Development models are discussed for: (1) Earth orbital missions; (2) lunar base supply mission; (3) solar system escape mission; (4) Earth escape missions; (5) suborbital missions; (6) electromagnetic boost missions; and (7) space-based missions. Safety factors, environmental impacts, and EML systems analysis are discussed. Alternate systems examined include electrothermal thrustors, an EML rocket gun; an EML theta gun, and Soviet electromagnetic accelerators.

  6. The scientific mission of Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, K.-P.; Marsden, R. G.; Page, D. E.; Smith, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    The major aims of the Ulysses' scientific investigations of the heliosphere at all latitudes are described. Missions goals include the assessment of the global three-dimensional properties of the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind, the study of the composition of the solar wind plasma at different heliographic latitudes, and the study of the acceleration of energetic particles in solar flares. Waves, shocks and other discontinuities in the solar wind will be investigated through sampling of various plasma conditions, and interplanetary dust and cosmic rays will be analyzed. Other important goals include the search for gamma-ray-burst sources and for low-frequency gravitational waves by using the spacecraft's radio communication link. Achievement of the Ulysses' solar pole trajectory, which will utilize both launch vehicle thrust and gravitational pull, is also described.

  7. TianQin mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Mei, Jianwei; Shao, Chenggang; Wang, Yan; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Zhou, Ze-Bing; Milyukov, Vadim; Sazhin, Michail

    We introduce the mission concept of TianQin, a spaceborne gravitational waves detector. TianQin will be consisted of three drag-free satellites, forming an equilateral-triangle constellation and orbiting Earth with an altitude of about 105 km. The major scientific goal of TianQin is to detect possible gravitational radiation from Hm Cnc (RX J0806.3+1527), a candidate ultracompact white dwarf binary with a putative orbital period of about 321.5 s. Based on current best models of the binary system, we expect SNR ≥10 after 3 month of observation, given that the noise is dominated by 1 pm Hz-1/2 in position noise and 3×10-15 m s-2 Hz-1/2 in residual acceleration. The progress of preliminary study will be presented in the conference.

  8. Mission requirements: Second Skylab mission SL-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Complete SL-3 mission objectives and requirements, as revised 1 February 1972 (Rev. 6), are presented. Detailed test objectives are also given on the medical experiments, Apollo Telescope Mount experiments, Earth Resources Experiment Package, and corollary experiments and environmental microbiology experiments.

  9. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, James

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), a NASA four-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in November 2014, will investigate magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of the Earth’s magnetosphere, particularly along its dayside boundary with the solar wind and the neutral sheet in the magnetic tail. Among the important questions about reconnection that will be addressed are the following: Under what conditions can magnetic-field energy be converted to plasma energy by the annihilation of magnetic field through reconnection? How does reconnection vary with time, and what factors influence its temporal behavior? What microscale processes are responsible for reconnection? What determines the rate of reconnection?
In order to accomplish its goals the MMS spacecraft must probe both those regions in which the magnetic fields are very nearly antiparallel and regions where a significant guide field exists. From previous missions we know the approximate speeds with which reconnection layers move through space to be from tens to hundreds of km/s. For electron skin depths of 5 to 10 km, the full 3D electron population (10 eV to above 20 keV) has to be sampled at rates greater than 10/s. The MMS Fast-Plasma Instrument (FPI) will sample electrons at greater than 30/s. Because the ion skin depth is larger, FPI will make full ion measurements at rates of greater than 6/s. 3D E-field measurements will be made by MMS once every ms. MMS will use an Active Spacecraft Potential Control device (ASPOC), which emits indium ions to neutralize the photoelectron current and keep the spacecraft from charging to more than +4 V. Because ion dynamics in Hall reconnection depend sensitively on ion mass, MMS includes a new-generation Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer (HPCA) that corrects problems with high proton fluxes that have prevented accurate ion-composition measurements near the dayside magnetospheric boundary. Finally, Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) measurements of electrons and

  10. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  11. Low-frequency vibration environment for five Shuttle missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baugher, George R.; Martin, Gary L.; Delombard, Richard

    1993-03-01

    The Microgravity Science and Applications Division's (MSAD) program to record and analyze the Shuttle's vibration environment is reviewed. This program provides microgravity science investigators with time and frequency analyses of the acceleration environment during their experiments' operation. Information is also provided for future investigators on the expected Shuttle vibration environment. As background, the two major elements of the program are discussed, the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP). A comparison of the acceleration measurements from five Shuttle missions is discussed.

  12. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  13. Practical and scientifically based approaches for cleanup and site restoration.

    PubMed

    Till, John E; McBaugh, Debra

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents practical and scientific approaches for cleanup and site restoration following terrorist events. Both approaches are required in actual emergency situations and are complementary. The practical examples are taken from the May 2003 second biannual national emergency exercise, Top Officials 2 (TOPOFF 2), which occurred in Chicago, Illinois, and Seattle, Washington. The scientific examples are taken from the Department of Energy sites at Rocky Flats, Fernald, and Los Alamos where cleanup initiatives based on scientific approaches and community input are underway. Three examples are provided to explain, from a practical standpoint, how decisions during the exercise had to be made quickly, even though the alternatives were not always clear. These examples illustrate how scientific approaches can be integrated into the resolution of these dilemmas. The examples are (1) use of water to wash city roads and freeways contaminated with plutonium, Am, and Cs; (2) decontamination of large public ferries that passed through a radioactive plume; and (3) handling of wastewater following decontamination within a city. Each of these situations posed the need for an immediate decision by authorities in charge, without the benefit of community input or time for an analysis of the important pathways of exposure. It is evident there is a need to merge the practical knowledge gained in emergency response with scientific knowledge learned from cleanup and site restoration. The development of some basic scientific approaches ahead of time in the form of easy-to-use tools will allow practical decisions to be made more quickly and effectively should an actual terrorist event occur. PMID:16217202

  14. Thyroid nodularity and cancer among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Inskip, P.D.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Tekkel, M.

    1997-02-01

    Thyroid examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, were conducted on nearly 2,000 Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia to evaluate the occurrence of thyroid cancer and nodular thyroid disease among men with protracted exposure to ionizing radiation. The examinations were conducted in four cities in Estonia during March-April 1995, 9 years after the reactor accident. The study population was selected from a predefined cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers from Estonia under surveillance for cancer incidence. These men had been sent to Chernobyl between 1986 and 1991 to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris and perform related cleanup activities. A total of 2,997 men were invited for thyroid screening and 1,984 (66%) were examined. Estimates of radiation dose from external sources were obtained from military or other institutional records, and details about service dates and types of work performed while at Chernobyl were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for assay of chromosomal translocations in circulating lymphocytes and loss of expression of the glycophorin A (GPA) gene in erythrocytes. The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of thyroid nodules as determined by the ultrasound examination. Of the screened workers, 1,247 (63%) were sent to Chernobyl in 1986, including 603 (30%) sent in April or May, soon after the accident. Workers served at Chernobyl for an average of 3 months. The average age was 32 years at the time of arrival at Chernobyl and 40 years at the time of thyroid examination. The mean documented radiation dose from external sources was 10.8 cGy. Biological indicators of exposure showed low correlations with documented dose, but did not indicate that the mean dose for the population was higher than the average documented dose. 47 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  15. The Pioneer Venus Missions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  16. NASA Mission: The Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four chief program offices are briefly described. They are: (1) Aeronautics, Exploration, and Space Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Operations; and (4) Space Science and Applications.

  17. The Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matt; Altobelli, Nicolas; Martin, Patrick; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Following its launch in March 2004, Rosetta underwent 3 Earth and 1 Mars flybys to achieve the correct trajectory to capture the comet, including flybys of asteroid on 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. For June 2011- January 2014 the spacecraft passed through a period of hibernation, due to lack of available power for full payload operation and following successful instrument commissioning, successfully rendezvoused with the comet in August 2014. Following an intense period of mapping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was successfully deployed. Rosetta then embarked on the main phase of the mission, observing the comet on its way into and away from perihelion in August 2015. At the time of writing the mission is planned to terminate with the Rosetta orbiter impacting the comet surface on 30 September 2016. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission and its science. The first author is honoured to give this talk on behalf of all Rosetta mission science, instrument and operations teams, for it is they who have worked tirelessly to make this mission the success it is.

  18. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L. D.; Weissman, P.

    1980-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, launched about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low-energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and the mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. The mission should extend to 400-1000 AU from the sun. A heliocentric hyperbolic escape velocity of 50-100 km/sec or more is needed to attain this distance within a reasonable mission duration (20-50 years). The trajectory should be toward the incoming interstellar gas. For a year 2000 launch, a Pluto encounter and orbiter can be included. A second mission targeted parallel to the solar axis would also be worthwhile. The mission duration is 20 years, with an extended mission to a total of 50 years. A system using one or two stages of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) was selected as a possible baseline. The most promising alternatives are ultralight solar sails or laser sailing, with the lasers in earth orbit, for example. The NEP baseline design allows the option of carrying a Pluto orbiter as a daughter spacecraft.

  19. Mission Medical Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  20. Fulfilling an Ambitious Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rourke, James; Mero, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    Given its success as a high achieving, award-winning magnet school for academically oriented students in grades 9-12, Columbus Alternative High School has more than successfully fulfilled its ambitious mission in the 30 years since it was named. According to the school's mission statement, Columbus Alternative aims "to create a truly alternative…

  1. EIDOSCOPE: particle acceleration at plasma boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaivads, A.; Andersson, G.; Bale, S. D.; Cully, C. M.; De Keyser, J.; Fujimoto, M.; Grahn, S.; Haaland, S.; Ji, H.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Lazarian, A.; Lavraud, B.; Mann, I. R.; Nakamura, R.; Nakamura, T. K. M.; Narita, Y.; Retinò, A.; Sahraoui, F.; Schekochihin, A.; Schwartz, S. J.; Shinohara, I.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.

    2012-04-01

    We describe the mission concept of how ESA can make a major contribution to the Japanese Canadian multi-spacecraft mission SCOPE by adding one cost-effective spacecraft EIDO (Electron and Ion Dynamics Observatory), which has a comprehensive and optimized plasma payload to address the physics of particle acceleration. The combined mission EIDOSCOPE will distinguish amongst and quantify the governing processes of particle acceleration at several important plasma boundaries and their associated boundary layers: collisionless shocks, plasma jet fronts, thin current sheets and turbulent boundary layers. Particle acceleration and associated cross-scale coupling is one of the key outstanding topics to be addressed in the Plasma Universe. The very important science questions that only the combined EIDOSCOPE mission will be able to tackle are: 1) Quantitatively, what are the processes and efficiencies with which both electrons and ions are selectively injected and subsequently accelerated by collisionless shocks? 2) How does small-scale electron and ion acceleration at jet fronts due to kinetic processes couple simultaneously to large scale acceleration due to fluid (MHD) mechanisms? 3) How does multi-scale coupling govern acceleration mechanisms at electron, ion and fluid scales in thin current sheets? 4) How do particle acceleration processes inside turbulent boundary layers depend on turbulence properties at ion/electron scales? EIDO particle instruments are capable of resolving full 3D particle distribution functions in both thermal and suprathermal regimes and at high enough temporal resolution to resolve the relevant scales even in very dynamic plasma processes. The EIDO spin axis is designed to be sun-pointing, allowing EIDO to carry out the most sensitive electric field measurements ever accomplished in the outer magnetosphere. Combined with a nearby SCOPE Far Daughter satellite, EIDO will form a second pair (in addition to SCOPE Mother-Near Daughter) of closely

  2. Cleanup Verification Package for the 116-K-2 Effluent Trench

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2006-04-04

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 116-K-2 effluent trench, also referred to as the 116-K-2 mile-long trench and the 116-K-2 site. During its period of operation, the 116-K-2 site was used to dispose of cooling water effluent from the 105-KE and 105-KW Reactors by percolation into the soil. This site also received mixed liquid wastes from the 105-KW and 105-KE fuel storage basins, reactor floor drains, and miscellaneous decontamination activities.

  3. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    E. J. Farris and H. M. Sulloway

    2008-01-10

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action for the 118-F-1 Burial Ground on the Hanford Site. This burial ground is a combination of two locations formerly called Minor Construction Burial Ground No. 2 and Solid Waste Burial Ground No. 2. This waste site received radioactive equipment and other miscellaneous waste from 105-F Reactor operations, including dummy elements and irradiated process tubing; gun barrel tips, steel sleeves, and metal chips removed from the reactor; filter boxes containing reactor graphite chips; and miscellaneous construction solid waste.

  4. Reverse osmosis reverses conventional wisdom with Superfund cleanup success

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M. ); Miller, K. )

    1994-09-01

    Although widely recognized as the most efficient means of water purification, reverse osmosis has not been considered effective for remediating hazardous wastewater. Scaling and fouling, which can cause overruns and downtime, and require membrane replacement, have inhibited success in high-volume wastewater applications. Despite this background, a reverse osmosis technology developed in Europe recently was used successfully to treat large volumes of contaminated water at a major Superfund site in Texas. The technology's success there may increase the chances for reverse osmosis to find wider use in future cleanups and other waste treatment applications.

  5. Fernald restoration: ecologists and engineers integrate restoration and cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Eric; Homer, John

    2002-07-15

    As cleanup workers excavate pits and tear down buildings at the Fernald site in southwest Ohio, site ecologists are working side-by-side to create thriving wetlands and develop the early stages of forest, prairie, and savanna ecosystems to restore natural resources that were impacted by years of site operations. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy-Fernald Office (DOE-FN) and its cleanup contractor, Fluor Fernald, Inc., initiated several ecological restoration projects in perimeter areas of the site (e.g., areas not used for or impacted by uranium processing or waste management). The projects are part of Fernald's final land use plan to restore natural resources over 904 acres of the 1,050-acre site. Pete Yerace, the DOE-FN Natural Resource Trustee representative is working with the Fernald Natural Resource Trustees in an oversight role to resolve the state of Ohio's 1986 claim against DOE for injuries to natural resources. Fluor Fernald, Inc., and DOE-FN developed the ''Natural Resource Restoration Plan'', which outlines 15 major restoration projects for the site and will restore injured natural resources at the site. In general, Fernald's plan includes grading to maximize the formation of wetlands or expanded floodplain, amending soil where topsoil has been removed during excavation, and establishing native vegetation throughout the site. Today, with cleanup over 35 percent complete and site closure targeted for 2006, Fernald is entering a new phase of restoration that involves heavily remediated areas. By working closely with engineers and cleanup crews, site ecologists can take advantage of remediation fieldwork (e.g., convert an excavated depression into a wetland) and avoid unnecessary costs and duplication. This collaboration has also created opportunities for relatively simple and inexpensive restoration of areas that were discovered during ongoing remediation. To ensure the survival of the plant material in heavily disturbed soils, Fernald will use

  6. STS-69 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Designed by the mission crew members, the patch for STS-69 symbolizes the multifaceted nature of the flight's mission. The primary payload, the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), is represented in the center by the astronaut emblem against a flat disk. The astronaut emblem also signifies the importance of human beings in space exploration, reflected by the planned space walk to practice for International Space Station (ISS) activities and to evaluate space suit design modifications. The two stylized Space Shuttles highlight the ascent and entry phases of the mission. Along with the two spiral plumes, the stylized Space Shuttles symbolize a NASA first, the deployment and recovery on the same mission of two spacecraft (both the Wake Shield Facility and the Spartan). The constellations Canis Major and Canis Minor represent the astronomy objectives of the Spartan and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH) payload. The two constellations also symbolize the talents and dedication of the support personnel who make Space Shuttle missions possible.

  7. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Stefano; LISA Pathfinder Team

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a mission of the European Space Mission aimed at demonstrating the space-time metrology required for space-borne gravitational wave observatories like eLISA. In particular the mission aims at experimentally test the detailed physical model of the eLISA instrument using the hardware to be flown on eLISA. This model predicts that no true forces on test-bodies will compete with gravitational signals in excess to fN/Hz^(-1/2). The mission is in phase C/D and is due to launch in two years. The talk will describe the mission, its development status, and the metrology under test.

  8. Mars Surface Mission Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A workshop was held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute on September 4-5, 1997, to address the surface elements of the Mars Reference Mission now being reviewed by NASA. The workshop considered the current reference mission and addressed the types of activities that would be expected for science and resource exploration and facilities operations. A set of activities was defined that can be used to construct "vignettes" of the surface mission. These vignettes can form the basis for describing the importance of the surface mission, for illustrating aspects of the surface mission, and for allowing others to extend and revise these initial ideas. The topic is rich with opportunities for additional conceptualization. It is recommended that NASA consider supporting university design teams to conduct further analysis of the possibilities.

  9. Kepler Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Mayer, David; Voss, Janice; Basri, Gibor; Gould, Alan; Brown, Timothy; Cockran, William; Caldwell, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is in the development phase with launch planned for 2007. The mission goal first off is to reliably detect a significant number of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The mission design allows for exploring the diversity of planetary sizes, orbital periods, stellar spectral types, etc. In this paper we describe the technical approach taken for the mission design; describing the flight and ground system, the detection methodology, the photometer design and capabilities, and the way the data are taken and processed. (For Stellar Classification program. Finally the detection capability in terms of planet size and orbit are presented as a function of mission duration and stellar type.

  10. The Simbol-X Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrando, P.; Goldwurm, A.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Cavazzuti, E.; Giommi, P.; Piermaria, M.; Fiore, F.; Malaguti, G.; Mereghetti, S.; Micela, G.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Roques, J. P.; Santangelo, A.

    2009-05-11

    The elucidation of key questions in astrophysics, in particular those related to black hole physics and census, and to particle acceleration mechanisms, necessitates to develop new observational capabilities in the hard X-ray domain with performances several orders of magnitude better than presently available. Relying on two spacecrafts in a formation flying configuration, Simbol-X will provide the world-wide astrophysics community with a single optics long focal length telescope. This observatory will have unrivaled performances in the hard X-ray domain, up to {approx}80 keV, as well as very good characteristics in the soft X-ray domain, down to {approx}0.5 keV. The Simbol-X mission has successfully passed a phase A study, jointly conducted by CNES and ASI, with the participation of German laboratories. It is now entering phase B studies with the participation of new international partners, for a launch in 2015. We give in this paper a general overview of the mission, as consolidated at the start of phase B.

