Science.gov

Sample records for accelerated cost recovery

  1. Cost Recovery Through Depreciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forrester, Robert T.; Wesolowski, Leonard V.

    1983-01-01

    The approach of adopting depreciation rather than use allowance in order to recover more accurately the cost of college buildings and equipment used on federal projects is considered. It is suggested that depreciation will offer most colleges and universities a higher annual recovery rate, and an opportunity for better facilities planning. For…

  2. Managing costs. [Resource recovery facility costs

    SciTech Connect

    Paret, M.P. ); Strouse, R.K. )

    1992-03-01

    This article examines the costs associated with a resource recovery facility in Indianapolis and how keeping these costs low provides flexibility for enacting economic incentives and new funding mechanisms that are generally needed today to encourage cost-effective recycling. The topics discussed in the article include project development, program finances, cogeneration, and the future outlook.

  3. Cameroon and Chad: cost recovery.

    PubMed

    Godin, C

    1998-04-01

    African Ministers of Health adopted the Bamako Initiative in 1987 to ensure sustainable and efficient primary health care (PHC), with an eye toward decreasing levels of morbidity and mortality in Africa. The initiative has made local communities largely responsible for identifying problems and distributing and managing local health care resources. Cost recovery is a key component of the Bamako Initiative. The adoption of a policy of decentralization in which the immediate providers and users of PHC services are responsible for the recovery of costs was recommended. Chad and Cameroon decentralized its health services in 1990 and 1992, respectively. With onchocerciasis one of these 2 countries' most important public health problems, the 2 governments decided to base onchocerciasis control efforts upon the mass distribution of Mectizan (ivermectin, MSD) integrated into the local PHC systems and including cost recovery. Community participation must now be developed to ensure the sustainability of treatment programs in both countries. In both Cameroon and Chad, studies have found that the introduction of cost recovery has had no significant effect upon treatment coverage in hyper- and meso-endemic communities. In fact, those charged for Mectizan treatment often believe that the drug must be worthwhile because they have to pay for it. PMID:9861286

  4. Unintended Consequences of Cost Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercey, David

    2010-01-01

    An Alberta school district that used a cost-recovery model to finance school services for 20 years is finding that the model produces unintended negative results. Some schools didn't spend this money on services but used it for other school operations. Some spent the money on external consultants. Professional relationships were damaged, and…

  5. 50 CFR 679.85 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... rockfish fee liability may appeal the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost recovery. 679.85 Section 679.85....85 Cost recovery. (a) Cost recovery fees—(1) Responsibility. The person documented on the rockfish...

  6. 50 CFR 679.85 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... rockfish fee liability may appeal the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost recovery. 679.85 Section 679.85....85 Cost recovery. (a) Cost recovery fees—(1) Responsibility. The person documented on the rockfish...

  7. 50 CFR 679.85 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... rockfish fee liability may appeal the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost recovery. 679.85 Section 679.85....85 Cost recovery. (a) Cost recovery fees—(1) Responsibility. The person documented on the rockfish...

  8. 36 CFR 251.58 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cost recovery. 251.58 Section 251.58 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Special Uses § 251.58 Cost recovery. (a) Assessment of fees to recover agency processing and monitoring costs. The Forest Service shall assess fees...

  9. Cost analysis of water recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    A methodology was developed to predict the relevant contributions of the more intangible cost elements encountered in the development of flight-qualified hardware based on an extrapolation of past hardware development experience. Major items of costs within water recovery systems were identified and related to physical and/or performance criteria. Cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other aerospace and biotechnology programs were analyzed to identify major cost elements required to establish cost estimating relationships for advanced water recovery systems. The results of the study are expected to assist NASA in long-range planning and allocation of resources in a cost effective manner in support of earth orbital programs. This report deals with the cost analysis of the five leading water reclamation systems, namely: (1) RITE waste management-water system, (2) reverse osmosis system, (3) multifiltration system, (4) vapor compression system, and (5) closed air evaporation system with electrolytic pretreatment.

  10. 36 CFR 251.58 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to an unsolicited proposal or proposals, the agency is responsible for the cost of environmental... Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (43 U.S.C. 1761(c)). (3) A use or activity conducted by a... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cost recovery. 251.58...

  11. Recoverin depletion accelerates cone photoresponse recovery

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Jingjing; Keim, Jennifer; Kastenhuber, Edda; Gesemann, Matthias; Neuhauss, Stephan C. F.

    2015-01-01

    The neuronal Ca2+-binding protein Recoverin has been shown to regulate phototransduction termination in mammalian rods. Here we identify four recoverin genes in the zebrafish genome, rcv1a, rcv1b, rcv2a and rcv2b, and investigate their role in modulating the cone phototransduction cascade. While Recoverin-1b is only found in the adult retina, the other Recoverins are expressed throughout development in all four cone types, except Recoverin-1a, which is expressed only in rods and UV cones. Applying a double flash electroretinogram (ERG) paradigm, downregulation of Recoverin-2a or 2b accelerates cone photoresponse recovery, albeit at different light intensities. Exclusive recording from UV cones via spectral ERG reveals that knockdown of Recoverin-1a alone has no effect, but Recoverin-1a/2a double-knockdowns showed an even shorter recovery time than Recoverin-2a-deficient larvae. We also showed that UV cone photoresponse kinetics depend on Recoverin-2a function via cone-specific kinase Grk7a. This is the first in vivo study demonstrating that cone opsin deactivation kinetics determine overall photoresponse shut off kinetics. PMID:26246494

  12. 40 CFR 20.9 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (a)(6) of 26 CFR 1.169-2, the Regional Administrator shall so signify in the notice of certification... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cost recovery. 20.9 Section 20.9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CERTIFICATION OF FACILITIES § 20.9...

  13. Cost analysis of oxygen recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    The design and development of equipment for flight use in earth-orbital programs, when optimally approached cost effectively, proceed through the following logical progression: (1) bench testing of breadboard designs, (2) the fabrication and evaluation of prototype equipment, (3) redesign to meet flight-imposed requirements, and (4) qualification and testing of a flight-ready system. Each of these steps is intended to produce the basic design information necessary to progress to the next step. The cost of each step is normally substantially less than that of the following step. An evaluation of the cost elements involved in each of the steps and their impact on total program cost are presented. Cost analyses of four leading oxygen recovery subsystems which include two carbon dioxide reduction subsystem, Sabatier and Bosch, and two water electrolysis subsystems, the solid polymer electrolyte and the circulating KOH electrolyte are described.

  14. Cost analysis of oxygen recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Report is made of the cost analysis of four leading oxygen recovery subsystems which include two carbon dioxide reduction subsystems and two water electrolysis subsystems, namely, the solid polymer electrolyte and the circulating KOH electrolyte. The four oxygen recovery systems were quantitatively evaluated. System characteristics, including process flows, performance, and physical characteristics were also analyzed. Additionally, the status of development of each of the systems considered and the required advance technology efforts required to bring conceptual and/or pre-prototype hardware to an operational prototype status were defined. Intimate knowledge of the operations, development status, and capabilities of the systems to meet space mission requirements were found to be essential in establishing the cost estimating relationships for advanced life support systems.

  15. Low cost process heat recovery. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Theisen, P.; McCray, J.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to analyze waste heat recovery potential, economic analysis, heat exchanger and system design, and computer analysis programs. The heating demand and heat recovery potential at a Madison neighborhood bakery was conducted. The building has steam heat and natural gas is used in the hot water heater, the cooking stoves, and in the baking oven. Heat recovery potential was analyzed based upon fuel consumption in the baking oven, flue gas temperature, mass flow rate, and hours of oven operation. The feasibility of waste heat recovery systems is analyzed using life cycle cost and life cycle savings. For a first approximation, hand calculations were performed for air-to-air flat plate, fin-plate, and liquid-to-air tube type heat exchangers using the temperature and mass flow data from a pizza restaurant in Madison. Then a heat exchanger analysis program was written in interactive BASIC. The analysis indicates that heat recovery using the flat-plate and fin-plate exchanger designs is technically feasible and yields high effectiveness. (MCW)

  16. 78 FR 10262 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY... of average change in railroad productivity for the 2007-2011 (5-year) averaging period....

  17. 75 FR 16575 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Adoption of a railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY... productivity adjustment, as measured by the average change in railroad productivity for the years 2004...

  18. 47 CFR 51.215 - Dialing parity: Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dialing parity: Cost recovery. 51.215 Section... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.215 Dialing parity: Cost recovery. (a) A LEC may recover the incremental costs necessary for the implementation of toll dialing...

  19. 47 CFR 51.215 - Dialing parity: Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dialing parity: Cost recovery. 51.215 Section... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.215 Dialing parity: Cost recovery. (a) A LEC may recover the incremental costs necessary for the implementation of toll dialing...

  20. 47 CFR 51.215 - Dialing parity: Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dialing parity: Cost recovery. 51.215 Section... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.215 Dialing parity: Cost recovery. (a) A LEC may recover the incremental costs necessary for the implementation of toll dialing...

  1. 47 CFR 51.215 - Dialing parity: Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dialing parity: Cost recovery. 51.215 Section... (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.215 Dialing parity: Cost recovery. (a) A LEC may recover the incremental costs necessary for the implementation of toll dialing...

  2. Uncertain environmental costs and the optimum rate of oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dabirian, S.; Wong, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    The socially optimal rate of oil recovery from a known reservoir is analyzed when enviromental costs are uncertain and planners are either risk neutral or risk averse. It is shown that the rate of oil recovery has the same characteristics whether environmental costs are certain or uncertain. In either case, the rate of oil recovery falls monotonically to zero over the time horizon. However, the planner`s attitude toward risk is an important consideration. Risk averse planners, as a rule, begin oil recovery at a higher rate, reduce the rate of recovery more rapidly, and complete the oil recovery in a shorter time than risk neutral planners. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  3. 18 CFR 284.265 - Cost recovery by interstate pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost recovery by interstate pipeline. 284.265 Section 284.265 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... § 284.265 Cost recovery by interstate pipeline. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), an...

  4. 77 FR 55420 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), 43 U.S.C. 1734. In 2005, the BLM published a final cost recovery rule (70 FR... established by the 2011 (Fiscal Year 2012) cost recovery fee update rule published September 23, 2011 (76 FR... exploration permits. 70 FR 58854-58855. While the $25 fees for geophysical exploration permit applications...

  5. 50 CFR 12.42 - Recovery of certain storage costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... under the Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq., any person whose act or omission was the basis... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recovery of certain storage costs. 12.42... PLANTS SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Restoration of Proceeds and Recovery of Storage Costs §...

  6. 15 CFR 904.507 - Recovery of certain storage costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES Seizure and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.507 Recovery of certain storage costs. If any fish, wildlife, or evidentiary property is seized and forfeited under the Endangered Species Act, 16 U.S.C. 1531... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recovery of certain storage costs....

  7. 50 CFR 679.45 - IFQ cost recovery program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 679.45 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fishing Quota Management Measures § 679.45 IFQ cost recovery program. (a) Cost recovery fees—(1... the fee liability for GAF is not subject to challenge. If the IFQ permit holder revises NMFS'...

  8. 29 CFR 825.213 - Employer recovery of benefit costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer recovery of benefit costs. 825.213 Section 825.213... Leave Act § 825.213 Employer recovery of benefit costs. (a) In addition to the circumstances discussed... (share of) health benefit premium payments made on the employee's behalf during a period of unpaid...

  9. 18 CFR 284.265 - Cost recovery by interstate pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cost recovery by interstate pipeline. 284.265 Section 284.265 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... § 284.265 Cost recovery by interstate pipeline. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), an...

  10. 18 CFR 284.265 - Cost recovery by interstate pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cost recovery by interstate pipeline. 284.265 Section 284.265 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... § 284.265 Cost recovery by interstate pipeline. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), an...

  11. 77 FR 7237 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Proposed railroad cost recovery procedures productivity adjustment. SUMMARY: In a... change in railroad productivity for the 2006-2010 (5-year) averaging period. This represents a...

  12. 75 FR 5170 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Proposed Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures Productivity Adjustment. SUMMARY... of average change in railroad productivity for the 2004-2008 (5-year) averaging period. This is...

  13. Cost analysis of water recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakut, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    Cost and performance data from Gemini, Skylab, and other aerospace and biotechnology programs were analyzed to identify major cost elements required to establish cost estimating relationships for advanced life support subsystems for long range planning in support of earth orbital programs. Cost analysis are presented for five leading water reclamation systems; (1) RITE waste management-water system;(2) reverse osmosis system;(3) multifiltration system;(4) vapor compression system; and(5) closed air evaporation system with electrolytic pretreatment.

  14. Indirect Cost Recovery as an Issue of Science Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenzweig, Robert M.

    1987-01-01

    The history of the debate over federal efforts to reduce indirect cost recovery in federal research grants to universities is outlined and discussed by a former university administrator involved in the policy's formation. (MSE)

  15. 76 FR 59058 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), 43 U.S.C. 1734. In 2005, the BLM published a final cost recovery rule (70 FR... recovery fee update rule published September 14, 2010 (75 FR 55678), effective October 1, 2010. \\2\\ The... BLM interpreted this prohibition to apply to geophysical exploration permits. 70 FR 58854-58855....

  16. Public biobanks: calculation and recovery of costs.

    PubMed

    Clément, Bruno; Yuille, Martin; Zaltoukal, Kurt; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Anton, Gabriele; Parodi, Barbara; Kozera, Lukasz; Bréchot, Christian; Hofman, Paul; Dagher, Georges

    2014-11-01

    A calculation grid developed by an international expert group was tested across biobanks in six countries to evaluate costs for collections of various types of biospecimens. The assessment yielded a tool for setting specimen-access prices that were transparently related to biobank costs, and the tool was applied across three models of collaborative partnership. PMID:25378642

  17. 47 CFR 51.215 - Dialing parity: Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dialing parity: Cost recovery. 51.215 Section 51.215 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERCONNECTION Obligations of All Local Exchange Carriers § 51.215 Dialing parity: Cost...

  18. 40 CFR 300.160 - Documentation and cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of actual or potential natural resource injuries. (b) For discharges of oil, documentation and cost... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Documentation and cost recovery. 300..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES...

  19. 36 CFR 251.58 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monitoring fees in its directive system (36 CFR 200.4). The rates in the schedules shall be updated annually... allocation decisions, corridor or communications site planning, and biological studies that address species diversity, unless they are necessary for the application. Proportional costs for analyses, such as...

  20. 36 CFR 251.58 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monitoring fees in its directive system (36 CFR 200.4). The rates in the schedules shall be updated annually... allocation decisions, corridor or communications site planning, and biological studies that address species diversity, unless they are necessary for the application. Proportional costs for analyses, such as...

  1. 36 CFR 251.58 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... monitoring fees in its directive system (36 CFR 200.4). The rates in the schedules shall be updated annually... allocation decisions, corridor or communications site planning, and biological studies that address species diversity, unless they are necessary for the application. Proportional costs for analyses, such as...

  2. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  3. Cost recovery and its effects on the profession.

    PubMed

    Duguid, K

    1989-07-01

    More departments are having to implement a cost recovery service and also market their skills in the commercial sector. Less time is becoming available to devote to professional matters. What will be the long-term effects on the professional progress of medical illustration if this is allowed to continue? PMID:2600358

  4. 78 FR 49945 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... prohibition to apply to geophysical exploration permits. 70 FR 58854--58855. While the $25 fees for.... 1734. In 2005, the BLM published a final cost recovery rule (70 FR 58854) establishing or revising... published September 10, 2012 (77 FR 55420), effective October 1, 2012. \\2\\ The Existing Value is the...

  5. 75 FR 55678 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... exploration permits. 70 FR 58854--58855. While the $25 fees for geophysical exploration permit applications... Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), 43 U.S.C. 1734. In 2005, the BLM published a final cost recovery rule (70 FR... update rule became effective on October 1, 2009, 74 FR 49330 (Sept. 28, 2009), based on the IPD-GDP...

  6. 40 CFR 300.160 - Documentation and cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation and cost recovery. 300.160 Section 300.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... Administrator of EPA and the Administrator of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)...

  7. Cost Recovery: Finding a Needle in the Haystack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colucci, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    The first step in cost recovery for asbestos removal is identification of product and manufacturer. Tables illustrate sources of product identification, types of asbestos bulk sample reports and source documents, asbestos-related diseases, and the synergistic effect of asbestos and cigarette smoking. (MLF)

  8. Efficacy of an accelerated recovery protocol for Oxford unicompartmental knee arthroplasty--a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Reilly, K A; Beard, D J; Barker, K L; Dodd, C A F; Price, A J; Murray, D W

    2005-10-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is appropriate for one in four patients with osteoarthritic knees. This study was performed to compare the safety, effectiveness and economic viability of a new accelerated protocol with current standard care in a state healthcare system. A single blind RCT design was used. Eligible patients were screened for NSAID tolerance, social circumstances and geographical location before allocation to an accelerated recovery group (A) or standard care group (S). Primary outcome was the Oxford Knee Assessment at 6 months post operation, compared using independent Mann-Whitney U-tests. A simple difference in costs incurred was calculated. The study power was sufficient to avoid type 2 errors. Forty-one patients were included. The average stay for Group A was 1.5 days. Group S averaged 4.3 days. No significant difference in outcomes was found between groups. The new protocol achieved cost savings of 27% and significantly reduced hospital bed occupancy. In addition, patient satisfaction was assessed as greater with the accelerated discharge than with the routine discharge time. The strict inclusion criteria meant that 75% of eligible patients were excluded. However, a large percentage of these were due to the distances patients lived from the hospital. PMID:15994082

  9. The social impact of cost recovery measures in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Nyambuya, M N

    1994-03-01

    Since the International Monetary Fund/World Bank Economic Structural Adjustment Program (ESAP) in Zimbabwe was adopted in 1990, health care and education costs have escalated, and many people fail to get these services owing to poverty. The post-independence era in Zimbabwe witnessed a tremendous growth in education and health with many schools, colleges, hospitals and clinics built, professional staff employed, and a general expansion in demand. Nevertheless, the question of drug shortages and ever-increasing health care costs were not addressed. A deficient transport network, the increases in drug prices, the exodus of professional staff, the devaluation of the Zimbabwe dollar, and the cost recovery measures endangered the right to acceptable health care. The social service cutbacks adopted by the government in education will deepen poverty. After independence, the Zimbabwean education system had a free tuition policy at primary school levels. Now that the government reintroduced school fees, a generation of illiterate and semi-illiterate school dropouts will grow up. The social implications of this include increases in crime, prostitution, the number of street kids, the spread of diseases, and social discontent, which are the symptoms of a shrinking economy. As a result of the cost recovery measures, school enrollment in rural areas has gone up. Some urban parents have been forced to transfer their children to rural schools. Higher education also suffers, as government subsidies to colleges and universities have been drastically curtailed. The budgetary cuts have grave repercussions for teaching and research, as poor working conditions and low morals of lecturers and students become prevalent. Most wage-earning Zimbabweans' living standards have deteriorated as the cost of living continues to escalate, coupled with the cost recovery measures in the name of ESAP. PMID:12287629

  10. 76 FR 71342 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; River Forest Dry Cleaners Site, River Forest, Cook County, IL AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; request for public... proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the River Forest...

  11. Cost and Performance Report Accelerated Site Technology Deployment Program

    SciTech Connect

    P. S. Morris

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) Environmental Restoration Division (ERD) Industrial Sites Project Deactivation and Decommissioning (D and D) source group has limited budget and is constantly searching for new technologies to reduce programmatic costs. Partnering with the DOE Office of Science and Technology Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) reduces NNSA/NV programmatic risk and encourages accelerated deployment of potentially beneficial technologies to the Nevada Test Site (NTS).

  12. 40 CFR 35.928-2 - Use of industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Use of industrial cost recovery... Water Act § 35.928-2 Use of industrial cost recovery payments. (a) The grantee shall use industrial cost recovery payments received from industrial users as follows: (1) The grantee shall return 50 percent of...

  13. 40 CFR 35.928-2 - Use of industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of industrial cost recovery... Water Act § 35.928-2 Use of industrial cost recovery payments. (a) The grantee shall use industrial cost recovery payments received from industrial users as follows: (1) The grantee shall return 50 percent of...

  14. 40 CFR 35.928-2 - Use of industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Use of industrial cost recovery... Water Act § 35.928-2 Use of industrial cost recovery payments. (a) The grantee shall use industrial cost recovery payments received from industrial users as follows: (1) The grantee shall return 50 percent of...

  15. 40 CFR 35.928-2 - Use of industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of industrial cost recovery... Water Act § 35.928-2 Use of industrial cost recovery payments. (a) The grantee shall use industrial cost recovery payments received from industrial users as follows: (1) The grantee shall return 50 percent of...

  16. 40 CFR 35.928-2 - Use of industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Use of industrial cost recovery... Water Act § 35.928-2 Use of industrial cost recovery payments. (a) The grantee shall use industrial cost recovery payments received from industrial users as follows: (1) The grantee shall return 50 percent of...

  17. 38 CFR 17.277 - Third-party liability/medical care cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../medical care cost recovery. 17.277 Section 17.277 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF...)-Medical Care for Survivors and Dependents of Certain Veterans § 17.277 Third-party liability/medical care cost recovery. The Center will actively pursue third-party liability/medical care cost recovery...

  18. 38 CFR 17.277 - Third-party liability/medical care cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .../medical care cost recovery. 17.277 Section 17.277 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF...)-Medical Care for Survivors and Dependents of Certain Veterans § 17.277 Third-party liability/medical care cost recovery. The Center will actively pursue third-party liability/medical care cost recovery...

  19. 38 CFR 17.277 - Third-party liability/medical care cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../medical care cost recovery. 17.277 Section 17.277 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF...)-Medical Care for Survivors and Dependents of Certain Veterans § 17.277 Third-party liability/medical care cost recovery. The Center will actively pursue third-party liability/medical care cost recovery...

  20. 38 CFR 17.277 - Third-party liability/medical care cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../medical care cost recovery. 17.277 Section 17.277 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF...)-Medical Care for Survivors and Dependents of Certain Veterans § 17.277 Third-party liability/medical care cost recovery. The Center will actively pursue third-party liability/medical care cost recovery...

  1. 38 CFR 17.277 - Third-party liability/medical care cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../medical care cost recovery. 17.277 Section 17.277 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF...)-Medical Care for Survivors and Dependents of Certain Veterans § 17.277 Third-party liability/medical care cost recovery. The Center will actively pursue third-party liability/medical care cost recovery...

  2. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. 1.43-4... TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.43-4 Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. (a) Qualifying costs—(1) In... “qualified enhanced oil recovery costs” if the amounts are paid or incurred with respect to an asset which...

  3. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. 1.43-4... TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.43-4 Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. (a) Qualifying costs—(1) In... “qualified enhanced oil recovery costs” if the amounts are paid or incurred with respect to an asset which...

  4. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. 1.43-4... TAXES Credits Against Tax § 1.43-4 Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs. (a) Qualifying costs—(1) In... “qualified enhanced oil recovery costs” if the amounts are paid or incurred with respect to an asset which...

  5. Recovery of pyroshock data from distorted acceleration records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, distorted pyrotechnic shock time history data was discarded completely or cleaned up by questionable means. Too often the clean up procedures introduced as much error into the data as previously existed. Techniques are presented for data recovery so that true signals are obtained and so that these recovery procedures will be completely reproducible by any scientists in any lab. Most ordnance shock data is distorted by baseline shifts or accelerometer resonances. The methodology of recovering true signals from these two types of distortion is discussed.

  6. Cost recovery shifts the brand image from Prudence to Protector.

    PubMed

    Winsbury, R

    1992-01-01

    Social marketing programs are underway in Africa. One program markets condoms in Zaire and Cote d'Ivoire under the brand name Prudence. While a cost element does exist, this program was largely designed to demonstrate the viability of social marketing programs. Emphasis has now been placed upon recovering costs, and condoms are marketed under the name of Protector. Since the US wants to reduce its role as the dominant funder of condom distribution in Africa, and governments and other donors want to be able to buy condoms more cheaply on the open market, the recent cost recovery version of the program will most likely displace the initial version. The Protector program strives toward achieving scale economies and financial self-sufficiency. Specifically, the program aims to standardize campaign materials across all participating countries, make private sector partner organizations in each country responsible for local distribution and marketing, and have earnings pay for a predefined part of program expenditures. Conceptually, Prudence is marketed to prevent AIDS, while Protector is promoted more broadly against sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies. Social marketing programs are spreading and condom use is on the rise. The World Health Organization Global Program on AIDS sees its role as advocating condom use and encouraging donors to fund social marketing programs. PMID:12344631

  7. Deep ocean mineral water accelerates recovery from physical fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deep oceans have been suggested as a possible site where the origin of life occurred. Along with this theoretical lineage, experiments using components from deep ocean water to recreate life is underway. Here, we propose that if terrestrial organisms indeed evolved from deep oceans, supply of deep ocean mineral water (DOM) to humans, as a land creature, may replenish loss of molecular complexity associated with evolutionary sea-to-land migration. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of DOM, taken from a depth of 662 meters off the coast of Hualien, Taiwan, on time of recovery from a fatiguing exercise conducted at 30°C. Results The fatiguing exercise protocol caused a protracted reduction in aerobic power (reduced VO2max) for 48 h. However, DOM supplementation resulted in complete recovery of aerobic power within 4 h (P < 0.05). Muscle power was also elevated above placebo levels within 24 h of recovery (P < 0.05). Increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin, indicatives of exercise-induced muscle damage, were completely eliminated by DOM (P < 0.05) in parallel with attenuated oxidative damage (P < 0.05). Conclusion Our results provide compelling evidence that DOM contains soluble elements, which can increase human recovery following an exhaustive physical challenge. PMID:23402436

  8. 40 CFR 35.928-4 - Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moratorium on industrial cost recovery... Water Act § 35.928-4 Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments. (a) EPA does not require that industrial users defined in paragraphs (a) and (b) of the definition in § 35.905 pay industrial cost...

  9. 40 CFR 35.928-4 - Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moratorium on industrial cost recovery... Water Act § 35.928-4 Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments. (a) EPA does not require that industrial users defined in paragraphs (a) and (b) of the definition in § 35.905 pay industrial cost...

  10. 40 CFR 35.925-11 - User charges and industrial cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false User charges and industrial cost... Water Act § 35.925-11 User charges and industrial cost recovery. That, in the case of grant assistance... requirements for user charge and industrial cost recovery systems. (See §§ 35.928 et seq., 35.929 et seq.,...

  11. 40 CFR 35.928-1 - Approval of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... industrial cost recovery system, in accordance with 40 CFR part 25. (i) Inconsistent agreements. The grantee... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-1 Approval of the industrial cost recovery system. The Regional...

  12. 40 CFR 35.925-11 - User charges and industrial cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false User charges and industrial cost... Water Act § 35.925-11 User charges and industrial cost recovery. That, in the case of grant assistance... requirements for user charge and industrial cost recovery systems. (See §§ 35.928 et seq., 35.929 et seq.,...

  13. 40 CFR 35.928 - Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for an industrial cost... Water Act § 35.928 Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve the grantee's industrial cost recovery system and the grantee shall implement and...

  14. 40 CFR 35.928-1 - Approval of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... industrial cost recovery system, in accordance with 40 CFR part 25. (i) Inconsistent agreements. The grantee... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-1 Approval of the industrial cost recovery system. The Regional...

  15. 40 CFR 35.928 - Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements for an industrial cost... Water Act § 35.928 Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve the grantee's industrial cost recovery system and the grantee shall implement and...

  16. 40 CFR 35.928-3 - Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Implementation of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-3 Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system. (a) When a grantee's industrial cost recovery system is approved, implementation of the approved system shall become a...

  17. 40 CFR 35.928-3 - Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Implementation of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-3 Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system. (a) When a grantee's industrial cost recovery system is approved, implementation of the approved system shall become a...

  18. 40 CFR 35.928-3 - Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Implementation of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-3 Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system. (a) When a grantee's industrial cost recovery system is approved, implementation of the approved system shall become a...

  19. 40 CFR 35.928-3 - Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Implementation of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-3 Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system. (a) When a grantee's industrial cost recovery system is approved, implementation of the approved system shall become a...

  20. 40 CFR 35.928 - Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for an industrial cost... Water Act § 35.928 Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve the grantee's industrial cost recovery system and the grantee shall implement and...

  1. 40 CFR 35.925-11 - User charges and industrial cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false User charges and industrial cost... Water Act § 35.925-11 User charges and industrial cost recovery. That, in the case of grant assistance... requirements for user charge and industrial cost recovery systems. (See §§ 35.928 et seq., 35.929 et seq.,...

  2. 40 CFR 35.928-4 - Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moratorium on industrial cost recovery... Water Act § 35.928-4 Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments. (a) EPA does not require that industrial users defined in paragraphs (a) and (b) of the definition in § 35.905 pay industrial cost...

  3. 40 CFR 35.928-1 - Approval of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... industrial cost recovery system, in accordance with 40 CFR part 25. (i) Inconsistent agreements. The grantee... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-1 Approval of the industrial cost recovery system. The Regional...

  4. 40 CFR 35.928-4 - Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moratorium on industrial cost recovery... Water Act § 35.928-4 Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments. (a) EPA does not require that industrial users defined in paragraphs (a) and (b) of the definition in § 35.905 pay industrial cost...

  5. 40 CFR 35.928-1 - Approval of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... industrial cost recovery system, in accordance with 40 CFR part 25. (i) Inconsistent agreements. The grantee... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-1 Approval of the industrial cost recovery system. The Regional...

  6. 40 CFR 35.928 - Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirements for an industrial cost... Water Act § 35.928 Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve the grantee's industrial cost recovery system and the grantee shall implement and...

  7. 40 CFR 35.928 - Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for an industrial cost... Water Act § 35.928 Requirements for an industrial cost recovery system. (a) The Regional Administrator shall approve the grantee's industrial cost recovery system and the grantee shall implement and...

  8. 40 CFR 35.928-1 - Approval of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... industrial cost recovery system, in accordance with 40 CFR part 25. (i) Inconsistent agreements. The grantee... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-1 Approval of the industrial cost recovery system. The Regional...

  9. 40 CFR 35.925-11 - User charges and industrial cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false User charges and industrial cost... Water Act § 35.925-11 User charges and industrial cost recovery. That, in the case of grant assistance... requirements for user charge and industrial cost recovery systems. (See §§ 35.928 et seq., 35.929 et seq.,...

  10. 40 CFR 35.928-4 - Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moratorium on industrial cost recovery... Water Act § 35.928-4 Moratorium on industrial cost recovery payments. (a) EPA does not require that industrial users defined in paragraphs (a) and (b) of the definition in § 35.905 pay industrial cost...

  11. 40 CFR 35.925-11 - User charges and industrial cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false User charges and industrial cost... Water Act § 35.925-11 User charges and industrial cost recovery. That, in the case of grant assistance... requirements for user charge and industrial cost recovery systems. (See §§ 35.928 et seq., 35.929 et seq.,...

  12. 40 CFR 35.928-3 - Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Implementation of the industrial cost...-Clean Water Act § 35.928-3 Implementation of the industrial cost recovery system. (a) When a grantee's industrial cost recovery system is approved, implementation of the approved system shall become a...

  13. 75 FR 21292 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Agreement; AVX Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Agreement; AVX Corporation AGENCY... administrative settlement for recovery of projected future response oversight costs and performance of work... removal action, pre- payment of future response oversight costs, payment for long-term care of the...

  14. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. (a) Federal universal service contribution costs may be...

  15. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. (a) Federal universal service contribution costs may be...

  16. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. (a) Federal universal service contribution costs may be...

  17. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. (a) Federal universal service contribution costs may be...

  18. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Gregory B; Burns, Douglas A; Riva-Murray, Karen

    2016-08-15

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment. PMID:27092419

  19. A new look at liming as an approach to accelerate recovery from acidic deposition effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; Burns, Douglas A.; Murray, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Acidic deposition caused by fossil fuel combustion has degraded aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in North America for over four decades. The only management option other than emissions reductions for combating the effects of acidic deposition has been the application of lime to neutralize acidity after it has been deposited on the landscape. For this reason, liming has been a part of acid rain science from the beginning. However, continued declines in acidic deposition have led to partial recovery of surface water chemistry, and the start of soil recovery. Liming is therefore no longer needed to prevent further damage, so the question becomes whether liming would be useful for accelerating recovery of systems where improvement has lagged. As more is learned about recovering ecosystems, it has become clear that recovery rates vary with watershed characteristics and among ecosystem components. Lakes appear to show the strongest recovery, but recovery in streams is sluggish and recovery of soils appears to be in the early stages. The method in which lime is applied is therefore critical in achieving the goal of accelerated recovery. Application of lime to a watershed provides the advantage of increasing Ca availability and reducing or preventing mobilization of toxic Al, an outcome that is beneficial to both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the goal should not be complete neutralization of soil acidity, which is naturally produced. Liming of naturally acidic areas such as wetlands should also be avoided to prevent damage to indigenous species that rely on an acidic environment.

  20. Mifepristone Accelerates HPA Axis Recovery in Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Cohan, Pejman

    2016-01-01

    Context. Transient secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is an expected complication following successful adenomectomy of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas or unilateral adrenalectomy for cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas. To date, no pharmacological therapy has been shown to hasten recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in this clinical scenario. Case Description. A 33-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated unilateral adrenalectomy for a 3.7 cm cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma. Postoperatively, she developed SAI and was placed on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, given in divided doses. In the ensuing six years, the patient's HPA axis failed to recover and she remained corticosteroid-dependent. Quarterly biochemical testing (after withholding hydrocortisone for 18 hours) consistently yielded undetectable serum cortisol and subnormal plasma ACTH levels. While she was on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, mifepristone was initiated and gradually titrated to a maintenance dose of 600 mg/day after 5 months. Rapid recovery of the HPA axis was subsequently noted with ACTH rising into the supranormal range at 4 months followed by a subsequent rise in cortisol levels into the normal range. After 6 months, the dose of hydrocortisone and mifepristone was lowered and both were ultimately stopped after 8 months. The HPA axis remains normal after an additional 16 months of follow-up. Conclusion. Mifepristone successfully restored the HPA axis in a woman with prolonged secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) after adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS). PMID:27516913

  1. Mifepristone Accelerates HPA Axis Recovery in Secondary Adrenal Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Context. Transient secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) is an expected complication following successful adenomectomy of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas or unilateral adrenalectomy for cortisol-secreting adrenal adenomas. To date, no pharmacological therapy has been shown to hasten recovery of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in this clinical scenario. Case Description. A 33-year-old woman underwent uncomplicated unilateral adrenalectomy for a 3.7 cm cortisol-secreting adrenal adenoma. Postoperatively, she developed SAI and was placed on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, given in divided doses. In the ensuing six years, the patient's HPA axis failed to recover and she remained corticosteroid-dependent. Quarterly biochemical testing (after withholding hydrocortisone for 18 hours) consistently yielded undetectable serum cortisol and subnormal plasma ACTH levels. While she was on hydrocortisone 15 mg/day, mifepristone was initiated and gradually titrated to a maintenance dose of 600 mg/day after 5 months. Rapid recovery of the HPA axis was subsequently noted with ACTH rising into the supranormal range at 4 months followed by a subsequent rise in cortisol levels into the normal range. After 6 months, the dose of hydrocortisone and mifepristone was lowered and both were ultimately stopped after 8 months. The HPA axis remains normal after an additional 16 months of follow-up. Conclusion. Mifepristone successfully restored the HPA axis in a woman with prolonged secondary adrenal insufficiency (SAI) after adrenalectomy for Cushing's syndrome (CS). PMID:27516913

  2. Superfund cost recovery through national contingency plan compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Mundell, J.A.; Wightman, A.

    1994-12-31

    The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (``NCP``), codified at 40 C.F.R. pt. 300, was first promulgated by the US EPA on July 16, 1982 (the ``1982 NCP``). Required by section 105 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, or CERCLA, and by section 311 of the Clean Water Act (CWA), the NCP ``establish[es] procedures and standards for responding to releases of hazardous substances`` at Superfund sites. The purpose of the NCP ``is to give some consistency and cohesiveness to response planning and actions``. The primary goal of the NCP is to mitigate damage to the environment and protect the public health at the least possible expense. Within this framework, the NCP allows for the evaluation and clean-up activities at a Superfund site to be led directly by the US EPA, the designated state regulatory agency or, under monitoring, by private parties who are potentially responsible for the site contamination. This paper addresses NCP consistency review from both a technical and legal standpoint. The authors will first address the regulatory standards and process for evaluating private party NCP compliance, and then review common legal attacks on NCP compliance that bar the recovery of clean-up costs.

  3. Use of Multipass Recirculation and Energy Recovery In CW SRF X-FEL Driver Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, David; Akers, Walt; Benson, Stephen V.; Biallas, George; Blackburn, Keith; Boyce, James; Bullard, Donald; Coleman, James; Dickover, Cody; Ellingsworth, Forrest; Evtushenko, Pavel; Fisk, Sally; Gould, Christopher; Gubeli, Joseph; Hannon, Fay; Hardy, David; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Jordan, Kevin; Klopf, John; Kortze, J.; Legg, Robert; Li, Rui; Marchlik, Matthew; Moore, Steven W.; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Sexton, Daniel; Shin, Ilkyoung; Shinn, Michelle D.; Tennant, Christopher; Terzic, Balsa; Walker, Richard; Williams, Gwyn P.; Wilson, G.; Zhang, Shukui

    2010-08-01

    We discuss the use of multipass recirculation and energy recovery in CW SRF drivers for short wavelength FELs. Benefits include cost management (through reduced system footprint, required RF and SRF hardware, and associated infrastructure - including high power beam dumps and cryogenic systems), ease in radiation control (low drive beam exhaust energy), ability to accelerate and deliver multiple beams of differing energy to multiple FELs, and opportunity for seamless integration of multistage bunch length compression into the longitudinal matching scenario. Issues include all those associated with ERLs compounded by the challenge of generating and preserving the CW electron drive beam brightness required by short wavelength FELs. We thus consider the impact of space charge, BBU and other environmental wakes and impedances, ISR and CSR, potential for microbunching, intra-beam and beam-residual gas scattering, ion effects, RF transients, and halo, as well as the effect of traditional design, fabrication, installation and operational errors (lattice aberrations, alignment, powering, field quality). Context for the discussion is provided by JLAMP, the proposed VUV/X-ray upgrade to the existing Jefferson Lab FEL.

  4. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information and ITU cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information and ITU cost recovery. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER....111 Additional information and ITU cost recovery. (a) The Commission may request from any party at...

  5. 75 FR 57272 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Gilberts/Kedzie Site, Village of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Gilberts/Kedzie Site, Village of Gilberts... settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Gilberts/Kedzie Site in the Village of Gilberts... whose telephone number is (312) 353- 3804. Comments should reference the Gilberts/Kedzie Site and...

  6. 47 CFR 54.712 - Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users. 54.712 Section 54.712 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.712 Contributor recovery of universal service costs from end users....

  7. 78 FR 77673 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere, Boone... recovery of past response costs concerning the Cadie Auto Salvage Site in Belvidere, Boone County, Illinois..., Illinois 60604. Comments should reference the Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere, Boone County,...

  8. 78 FR 74128 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere, Boone... recovery of past response costs concerning the Cadie Auto Salvage Site in Belvidere, Boone County, Illinois..., Illinois 60604. Comments should reference the Cadie Auto Salvage Site, Belvidere, Boone County,...

  9. 77 FR 9652 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake Linden... administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake..., Chicago, Illinois, C-14J, 60604, (312) 886-6609. Comments should reference the Lake Linden Superfund...

  10. Accelerated skeletal muscle recovery after in vivo polyphenol administration.

    PubMed

    Myburgh, Kathryn H; Kruger, Maria J; Smith, Carine

    2012-09-01

    Acute skeletal muscle damage results in fiber disruption, oxidative stress and inflammation. We investigated cell-specific contributions to the regeneration process after contusion-induced damage (rat gastrocnemius muscle) with or without chronic grape seed-derived proanthocyanidolic oligomer (PCO) administration. In this placebo-controlled study, male Wistar rats were subjected to PCO administration for 2 weeks, after which they were subjected to a standardised contusion injury. Supplementation was continued after injury. Immune and satellite cell responses were assessed, as well as oxygen radical absorption capacity and muscle regeneration. PCO administration resulted in a rapid satellite cell response with an earlier peak in activation (Pax7⁺, CD56⁺, at 4 h post-contusion) vs. placebo groups (PLA) (P<.001: CD56⁺ on Day 5 and Pax7⁺ on Day 7). Specific immune-cell responses in PLA followed expected time courses (neutrophil elevation on Day 1; sustained macrophage elevation from Days 3 to 5). PCO dramatically decreased neutrophil elevation to nonsignificant, while macrophage responses were normal in extent, but significantly earlier (peak between Days 1 and 3) and completely resolved by Day 5. Anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, increased significantly only in PCO (Day 3). Muscle fiber regeneration (MHC(f) content and central nuclei) started earlier and was complete by Day 14 in PCO, but not in PLA. Thus, responses by three crucial cell types involved in muscle recovery were affected by in vivo administration of a specific purified polyphenol in magnitude (neutrophil), time course (macrophages), or time course and activation state (satellite cell), explaining faster effective regeneration in the presence of proanthocyanidolic oligomers. PMID:22079208

  11. Recovery mechanisms in proton exchange membrane fuel cells after accelerated stress tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Guo, Liejin; Liu, Hongtan

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms of performance recovery after accelerated stress test (AST) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are systematically studied. Experiments are carried out by incorporating a well-designed performance recovery procedure right after the AST protocol. The experiment results show that the cell performance recovers significantly from the degraded state after the AST procedure. The results from cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements further show that the performance recovery can be divided into kinetic and mass transport recoveries. It is further determined that the kinetic recovery, i.e. the recovery of electrochemical active area (ECA), is due to two distinct mechanisms: the reduction of platinum oxide and the re-attachment of detached platinum nanoparticles onto the carbon surface. The mass transport resistance is probably due to reduction of hydrophilic oxide groups on the carbon surface and the microstructure change that alleviates flooding. Performance comparisons show that the recovery procedure is highly effective, indicating the results of AST significantly over-estimate the true degradation in a PEM fuel cell. Therefore, a recovery procedure is highly recommended when an AST protocol is used to evaluate cell degradations to avoid over-estimating true performance degradations in PEMFCs.

  12. Long-term moderate exercise accelerates the recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yuan-Chang; Tsai, Sheng-Feng; Yu, Lung; Chuang, Jih-Ing; Wu, Fong-Sen; Jen, Chauying J; Kuo, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    Psychological stress is an important global health problem. It is well documented that stress increases the incidences of various cardiovascular disorders. Regular exercise is known to reduce resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). This study was designed to clarify the effects of long-term exercise on stress-evoked cardiovascular responses and to emphasize post-stress recovery effects. Male Wistar rats underwent 8 weeks of moderate treadmill training, with cardiovascular responses, autonomic nervous system activities and local Fos reactivity changes in the cardiovascular regulation center were monitored before, during and after immobilization stress. A spectral analysis of cardiovascular parameters was used to examine autonomic nervous activities. We found that long-term exercise (i) lowered resting BP, HR and sympathetic activity, but increased resting parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS); (ii) accelerated post-stress recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular and sympathetic responses along with increased BRS and (iii) accelerated post-stress recovery of stress-evoked neuron activations in the paraventricular nucleus, but delayed it in the nucleus of the tractus solitarius. We conclude that, in rats, long-term exercise accelerated recovery of stress-evoked cardiovascular responses differentially altering hypothalamic and medullar neuron activities. PMID:26473638

  13. The impact of alternative cost recovery schemes on access and equity in Niger.

    PubMed

    Diop, F; Yazbeck, A; Bitrán, R

    1995-09-01

    The authors examine accessibility and the sustainability of quality health care in a rural setting under two alternative cost recovery methods, a fee-for-service method and a type of social financing (risk-sharing) strategy based on an annual tax+fee-for-service. Both methods were accompanied by similar interventions aimed at improving the quality of primary health services. Based on pilot tests of cost recovery in the non-hospital sector in Niger, the article presents results from baseline and final survey data, as well as from facility utilization, cost, and revenue data collected in two test districts and a control district. Cost recovery accompanied by quality improvements increases equity and access to health care and the type of cost recovery method used can make a difference. In Niger, higher access for women, children, and the poor resulted from the tax+fee method, than from the pure fee-for-service method. Moreover, revenue generation per capita under the tax+fee method was two times higher than under the fee-for-service method, suggesting that the prospects of sustainability were better under the social financing strategy. However, sustainability under cost recovery and improved quality depends as much on policy measures aimed at cost containment, particularly for drugs, as on specific cost recovery methods. PMID:10151841

  14. Androgen induced acceleration of functional recovery after rat sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Brown, Todd J.; Khan, Talat; Jones, Kathryn J.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Testosterone (T) treatment accelerates recovery from facial paralysis after facial nerve crush in hamsters. In this study, we extended those studies to another injury model and asked the following question: Will T treatment accelerate recovery from lower limb paralysis following sciatic nerve crush in the rat? METHODS: Castrated adult male rats received a right side sciatic nerve crush at the level of the sciatic notch, with the left side serving as control. Half the animals received a subcutaneous implant of a propionated form of T (TP), the others were sham-implanted. Weekly testing using the Sciatic Functional Index (SFI), a quantitative measure of locomotion, was done for 7 weeks postoperative (wpo). RESULTS: Between 3 and 5 weeks post-op, the average SFI score of the TP-treated group was higher than controls. This difference was significant at 4 wpo, indicating an accelerated degree of functional recovery. At these timepoints, the differences were attributable to the footprint or paw length and associated with calf muscle reinnervation rather than the toespreading component associated with intrinsic foot muscle rein-nervation. Beyond 5 wpo, there were no differences in the SFI scores. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that, as with facial nerve regeneration in the hamster, testosterone accelerates functional recovery from hind limb paralysis following sciatic nerve injury in the rat. While the responses of spinal motoneurons to injury can differ from those of cranial motoneurons, in this case it appears that they share a similar response to the trophic actions of androgen. This is important in the context of designing therapeutic strategies for dealing with direct trauma to motoneurons resulting from both peripheral and central nervous system trauma, such as spinal cord injury. PMID:12671219

  15. Strategies to accelerate immune recovery after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Barbarella; Merli, Pietro; Bertaina, Valentina; Locatelli, Franco

    2016-03-01

    The interplay existing between immune reconstitution and patient outcome has been extensively demonstrated in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. One of the leading causes of infection-related mortality is the slow recovery of T-cell immunity due to the conditioning regimen and/or age-related thymus damage, poor naïve T-cell output, and restricted T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires. With the aim of improving posttransplantation immune reconstitution, several immunotherapy approaches have been explored. Donor leukocyte infusions are widely used to accelerate immune recovery, but they carry the risk of provoking graft-versus-host disease. This review will focus on sophisticated strategies of thymus function-recovery, adoptive infusion of donor-derived, allodepleted T cells, T-cell lines/clones specific for life-threatening pathogens, regulatory T cells, and of T cells transduced with suicide genes. PMID:26588325

  16. Recovery of nitrification in cadmium-inhibited activated sludge system by bio-accelerators.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Ji, Min; Zhao, Yingxin; Zhai, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to nitrifying bacteria, but current studies on recovery process in Cd-inhibited activated sludge system are limited, especially on intensify-recovery processes with developing and optimizing nontoxic bio-accelerators. In this study, bioactivity recovery effects were demonstrated with respect to effluent NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N, NO3(-)-N concentrations, specific oxygen uptake rates and cadmium distribution in five parallel SBRs. Results indicated that bioactivity of nitrifying bacteria was mainly inhibited by surface-bound Cd. Dosing biotin, l-aspartic acid and cytokinin simultaneously was the most effective. Linear chain, together with amide (NH) and carboxyl (COOH) groups, may be important factors in fast nitrification recovery process. In terms of dosage and dosing mode, six-multiple dosage of optimal mixture with dosing at each cycle evenly was the most effective and bioactivities of nitrifying bacteria could 100% recovered within 7days. The bio-accelerators and optimum usage can be potentially applied to cope with heavy metal shock-loading emergency situations. PMID:26587790

  17. 77 FR 22785 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Estate of Benjamin C. Schilberg...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Estate of Benjamin C. Schilberg, Cadlerock Properties Site, Ashford and Willington, CT AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency....

  18. 76 FR 51029 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Carpenter Avenue Mercury Site, Iron...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Carpenter Avenue Mercury Site, Iron... Mercury site in Iron Mountain, Dickenson County, Michigan with the following settling parties: The Salvation Army of Wauwatosa, Wisconsin, and the Trinity United Lutheran Church of Iron Mountain,...

  19. 78 FR 42944 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ...: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice; request for public comment. SUMMARY: In accordance with... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under the Comprehensive Environmental...

  20. 18 CFR 35.26 - Recovery of stranded costs by public utilities and transmitting utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recovery of stranded costs by public utilities and transmitting utilities. 35.26 Section 35.26 Conservation of Power and... POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.26 Recovery of...

  1. 75 FR 49508 - Recovery Policy, RP9525.7, Labor Costs-Emergency Work

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Recovery Policy, RP9525.7, Labor Costs--Emergency Work AGENCY...--Emergency Work. This is an existing policy that is scheduled for review to ensure that Recovery Directorate..., temporary, and contract employees who perform emergency work (Categories A and B). DATES: Comments must...

  2. Incentive pricing and cost recovery at the basin scale.

    PubMed

    Ward, Frank A; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Incentive pricing programs have potential to promote economically efficient water use patterns and provide a revenue source to compensate for environmental damages. However, incentive pricing may impose disproportionate costs and aggravate poverty where high prices are levied for basic human needs. This paper presents an analysis of a two-tiered water pricing system that sets a low price for subsistence needs, while charging a price equal to marginal cost, including environmental cost, for discretionary uses. This pricing arrangement can promote efficient and sustainable water use patterns, goals set by the European Water Framework Directive, while meeting subsistence needs of poor households. Using data from the Rio Grande Basin of North America, a dynamic nonlinear program, maximizes the basin's total net economic and environmental benefits subject to several hydrological and institutional constraints. Supply costs, environmental costs, and resource costs are integrated in a model of a river basin's hydrology, economics, and institutions. Three programs are compared: (1) Law of the River, in which water allocations and prices are determined by rules governing water transfers; (2) marginal cost pricing, in which households pay the full marginal cost of supplying treated water; (3) two-tiered pricing, in which households' subsistence water needs are priced cheaply, while discretionary uses are priced at efficient levels. Compared to the Law of the River and marginal cost pricing, two-tiered pricing performs well for efficiency and adequately for sustainability and equity. Findings provide a general framework for formulating water pricing programs that promote economically and environmentally efficient water use programs while also addressing other policy goals. PMID:18241978

  3. Low-cost tape system measures velocity of acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartenstein, R.

    1964-01-01

    By affixing perforated magnetic recording tape to the falling end of a body, acceleration and velocity were measured. The measurement was made by allowing the tape to pass between a light source and a photoelectric sensor. Data was obtained from a readout device.

  4. Recombinant Human Epidermal Growth Factor Accelerates Recovery of Mouse Small Intestinal Mucosa After Radiation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kyoo; Jo, Hyang Jeong; Hong, Joon Pio; Lee, Sang-wook Sohn, Jung Sook; Moon, Soo Young; Yang, Sei Hoon; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sang Ho; Ryu, Seung-Hee; Moon, Sun Rock

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: To determine whether systemically administered recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) accelerates the recovery of mouse small intestinal mucosa after irradiation. Methods and Materials: A mouse mucosal damage model was established by administering radiation to male BALB/c mice with a single dose of 15 Gy applied to the abdomen. After irradiation, rhEGF was administered subcutaneously at various doses (0.04, 0.2, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg/day) eight times at 2- to 3-day intervals. The evaluation methods included histologic changes of small intestinal mucosa, change in body weight, frequency of diarrhea, and survival rate. Results: The recovery of small intestinal mucosa after irradiation was significantly improved in the mice treated with a high dose of rhEGF. In the mice that underwent irradiation without rhEGF treatment, intestinal mucosal ulceration, mucosal layer damage, and severe inflammation occurred. The regeneration of villi was noticeable in mice treated with more than 0.2 mg/kg rhEGF, and the villi recovered fully in mice given more than 1 mg/kg rhEGF. The frequency of diarrhea persisting for more than 3 days was significantly greater in the radiation control group than in the rhEGF-treated groups. Conclusions: Systemic administration of rhEGF accelerates recovery from mucosal damage induced by irradiation. We suggest that rhEGF treatment shows promise for the reduction of small intestinal damage after irradiation.

  5. Motor recovery monitoring using acceleration measurements in post acute stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stroke is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality. Its recovery and treatment depends on close clinical monitoring by a clinician especially during the first few hours after the onset of stroke. Patients who do not exhibit early motor recovery post thrombolysis may benefit from more aggressive treatment. Method A novel approach for monitoring stroke during the first few hours after the onset of stroke using a wireless accelerometer based motor activity monitoring system is developed. It monitors the motor activity by measuring the acceleration of the arms in three axes. In the presented proof of concept study, the measured acceleration data is transferred wirelessly using iMote2 platform to the base station that is equipped with an online algorithm capable of calculating an index equivalent to the National Institute of Health Stroke Score (NIHSS) motor index. The system is developed by collecting data from 15 patients. Results We have successfully demonstrated an end-to-end stroke monitoring system reporting an accuracy of calculating stroke index of more than 80%, highest Cohen’s overall agreement of 0.91 (with excellent κ coefficient of 0.76). Conclusion A wireless accelerometer based ‘hot stroke’ monitoring system is developed to monitor the motor recovery in acute-stroke patients. It has been shown to monitor stroke patients continuously, which has not been possible so far with high reliability. PMID:23590690

  6. Phase Recovery Acceleration of Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers by Optical Pumping to Quantum-Well Wetting Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungho

    2013-11-01

    We theoretically investigate the phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) by means of the optical pump injection to the quantum-well (QW) wetting layer (WL). We compare the ultrafast gain and phase recovery responses of QD SOAs in either the electrical or the optical pumping scheme by numerically solving 1088 coupled rate equations. The ultrafast gain recovery responses on the order of sub-picosecond are nearly the same for the two pumping schemes. The ultrafast phase recovery is not significantly accelerated by increasing the electrical current density, but greatly improved by increasing the optical pumping power to the QW WL. Because the phase recovery time of QD SOAs with the optical pumping scheme can be reduced down to several picoseconds, the complete phase recovery can be achieved when consecutive pulse signals with a repetition rate of 100 GHz is injected.