  11. NRC plan for cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lo, R.; Snyder, B.J.

    1980-07-01

    The NRC plan defines the functional role of the NRC in cleanup operations at Three Mile Island Unit 2 to assure that agency regulatory responsibilities and objectives will be fulfilled. The plan outlines NRC functions in TMI-2 cleanup operations in the following areas: (1) the functional relationship of NRC to other government agencies, the public, and the licensee to coordinate activities, (2) the functional roles of these organizations in cleanup operations, (3) the NRC review and decision-making procedure for the licensee's proposed cleanup operation, (4) the NRC/licensee estimated schedule of major actions, and (5) NRC's functional role in overseeing implementation of approved licensee activities.

  12. PERCIVAL mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, David W.; Lilley, Stewart; Sirman, Melinda; Bolton, Paul; Elliott, Susan; Hamilton, Doug; Nickelson, James; Shelton, Artemus

    1992-01-01

    With the downturn of the world economy, the priority of unmanned exploration of the solar system has been lowered. Instead of foregoing all missions to our neighbors in the solar system, a new philosophy of exploration mission design has evolved to insure the continued exploration of the solar system. The 'Discovery-class' design philosophy uses a low cost, limited mission, available technology spacecraft instead of the previous 'Voyager-class' design philosophy that uses a 'do-everything at any cost' spacecraft. The Percival Mission to Mars was proposed by Ares Industries as one of the new 'Discovery-class' of exploration missions. The spacecraft will be christened Percival in honor of American astronomer Percival Lowell who proposed the existence of life on Mars in the early twentieth century. The main purpose of the Percival mission to Mars is to collect and relay scientific data to Earth suitable for designing future manned and unmanned missions to Mars. The measurements and observations made by Percival will help future mission designers to choose among landing sites based on the feasibility and scientific interest of the sites. The primary measurements conducted by the Percival mission include gravity field determination, surface and atmospheric composition, sub-surface soil composition, sub-surface seismic activity, surface weather patterns, and surface imaging. These measurements will be taken from the orbiting Percival spacecraft and from surface penetrators deployed from Mars orbit. The design work for the Percival Mission to Mars was divided among four technical areas: Orbits and Propulsion System, Surface Penetrators, Gravity and Science Instruments, and Spacecraft Structure and Systems. The results for each of the technical areas is summarized and followed by a design cost analysis and recommendations for future analyses.

  13. The Alfvén Mission for the ESA M5 Call: Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Berthomier, Matthieu; Pottelette, Raymond; Forsyth, Colin

    2016-04-01

    This poster will present the proposed Alfvén mission concept and is complemented by a presentation of the mission scientific goals planned for the ST1.5 session. The Alfvén mission has the scientific objective of studying particle acceleration and other forms of electromagnetic energy conversion in a collisionless low beta plasma. The mission is proposed to operate in the Earth's Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR), the most accessible laboratory for investigating plasmas at an interface where ideal magneto-hydrodynamics does not apply. Alfvén is designed to answer questions about where and how the particles that create the aurorae are accelerated, how and why they emit auroral kilometric radiation, what creates and maintains large scale electric fields aligned with the magnetic field, and to elucidate the ion outflow processes which are slowly removing the Earth's atmosphere. The mission will provide the required coordinated two-spacecraft observations within the AAR several times a day. From well designed separations along or across the magnetic field lines, using a comprehensive suite of inter-calibrated particles and field instruments, it will measure the parallel electric fields, variations in particle flux, and wave energy that will answer open questions on energy conversion. It will use onboard auroral imagers to determine how this energy conversion occurs in the regional context and, together with its orbit design, this makes the mission ideally suited to resolving spatio-temporal ambiguities that have plagued previous auroral satellite studies. The spacecraft observations will be complemented by coordinated observations with the existing dense network of ground based observatories, for more detailed ionospheric and auroral information when Alfvén overflights occur.

  14. Investing in International Information Exchange Activities to Improve the Safety, Cost Effectiveness and Schedule of Cleanup - 13281

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula; Mathieson, John; Judd, Laurie; Elmetti-Ramirez, Rosa; Han, Ana

    2013-07-01

    With decreasing budgets and increasing pressure on completing cleanup missions as quickly, safely and cost-effectively as possible, there is significant benefit to be gained from collaboration and joint efforts between organizations facing similar issues. With this in mind, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) have formally agreed to share information on lessons learned on the development and application of new technologies and approaches to improve the safety, cost effectiveness and schedule of the cleanup legacy wastes. To facilitate information exchange a range of tools and methodologies were established. These included tacit knowledge exchange through facilitated meetings, conference calls and Site visits as well as explicit knowledge exchange through document sharing and newsletters. A DOE web-based portal has been established to capture these exchanges and add to them via discussion boards. The information exchange is operating at the Government-to-Government strategic level as well as at the Site Contractor level to address both technical and managerial topic areas. This effort has resulted in opening a dialogue and building working relationships. In some areas joint programs of work have been initiated thus saving resource and enabling the parties to leverage off one another activities. The potential benefits of high quality information exchange are significant, ranging from cost avoidance through identification of an approach to a problem that has been proven elsewhere to cost sharing and joint development of a new technology to address a common problem. The benefits in outcomes significantly outweigh the costs of the process. The applicability of the tools and methods along with the lessons learned regarding some key issues is of use to any organization that wants to improve value for money. In the waste management marketplace, there are a multitude of challenges being addressed by multiple organizations and

  15. Deuterium accelerator experiments for APT.

    SciTech Connect

    Causey, Rion A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hertz, Kristin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Cowgill, Donald F. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories in California initiated an experimental program to determine whether tritium retention in the tube walls and permeation through the tubes into the surrounding coolant water would be a problem for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT), and to find ways to mitigate the problem, if it existed. Significant holdup in the tube walls would limit the ability of APT to meet its production goals, and high levels of permeation would require a costly cleanup system for the cooling water. To simulate tritium implantation, a 200 keV accelerator was used to implant deuterium into Al 6061-T and SS3 16L samples at temperatures and particle fluxes appropriate for APT, for times varying between one week and five months. The implanted samples were characterized to determine the deuterium retention and Permeation. During the implantation, the D(d,p)T nuclear reaction was used to monitor the build-up of deuterium in the implant region of the samples. These experiments increased in sophistication, from mono-energetic deuteron implants to multi-energetic deuteron and proton implants, to more accurately reproduce the conditions expected in APT. Micron-thick copper, nickel, and anodized aluminum coatings were applied to the front surface of the samples (inside of the APT walls) in an attempt to lower retention and permeation. The reduction in both retention and permeation produced by the nickel coatings, and the ability to apply them to the inside of the APT tubes, indicate that both nickel-coated Al 6061-T6 and nickel-coated SS3 16L tubes would be effective for use in APT. The results of this work were submitted to the Accelerator Production of Tritium project in document number TPO-E29-Z-TNS-X-00050, APT-MP-01-17.

  16. Activated carbon passes tests for acid-gas cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Harruff, L.G.; Bushkuhl, S.J.

    1996-06-24

    Use of activated carbon to remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the acid-gas feed to Claus sulfur-recovery units has been successfully pilot tested in Saudi Arabia. Pilot plant results are discussed here along with issues involved in scale-up to commercial size. Heavy hydrocarbons, particularly benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) have been linked to coke formation and catalyst deactivation in Claus converters. This deactivation results in reduced sulfur recovery and increased sulfur emissions from these plants. This clean-up process was proven to be capable of removing 95% of the BTX and other C{sub 6}+s from acid gas over a wide range of actual plant conditions. Following the adsorption step, the activated carbon was easily regenerated by use of low-pressure steam. A post-regeneration drying step using plant fuel gas also proved beneficial. The paper discusses feed contaminants, vapor-phase cleanup, testing design, test parameters and results, bed drying after regeneration, regeneration conditions, basic flow, system control, and full-scale installation.

  17. Resting-state fMRI confounds and cleanup.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kevin; Birn, Rasmus M; Bandettini, Peter A

    2013-10-15

    The goal of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is to investigate the brain's functional connections by using the temporal similarity between blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals in different regions of the brain "at rest" as an indicator of synchronous neural activity. Since this measure relies on the temporal correlation of fMRI signal changes between different parts of the brain, any non-neural activity-related process that affects the signals will influence the measure of functional connectivity, yielding spurious results. To understand the sources of these resting-state fMRI confounds, this article describes the origins of the BOLD signal in terms of MR physics and cerebral physiology. Potential confounds arising from motion, cardiac and respiratory cycles, arterial CO₂ concentration, blood pressure/cerebral autoregulation, and vasomotion are discussed. Two classes of techniques to remove confounds from resting-state BOLD time series are reviewed: 1) those utilising external recordings of physiology and 2) data-based cleanup methods that only use the resting-state fMRI data itself. Further methods that remove noise from functional connectivity measures at a group level are also discussed. For successful interpretation of resting-state fMRI comparisons and results, noise cleanup is an often over-looked but essential step in the analysis pipeline.

  18. Hydrophobic modification of polyurethane foam for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Liu, Lifen; Yang, Fenglin

    2012-08-01

    To improve the oleophilic/hydrophobic properties of polyurethane (PU) foams for oil spill cleanup, PU samples were modified by grafting with oleophilic monomer Lauryl methacrylate (LMA) in solvent and/or coating with LMA microspheres through heating and curing. Modified PU cubes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The water sorption of modified PU cubes was decreased by 24-50%, while the diesel or kerosene sorption of modified PU cubes was increased by 18-27%. In water-oil system, compared with blank PU cubes, the sorption capacity of PU cubes grafted with LMA was increased by 44% for diesel and 100% for kerosene. The sorption capacity of PU cubes coated with LMA microspheres was increased by 20% for diesel and 7% for kerosene. The solvent sorption of modified PU cubes could reach 50-69 g/g. The modified PU cubes can be effectively used in oil/solvent spill cleanup. PMID:22749062

  19. Hydrophobic modification of polyurethane foam for oil spill cleanup.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua; Liu, Lifen; Yang, Fenglin

    2012-08-01

    To improve the oleophilic/hydrophobic properties of polyurethane (PU) foams for oil spill cleanup, PU samples were modified by grafting with oleophilic monomer Lauryl methacrylate (LMA) in solvent and/or coating with LMA microspheres through heating and curing. Modified PU cubes were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The water sorption of modified PU cubes was decreased by 24-50%, while the diesel or kerosene sorption of modified PU cubes was increased by 18-27%. In water-oil system, compared with blank PU cubes, the sorption capacity of PU cubes grafted with LMA was increased by 44% for diesel and 100% for kerosene. The sorption capacity of PU cubes coated with LMA microspheres was increased by 20% for diesel and 7% for kerosene. The solvent sorption of modified PU cubes could reach 50-69 g/g. The modified PU cubes can be effectively used in oil/solvent spill cleanup.

  20. Specification of matrix cleanup goals in fractured porous media.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, David J; Kueper, Bernard H

    2013-01-01

    Semianalytical transient solutions have been developed to evaluate what level of fractured porous media (e.g., bedrock or clay) matrix cleanup must be achieved in order to achieve compliance of fracture pore water concentrations within a specified time at specified locations of interest. The developed mathematical solutions account for forward and backward diffusion in a fractured porous medium where the initial condition comprises a spatially uniform, nonzero matrix concentration throughout the domain. Illustrative simulations incorporating the properties of mudstone fractured bedrock demonstrate that the time required to reach a desired fracture pore water concentration is a function of the distance between the point of compliance and the upgradient face of the domain where clean groundwater is inflowing. Shorter distances correspond to reduced times required to reach compliance, implying that shorter treatment zones will respond more favorably to remediation than longer treatment zones in which back-diffusion dominates the fracture pore water response. For a specified matrix cleanup goal, compliance of fracture pore water concentrations will be reached sooner for decreased fracture spacing, increased fracture aperture, higher matrix fraction organic carbon, lower matrix porosity, shorter aqueous phase decay half-life, and a higher hydraulic gradient. The parameters dominating the response of the system can be measured using standard field and laboratory techniques.

  1. IGCC database and hot gas cleanup systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.T.; Klett, M.G.; Rutkowski, M.D.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1993-06-01

    In view of the worldwide coal gasification activity as new technologies become commercial and new installations are designed and built, the DOE feels that there is a need for a concise knowledge source that summarizes information on planned and existing gasification facilities. Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc. has been directed to develop the coal gasification database with the objective of establishing a comprehensive information resource on coal gasification for the DOE. It is a compilation of information/data on the significant power-producing gasification projects being planned, constructed, or operating, as well as those which produce both synthesis gas and end products. The coal-fired integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using hot gas cleanup has the potential for being an attractive low-cost means of producing electrical power for baseload utilities, as well as modular repowering of conventional coal-based steam power plants. To achieve the lowered costs associated with high temperature operation, the DOE Gas Stream Cleanup Program is conducting R&D on high temperature, high pressure contaminant control processes which include particulate control, raw gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration concepts, and the recovery of sulfur in the form of elemental sulfur or sulfuric acid. The program activities are described.

  2. Cleanup of fractured rock aquifers: Implications of matrix diffusion.

    PubMed

    Mutch, R D; Scott, J I; Wilson, D J

    1993-01-01

    As contamination moves through a fractured rock aquifer, it tends to diffuse from the flowing fracture water into the rock's essentially stagnant pore water. This process tends both to retard a contamination plume's advance through a fractured rock aquifer and to substantially increase the difficulty of purging contamination from the aquifer. A mathematical model has been developed to evaluate the potential impact of this phenomenon upon water quality restoration in fractured rock aquifers. The numerical modeling reveals that cleanup of fractured rock aquifers will, in many cases, require many decades, even centuries, to achieve, particularly where substantial improvements in water quality are sought. The parameters which most strongly govern the degree to which matrix diffusion prolongs the aquifer restoration process are the rock's matrix porosity, fracture spacing, and matrix diffusivity, the chemical identity of the contaminant(s), and the length of time the aquifer has been contaminated.Since sedimentary rocks tend to have both relatively high matrix porosities and matrix diffusivities, it can be particularly difficult to purge contamination from sedimentary rock aquifers. Crystalline rocks, in contrast, typically have lower matrix porosities and matrix diffusivities, and therefore undergo more rapid cleanup. However, even in crystalline rocks, attainment of very high degrees of water quality improvement may be problematic. Numerical modeling also indicates that conventional groundwater 'pump and treat' programs are not likely to be very effective in speeding up aquifer restoration if the rate limiting step in the process is diffusion of contaminants from the rock matrix.

  3. Applications of Ion Induction Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, John J.; Briggs*, Richard J.

    As discussed in Chap. 9, the physics of ion induction accelerators has many commonalities with the physics of electron induction accelerators. However, there are important differences, arising because of the different missions of ion machines relative to electron machines and also because the velocity of the ions is usually non-relativistic in these applications. The basic architectures and layout reflects these differences. In Chaps. 6, 7, and 8 a number of examples of electron accelerators and their applications were given, including machines that have already been constructed. In this chapter, we give several examples of potential uses for ion induction accelerators. Although, as of this writing, none of these applications have come to fruition, in the case of heavy ion fusion (HIF) , small scale experiments have been carried out and a sizable effort has been made in laying the groundwork for such an accelerator. A second application, using ion beams for study of High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) or Warm Dense Matter (WDM) physics will soon be realized and the requirements for this machine will be discussed in detail. Also, a concept for a spallation neutron source is discussed in lesser detail.

  4. Recce mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  5. Office of River Protection Mission Completion Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegman, S. A.; Hewitt, W. M.; Yuracko, K.; Holbrook, J. H.

    2002-02-26

    DOE's Office of River Protection (ORP) is readying itself to commence construction of a Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) that will start the process of turning Hanford tank waste into glass. The plant is state-of-the art and includes reasonable flexibility to improve operations as technology and operational understandings improve. During its 40 year design life the plant has the capability to treat half of the total volume of tank waste and reduce risk to the public by up to ninety percent. Looking beyond initial processing towards the project end state, however, it is apparent that ORP's baseline approach is part of the issue raised by the DOE Secretary when he said that $300 billion and 75 years is too costly and too long for DOE's environmental cleanups. ORP has reviewed its cost and schedule drivers and has started identifying areas where better technologies and risk-based strategies could substantially decrease its life cycle cost and schedule. Specific technologies under consideration will be discussed along with expected return on investment. ORP is totally committed to taking all steps necessary during cleanup to protect human health and the environment and to comply with appropriate regulations and commitments. But, ORP is also very conscious of the fact that the history of Hanford production and tank farm operations has resulted in very large tank-to-tank variabilities in the waste constituents. Not all tank wastes demand the same high level of rigor in treatment as provided by the WTP in order to protect people and the environment. Parallel treatment paths, keyed to the hazards and chemical challenges each tank presents, need to be developed. The WTP vitrification capabilities should be deployed for the higher risk wastes that require vitrification. By getting wastes in the proper paths for treatment based upon their chemical characteristics and inherent risks, ORP will be able to both accelerate the cleanup schedule and bring its life cycle and annual

  6. Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R.; Textor, G.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) are summarized. The general objectives of the VIM are to investigate the interplanetary and interstellar media and to continue the Voyager program of ultraviolet astronomy. The VIM will utilize both Voyager spacecraft for the period from January 1990 through December 2019. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, control and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  7. Moon manned mission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, G.; Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Nealy, J. E.; Badavi, F. F.

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found around and on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to obtain mission scenarios minimizing the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time controlling the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The scenarios are evaluated from the point of view of radiation safety with the radiation protection quantities recommended for LEO scenarios.

  8. Is the cutting of oil contaminated marshes an efficient clean-up technique in a subtropical estuary?

    PubMed

    Wolinski, André L T O; Lana, Paulo C; Sandrini-Neto, Leonardo

    2011-06-01

    Cutting and removal of oil-impacted marsh plants are still used worldwide as a clean-up and recovery technique. To experimentally test the efficacy of cutting and removing marsh plants under subtropical conditions, we simulated an oil spill (Bunker MF-180) in Spartina alterniflora marshes and compared the responses of plant height, biomass, density of culms and number of flowering plants in high and low energy areas in Paranaguá Bay (S Brazil) for about 9 months. Cutting and removal were inefficient in promoting or accelerating the recovery of the impacted areas. Cut or uncut impacted marshes fully recovered within 6 months, both in low and high energy areas. Plant cutting should be practiced only when there is an effective risk of contamination of groundwater near urban areas, when obvious aesthetical issues are involved in areas of touristic interest or when there are real short-term conservation risks to threatened species.