  7. 40 CFR 35.935-15 - Submission and approval of industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submission and approval of industrial... Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-15 Submission and approval of industrial cost recovery system. The grantee shall obtain the approval of the Regional Administrator of its system of industrial cost...

  8. 40 CFR 35.935-15 - Submission and approval of industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submission and approval of industrial... Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-15 Submission and approval of industrial cost recovery system. The grantee shall obtain the approval of the Regional Administrator of its system of industrial cost...

  9. 40 CFR 35.935-15 - Submission and approval of industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission and approval of industrial... Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-15 Submission and approval of industrial cost recovery system. The grantee shall obtain the approval of the Regional Administrator of its system of industrial cost...

  10. 40 CFR 35.935-15 - Submission and approval of industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submission and approval of industrial... Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-15 Submission and approval of industrial cost recovery system. The grantee shall obtain the approval of the Regional Administrator of its system of industrial cost...

  11. 40 CFR 35.935-15 - Submission and approval of industrial cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission and approval of industrial... Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-15 Submission and approval of industrial cost recovery system. The grantee shall obtain the approval of the Regional Administrator of its system of industrial cost...

  12. 77 FR 31010 - Proposed CERCLA Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs; Piqua Hospital Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs; Piqua Hospital Site AGENCY... of past response costs concerning the Piqua Hospital Site (Site ID Number B5RB) in Piqua, Ohio with...: 312-353-6121. Comments should reference the Piqua Hospital Site in Piqua, Ohio and EPA Docket No....

  13. 76 FR 69733 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Tracy Lead Battery Site, Tracy, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Tracy Lead Battery Site, Tracy, MN AGENCY... of past response costs concerning the Tracy Lead Battery Site in Tracy, Minnesota with the following.... Comments should reference the Tracy Lead Battery Site and EPA Docket No. CERCLA-05-2012-0001 and should...

  14. Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-Recovery Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pargeter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Building owners are caught between two powerful forces--the need to lower energy costs and the need to meet or exceed outdoor air ventilation regulations for occupant health and comfort. Large amounts of energy are wasted each day from commercial, institutional, and government building sites as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)…

  15. Accelerating axonal growth promotes motor recovery after peripheral nerve injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chi Him Eddie; Omura, Takao; Cobos, Enrique J.; Latrémolière, Alban; Ghasemlou, Nader; Brenner, Gary J.; van Veen, Ed; Barrett, Lee; Sawada, Tomokazu; Gao, Fuying; Coppola, Giovanni; Gertler, Frank; Costigan, Michael; Geschwind, Dan; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    Although peripheral nerves can regenerate after injury, proximal nerve injury in humans results in minimal restoration of motor function. One possible explanation for this is that injury-induced axonal growth is too slow. Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a regeneration-associated protein that accelerates axonal growth in vitro. Here, we have shown that it can also do this in mice after peripheral nerve injury. While rapid motor and sensory recovery occurred in mice after a sciatic nerve crush injury, there was little return of motor function after sciatic nerve transection, because of the delay in motor axons reaching their target. This was not due to a failure of axonal growth, because injured motor axons eventually fully re-extended into muscles and sensory function returned; rather, it resulted from a lack of motor end plate reinnervation. Tg mice expressing high levels of Hsp27 demonstrated enhanced restoration of motor function after nerve transection/resuture by enabling motor synapse reinnervation, but only within 5 weeks of injury. In humans with peripheral nerve injuries, shorter wait times to decompression surgery led to improved functional recovery, and, while a return of sensation occurred in all patients, motor recovery was limited. Thus, absence of motor recovery after nerve damage may result from a failure of synapse reformation after prolonged denervation rather than a failure of axonal growth. PMID:21965333

  16. S-Nitrosoglutathione Accelerates Recovery from 5-Fluorouracil-Induced Oral Mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Skeff, Maria Adriana; Brito, Gerly A. C.; de Oliveira, Marcelo G.; Braga, Cintia M.; Cavalcante, Matheus M.; Baldim, Victor; Holanda-Afonso, Rosenilde C.; Silva-Boghossian, Carina M.; Colombo, Ana Paula; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A.; Moura-Neto, Vivaldo; Leitão, Renata F. C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mucositis induced by anti-neoplastic drugs is an important, dose-limiting and costly side-effect of cancer therapy. Aim To evaluate the effect of the topical application of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), a nitric oxide donor, on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-induced oral mucositis in hamsters. Materials and Methods Oral mucositis was induced in male hamsters by two intraperitoneal administrations of 5-FU on the first and second days of the experiment (60 and 40 mg/kg, respectively) followed by mechanical trauma on the fourth day. Animals received saline, HPMC or HPMC/GSNO (0.1, 0.5 or 2.0 mM) 1 h prior to the 5-FU injection and twice a day for 10 or 14 days. Samples of cheek pouches were harvested for: histopathological analysis, TNF-α and IL-1β levels, immunohistochemical staining for iNOS, TNF-α, IL-1β, Ki67 and TGF-β RII and a TUNEL assay. The presence and levels of 39 bacterial taxa were analyzed using the Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method. The profiles of NO released from the HPMC/GSNO formulations were characterized using chemiluminescence. Results The HPMC/GSNO formulations were found to provide sustained release of NO for more than 4 h at concentration-dependent rates of 14 to 80 nmol/mL/h. Treatment with HPMC/GSNO (0.5 mM) significantly reduced mucosal damage, inflammatory alterations and cell death associated with 5-FU-induced oral mucositis on day 14 but not on day 10. HPMC/GSNO administration also reversed the inhibitory effect of 5-FU on cell proliferation on day 14. In addition, we observed that the chemotherapy significantly increased the levels and/or prevalence of several bacterial species. Conclusion Topical HPMC/GSNO accelerates mucosal recovery, reduces inflammatory parameters, speeds up re-epithelization and decreases levels of periodontopathic species in mucosal ulcers. PMID:25478918

  17. Cost Scaling of a Real-World Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Generator: A Deeper Dive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Yee, Shannon; LeBlanc, Saniya

    2016-03-01

    Cost is equally important to power density or efficiency for the adoption of waste heat recovery thermoelectric generators (TEG) in many transportation and industrial energy recovery applications. In many cases, the system design that minimizes cost (e.g., the /W value) can be very different than the design that maximizes the system's efficiency or power density, and it is important to understand the relationship between those designs to optimize TEG performance-cost compromises. Expanding on recent cost analysis work and using more detailed system modeling, an enhanced cost scaling analysis of a waste heat recovery TEG with more detailed, coupled treatment of the heat exchangers has been performed. In this analysis, the effect of the heat lost to the environment and updated relationships between the hot-side and cold-side conductances that maximize power output are considered. This coupled thermal and thermoelectric (TE) treatment of the exhaust waste heat recovery TEG yields modified cost scaling and design optimization equations, which are now strongly dependent on the heat leakage fraction, exhaust mass flow rate, and heat exchanger effectiveness. This work shows that heat exchanger costs most often dominate the overall TE system costs, that it is extremely difficult to escape this regime, and in order to achieve TE system costs of 1/W it is necessary to achieve heat exchanger costs of 1/(W/K). Minimum TE system costs per watt generally coincide with maximum power points, but preferred TE design regimes are identified where there is little cost penalty for moving into regions of higher efficiency and slightly lower power outputs. These regimes are closely tied to previously identified low cost design regimes. This work shows that the optimum fill factor F opt minimizing system costs decreases as heat losses increase, and increases as exhaust mass flow rate and heat exchanger effectiveness increase. These findings have profound implications on the design and

  18. Audit Report on "Waste Processing and Recovery Act Acceleration Efforts for Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste at the Hanford Site"

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-01

    The Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management's (EM), Richland Operations Office (Richland), is responsible for disposing of the Hanford Site's (Hanford) transuranic (TRU) waste, including nearly 12,000 cubic meters of radioactive contact-handled TRU wastes. Prior to disposing of this waste at the Department's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), Richland must certify that it meets WIPP's waste acceptance criteria. To be certified, the waste must be characterized, screened for prohibited items, treated (if necessary) and placed into a satisfactory disposal container. In a February 2008 amendment to an existing Record of Decision (Decision), the Department announced its plan to ship up to 8,764 cubic meters of contact-handled TRU waste from Hanford and other waste generator sites to the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) at Idaho's National Laboratory (INL) for processing and certification prior to disposal at WIPP. The Department decided to maximize the use of the AMWTP's automated waste processing capabilities to compact and, thereby, reduce the volume of contact-handled TRU waste. Compaction reduces the number of shipments and permits WIPP to more efficiently use its limited TRU waste disposal capacity. The Decision noted that the use of AMWTP would avoid the time and expense of establishing a processing capability at other sites. In May 2009, EM allocated $229 million of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) funds to support Hanford's Solid Waste Program, including Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Besides providing jobs, these funds were intended to accelerate cleanup in the short term. We initiated this audit to determine whether the Department was effectively using Recovery Act funds to accelerate processing of Hanford's contact-handled TRU waste. Relying on the availability of Recovery Act funds, the Department changed course and approved an alternative plan that could increase costs by about $25 million

  19. Recovery Act: Low Cost Integrated Substrate for OLED Lighting Development

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, Scott; Bhandari, Abhinav

    2012-12-26

    PPG pursued the development of an integrated substrate, including the anode, external, and internal extraction layers. The objective of PPG's program was to achieve cost reductions by displacing the existing expensive borosilicate or double-side polished float glass substrates and developing alternative electrodes and scalable light extraction layer technologies through focused and short-term applied research. One of the key highlights of the project was proving the feasibility of using PPG's high transmission Solarphire® float glass as a substrate to consistently achieve organic lightemitting diode (OLED) devices with good performance and high yields. Under this program, four low-cost alternatives to the Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) anode were investigated using pilot-scale magnetron sputtered vacuum deposition (MSVD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technologies. The anodes were evaluated by fabricating small and large phosphorescent organic lightemitting diode (PHOLED) devices at Universal Display Corporation (UDC). The device performance and life-times comparable to commercially available ITO anodes were demonstrated. A cost-benefit analysis was performed to down-select two anodes for further low-cost process development. Additionally, PPG developed and evaluated a number of scalable and compatible internal and external extraction layer concepts such as scattering layers on the outside of the glass substrate or between the transparent anode and the glass interface. In one external extraction layer (EEL) approach, sol-gel sprayed pyrolytic coatings were deposited using lab scale equipment by hand or automated spraying of sol-gel solutions on hot glass, followed by optimizing of scattering with minimal absorption. In another EEL approach, PPG tested large-area glass texturing by scratching a glass surface with an abrasive roller and acid etching. Efficacy enhancements of 1.27x were demonstrated using white PHOLED devices for 2.0mm substrates which are at par with

  20. The Long-Term Effectiveness of Reading Recovery and the Cost-Efficiency of Reading Recovery Relative to the Learning Disabled Classification Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galluzzo, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a great deal of research supporting Reading Recovery as a successful reading intervention program that assists below level first graders readers in closing the gap in reading at the same level of their average peers. There is a lack of research that analyses the cost-effectiveness of the Reading Recovery program compared to the cost in…

  1. Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment.

    PubMed

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Hallman, David M; Lyskov, Eugene; Hygge, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggest that fatigue caused by physical work may be more effectively recovered during "diverting" periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the difficulty of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three experimental sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3 minutes of a memory test differing in difficulty between sessions. Throughout each session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of maximal shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As expected, perceived fatigue and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task difficulty, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can, indeed, accelerate recovery of some factors associated with fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate and some responses may be

  2. Can Cognitive Activities during Breaks in Repetitive Manual Work Accelerate Recovery from Fatigue? A Controlled Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Hallman, David M.; Lyskov, Eugene; Hygge, Staffan

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggest that fatigue caused by physical work may be more effectively recovered during “diverting” periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the difficulty of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three experimental sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3 minutes of a memory test differing in difficulty between sessions. Throughout each session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG), heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) using electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI). A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of maximal shoulder elevation strength (MVC), pressure pain threshold (PPT) over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As expected, perceived fatigue and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task difficulty, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can, indeed, accelerate recovery of some factors associated with fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate and some responses may

  3. Estimating the human recovery costs of seriously injured road crash casualties.

    PubMed

    Bambach, M R; Mitchell, R J

    2015-12-01

    Road crashes result in substantial trauma and costs to societies around the world. Robust costing methods are an important tool to estimate costs associated with road trauma, and are key inputs into policy development and cost-benefit analysis for road safety programmes and infrastructure projects. With an expanding focus on seriously injured road crash casualties, in addition to the long standing focus on fatalities, methods for costing seriously injured casualties are becoming increasingly important. Some road safety agencies are defining a seriously injured casualty as an individual that was admitted to hospital following a road crash, and as a result, hospital separation data provide substantial potential for estimating the costs associated with seriously injured road crash casualties. The aim of this study is to establish techniques for estimating the human recovery costs of (non-fatal) seriously injured road crash casualties directly from hospital separation data. An individuals' road crash-related hospitalisation record and their personal injury insurance claim were linked for road crashes that occurred in New South Wales, Australia. These records provided the means for estimating all of the costs to the casualty directly related to their recovery from their injuries. A total of 10,897 seriously injured road crash casualties were identified and four methods for estimating their recovery costs were examined, using either unit record or aggregated hospital separation data. The methods are shown to provide robust techniques for estimating the human recovery costs of seriously injured road crash casualties, that may prove useful for identifying, implementing and evaluating safety programmes intended to reduce the incidence of road crash-related serious injuries. PMID:26436488

  4. Accelerated neuronal cell recovery from Botulinum neurotoxin intoxication by targeted ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chueh-Ling; Oyler, George A; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a Category A biodefense agent, delivers a protease to motor neuron cytosol that cleaves one or more soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNARE) proteins involved in neurotransmission to cause a flaccid paralysis. No antidotes exist to reverse symptoms of BoNT intoxication so severely affected patients require artificial respiration with prolonged intensive care. Time to recovery depends on toxin serotype because the intraneuronal persistence of the seven known BoNT serotypes varies widely from days to many months. Our therapeutic antidote strategy is to develop 'targeted F-box' (TFB) agents that target the different intraneuronal BoNT proteases for accelerated degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), thus promoting rapid recovery from all serotypes. These agents consist of a camelid heavy chain-only V(H) (VHH) domain specific for a BoNT protease fused to an F-box domain recognized by an intraneuronal E3-ligase. A fusion protein containing the 14 kDa anti-BoNT/A protease VHH, ALcB8, joined to a 15 kDa F-box domain region of TrCP (D5) was sufficient to cause increased ubiquitination and accelerate turnover of the targeted BoNT/A protease within neurons. Neuronal cells expressing this TFB, called D5-B8, were also substantially resistant to BoNT/A intoxication and recovered from intoxication at least 2.5 fold quicker than control neurons. Fusion of D5 to a VHH specific for BoNT/B protease (BLcB10) led to accelerated turnover of the targeted protease within neurons, thus demonstrating the modular nature of these therapeutic agents and suggesting that development of similar therapeutic agents specific to all botulinum serotypes should be readily achievable. PMID:21629663

  5. Recovery of costs related to patent rights waived to contractors or inventors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    Our review showed that the Department had not recovered all patent application and prosecution costs for waivers granted to M and O contractors and employee-inventors. The operations offices and M and O contractors used different and inconsistent methods of computing these costs. The precise amount of the under-recovery could not be accurately determined. However, we estimated the under-recovery on 34 patents waived at the Lawrence Livermore and Los Alamos during FY 1984 through 1986 was about $187,000.

  6. Cost recovery of municipal solid waste management in small cities of inland China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xin; Hu, Shunong

    2014-04-01

    Financial performance of waste management, the key for efficiency and sustainability, has rarely been studied in China, especially for small cities. Through questionnaires and interviews, we conducted such a case study in several cities aiming to fill the gap and improve waste service. We found that labour accounts for more than half to three-quarters of the operation cost, followed by fuel and vehicle maintenance. The waste service heavily relies on budget transfer of the municipality. User fees collected recover less than half of total operation cost at best, even if the collection rate is relatively high. The low cost recovery is mainly due to low fee rates, unchanged for years owing to public pressure. Public complaint seems to be justified by the finding that the service only accounts for 5-10% of municipal revenue annually and even lower in government spending. Contrary to general perception, per capita waste generation in small cities is not less than big ones. Waste composition is dominated by kitchen wastes, with fractions of recyclables and combustibles much lower than big cities. These findings have implications on the waste management strategy: commercial incineration or recycling may not be economically viable for small cities. The article concludes that user fees might better serve, and be designed for, behaviour change than for cost recovery. Municipalities need to first improve cost efficiency and transparency of waste services to gain public trust and support in order to tackle the biggest challenge facing developing countries, cost recovery. PMID:24633554

  7. Environmental residuals and capital costs of energy recovery from municipal sludge and feedlot manure

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, S W; Dale, L; Johnson, R; Chambers, W; Mittelhauser, H

    1980-09-01

    The capital and environmental cost of energy recovery from municipal sludge and feedlot manure is analyzed. Literature on waste processing and energy conversion and interviews with manufacturers were used for baseline data for construction of theoretical models using three energy conversion processes: anaerobic digestion, incineration, and pyrolysis. Process characteristics, environmental impact data, and capital costs are presented in detail for each conversion system. The energy recovery systems described would probably be sited near large sources of sludge and manure, i.e., metropolitan sewage treatment plants and large feedlots in cattle-raising states. Although the systems would provide benefits in terms of waste disposal as well as energy production, they would also involve additional pollution of air and water. Analysis of potential siting patterns and pollution conflicts is needed before energy recovery systems using municipal sludge can be considered as feasible energy sources.

  8. 75 FR 36388 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act, as Amended, 42 U.S.C. 9622(h), Doe Run Resources... administrative settlement with Doe Run Resources Corporation (Doe Run), for recovery of past response costs concerning the response actions taken by Doe Run to address lead contamination associated with a...

  9. 78 FR 22451 - Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Parts 701, 736, 737, 738, and 750 RIN 1029-AC65 Cost Recovery for Permit Processing, Administration, and Enforcement Correction In proposed...

  10. Research note: does cost recovery for curative care affect preventive care utilization?

    PubMed

    Yazbeck, A; Leighton, C

    1995-09-01

    Findings are presented from cost recovery pilot tests implemented by the government of Niger, with technical assistance from USAID's Health Financing and Sustainability (HFS) Project, in the primary health care sector in Boboye and Say districts during 1993-94. The tests focused upon the use of free prenatal care for pregnant women. Two different payment methods were tested along with interventions to improve the quality of care. An annual adult tax plus a small fee-per-episode at the time of use were assessed in Boboye, while a straight fee-per-episode of illness was implemented in Say. The difference in the financial burden to the consumer between the two schemes depended upon the number of illnesses experienced. Preventive services remained free of charge in all public facilities. Together with the introduction of cost recovery, health facility staff in the two test districts were trained on diagnostic and treatment protocols, an initial stock of generic drugs was provided to the involved health facilities, and a drug inventory and financial management system were established. Far from suffering with the introduction of cost recovery and quality improvements, the use of preventive services actually increased. Additional research is needed on the effect of cost recovery upon the use of preventive services. PMID:10151846

  11. 76 FR 77528 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of response costs concerning the North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, located in the vicinity of Los Angeles, California,......

  12. 76 FR 79678 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ...In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of response costs concerning the North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, located in the vicinity of Los Angeles, California,......

  13. 50 CFR 660.115 - Trawl fishery-cost recovery program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Trawl fishery-cost recovery program. 660.115 Section 660.115 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West...

  14. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... provide the district with supplemental and additional benefits. (e) Amount of O&M a district pays under a... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M... operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. (a) General. All new, amended, and renewed contracts shall...

  15. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provide the district with supplemental and additional benefits. (e) Amount of O&M a district pays under a... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M... operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. (a) General. All new, amended, and renewed contracts shall...

  16. 24 CFR 266.656 - Recovery of costs after final claim settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recovery of costs after final claim settlement. 266.656 Section 266.656 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND...

  17. 24 CFR 266.656 - Recovery of costs after final claim settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recovery of costs after final claim settlement. 266.656 Section 266.656 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND...

  18. 76 FR 32202 - Proposed Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Under the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Reauthorization Act of 1986; in Re: Agawam Sportsman's Club Superfund Site, Located in Agawam, MA AGENCY... settlement for recovery of past response costs at the Agawam Sportsman's Club Superfund Site, in Agawam, Massachusetts. The settlement requires the settling party, Agwam Sportsman's Club, Inc. (``ASC'') to sell...

  19. 78 FR 40738 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Double H Pesticide Burial Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Double H Pesticide Burial Site AGENCY... incurred for the Double H Pesticide Burial Site in Grandview, Yakima County, Washington. Under this proposed settlement, the settling parties are Double H, L.P.; James T. Hansen; Linda L. Hansen; George...

  20. 76 FR 54223 - Notice of Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... Logistics Base Barstow, CA AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with... for the Recovery of Past Costs in the Matter of Marine Corps Logistics Base, Yermo Annex, Barstow... Marine Corps Logistics Base in Barstow, California (the ``Site''), located in San Bernardino...

  1. 77 FR 74006 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ...In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement with Air Capitol Dial, Inc., for recovery of past response costs concerning the Radiation--Former Air Capitol Dial Superfund Site (the ``Site'') in Sedgwick County, Kansas. The settlement requires Air......

  2. Performance and cost models for the direct sulfur recovery process. Task 1 Topical report, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, H.C.; Williams, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop performance and cost models of the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). The DSRP is an emerging technology for sulfur recovery from advanced power generation technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. In IGCC systems, sulfur present in the coal is captured by gas cleanup technologies to avoid creating emissions of sulfur dioxide to the atmosphere. The sulfur that is separated from the coal gas stream must be collected. Leading options for dealing with the sulfur include byproduct recovery as either sulfur or sulfuric acid. Sulfur is a preferred byproduct, because it is easier to handle and therefore does not depend as strongly upon the location of potential customers as is the case for sulfuric acid. This report describes the need for new sulfur recovery technologies.

  3. Acceleration and novelty: community restoration speeds recovery and transforms species composition in Andean cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sarah Jane; Rhemtulla, Jeanine M

    2016-01-01

    Community-based tropical forest restoration projects, often promoted as a win-win solution for local communities and the environment, have increased dramatically in number in the past decade. Many such projects are underway in Andean cloud forests, which, given their extremely high biodiversity and history of extensive clearing, are understudied. This study investigates the efficacy of community-based tree-planting projects to accelerate cloud forest recovery, as compared to unassisted natural regeneration. This study takes place in northwest Andean Ecuador, where the majority of the original, highly diverse cloud forests have been cleared, in five communities that initiated tree-planting projects to restore forests in 2003. In 2011, we identified tree species along transects in planted forests (n = 5), naturally regenerating forests (n = 5), and primary forests (n = 5). We also surveyed 120 households about their restoration methods, tree preferences, and forest uses. We found that tree diversity was higher in planted than in unplanted secondary forest, but both were less diverse than primary forests. Ordination analysis showed that all three forests had distinct species compositions, although planted forests shared more species with primary forests than did unplanted forests. Planted forests also contained more animal-dispersed species in both the planted canopy and in the unplanted, regenerating understory than unplanted forests, and contained the highest proportion of species with use value for local people. While restoring forest increased biodiversity and accelerated forest recovery, restored forests may also represent novel ecosystems that are distinct from the region's previous ecosystems and, given their usefulness to people, are likely to be more common in the future. PMID:27039520

  4. [Bathing in bed accelerates the recovery of skin temperature after ethanol-loading].

    PubMed

    Okumura, Y; Asakawa, K; Ogasahara, Y; Muramatu, A; Wada, S; Tamaru, S; Nagai, M

    1994-01-01

    Bathing in bed (BB) is an essential nursing technique applied to patients with restricted physical abilities. The aim of this technique is to keep the functions of the skin as an external barrier and to prevent the patients from infection and decubitus. However, the effect of BB on the blood circulation of the skin has not yet been identified, and the data observed are controversial. We have evaluated the effects of BB on the blood circulation of the skin by use of thermography. BB was applied on the right side of the back (RB) in 6 healthy female subjects who exposed both sides of their back (RB and LB) at room temperature. Ethanol was applied on the 5 x 5 cm area of RB and LB after BB, and recovery of the skin temperature was observed. After BB, the average temperature of RB was significantly lower than that of LB. This shows that BB decreases temperature of the skin exposed in the air probably due to the supply of water by washcloth. Recovery of the skin temperature after the ethanol-loading was accelerated on RB. This indicates that BB facilitates the response of the blood vessels in the skin. PMID:8129834

  5. Cognitive behaviour therapy for improving social recovery in psychosis: cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Barton, Garry R; Hodgekins, Jo; Mugford, Miranda; Jones, Peter B; Croudace, Tim; Fowler, David

    2009-07-01

    A randomised trial was conducted in order to estimate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of social recovery orientated cognitive behavioural therapy (SRCBT) for people diagnosed with psychosis, compared to case management alone (CMA). The mean incremental health and social care cost, and the mean incremental quality adjusted life year (QALY) gain, of SRCBT was calculated over the 9 month intervention period. The cost-effectiveness of SCRBT was in turn estimated, and considered in relation to the cost-effectiveness threshold of 20000 UK pounds per QALY. The level of uncertainty associated with that decision was estimated by calculating the cost-effectiveness acceptability curve for SRCBT. N=35 received SRCBT and N=42 received CMA. The mean incremental cost was estimated to be 668 UK pounds, and the mean incremental QALY gain 0.035. SRCBT was estimated to be cost-effective as it had a cost per QALY of 18844 UK pounds, which was more favourable than the assumed cost-effectiveness threshold of 20000 UK pounds per QALY. At that threshold the probability of being cost-effective was however estimated to be 54.3% according to the CEAC, suggesting that further research may be warranted in order to reduce the level of uncertainty associated with the decision as to whether SRCBT is cost-effective. PMID:19403270

  6. Commercial free flyer satellites and orbital re-entry/recovery systems for low cost microgravity research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanto, John M.; Hobbs, Robert B.; Bem, Michael B.

    2001-02-01

    Part of the next generation network of Space Transportation Systems will include unmanned, autonomous ``Free Flyer'' satellites with ground-controlled re-entry and recovery systems for low-cost biomedical and microgravity research. A commercial space requirement for the launch, LEO deployment and orbital recovery of low-cost research satellites will be an important function of spaceport operations and technology development in the next decade. Free flyer satellites will effectively complement the capabilities of intermittent manned Shuttle/SpaceHab missions and more sophisticated, long-duration, manned Mir and International Space Station missions. The USCORP initiative has been developed by ITA, Inc. to provide a commercially owned and operated orbital free flyer satellite and re-entry/recovery system to support microgravity, biomedical and life sciences research. The next generation low-cost, commercially viable orbital platform for microgravity research will depend on the application of existing technologies with flight-proven systems. This approach will ensure the operational reliability and low costs that will be required for commercial unmanned research missions. These commercial flight systems will be launched, remotely operated on orbit, and recovered from commercial spaceports utilizing next-generation advanced spaceport technologies and capabilities. .