  9. Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS)/Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakimzadeh, Roshanak

    1998-01-01

    The Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) payload flew on the Orbiter Columbia on mission STS-78 from June 20th to July 7th, 1996. The LMS payload on STS-78 was dedicated to life sciences and microgravity experiments. Two accelerometer systems managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center (LERC) flew to support these experiments, namely the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) and the Space Acceleration Measurements System (SAMS). In addition, the Microgravity Measurement Assembly (NOAA), managed by the European Space Research and Technology Center (ESA/ESTEC), and sponsored by NASA, collected acceleration data in support of the experiments on-board the LMS mission. OARE downlinked real-time quasi-steady acceleration data, which was provided to the investigators. The SAMS recorded higher frequency data on-board for post-mission analysis. The MMA downlinked real-time quasi-steady as well as higher frequency acceleration data, which was provided to the investigators. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) project at NASA LERC supports principal investigators of microgravity experiments as they evaluate the effects of varying acceleration levels on their experiments. A summary report was prepared by PIMS to furnish interested experiment investigators with a guide to evaluate the acceleration environment during STS-78, and as a means of identifying areas which require further study. The summary report provides an overview of the STS-78 mission, describes the accelerometer systems flown on this mission, discusses some specific analyses of the accelerometer data in relation to the various activities which occurred during the mission, and presents plots resulting from these analyses as a snapshot of the environment during the mission. Numerous activities occurred during the STS-78 mission that are of interest to the low-gravity community. Specific activities of interest during this mission were crew exercise, radiator deployment, Vernier Reaction

  10. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  11. Exobiology and Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P. (Editor); Davis, Wanda, L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Scientific questions associated with exobiology on Mars were considered and how these questions should be addressed on future Mars missions was determined. The mission that provided a focus for discussions was the Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission.

  12. Theme: A Mission Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannebach, Alfred J; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Discusses what the future holds for vocational agriculture. Includes seven articles on the mission of agricultural education, teacher education, the public image, planning, secondary vocational agriculture, needed changes, and a vision for the future. (JOW)

  13. The Mars Observer Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Mars Observer Mission is to be the first in a series of modest-cost inner-planet missions. Launch is planned for the August/September 1990 Mars opportunity with arrival at Mars one year later. The geoscience/climatology objectives are to be met during a mapping mission over the course of one Mars year (687 days). The mapping orbit will be near-polar (93 degree orbital inclination), sun-synchronous (2 PM sunward equator crossing), and near-circular (350 km orbit altitude, 116 minute period). The spacecraft, to be selected in late 1985, will be a modified version of an existing commercial design which, in the mapping orbit, will maintain a nadir orientation. Experiments and instruments will be selected through an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) process with release of the AO in April 1985, and selection in early 1986. A description of current planning for this mission, with emphasis on climatology, is presented here.

  14. Technology Demonstration Missions

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Technology Demonstration Missions (TDM) Program seeks to infuse new technology into space applications, bridging the gap between mature “lab-proven” technology and "flight-ready" status....

  15. STS-111 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pictured here is the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, STS-111 mission insignia. The International Space Station (ISS) recieved a new crew, Expedition Five, replacing Expedition Four after a record-setting 196 days in space, when STS-111 visited in June 2002. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish additional mission objectives: the delivery and installation of a new platform for the ISS robotic arm, the Mobile Base System (MBS) which is an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System allowing the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station; the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm; and unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  16. The Spacelab J mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremin, J. W.; Leslie, F. W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes Spacelab J (SL-J), its mission characteristics, features, parameters and configuration, the unique nature of the shared reimbursable cooperative effort with the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan and the evolution, content and objectives of the mission scientific experiment complement. The mission is planned for launch in 1991. This long module mission has 35 experiments from Japan as well as 9 investigations from the United States. The SL-J payload consists of two broad scientific disciplines which require the extended microgravity or cosmic ray environment: (1) materials science such as crystal growth, solidification processes, drop dynamics, free surface flows, gas dynamics, metallurgy and semiconductor technology; and (2) life science including cell development, human physiology, radiation-induced mutations, vestibular studies, embryo development, and medical technology. Through an international agreement with NASDA, NASA is preparing to fly the first Japanese manned, scientific, cooperative endeavor with the United States.

  17. Mission Control Roses

    NASA Video Gallery

    The 110th bouquet of roses arrived in Mission Control on Saturday, July 9, 2011. They were sent as quietly as they have been for more than 23 years by a family near Dallas, Texas. For 110 shuttle m...

  18. Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. The design of the Rover along with the Athena science payload is also described. Photographs of the Gusev Crater and Meridiani rocks are also shown.

  19. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R. G.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L.; Weissman, P.

    1977-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, with launch about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. Candidate science instruments are suggested. Individual spacecraft systems for the mission were considered, technology requirements and problem areas noted, and a number of recommendations made for technology study and advanced development. The most critical technology needs include attainment of 50-yr spacecraft lifetime and development of a long-life NEP system.

  20. NASA Hurricane Mission - GRIP

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an overview of NASA's hurricane research campaign called Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The six-week mission was conducted in coordination with NOAA and the National Sc...

  1. Apollo 15 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A detailed discussion is presented of the Apollo 15 mission, which conducted exploration of the moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments of scientific data acquisition than previous missions. The topics include trajectory, lunar surface science, inflight science and photography, command and service module performance, lunar module performance, lunar surface operational equipment, pilot's report, biomedical evaluation, mission support performance, assessment of mission objectives, launch phase summary, anomaly summary, and vehicle and equipment descriptions. The capability of transporting larger payloads and extending time on the moon were demonstrated. The ground-controlled TV camera allowed greater real-time participation by earth-bound personnel. The crew operated more as scientists and relied more on ground support team for systems monitoring. The modified pressure garment and portable life support system provided better mobility and extended EVA time. The lunar roving vehicle and the lunar communications relay unit were also demonstrated.

  2. Students on Hayabusa Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three Massachusetts high school students began their summer with a journey halfway around the world to participate in a NASA airborne mission to image the Japanese Hayabusa spacecraft's fiery retur...

  3. The IRIS Mission Timeline

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the timeline of activities for the IRIS mission. Following launch, during the initial orbits, the spacecraft “detumbles”, opens the solar arrays, acquires the sun and com...

  4. Mission X Introduction

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Cady Coleman delivers a message to student teams participating in the Mission X: Train Like An Astronaut international education and fitness challenge. To learn more, ...

  5. Theme: The Expanded Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Eddy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue covers the following topics: modernization of agricultural education, an expanded mission for the field, community development, a national presence for agricultural education, revising curriculum, and interesting students in new careers in agriculture. (SK)

  6. STS-83 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew patch for NASA's STS-83 mission depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia launching into space for the first Microgravity Sciences Laboratory 1 (MSL-1) mission. MSL-1 investigated materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science in the microgravity environment of space, experiments that were conducted in the Spacelab Module in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay. The center circle symbolizes a free liquid under microgravity conditions representing various fluid and materials science experiments. Symbolic of the combustion experiments is the surrounding starburst of a blue flame burning in space. The 3-lobed shape of the outermost starburst ring traces the dot pattern of a transmission Laue photograph typical of biotechnology experiments. The numerical designation for the mission is shown at bottom center. As a forerunner to missions involving International Space Station (ISS), STS-83 represented the hope that scientific results and knowledge gained during the flight will be applied to solving problems on Earth for the benefit and advancement of humankind.

  7. STS-133 Mission Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Discovery and the STS-133 crew launched Feb. 24, 2011, on a mission to deliver the Permanent Multipurpose Module, Robonaut 2 and the Express Logistics Carrier 4 to the International S...

  8. Designing Electrostatic Accelerometers for Next Gravity Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Foulon, Bernard; Christophe, Bruno; Liorzou, Françoise; Boulanger, Damien; Lebat, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Square cuboid electrostatic accelerometers sensor core have been used in various combinations in recent and still flying missions (CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE). ONERA is now in the process of delivering such accelerometers for the GRACE Follow-On mission. The goal is to demonstrate the performance benefits of an interferometry laser ranging method for future low-low satellite to satellite missions. The electrostatic accelerometer becoming thus the system main performance limiter, we propose for future missions a new symmetry which will allow for three ultrasensitive axes instead of two. This implies no performance ground testing, as the now cubic proof-mass will be too heavy, but only free fall tests in catapult mode, taking advantage of the additional microgravity testing time offered by the updated ZARM tower. The updated mission will be in better adequacy with the requirements of a next generation of smaller and drag compensated micro-satellites. In addition to the measurement of the surface forces exerted on the spacecraft by the atmospheric drag and by radiation pressures, the accelerometer will become a major part of the attitude and orbit control system by acting as drag free sensor and by accurately measuring the angular accelerations. ONERA also works on a hybridization of the electrostatic accelerometer with an atomic interferometer to take advantage of the absolute nature of the atomic interferometer acceleration measurement and its great accuracy in the [5-100] mHz bandwidth. After a description of the improvement of the GRACE-FO accelerometer with respect to the still in-orbit previous models and a status of its development, the presentation will describe the new cubic configuration and how its operations and performances can be verified in the Bremen drop tower.

  9. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Luce, M.; Barnett, J.; Beer, R.; Waters, J.; Gille, J.; Levelt, P. F.; DeCola, P.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The EOS Aura Mission is designed to make comprehensive chemical measurements of the troposphere and stratosphere. In addition the mission will make measurements of important climate variables such as aerosols, and upper tropospheric water vapor and ozone. Aura will launch in late 2003 and will fly 15 minutes behind EOS Aqua in a polar sun synchronous ascending node orbit with a 1:30 pm equator crossing time.

  10. Apollo 17 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 17 mission are outlined. The vehicle configuration was similar to those of Apollo 15 and 16. There were significant differences in the science payload for Apollo 17 and spacecraft hardware differences and experiment equipment are described. The mission achieved a landing in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon and returned samples of the pre-Imbrium highlands and young craters.

  11. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-07-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  12. Apollo mission experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    Dosimetric implications for manned space flight are evaluated by analyzing the radiation field behind the heavy shielding of a manned space vehicle on a near-earth orbital mission and how it compares with actual exposure levels recorded on Apollo missions. Emphasis shifts from flux densities and energy spectra to incident radiation and absorbed doses and dose equivalents as they are recorded within the ship at locations close to crew members.

  13. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  14. STEREO Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, David W.; Guzman, Jose J.; Sharer, Peter J.; Friessen, Henry D.

    2007-01-01

    STEREO (Solar-TErestrial RElations Observatory) is the third mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). STEREO is the first mission to utilize phasing loops and multiple lunar flybys to alter the trajectories of more than one satellite. This paper describes the launch computation methodology, the launch constraints, and the resulting nine launch windows that were prepared for STEREO. More details are provided for the window in late October 2006 that was actually used.

  15. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  16. Lessons learned from planetary entry probe missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, Hasso; Atreya, Sushil K.; Kasprzak, Wayne

    Probing the atmospheres and surfaces of the planets and their moons with fast moving entry probes has been a very useful and essential technique to obtain in situ or quasi in situ scientific data (ground truth) which could not otherwise be obtained from fly by or orbiter only missions and where balloon, aircraft or lander missions are too complex and too costly. Planetary entry probe missions have been conducted successfully on Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Titan after having been first demonstrated in the Earth's atmosphere. Future planetary missions should also include more entry probe missions back to Venus and to the outer planets. The success of and science returns from past missions, the need for more and unique data, and a continuously advancing technology generate confidence that future missions will be even more successful with respect to science return and technical performance. There are, however, unique challenges associated with entry probe missions and with building instruments for an entry probe, as compared to orbiters, landers, or rovers. Conditions during atmospheric entry are extreme. There are operating time constraints due to the usually short duration of the probe descent, and the instruments experience rapid environmental changes in temperature and pressure. In addition, there are resource limitations, i.e. mass, power, size and bandwidth. Because of the protective heat shield and the high acceleration the probe experiences during entry, the ratio of payload to total probe mass is usually much smaller than in other missions. Finally, the demands on the instrument design are determined in large part by conditions (pressure, temperature, composition) unique to the particular body under study, and as a result, there is no one-size-fits-all instrument for an atmospheric probe. Many of these requirements are more easily met by miniaturizing the probe instrumentation and consequently reducing the required size of the probe. Improved heat shield

  17. 40 CFR 280.53 - Reporting and cleanup of spills and overfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subpart F in the following cases: (1) Spill or overfill of petroleum that results in a release to the... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reporting and cleanup of spills and... cleanup of spills and overfills. (a) Owners and operators of UST systems must contain and...

  18. 40 CFR 280.53 - Reporting and cleanup of spills and overfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... subpart F in the following cases: (1) Spill or overfill of petroleum that results in a release to the... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reporting and cleanup of spills and... cleanup of spills and overfills. (a) Owners and operators of UST systems must contain and...

  19. 40 CFR 280.53 - Reporting and cleanup of spills and overfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... subpart F in the following cases: (1) Spill or overfill of petroleum that results in a release to the... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reporting and cleanup of spills and... cleanup of spills and overfills. (a) Owners and operators of UST systems must contain and...

  20. 40 CFR 280.53 - Reporting and cleanup of spills and overfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subpart F in the following cases: (1) Spill or overfill of petroleum that results in a release to the... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting and cleanup of spills and... cleanup of spills and overfills. (a) Owners and operators of UST systems must contain and...

  1. 40 CFR 280.53 - Reporting and cleanup of spills and overfills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... subpart F in the following cases: (1) Spill or overfill of petroleum that results in a release to the... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reporting and cleanup of spills and... cleanup of spills and overfills. (a) Owners and operators of UST systems must contain and...

  2. Brownfields to School Sites: How Can the State Facilitate Cleanup To Build Essential Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Select Committee on Environmental Justice.

    This document presents background information and testimony concerning the cleanup of potentially contaminated vacant or underutilized property for use as future school sites in low-income and minority communities. Various proposals are offered that would allow the state, where necessary, to facilitate the cleanup of these "brownfields" to create…

  3. 33 CFR 137.55 - Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Searches for recorded... Standards and Practices § 137.55 Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens. (a) All appropriate inquiries must include a search for the existence of environmental cleanup liens against the facility...

  4. 33 CFR 137.55 - Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Searches for recorded... Standards and Practices § 137.55 Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens. (a) All appropriate inquiries must include a search for the existence of environmental cleanup liens against the facility...

  5. 33 CFR 137.55 - Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Searches for recorded... Standards and Practices § 137.55 Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens. (a) All appropriate inquiries must include a search for the existence of environmental cleanup liens against the facility...

  6. 33 CFR 137.55 - Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Searches for recorded... Standards and Practices § 137.55 Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens. (a) All appropriate inquiries must include a search for the existence of environmental cleanup liens against the facility...

  7. Cleanup Verification Package for the 118-F-5 PNL Sawdust Pit

    SciTech Connect

    L. D. Habel

    2008-05-20

    This cleanup verification package documents completion of remedial action, sampling activities, and compliance with cleanup criteria for the 118-F-5 Burial Ground, the PNL (Pacific Northwest Laboratory) Sawdust Pit. The 118-F-5 Burial Ground was an unlined trench that received radioactive sawdust from the floors of animal pens in the 100-F Experimental Animal Farm.

  8. Soils and groundwater cleanup at Fernald: A status update on Operable Unit No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Yerace, P.J.; Bomberger, A.K.; Brettschneider, D.J.

    1993-11-01

    This report discusses a status update on the cleanup operations at FERNALD. Discussed is the regulatory framework for FERNALD cleanup; overview of the FERNALD site; description of operable unit 5;remedial investigation; pattern of contamination; feasibility studies; and tangible progress to date.

  9. 40 CFR 280.65 - Investigations for soil and ground-water cleanup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-water cleanup. 280.65 Section 280.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Containing Petroleum or Hazardous Substances § 280.65 Investigations for soil and ground-water cleanup. (a... presence and concentrations of dissolved product contamination in the ground water, owners and...

  10. 33 CFR 137.55 - Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Searches for recorded... Standards and Practices § 137.55 Searches for recorded environmental cleanup liens. (a) All appropriate inquiries must include a search for the existence of environmental cleanup liens against the facility...

  11. Risk averse` DOE is wasting time, money in cleanup effort-GAO

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, P.

    1994-09-01

    According to an August 1994 GAO report, internal strife, poor decisionmaking and conflicting stakeholder interests have plague the cleanup effort and prevented DOE from taking advantages of what its won technology program call the best hope for ensuring a substantive waste reduction. This article details the problems effecting radioactive waste cleanup at DOE facilities, and lists the five technology priorities which have been established.

  12. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed.

  13. The Voyager Interstellar Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R. P.; Hall, J. C.; Spradlin, G. L.

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed.

  14. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed eLISA mission. The technologies required for eLISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical eLISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the eLISA constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the eLISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  15. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed. PMID:11540770

  16. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  17. Dumping pump and treat: rapid cleanups using thermal technology

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R.L.; Aines, R.D.

    1997-03-11

    Underground spills of volatile hydrocarbons are often difficult to clean up, especially if the contaminants are present in or below the water table as a separate liquid-organic phase. Excavating and treating the contaminated soil may not be practical or even possible if the affected zone is relatively deep. Merely pumping groundwater has proven to be ineffective because huge amounts of water must be flushed through the contaminated area to clean it; even then the contaminants may not be completely removed. Due to the low solubility of most common contaminants, such pump and treat systems can be expected to take decades to centuries to actually clean a site. Today, many sites are required to pump and treat contaminated groundwater even though there is no expectation that the site will be cleaned. In these cases, the pumps simply control the spread of the contaminant, while requiring a continuous flow of money, paperwork, and management attention. Although pump and treat systems are relatively inexpensive to operate, they represent along term cost. Most importantly, they rarely remove enough contaminant to change the property`s status. Although a pump and treat system can offer compliance in a regulatory sense, it doesn`t solve the site`s liability problem. Thermal methods promise to solve this dilemma by actually cleaning a property in a short time period, thus limiting the period of liability. This may involve cleaning a site to closure during the initial contaminant-removal phase, or removal of the majority of the contaminant so that natural processes such as bioremediation can return the site to pristine condition over a period of years, without further owner intervention. Today`s regulatory environment encourages this approach through efforts such as the brownfields initiatives. In either case, this requires a strong commitment on the part of the site owner. Most if not all the cleanup occurs within the first year or so, and nearly all the cost. In our

  18. Successful implementation of property cleanup under the Ohio and the Texas voluntary programs

    SciTech Connect

    Roffman, A.

    1999-07-01

    Cleanups of two properties, one located in Ohio and the other in Texas were successfully implemented. The facilities were printing plants that manufactured printed material and forms for commercial and industrial use. Primary products and chemicals involved in the manufacturing of the forms included ink, petroleum products and cleaning solvents. The Ohio property underwent a successful cleanup under the Ohio EPA Voluntary Action Program (VAP). It met the Ohio EPA residential land use cleanup standards for soil and shallow groundwater. A No Further Action letter has been submitted to the state and it resulted in the issuance of a Covenant Not to Sue. The Texas facility underwent a successful cleanup under the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) Voluntary Cleanup Program (VCP). It resulted in the issuance of a Certificate of Completion (COC) for residential land use for soil, and a conditional COC for industrial land use for the shallow groundwater.

  19. Methods for evaluating the attainment of cleanup standards. Volume 2. Ground water. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.; DiGaetano, R.; Chu, A.; Bryant, E.; Lipsky, D.

    1992-07-01

    The reference document provides regional project managers, on-site coordinators, and their contractors with sampling and analysis methods for evaluating whether ground water remediation has met pre-established cleanup standards for one or more chemical contaminants at a hazardous waste site. The verification of cleanup by evaluating a site relative to a cleanup standard or an applicable or relevant and appropriate requirement (ARAR) is mandated in Section 121 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). The document, the second in a series, provides sampling and data analysis methods for the purpose of verifying attainment of a cleanup standard in ground water. The first volume addresses evaluating attainment in soils and solid media. Volume 2 presents statistical methods which can be used to address the uncertainty of whether a site has met a cleanup standard.

  20. Ten-year cleanup of U.S. Department of Energy weapon sites: The changing roles for technology development in an era of privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.H.

    1996-12-31

    In its beginning, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM) viewed private industry as lacking adequate technology know-how to meet demands of hazardous and radioactive waste problems at the DOE`s laboratories and nuclear weapons production facilities. In November 1989, EM`s Office of Technology Development (recently renamed the Office of Science and Technology) embarked on a bold program of developing and demonstrating {open_quotes}innovative{close_quotes} waste cleanup technologies that would be safer, faster, more effective, and less expensive than the {open_quotes}baseline{close_quotes} commercial methods. This program has engaged DOE sites, national laboratories, and universities to produce preferred solutions to the problems of handling and treating DOE wastes. More recently, much of this work has shifted to joint efforts with private industry partners to accelerate the use of newly developed technologies and to enhance existing commercial methods. To date, the total funding allocation to the Office of Science and Technology program has been about $2.8 billion. If the technology applications` projects of the EM Offices of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management are included, the total funding is closer to $4 billion. Yet, the environmental industry generally has not been very receptive to EM`s innovative technology offerings. And, essentially the same can be said for DOE sites. According to the U.S. General Accounting Office in an August 1994 report, {open_quotes}Although DOE has spent a substantial amount to develop waste cleanup technologies, little new technology finds its way into the agency`s cleanup actions{close_quotes}. The DOE Baseline Environmental Management Report estimated cleanups of DOE`s Cold War legacy of wastes to require the considerable cost of $226 billion over a period of 75 years. 1 tab.

  1. The Alfvén Mission: A possible ESA M4 Mission Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Berthomier, Matthieu; Pottelette, Raymond; Forsyth, Colin

    2014-05-01

    The Alfvén mission was proposed to the ESA M3 call for missions in 2010. Its scientific objective was to study the Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR), the most accessible laboratory for investigating plasmas at an interface where ideal magneto-hydrodynamics does not apply. Alfvén was designed to teach us where and how the particles that create the aurorae are accelerated, how and why they emit auroral kilometric radiation, what creates and maintains large scale electric fields aligned with the magnetic field, and to elucidate the ion outflow processes which are slowly removing the Earth's atmosphere. The auroral regions are the interface connecting the solar wind-driven collisionless magnetosphere to the collisional ionosphere at the top of Earth's atmosphere. Solar wind energy, transmitted via the magnetosphere, is dissipated in this interface, often explosively during magnetic substorms. The plasma organizes itself on a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales, manifesting as auroral structures ranging from huge long-lived arcs to tiny flickering filaments. The only way to make substantial further progress in auroral plasma science and to elucidate the fundamental physics of the acceleration processes at the heart of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is to combine the advantages of high-time resolution in situ measurements (as pioneered by the FAST mission), with the advantages of multi-point measurements (as pioneered by Cluster) in one mission. The mission concept also envisages continuous auroral imaging from the spacecraft, guaranteeing an understanding of the context (auroral morphology and motion) within which the in situ plasma measurements are made, and strong coordination with the existing dense network of ground based observatories, for more detailed ionospheric and auroral information when Alfvén overflights occur. We will review the ESA M3 Alfvén concept, consider recent scientific progress in this area, and discuss possible developments of the

  2. Soil, groundwater cleanup takes the gamble out of casino operation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    Colorado's rich stores of gold and silver sparked development of towns like Black Hawk and Central City in the 1890s. Today, these communities are the homes of limited-stakes gaming operations. However casino operators are discovering that having gold and silver underground in the form of tailings is not as desirable as collecting it aboveground in slot machines. A unique environmental engineering approach allowed construction of two new casinos and reclamation of the tailings, as well as cleanup of petroleum-saturated soils and groundwater. A treatment system was designed and constructed to treat groundwater at the Black Hawk site. The most economical alternative for disposing treated groundwater was to discharge it into nearby North Clear Creek. An NPDES permit was obtained requiring treatment of the groundwater for petroleum, heavy metals and pH before discharging it.

  3. Enhancement of mercury control in flue-gas cleanup systems

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, Hann S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, Jiann M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper summarizes research at Argonne National Laboratory which is focused on techniques to enhance the capture of elemental mercury and integrate its control into existing flue-gas cleanup (FGC) systems. Both laboratory and field tests have shown that very little elemental mercury is captured in a wet scrubber system due to the low solubility of that species. To enhance the ability of wet scrubbers to capture mercury, Argonne has studied improved mass transfer through both mechanical and chemical means, as well as the conversion of elemental mercury into a more soluble species that can be easily absorbed. Current research is investigating the roles of several halogen species either alone or in combination with typical flue-gas components such as sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide in the oxidation of mercury to form compounds that are easily scrubbed from the flue gas.

  4. Clean-up criteria for remediation of contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H.D.; Wilson, J.R.; Sato, Chikashi

    1997-08-01

    {open_quotes}How clean is clean?{close_quotes} is a question commonly raised in the remediation of contaminated soils. To help with the answer, criteria are proposed to serve as guidelines for remedial actions and to define a clean-up level such that the remaining contaminant residuals in the soil will not violate the Drinking Water Standards (DWS). The equations for computing those criteria are developed from the principle of conservation of mass and are functions of the maximum concentration level in the water (MCL) and the sorption coefficient. A multiplier, ranging from 10 to 1000, is also factored into the soil standard equation to reflect the effectiveness of various remediation techniques. Maximum allowable concentration in the soil (MSCL) is presented for several contaminants which are being regulated at the present time. Future modifications are recommended for better estimates of the MSCLs as additional transport mechanisms are incorporated to account for other potentially dominant effects.

  5. Hot Chili Peppers: Extraction, Cleanup, and Measurement of Capsaicin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiping; Mabury, Scott A.; Sagebiel, John C.

    2000-12-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the red pepper or Capsicum annuum, is widely used in food preparation. The purpose of this experiment was to acquaint students with the active ingredients of hot chili pepper (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), the extraction, cleanup, and analysis of these chemicals, as a fun and informative analytical exercise. Fresh peppers were prepared and extracted with acetonitrile, removing plant co-extractives by addition to a C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. Elution of the capsaicinoids was accomplished with a methanol-acetic acid solution. Analysis was completed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode-array or variable wavelength detection and calibration with external standards. Levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were typically found to correlate with literature values for a specific hot pepper variety. Students particularly enjoyed relating concentrations of capsaicinoids to their perceived valuation of "hotness".

  6. Technologies for environmental cleanup: Toxic and hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Ragaini, R.C.

    1993-12-01

    This is the second in a series of EUROCOURSES conducted under the title, ``Technologies for Environmental Cleanup.`` To date, the series consist of the following courses: 1992, soils and groundwater; 1993, Toxic and Hazardous Waste Management. The 1993 course focuses on recent technological developments in the United States and Europe in the areas of waste management policies and regulations, characterization and monitoring of waste, waste minimization and recycling strategies, thermal treatment technologies, photolytic degradation processes, bioremediation processes, medical waste treatment, waste stabilization processes, catalytic organic destruction technologies, risk analyses, and data bases and information networks. It is intended that this course ill serve as a resource of state-of-the-art technologies and methodologies for the environmental protection manager involved in decisions concerning the management of toxic and hazardous waste.

  7. Mission management - Lessons learned from early Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craft, H. G., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The concept and the responsibilities of a mission manager approach are reviewed, and some of the associated problems in implementing Spacelab mission are discussed. Consideration is given to program control, science management, integrated payload mission planning, and integration requirements. Payload specialist training, payload and launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities are outlined.

  8. STS 41-D mission crew training in Shuttle Mission simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    View of members of the STS 41-D mission crew training in Shuttle Mission simulator. The crew members are in the simulated flight deck. Seated behind the pilot is mission specialist Steven Hawley. Beside him are mission specialist Judith Resnick and pilot Michael Coats. All three are wearing their communication kit assemblies.

  9. Asteroid Rescue Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izon, S.; Kokan, T.; Lee, S.; Miller, J.; Morrell, R.; Richie, D.; Rohrschneider, R.; Rostan, S.; Staton, E.; Olds, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper is in response to a request for papers from the Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston, Texas as part of a National University Competition. A human rescue mission to the asteroid 16 Psyche was designed based around a failed Mars mission scenario. The scenario assumed the second human Mars mission, based on the Mars Design Reference Mission 3.0, failed to propulsively capture into Mars orbit, resulting in a higher energy trajectory headed towards the asteroid belt on an intercept trajectory with 16 Psyche. The task was to design a mission that could rescue the astronauts using existing Mars mission hardware prior to the failure of their life support system. Analysis tools were created in the following six disciplines for the design of the mission: trajectory, propulsion, habitat and life support, space rescue vehicle and earth reentry vehicle, space transfer vehicle, and operations. The disciplinary analysis tools were integrated into a computational framework in order to aid the design process. The problem was solved using a traditional fixed-point iteration method with user controlled design variables. Additionally, two other methods of optimization were implemented: design of experiments and collaborative optimization. These were looked at in order to evaluate their ease of implementation and use at solving a complex, multidisciplinary problem. The design of experiments methodology was used to create a central composite design array and a non-linear response surface equation. The response surface equation allows rapid system level optimization. Collaborative optimization is a true multidisciplinary optimization technique which benefits from disciplinary level optimization in conjunction with system level optimization. By reformatting the objective functions of the disciplinary optimizers, collaborative optimization guides the discipline optimizers toward the system optimum.

  10. Hanford Site cleanup and transition: Risk data needs for decision making (Hanford risk data gap analysis decision guide)

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, S.; Glantz, C.; Harper, B.; Bilyard, G.; Miller, P.

    1995-10-01

    Given the broad array of environmental problems, technical alternatives, and outcomes desired by different stakeholders at Hanford, DOE will have to make difficult resource allocations over the next few decades. Although some of these allocations will be driven purely by legal requirements, almost all of the major objectives of the cleanup and economic transition missions involve choices among alternative pathways. This study examined the following questions: what risk information is needed to make good decisions at Hanford; how do those data needs compare to the set(s) of risk data that will be generated by regulatory compliance activities and various non-compliance studies that are also concerned with risk? This analysis examined the Hanford Site missions, the Hanford Strategic Plan, known stakeholder values, and the most important decisions that have to be made at Hanford to determine a minimum domain of risk information required to make good decisions that will withstand legal, political, and technical scrutiny. The primary risk categories include (1) public health, (2) occupational health and safety, (3) ecological integrity, (4) cultural-religious welfare, and (5) socio-economic welfare.

  11. Geospace Magnetospheric Dynamics Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Kluever, C.; Burch, J. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Hack, K.; Hillard, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Lopez, R. E.; Luhmann, J. G.; Martin, J. B.; Hanson, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The Geospace Magnetospheric Dynamics (GMD) mission is designed to provide very closely spaced, multipoint measurements in the thin current sheets of the magnetosphere to determine the relation between small scale processes and the global dynamics of the magnetosphere. Its trajectory is specifically designed to optimize the time spent in the current layers and to minimize radiation damage to the spacecraft. Observations are concentrated in the region 8 to 40 R(sub E) The mission consists of three phases. After a launch into geostationary transfer orbit the orbits are circularized to probe the region between geostationary orbit and the magnetopause; next the orbit is elongated keeping perigee at the magnetopause while keeping the line of apsides down the tail. Finally, once apogee reaches 40 R(sub E) the inclination is changed so that the orbit will match the profile of the noon-midnight meridian of the magnetosphere. This mission consists of 4 solar electrically propelled vehicles, each with a single NSTAR thruster utilizing 100 kg of Xe to tour the magnetosphere in the course of a 4.4 year mission, the same thrusters that have been successfully tested on the Deep Space-1 mission.

  12. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    LISA Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is an ESA mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for space-borne gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system LISA Pathfinder is scheduled to be launched in the first half of 2010 to a Lissajous orbit around the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point, L1. In addition to a complete European technology package (the LISA Technology Package, or LTP), LISA Pathfinder will also carry thrusters and software, known as ST-7, a part of NASA's New Millennium Program. Here I will give an introduction to, and status of, the mission, followed by a discussion on the technologies to be tested. Finally I will discuss the ways in which the LISA Pathfinder mission will be used for preparation of LISA (e.g. ground segment development as well as technology development) and for other future missions (formation flying, Fundamental Physics Explorer, etc.).

  13. Rosetta Mission Status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to ex-amine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Nearly 10 years after launch in 2004, on 20th January 2014 at 10:00 UTC the spacecraft woke up from hibernation. Following successful instrument commissioning, Rosetta successfully rendezvoused with the comet. Following an intense period of map-ping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was suc-cessfully deployed. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission up to date and where we stand in main science phase, which began with Philae's separation. It will also provide a look forward. IT is given on behalf of ALL Rosetta mission science, in-strument and operations teams.

  14. Rosetta Mission Status Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. G.; Altobelli, N.; Alexander, C. J.; Schwehm, G. H.; Jansen, F.; Küppers, M.; O'Rourke, L.; Barthelemy, M.; Geiger, B.; Grieger, B.; Moissl, R.; Vallat, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae will be the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Nearly 10 years after launch in 2004, on 20th January 2014 at 10:00 UTC the spacecraft woke up from hibernation. Following successful instrument commissioning, at the time of writing the spacecraft is about to rendez-vous with the comet. The rest of 2014 will involve careful mapping and characterisation of the nucleus and its environs, for science and to identify a landing site for the lander Philae in November. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission up to date and where we stand in early part of the escort phase of the mission which runs until end of 2015.

  15. Updated Integrated Mission Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauro, Vincent A., Sr.

    2003-01-01

    Integrated Mission Program (IMP) is a computer program for simulating spacecraft missions around the Earth, Moon, Mars, and/or other large bodies. IMP solves the differential equations of motion by use of a Runge-Kutta numerical-integration algorithm. Users control missions through selection from a large menu of events and maneuvers. Mission profiles, time lines, propellant requirements, feasibility analyses, and perturbation analyses can be computed quickly and accurately. A prior version of IMP, written in FORTRAN 77, was reported in Program Simulates Spacecraft Missions (MFS-28606), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 17, No. 4 (April 1993), page 60. The present version, written in double-precision Lahey FORTRAN 90, incorporates a number of improvements over the prior version. Some of the improvements modernize the code to take advantage of today's greater central-processing-unit speeds. Other improvements render the code more modular; provide additional input, output, and debugging capabilities; and add to the variety of maneuvers, events, and means of propulsion that can be simulated. The IMP user manuals (of which there are now ten, each addressing a different aspect of the code and its use) have been updated accordingly.

  16. STS-90 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The STS-90 crew patch reflects the dedication of the mission to neuroscience in celebration of the decade of the brain. Earth is revealed through a neuron-shaped window, which symbolizes new perspectives in the understanding of nervous system development, structure and function, both here on Earth and in the microgravity environment of space. The Space Shuttle Columbia is depicted with its open payload bay doors revealing the Spacelab within. An integral component of the mission, the laboratory/science module provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), signifies the strong international involvement in the mission. The seven crew members and two alternate payload specialists, Chiaki Naito-Mukai and Alexander W. Dunlap, are represented by the nine major stars of the constellation Cetus (the whale) in recognition of the International Year of the Ocean. The distant stars illustrate the far reaching implications of the mission science to the many sponsoring agencies, helping prepare for long-duration space flight aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The moon and Mars are depicted to reflect the crew's recognition that those two celestial bodies will be the next great challenges in human exploration of space and represent the key role that life science research will play in supporting such missions.

  17. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  18. The Euclid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Giuseppe; Laureijs, Rene

    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) designed to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing their signatures on the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of large structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid is optimised for two primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for a launch date in the first half of 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. The Payload Module consists of a 1.2 m three-mirror Korsch type telescope and of two instruments, the visible imager and the near-infrared spectro-photometer, both covering a large common field-of-view enabling to survey more than 35% of the entire sky. The ground segment is broken down into three elements: the Mission Operations, the Science Operations under the responsibility of ESA and the Science Data Centres belonging to the Euclid Consortium. We will describe the overall mission, the mission elements architecture and the current project status.

  19. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  20. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, John W.