  7. Cost Effective Recovery of Low-TDS Frac Flowback Water for Re-use

    SciTech Connect

    Claire Henderson; Harish Acharya; Hope Matis; Hareesh Kommepalli; Brian Moore; Hua Wang

    2011-03-31

    The project goal was to develop a cost-effective water recovery process to reduce the costs and envi-ronmental impact of shale gas production. This effort sought to develop both a flowback water pre-treatment process and a membrane-based partial demineralization process for the treatment of the low-Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) portion of the flowback water produced during hydrofracturing operations. The TDS cutoff for consideration in this project is < 35,000 {approx} 45,000 ppm, which is the typical limit for economic water recovery employing reverse osmosis (RO) type membrane desalination processes. The ultimate objective is the production of clean, reclaimed water suitable for re-use in hydrofracturing operations. The team successfully compiled data on flowback composition and other attributes across multiple shale plays, identified the likely applicability of membrane treatment processes in those shales, and expanded the proposed product portfolio to include four options suitable for various reuse or discharge applications. Pretreatment technologies were evaluated at the lab scale and down-selected based upon their efficacy in removing key contaminants. The chosen technologies were further validated by performing membrane fouling studies with treated flowback water to demonstrate the technical feasibility of flowback treatment with RO membranes. Process flow schemes were constructed for each of the four product options based on experimental performance data from actual flowback water treatment studies. For the products requiring membrane treatment, membrane system model-ing software was used to create designs for enhanced water recovery beyond the typical seawater desalination benchmark. System costs based upon vendor and internal cost information for all process flow schemes were generated and are below target and in line with customer expectations. Finally, to account for temporal and geographic variability in flowback characteristics as well as local

  8. Using cost/risk procedures to establish recovery criteria following a nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Tawil, J J; Strenge, D L

    1987-02-01

    In the event of a major accidental release of radionuclides at a nuclear power plant, large populated areas could become seriously contaminated. Local officials would be responsible for establishing radiation recovery criteria that would permit the evacuated population to return safely to their jobs and homes. The range of acceptable criteria could imply variations in property losses in the billions of dollars. Given the likely public concern over the health consequences and the enormity of the potential property losses, a cost/risk analysis can provide important input to establishing the recovery criteria. This paper describes procedures for conducting a cost/risk analysis of a site radiologically contaminated by a nuclear power plant accident. The procedures are illustrated by analyzing a hypothetically contaminated site, using software developed for determining the property and health effects of major reactor accidents. PMID:3818283

  9. From free to free market: cost recovery in federally funded clinical research.

    PubMed

    McCammon, Margaret G; Fogg, Thomas T; Jacobsen, Lynda; Roache, John; Sampson, Royce; Bower, Cynthia L

    2012-07-01

    In a climate of increased expectation for the translation of research, academic clinical research units are looking at new ways to streamline their operation and maintain effective translational support services. Clinical research, although undeniably expensive, is an essential step in the translation of any medical breakthrough, and as a result, many academic clinical research units are actively looking to expand their clinical services despite financial pressures. We examine some of the hybrid academic-business models in 19 clinical research centers within the Clinical and Translational Science Award consortium that are emerging to address the issue of cost recovery of clinical research that is supported by the United States federal government. We identify initiatives that have succeeded or failed, essential supporting and regulatory components, and lessons learned from experience to design an optimal cost recovery model and a timeline for its implementation. PMID:22764204

  10. From Free to Free Market: Cost Recovery in Federally Funded Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    McCammon, Margaret G.; Fogg, Thomas T.; Jacobsen, Lynda; Roache, John; Sampson, Royce; Bower, Cynthia L.

    2012-01-01

    In a climate of increased expectation for the translation of research, academic clinical research units are looking at new ways to streamline their operation and maintain effective translational support services. Clinical research, although undeniably expensive, is an essential step in the translation of any medical breakthrough, and as a result, many academic clinical research units are actively looking to expand their clinical services despite financial pressures. We examine some of the hybrid academic-business models in 19 clinical research centers within the Clinical and Translational Science Award consortium that are emerging to address the issue of cost recovery of clinical research that is supported by the United States federal government. We identify initiatives that have succeeded or failed, essential supporting and regulatory components, and lessons learned from experience to design an optimal cost recovery model and a timeline for its implementation. PMID:22764204

  11. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: A life-cycle costing approach

    SciTech Connect

    Massarutto, Antonio; Carli, Alessandro de; Graffi, Matteo

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > The study aims at assessing economic performance of alternative scenarios of MSW. > The approach is the life-cycle costing (LCC). > Waste technologies must be considered as complementary into an integrated strategy. - Abstract: A critical assumption of studies assessing comparatively waste management options concerns the constant average cost for selective collection regardless the source separation level (SSL) reached, and the neglect of the mass constraint. The present study compares alternative waste management scenarios through the development of a desktop model that tries to remove the above assumption. Several alternative scenarios based on different combinations of energy and materials recovery are applied to two imaginary areas modelled in order to represent a typical Northern Italian setting. External costs and benefits implied by scenarios are also considered. Scenarios are compared on the base of the full cost for treating the total waste generated in the area. The model investigates the factors that influence the relative convenience of alternative scenarios.

  12. Sharing Facilities and Administrative (F&A) Cost Recovery to Facilitate Interdisciplinary Research

    PubMed Central

    Kulage, Kristine M.; Larson, Elaine L.; Begg, Melissa D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Despite increasing interest in interdisciplinary research, researchers consistently cite institutional barriers as deterrents. Researchers, administrators, and others have suggested developing processes for sharing facilities and administrative (F&A) cost recovery as one way to support collaborative research. Therefore, the authors reviewed current policies for sharing F&A cost recovery and user satisfaction with them. Method In 2010, through reviewing institutional Websites and surveying researchers and grants administrators from a range of institutions, the authors identified a number of different policies currently employed and assessed user satisfaction with them. Results While most respondents (80.7%, 205/254) agreed that a standard policy for sharing F&A cost recovery would facilitate interdisciplinary collaboration, only 35.4% (90/254) reported that their institutions had such a policy. Among the 85 respondents whose institutions had a policy, most (66 [77.6%]) reported that the policy applied to grants with multiple principal investigators or co-investigators across departments or schools, and 68 (80.0%) reported satisfaction with the policy. Respondents from institutions with policies were significantly more likely to endorse the notion that policies are helpful compared to those who reported that their institutions did not have such policies or were unsure of their existence (89% versus 76%, P = 0.014). The authors detected no significant differences in satisfaction scores based on type of policy, whether determined by investigator effort, space allocation, or other considerations (P = 0.29). Conclusions These data support the need for institutions to establish formal policies for sharing F&A cost recovery as a way to promote interdisciplinary research collaboration. PMID:21248610

  13. Problems of cost recovery implementation in district health care: a case study from Niger.

    PubMed

    Meuwissen, Liesbeth Emm

    2002-09-01

    This article describes and analyzes the impact of the introduction of a cost recovery system in 11 health centres of Tillabéri district, Niger, West Africa, between August 1997 and August 1999. The study is based on data collected by the health workers, observations of district activities and policy meetings and literature from similar programmes in the region. The central question addressed by this article is why a well-formulated programme, which was implemented accordingly, failed to succeed. The system described fits within the national health policy framework in Niger, which opted to introduce fixed attendance fees in health centres. The system was introduced as a part of a comprehensive package to improve the accessibility, quality and organization of the districts' health care. Discussed are the problems encountered in the functioning of the system, such as the unpredictability of the cost recovery rate, the drop in patients' attendance and the undermining effect of serious and regular shortages of essential generic drugs at the wholesale dealer. Further discussed are the supervision and control of the financial and drug administration and the participation of the population, which are identified as key areas of interest for sustainability of any cost recovery system. PMID:12135997

  14. Dietary nitrate accelerates postexercise muscle metabolic recovery and O2 delivery in hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Andrew M.; Blackwell, James R.; Winyard, Paul G.; Fulford, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the time constants (τ) of postexercise T2* MRI signal intensity (an index of O2 delivery) and muscle [PCr] (an index of metabolic perturbation, measured by 31P-MRS) in hypoxia would be accelerated after dietary nitrate (NO3−) supplementation. In a double-blind crossover design, eight moderately trained subjects underwent 5 days of NO3− (beetroot juice, BR; 8.2 mmol/day NO3−) and placebo (PL; 0.003 mmol/day NO3−) supplementation in four conditions: normoxic PL (N-PL), hypoxic PL (H-PL; 13% O2), normoxic NO3− (N-BR), and hypoxic NO3− (H-BR). The single-leg knee-extension protocol consisted of 10 min of steady-state exercise and 24 s of high-intensity exercise. The [PCr] recovery τ was greater in H-PL (30 ± 4 s) than H-BR (22 ± 4 s), N-PL (24 ± 4 s) and N-BR (22 ± 4 s) (P < 0.05) and the maximal rate of mitochondrial ATP resynthesis (Qmax) was lower in the H-PL (1.12 ± 0.16 mM/s) compared with H-BR (1.35 ± 0.26 mM/s), N-PL (1.47 ± 0.28 mM/s), and N-BR (1.40 ± 0.21 mM/s) (P < 0.05). The τ of postexercise T2* signal intensity was greater in H-PL (47 ± 14 s) than H-BR (32 ± 10 s), N-PL (38 ± 9 s), and N-BR (27 ± 6 s) (P < 0.05). The postexercise [PCr] and T2* recovery τ were correlated in hypoxia (r = 0.60; P < 0.05), but not in normoxia (r = 0.28; P > 0.05). These findings suggest that the NO3−-NO2−-NO pathway is a significant modulator of muscle energetics and O2 delivery during hypoxic exercise and subsequent recovery. PMID:25301896

  15. Dietary nitrate accelerates postexercise muscle metabolic recovery and O2 delivery in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M; Blackwell, James R; Winyard, Paul G; Fulford, Jonathan

    2014-12-15

    We tested the hypothesis that the time constants (τ) of postexercise T2* MRI signal intensity (an index of O2 delivery) and muscle [PCr] (an index of metabolic perturbation, measured by (31)P-MRS) in hypoxia would be accelerated after dietary nitrate (NO3 (-)) supplementation. In a double-blind crossover design, eight moderately trained subjects underwent 5 days of NO3 (-) (beetroot juice, BR; 8.2 mmol/day NO3 (-)) and placebo (PL; 0.003 mmol/day NO3 (-)) supplementation in four conditions: normoxic PL (N-PL), hypoxic PL (H-PL; 13% O2), normoxic NO3 (-) (N-BR), and hypoxic NO3 (-) (H-BR). The single-leg knee-extension protocol consisted of 10 min of steady-state exercise and 24 s of high-intensity exercise. The [PCr] recovery τ was greater in H-PL (30 ± 4 s) than H-BR (22 ± 4 s), N-PL (24 ± 4 s) and N-BR (22 ± 4 s) (P < 0.05) and the maximal rate of mitochondrial ATP resynthesis (Qmax) was lower in the H-PL (1.12 ± 0.16 mM/s) compared with H-BR (1.35 ± 0.26 mM/s), N-PL (1.47 ± 0.28 mM/s), and N-BR (1.40 ± 0.21 mM/s) (P < 0.05). The τ of postexercise T2* signal intensity was greater in H-PL (47 ± 14 s) than H-BR (32 ± 10 s), N-PL (38 ± 9 s), and N-BR (27 ± 6 s) (P < 0.05). The postexercise [PCr] and T2* recovery τ were correlated in hypoxia (r = 0.60; P < 0.05), but not in normoxia (r = 0.28; P > 0.05). These findings suggest that the NO3 (-)-NO2 (-)-NO pathway is a significant modulator of muscle energetics and O2 delivery during hypoxic exercise and subsequent recovery. PMID:25301896

  16. Comparative study on cost evaluation and network visualization of particle accelerator components for heavy ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, A.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob; Barnard, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    By visualizing accelerator system components in heavy ion inertial fusion, the connection between the components becomes clear. We clarify an influential component on the entire cost by the relation of node connections due to the visualization result. Since a low cost component affects a high cost component, not only the cost estimation but also the relation between the components is considerable and important issue. A cost estimation result changing with an induction core cost indicates no influences in the rate of details.

  17. [Medications and financing of health systems in Third World countries. Cost recovery: a concept to review].

    PubMed

    Velasquez, G

    1989-01-01

    During the 1960s most African countries declared that health care would be free in their newly independent countries. Unfortunately, the health care systems inherited from colonial days were hospital based and emphasized curative rather than preventive care, and were too expensive for most countries to maintain. As the quality and availability of health services have deteriorated, the concept of free care has been questioned. At the same time, the number of countries involved in programs of structural adjustment imposed by the International Monetary Fund has grown steadily since the early 1980s, and some countries have drastically restricted public expenditures for health care. IN the search for new sources of financing, the concept of recovery of costs has become prominent. Various attempts have been made to "recover costs" even before the costs have been assessed. Financing of health care by governments, besides being insufficient, has impeded analysis of health care costs in most African countries. The World Bank proposes that the price of each medical product or service should be equal to the cost of providing it. UNICEF proposals stress the need to rationalize expenses and to defend vulnerable population groups during application of adjustment measures. The World Health Organization approach is geared toward attaining the objective of health for all by the year 2000. The basic question is still how to finance quality health care with reasonable participation of users without impeding access of the population to needed health services. An objective of 100% cost recovery will seriously compromise access for the large number of persons without purchasing power to pay the real price of health care. The term "recovery of costs" is inappropriate; the problem is to achieve a balance between participation of the population and government resources for the health system. Health services are not completely self-financing in any developed country and it appears

  18. Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current,more » 90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.« less

  19. Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, Richard L.

    2015-06-01

    Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current, 90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  20. FACTS Devices Cost Recovery During Congestion Management in Deregulated Electricity Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashwani Kumar; Mittapalli, Ram Kumar; Pal, Yash

    2015-07-01

    In future electricity markets, flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) devices will play key role for providing ancillary services. Since huge cost is involved for the FACTS devices placement in the power system, the cost invested has to be recovered in their life time for the replacement of these devices. The FACTS devices in future electricity markets can act as an ancillary services provider and have to be remunerated. The main contributions of the paper are: (1) investment recovery of FACTS devices during congestion management such as static VAR compensator and unified power flow controller along with thyristor controlled series compensator using non-linear bid curves, (2) the impact of ZIP load model on the FACTS cost recovery of the devices, (3) the comparison of results obtained without ZIP load model for both pool and hybrid market model, (4) secure bilateral transactions incorporation in hybrid market model. An optimal power flow based approach has been developed for maximizing social welfare including FACTS devices cost. The optimal placement of the FACTS devices have been obtained based on maximum social welfare. The results have been obtained for both pool and hybrid electricity market for IEEE 24-bus RTS.

  1. Decentralization in Indonesia: lessons from cost recovery rate of district hospitals.

    PubMed

    Maharani, Asri; Femina, Devi; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2015-07-01

    In 1991, Indonesia began a process of decentralization in the health sector which had implications for the country's public hospitals. The public hospitals were given greater authority to manage their own personnel, finance and procurement, with which they were allowed to operate commercial sections in addition to offering public services. These public services are subsidized by the government, although patients still pay certain proportion of fees. The main objectives of health sector decentralization are to increase the ability of public hospitals to cover their costs and to reduce government subsidies. This study investigates the consequences of decentralization on cost recovery rate of public hospitals at district level. We examine five service units (inpatient, outpatient, operating room, laboratory and radiology) in three public hospitals. We find that after 20 years of decentralization, district hospitals still depend on government subsidies, demonstrated by the fact that the cost recovery rate of most service units is less than one. The commercial sections fail to play their role as revenue generator as they are still subsidized by the government. We also find that the bulk of costs are made up of staff salaries and incentives in all units except radiology. As this study constitutes exploratory research, further investigation is needed to find out the reasons behind these results. PMID:24966293

  2. Predicting the performance and cost of ORC waste-heat-recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Krazinski, J.L.; Bushby, H.M.; Buyco, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) systems have been designed and tested for the recovery of waste heat from low-temperature sources. These systems use organic working fluids, rather than steam, in the cycle. A computer code was developed to predict the power outputs and costs of these systems. Six organic fluids and steam are considered in this paper. The thermophysical properties of the seven fluids are compared and their impact upon the system design is discussed. System costs are presented for exhaust-gas heat sources with maximum temperatures of 500 to 1000F. The power outputs in these cases range from approximately 500 kW to 2500 kW. Certain organic fluids are restricted to the lower-heat-source temperatures because of thermal-stability limitations. For the heat-source temperatures at which the various fluids were used, however, similar system costs and power-output levels were obtained for the six organic fluids.

  3. Obestatin Accelerates the Recovery in the Course of Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bukowczan, Jakub; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Tomaszewska, Romana

    2015-01-01

    intake and pancreatic exocrine secretion. Administration of obestatin at doses used was without significant effect with regard to daily food intake or pancreatic exocrine secretion in sham-operated rats, as well as in rats with acute pancreatitis. On the other hand, obestatin abolished a statistical significance of difference in food intake between animals with AP and control animals without pancreatic fistula and induction of AP. Conclusion Treatment with the exogenous obestatin reduces severity of ischemia/reperfusion-induced acute pancreatitis and accelerates recovery in this disease. The involved mechanisms are likely to be multifactorial, and are mediated, at least in part, by anti-inflammatory properties of obestatin. PMID:26226277

  4. Design and implementation of a new low-cost subsurface mooring system for efficient data recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun; Tian, Jiwei; Zhao, Wei; Song, Dalei; Xu, Ming; Xu, Xiaoyang; Lu, Jun

    2013-09-23

    Mooring systems are the most effective method for making sustained time series observations in the oceans. Generally there are two types of ocean mooring systems: surface and subsurface. Subsurface mooring system is less likely to be damaged after deployment than surface system. However, subsurface system usually needs to be retrieved from the ocean for data recovery. This paper describes the design and implementation of a new low-cost subsurface mooring system for efficient data recovery: Timed Communication Buoy System (TCBS). TCBS is usually integrated in the main float and the designated data is downloaded from the control system. After data retrieval, TCBS will separate from main float, rise up to the sea surface, and transmit data by satellite communication.

  5. 75 FR 34117 - Proposed CERCLA Section 122(h) Cost Recovery Settlement for the H.M. Quackenbush, Inc. Superfund...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Section 122(h) Cost Recovery Settlement for the H.M. Quackenbush, Inc. Superfund... recovery settlement agreement pursuant to Section 122(h) of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9622(h), regarding the H.M... requires Frederick H. Hagar (``Settling Party''), CEO, Chairman and majority shareholder of...

  6. What are the costs and benefits of biodiversity recovery in a highly polluted estuary?

    PubMed

    Pascual, M; Borja, A; Franco, J; Burdon, D; Atkins, J P; Elliott, M

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity recovery measures have often been ignored when dealing with the restoration of degraded aquatic systems. Furthermore, biological valuation methods have been applied only spatially in previous studies, and not jointly on a temporal and spatial scale. The intense monitoring efforts carried out in a highly polluted estuary, in northern Spain (Nervión estuary), allowed for the economic valuation of the costs and the biological valuation of the benefits associated with a 21 years sewage scheme application. The analysis show that the total amount of money invested into the sewage scheme has contributed to the estuary's improvement of both environmental and biological features, as well as to an increase in the uses and services provided by the estuary. However, the inner and outer parts of the estuary showed different responses. An understanding of the costs and trajectories of the environmental recovery of degraded aquatic systems is increasingly necessary to allow policy makers and regulators to formulate robust, cost-efficient and feasible management decisions. PMID:22088272

  7. Influence of optical pumping wavelength on the ultrafast gain and phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungho

    2013-10-01

    We numerically investigate the influence of the optical pumping wavelength on the ultrafast gain and phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) by solving 1088 coupled rate equations. The temporal variations of the gain and phase recovery response at the ground state (GS) of QDs are calculated at various signal wavelengths when the optical pumping wavelengths at the excited state (ES) of QDs are varied. The phase recovery response is fastest when the wavelength of the signal and pumping beams corresponds to the respective emission wavelength of the GS and the ES in the same size of QDs. The absorption efficiency of the optical pumping beam at the ES is determined by the Lorentzian line shape function of the homogeneous broadening.

  8. [Funding for healthcare in sub-Saharan Africa--cost recovery].

    PubMed

    Richard, V

    2004-01-01

    The Bamako Initiative was adopted in 1988 to establish a community strategy to support and fund primary health care. During the 1990s sub-Saharan countries progressively signed on to this program. Cost recovery still poses the problem of financial accessibility due to the absence of a risk-sharing policy in association with geographic accessibility due to inadequate monitoring of health coverage. Demand-related price elasticity has excluded low-income groups for whom indigent classification and accompanying management measures have usually remained in the planning stages. Implementation of funding mechanisms to ensure reduction of inequities is limited by an economy founded mainly on informal principles. PMID:15615382

  9. Alternative strategies for energy recovery from municipal solid waste Part B: Emission and cost estimates.

    PubMed

    Consonni, S; Giugliano, M; Grosso, M

    2005-01-01

    This two-part paper assesses four strategies for energy recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) by dedicated Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants. In strategy 1, the residue of Material Recovery (MR) is fed directly to a grate combustor, while in strategy 2 the grate combustor comes downstream of light mechanical treatment. In strategies 3 and 4, the MR residue is converted into Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), in a fluidized cumbuster bed. The results of Part A, devoted to mass and energy balances, clearly show that pre-treating the MR residue in order to increase the heating value of the feedstock fed to the WTE plant has marginal effects on the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. When considering the efficiency of the whole strategy of waste management, the energy balances show that the more thorough the pre-treatment, the smaller the amount of energy recovered per unit of MR residue. Starting from the heat/mass balances illustrated in Part A, Part B examines the environmental impacts and economics of the various strategies by means of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Results show that treating the MR residues ahead of the WTE plant does not provide environmental or economic benefits. RDF production worsens almost all impact indicators because it reduces net electricity production and thus the displacement of power plant emissions; it also increases costs, because the benefits of improving the quality of the material fed to the WTE plant do not compensate the cost of such improvement. PMID:15737711

  10. Cost Based Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for Systems of Accelerator Magnets.

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, Cherrill M

    2003-06-02

    The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) has a proposed 85% overall availability goal, the availability specifications for all its 7200 magnets and their 6167 power supplies are 97.5% each. Thus all of the electromagnets and their power supplies must be highly reliable or quickly repairable. Improved reliability or repairability comes at a higher cost. We have developed a set of analysis procedures for magnet designers to use as they decide how much effort to exert, i.e. how much money to spend, to improve the reliability of a particular style of magnet. We show these procedures being applied to a standard SLAC electromagnet design in order to make it reliable enough to meet the NLC availability specs. First, empirical data from SLAC's accelerator failure database plus design experience are used to calculate MTBF for failure modes identified through a FMEA. Availability for one particular magnet can be calculated. Next, labor and material costs to repair magnet failures are used in a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the total cost of all failures over a 30-year lifetime. Opportunity costs are included. Engineers choose from amongst various designs by comparing lifecycle costs.

  11. Recovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video discusses the recovery events that occur in high-power rocketry and the various devices used in safely recovering the rocket. The video includes a discussion of black powder and ejection...

  12. [Recovery].

    PubMed

    Estingoy, Pierrette; Gilliot, Élodie; Parisot, Clément

    2015-01-01

    The historical fatalism of the impossibility of recovering from psychosis eased from the 1970s with the shaping of the idea of a possible recovery. Recovery is today the objective for the patient and caregivers. The key to achieving this lies in the encounter with Others. A collective approach, on the level of the institution, must be established. The aim is to create opportunities for the patient to express their doubts and feelings. PMID:26363659

  13. The Boeing photocathode accelerator magnetic pulse compression and energy recovery experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D.H.; Adamski, J.L.; Hayward, T.D.

    1995-12-31

    An 18 MeV, photocathode accelerator operating at 433 MHz is being commissioned for FEL applications. The accelerator consists of a two-cell RF photocathode imjector followed by four new multicell cavities. The two cell injector has previously been operated at a micropulse repetition frequency of 27 MHz, a micropulse charge of 5 nC and 25% duty factor.

  14. Doing More with Less: Cost-effective, Compact Particle Accelerators (489th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Trbojevic, Dejan

    2013-10-22

    Replace a 135-ton magnet used for cancer-fighting particle therapies with a magnet that weighs only two tons? Such a swap is becoming possible thanks to new particle accelerator advances being developed by researchers at Brookhaven Lab. With an approach that combines techniques used by synchrotron accelerators with the ability to accept more energy, these new technologies could be used for more than fighting cancer. They could also decrease the lifecycle of byproducts from nuclear power plants and reduce costs for eRHIC—a proposed electron-ion collider for Brookhaven Lab that researchers from around the world would use to explore the glue that holds together the universe’s most basic building blocks and explore the proton-spin puzzle. During this lecture, Dr. Trbojevic provides an overview of accelerator technologies and techniques—particularly a non-scaling, fixed-focused alternating gradient—to focus particle beams using fewer, smaller magnets. He discusses how these technologies will benefit eRHIC and other applications, including particle therapies being developed to combat cancer.

  15. Effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the gain and the phase recovery acceleration of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungho

    2014-02-01

    The effect of additional optical pumping injection into the ground-state ensemble on the ultrafast gain and the phase recovery dynamics of electrically-driven quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers is numerically investigated by solving 1088 coupled rate equations. The ultrafast gain and the phase recovery responses are calculated with respect to the additional optical pumping power. Increasing the additional optical pumping power can significantly accelerate the ultrafast phase recovery, which cannot be done by increasing the injection current density.

  16. Battleground Energy Recovery Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, Daniel

    2011-12-31

    In October 2009, the project partners began a 36-month effort to develop an innovative, commercial-scale demonstration project incorporating state-of-the-art waste heat recovery technology at Clean Harbors, Inc., a large hazardous waste incinerator site located in Deer Park, Texas. With financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the Battleground Energy Recovery Project was launched to advance waste heat recovery solutions into the hazardous waste incineration market, an area that has seen little adoption of heat recovery in the United States. The goal of the project was to accelerate the use of energy-efficient, waste heat recovery technology as an alternative means to produce steam for industrial processes. The project had three main engineering and business objectives: Prove Feasibility of Waste Heat Recovery Technology at a Hazardous Waste Incinerator Complex; Provide Low-cost Steam to a Major Polypropylene Plant Using Waste Heat; and Create a Showcase Waste Heat Recovery Demonstration Project.