    1989-01-01

    A brief overview of the current set of unmanned missions that are currently in operation and those planned for the next 5 to 10 years was presented. The important role of batteries in the development of successful missions was discussed. The workhorse battery, the NiCd, and its use throughout historical missions was explored. Its role on Observers and Landers was discussed, and the success those batteries had. The recent events in the issues of quality and life for NiCd batteries were discussed. These discussions focused on the current design activities for Mars Observer (MO), TOPEX, and Mariner Mark II. Separator selection and the need for uniform testing procedures to develop a quality battery product that can perform to mission requirements were discussed. The recent experiences with the GRO battery failure and the other events have led JPL to the decision to develop a testing program in conjunction with other NASA centers to determine the best separator material for these two missions. The decision for separator material and battery design must be made a year from now. Thus there will not be time to perform a total 2-year accelerated test. The JPL plan for coping with this compromise was discussed. A discussion of where NiH2 batteries are beginning to have an impact and the difficulties with their implementation were addressed. Such missions at Earth Observing System (EOS) and the NOAA series of satellites rely upon NiH2 for success but were not chosen for TOPEX or MO due to their large volume requirements.

  1. Russian program of planetary missions.

    PubMed

    Galeev, A A

    1996-01-01

    In the area of Solar System Exploration most of recently proposed mission oriented to the studies of Mars. Except MARS-96 and possibly MARS SAMPLE RETURN missions other Mars missions use Molnija class launchers. All Russian missions heavily involve international partners.

  2. The PROBA-3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 is the next ESA mission in the PROBA line of small technology demonstration satellites. The main goal of PROBA-3 is in-orbit demonstration of formation flying techniques and technologies. The mission will consist of two spacecraft together forming a giant (150 m long) coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). The bigger spacecraft will host the telescope, and the smaller spacecraft will carry the external occulter of the coronagraph. ASPIICS heralds the next generation of solar coronagraphs that will use formation flying to observe the inner corona in eclipse-like conditions for extended periods of time. The occulter spacecraft will also host the secondary payload, DARA (Davos Absolute RAdiometer), that will measure the total solar irradiance. PROBA-3 is planned to be launched in 2019. The scientific objectives of PROBA-3 will be discussed in the context of other future solar and heliospheric space missions.

  3. Multiple asteroid rendezvous missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, D. F.; Friedlander, A. L.

    1979-01-01

    Asteroid missions, centered on multiple asteroid rendezvous missions to main belt asteroids, are discussed and the required solar electric propulsion for these missions as well as the current performance estimates are examined. A brief statistical analysis involving asteroid availability transfer requirements and propulsion system capabilities is given, leading to a prediction that 5 to 8 asteroids can be encountered with a single launch. Measurement techniques include visual imaging, radio tracking, magnetometry, and in the case of landers, seismometry. The spacecraft will be propelled by a solar electric system with a power level of 25 kW to 40 kW and tour possibilities for 13 different asteroids have been developed. Preliminary estimates of asteroid triaxiality are made to calculate the effect of close orbits.

  4. STS-95 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-95 patch, designed by the crew, is intended to reflect the scientific, engineering, and historic elements of the mission. The Space Shuttle Discovery is shown rising over the sunlit Earth limb, representing the global benefits of the mission science and the solar science objectives of the Spartan Satellite. The bold number '7' signifies the seven members of Discovery's crew and also represents a historical link to the original seven Mercury astronauts. The STS-95 crew member John Glenn's first orbital flight is represented by the Friendship 7 capsule. The rocket plumes symbolize the three major fields of science represented by the mission payloads: microgravity material science, medical research for humans on Earth and in space, and astronomy.

  5. Athena Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, D.

    2016-07-01

    Athena has been selected by ESA for its second large mission opportunity of the Cosmic Visions programme, to address the theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Following the submission of a proposal from the community, the technical and programmatic aspects of the mission design were reviewed in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility. The proposed concept was deemed to betechnically feasible, but with potential constraints from cost and schedule. Two parallel industry study contracts have been conducted to explore these conclusions more thoroughly, with the key aim of providing consolidated inputs to a Mission Consolidation Review that was conducted in April-May 2016. This MCR has recommended a baseline design, which allows the agency to solicit proposals for a community provided payload. Key design aspects arising from the studies are described, and the new reference design is summarised.

  6. STS-89 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the STS-89 crew insignia, the link between the United States and Russia is symbolically represented by the Space Shuttle Endeavour and Russia's Mir Space Station orbiting above the Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska. The success of the joint United States-Russian missions is depicted by the Space Shuttle and Mir colored by the rising sun in the background. A shadowed representation of the International Space Station (ISS) rising with the sun represents the future program for which the Shuttle-Mir missions are prototypes. The inside rim of the insignia describes the outline of the number eight representing STS-89 as the eighth Shuttle/Mir docking mission. The nine stars represent the nine joint missions to be flown of the program and when combined with the number eight in the rim, reflect the mission number. The nine stars also symbolize the children of the crew members who will be the future beneficiaries of the joint development work of the space programs of the two countries. Along the rim are the crew members' names with David A. Wolf's name on the left and Andrew S. W. Thomas' name on the right, the returning and upgoing cosmonaut guest researcher crew members. In between and at the bottom is the name of Salizan S. Sharipov, payload specialist representing Russian Space Agency (RSA), in Cyrillic alphabet. The other crew members are Terrence W. Wilcutt, commander; Joe F. Edwards, Jr., pilot; and mission specialists Michael P. Anderson, Bonnie J. Dunbar, and James F. Reilly. The red, white and blue of the rim reflect the colors of the American and Russian flags which are also represented in the rim on either side of the joined spacecraft.

  7. Magellan: mission summary.

    PubMed

    Saunders, R S; Pettengill, G H

    1991-04-12

    The Magellan radar mapping mission is in the process of producing a global, high-resolution image and altimetry data set of Venus. Despite initial communications problems, few data gaps have occurred. Analysis of Magellan data is in the initial stages. The radar system data are of high quality, and the planned performance is being achieved in terms of spatial resolution and geometric and radiometric accuracy. Image performance exceeds expectations, and the image quality and mosaickability are extremely good. Future plans for the mission include obtaining gravity data, filling gaps in the initial map, and conducting special studies with the radar.

  8. [Disaster medicine: mission Haiti].

    PubMed

    Gamulin, A; Villiger, Y; Hagon, O

    2010-05-12

    On January 12th, 2010, an earthquake of a magnitude of 7 on the Richter scale striked the southwest of Haiti, including the capital Port-au-Prince, and provoked immense human and material damages. Estimated number of victims is 300000 wounded, 230000 dead and 1000000 homeless. This disaster generated at once an immense and urgent need for sanitary resources. In this context, an emergency medical humanitarian mission was engaged by the Swiss Confederation (humanitarian aid depending on the Development and Cooperation Direction); this article describes this emergency mission, its progress, the committed staff and means, and the type of treated patients.

  9. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.; Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R.

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  10. STS-52 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The STS-52 insignia, designed by the mission's crew members, features a large gold star to symbolize the crew's mission on the frontiers of space. A gold star is often used to symbolize the frontier period of the American West. The red star in the shape of the Greek letter lambda represents both the laser measurements taken from the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS II) and the Lambda Point Experiment, which was part of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-l). The remote manipulator and maple leaf are emblematic of the Canadian payload specialist who conducted a series of Canadian flight experiments (CANEX-2), including the Space Vision System test.

  11. Aquarius Mission Technical Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Yueh, S.; Dinnat, E.; Pellerano, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band microwave instrument being developed to map the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It is part of the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for early in 2009. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 km and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu globally on a monthly basis.

  12. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The nation's efforts to expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system was given renewed emphasis in January of 1988 when the Presidential Directive on National Space Policy was signed into effect. The expansion of human presence into the solar system has particular significance, in that it defines long-range goals for NASA's future missions. To embark and achieve such ambitious ventures is a significant undertaking, particularly compared to past space activities. Missions to Mars, the Moon, and Phobos, as well as an observatory based on the dark side of the Moon are discussed.

  13. Mission Critical Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Eltoweissy, Mohamed Y.; Du, David H.C.; Gerla, Mario; Giordano, Silvia; Gouda, Mohamed; Schulzrinne, Henning; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-06-01

    Mission-Critical Networking (MCN) refers to networking for application domains where life or livelihood may be at risk. Typical application domains for MCN include critical infrastructure protection and operation, emergency and crisis intervention, healthcare services, and military operations. Such networking is essential for safety, security and economic vitality in our complex world characterized by uncertainty, heterogeneity, emergent behaviors, and the need for reliable and timely response. MCN comprise networking technology, infrastructures and services that may alleviate the risk and directly enable and enhance connectivity for mission-critical information exchange among diverse, widely dispersed, mobile users.

  14. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  15. The Euromir missions.

    PubMed

    Andresen, R D; Domesle, R

    1996-11-01

    The 179-day flight of ESA Astronaut Thomas Reiter onboard the Russian Space Station Mir drew to a successful conclusion on 29 February 1996 with the safe landing of the Soyuz TM-22 capsule near Arkalyk in Kazakhstan. This mission, known as Euromir 95, was part of ESA's precursor flight programme for the International Space Station, and followed the equally successful Euromir 94 mission by ESA Astronaut Ulf Merbold (3 October-4 November 1994). This article discusses the objectives of the two flights and presents an overview of the experiment programme, a preliminary assessment of its results and achievements, and reviews some of the lessons learnt for future Space Station operations.

  16. A case study of lead contamination cleanup effectiveness at Bunker Hill.

    PubMed

    Sheldrake, Sean; Stifelman, Marc

    2003-02-15

    A review of cleanup effectiveness at Bunker Hill Superfund Site (BHSS) has shown that yard soil cleanup is an effective tool for reducing house dust lead concentrations, thereby reducing children's blood lead levels. This review has also shown that contiguous cleanup of residences has a three-fold greater reduction of children's blood lead levels compared with cleaning only those homes where children currently reside by reducing exposures attributable to neighboring properties. This review underscores the importance of a community-wide, preventative approach to controlling lead contamination in soil and house dust. This review has further characterized the need for careful design, implementation, and perpetual maintenance of a community-wide lead cleanup. Several key areas of importance to maintain large scale mining/smelting remedies in the Bunker Hill area were analyzed and noted for further action, including: infrastructure, institutional controls for homeowner projects (post cleanup), erosion control for undeveloped hillsides with potential to impact the developed valley floor, drainage improvements and flood control, waste piles, and increasing the rate at which cleanup proceeds. Focusing on these areas is crucial to minimizing recontamination at a large scale lead cleanup.

  17. Hot gas cleanup for molten carbonate fuel cells. A zinc oxide reactor model, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.

    1980-09-16

    Utilization of coal gasifiers to power MCFC requires a cleanup system to remove sulfur and particulates. Of the two near term options available for desulfurization of gasifier effluent, namely low temperature cleanup utilizing absorber/stripper technology, and hot gas cleanup utilizing metal oxides, there is a clear advantage to using hot gas cleanup. Since the MCFC will operate at 1200/sup 0/F, and the gasifier effluent could be between 1200 to 1900/sup 0/F, a hot gas cleanup system will require little or no change in process gas temperature, thereby contributing to a high overall system efficiency. A hot gas cleanup system will consist of FeO for bulk H/sub 2/S removal and ZnO for reduction of H/sub 2/S to sub ppM levels. Hot gas cleanup systems at present are not available commercially, and therefore it is the objective of this project to model the components of the system in order to help bring this technology closer to commercialization, by providing simulated operating characteristics to aid in system design, and system simulations of gasifier/MCFC systems. The modeling of the ZnO reactor is presented.

  18. Water Cycling &the GPM Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, E. A.

    2003-04-01

    and institutions, as well as participation by individual scientists from academia, government, and the private sector to fulfill mission goals and to pave the way for what ultimately is expected to become an internationally-organized operational global precipitation observing system. Notably, the broad societal applications of GPM are reflected in the United Nation's identification of this mission as a foremost candidate for its Peaceful Uses of Space Program. An overview of the GPM mission design is given, followed by an explanation of its scientific agenda as an outgrowth of making improvements in rain retrieval accuracy, microphysics dexterity, sampling frequency, and global coverage. All of these improvements offer new means to observe variability in precipitation and water cycle fluxes, to improve water budget closure at regional and global scales, and to leverage these improvements in achieving improved predictability of weather, climate, and hydrometeorology. Specifically, the scientific agenda of GPM has been designed to leverage the measurement improvements to improve prognostic model performance, particularly quantitative precipitation forecasting and its linked phenomena at short, intermediate, and extended time scales. The talk addresses how GPM measurements will enable more accurate satellite-based calculations of the water cycle relative to where things stand today (two examples will be provided), and how such measurements can be used to evaluate accelerations and decelerations in regional and global water cycle processes and thus improve our understanding of water-driven climatic shifts. These improvements become possible by using more accurate, more microphysically-centric, more frequent, and fully global precipitation observations to achieve better water budget closure and to provide more realistic forcing and assessment of prediction models.

  19. Separations technology development to support accelerator-driven transmutation concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Venneri, F.; Arthur, E.; Bowman, C.

    1996-10-01

    This is the final report of a one-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This project investigated separations technology development needed for accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) concepts, particularly those associated with plutonium disposition (accelerator-based conversion, ABC) and high-level radioactive waste transmutation (accelerator transmutation of waste, ATW). Specific focus areas included separations needed for preparation of feeds to ABC and ATW systems, for example from spent reactor fuel sources, those required within an ABC/ATW system for material recycle and recovery of key long-lived radionuclides for further transmutation, and those required for reuse and cleanup of molten fluoride salts. The project also featured beginning experimental development in areas associated with a small molten-salt test loop and exploratory centrifugal separations systems.

  20. Nighttime Clouds in Martian Arctic (Accelerated Movie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    An angry looking sky is captured in a movie clip consisting of 10 frames taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The clip accelerates the motion. The images were take around 3 a.m. local solar time at the Phoenix site during Sol 95 (Aug. 30), the 95th Martian day since landing.

    The swirling clouds may be moving generally in a westward direction over the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Compact Plasma Accelerator for Micropropulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2001-01-01

    There is a need for a low power, light-weight (compact), high specific impulse electric propulsion device to satisfy mission requirements for microsatellite (1 to 20 kg) class missions. Satisfying these requirements entails addressing the general problem of generating a sufficiently dense plasma within a relatively small volume and then accelerating it. In the work presented here, the feasibility of utilizing a magnetic cusp to generate a dense plasma over small length scales of order 1 mm is investigated. This approach could potentially mitigate scaling issues associated with conventional ion thruster plasma containment schemes. Plume and discharge characteristics were documented using a Faraday probe and a retarding potential analyzer.

  2. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  3. Mission Simulation Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisaich, Gregory; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Neukom, Christian; Wagner, Mike; Buchanan, Eric; Plice, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The Mission Simulation Toolkit (MST) is a flexible software system for autonomy research. It was developed as part of the Mission Simulation Facility (MSF) project that was started in 2001 to facilitate the development of autonomous planetary robotic missions. Autonomy is a key enabling factor for robotic exploration. There has been a large gap between autonomy software (at the research level), and software that is ready for insertion into near-term space missions. The MST bridges this gap by providing a simulation framework and a suite of tools for supporting research and maturation of autonomy. MST uses a distributed framework based on the High Level Architecture (HLA) standard. A key feature of the MST framework is the ability to plug in new models to replace existing ones with the same services. This enables significant simulation flexibility, particularly the mixing and control of fidelity level. In addition, the MST provides automatic code generation from robot interfaces defined with the Unified Modeling Language (UML), methods for maintaining synchronization across distributed simulation systems, XML-based robot description, and an environment server. Finally, the MSF supports a number of third-party products including dynamic models and terrain databases. Although the communication objects and some of the simulation components that are provided with this toolkit are specifically designed for terrestrial surface rovers, the MST can be applied to any other domain, such as aerial, aquatic, or space.

  4. STS-80 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This mission patch for mission STS-80 depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia and the two research satellites its crew deployed into the blue field of space. The uppermost satellite is the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrograph-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS-SPAS), a telescope aimed at unraveling the life cycles of stars and understanding the gases that drift between them. The lower satellite is the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), flying for the third time. It will use the vacuum of space to create advanced semiconductors for the nation's electronics industry. ORFEUS and WSF are joined by the symbol of the Astronaut Corps, representing the human contribution to scientific progress in space. The two bright blue stars represent the mission's Extravehicular Activities (EVA), final rehearsals for techniques and tools to be used in assembly of the International Space Station (ISS). Surrounding Columbia is a constellation of 16 stars, one for each day of the mission, representing the stellar talents of the ground and flight teams that share the goal of expanding knowledge through a permanent human presence in space.

  5. EOS Aura Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, William J.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  6. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter. The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper

  7. Titan Orbiter Aerorover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler Jr., E. C.; Acuna, M.; Burchell, M. J.; Coates, A.; Farrell, W.; Flasar, M.; Goldstein, B. E.; Gorevan, S.; Hartle, R. E.; Johnson, W. T. K.

    2001-01-01

    We propose a combined Titan orbiter and Titan Aerorover mission with an emphasis on both in situ and remote sensing measurements of Titan's surface, atmosphere, ionosphere, and magnetospheric interaction. The biological aspect of the Titan environment will be emphasized by the mission (i.e., search for organic materials which may include simple organics to 'amono' analogues of amino acids and possibly more complex, lightening detection and infrared, ultraviolet, and charged particle interactions with Titan's surface and atmosphere). An international mission is assumed to control costs. NASA will provide the orbiter, launch vehicle, DSN coverage and operations, while international partners will provide the Aerorover and up to 30% of the cost for the scientific instruments through collaborative efforts. To further reduce costs we propose a single PI for orbiter science instruments and a single PI for Aerorover science instruments. This approach will provide single command/data and power interface between spacecraft and orbiter instruments that will have redundant central DPU and power converter for their instruments. A similar approach could be used for the Aerorover. The mission profile will be constructed to minimize conflicts between Aerorover science, orbiter radar science, orbiter radio science, orbiter imaging science, and orbiter fields and particles (FP) science. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Apollo 16 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Information is provided on the operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 16 mission. Customary units of measurement are used in those sections of the report pertaining to spacecraft systems and trajectories. The International System of Units is used in sections pertaining to science activities.

  9. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  10. Spacelab D-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1990-01-01

    The Spacelab D-1 (Deutchland Eins) Mission is discussed from the points of view of safety, materials handling, and toxic materials; the laboratory and equipment used; and some of the different philosophies utilized on this flight. How to enhance scientific return at the same time as being safe was examined.

  11. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  12. Mission and Assets Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, John; Zendejas, Silvino; Gutheinz, Sandy; Borden, Chester; Wang, Yeou-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Mission and Assets Database (MADB) Version 1.0 is an SQL database system with a Web user interface to centralize information. The database stores flight project support resource requirements, view periods, antenna information, schedule, and forecast results for use in mid-range and long-term planning of Deep Space Network (DSN) assets.

  13. The Pioneer Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasher, Larry E.; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the major achievements of the Pioneer Missions and gives information about mission objectives, spacecraft, and launches of the Pioneers. Pioneer was the United States' longest running space program. The Pioneer Missions began forty years ago. Pioneer 1 was launched shortly after Sputnik startled the world in 1957 as Earth's first artificial satellite at the start of the space age. The Pioneer Missions can be broken down into four distinct groups: Pioneer (PN's) 1 through 5, which comprise the first group - the "First Pioneers" - were launched from 1958 through 1960. These Pioneers made the first thrusts into space toward the Moon and into interplanetary orbit. The next group - the "Interplanetary Pioneers" - consists of PN's 6 through 9, with the initial launch being in 1965 (through 1968); this group explored inward and outward from Earth's orbit and travel in a heliocentric orbit around the Sun just as the Earth. The Pioneer group consisting of 10 and 11 - the "Outer Solar System Pioneers" - blazed a trail through the asteroid belt and was the first to explore Jupiter, Saturn and the outer Solar System and is seeking the borders of the heliosphere and will ultimately journey to the distant stars. The final group of Pioneer 12 and 13 the "Planetary Pioneers" - traveled to Earth's mysterious twin, Venus, to study this planet.

  14. The Lobster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  15. Our School's Vital Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vershlovskii, S. G.

    1999-01-01

    Provides information on night school, also called shift school. States that night school accommodates the rehabilitation of young people. Questions whether it has the capabilities that would make it a rehabilitative educational institution. Examines the activities of night school to determine its principal mission. (CMK)

  16. Mission Operations Assurance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faris, Grant

    2012-01-01

    Integrate the mission operations assurance function into the flight team providing: (1) value added support in identifying, mitigating, and communicating the project's risks and, (2) being an essential member of the team during the test activities, training exercises and critical flight operations.

  17. Framing Your Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    St. Paul's School in New Hampshire, the Orchard School in Indiana, Chestnut Hill Academy in Pennsylvania, and Dana Hall School in Massachusetts are like most independent schools--they have qualities that are distinctive and extraordinary. Line up their mission statements, however, and the schools sound almost interchangeable. They're all on a…

  18. Visual Navigation - SARE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, Roberto; Kuba, Jose; Caruso, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The SARE Earth Observing and Technological Mission is part of the Argentinean Space Agency (CONAE - Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) Small and Technological Payloads Program. The Argentinean National Space Program requires from the SARE program mission to test in a real environment of several units, assemblies and components to reduce the risk of using these equipments in more expensive Space Missions. The objective is to make use those components with an acceptable maturity in design or development, but without any heritage at space. From the application point of view, this mission offers new products in the Earth Observation data market which are listed in the present paper. One of the technological payload on board of the SARE satellite is the sensor Ground Tracker. It computes the satellite attitude and orbit in real time (goal) and/or by ground processing. For the first operating mode a dedicated computer and mass memory are necessary to be part of the mentioned sensor. For the second operational mode the hardware and software are much simpler.

  19. STS-51 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Designed by the crewmembers, the STS-51 crew patch honors all who have contributed to mission success. It symbolizes NASA's continuing quest to increase mankind's knowledge and use of space through this multi-faceted mission. The gold star represents the U.S. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) boosted by the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS). The rays below the ACTTOS represent the innovative communication technologies to be tested by this experiment. The stylized Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) represents the German-sponsored ASTROSPAS mission. The constellation Orion below SPAS is representative of the types of stellar objects to be studied by its experimenters. The stars in Orion also commemorate the astronauts who have sacrificed their lives for the space program. The ascending spiral, symbolizing America's continuing commitment to leadership in space exploration and development, originates with the thousands of persons who ensure the success of each Shuttle flight. The five large white stars, representing the five crewmembers, along with the single gold star, fomm the mission's numerical designation.

  20. The Double Star mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z. X.; Escoubet, C. P.; Pu, Z.; Laakso, H.; Shi, J. K.; Shen, C.; Hapgood, M.

    2005-11-01

    The Double Star Programme (DSP) was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer"), was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC) in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS) at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC) and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  1. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  2. The NASA LWS Sentinels Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Robert P.; Science, Sentinels; DefinitionTeam, Technology

    2006-06-01

    One of the primary goals of NASA's Sentinels mission, the heliospheric element of the integrated LWS (Living With a Star) program, is to provide the observations necessary for an understanding of the physics of the Sun/inner heliosphere processes that produce Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events, so the requirements for eventual predictive capability can be defined. We present the results of the study by the Sentinels Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) that recommends a combination of the Inner Heliosphere Sentinels (IHS),consisting of four identical spacecraft that utilize Venus gravity assists to achieve 0.25-0.75 AU orbits, primarily for in situ particles and fields measurements; a Near-Earth Sentinel (NES) with a spectroscopic coronagraph to provide the physical conditions in the SEP acceleration region and a wide field (>0.3AU) coronagraph to connect to the HIS measurements, and a Farside Sentinel (FS) with a magnetograph to provide near global photospheric magnetic field measurements for modeling the structure of the inner heliosphere. We show how the combined measurements are designed to lead to an understanding of SEP origin and to improve our predictive capability for large SEP events.

  3. The NASA High Energy Solar Physics (HESP) mission for the next solar maximum.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, R. P.; Dennis, B. R.; Ramaty, R.; Emslie, A. G.; Canfield, R.; Doschek, G.

    The NASA High Energy Solar Physics (HESP) mission offers the opportunity for major breakthroughs in the understanding of the fundamental energy release and particle acceleration processes at the core of the solar flare problem. Recently, the HESP mission has been adapted to Lightsats, lighter, smaller, cheaper spacecraft: the baseline HESP mission now includes two Pegasus-class spacecraft. A launch by the end of the year 2000 is desirable to be in time for the next solar activity maximum.

  4. Low-cost inertial navigation for moderate-g missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhav, S.

    1979-01-01

    A low cost inertial navigation system (INS) concept is described for flight missions characterized by moderate accelerations and limited attitude variations. These missions involve general aviation aircraft, helicopters, or remotely piloted vehicles. The significance of the moderate acceleration and limited attitude is reviewed with respect to platform mechanization and instrumentation. A hybrid mechanization, partially gimballed and partially strapdown, is presented. The INS is implemented by an unbalanced two axis gimbal system and controlled by a two degree of freedom gyro. The INS provides locally level two axis acceleration information along with pitch and roll measurements. Heading information is provided by a second gyro mounted in the inner gimbal. The system error model is equivalent to that of a conventional platform with a tilt error determined by the integral of the gyro drift rate and an equivalent accelerometer type errors are also cancelled. Rapid gyro-compassing, implemented with opened gimbal control loops, and a strapdown procedure provides calibration of gyro drift rate biases.

  5. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prickett, W. Z.; Spera, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration missions conducted by unmanned Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference mission are Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. Mission operations and options are defined from spacecraft assembly through mission completion. Pre-launch operations and related GSE requirements are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur d-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and heliocentric mission phases.

  6. Effective cleanup at LLNL. Innovative technologies and approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Lamarre, A.; Angleberger, K.; Brown, M. G.

    1998-11-12

    At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Livermore Site Superfund Site, ground water restoration efforts have been ongoing since 1989. Based on plans committed to by DOE in the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Site in 1992, ground water cleanup was predicted to take 61 years. What began as conventional pump and treat has evolved into an effective Engineered Plume Collapse strategy that employs a well-stocked tool box of remediation technologies, processes, and methodologies. This "tool box" approach has proven effective in solving the vexing problem of restoring the chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) contaminated aquifers beneath the site. The Engineered Plume Collapse strategy has been used to hydraulically control the plumes on the western and southern boundaries of the site, doubled the pounds of CVOC removed from the subsurface compared to predictions in the ROD plans, and "collapsed" offsite plumes. The three major components of the Engineered Plume Collapse strategy are: (1) collection and use of historical and current chemical and hydrogeologic data to accurately identify areas of contamination in the subsurface and guide decisions about on-going remediation needs, (2) design, construction and operation of small, portable, and inexpensive ground water treatment units to implement pump and treat and collapse contaminant plumes back to their source areas, and (3) effective use of more energetic contaminant mass removal technologies in source areas, such as chemical oxidation, reductive dehalogenation, steam stripping, and electro-osmosis.

  7. Thermal cleanups using dynamic underground stripping and hydrous pyrolysis oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Knauss, K; Leif, R; Newmark, R L

    1999-05-01

    In the early 1990s, in collaboration with the School of Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed dynamic underground stripping (DUS), a method for treating subsurface contaminants with heat that is much faster and more effective than traditional treatment methods. more recently, Livermore scientists developed hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO), which introduces both heat and oxygen to the subsurface to convert contaminants in the ground to such benign products as carbon dioxide, chloride ion, and water. This process has effectively destroyed all contaminants it encountered in laboratory tests. With dynamic underground stripping, the contaminants are vaporized and vacuumed out of the ground, leaving them still to be destroyed elsewhere. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation technology takes the cleanup process one step further by eliminating the treatment, handling, and disposal requirements and destroying the contamination in the ground. When used in combination, HPO is especially useful in the final polishing of a site containing significant free-product contaminant, once the majority of the contaminant has been removed.

  8. Active-to-Passive Environmental Cleanup Transition Strategies - 13220

    SciTech Connect

    Gaughan, Thomas F.; Aylward, Robert S.; Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B.; Whitaker, Wade C.; Mills, Gary L.

    2013-07-01

    The Savannah River Site uses a graded approach to environmental cleanup. The selection of groundwater and vadose zone remediation technologies for a specific contamination area is based on the size, contaminant type, contaminant concentration, and configuration of the plume. These attributes are the result of the nature and mass of the source of contamination and the subsurface characteristics in the area of the plume. Many large plumes consist of several zones that are most efficiently addressed with separate complementary corrective action/remedial technologies. The highest concentrations of contaminants are found in the source zone. The most robust, high mass removal technologies are often best suited for remediation of the source zone. In the primary plume zone, active remedies, such as pump-and-treat, may be necessary to remove contaminants and exert hydraulic control of the plume. In the dilute fringe zone, contaminants are generally lower in concentration and can often be treated with passive techniques. A key determination in achieving an acceptable and cost-effective end state for a given waste unit is when to transition from an active treatment system to a more passive or natural approach (e.g., monitored natural attenuation or enhanced attenuation). This paper will discuss the considerations for such a transition as well as provide examples of successful transitions at the Savannah River Site. (authors)

  9. Environmental cleanup: The challenge at the Hanford Site, Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Robert H.; Becker, C. Dale

    1993-07-01

    Numerous challenges face those involved with developing a coordinated and consistent approach to cleaning up the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington. These challenges are much greater than those encountered when the site was selected and the world’s first nuclear complex was developed almost 50 years ago. This article reviews Hanford’s history, operations, waste storage/disposal activities, environmental monitoring, and today’s approach to characterize and clean up Hanford under a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, signed by DOE, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington Sate Department of Ecology. Although cleanup of defense-related waste at Hanford holds many positive benefits, negative features include high costs to the US taxpayer, numerous uncertainties concerning the technologies to be employed and the risks involved, and the high probability that special interest groups and activists at large will never be completely satisfied. Issues concerning future use of the site, whether to protect and preserve its natural features or open it to public exploitation, remain to be resolved.

  10. Determining cleanup levels in bioremediation: Quantitative structure activity relationship techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Arulgnanendran, V.R.J.; Nirmalakhandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    An important feature in the process of planning and initiating bioremediation is the quantification of the toxicity of either an individual chemical or a group of chemicals when multiple chemicals are involved. A laboratory protocol was developed to test the toxicity of single chemicals and mixtures of organic chemicals in a soil medium. Portions of these chemicals are used as a training set to develop Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. These predictive models are tested using the chemicals in the testing set, i.e., the remaining chemicals. Moreover mixtures with 10 contaminants in each mixture are tested experimentally to determine joint toxicity for mixtures of chemicals. Using the concepts of Toxic Units, Additivity Index, and Mixture Toxicity Index, the laboratory results are tested for additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects of the contaminants. These concepts are further validated on mixtures containing eight chemicals that are tested in the laboratory. In addition to the use of the predictive models in evaluating cleanup levels for hazardous waste locations, they are useful to predict microbial toxicity in soils of new chemicals from a congeneric group acting by the same mode of toxicity. These models are applicable when the contaminants act singly or jointly in a mixture.

  11. Alternative formulations of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, M.B.; White, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    The major source of man-made SO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is the burning of coal for electric power generation. Coal-fired utility plants are also large sources of NO{sub x} pollution. Regenerable flue gas desulfurization/NO{sub x} abatement catalysts provide one mechanism of simultaneously removing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} species from flue gases released into the atmosphere. The purpose of this project is to examine routes of optimizing the adsorption efficiency, the adsorption capacity, and the ease of regeneration of regenerable flue gas cleanup catalysts. We are investigating two different mechanisms for accomplishing this goal. The first involves the use of different alkali and alkaline earth metals as promoters for the alumina sorbents to increase the surface basicity of the sorbent and thus adjust the number and distribution of adsorption sites. The second involves investigation of non-aqueous impregnation, as opposed to aqueous impregnation, as a method to obtain an evenly dispersed monolayer of the promoter on the surface.

  12. Rapid cleanup of bacterial DNA from samples containing aerosol contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menking, Darrell E.; Kracke, Suzanne K.; Emanuel, Peter A.; Valdes, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an in vitro enzymatic, synthetic method used to amplify specific DNA sequences from organisms. Detection of DNA using gene probes allows for absolute identification not only of specific organisms, but also of genetic material in recombinant organisms. PCR is an exquisite biological method for detecting bacteria in aerosol samples. A major challenge facing detection of DNA from field samples is that they are almost sure to contain impurities, especially impurities that inhibit amplification through PCR. DNA is being extracted from air, sewage/stool samples, food, sputum, a water and sediment; however, multi- step, time consuming methods are required to isolate the DNA from the surrounding contamination. This research focuses on developing a method for rapid cleanup of DNA which combines extraction and purification of DNA while, at the same time, removing inhibitors from 'dirty samples' to produce purified, PCR-ready DNA. GeneReleaser produces PCR-ready DNA in a rapid five-minute protocol. GeneReleaser resin was able to clean up sample contain micrograms of typical aerosol and water contaminants. The advantages of using GR are that it is rapid, inexpensive, requires one-step, uses no hazardous material and produces PCR-ready DNA.

  13. Environmental cleanup of oil production sites in southern Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Vendl, K.A.; Basso, T.C.; Bengal, L.E.

    1996-12-31

    On January 2, 1988, a 4 million gallon aboveground oil storage tank collapsed in Pennsylvania, resulting in a spill of approximately 3.8 million gallons of diesel fuel. Of that amount, approximately 750,000 gallons entered the Monongahela River. On March 23, 1989, the Exxon Valdez, loaded with 1.26 million barrels (54 million gallons) of crude oil struck the rocks of Bligh Reef near Valdez, Alaska. As a result, more than 11 million gallons of crude oil was released into Prince William Sound within 5 hours of the event. The environmental damage and massive cleanup efforts were the most visible effects of these spills. However, one of the most important, but least discussed outcomes was the enactment of the Oil Pollution Act (OPA), which George Bush signed into law on August 18, 1990. The Oil Pollution Act contains many provisions; one of them is the strengthening of the national response system by providing better coordination of spill contingency planning among federal, state, and local authorities. Another provision is the increase in liability for parties responsible for costs and damages resulting from oil spills. In situations where there is no responsible party, OPA provides funding for the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund. In this fund, there is $50 million in an emergency appropriation which can be used to contain and remove oil discharges that affect or threaten to affect the surface waters of the United States.

  14. Environmental benefits of Boston Harbor clean-up projects

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, M.S.; Smith, W.M. )

    1990-01-09

    The Massachusetts Water Resources Authority has undertaken one of the largest public works projects in the country to control the pollution of Boston Harbor. The project includes construction of a new primary and secondary treatment plant and sludge treatment facilities, excavation of a long ocean outfall and diffuser, and a solution to the overflow of mixed sewage and stormwater during storms; it will take over twenty years and billions of dollars to construct. A comparison of the relative costs and environmental benefits of relative costs and environmental benefits of the various construction projects, and other pollution control strategies, shows that some projects are more cost-effective than others for solving specific pollution problems. The capture and treatment of combined sewer overflow (CSO) will result in a more dramatic reduction of pathogen contamination than will completion of the primary and secondary treatment plants. Although the flow of raw sewage is intermittent and relatively small, it has high concentrations of bacteria and viruses. On the other hand, the new treatment plants will be more important in reducing toxic contamination of fish and shellfish. In summary, all the planned clean-up projects appear to be necessary to reach the goal of a swimmable, fishable Boston Harbor.

  15. Technologies for in situ cleanup of contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Udell, K S; Grubb, D G; Sitar, N

    1995-05-01

    Groundwater contamination by non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) and denser than water non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) poses one of the greatest remedial challenges in the field of environmental engineering. Due to low water solubilities and aqueous diffusivities, conventional pump-and-treat technologies have a poor record of success in remediation of DNAPL contaminated aquifers. Better success has been found with the removal of volatile LNAPLs due to higher gaseous diffusivities, propensity for aerobic biodegradation, and ease of pumping and handling large quantities of gas. An evaluation of in situ cleanup technologies on the basis of their applicability to in situ treatment of NAPL contaminated aquifers is presented. Emphasis is placed on treatment of the separate phase occurring in the saturated zone. Soil washing, air sparging, biodegradation, electro-osmosis, enhanced steam extraction, stabilization/solidification, treatment walls, radio frequency heating, and containment systems and barriers are among the in situ technologies reviewed. In the context of the governing contaminant fate and transport processes, the relative merits of each technology are assessed on the basis of its theoretical background, field implementability, level of demonstration and performance, waste, technical and site applicability/limitations, commercial availability, and cost and residuals management.