  17. Accelerated Recovery of Endothelium Function after Stent Implantation with the Use of a Novel Systemic Nanoparticle Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qi; Ye, Fang; Yang, Xiangjun; Gu, Qingqing; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Jianhua; Shen, Li; Gong, Feirong

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin was reported to exhibit a wide range of pharmacological effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities and significantly prevent smooth muscle cells migration. In the present study, a novel kind of curcumin loaded nanoparticles (Cur-NP) has been prepared and characterized with the aim of inhibiting inflammation formation and accelerating the healing process of the stented arteries. Cur-NP was administrated intravenously after stent implantation twice a week and detailed tissue responses were evaluated. The results demonstrated that intravenous administration of Cur-NP after stent implantation accelerated endothelial cells restoration and endothelium function recovery and may potentially be an effective therapeutic alternative to reduce adverse events for currently available drug eluting stents. PMID:26167481

  18. Rank-1 accelerated illumination recovery in scanning diffractive imaging by transparency estimation.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Hau-Tieng

    2014-08-07

    Illumination retrieval in scanning diffractive imaging a.k.a. ptychography is challenging when the specimen is weakly scattering or surrounded by empty space. We describe a rank-1 acceleration method for weakly scattering or piecewise smooth specimens.

  19. Podoconiosis patients’ willingness to pay for treatment services in Northwest Ethiopia: potential for cost recovery

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is non-filarial elephantiasis of the lower legs. It is more commonly found in tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northwest India. In Ethiopia, a few non-governmental organizations provide free treatment to podoconiosis patients, but sustainability of free treatment and scale-up of services to reach the huge unmet need is challenged by resource limitations. We aimed to determine podoconiosis patient’s willingness to pay (WTP) for a treatment package (composed of deep cleaning of limbs with diluted antiseptic solution, soap, and water, bandaging, application of emollient on the skin, and provision of shoes), and factors associated with WTP in northwestern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among randomly selected untreated podoconiosis patients (n = 393) in Baso Liben woreda, northwestern Ethiopia. The contingent valuation method was used with a pre-tested interviewer-administered questionnaire. Results The majority of podoconiosis patients (72.8%) were willing to pay for treatment services. The median WTP amount was 64 Birr (US$ 3.28) per person per year. More than one-third of patients (36.7%) were willing to pay at least half of the full treatment cost and 76.2% were willing to pay at least half of the cost of shoes. A multivariate analysis showed that having a higher monthly income, being a woman, older age, being aware of the role of shoes to prevent podoconiosis, and possession of a functional radio were significantly associated with higher odds of WTP. Conclusions The considerable WTP estimates showed that podoconiosis treatment could improve sustainability and service utilization. A subsidized cost recovery scheme could reduce treatment costs and more feasibility integrate podoconiosis treatment service with other NTDs and the government’s primary health care system. PMID:24642085

  20. Cost impact analysis of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program implementation in Alberta colon cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, G.; Kiyang, L.N.; Chuck, A.; Thanh, N.X.; Gramlich, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (eras) colorectal guideline has been implemented widely across Alberta. Our study examined the clinical and cost impacts of eras on colon cancer patients across the province. Methods We first used both summary statistics and multivariate regression methods to compare, before and after guideline implementation, clinical outcomes (length of stay, complications, readmissions) in consecutive elective colorectal patients 18 or more years of age and in colon cancer and non-cancer patients treated at the Peter Lougheed Centre and the Grey Nuns Hospital between February 2013 and December 2014. We then used the differences in clinical outcomes for colon cancer patients, together with the average cost per hospital day, to estimate cost impacts. Results The analysis considered 790 patients (398 cancer and 392 non-cancer patients). Mean guideline compliance increased to 60% in cancer patients and 57% in non-cancer patients after eras implementation from 37% overall before eras implementation. From pre- to post-eras, mean length of stay declined to 8.4 ± 5 days from 9.5 ± 7 days in cancer patients, and to 6.4 ± 4 days from 8.8 ± 5.5 days in non-cancer patients (p = 0.0012 and p = 0.0041 respectively). Complications declined significantly in the renal, hepatic, pancreatic, and gastrointestinal groups (difference in proportions: 13% in cancer patients; p < 0.05). No significant change in the risk of readmission was observed. The net cost savings attributable to eras implementation ranged from $1,096 to $2,771 per cancer patient and from $3,388 to $7,103 per non-cancer patient. Conclusions Implementation of eras not only resulted in clinical outcome improvements, but also had a significant beneficial impact on scarce health system resources. The effect for cancer patients was different from that for non-cancer patients, representing an opportunity for further refinement and study. PMID:27330358

  1. Investigation into the Recovery of a Translating Flat Plate Exposed to a Streamwise Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Peter; Mulleners, Karen; Jones, Anya

    2015-11-01

    This study explores the unsteady aerodynamic response of a wing to streamwise accelerations. A wing was towed through a water tank until reaching steady state (30 chords), after which the wing accelerated over a prescribed distance to a new constant velocity. Several velocity profiles were investigated, including acceleration and deceleration, as well as various angles of attack (0° -50°). Direct force measurements and particle image velocimetry were conducted simultaneously throughout the full length of the motion. This was made possible through the implementation of a unique imaging setup that allows the wing, laser sheet, and camera to move together rigidly down the length of the tank, placing all PIV measurements in the wing-fixed reference frame and allowing for an uninterrupted measurement of the entire wing motion. Lift force results showed that for cases of high leading edge flow separation (α >20°), the distance required to reach steady state is drastically lower when recovering from a streamwise acceleration than from accelerating from rest. The concept of vortex formation time was also explored, and via PIV and force results it was confirmed that the formation number consistently lies within the range of 3.6-4.5 for each acceleration profile.

  2. Early-life stress and reproductive cost: A two-hit developmental model of accelerated aging?

    PubMed

    Shalev, Idan; Belsky, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Two seemingly independent bodies of research suggest a two-hit model of accelerated aging, one highlighting early-life stress and the other reproduction. The first, informed by developmental models of early-life stress, highlights reduced longevity effects of early adversity on telomere erosion, whereas the second, informed by evolutionary theories of aging, highlights such effects with regard to reproductive cost (in females). The fact that both early-life adversity and reproductive effort are associated with shorter telomeres and increased oxidative stress raises the prospect, consistent with life-history theory, that these two theoretical frameworks currently informing much research are tapping into the same evolutionary-developmental process of increased senescence and reduced longevity. Here we propose a mechanistic view of a two-hit model of accelerated aging in human females through (a) early-life adversity and (b) early reproduction, via a process of telomere erosion, while highlighting mediating biological embedding mechanisms that might link these two developmental aging processes. PMID:27063083

  3. 26 CFR 1.168(a)-1 - Modified accelerated cost recovery system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... depreciation allowance for tangible property that is of a character subject to the allowance for depreciation... property. The allowance for depreciation under section 168 constitutes the amount of depreciation allowable... to the allowance for depreciation is made under section 167 and the regulations under section 167....

  4. Economic Costs of a Postrelease Intervention for Incarcerated Female Substance Abusers: Recovery Management Checkups for Women Offenders (RMC-WO)

    PubMed Central

    McCollister, Kathryn E.; Scott, Christy K.; Dennis, Michael L.; Freitas, Derek M.; French, Michael T.; Funk, Rodney R.

    2015-01-01

    This study estimates the economic costs of Recovery Management Checkups for Women Offenders (RMC-WO), highlighting the unique mix of services and differential costs between two distinct phases of the intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to quarterly outcome monitoring (OM) only (n=242) or OM plus Recovery Management Checkups (OM-plus-RMC) (n=238). The OM-only condition has a total annual economic cost of $76,010, which equates to $81 quarterly per person. The average cost per OM interview completed is $86. OM-plus-RMC generates a total annual economic cost of $126,717, or $137 quarterly per person. The cost per interview completed is $147 and the cost per intervention session completed is $161. RMC-WO has a relatively modest additional cost compared with the average costs of post-release supervision, which can range from $3.42 ($1,250) per day (year) for probationers to $7.47 ($2,750) per day (year) for parolees. The clinical, economic, and policy implications of incorporating RMC-WO into existing corrections and/or community-based treatment settings are discussed. PMID:27030790

  5. LOWER COST METHODS FOR IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY (IOR) VIA SURFACTANT FLOODING

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Seung Soon Jang; Shiang-Tai Lin; Prabal Maiti; Yongfu Wu; Stefan Iglauer; Xiaohang Zhang

    2004-09-01

    This report provides a summary of the work performed in this 3-year project sponsored by DOE. The overall objective of this project is to identify new, potentially more cost-effective surfactant formulations for improved oil recovery (IOR). The general approach is to use an integrated experimental and computational chemistry effort to improve our understanding of the link between surfactant structure and performance, and from this knowledge, develop improved IOR surfactant formulations. Accomplishments for the project include: (1) completion of a literature review to assemble current and new surfactant IOR ideas, (2) Development of new atomistic-level MD (molecular dynamic) modeling methodologies to calculate IFT (interfacial tension) rigorously from first principles, (3) exploration of less computationally intensive mesoscale methods to estimate IFT, Quantitative Structure Property Relationship (QSPR), and cohesive energy density (CED) calculations, (4) experiments to screen many surfactant structures for desirable low IFT and solid adsorption behavior, and (5) further experimental characterization of the more promising new candidate formulations (based on alkyl polyglycosides (APG) and alkyl propoxy sulfate surfactants). Important findings from this project include: (1) the IFT between two pure substances may be calculated quantitatively from fundamental principles using Molecular Dynamics, the same approach can provide qualitative results for ternary systems containing a surfactant, (2) low concentrations of alkyl polyglycoside surfactants have potential for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) applications from a technical standpoint (if formulated properly with a cosurfactant, they can create a low IFT at low concentration) and also are viable economically as they are available commercially, and (3) the alkylpropoxy sulfate surfactants have promising IFT performance also, plus these surfactants can have high optimal salinity and so may be attractive for use in higher

  6. 77 FR 64989 - Notice of Administrative Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Pursuant to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... would resolve potential EPA claims under Section 107(a) of CERCLA, against Wells Fargo Bank, N.A... hereby given that a proposed administrative settlement agreement for recovery of past response costs... notice, EPA will receive written comments relating to the Proposed Agreement. EPA's response to...

  7. 76 FR 10028 - Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... AGENCY Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs 10,000 Havana Street Site, Commerce City... Mascarenas (Settling Party) regarding the 10,000 Havana Street Site (Site), located at 10,000 Havana Street... Street, 3rd Floor, in Denver, Colorado. DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before March 25,...

  8. 75 FR 9102 - Recovery of Cost of Hospital and Medical Care and Treatment Furnished by the United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... purposes of the reporting requirement of 5 U.S.C. 801. List of Subjects in 28 CFR Part 43 Claims, Health... Department of Justice. * * * * * Dated: February 23, 2010. Eric H. Holder, Jr., Attorney General. BILLING... Part 43 Recovery of Cost of Hospital and Medical Care and Treatment Furnished by the United...

  9. Electrical stimulation accelerates nerve regeneration and functional recovery in delayed peripheral nerve injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jinghui; Zhang, Yongguang; Lu, Lei; Hu, Xueyu; Luo, Zhuojing

    2013-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the potential of brief electrical stimulation (ES; 3 V, 20 Hz, 20 min) in improving functional recovery in delayed nerve injury repair (DNIR). The sciatic nerve of Sprague Dawley rats was transected, and the repair of nerve injury was delayed for different time durations (2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks). Brief depolarizing ES was applied to the proximal nerve stump when the transected nerve stumps were bridged with a hollow nerve conduit (5 mm in length) after delayed periods. We found that the diameter and number of regenerated axons, the thickness of myelin sheath, as well as the number of Fluoro-Gold retrograde-labeled motoneurons and sensory neurons were significantly increased by ES, suggesting that brief ES to proximal nerve stumps is capable of promoting nerve regeneration in DNIR with different delayed durations, with the longest duration of 24 weeks. In addition, the amplitude of compound muscle action potential (gastrocnemius muscle) and nerve conduction velocity were also enhanced, and gastrocnemius muscle atrophy was partially reversed by brief ES, indicating that brief ES to proximal nerve stump was able to improve functional recovery in DNIR. Furthermore, brief ES was capable of increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the spinal cord in DNIR, suggesting that BDNF-mediated neurotrophin signaling might be one of the contributing factors to the beneficial effect of brief ES on DNIR. In conclusion, the present findings indicate the potential of using brief ES as a useful method to improve functional recovery for delayed repair of peripheral nerve lesions. PMID:24118464

  10. Decadal trends reveal recent acceleration in the rate of recovery from acidification in the northeastern U.S.

    PubMed

    Strock, Kristin E; Nelson, Sarah J; Kahl, Jeffrey S; Saros, Jasmine E; McDowell, William H

    2014-05-01

    Previous reports suggest variable trends in recovery from acidification in northeastern U.S. surface waters in response to the Clean Air Act Amendments. Here we analyze recent trends in emissions, wet deposition, and lake chemistry using long-term data from a variety of lakes in the Adirondack Mountains and New England. Sulfate concentration in wet deposition declined by more than 40% in the 2000s and sulfate concentration in lakes declined at a greater rate from 2002 to 2010 than during the 1980s or 1990s (-3.27 μeq L(-1)year(-1) as compared to -1.26 μeq L(-1)year(-1)). During the 2000s, nitrate concentration in wet deposition declined by more than 50% and nitrate concentration in lakes, which had no linear trend prior to 2000, declined at a rate of -0.05 μeq L(-1)year(-1). Base cation concentrations, which decreased during the 1990s (-1.5 μeq L(-1) year(-1)), have stabilized in New England lakes. Although total aluminum concentrations increased since 1999 (2.57 μg L(-1) year(-1)), there was a shift to nontoxic, organic aluminum. Despite this recent acceleration in recovery in multiple variables, both ANC and pH continue to have variable trends. This may be due in part to variable trajectories in the concentrations of base cations and dissolved organic carbon among our study lakes. PMID:24669928

  11. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril maleate) accelerates recovery of mouse skin from UVB-induced wrinkles

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura-Hachiya, Yuko; Arai, Koji Y.; Ozeki, Rieko; Kikuta, Ayako; Nishiyama, Toshio

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) increases in UVB-irradiated skin. •Administration of an ACE inhibitor improved UVB-induced skin wrinkle. •ACE inhibitor improved UVB-induced epidermal hypertrophy. •ACE inhibitor improved transepidermal water loss in the UVB-irradiated skin. -- Abstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and angiotensin II signaling regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue remodeling, as well as blood pressure, while in skin, angiotensin II signaling is involved in wound healing, inflammation, and pathological scar formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that angiotensin II is also involved in photoaging of skin. In this study, we examined the effect of enalapril maleate, an ACE inhibitor, on recovery of wrinkled skin of hairless mice exposed to long-term UVB irradiation. Immunohistochemical observation revealed that expression of ACE, angiotensin II, and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors in the skin was increased after UVB irradiation (3 times/week at increasing intensities for 8 weeks). Administration of enalapril maleate (5 times/week for 6 weeks, starting 1 week after 10-week irradiation) accelerated recovery from UVB-induced wrinkles, epidermal hyperplasia and epidermal barrier dysfunction, as compared with the vehicle control. Our results indicate that ACE and angiotensin II activity are involved in skin photoaging, and suggest that ACE inhibitor such as enalapril maleate may have potential for improvement of photoaged skin.

  12. Mesenchymal stromal cells: a novel and effective strategy for facilitating engraftment and accelerating hematopoietic recovery after transplantation?

    PubMed

    Bernardo, M E; Cometa, A M; Locatelli, F

    2012-03-01

    MSCs are multipotent cells that can be isolated from several human tissues and expanded ex vivo for clinical use. They comprise a heterogeneous population of cells, which, through production of growth factors, cell-to-cell interactions and secretion of matrix proteins, has a role in the regulation of hematopoiesis. In recent years, several experimental studies have shown that MSCs are endowed with immunomodulatory properties and with the capacity to promote graft survival in animal models. In view of these properties, MSCs have been tested in pilot studies aimed at preventing/treating graft rejection and at accelerating recovery after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The available clinical evidence deriving from these studies indicates that MSC infusion is safe and promising in terms of capacity of preventing graft failure. More debated is the effect of MSCs for what concerns their capacity of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution after HCT. Whether the favorable effect of MSCs largely depends on the type of transplantation remains also a field of future investigation. Moreover, future researches should be oriented to gain more insights on MSC biological and functional mechanisms relevant for exploiting their use in the modulation of alloreactivity and in the promotion of hematopoietic reconstitution. PMID:21552300

  13. The impact of consumer awareness of water sector issues on willingness to pay and cost recovery in Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntengwe, F. W.

    The recovery of costs in water utilities is a key element in sustainability of both the provider and of the water resource itself. This paper examines the role played by consumer awareness in their willingness to pay for water supply in two cities in Zambia. Research conducted in Kitwe and Lusaka reveals that level of awareness, willingness to pay and cost recovery all vary directly. Whereas awareness may increase consumers’ willingness to pay, therefore assisting service provider’s cost recovery, the research presented here also reveals that factors such as ability to pay, affordability of bills, quality of water and of the service provided, as well as good business-consumer relations are important factors affecting a utility’s ability to recover its costs. If water utilities are to attain sustainability over the long-term, they will have to embark on and maintain consumer awareness programmes, raise the quality of service (e.g., through improved operation and maintenance), and develop and apply the right water tariff.

  14. The Gambian National Impregnated Bednet Programme: evaluation of the 1994 cost recovery trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, O; Cham, K; Jaffar, S; Greenwood, B

    1997-06-01

    Following the success of a controlled trial of insecticide-impregnated bednets in reducing mortality in children. The Gambia started a National Impregnated Bednet Programme (NIBP) in 1992. The objectives of this programme were to introduce impregnated bednets into all primary health care (PHC) villages and to establish a system of cost recovery over a three-year period. During the initial phase of the programme, when insecticide was given out free, a high uptake was achieved. However, after small user charges were introduced in 1993, coverage dropped to a low level. In 1994, different systems of insecticide distribution and permethrin formulations were tried in an attempt to improve coverage. A nationwide cross-sectional survey carried out during the 1994 rainy season measured coverage by distribution channel, as well as the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health workers and villagers during the intervention. Overall, only 16% of bednets were impregnated in 1994, compared to 80% when the insecticide was offered free of charge in previous years. Lack of money was the major reason given by villagers for not impregnating their bednets in 1994. Use of impregnated bednets was higher in areas where the sale of permethrin emulsion by village health workers was supplemented by the sale of insecticide in individual packages through shops. In villages where insecticide was distributed free to women with small children through governmental mother and child health (MCH) services, higher levels of coverage were achieved among women and young children than in villages where other distribution systems were used. We conclude that the sale of insecticide through the private sector may increase bednet impregnation rates in African communities, and that the free distribution of insecticide through MCH services may be an effective way of targeting young children, the group most at risk of malaria. PMID:9194251

  15. Review on Dog Rabies Vaccination Coverage in Africa: A Question of Dog Accessibility or Cost Recovery?

    PubMed Central

    Jibat, Tariku; Hogeveen, Henk; Mourits, Monique C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies still poses a significant human health problem throughout most of Africa, where the majority of the human cases results from dog bites. Mass dog vaccination is considered to be the most effective method to prevent rabies in humans. Our objective was to systematically review research articles on dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage in Africa in relation to dog accessibility and vaccination cost recovery arrangement (i.e.free of charge or owner charged). Methodology/Principal Findings A systematic literature search was made in the databases of CAB abstracts (EBSCOhost and OvidSP), Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Medline (EBSCOhost and OvidSP) and AJOL (African Journal Online) for peer reviewed articles on 1) rabies control, 2) dog rabies vaccination coverage and 3) dog demography in Africa. Identified articles were subsequently screened and selected using predefined selection criteria like year of publication (viz. ≥ 1990), type of study (cross sectional), objective(s) of the study (i.e. vaccination coverage rates, dog demographics and financial arrangements of vaccination costs), language of publication (English) and geographical focus (Africa). The selection process resulted in sixteen peer reviewed articles which were used to review dog demography and dog ownership status, and dog rabies vaccination coverage throughout Africa. The main review findings indicate that 1) the majority (up to 98.1%) of dogs in African countries are owned (and as such accessible), 2) puppies younger than 3 months of age constitute a considerable proportion (up to 30%) of the dog population and 3) male dogs are dominating in numbers (up to 3.6 times the female dog population). Dog rabies parenteral vaccination coverage was compared between “free of charge” and “owner charged” vaccination schemes by the technique of Meta-analysis. Results indicate that the rabies vaccination coverage following a free of charge vaccination scheme (68%) is closer to the

  16. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.23 Recovery of... received irrigation water to the total amount of land in the district that received irrigation water;...

  17. 18 CFR 35.26 - Recovery of stranded costs by public utilities and transmitting utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Recovery of stranded... Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.26 Recovery of...

  18. 18 CFR 35.26 - Recovery of stranded costs by public utilities and transmitting utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recovery of stranded... Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.26 Recovery of...

  19. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.23 Recovery of... received irrigation water to the total amount of land in the district that received irrigation water;...

  20. 18 CFR 35.26 - Recovery of stranded costs by public utilities and transmitting utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Recovery of stranded... Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.26 Recovery of...

  1. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.23 Recovery of... received irrigation water to the total amount of land in the district that received irrigation water;...

  2. 18 CFR 35.26 - Recovery of stranded costs by public utilities and transmitting utilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recovery of stranded... Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.26 Recovery of...

  3. Simultaneous bilateral laser therapy accelerates recovery after noise-induced hearing loss in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae-Hun; Chang, So-Young; Moy, Wesley J.; Oh, Connie; Kim, Se-Hyung; Rhee, Chung-Ku; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae Yun

    2016-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a common type of hearing loss. The effects of laser therapy have been investigated from various perspectives, including in wound healing, inflammation reduction, and nerve regeneration, as well as in hearing research. A promising feature of the laser is its capability to penetrate soft tissue; depending on the wavelength, laser energy can penetrate into the deepest part of the body without damaging non-target soft tissues. Based on this idea, we developed bilateral transtympanic laser therapy, which uses simultaneous laser irradiation in both ears, and evaluated the effects of bilateral laser therapy on cochlear damage caused by noise overexposure. Thus, the purpose of this research was to assess the benefits of simultaneous bilateral laser therapy compared with unilateral laser therapy and a control. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to narrow-band noise at 115 dB SPL for 6 h. Multiple auditory brainstem responses were measured after each laser irradiation, and cochlear hair cells were counted after the 15th such irradiation. The penetration depth of the 808 nm laser was also measured after sacrifice. Approximately 5% of the laser energy reached the contralateral cochlea. Both bilateral and unilateral laser therapy decreased the hearing threshold after noise overstimulation in the rat model. The bilateral laser therapy group showed faster functional recovery at all tested frequencies compared with the unilateral laser therapy group. However, there was no difference in the endpoint ABR results or final hair cell survival, which was analyzed histologically. PMID:27547558

  4. Simultaneous bilateral laser therapy accelerates recovery after noise-induced hearing loss in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hun; Chang, So-Young; Moy, Wesley J; Oh, Connie; Kim, Se-Hyung; Rhee, Chung-Ku; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae Yun; Lee, Min Young

    2016-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a common type of hearing loss. The effects of laser therapy have been investigated from various perspectives, including in wound healing, inflammation reduction, and nerve regeneration, as well as in hearing research. A promising feature of the laser is its capability to penetrate soft tissue; depending on the wavelength, laser energy can penetrate into the deepest part of the body without damaging non-target soft tissues. Based on this idea, we developed bilateral transtympanic laser therapy, which uses simultaneous laser irradiation in both ears, and evaluated the effects of bilateral laser therapy on cochlear damage caused by noise overexposure. Thus, the purpose of this research was to assess the benefits of simultaneous bilateral laser therapy compared with unilateral laser therapy and a control. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to narrow-band noise at 115 dB SPL for 6 h. Multiple auditory brainstem responses were measured after each laser irradiation, and cochlear hair cells were counted after the 15th such irradiation. The penetration depth of the 808 nm laser was also measured after sacrifice. Approximately 5% of the laser energy reached the contralateral cochlea. Both bilateral and unilateral laser therapy decreased the hearing threshold after noise overstimulation in the rat model. The bilateral laser therapy group showed faster functional recovery at all tested frequencies compared with the unilateral laser therapy group. However, there was no difference in the endpoint ABR results or final hair cell survival, which was analyzed histologically. PMID:27547558

  5. Optimization by response surface methodology of lutein recovery from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Suna; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction conditions for recovering lutein from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The lutein content was quantitatively analyzed using a UPLC equipped with a BEH C18 column. A central composite design (CCD) was employed for experimental design to obtain the optimized combination of extraction temperature (°C), static time (min), and solvent (EtOH, %). The experimental data obtained from a twenty sample set were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the lutein extraction model was 0.9518, and the probability value (p=0.0000) demonstrated a high significance for the regression model. The optimum extraction conditions for lutein were temperature: 93.26°C, static time: 5 min, and solvent: 79.63% EtOH. Under these conditions, the predicted extraction yield of lutein was 232.60 μg/g. PMID:27006224

  6. Cost Effective Surfactant Formulations for Improved Oil Recovery in Carbonate Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    William A. Goddard; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu

    2007-09-30

    This report summarizes work during the 30 month time period of this project. This was planned originally for 3-years duration, but due to its financial limitations, DOE halted funding after 2 years. The California Institute of Technology continued working on this project for an additional 6 months based on a no-cost extension granted by DOE. The objective of this project is to improve the performance of aqueous phase formulations that are designed to increase oil recovery from fractured, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. This process works by increasing the rate and extent of aqueous phase imbibition into the matrix blocks in the reservoir and thereby displacing crude oil normally not recovered in a conventional waterflood operation. The project had three major components: (1) developing methods for the rapid screening of surfactant formulations towards identifying candidates suitable for more detailed evaluation, (2) more fundamental studies to relate the chemical structure of acid components of an oil and surfactants in aqueous solution as relates to their tendency to wet a carbonate surface by oil or water, and (3) a more applied study where aqueous solutions of different commercial surfactants are examined for their ability to recover a West Texas crude oil from a limestone core via an imbibition process. The first item, regarding rapid screening methods for suitable surfactants has been summarized as a Topical Report. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the surface of these chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite

  7. The high cost of diarrhoeal illness for urban slum households–a cost-recovery approach: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ronak B; Stoklosa, Hanni; Shitole, Shrutika; Shitole, Tejal; Sawant, Kiran; Nanarkar, Mahesh; Subbaraman, Ramnath; Ridpath, Alison; Patil-Deshmuk, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Rapid urbanisation has often meant that public infrastructure has not kept pace with growth leading to urban slums with poor access to water and sanitation and high rates of diarrhoea with greater household costs due to illness. This study sought to determine the monetary cost of diarrhoea to urban slum households in Kaula Bandar slum in Mumbai, India. The study also tested the hypotheses that the cost of water and sanitation infrastructure may be surpassed by the cumulative costs of diarrhoea for households in an urban slum community. Design A cohort study using a baseline survey of a random sample followed by a systematic longitudinal household survey. The baseline survey was administered to a random sample of households. The systematic longitudinal survey was administered to every available household in the community with a case of diarrhoea for a period of 5 weeks. Participants Every household in Kaula Bandar was approached for the longitudinal survey and all available and consenting adults were included. Results The direct cost of medical care for having at least one person in the household with diarrhoea was 205 rupees. Other direct costs brought total expenses to 291 rupees. Adding an average loss of 55 rupees per household from lost wages and monetising lost productivity from homemakers gave a total loss of 409 rupees per household. During the 5-week study period, this community lost an estimated 163 600 rupees or 3635 US dollars due to diarrhoeal illness. Conclusions The lack of basic water and sanitation infrastructure is expensive for urban slum households in this community. Financing approaches that transfer that cost to infrastructure development to prevent illness may be feasible. These findings along with the myriad of unmeasured benefits of preventing diarrhoeal illness add to pressing arguments for investment in basic water and sanitation infrastructure. PMID:23558731

  8. Tropical air-sea coupling accelerates the recovery of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation after glacial meltwater event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krebs-Kanzow, U.; Timmermann, A.

    2009-04-01

    During "Heinrich events" brief and exceptionally large discharges of icebergs from the Laurentide and European ice sheets coincide with cold periods followed abrupt warmings. Climate reconstructions suggest that the freshwater pulses caused a temporary collapse of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) by stabilizing the stratification in the regions of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation. Using a coupled ocean sea-ice atmosphere model of intermediate complexity we trigger a complete shut-down of the AMOC by injection of a freshwater pulse to the northern North Atlantic. (Analyzing)The analysis of fully and partially coupled freshwater perturbation experiments under glacial conditions reveals that the reduction of northward heat transport in the North Atlantic leads to a cooling north of the thermal equator. Due to advection of cold air and an intensification of the tradewinds the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is shifted southward. Changes of the accumulated precipitation lead to generation of a positive salinity anomaly in the northern tropical Atlantic and a negative anomaly in the southern tropical Atlantic. During the shut-down phase of the AMOC, the cross-equatorial oceanic surface flow is halted, preventing a dilution of the positive salinity anomaly in the North Atlantic. Advected northward by the wind driven ocean circulation the positive salinity anomaly increases the upper ocean density in the deep water formation regions, thereby accelerating the recovery of the AMOC considerably. Partially coupled experiments which neglect tropical air-sea coupling reveal that the recovery time of the AMOC is almost twice as long as in the fully coupled case.

  9. Identifying effective and feasible interventions to accelerate functional recovery from hospitalization in older adults: A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Deer, Rachel R; Dickinson, Jared M; Fisher, Steve R; Ju, Hyunsu; Volpi, Elena

    2016-07-01

    Hospitalization induces functional decline in older adults. Many geriatric patients fail to fully recover physical function after hospitalization, which increases the risk of frailty, disability, dependence, re-hospitalization, and mortality. There is a lack of evidence-based therapies that can be implemented following hospitalization to accelerate functional improvements. The aims of this Phase I clinical trial are to determine 1) the effect size and variability of targeted interventions in accelerating functional recovery from hospitalization and 2) the feasibility of implementing such interventions in community-dwelling older adults. Older patients (≥65years, n=100) will be recruited from a single site during hospitalization for an acute medical condition. Subjects will be randomized to one of five interventions initiated immediately upon discharge: 1. protein supplementation, 2. in-home rehabilitation plus placebo supplementation, 3. in-home rehabilitation plus protein supplementation, 4. single testosterone injection, or 5. isocaloric placebo supplementation. Testing will occur during hospitalization (baseline) and at 1 and 4weeks post-discharge. Each testing session will include measures of muscle strength, physical function/performance, body composition, and psychological function. Physical activity levels will be continuously monitored throughout study participation. Feasibility will be determined through collection of the number of eligible, contacted, and enrolled patients; intervention adherence and compliance; and reasons for declining enrollment and study withdrawal. This research will determine the feasibility of post-hospitalization strategies to improve physical function in older adults. These results will also provide a foundation for performing larger, multi-site clinical trials to improve physical function and reduce readmissions in geriatric patents. PMID:27178766

  10. Life cycle cost of a hybrid forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination and wastewater recovery.

    PubMed

    Valladares Linares, R; Li, Z; Yangali-Quintanilla, V; Ghaffour, N; Amy, G; Leiknes, T; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) hybrid membrane systems have been investigated as an alternative to conventional high-pressure membrane processes (i.e. reverse osmosis (RO)) for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery. Nevertheless, their economic advantage in comparison to conventional processes for seawater desalination and municipal wastewater treatment has not been clearly addressed. This work presents a detailed economic analysis on capital and operational expenses (CAPEX and OPEX) for: i) a hybrid forward osmosis - low-pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) process, ii) a conventional seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, and iii) a membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis - advanced oxidation process (MBR-RO-AOP) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The most important variables affecting economic feasibility are obtained through a sensitivity analysis of a hybrid FO-LPRO system. The main parameters taken into account for the life cycle costs are the water quality characteristics (similar feed water and similar water produced), production capacity of 100,000 m(3) d(-1) of potable water, energy consumption, materials, maintenance, operation, RO and FO module costs, and chemicals. Compared to SWRO, the FO-LPRO systems have a 21% higher CAPEX and a 56% lower OPEX due to savings in energy consumption and fouling control. In terms of the total water cost per cubic meter of water produced, the hybrid FO-LPRO desalination system has a 16% cost reduction compared to the benchmark for desalination, mainly SWRO. Compared to the MBR-RO-AOP, the FO-LPRO systems have a 7% lower CAPEX and 9% higher OPEX, resulting in no significant cost reduction per m(3) produced by FO-LPRO. Hybrid FO-LPRO membrane systems are shown to have an economic advantage compared to current available technology for desalination, and comparable costs with a wastewater treatment and recovery system. Based on development on FO membrane modules, packing density, and

  11. Recovery - Strategy to Accelerate U.S. Transition to Electric Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, Richard; LoGrasso, Joseph; Monterosso, Sandra

    2014-04-30

    The objective of this project was to develop Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV) advanced propulsion technology and demonstrate a fleet of 146 Volt EREVs to gather data on vehicle performance and infrastructure to understand the impacts on commercialization while also creating or retaining a significant number of jobs in the United States. This objective was achieved by developing and demonstrating EREVs in real world conditions with customers in several diverse locations across the United States and installing, demonstration and testing charging infrastructure while also continuing development on second generation EREV technology. The project completed the development of the Chevrolet Volt and placed the vehicle in the hands of consumers in diverse locations across the United States. This demonstration leveraged the unique telematics platform of OnStar, standard on all Chevrolet Volts, to capture the operating experience that lead to better understanding of customer usage. The project team included utility partners that installed, demonstrated and tested charging infrastructure located in home, workplace and public locations to understand installation issues, customer usage and interaction with the electric grid. Development and demonstration of advanced technologies such as smart charging, fast charging and battery to grid interface were completed. The recipient collected, analyzed and reported the data generated by the demonstration. The recipient also continued to advance the technology of the Chevrolet Volt technology by developing energy storage system enhancements for the next-generation vehicle. Information gathered from the first generation vehicle will be utilized to refine the technology to reduce cost and mass while also increasing energy storage capacity to enhance adoption of the second generation technology into the marketplace. The launch of the first generation Chevrolet Volt will provide additional opportunities to further enhance the RESS

  12. Comparison Study of Electromagnet and Permanent Magnet Systems for an Accelerator Using Cost-Based Failure Modes and Effects Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, C

    2004-02-19

    The next generation of particle accelerators will be one-of-a-kind facilities, and to meet their luminosity goals they must have guaranteed availability over their several decade lifetimes. The Next Linear Collider (NLC) is one viable option for a 1 TeV electron-positron linear collider, it has an 85% overall availability goal. We previously showed how a traditional Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) of a SLAC electromagnet leads to reliability-enhancing design changes. Traditional FMEA identifies failure modes with high risk but does not consider the consequences in terms of cost, which could lead to unnecessarily expensive components. We have used a new methodology, ''Life Cost-Based FMEA'', which measures risk of failure in terms of cost, in order to evaluate and compare two different technologies that might be used for the 8653 NLC magnets: electromagnets or permanent magnets. The availabilities for the two different types of magnet systems have been estimated using empirical data from SLAC's accelerator failure database plus expert opinion on permanent magnet failure modes and industry standard failure data. Labor and material costs to repair magnet failures are predicted using a Monte Carlo simulation of all possible magnet failures over a 30-year lifetime. Our goal is to maximize up-time of the NLC through magnet design improvements and the optimal combination of electromagnets and permanent magnets, while reducing magnet system lifecycle costs.

  13. A program to accelerate the deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage: rational, objectives and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Vello A. Kuuskraa

    2007-10-15

    This White Paper, the first of a series, analyzes one strategy for accelerating the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) by the coal-fueled electricity generation industry. This strategy involves providing reimbursement for the incremental costs of installing and operating CCS systems, with reimbursement provided for retrofitting existing coal-fuelled electricity generation plants with CCS, incorporating CCS into new plants, and launching large-scale demonstrations of geologic storage of carbon. 14 refs., 4 figs., 23 tabs., 3 apps.

  14. Accelerated recovery from acute brain injuries: clinical efficacy of neurotrophic treatment in stroke and traumatic brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, N; Poon, W S

    2012-04-01

    Stroke is one of the most devastating vascular diseases in the world as it is responsible for almost five million deaths per year. Almost 90% of all strokes are ischemic and mainly due to atherosclerosis, cardiac embolism and small-vessel disease. Intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage can lead to hemorrhagic stroke, which usually has the poorest prognosis. Cerebrolysin is a peptide preparation which mimics the action of a neurotrophic factor, protecting stroke-injured neurons and promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis. Cerebrolysin has been widely studied as a therapeutic tool for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, as well as traumatic brain injury. In ischemic stroke, Cerebrolysin given as an adjuvant therapy to antiplatelet and rheologically active medication resulted in accelerated improvement in global, neurological and motor functions, cognitive performance and activities of daily living. Cerebrolysin was also safe and well tolerated when administered in patients suffering from hemorrhagic stroke. Traumatic brain injury leads to transient or chronic impairments in physical, cognitive, emotional and behavioral functions. This is associated with deficits in the recognition of basic emotions, the capacity to interpret the mental states of others, and executive functioning. Pilot clinical studies with adjuvant Cerebrolysin in the acute and postacute phases of the injury have shown faster recovery, which translates into an earlier onset of rehabilitation and shortened hospitalization time. PMID:22514794

  15. Using co-metabolism to accelerate synthetic starch wastewater degradation and nutrient recovery in photosynthetic bacterial wastewater treatment technology.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haifeng; Zhang, Guangming; Lu, Yufeng; Zhang, Yuanhui; Li, Baoming; Cao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Starch wastewater is a type of nutrient-rich wastewater that contains numerous macromolecular polysaccharides. Using photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) to treat starch wastewater can reduce pollutants and enhance useful biomass production. However, PSB cannot directly degrade macromolecular polysaccharides, which weakens the starch degradation effect. Therefore, co-metabolism with primary substances was employed in PSB wastewater treatment to promote starch degradation. The results indicated that co-metabolism is a highly effective method in synthetic starch degradation by PSB. When malic acid was used as the optimal primary substrate, the chemical oxygen demand, total sugar, macromolecules removal and biomass yield were considerably higher than when primary substances were not used, respectively. Malic acid was the primary substrate that played a highly important role in starch degradation. It promoted the alpha-amylase activity to 46.8 U and the PSB activity, which induced the degradation of macromolecules. The products in the wastewater were ethanol, acetic acid and propionic acid. Ethanol was the primary product throughout the degradation process. The introduction of co-metabolism with malic acid to treat wastewater can accelerate macromolecules degradation and bioresource production and weaken the acidification effect. This method provides another pathway for bioresource recovery from wastewater. This approach is a sustainable and environmentally friendly wastewater treatment technology. PMID:26360302

  16. A Low Cost, Self Acting, Liquid Hydrogen Boil-Off Recovery System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelfrey, Joy W.; Sharp, Kirk V. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a prototype liquid hydrogen boll-off recovery system. Perform analyses to finalize recovery system cycle, design detail components, fabricate hardware, and conduct sub-component, component, and system level tests leading to the delivery of a prototype system. The design point and off-design analyses identified cycle improvements to increase the robustness of the system by adding a by-pass heat exchanger. Based on the design, analysis, and testing conducted, the recovery system will liquefy 31% of the gaseous boil off from a liquid hydrogen storage tank. All components, including a high speed, miniature turbocompressor, were designed and manufacturing drawings were created. All hardware was fabricated and tests were conducted in air, helium, and hydrogen. Testing validated the design, except for the turbocompressor. A rotor-to-stator clearance issue was discovered as a result of a concentricity tolerance stack-up.

  17. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff. PMID:26048700

  18. 45 CFR 1630.8 - Recovery of disallowed costs and other corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... limits and conditions set forth in the Corporation's management decision. Recovery of the disallowed... conditions set forth in the Corporation's management decision. The recipient shall have taken final action... Corporation has stated in its management decision is necessary to prevent the recurrence of...

  19. 26 CFR 301.7430-2 - Requirements and procedures for recovery of reasonable administrative costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... administrative costs is to obtain an award of such costs from the court. In the event the court awards reasonable... administrative proceeding, then an affidavit that specialized skills and distinctive knowledge as described in... limited availability of representatives possessing such skills and knowledge as described in that...

  20. The cost of transport of human running is not affected, as in walking, by wide acceleration/deceleration cycles.

    PubMed

    Minetti, Alberto E; Gaudino, Paolo; Seminati, Elena; Cazzola, Dario

    2013-02-15

    Although most of the literature on locomotion energetics and biomechanics is about constant-speed experiments, humans and animals tend to move at variable speeds in their daily life. This study addresses the following questions: 1) how much extra metabolic energy is associated with traveling a unit distance by adopting acceleration/deceleration cycles in walking and running, with respect to constant speed, and 2) how can biomechanics explain those metabolic findings. Ten males and ten females walked and ran at fluctuating speeds (5 ± 0, ± 1, ± 1.5, ± 2, ± 2.5 km/h for treadmill walking, 11 ± 0, ± 1, ± 2, ± 3, ± 4 km/h for treadmill and field running) in cycles lasting 6 s. Field experiments, consisting of subjects following a laser spot projected from a computer-controlled astronomic telescope, were necessary to check the noninertial bias of the oscillating-speed treadmill. Metabolic cost of transport was found to be almost constant at all speed oscillations for running and up to ±2 km/h for walking, with no remarkable differences between laboratory and field results. The substantial constancy of the metabolic cost is not explained by the predicted cost of pure acceleration/deceleration. As for walking, results from speed-oscillation running suggest that the inherent within-stride, elastic energy-free accelerations/decelerations when moving at constant speed work as a mechanical buffer for among-stride speed fluctuations, with no extra metabolic cost. Also, a recent theory about the analogy between sprint (level) running and constant-speed running on gradients, together with the mechanical determinants of gradient locomotion, helps to interpret the present findings. PMID:23221963

  1. HYPOTHALAMIC OREXINE SYSTEM ACCELERATES REGULATION OF SLEEP HOMEOSTASIS AND SLEEP-WAKEFULNESS CYCLE RECOVERY FROM BARBITURATE ANESTHESIA-INDUCED ARTIFICIAL SLEEP.

    PubMed

    Nachkebia, N; Maglakelidze, N; Chijavadze, E; Chkhartishvili, E; Babilodze, M

    2015-12-01

    The work was aimed for the ascertainment of following question - whether Orexin-containing neurons of dorsal and lateral hypothalamus and brain Orexinergic system in general are those cellular targets which can accelerate recovery of disturbed sleep homeostasis and restoration of sleep-wakefulness cycle behavioral states from barbiturate anesthesia-induced artificial sleep. Investigation was carried out on 18 wild type white rats (weight 200-250gr). Different doses of Nembutal Sodium were used for the initiation of deep anesthesia. 30 min after barbiturate anesthesia induced artificial sleep serial electrical stimulations of dorsal or lateral hypothalamus were started. Stimulation period lasted for 1 hour with the 5 min intervals between subsequent stimulations applied by turn to the left and right side hypothalamic parts. EEG registration of cortical and hippocampal electrical activity was started 10 min after intra-peritoneal administration of Nembutal Sodium and continued continuously during 72 hour. According to obtained new evidences, serial electrical stimulations of dorsal and lateral hypothalamic Orexin-containing neurons significantly accelerate recovery of wakefulness, sleep homeostasis, disturbed because of barbiturate anesthesia induced artificial sleep and different behavioral states of sleep-wakefulness cycle. Hypothalamic Orexin-containing neurons can be considered as the cellular targets for regulating of sleep homeostasis through the acceleration of recovery of wakefulness, and SWC in general, from barbiturate anesthesia-induced deep sleep. PMID:26719553

  2. Can Low-Cost Support Programmes with Coaching Accelerate Doctoral Completion in Health Science Faculty Academics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geber, Hilary; Bentley, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Career development for full-time Health Sciences academics through to doctoral studies is a monumental task. Many academics have difficulty completing their studies in the minimum time as well as publishing after obtaining their degree. As this problem is particularly acute in the Health Sciences, the PhD Acceleration Programme in Health Sciences…

  3. 75 FR 34448 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Great Lakes Container Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... costs (Section XV of the proposed settlement). The Agency will consider all comments received and may..., Environmental Protection Agency--Region I, 5 Post Office Square--Suite 100 (ORA18-1), Boston, MA 02109-3912....

  4. URINE SOURCE SEPARATION AND TREATMENT: NUTRIENT RECOVERY USING LOW-COST MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Successful completion of this P3 Project will achieve the following expected outputs: identification of low-cost materials that can effectively recover ammonium, phosphate, and potassium from urine; material balance calculations for different urine separation and treatment scheme...

  5. 76 FR 14968 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Eugenio Painting Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... of past response costs concerning the Industrial Street Drum Site in Dearborn, Michigan with the.... ADDRESSES: Comments should reference the Industrial Street Drum Site and should be addressed to Robert...

  6. Launching a Public Printing Program with Built-In Cost Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daehn, Ralph M.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the public printing services available at computer terminals for patrons at the University of Guelph (Ontario) libraries. Highlights include configurations of the public workstations; client and server hardware and software; security features; cost projections; and printing charges. (LRW)

  7. The effect of using a heat recovery absorber on the performance and operating cost of the solar ammonia absorption cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Saghiruddin; Siddiqui, M.A.

    1997-02-01

    Economic analysis of ordinary and evacuated tubular type flat-plate collectors have been carried out for operating absorption cycles with and without heat recovery absorber. Water-ammonia, NaSCN-NH{sub 3} and LiNO{sub 3}-NH{sub 3} have been selected as the working fluids in the cycles. Use of a heat recovery absorber, in addition to the primary absorber in the conventional absorption cycles, lead to improvement in the system performances by about 20--30% in the H{sub 2}O-NH{sub 3} and 33--36% in the NaSCN-NH{sub 3} and LiNO{sub 3}-NH{sub 3} mixtures. Subsequently, there is a considerable amount of reduction in the cost of the solar collector required to operate them. For the set of operating conditions, in this theoretical study, the cost reduces to about 25% in the H{sub 2}O-NH{sub 3} and 30% in the NaSCN and LiNO{sub 3}-NH{sub 3} cycles.

  8. Utility reduces fuel cost with heat recovery, industrial byproduct fuel, cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    A 50-MW North Dakota power plant is refurbished to recover major waste-heat sources. Use of agricultural byproduct fuel and cogeneration also helps to cut future costs. The plant is saving on fuel costs by burning 150-200 tons/day of sunflower seed hulls from a local processing plant. The hulls are pulverized and mixed with the primary fuel, North Dakota lignite. At the same time, the processing plant that supplies the sunflower hulls buys steam from the power plant, thus giving the utility some of the economic benefits of cogeneration.

  9. 76 FR 39401 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Agreement; Textron Inc., Whittaker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... costs (Section XV of the proposed settlement). The Agency will consider all comments received and may... Library, 129 Main St., Concord, MA 01742 and at U.S. EPA Region 1, 5 Post Office Square, Suite 100, Boston... settlement is available for public inspection at U.S. EPA Region 1, OSRR Records and Information Center,...

  10. 78 FR 940 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ... Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act, as Amended, Former W&J Lanyon Zinc Works Superfund Site... with MCP Industries, Inc., for compromise of past response costs concerning the Former W&J Lanyon Zinc... Zinc Works Superfund Site, EPA Docket No. CERCLA-07-2012-0012. Comments should be addressed to:...

  11. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... nitrogen plant to supply the tertiary injectant used in the project. P and Q claim the credit for their respective costs for the plant. In 1994, X, a corporation unrelated to P or Q, purchases the nitrogen plant and enters into an agreement to sell nitrogen to P and Q. Because this transaction duplicates...

  12. 26 CFR 1.43-4 - Qualified enhanced oil recovery costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... nitrogen plant to supply the tertiary injectant used in the project. P and Q claim the credit for their respective costs for the plant. In 1994, X, a corporation unrelated to P or Q, purchases the nitrogen plant and enters into an agreement to sell nitrogen to P and Q. Because this transaction duplicates...

  13. 78 FR 48434 - Proposed Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement Under Section 122(h) of the Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act, as Amended, 42 U.S.C. 9622(h), Carter Carburetor... a proposed administrative settlement with Carter Building, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri, for the compromise of past and projected future oversight costs concerning the Carter Carburetor Superfund Site in...

  14. Cost Recovery in Pricing and Capacity Decisions for Automated Information Systems. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dei Rossi, James A.

    This paper examines the cost-benefit implications of alternative pricing and capacity investment decisions for automated scientific and technical information retrieval systems. Two typical systems are examined and numerical examples presented. In the first system, search requests are entered on-site. The show how setting price to maximize net…

  15. 40 CFR 300.315 - Phase IV-Documentation and cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... procedures are contained in 33 CFR part 136. (b) When appropriate, documentation shall also be collected for... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phase IV-Documentation and cost...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS...

  16. 40 CFR 300.315 - Phase IV-Documentation and cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... procedures are contained in 33 CFR part 136. (b) When appropriate, documentation shall also be collected for... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phase IV-Documentation and cost...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS...

  17. A retrospective investigation of energy efficiency standards: policies may have accelerated long term declines in appliance costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Buskirk, R. D.; Kantner, C. L. S.; Gerke, B. F.; Chu, S.

    2014-11-01

    We perform a retrospective investigation of multi-decade trends in price and life-cycle cost (LCC) for home appliances in periods with and without energy efficiency (EE) standards and labeling polices. In contrast to the classical picture of the impact of efficiency standards, the introduction and updating of appliance standards is not associated with a long-term increase in purchase price; rather, quality-adjusted prices undergo a continued or accelerated long-term decline. In addition, long term trends in appliance LCCs—which include operating costs—consistently show an accelerated long term decline with EE policies. We also show that the incremental price of efficiency improvements has declined faster than the baseline product price for selected products. These observations are inconsistent with a view of EE standards that supposes a perfectly competitive market with static supply costs. These results suggest that EE policies may be associated with other forces at play, such as innovation and learning-by-doing in appliance production and design, that can affect long term trends in quality-adjusted prices and LCCs.

  18. Cost recovery in geographic information systems and conflicts with copyright law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Jon L.

    1993-10-01

    The ability to recover cost by the sale of geographic information is dependent upon the ownership of the copyright in and to that information. The ownership of the copyright turns upon whether one entity is an employee of the other or whether the copyrightable work falls within certain statutorily defined categories in the copyright law. Absent the specific requirements being fulfilled the ownership of the data may not be exactly as the parties expect.

  19. A Robust and Cost-Effective Superhydrophobic Graphene Foam for Efficient Oil and Organic Solvent Recovery.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiguang; Chen, Dongyun; An, Wei; Li, Najun; Xu, Qingfeng; Li, Hua; He, Jinghui; Lu, Jianmei

    2015-10-21

    Water pollution caused by chemical reagent leaking, industrial wastewater discharging, and crude oil spills has raised global concerns on environmental sustainability, calling for high-performance absorbent materials for effective treatments. However, low-cost materials capable of effectively separating oils and organic solvents from water with a high adsorption capacity and good recyclability are rare on the market. Here, a cost-effective method is reported to fabricate high-performance graphene modified absorbents through the facile thermal reduction of graphene oxide on the skeletons of melamine foam. By integrating the high porosity, superior elasticity, and mechanical stability of raw sponge with the chemical stability and hydrophobicity of graphene sheets, the as-fabricated graphene foam not only possesses a rough and superhydrophobic surface, but also exhibits an excellent adsorption performance and extraordinary recyclability for various oils and organic solvents. It is worth mentioning that the superhydrophobic surface also endows the graphene foam with an excellent efficiency for oil/water separation. More importantly, the cost-effective fabrication method without involving expensive raw materials and sophisticated equipment permits a scale-up of the graphene foam for pollution disposal. All these features make the graphene foam an ideal candidate for removal and collection of oils and organic solvents from water. PMID:26265103

  20. Recovery Act: Low-Cost, Highly Lambertian Reflector Composite For Improved LED Fixture Efficiency and Lifetime

    SciTech Connect

    Teather, Eric

    2013-02-15

    The overall objective of the program was to demonstrate a 98% or greater reflective, highly diffuse, low-cost composite material that significantly improves luminaire efficiency, is able to withstand 50,000 hours or greater luminaire operation under expected LED system thermal and environmental operating extremes and meets the cost targets required to be an effective commercial solution for the Solid State Lighting industry. This project met most of the goals defined and contributed to the understanding of high reflectance, white coatings. Research under this program increased the understanding of coatings development using particle size reduction techniques and preparation of coating solutions with a broad range of particle types. The research explored scale-up of coating systems and generated understanding of processing required for high volume manufacturing applications. The work demonstrated how coating formulation and application technique can translate to material durability and LED system lifetime. The research also demonstrated improvements in lighting efficiency to be gained using high reflectance white coatings.