  16. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  17. Answers to frequently asked questions about cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    This question-and-answer report provides answers in nontechnical language to frequently asked questions about the status of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island, Unit 2. The answers update information first prepared in 1981, shortly after the cleanup got under way. Since then, a variety of important developments in the cleanup has occurred. The information in the report should be read in conjunction with NUREG 1060, a discussion of increased occupational exposure estimates for the cleanup. The questions and answers in this report cover purpose and community involvement, decontamination of water and reactor, fuel removal, radwaste transport, environmental impact, social and economic effects, worker exposures and safety, radiation monitoring, potential for accidents, and schedule and funding.

  18. Integrated Planning for Cleanup of Bethel Valley and Revitalization of the ORNL Main Campus

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S. D.; Myrick, T. E.; Eidam, G. R.

    2002-02-26

    This paper describes the efforts currently underway to integrate the planning for, and performance of, the cleanup and modernization of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). UT-Battelle, LLC, is the DOE Office of Science (SC) contractor responsible for ORNL Operations and Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC, is the DOE Environmental Management (EM) contractor responsible for cleanup of the ORNL site. The two companies are working together to address the 50+ year old ORNL contamination legacy while new facilities for the next 50 years of ORNL operation are being built. These joint efforts have accomplished a number of ''early cleanup actions'' that have significantly reduced the current risk from legacy contamination, are securing approval for cleanup of the ORNL main plant area, and, at the same time, have launched the ORNL modernization efforts.

  19. Beryllium medical surveillance at a former nuclear weapons facility during cleanup operations.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Holly M; Maier, Lisa A; Silveira, Lori J; Mroz, Margaret M; Ogden, Lorraine G; Murphy, James R; Newman, Lee S

    2004-09-01

    Despite increasing need to remediate beryllium-contaminated buildings in industry, little is known about the magnitude of risk associated with beryllium abatement or the merits of beryllium medical surveillance for cleanup workers. We examined beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests and reviewed medical evaluations on workers at a nuclear weapons facility during the process of decontamination and decommissioning. Of 2,221 workers, 19 (0.8%) were beryllium sensitized based on two or more abnormal beryllium lymphocyte proliferation tests. Eight of 19 sensitized individuals underwent full clinical evaluation, of whom two were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease (CBD). Notably, seven beryllium sensitized and CBD cases were hired after the start of cleanup operations. Beryllium medical surveillance detects sensitization and CBD in cleanup workers. Exposure controls and medical surveillance need to be 'broad-based' to include all cleanup workers involved in beryllium-contaminated building remediation.

  20. Dynamics of the Genetic Diversity of Subsurface Microbial Communities and Their Applications to Contaminated Site Cleanups

    EPA Science Inventory

    When compared to traditional approaches, the utilization of molecular and genomic techniques to soil and groundwater cleanup investigations can reduce inherent parameter variability when conducting bench and pilot-scale investigations or carrying out full-scale field applications...

  1. Options for improving hazardous waste cleanups using risk-based criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1995-06-01

    This paper explores how risk- and technology-based criteria are currently used in the RCRA and CERCLA cleanup programs. It identifies ways in which risk could be further incorporated into RCRA and CERCLA cleanup requirements and the implications of risk-based approaches. The more universal use of risk assessment as embodied in the risk communication and risk improvement bills before Congress is not addressed. Incorporating risk into the laws and regulations governing hazardous waste cleanup, will allow the use of the best scientific information available to further the goal of environmental protection in the United States while containing costs. and may help set an example for other countries that may be developing cleanup programs, thereby contributing to enhanced global environmental management.

  2. Effort to earn public support and confidence in Hanford Site cleanup work

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.C.; Edwards, C. ); Beers, A.A. )

    1991-09-01

    Public involvement is needed for Hanford Site cleanup to succeed. If people do not know about, understand, and support cleanup, it will be more difficult and expensive. The Tri-Party Agreement calls for public involvement in decisions about cleanup options and schedules. This paper defines what public involvement means and how the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and US Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted it. Experience and survey research have shown ways to improve our performance. While we have improved our conduct of public meetings, we must identify other ways to involve the public. Efforts continue to open decision making earlier in the decision process, to share information that is clear and understandable, and to open the channels of communication. We have made good progress. We have many opportunities to continue to improve. This paper describes some of the highlights and lessons learned in public involvement in Hanford Site cleanup. 4 refs.

  3. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2006-04-18

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  4. Mission analysis and performance specification studies report, appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program tasks included defining missions, developing distributions of daily travel and composite driving cycles for these missions, providing information necessary to estimate the potential replacement of the existing fleet by hybrids, and estimating acceleration/gradeability performance requirements for safe operation. The data was then utilized to develop mission specifications, define reference vehicles, develop hybrid vehicle performance specifications, and make fuel consumption estimates for the vehicles. The major assumptions which underlie the approach taken to the mission analysis and development of performance specifications are the following: the daily operating range of a hybrid vehicle should not be limited by the stored energy capacity and the performance of such a vehicle should not be strongly dependent on the battery state of charge.

  5. Implementing safer alternatives to lithographic cleanup solvents to protect the health of workers and the environment.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Patrice; Wolf, Katy; Quint, Julia

    2009-03-01

    The use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in lithographic printing cleanup is an environmental and occupational hazard. Regulations to reduce ambient ozone levels limited VOC emissions from lithographic cleanup operations and spurred the development of low-VOC alternatives. The purpose of this project was to promote the substitution of hazardous cleanup solvents with less toxic chemicals to protect the health of workers and the environment. A convenience sample of printers, employers, union, industry, and government representatives was constructed. Data regarding the lithographic printing work force and the use of cleanup solvents and alternatives were collected through: (1) work site walk-throughs, (2) a focus group, (3) key informant interviews, (4) a half-day workshop, and (5) demonstration projects. Overall, 66 individuals from 15 different print shops, 10 government agencies, the lithographic printing industry, and one printer's union participated in one or more aspects of the project. Printer inhalation exposure to hazardous cleanup solvents was prevalent and printers were not aware of safer alternatives. Employers should implement low-VOC, low-toxicity cleanup products in a timely manner to protect the health of printers and the environment. Use of low-VOC lithographic cleanup products does not mitigate the potential for printer dermal exposure and may carry safety and ergonomic implications. Lithographic cleanup solvent manufacturers should seek low-VOC ingredients that do not pose a dermal exposure hazard. Linking environmental and occupational health prevented the development of substitutes that would have introduced worker hazards and provided an opportunity to circumvent some of the inadequacies of the current occupational health regulatory apparatus. Governmental organizations should establish and maintain institutional interdisciplinary mechanisms to support these linkages. PMID:19142792

  6. Comparison Tools for Assessing the Microgravity Environment of Missions, Carriers and Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; McPherson, Kevin; Moskowitz, Milton; Hrovat, Ken

    1997-01-01

    The Principal Component Spectral Analysis and the Quasi-steady Three-dimensional Histogram techniques provide the means to describe the microgravity acceleration environment of an entire mission on a single plot. This allows a straight forward comparison of the microgravity environment between missions, carriers, and conditions. As shown in this report, the PCSA and QTH techniques bring both the range and median of the microgravity environment onto a single page for an entire mission or another time period or condition of interest. These single pages may then be used to compare similar analyses of other missions, time periods or conditions. The PCSA plot is based on the frequency distribution of the vibrational energy and is normally used for an acceleration data set containing frequencies above the lowest natural frequencies of the vehicle. The QTH plot is based on the direction and magnitude of the acceleration and is normally used for acceleration data sets with frequency content less than 0.1 Hz. Various operating conditions are made evident by using PCSA and QTH plots. Equipment operating either full or part time with sufficient magnitude to be considered a disturbance is very evident as well as equipment contributing to the background acceleration environment. A source's magnitude and/or frequency variability is also evident by the source's appearance on a PCSA plot. The PCSA and QTH techniques are valuable tools for extracting useful information from acceleration data taken over large spans of time. This report shows that these techniques provide a tool for comparison between different sets of microgravity acceleration data, for example different missions, different activities within a mission, and/or different attitudes within a mission. These techniques, as well as others, may be employed in order to derive useful information from acceleration data.

  7. Gaia Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusti, Timo

    2015-08-01

    The commissioning phase of the Gaia satellite was completed in July 2014 and we are well into the first year of routine phase operations out of the nominal 5 year mission. All subsystems are working and the operational parameters have been tuned for optimum science performance. A final upgrade of the on-board detection software is under testing. The aim is to be operational in the final configuration by summer 2015. The magnitude limit of the survey has been set to G=20.7 mag for astrometry and photometry. The spectroscopy magnitude limit is currently G_RVS=16.2 mag, but may be adjusted pending the new on-board software testing. The Science Alerts stream based on photometry has been started while preparations are underway for the first intermediate catalogue release by summer 2016. Examples of Gaia observations will be shown to indicate the scientific power of this ESA cornerstone mission.

  8. MARS Mission research center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mars Mission Research Center (M2RC) is one of nine University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in June 1988. It is a cooperative effort between NCSU and A&T in Greensboro. The goal of the Center is to focus on research and educational technologies for planetary exploration with particular emphasis on Mars. The research combines Mission Analysis and Design, Hypersonic Aerodynamics and Propulsion, Structures and Controls, Composite Materials, and Fabrication Methods in a cross-disciplined program directed towards the development of space transportation systems for lunar and planetary travel. The activities of the students and faculty in the M2RC for the period 1 Jul. 1990 to 30 Jun. 1991 are described.

  9. STS-31 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The mission insignia for NASA's STS-31 mission features the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in its observing configuration against a background of the universe it will study. The cosmos includes a stylistic depiction of galaxies in recognition of the contribution made by Sir Edwin Hubble to our understanding of the nature of galaxies and the expansion of the universe. The STS-31 crew points out that is it in honor of Hubble's work that this great observatory in space bears his name. The depicted Space Shuttle trails a spectrum symbolic of both the red shift observations that were so important to Hubble's work and new information which will be obtained with the HST. Encircling the art work, designed by the crew, are the names of its members.

  10. Spacelab 3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.

    1990-01-01

    Spacelab-3 (SL-3) was the first microgravity mission of extended duration involving crew interaction with animal experiments. This interaction involved sharing the Spacelab environmental system, changing animal food, and changing animal waste trays by the crew. Extensive microbial testing was conducted on the animal specimens and crew and on their ground and flight facilities during all phases of the mission to determine the potential for cross contamination. Macroparticulate sampling was attempted but was unsuccessful due to the unforseen particulate contamination occurring during the flight. Particulate debris of varying size (250 micron to several inches) and composition was recovered post flight from the Spacelab floor, end cones, overhead areas, avionics fan filter, cabin fan filters, tunnel adaptor, and from the crew module. These data are discussed along with solutions, which were implemented, for particulate and microbial containment for future flight facilities.

  11. NEAR mission design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, David W.; McAdams, James V.; Farquhar, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) spacecraft took 4 years from launch until it became the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid in February 2000. A month later, the spacecraft was re-christened NEAR Shoemaker to honor the late Eugene Shoemaker. To save launch costs, the mission used a special 2-year-period trajectory with an Earth gravity assist. On the way, the spacecraft imaged the asteroid 253 Mathilde. On 20 December 1998, NEAR's large engine misfired, failing to brake it for entry into orbit about 433 Eros. Another attempt 2 weeks later succeeded, but the spacecraft was almost a million kilometers away and took over a year to reach the asteroid. The mission was recovered thanks to a generous fuel supply and robust contingency planning. The implementation of the spacecraft's daring orbital maneuvers is described, including those used to land on Eros' surface in February 2001.

  12. STS-44 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Designed by the participating crewmembers, the STS-44 patch shows the Space Shuttle Atlantis ascending to Earth orbit to expand mankind's knowledge. The patch illustrated by the symbolic red, white and blue of the American flag represents the American contribution and strength derived from this mission. The black background of space, indicative of the mysteries of the universe, is illuminated by six large stars, which depict the American crew of six and the hopes that travel with them. The smaller stars represent Americans who work in support of this mission. Within the Shuttle's payload bay is a Defense Support Program Satellite which will help insure peace. In the words of a crew spokesman, the stars of the flag symbolize our leadership in an exciting quest of space and the boundless dreams for humanity's future.

  13. All about the Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    It's all about the mission at Berea College. Founded on a Utopian dream, Berea has been doing diversity longer than any school in the South. Berea College isn't a product of the civil rights movement. Not even close. The school pre-dates Reconstruction. In fact, at 150 years old, the first integrated, co-educational school in the South pre-dates…

  14. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  15. STS-107 Mission INSIGNIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSON, TEXAS -- STS-107 INSIGNIA -- This is the insignia for STS-107, which is a multi-discipline microgravity and Earth science research mission with a multitude of international scientific investigations conducted continuously during the planned 16 days on orbit. The central element of the patch is the microgravity symbol flowing into the rays of the astronaut symbol. The mission inclination is portrayed by the 39-degree angle of the astronaut symbol to the Earth's horizon. The sunrise is representative of the numerous experiments that are the dawn of a new era for continued microgravity research on the International Space Station and beyond. The breadth of science conducted on this mission will have widespread benefits to life on Earth and our continued exploration of space, illustrated by the Earth and stars. The constellation Columba (the dove) was chosen to symbolize peace on Earth and the Space Shuttle Columbia. The seven stars also represent the mission crew members and honor the original astronauts who paved the way to make research in space possible. The Israeli flag is adjacent to the name of the payload specialist who is the first person from that country to fly on the Space Shuttle. The NASA insignia design for Space Shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced.

  16. Suborbital missions: The Joust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Bruce W.

    1991-01-01

    Joust 1 will carry a payload of 10 experiments. The experiments in the payload module will be mated with a service module containing accelerometers, avionics, a low gravity rate control system, and battery packs. This suborbital mission will last approximately 21 minutes, providing at least 13 minutes of microgravity time. The experiments are as follow: study into polymer membrane processes; polymer curing; plasma particle generation; automated generic bioprocessing apparatus; biomodule; thin films; materials dispersion apparatus; foam formation; electrodeposition process; and powdered materials processing.

  17. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B. ); Pieters, C. ); Ulmer, M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Henrikson, C. )

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth's Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low [Delta]V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  18. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.; Pieters, C.; Ulmer, M.; Henrikson, C.

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth`s Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low {Delta}V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  19. Titan Saturn System Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reh, Kim R.

    2009-01-01

    Titan is a high priority for exploration, as recommended by NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Roadmap. NASA's 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program Themes. Recent revolutionary Cassini-Huygens discoveries have dramatically escalated interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer solar system. This study demonstrates that an exciting Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) that explores two worlds of intense astrobiological interest can be initiated now as a single NASA/ESA collaboration.

  20. A Somalia mission experience.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah

    2012-08-01

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it. PMID:22831938

  1. A Somalia mission experience.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah

    2012-06-28

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.

  2. Bion 11 mission hardware.

    PubMed

    Golov, V K; Magedov, V S; Skidmore, M G; Hines, J W; Kozlovskaya, I B; Korolkov, V I

    2000-01-01

    The mission hardware provided for Bion 11 shared primate experiments included the launch vehicle, biosatellite, spaceflight operational systems, spacecraft recovery systems, life support systems, bioinstrumentation, and data collection systems. Under the unique Russia/US bilateral contract, the sides worked together to ensure the reliability and quality of hardware supporting the primate experiments. Parameters recorded inflight covered biophysical, biochemical, biopotential, environmental, and system operational status.

  3. A Mars 1984 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  4. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  5. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  6. Geopotential Research Mission (GRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) is a satellite system proposed to determine variations in the gravitational and magnetic fields to a resolution of about 100 kilometers. Knowledge and interpretations of the potential fields on scales of 100 kilometers and greater, to clarify the needs for better data in this range of wavelengths were reviewed. The potential contribution of these data to the determination, by satellite altimetry, of a more accurate geoidal reference was discussed.

  7. Orion Exploration Mission-1 Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of the Orion spacecraft’s Exploration Mission-1 in 2017. Exploration Mission-1 will be the first integrated flight test with both the Orion spacecraft and NASA’s new Space Launch System.

  8. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  9. The Juno Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the origin of Jupiter will be presented.

  10. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit by late 2012. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 45-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archival, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (circa 30-m spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions, in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of land-cover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis and at a price no greater than the incremental cost of fulfilling a user request. Distribution of LDCM data over the Internet at no cost to the user is currently planned.

  11. Bion-11 Spaceflight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skidmore, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Sensors 2000! Program, in support of the Space Life Sciences Payloads Office at NASA Ames Research Center developed a suite of bioinstrumentation hardware for use on the Joint US/Russian Bion I I Biosatellite Mission (December 24, 1996 - January 7, 1997). This spaceflight included 20 separate experiments that were organized into a complimentary and interrelated whole, and performed by teams of US, Russian, and French investigators. Over 40 separate parameters were recorded in-flight on both analog and digital recording media for later analysis. These parameters included; Electromyogram (7 ch), Electrogastrogram, Electrooculogram (2 ch), ECG/EKG, Electroencephlogram (2 ch), single fiber firing of Neurovestibular afferent nerves (7 ch), Tendon Force, Head Motion Velocity (pitch & yaw), P02 (in vivo & ambient), temperature (deep body, skin, & ambient), and multiple animal and spacecraft performance parameters for a total of 45 channels of recorded data. Building on the close cooperation of previous missions, US and Russian engineers jointly developed, integrated, and tested the physiologic instrumentation and data recording system. For the first time US developed hardware replaced elements of the Russian systems resulting in a US/Russian hybrid instrumentation and data system that functioned flawlessly during the 14 day mission.