  1. Modeling the economic costs of disasters and recovery: analysis using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

    2014-04-01

    Disaster damages have negative effects on the economy, whereas reconstruction investment has positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving the positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and furthermore avoid the double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks into the CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on the supply side of the economy; a portion of investments restores the capital stock in an existing period; an investment-driven dynamic model is formulated according to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable to balance the fixed investment. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction, respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. Economic loss under S2 is roughly 1.5 times that under S1. The gap in the economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% at the end of government-led reconstruction activity, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

  2. Addition of Arsenic Trioxide into Induction Regimens Could Not Accelerate Recovery of Abnormality of Coagulation and Fibrinolysis in Patients with Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Wu, SiJing; Luo, Dan; Zhou, JianFeng; Li, DengJu

    2016-01-01

    Aim All-trans retinoic acid combined to anthracycline-based chemotherapy is the standard regimen of acute promyelocytic leukemia. The advent of arsenic trioxide has contributed to improve the anti-leukemic efficacy in acute promyelocytic leukemia. The objectives of the current study were to evaluate if dual induction by all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide could accelerate the recovery of abnormality of coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed in 103 newly-diagnosed patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Hemostatic variables and the consumption of component blood were comparably analyzed among patients treated by different induction regimen with or without arsenic trioxide. Results Compared to patients with other subtypes of de novo acute myeloid leukemia, patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia had lower platelet counts and fibrinogen levels, significantly prolonged prothrombin time and elevated D-dimers (P<0.001). Acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with high or intermediate risk prognostic stratification presented lower initial fibrinogen level than that of low-risk group (P<0.05). After induction treatment, abnormal coagulation and fibrinolysis of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia was significantly improved before day 10. The recovery of abnormal hemostatic variables (platelet, prothrombin time, fibrinogen and D-dimer) was not significantly accelerated after adding arsenic trioxide in induction regimens; and the consumption of transfused component blood (platelet and plasma) did not dramatically change either. Acute promyelocytic leukemia patients with high or intermediate risk prognostic stratification had higher platelet transfusion demands than that of low-risk group (P<0.05). Conclusions Unexpectedly, adding arsenic trioxide could not accelerate the recovery of abnormality of coagulation and fibrinolysis in acute promyelocytic leukemia patients who

  3. Deep mineral water accelerates recovery after dehydrating aerobic exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The effect of deep mineral water (DMW) with moderate mineralization on the recovery of physical performance after prolonged dehydrating aerobic exercise in the heat was studied in nine healthy, physically active (VO2max = 45.8 ± 8.4 mL kg−1 min−1) women aged 24.0 ± 3.7 years. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover human study to evaluate the effect of ingestion of natural mineral water extracted from a depth of 689 m on recovery from prolonged fatiguing aerobic running conducted at 30°C. Results Mean body weight decreased by 2.6–2.8% following dehydrating exercise. VO2max was 9% higher after 4 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Leg muscle power recovered better during the slow phase of recovery and was significantly higher after 48 h of recovery after rehydrating with DMW compared with plain water. Conclusions DMW with moderate mineralization was more effective in inducing recovery of aerobic capacity and leg muscle power compared with plain water following prolonged dehydrating aerobic running exercise. PMID:25002835

  4. Effective seismic acceleration measurements for low-cost Structural Health Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentaris, Fragkiskos; Makris, John P.

    2015-04-01

    There is increasing demand on cost effective Structural Health Monitoring systems for buildings as well as important and/or critical constructions. The front end for all these systems is the accelerometer. We present a comparative study of two low cost MEMS accelaration sensors against a very sensitive, high dynamic range strong motion accelerometer of force balance type but much more expensive. A real experiment was realized by deploying the three sesnors in a reinforced concrete building of the premises of TEI of Crete at Chania Crete, an earthquake prone region. The analysis of the collected accelararion data from many seismic events indicates that all sensors are able to efficiently reveal the seismic response of the construction in terms of PSD. Furthermore, it is shown that coherence diagrams between excitation and response of the building under study, depict structural characteristics but also the seismic energy distribution. This work is supported by the Archimedes III Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece, through the Operational Program "Educational and Lifelong Learning", in the framework of the project entitled "Interdisciplinary Multi-Scale Research of Earthquake Physics and Seismotectonics at the front of the Hellenic Arc (IMPACT-ARC)" and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds.

  5. Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Vaiopoulou, E; Melidis, P; Aivasidis, A

    2011-02-28

    An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m(3) d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m(3) d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO(2) contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO(2) content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted. PMID:21168957

  6. Low Cost Advanced Thermoelectric (TE) Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2014-03-01

    Low cost, fully integrated TE generators (TEGs) to recover waste heat from vehicle exhaust will reduce transportation sector energy consumption and emissions. TEGs will be the first application of high-temperature TE materials for high-volume use and establish new industrial sectors with scaled up production capability of TEG materials and components. We will create a potential supply chain for practical automotive TEGs and identify manufacturing and assembly processes for large scale production of TEG materials and components. Our work focusses on several innovative R&D paths: (1) enhanced TE material performance by doping and compositional tuning, (2) optimized TE material fabrication and processing to reduce thermal conductivity and improve fracture strength, (3) high volume production for successful skutterudite commercialization, (4) new material, nanostructure, and nanoscale approaches to reduce thermal interface and electrical contact resistances, (5) innovative heat exchangers for high efficiency heat flows and optimum temperature profiles despite highly variable exhaust gas operating conditions, (6) new modeling and simulation tools, and (7) inexpensive materials for thermal insulation and coatings for TE encapsulation. Recent results will be presented. Supported by the U.S. DOE Vehicle Technology Program.

  7. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    SciTech Connect

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Concentration Data Recovery Algorithm for a Low Cost, Laser Heterodyne Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. H.; Melroy, H.; Ott, L.; McLinden, M. L.; Holben, B. N.; Wilson, E. L.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of a coordinated effort between groups at GWU and NASA GSFC is the development of a low-cost, global, surface instrument network that continuously monitors three key carbon cycle gases in the atmospheric column: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), as well as oxygen (O2) for atmospheric pressure profiles. The network will implement a low-cost, miniaturized, laser heterodyne radiometer (mini-LHR) that has recently been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This mini-LHR is designed to operate in tandem with the passive aerosol sensor currently used in AERONET (a well established network of more than 450 ground aerosol monitoring instruments worldwide), and could be rapidly deployed into this established global network. Laser heterodyne radiometry is a well-established technique for detecting weak signals that was adapted from radio receiver technology. Here, a weak light signal, that has undergone absorption by atmospheric components, is mixed with light from a distributed feedback (DFB) telecommunications laser on a single-mode optical fiber. The RF component of the signal is detected on a fast photoreceiver. Scanning the laser through an absorption feature in the infrared, results in a scanned heterodyne signal in the RF. Deconvolution of this signal through the retrieval algorithm allows for the extraction of altitude contributions to the column signal. The retrieval algorithm is based on a spectral simulation program, SpecSyn, developed at GWU for high-resolution infrared spectroscopies. Variations in pressure, temperature, composition, and refractive index through the atmosphere; that are all functions of latitude, longitude, time of day, altitude, etc.; are modeled using algorithms developed in the MODTRAN program developed in part by the US Air Force Research Laboratory. In these calculations the atmosphere is modeled as a series of spherically symmetric shells with boundaries specified at defined altitudes. Temperature

  9. Greenhouse Gas Concentration Data Recovery Algorithm for a Low Cost, Laser Heterodyne Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. Houston; Melroy, Hilary R.; Ott, Lesley E.; Mclinden, Matthew L.; Holben, Brent; Wilson, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of a coordinated effort between groups at GWU and NASA GSFC is the development of a low-cost, global, surface instrument network that continuously monitors three key carbon cycle gases in the atmospheric column: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), as well as oxygen (O2) for atmospheric pressure profiles. The network will implement a low-cost, miniaturized, laser heterodyne radiometer (mini-LHR) that has recently been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This mini-LHR is designed to operate in tandem with the passive aerosol sensor currently used in AERONET (a well established network of more than 450 ground aerosol monitoring instruments worldwide), and could be rapidly deployed into this established global network. Laser heterodyne radiometry is a well-established technique for detecting weak signals that was adapted from radio receiver technology. Here, a weak light signal, that has undergone absorption by atmospheric components, is mixed with light from a distributed feedback (DFB) telecommunications laser on a single-mode optical fiber. The RF component of the signal is detected on a fast photoreceiver. Scanning the laser through an absorption feature in the infrared, results in a scanned heterodyne signal io the RF. Deconvolution of this signal through the retrieval algorithm allows for the extraction of altitude contributions to the column signal. The retrieval algorithm is based on a spectral simulation program, SpecSyn, developed at GWU for high-resolution infrared spectroscopies. Variations io pressure, temperature, composition, and refractive index through the atmosphere; that are all functions of latitude, longitude, time of day, altitude, etc.; are modeled using algorithms developed in the MODTRAN program developed in part by the US Air Force Research Laboratory. In these calculations the atmosphere is modeled as a series of spherically symmetric shells with boundaries specified at defined altitudes. Temperature

  10. Willingness to Pay for Drug Rehabilitation: Implications for Cost Recovery October 14, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Bishai, D.; Sindelar, J.; Ricketts, E. P.; Huettner, S.; Cornelius, L.; Lloyd, J. J.; Havens, J. R.; Latkin, C. A.; Strathdee, S. A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives This study estimates the value that clients place on methadone maintenance and how this value varies with the effectiveness of treatment and availability of case management. We provide the first estimate of the price elasticity of the demand for drug treatment. Methods We interviewed 241 heroin users who had been referred to, but had not yet entered, methadone maintenance treatment in Baltimore, Maryland. We asked each subject to state a preference among three hypothetical treatment programs that varied across 3 domains: weekly fee paid by the client out-of-pocket ($5 to $100), presence/absence of case management, and time spent heroin-free (3 to 24 months). Each subject was asked to complete 18 orthogonal comparisons. Subsequently each subject was asked if they likely would enroll in their preferred choice among the set of three. We computed the expected willingness to pay (WTP) as the probability of enrollment times the fee considered in each choice considered from a multivariate logistic model that controlled for product attributes. We also estimated the price elasticity of demand. Results The median expected fee subjects were willing to pay for a program that offered 3 months of heroin-free time was $7.30 per week, rising to $17.11 per week for programs that offered 24 months of heroin-free time. The availability of case management increased median WTP by $5.64 per week. The price elasticity was −0.39 (SE 0.042). Conclusions Clients will pay more for higher rates of treatment success and for the presence of case management. Clients are willing to pay for drug treatment but the median willingness to pay falls short of the estimated program costs of $82 per week. Thus a combined approach of user fees and subsidization may be the optimal financing strategy for the drug treatment system. PMID:18207264

  11. Final Technical Report - Recovery Act: Organic Coatings as Encapsulants for Low Cost, High Performance PV Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Hellring; Jiping Shao; James Poole

    2011-12-05

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing PPG's commercial organic coatings systems as efficient, modernized encapsulants for low cost, high performance, thin film photovoltaic modules. Our hypothesis was that the combination of an anticorrosive coating with a more traditional barrier topcoat would mitigate many electrochemical processes that are now responsible for the significant portion of photovoltaic (PV) failures, thereby nullifying the extremely high moisture barrier requirements of currently used encapsulation technology. Nine commercially available metal primer coatings and six commercially available top coatings were selected for screening. Twenty-one different primer/top coat combinations were evaluated. The primer coatings were shown to be the major contributor to corrosion inhibition, adhesion, and barrier properties. Two primer coatings and one top coating were downselected for testing on specially-fabricated test modules. The coated test modules passed initial current leakage and insulation testing. Damp Heat testing of control modules showed visible corrosion to the bus bar metal, whereas the coated modules showed none. One of the primer/top coat combinations retained solar power performance after Damp Heat testing despite showing some delamination at the EVA/solar cell interface. Thermal Cycling and Humidity Freeze testing resulted in only one test module retaining its power performance. Failure modes depended on the particular primer/top coating combination used. Overall, this study demonstrated that a relatively thin primer/top coating has the potential to replace the potting film and backsheet in crystalline silicon-based photovoltaic modules. Positive signals were received from commercially available coatings developed for applications having performance requirements different from those required for photovoltaic modules. It is likely that future work to redesign and customize these coatings would result in a

  12. Removal and recovery of cobalt from aqueous solutions by adsorption using low cost lignocellulosic biomass--coir pith.

    PubMed

    Parab, Harshala; Joshi, Shreeram; Sudersanan, M; Shenoy, Niyoti; Lali, Arvind; Sarma, Umashankar

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of low-cost lignocellulosic biosorbent-coir pith, for removal of cobalt (II) from aqueous solutions using batch adsorption studies has been explored herein. Adsorption characteristics of coir pith were investigated systematically by varying the experimental parameters such as, solution pH, initial metal ion concentration, contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature. The studies revealed that optimum adsorption of cobalt onto coir pith occurred in the pH range of 4.0 - 7.0. Sorption kinetics of cobalt was found to be quite rapid under ambient conditions and the process followed second-order kinetics. The experimental data have been analyzed using non-linearized forms of Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson adsorption isotherms for mathematical description of the process. Desorption studies showed that the quantitative recovery of Co (II) from the spent coir pith was achieved by using 0.5 N HCl. The suitability of this adsorbent for real situation has been observed, when complete removal of cobalt from nuclear power plant coolant water was obtained. The present studies successfully demonstrated the use of coir pith as an efficient adsorbent material for removal of cobalt from aqueous solutions. PMID:20390907

  13. Removal and recovery of metal ions from acid mine drainage using lignite--A low cost sorbent.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Chander, Subhash

    2006-10-11

    Acid mine drainage (AMD), has long been a significant environmental problem resulting from the microbial oxidation of iron pyrite in presence of water and air, affording an acidic solution that contains toxic metal ions. The main objective of this study was to remove and recover metal ions from acid mine drainage (AMD) by using lignite, a low cost sorbent. Lignite has been characterized and used for the AMD treatment. Sorption of ferrous, ferric, manganese, zinc and calcium in multi-component aqueous systems was investigated. Studies were performed at different pH to find optimum pH. To simulate industrial conditions for acid mine wastewater treatment, all the studies were performed using single and multi-columns setup in down flow mode. The empty bed contact time (EBCT) model was used for minimizing the sorbent usage. Recovery of the metal ions as well as regeneration of sorbent was achieved successfully using 0.1 M nitric acid without dismantling the columns. PMID:16784810

  14. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Results from Tasks 8 and 9 are presented. Task 8 addressed the cost of materials and manufacturing of the Downhole Methanator and the cost of drilling and completing the vertical cased well and two horizontal drain holes in the West Sak reservoir. Task 9 addressed the preliminary design of surface facilities to support the enhanced recovery of heavy oil. Auxiliary facilities include steam reformers for carbon dioxide-rich natural gas reforming, emergency electric generators, nitrogen gas generators, and an ammonia synthesis unit. The ammonia is needed to stabilize the swelling of clays in the reservoir. Cost estimations and a description of how they were obtained are given.

  15. Lithium accelerates functional motor recovery by improving remyelination of regenerating axons following ventral root avulsion and reimplantation.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Wen-Ming; Zhang, Chao-Fan; Wong, Wai-Man; Li, Wen; Wu, Wutian; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brachial plexus injury (BPI) often involves the complete or partial avulsion of one or more of the cervical nerve roots, which leads to permanent paralysis of the innervated muscles. Reimplantation surgery has been attempted as a clinical treatment for brachial plexus root avulsion but has failed to achieve complete functional recovery. Lithium is a mood stabilizer drug that is used to treat bipolar disorder; however, its effects on spinal cord or peripheral nerve injuries have also been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether lithium can improve functional motor recovery after ventral root avulsion and reimplantation in a rat model of BPI. The results showed that systemic treatment with a clinical dose of lithium promoted motor neuron outgrowth and increased the efficiency of motor unit regeneration through enhanced remyelination. An analysis of myelin-associated genes showed that the effects of lithium started during the early phase of remyelination and persisted through the late stage of the process. Efficient remyelination of the regenerated axons in the lithium-treated rats led to an earlier functional recovery. Therefore, we demonstrated that lithium might be a potential clinical treatment for BPI in combination with reimplantation surgery. PMID:27185485

  16. ACCELERATED SITE TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT COMPARABILITY OF ISOCS INSTRUMENT IN RADIONUCLIDE CHARACTERICATION AT BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    KALB,P.; LUCKETT,L.; MILLER,K.; GOGOLAK,C.; MILIAN,L.

    2001-03-01

    This report describes a DOE Accelerated Site Technology Deployment project being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to deploy innovative, radiological, in situ analytical techniques. The technologies are being deployed in support of efforts to characterize the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR) facility, which is currently undergoing decontamination and decommissioning. This report focuses on the deployment of the Canberra Industries In Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) and assesses its data comparability to baseline methods of sampling and laboratory analysis. The battery-operated, field deployable gamma spectrometer provides traditional spectra of counts as a function of gamma energy. The spectra are then converted to radionuclide concentration by applying innovative efficiency calculations using monte carlo statistical methods and pre-defined geometry templates in the analysis software. Measurement of gamma emitting radionuclides has been accomplished during characterization of several BGRR components including the Pile Fan Sump, Above Ground Ducts, contaminated cooling fans, and graphite pile internals. Cs-137 is the predominant gamma-emitting radionuclide identified, with smaller quantities of Co-60 and Am-241 detected. The Project used the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual guidance and the Data Quality Objectives process to provide direction for survey planning and data quality assessment. Analytical results have been used to calculate data quality indicators (DQI) for the ISOCS measurements. Among the DQIs assessed in the report are sensitivity, accuracy, precision, bias, and minimum detectable concentration. The assessment of the in situ data quality using the DQIs demonstrates that the ISOCS data quality can be comparable to definitive level laboratory analysis when the field instrument is supported by an appropriate Quality Assurance Project Plan. A discussion of the results obtained by ISOCS analysis of

  17. [Perioperative management of transthoracic oesophagectomies : Fundamentals of interdisciplinary care and new approaches to accelerated recovery after surgery].

    PubMed

    Lambertz, R; Drinhaus, H; Schedler, D; Bludau, M; Schröder, W; Annecke, T

    2016-06-01

    Locally advanced carcinomas of the oesophagus require multimodal treatment. The core element of curative therapy is transthoracic en bloc oesophagectomy, which is the standard procedure carried out in most specialized centres. Reconstruction of intestinal continuity is usually achieved with a gastric sleeve, which is anastomosed either intrathoracically or cervically to the remaining oesophagus. This thoraco-abdominal operation is associated with significant postoperative morbidity, not least because of a vast array of pre-existing illnesses in the surgical patient. For an optimal outcome, the careful interdisciplinary selection of patients, preoperative risk evaluation and conditioning are essential. The caseload of the centres correlates inversely with the complication rate. The leading surgical complication is anastomotic leakage, which is diagnosed endoscopically and usually treated with the aid of endoscopic procedures. Pulmonary infections are the most frequent non-surgical complication. Thoracic epidural anaesthesia and perfusion-orientated fluid management can reduce the rate of pulmonary complications. Patients are ventilated protecting the lungs and are extubated as early as possible. Oesophagectomies should only be performed in high-volume centres with the close cooperation of surgeons and anaesthesia/intensive care specialists. Programmes of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) hold further potential for the patient's quicker postoperative recovery. In this review article the fundamental aspects of the interdisciplinary perioperative management of transthoracic oesophagectomy are described. PMID:27245922

  18. Smad8/BMP2–Engineered Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce Accelerated Recovery of the Biomechanical Properties of the Achilles Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Pelled, Gadi; Snedeker, Jess G.; Ben-Arav, Ayelet; Rigozzi, Samuela; Zilberman, Yoram; Kimelman-Bleich, Nadav; Gazit, Zulma; Müller, Ralph; Gazit, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Summary Tendon tissue regeneration is an important goal for orthopedic medicine. We hypothesized that implantation of Smad8/BMP2–engineered MSCs in a full-thickness defect of the Achilles tendon (AT) would induce regeneration of tissue with improved biomechanical properties. A 2 mm defect was created in the distal region of murine ATs. The injured tendons were then sutured together or given implants of genetically engineered MSCs (GE group), nonengineered MSCs (CH3 group), or fibrin gel containing no cells (FG group). Three weeks later the mice were killed, and their healing tendons were excised and processed for histological or biomechanical analysis. A biomechanical analysis showed that tendons that received implants of genetically engineered MSCs had the highest effective stiffness (> 70% greater than natural healing, p < 0.001) and elastic modulus. There were no significant differences in either ultimate load or maximum stress among the treatment groups. Histological analysis revealed a tendon-like structure with elongated cells mainly in the GE group. ATs that had been implanted with Smad8/BMP2–engineered stem cells displayed a better material distribution and functional recovery than control groups. While additional study is required to determine long-term effects of GE MSCs on tendon healing, we conclude that genetically engineered MSCs may be a promising therapeutic tool for accelerating short-term functional recovery in the treatment of tendon injuries. PMID:22696396

  19. Accelerated recovery of renal mitochondrial and tubule homeostasis with SIRT1/PGC-1α activation following ischemia–reperfusion injury

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, Jason A.; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2013-12-01

    Kidney ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury elicits cellular injury in the proximal tubule, and mitochondrial dysfunction is a pathological consequence of I/R. Promoting mitochondrial biogenesis (MB) as a repair mechanism after injury may offer a unique strategy to restore both mitochondrial and organ function. Rats subjected to bilateral renal pedicle ligation for 22 min were treated once daily with the SIRT1 activator SRT1720 (5 mg/kg) starting 24 h after reperfusion until 72 h–144 h. SIRT1 expression was elevated in the renal cortex of rats after I/R + vehicle treatment (IRV), but was associated with less nuclear localization. SIRT1 expression was even further augmented and nuclear localization was restored in the kidneys of rats after I/R + SRT1720 treatment (IRS). PGC-1α was elevated at 72 h–144 h in IRV and IRS kidneys; however, SRT1720 treatment induced deacetylation of PGC-1α, a marker of activation. Mitochondrial proteins ATP synthase β, COX I, and NDUFB8, as well as mitochondrial respiration, were diminished 24 h–144 h in IRV rats, but were partially or fully restored in IRS rats. Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) was persistently elevated in both IRV and IRS rats; however, KIM-1 tissue expression was attenuated in IRS rats. Additionally, sustained loss of Na{sup +},K{sup +}–ATPase expression and basolateral localization and elevated vimentin in IRV rats was normalized in IRS rats, suggesting restoration of a differentiated, polarized tubule epithelium. The results suggest that SRT1720 treatment expedited recovery of mitochondrial protein expression and function by enhancing MB, which was associated with faster proximal tubule repair. Targeting MB may offer unique therapeutic strategy following ischemic injury. - Highlights: • We examined recovery of mitochondrial and renal function after ischemia–reperfusion. • SRT1720 treatment after I/R induced mitochondrial biogenesis via SIRT1/PGC-1α. • Recovery of mitochondrial function was

  20. Lipid suppression via double inversion recovery with symmetric frequency sweep for robust 2D-GRAPPA-accelerated MRSI of the brain at 7 T.

    PubMed

    Hangel, Gilbert; Strasser, Bernhard; Považan, Michal; Gruber, Stephan; Chmelík, Marek; Gajdošík, Martin; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bogner, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    This work presents a new approach for high-resolution MRSI of the brain at 7 T in clinically feasible measurement times. Two major problems of MRSI are the long scan times for large matrix sizes and the possible spectral contamination by the transcranial lipid signal. We propose a combination of free induction decay (FID)-MRSI with a short acquisition delay and acceleration via in-plane two-dimensional generalised autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (2D-GRAPPA) with adiabatic double inversion recovery (IR)-based lipid suppression to allow robust high-resolution MRSI. We performed Bloch simulations to evaluate the magnetisation pathways of lipids and metabolites, and compared the results with phantom measurements. Acceleration factors in the range 2-25 were tested in a phantom. Five volunteers were scanned to verify the value of our MRSI method in vivo. GRAPPA artefacts that cause fold-in of transcranial lipids were suppressed via double IR, with a non-selective symmetric frequency sweep. The use of long, low-power inversion pulses (100 ms) reduced specific absorption rate requirements. The symmetric frequency sweep over both pulses provided good lipid suppression (>90%), in addition to a reduced loss in metabolite signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), compared with conventional IR suppression (52-70%). The metabolic mapping over the whole brain slice was not limited to a rectangular region of interest. 2D-GRAPPA provided acceleration up to a factor of nine for in vivo FID-MRSI without a substantial increase in g-factors (<1.1). A 64 × 64 matrix can be acquired with a common repetition time of ~1.3 s in only 8 min without lipid artefacts caused by acceleration. Overall, we present a fast and robust MRSI method, using combined double IR fat suppression and 2D-GRAPPA acceleration, which may be used in (pre)clinical studies of the brain at 7 T. PMID:26370781

  1. Lipid suppression via double inversion recovery with symmetric frequency sweep for robust 2D‐GRAPPA‐accelerated MRSI of the brain at 7 T

    PubMed Central

    Hangel, Gilbert; Strasser, Bernhard; Považan, Michal; Gruber, Stephan; Chmelík, Marek; Gajdošík, Martin; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a new approach for high‐resolution MRSI of the brain at 7 T in clinically feasible measurement times. Two major problems of MRSI are the long scan times for large matrix sizes and the possible spectral contamination by the transcranial lipid signal. We propose a combination of free induction decay (FID)‐MRSI with a short acquisition delay and acceleration via in‐plane two‐dimensional generalised autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (2D‐GRAPPA) with adiabatic double inversion recovery (IR)‐based lipid suppression to allow robust high‐resolution MRSI. We performed Bloch simulations to evaluate the magnetisation pathways of lipids and metabolites, and compared the results with phantom measurements. Acceleration factors in the range 2–25 were tested in a phantom. Five volunteers were scanned to verify the value of our MRSI method in vivo. GRAPPA artefacts that cause fold‐in of transcranial lipids were suppressed via double IR, with a non‐selective symmetric frequency sweep. The use of long, low‐power inversion pulses (100 ms) reduced specific absorption rate requirements. The symmetric frequency sweep over both pulses provided good lipid suppression (>90%), in addition to a reduced loss in metabolite signal‐to‐noise ratio (SNR), compared with conventional IR suppression (52–70%). The metabolic mapping over the whole brain slice was not limited to a rectangular region of interest. 2D‐GRAPPA provided acceleration up to a factor of nine for in vivo FID‐MRSI without a substantial increase in g‐factors (<1.1). A 64 × 64 matrix can be acquired with a common repetition time of ~1.3 s in only 8 min without lipid artefacts caused by acceleration. Overall, we present a fast and robust MRSI method, using combined double IR fat suppression and 2D‐GRAPPA acceleration, which may be used in (pre)clinical studies of the brain at 7 T. © 2015 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  2. Dietary Supplementation with Organoselenium Accelerates Recovery of Bladder Expression, but Does Not Improve Locomotor Function, following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Carolyn A.; Singh, Ranjana; Jones, Mackenzie T.; Yu, Chen-Guang; Power, Ronan F.; Geddes, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential element required for activity of several antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase. Because of the critical role of the antioxidant system in responding to traumatic events, we hypothesized that dietary selenium supplementation would enhance neuroprotection in a rodent model of spinal cord injury. Rats were maintained on either a control or selenium-enriched diet prior to, and following, injury. Dietary selenium supplementation, provided as selenized yeast added to normal rat chow, resulted in a doubling of selenium levels in the spinal cord. Dietary selenium reduced the time required for recovery of bladder function following thoracic spinal cord injury. However, this was not accompanied by improvement in locomotor function or tissue sparing. PMID:26824231

  3. 78 FR 48868 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; MassDOT, MassDOT Route 1 Right-of-Way...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... AGENCY Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; MassDOT, MassDOT Route 1 Right-of-Way...), concerning the MassDOT Route 1 Right-of-Way Site in Chelsea, Massachusetts with the following Settling Party... should refer to: In re: MassDOT Route 1 Right-of- Way Site, U.S. EPA Docket No.01-2013-0031. FOR...