  12. The Spartan 1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruddace, Raymond G.; Fritz, G. G.; Shrewsberry, D. J.; Brandenstein, D. J.; Creighton, D. C.; Gutschewski, G.; Lucid, S. W.; Nagel, J. M.; Fabian, J. M.; Zimmerman, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first Spartan mission is documented. The Spartan program, an outgrowth of a joint Naval Research Laboratory (NRL)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) development effort, was instituted by NASA for launching autonomous, recoverable payloads from the space shuttle. These payloads have a precise pointing system and are intended to support a wide range of space-science observations and experiments. The first Spartan, carrying an NRL X-ray astronomy instrument, was launched by the orbiter Discovery (STS51G) on June 20, 1985 and recovered successfully 45 h later, on June 22. During this period, Spartan 1 conducted a preprogrammed series of observations of two X-ray sources: the Perseus cluster of galaxies and the center of our galaxy. The mission was successful from both on engineering and a scientific viewpoint. Only one problem was encountered, the attitude control system (ACS) shut down earlier than planned because of high attitude control system gas consumption. A preplanned emergency mode then placed Spartan 1 into a stable, safe condition and allowed a safe recovery. The events are described of the mission and presents X-ray maps of the two observed sources, which were produced from the flight data.

  13. STS-79 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth in a series of NASA docking missions to the Russian Mir Space Station, leading up to the construction and operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As the first flight of the Spacehab Double Module, STS-79 encompassed research, test and evaluation of ISS, as well as logistics resupply for the Mir Space Station. STS-79 was also the first NASA-Mir American crew member exchange mission, with John E. Blaha (NASA-Mir-3) replacing Shannon W. Lucid (NASA-Mir-2) aboard the Mir Space Station. The lettering of their names either up or down denotes transport up to the Mir Space Station or return to Earth on STS-79. The patch is in the shape of the Space Shuttle's airlock hatch, symbolizing the gateway to international cooperation in space. The patch illustrates the historic cooperation between the United States and Russia in space. With the flags of Russia and the United States as a backdrop, the handshake of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) which are suited crew members symbolizes mission teamwork, not only of the crew members but also the teamwork between both countries space personnel in science, engineering, medicine and logistics.

  14. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  15. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  16. STS-103 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Designed by the crew members, the STS-103 emblem depicts the Space Shuttle Discovery approaching the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) prior to its capture and berthing. The purpose of the mission was to remove and replace some of the Telescope's older and out-of-date systems with newer, more reliable and more capable ones, and to make repairs to HST's exterior thermal insulation that had been damaged by more than nine years of exposure to the space environment. The horizontal and vertical lines centered on the Telescope symbolize the ability to reach and maintain a desired attitude in space, essential to the instrument's scientific operation. The preservation of this ability was one of the primary objectives of the mission. After the flight, the Telescope resumed its successful exploration of deep space and will continue to be used to study solar system objects, stars in the making, late phases of stellar evolution, galaxies and the early history of the universe. HST, as represented on this emblem was inspired by views from previous servicing missions, with its solar arrays illuminated by the Sun, providing a striking contrast with the blackness of space and the night side of Earth.

  17. Interhelioprobe Mission for Solar and Heliospheric Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Zelenyi, Lev; Zimovets, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    A new concept has been adopted for the Interhelioprobe mission intended for studying the inner heliosphere and the Sun at short distances and from out-of-ecliptic positions. In accordance with this concept, two identical SC spaced by a quarter of a period on heliocentric orbits inclined to the ecliptic plane in different directions will orbit the Sun, thus ensuring continuous out-of-ecliptic solar observations and measurements in the heliosphere. The scientific payload will comprise instruments for remote observations of the Sun (Optical photometer, Magnetograph, Chemical Composition Analyzer, EUV Imager-Spectrometer, Coronagraph, X-ray Imager, Heliospheric Imager, X-ray Polarimeter, and Gamma-Spectrometers) and in-situ measurements in the heliosphere (Solar Wind Ion Analyzer, Solar Wind Electron Analyzer, Solar Wind Plasma Analyzers, Energetic Particle Telescope, Neutron Detector, Magnetic Wave Complex, Magnetometer, and Radio Spectrometer Detector). The instruments will study the structure and dynamics of the magnetic fields and plasma flows in the polar regions of the Sun, solar flares and mass ejections, the heating of the solar corona and solar wind acceleration, acceleration and propagation of energetic particles in the Sun and heliosphere, the solar wind, as well as disturbances and ejections that come from the Sun to the Earth and control space weather in the near-Earth space. The schedule of the mission and the development status of the instruments and the spacecraft are provided.

  18. Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators: SEPAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.; Roberts, W. T.; Taylor, W. W. L.; Kawashima, N.; Marshall, J. A.; Moses, S. L.; Neubert, T.; Mende, S. B.; Choueiri, E. Y.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC), which flew on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 1 mission, used new techniques to study natural phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere by introducing energetic perturbations into the system from a high power electron beam with known characteristics. Properties of auroras were studied by directing the electron beam into the upper atmosphere while making measurements of optical emissions. Studies were also performed of the critical ionization velocity phenomenon.

  19. Power systems for future missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive scenario of future missions was developed and applicability of different power technologies to these missions was assessed. Detailed technology development roadmaps for selected power technologies were generated. A simple methodology to evaluate economic benefits of current and future power system technologies by comparing Life Cycle Costs of potential missions was developed. The methodology was demonstrated by comparing Life Cycle Costs for different implementation strategies of DIPS/CBC technology to a selected set of missions.

  20. Nuclear electric propulsion mission performance for fast piloted Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, K. J.; George, J. A.; Dudzinski, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    A mission study aimed at minimizing the time humans would spend in the space environment is presented. The use of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), when combined with a suitable mission profile, can reduce the trip time to durations competitive with other propulsion systems. Specifically, a split mission profile utilizing an earth crew capture vehicle accounts for a significant portion of the trip time reduction compared to previous studies. NEP is shown to be capable of performing fast piloted missions to Mars at low power levels using near-term technology and is considered to be a viable candidate for these missions.

  1. GPM Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission to unify and advance precipitation measurements from a constellation of research and operational sensors to provide "next-generation" precipitation products. Relative to current global rainfall products, GPM data products will be characterized by: (1) more accurate instantaneous precipitation measurements (especially for light rain and cold-season solid/snow precipitation), (2) more frequent sampling by an expanded constellation of microwave radiometers that include operational humidity sounders over land, (3) inter-calibrated microwave brightness temperatures from constellation radiometers within a unified framework, and (4) physical-based precipitation retrievals from constellation radiometers using a common a priori cloud hydrometeor database derived from GPM Core sensor measurements. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65 degree non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of dedicated and operational passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a KulKa-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The combined use ofDPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. As a science mission with integrated application goals, GPM is designed to (1) advance precipitation measurement capability from space through combined use of active and passive microwave sensors, (2) advance the knowledge of the global water/energy cycle and freshwater availability through better description of the space-time variability of global precipitation, and (3) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction

  2. 75 FR 6178 - Mission Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    .... Mission Statement Secretarial Indonesia Clean Energy Business Development Mission May 23-25, 2010. Mission... in a broad range of clean energy technologies, including the geothermal, biomass, hydropower, wind... comprised of approximately 10-15 U.S. firms representing a cross-section of U.S. clean energy...

  3. Cleanup under Airlock of an Old Uranium Foundry - 13273

    SciTech Connect

    Thuillier, Daniel; Houee, Jean-Marie; Chambon, Frederic

    2013-07-01

    Since 2004, AREVA's subsidiary SICN has been conducting the cleanup and dismantling of an old uranium foundry located in the town of Annecy (France). The first operations consisted in the removal of the foundry's production equipment, producing more than 300 metric tons (MT) of waste. The second step consisted in performing the radiological characterization of the 1,600 m{sup 2} (17,200 ft{sup 2}) building, including underground trenches and galleries. The building was precisely inventoried, based on operations records and direct measurements. All sub-surfaces, which needed to be cleaned up were characterized, and a determination of the contamination migration was established, in particular with trenches and galleries. The wall thicknesses to be treated were empirically justified, knowing that the maximal migration depth inside concrete is 5 mm for a liquid transfer vector. All singularities such as cracks, anchoring points, etc. were spotted for a complete and systematic treatment. Building structures not laying directly on the soil, such as floor slabs, were not cleaned up but directly deconstructed and disposed of as waste. The facility was located within the town of Annecy. Therefore, in order to avoid the risk of dusts dispersion and public exposure during the building deconstruction and the soil treatment, a third of the building's surface was confined in a sliding airlock built from a metal structure capable of resisting to wind and snow, which are frequent in this area. This particular structure provided a static confinement over the half of the building which was covered and a dynamic confinement using a ventilation and high efficiency air filtration system, sized to provide 2.5 air changes per hour. The enclosure and its metallic structure is 33 m long (108 feet), 25 m wide (82 feet), and 13 m high (42 feet), for a volume of 10,000 m{sup 3} (353,000 ft{sup 3}). It was made up of a double skin envelope, allowing the recycling of its structure and outside

  4. PROGRESS & CHALLENGES IN CLEANUP OF HANFORDS TANK WASTES

    SciTech Connect

    HEWITT, W.M.; SCHEPENS, R.

    2006-01-23

    The River Protection Project (RPP), which is managed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP), is highly complex from technical, regulatory, legal, political, and logistical perspectives and is the largest ongoing environmental cleanup project in the world. Over the past three years, ORP has made significant advances in its planning and execution of the cleanup of the Hartford tank wastes. The 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs), 28 double-shell tanks (DSTs), and 60 miscellaneous underground storage tanks (MUSTs) at Hanford contain approximately 200,000 m{sup 3} (53 million gallons) of mixed radioactive wastes, some of which dates back to the first days of the Manhattan Project. The plan for treating and disposing of the waste stored in large underground tanks is to: (1) retrieve the waste, (2) treat the waste to separate it into high-level (sludge) and low-activity (supernatant) fractions, (3) remove key radionuclides (e.g., Cs-137, Sr-90, actinides) from the low-activity fraction to the maximum extent technically and economically practical, (4) immobilize both the high-level and low-activity waste fractions by vitrification, (5) interim store the high-level waste fraction for ultimate disposal off-site at the federal HLW repository, (6) dispose the low-activity fraction on-site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), and (7) close the waste management areas consisting of tanks, ancillary equipment, soils, and facilities. Design and construction of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), the cornerstone of the RPP, has progressed substantially despite challenges arising from new seismic information for the WTP site. We have looked closely at the waste and aligned our treatment and disposal approaches with the waste characteristics. For example, approximately 11,000 m{sup 3} (2-3 million gallons) of metal sludges in twenty tanks were not created during spent nuclear fuel reprocessing and have low fission product concentrations. We

  5. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  6. Regulatory and institutional issues impending cleanup at US Department of Energy sites: Perspectives gained from an office of environmental restoration workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Fallon, W E; Gephart, J M; Gephart, R E; Quinn, R D; Stevenson, L A

    1991-05-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear weapons and energy operations are conducted across a nation-wide industrial complex engaged in a variety of manufacturing, processing, testing, and research and development activities. The overall mission of DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) is to protect workers, the public, and the environment from waste materials generated by past, current, and future DOE activities and to bring the DOE complex into compliance with all applicable laws, regulations, and agreements related to health, safety, and the environment. EM addresses this broad mandate through related and interdependent programs that include corrective actions, waste operations, environmental restoration, and technology development. The EM Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) recognizes the importance of implementing a complex-wide process to identify and resolve those issues that may impede progress towards site cleanup. As a first step in this process, FM-40 sponsored an exercise to identify and characterize major regulatory and institutional issues and to formulate integrated action steps towards their resolution. This report is the first product of that exercise. It is intended that the exercise described here will mark the beginning of an ongoing process of issue identification, tracking, and resolution that will benefit cleanup activities across the DOE complex.

  7. Science and Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Have you ever wondered about the science goals of various deep space missions? Or why scientists want such seemingly complicated spacecraft and operations scenarios? With a focus on outer planets) this talk will cover the scientific goals and results of several recent and future missions) how scientists approach a requirements flow down) and how the disparate needs of mission engineers and scientists can come together for mission success. It will also touch on several up and coming technologies and how they will change mission architectures in the future.

  8. TURBULENT SHEAR ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2013-04-10

    We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a length scale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation that contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration becomes important on small scales. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm that the ensemble-averaged transport equation describes the turbulent shear acceleration.

  9. The direction of acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Burde, Jan-Philipp; Lück, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration is a physical quantity that is difficult to understand and hence its complexity is often erroneously simplified. Many students think of acceleration as equivalent to velocity, a ˜ v. For others, acceleration is a scalar quantity, which describes the change in speed Δ|v| or Δ|v|/Δt (as opposed to the change in velocity). The main difficulty with the concept of acceleration therefore lies in developing a correct understanding of its direction. The free iOS app AccelVisu supports students in acquiring a correct conception of acceleration by showing acceleration arrows directly at moving objects.

  10. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1996-09-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission is a Discovery class mission that will place a small lander and rover on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997. The Pathfinder flight system is a single small lander, packaged within an aeroshell and back cover with a back-pack-style cruise stage. The vehicle will be launched, fly independently to Mars, and enter the atmosphere directly on approach behind the aeroshell. The vehicle is slowed by a parachute and 3 small solid rockets before landing on inflated airbags. Petals of a small tetrahedron shaped lander open up, to right the vehicle. The lander is solar powered with batteries and will operate on the surface for up to a year, downlinking data on a high-gain antenna. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, with 3 imagers and an alpha proton X-ray spectrometer, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. The rover (includes a series of technology experiments), the instruments (including a stereo multispectral surface imager on a pop up mast and an atmospheric structure instrument-surface meteorology package) and the telemetry system will allow investigations of: the surface morphology and geology at meter scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products and early environments and conditions on Mars.

  11. NEO Sample Return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barucci, M. A.; Neo-Sr Team

    The NEOs are representative of the population of asteroids and dead comets thought to be the remnants of the ancient planetesimals that accreted to form the planets. The chemical investigation of NEOs having primitive characteristics is thus essential in the understanding the planet formation and evolution. They carry records of the solar system's birth/early phases and the geological evolution of small bodies in the interplanetary regions. Moreover, collisions of NEOs with Earth represent a serious hazard to life. For all these reasons the exploration and characterization of these objects are particularly interesting and urgent. NEOs are interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research and robotic exploration. Within this framework, the mission LEONARD including an orbiter and a lander to the primitive double object (1996 FG3) has been studied by CNES, in collaboration with a number of European planetologists (France, Italy, Germany and United Kingdom) and related Space Agencies. A new Sample Return mission is under study within a large European community and possible collaboration with the Japanese Space Agency JAXA to reply to the ESA Cosmic Vision AO. The principal objectives are to investigate on 1) the properties of the building blocks of the terrestrial planets; 2) the major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating, ... . . ) which ruled the history of planetesimals; 3) the primitive asteroids which could contain presolar material unknown in meteoritic samples; 4) the organics in primitive materials; 5) the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula; and 6) how they can shed light on the origin of molecules necessary for life. This type of mission appears clearly to have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials.

  12. Solar Electric Propulsion Mission Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation reviews Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Mission Architectures with a slant towards power system technologies and challenges. The low-mass, high-performance attributes of SEP systems have attracted spacecraft designers and mission planners alike and have led to a myriad of proposed Earth orbiting and planetary exploration missions. These SEP missions are discussed from the earliest missions in the 1960's, to first demonstrate electric thrusters, to the multi-megawatt missions envisioned many decades hence. The technical challenges and benefits of applying high-voltage arrays, thin film and low-intensity, low-temperature (LILT) photovoltaics, gossamer structure solar arrays, thruster articulating systems and microsat systems to SEP spacecraft power system designs are addressed. The overarching conclusion from this review is that SEP systems enhance, and many times enable, a wide class of space missions.

  13. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoebert, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Barnett, J.; Gille, J.; Beer, R.; Gunson, M.; Waters, J.; Levelt, P. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite is scheduled to launch in the second quarter of 2004. The Aura mission is designed to attack three science questions: (1) Is the ozone layer recovering as expected? (2) What are the sources and processes that control tropospheric pollutants? (3) What is the quantitative impact of constituents on climate change? Aura will answer these questions by globally measuring a comprehensive set of trace gases and aerosols at high vertical and horizontal resolution. Fig. 1 shows the Aura spacecraft and its four instruments.

  14. Space Shuttle Missions Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

  15. Mars mission research center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Mars Mission Research Center is one of nine University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA to broaden the nation's engineering capability to meet the critical needs of the civilian space program. It has the goal of focusing on research and training technologies for planetary exploration with particular emphasis on Mars. The research combines: (1) composite materials and fabrication, (2) light weight structures and controls, and (3) hypersonic aerodynamics and propulsion in a cross disciplined program directed towards the development of the space transportation system for planetary travel.

  16. The CHEOPS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broeg, Christopher; benz, willy; fortier, andrea; Ehrenreich, David; beck, Thomas; cessa, Virginie; Alibert, Yann; Heng, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry. It is expected to be launch-ready at the end of 2017.CHEOPS will be the first space observatory dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. It will have access to more than 70% of the sky. This will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based radial velocity surveys and for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The measurement of the radius of a planet from its transit combined with the determination of its mass through radial velocity techniques gives the bulk density of the planet, which provides direct insights into the structure and/or composition of the body. In order to meet the scientific objectives, a number of requirements have been derived that drive the design of CHEOPS. For the detection of Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting G5 dwarf stars with V-band magnitudes in the range 6 ≤ V ≤ 9 mag, a photometric precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time must be reached. This time corresponds to the transit duration of a planet with a revolution period of 50 days. In the case of Neptune-size planets orbiting K-type dwarf with magnitudes as faint as V=12 mag, a photometric precision of 85 ppm in 3 hours of integration time must be reached. To achieve this performance, the CHEOPS mission payload consists of only one instrument, a space telescope of 30 cm clear aperture, which has a single CCD focal plane detector. CHEOPS will be inserted in a low Earth orbit and the total duration of the CHEOPS mission is 3.5 years (goal: 5 years).The presentation will describe the current payload and mission design of CHEOPS, give the development status, and show the expected performances.

  17. The Apollo missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherer, L. R.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo 11 and 12 lunar landings are briefly reviewed together with the problems experienced with Apollo 13. As a result of the first two landing missions it became known that parts of the moon are at least four and one-half billion years old. If the moon was once part of the earth, it must have split off very early in its history. Starting with Apollo 16, changes in hardware will result in very significant improvements and capabilities. The landed payload will be increased by over 100%.

  18. Climate Benchmark Missions: CLARREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.

    2010-01-01

    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in

  19. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  20. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.