  4. Comparison of microwave, ultrasound and accelerated-assisted solvent extraction for recovery of polyphenols from Citrus sinensis peels.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Balunkeswar; Dahmoune, Farid; Moussi, Kamal; Remini, Hocine; Dairi, Sofiane; Aoun, Omar; Khodir, Madani

    2015-11-15

    Peel of Citrus sinensis contains significant amounts of bioactive polyphenols that could be used as ingredients for a number of value-added products with health benefits. Extraction of polyphenols from the peels was performed using a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The effects of aqueous acetone concentration, microwave power, extraction time and solvent-to-solid ratio on the total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) (using DPPH and ORAC-values) and individual phenolic acids (IPA) were investigated using a response surface method. The TPC, TAA and IPA of peel extracts using MAE was compared with conventional, ultrasound-assisted and accelerated solvent extraction. The maximum predicted TPC under the optimal MAE conditions (51% acetone concentration in water (v/v), 500 W microwave power, 122 s extraction time and 25 mL g(-1) solvent to solid ratio), was 12.20 mg GAE g(-1) DW. The TPC and TAA in MAE extracts were higher than the other three extracts. PMID:25977057

  5. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Rajha, Hiba N.; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G.; Maroun, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications. PMID:25322155

  6. Effect of the drying process on the intensification of phenolic compounds recovery from grape pomace using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Rajha, Hiba N; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G; Maroun, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications. PMID:25322155

  7. Overexpression of insulin-like growth factor-1 attenuates skeletal muscle damage and accelerates muscle regeneration and functional recovery after disuse.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fan; Mathur, Sunita; Liu, Min; Borst, Stephen E; Walter, Glenn A; Sweeney, H Lee; Vandenborne, Krista

    2013-05-01

    Skeletal muscle is a highly dynamic tissue that responds to endogenous and external stimuli, including alterations in mechanical loading and growth factors. In particular, the antigravity soleus muscle experiences significant muscle atrophy during disuse and extensive muscle damage upon reloading. Given that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been implicated as a central regulator of muscle repair and modulation of muscle size, we examined the effect of virally mediated overexpression of IGF-1 on the soleus muscle following hindlimb cast immobilization and upon reloading. Recombinant IGF-1 cDNA virus was injected into one of the posterior hindlimbs of the mice, while the contralateral limb was injected with saline (control). At 20 weeks of age, both hindlimbs were immobilized for 2 weeks to induce muscle atrophy in the soleus and ankle plantarflexor muscle group. Subsequently, the mice were allowed to reambulate, and muscle damage and recovery were monitored over a period of 2-21 days. The primary finding of this study was that IGF-1 overexpression attenuated reloading-induced muscle damage in the soleus muscle, and accelerated muscle regeneration and force recovery. Muscle T2 assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, a non-specific marker of muscle damage, was significantly lower in IGF-1-injected compared with contralateral soleus muscles at 2 and 5 days reambulation (P<0.05). The reduced prevalence of muscle damage in IGF-1-injected soleus muscles was confirmed on histology, with a lower fractional area of abnormal muscle tissue in IGF-1-injected muscles at 2 days reambulation (33.2±3.3 versus 54.1±3.6%, P<0.05). Evidence of the effect of IGF-1 on muscle regeneration included timely increases in the number of central nuclei (21% at 5 days reambulation), paired-box transcription factor 7 (36% at 5 days), embryonic myosin (37% at 10 days) and elevated MyoD mRNA (7-fold at 2 days) in IGF-1-injected limbs (P<0.05). These findings demonstrate a potential role

  8. Reimagining cost recovery in Pakistan's irrigation system through willingness-to-pay estimates for irrigation water from a discrete choice experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Andrew Reid; Shah, M. Azeem Ali; Ward, Patrick S.

    2014-08-01

    It is widely argued that farmers are unwilling to pay adequate fees for surface water irrigation to recover the costs associated with maintenance and improvement of delivery systems. In this paper, we use a discrete choice experiment to study farmer preferences for irrigation characteristics along two branch canals in Punjab Province in eastern Pakistan. We find that farmers are generally willing to pay well in excess of current surface water irrigation costs for increased surface water reliability and that the amount that farmers are willing to pay is an increasing function of their existing surface water supply as well as location along the main canal branch. This explicit translation of implicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) for water (via expenditure on groundwater pumping) to WTP for reliable surface water demonstrates the potential for greatly enhanced cost recovery in the Indus Basin Irrigation System via appropriate setting of water user fees, driven by the higher WTP of those currently receiving reliable supplies.

  9. Reimagining cost recovery in Pakistan's irrigation system through willingness-to-pay estimates for irrigation water from a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Andrew Reid; Shah, M Azeem Ali; Ward, Patrick S

    2014-01-01

    It is widely argued that farmers are unwilling to pay adequate fees for surface water irrigation to recover the costs associated with maintenance and improvement of delivery systems. In this paper, we use a discrete choice experiment to study farmer preferences for irrigation characteristics along two branch canals in Punjab Province in eastern Pakistan. We find that farmers are generally willing to pay well in excess of current surface water irrigation costs for increased surface water reliability and that the amount that farmers are willing to pay is an increasing function of their existing surface water supply as well as location along the main canal branch. This explicit translation of implicit willingness-to-pay (WTP) for water (via expenditure on groundwater pumping) to WTP for reliable surface water demonstrates the potential for greatly enhanced cost recovery in the Indus Basin Irrigation System via appropriate setting of water user fees, driven by the higher WTP of those currently receiving reliable supplies. PMID:25552779

  10. Individualized Positron Emission Tomography–Based Isotoxic Accelerated Radiation Therapy Is Cost-Effective Compared With Conventional Radiation Therapy: A Model-Based Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bongers, Mathilda L.; Coupé, Veerle M.H.; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Oberije, Cary; Lambin, Philippe; Uyl-de Groot, Cornelia A.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term health effects, costs, and cost-effectiveness of positron emission tomography (PET)-based isotoxic accelerated radiation therapy treatment (PET-ART) compared with conventional fixed-dose CT-based radiation therapy treatment (CRT) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Our analysis uses a validated decision model, based on data of 200 NSCLC patients with inoperable stage I-IIIB. Clinical outcomes, resource use, costs, and utilities were obtained from the Maastro Clinic and the literature. Primary model outcomes were the difference in life-years (LYs), quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness and cost/utility ratio (ICER and ICUR) of PET-ART versus CRT. Model outcomes were obtained from averaging the predictions for 50,000 simulated patients. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis and scenario analyses were carried out. Results: The average incremental costs per patient of PET-ART were €569 (95% confidence interval [CI] €−5327-€6936) for 0.42 incremental LYs (95% CI 0.19-0.61) and 0.33 QALYs gained (95% CI 0.13-0.49). The base-case scenario resulted in an ICER of €1360 per LY gained and an ICUR of €1744 per QALY gained. The probabilistic analysis gave a 36% probability that PET-ART improves health outcomes at reduced costs and a 64% probability that PET-ART is more effective at slightly higher costs. Conclusion: On the basis of the available data, individualized PET-ART for NSCLC seems to be cost-effective compared with CRT.

  11. State Compensation: A No-cost Scheme for Scalable Failure Recovery in Tree-based Overlay Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, D C; Miller, B P

    2006-07-11

    Tree-based overlay networks (TB{bar O}Ns) have become important for scalable data multicast and aggregation. This infrastructure's generality has lead to widespread usage in large scale and widely distributed environments--environments in which reliability must be addressed. This paper presents state compensation, a novel reliability concept for TB{bar O}N environments that avoids explicit state replication (such as checkpoints) for failure recovery by leveraging general properties of TB{bar O}N computations that allow computational state from non-failed processes to compensate for state lost from failed ones. In this paper, we present our state compensation mechanisms, prove sufficient properties of distributed computations that make these mechanisms feasible and show how to derive computation-specific recovery primitives from these properties. We also present a case study of the recovery process. The result is a general TB{bar O}N recovery model that requires no additional storage, network, or computational resources during normal operation.

  12. Gene recovery microdissection (GRM) a process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, A T; Coleman, M A; Tucker, J D

    2001-02-08

    Gene Recovery Microdissection (GRM) is a unique and cost-effective process for producing chromosome region-specific libraries of expressed genes. It accelerates the pace, reduces the cost, and extends the capabilities of functional genomic research, the means by which scientists will put to life-saving, life-enhancing use their knowledge of any plant or animal genome.

  13. The impact of cost recovery and sharing system on water policy implementation and human right to water: a case of Ileje, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kibassa, Deusdedit

    2011-01-01

    In Tanzania, the National Water Policy (NAWAPO) of 2002 clearly stipulates that access to water supply and sanitation is a right for every Tanzanian and that cost recovery is the foundation of sustainable service delivery. To meet these demands, water authorities have introduced cost recovery and a water sharing system. The overall objective of this study was to assess the impact of cost recovery and the sharing system on water policy implementation and human rights to water in four villages in the Ileje district. The specific objectives were: (1) to assess the impact of cost recovery and the sharing system on the availability of water to the poor, (2) to assess user willingness to pay for the services provided, (3) to assess community understanding on the issue of water as a human right, (4) to analyse the implications of the results in relation to policies on human rights to water and the effectiveness of the implementation of the national water policy at the grassroots, and (5) to establish the guidelines for water pricing in rural areas. Questionnaires at water demand, water supply, ability and willingness to pay and revenue collection were the basis for data collection. While 36.7% of the population in the district had water supply coverage, more than 73,077 people of the total population of 115,996 still lacked access to clean and safe water and sanitation services in the Ileje district. The country's rural water supply coverage is 49%. Seventy-nine percent of the interviewees in all four villages said that water availability in litres per household per day had decreased mainly due to high water pricing which did not consider the income of villagers. On the other hand, more than 85% of the villagers were not satisfied with the amount they were paying because the services were still poor. On the issue of human rights to water, more than 92% of the villagers know about their right to water and want it exercised by the government. In all four villages, more than

  14. High-Efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery, STTR Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Timothy

    2011-01-07

    This is the final report of DoE STTR Phase II project, “High-efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery”. The objective of this STTR project is to develop a cost-effective processing approach to produce bulk high-performance thermoelectric (TE) nanocomposites, which will enable the development of high-power, high-power-density TE modulus for waste heat recovery and industrial refrigeration. The use of this nanocomposite into TE modules are expected to bring about significant technical benefits in TE systems (e.g. enhanced energy efficiency, smaller sizes and light weight). The successful development and applications of such nanocomposite and the resultant TE modules can lead to reducing energy consumption and environmental impacts, and creating new economic development opportunities.

  15. Inhibition of the prostaglandin EP2 receptor is neuroprotective and accelerates functional recovery in a rat model of organophosphorus induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Asheebo; Ganesh, Thota; Lelutiu, Nadia; Gueorguieva, Paoula; Dingledine, Raymond

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to high levels of organophosphorus compounds (OP) can induce status epilepticus (SE) in humans and rodents via acute cholinergic toxicity, leading to neurodegeneration and brain inflammation. Currently there is no treatment to combat the neuropathologies associated with OP exposure. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of the EP2 receptor for PGE2 reduces neuronal injury in mice following pilocarpine-induced SE. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effects of an EP2 inhibitor (TG6-10-1) in a rat model of SE using diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). We tested the hypothesis that EP2 receptor inhibition initiated well after the onset of DFP-induced SE reduces the associated neuropathologies. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with pyridostigmine bromide (0.1 mg/kg, sc) and atropine methylbromide (20 mg/kg, sc) followed by DFP (9.5 mg/kg, ip) to induce SE. DFP administration resulted in prolonged upregulation of COX-2. The rats were administered TG6-10-1 or vehicle (ip) at various time points relative to DFP exposure. Treatment with TG6-10-1 or vehicle did not alter the observed behavioral seizures, however six doses of TG6-10-1 starting 80-150 min after the onset of DFP-induced SE significantly reduced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, blunted the inflammatory cytokine burst, reduced microglial activation and decreased weight loss in the days after status epilepticus. By contrast, astrogliosis was unaffected by EP2 inhibition 4 d after DFP. Transient treatments with the EP2 antagonist 1 h before DFP, or beginning 4 h after DFP, were ineffective. Delayed mortality, which was low (10%) after DFP, was unaffected by TG6-10-1. Thus, selective inhibition of the EP2 receptor within a time window that coincides with the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by DFP is neuroprotective and accelerates functional recovery of rats. PMID:25656476

  16. Inhibition of the prostaglandin EP2 receptor is neuroprotective and accelerates functional recovery in a rat model of organophosphorus induced status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Asheebo; Ganesh, Thota; Lelutiu, Nadia; Gueorguieva, Paoula; Dingledine, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of organophosphorus compounds (OP) can induce status epilepticus (SE) in humans and rodents via acute cholinergic toxicity, leading to neurodegeneration and brain inflammation. Currently there is no treatment to combat the neuropathologies associated with OP exposure. We recently demonstrated that inhibition of the EP2 receptor for PGE2 reduces neuronal injury in mice following pilocarpine-induced SE. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effects of an EP2 inhibitor (TG6-10-1) in a rat model of SE using diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP). We tested the hypothesis that EP2 receptor inhibition initiated well after the onset of DFP-induced SE reduces the associated neuropathologies. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with pyridostigmine bromide (0.1 mg/kg, sc) and atropine methylbromide (20 mg/kg, sc) followed by DFP (9.5 mg/kg, ip) to induce SE. DFP administration resulted in prolonged upregulation of COX-2. The rats were administered TG6-10-1 or vehicle (ip) at various time points relative to DFP exposure. Treatment with TG6-10-1 or vehicle did not alter the observed behavioral seizures, however six doses of TG6-10-1 starting 80-150 min after the onset of DFP-induced SE significantly reduced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, blunted the inflammatory cytokine burst, reduced microglial activation and decreased weight loss in the days after status epilepticus. By contrast, astrogliosis was unaffected by EP2 inhibition 4 d after DFP. Transient treatments with the EP2 antagonist 1 h before DFP, or beginning 4 h after DFP, were ineffective. Delayed mortality, which was low (10%) after DFP, was unaffected by TG6-10-1. Thus, selective inhibition of the EP2 receptor within a time window that coincides with the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 by DFP is neuroprotective and accelerates functional recovery of rats. PMID:25656476

  17. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD OF THE SAN JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Don L. Hanosh

    2004-11-01

    This report discusses: (1) being able to resume marginal oil production operations in the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in McKinley County, New Mexico by installing a cable suspended electric submersible pumping system (HDESP); (2) determining if this system can reduce life costs making it a more cost effective production system for similar oil fields within the region, and if warranted, drill additional wells to improve the economics. In April 2003, a cooperative 50% cost share agreement between Enerdyne and the DOE was executed to investigate the feasibility of using cable suspended electric submersible pumps to reduce the life costs and increase the ultimate oil recovery of the Red Mountain Oil Field, located on the Chaco Slope of the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. The field was discovered in 1934 and has produced approximately 55,650 cubic meters (m{sup 3}), (350,000 barrels, 42 gallons) of oil. Prior to April 2003, the field was producing only a few cubic meters of oil each month; however, the reservoir characteristics suggest that the field retains ample oil to be economic. This field is unique, in that, the oil accumulations, above fresh water, occur at depths from 88-305 meters, (290 feet to 1000 feet), and serves as a relatively good test area for this experiment.

  18. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods of the low-cost silicon solar array project. Study 4, task 3: Encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolyer, J. M.; Mann, N. R.

    1977-01-01

    Methods of accelerated and abbreviated testing were developed and applied to solar cell encapsulants. These encapsulants must provide protection for as long as 20 years outdoors at different locations within the United States. Consequently, encapsulants were exposed for increasing periods of time to the inherent climatic variables of temperature, humidity, and solar flux. Property changes in the encapsulants were observed. The goal was to predict long term behavior of encapsulants based upon experimental data obtained over relatively short test periods.

  19. Updating the evidence base on the operational costs of supplementary immunization activities for current and future accelerated disease control, elimination and eradication efforts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To achieve globally or regionally defined accelerated disease control, elimination and eradication (ADC/E/E) goals against vaccine-preventable diseases requires complementing national routine immunization programs with intensive, time-limited, and targeted Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs). Many global and country-level SIA costing efforts have historically relied on what are now outdated benchmark figures. Mobilizing adequate resources for successful implementation of SIAs requires updated estimates of non-vaccine costs per target population. Methods This assessment updates the evidence base on the SIA operational costs through a review of literature between 1992 and 2012, and an analysis of actual expenditures from 142 SIAs conducted between 2004 and 2011 and documented in country immunization plans. These are complemented with an analysis of budgets from 31 SIAs conducted between 2006 and 2011 in order to assess the proportion of total SIA costs per person associated with various cost components. All results are presented in 2010 US dollars. Results Existing evidence indicate that average SIA operational costs were usually less than US$0.50 per person in 2010 dollars. However, the evidence is sparse, non-standardized, and largely out of date. Average operational costs per person generated from our analysis of country immunization plans are consistently higher than published estimates, approaching US$1.00 for injectable vaccines. The results illustrate that the benchmarks often used to project needs underestimate the true costs of SIAs and the analysis suggests that SIA operational costs have been increasing over time in real terms. Our assessment also illustrates that operational costs vary across several dimensions. Variations in the actual costs of SIAs likely to reflect the extents to which economies of scale associated with campaign-based delivery can be attained, the underlying strength of the immunization program, sensitivities to the

  20. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods, study 4 of task 3 (encapsulation) of the low-cost silicon solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolyer, J. M.; Mann, N. R.

    1978-01-01

    Inherent weatherability is controlled by the three weather factors common to all exposure sites: insolation, temperature, and humidity. Emphasis was focused on the transparent encapsulant portion of miniature solar cell arrays by eliminating weathering effects on the substrate and circuitry (which are also parts of the encapsulant system). The most extensive data were for yellowing, which were measured conveniently and precisely. Considerable data also were obtained on tensile strength. Changes in these two properties after outdoor exposure were predicted very well from accelerated exposure data.

  1. Vitamin D accelerates clinical recovery from tuberculosis: results of the SUCCINCT Study [Supplementary Cholecalciferol in recovery from tuberculosis]. A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis’

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D enhances host protective immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by suppressing Interferon-gamma (IFN-g) and reducing disease associated inflammation in the host. The objectives of this study were to determine whether vitamin D supplementation to patients with tuberculosis (TB) could influence recovery. Methods Two hundred and fifty nine patients with pulmonary TB were randomized to receive either 600,000 IU of Intramuscular vitamin D3 or placebo for 2 doses. Assessments were performed at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Early secreted and T cell activated 6 kDa (ESAT6) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis sonicate (MTBs) antigen induced whole blood stimulated IFN-g responses were measured at 0 and 12 weeks. Statistical comparisons between outcome variables at 0 and 12 weeks were performed using Student’s t-test and Chi2 tests. Results After 12 weeks, the vitamin D supplemented arm demonstrated significantly greater mean weight gain (kg) + 3.75, (3.16 – 4.34) versus + 2.61 (95% CI 1.99 – 3.23) p 0.009 and lesser residual disease by chest radiograph; number of zones involved 1.35 v/s 1.82 p 0.004 (95% CI 0.15, 0.79) and 50% or greater reduction in cavity size 106 (89.8%) v/s 111 (94.8%), p 0.035. Vitamin D supplementation led to significant increase in MTBs-induced IFN-g secretion in patients with baseline ‘Deficient’ 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum levels (p 0.021). Conclusions Supplementation with high doses of vitamin D accelerated clinical, radiographic improvement in all TB patients and increased host immune activation in patients with baseline ‘Deficient’ serum vitamin D levels. These results suggest a therapeutic role for vitamin D in the treatment of TB. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov; No. NCT01130311; URL: clinicaltrials.gov PMID:23331510

  2. Determining position, velocity and acceleration of free-ranging animals with a low-cost unmanned aerial system.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard J; Roskilly, Kyle; Buse, Chris; Evans, Hannah K; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs), frequently referred to as 'drones', have become more common and affordable and are a promising tool for collecting data on free-ranging wild animals. We used a Phantom-2 UAS equipped with a gimbal-mounted camera to estimate position, velocity and acceleration of a subject on the ground moving through a grid of GPS surveyed ground control points (area ∼1200 m(2)). We validated the accuracy of the system against a dual frequency survey grade GPS system attached to the subject. When compared with GPS survey data, the estimations of position, velocity and acceleration had a root mean square error of 0.13 m, 0.11 m s(-1) and 2.31 m s(-2), respectively. The system can be used to collect locomotion and localisation data on multiple free-ranging animals simultaneously. It does not require specialist skills to operate, is easily transported to field locations, and is rapidly and easily deployed. It is therefore a useful addition to the range of methods available for field data collection on free-ranging animal locomotion. PMID:27353230

  3. Modeling economic costs of disasters and recovery involving positive effects of reconstruction: analysis using a dynamic CGE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, W.; Li, N.; Wu, J.-D.; Hao, X.-L.

    2013-11-01

    Disaster damages have negative effects on economy, whereas reconstruction investments have positive effects. The aim of this study is to model economic causes of disasters and recovery involving positive effects of reconstruction activities. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model is a promising approach because it can incorporate these two kinds of shocks into a unified framework and further avoid double-counting problem. In order to factor both shocks in CGE model, direct loss is set as the amount of capital stock reduced on supply side of economy; A portion of investments restore the capital stock in existing period; An investment-driven dynamic model is formulated due to available reconstruction data, and the rest of a given country's saving is set as an endogenous variable. The 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake is selected as a case study to illustrate the model, and three scenarios are constructed: S0 (no disaster occurs), S1 (disaster occurs with reconstruction investment) and S2 (disaster occurs without reconstruction investment). S0 is taken as business as usual, and the differences between S1 and S0 and that between S2 and S0 can be interpreted as economic losses including reconstruction and excluding reconstruction respectively. The study showed that output from S1 is found to be closer to real data than that from S2. S2 overestimates economic loss by roughly two times that under S1. The gap in economic aggregate between S1 and S0 is reduced to 3% in 2011, a level that should take another four years to achieve under S2.

  4. Advanced space recovery systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wailes, William K.

    1989-01-01

    The design evolution of a space recovery system designed by a NASA-contracted study is described, with particular attention given to the design of a recovery system for a propulsion/avionics module (P/AM), which weighs 60,000 lb at the recovery initiation and achieves subsonic terminal descent at or above 50,000 ft msl. The components of the recovery system concept are described together with the operational sequences of the recovery. The recovery system concept offers low cost, low weight, good performance, a potential for pinpoint landing, and an operational flexibility.

  5. Fees-for-services, cost recovery, and equity in a district of Burkina Faso operating the Bamako Initiative.

    PubMed Central

    Ridde, Valéry

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To gauge the effects of operating the Bamako Initiative in Kongoussi district, Burkina Faso. METHODS: Qualitative and quasi-experimental quantitative methodologies were used. FINDINGS: Following the introduction of fees-for-services in July 1997, the number of consultations for curative care fell over a period of three years by an average of 15.4% at "case" health centres but increased by 30.5% at "control" health centres. Moreover, although the operational results for essential drugs depots were not known, expenditure increased on average 2.7 times more than income and did not keep pace with the decline in the utilization of services. Persons in charge of the management committees had difficulties in releasing funds to ensure access to care for the poor. CONCLUSION: The introduction of fees-for-services had an adverse effect on service utilization. The study district is in a position to bear the financial cost of taking care of the poor and the community is able to identify such people. Incentives must be introduced by the state and be swiftly applied so that the communities agree to a more equitable system and thereby allow access to care for those excluded from services because they are unable to pay. PMID:12973646

  6. SMART 3D SUBSURFACE CONTAMINANT CHARACTERIZATION AT THE BGRR DECOMMISSIONING PROJECT. ACCELERATED SITE TECHNOLOGY DEPLOYMENT COST AND PERFORMANCE REPORT.

    SciTech Connect

    HEISER,J.; KALB,P.; SULLIVAN,T.; MILIAN,L.

    2001-12-01

    The BGRR was the world's first nuclear reactor dedicated to the peaceful exploration of atomic energy. The reactor pile consisted of a 700-ton, 25-foot cube of graphite fueled by uranium. A total of 1,369 fuel channels were available with roughly half in use at any given time. Insertion and removal of boron steel control rods controlled reactor power levels. One or more of five fans powered air-cooling. Air was brought in through two filtered plenums, flowed through and around the reactor core, through an exhaust duct containing filters, and finally out through the 320-foot high exhaust stack. Spent fuel was temporarily stored in the spent-fuel canal, and then sent to the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). Access to the canal for removing spent fuel was through the Canal House (Building 709). The BGRR ceased operation in 1968 and was placed in a shutdown mode in which all fuel was removed and sent to SRS. Penetrations in the biological shield around the graphite cube and fuel channels were sealed. The final decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) process was initiated in 1999 and is scheduled for completion in 2005. An accelerated schedule was developed that combines characterization with removal actions for the various systems and structures. Before D and D work on a section of the BGRR facility begins, contaminant characterization is conducted to determine the types and amounts of contaminants present. The data are then used for project planning, including decisions affecting the extent of removal, waste designation, and health and safety plans.

  7. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sy, Amy; Krafft, Geoffrey A.; Johnson, Rolland; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  8. An Accelerated Development, Reduced Cost Approach to Lunar/Mars Exploration Using a Modular NTR-Based Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, S.; Clark, J.; Sefcik, R.; Corban, R.; Alexander, S.

    1995-01-01

    The results of integrated systems and mission studies are presented which quantify the benefits and rationale for developing a common, modular lunar/Mars space transportation system (STS) based on nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology. At present NASA's Exploration Program Office (ExPO) is considering chemical propulsion for an 'early return to the Moon' and NTR propulsion for the more demanding Mars missions to follow. The time and cost to develop these multiple systems are expected to be significant. The Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) has examined a variety of lunar and Mars missions and heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) options in an effort to determine a 'standardized' set of engine and stage components capable of satisfying a wide range of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions. By using these components in a 'building block' fashion, a variety of single and multi-engine lunar and Mars vehicles can be configured. For NASA's 'First Lunar Outpost' (FLO) mission, an expendable NTR stage powered by two 50 klbf engines can deliver approximately 96 metric tons (t) to translunar injection (TLI) conditions for an initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) of approximately 198 t compared to 250 t for a cryogenic chemical TLI stage. The NTR stage liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank has a 10 m diameter, 14.5 m length, and 66 t LH2 capacity. The NTR utilizes a UC-ZrC-graphite 'composite' fuel with a specific impulse (Isp) capability of approximately 900 s and an engine thrust-to-weight ratio of approximately 4.3. By extending the size and LH2 capacity of the lunar NTR stage to approximately 20 m and 96 t, respectively, a single launch Mars cargo vehicle capable of delivering approximately 50 t of surface payload is possible. Three 50 klbf NTR engines and the two standardized LH2 tank sizes developed for lunar and Mars cargo vehicle applications would be used to configure the Mars piloted vehicle for a mission as early as 2010. The paper describes the features of the 'common

  9. Investigation of the strontium (Sr(II)) adsorption of an alginate microsphere as a low-cost adsorbent for removal and recovery from seawater.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hye-Jin; Ryu, Jungho; Park, In-Su; Ryu, Taegong; Chung, Kang-Sup; Kim, Byuong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated alginate microspheres as a low-cost adsorbent for strontium (Sr(II)) removal and recovery from seawater. Alginate microspheres have demonstrated a superior adsorption capacity for Sr(II) ions (≈110 mg/g). A Freundlich isotherm model fits well with the Sr(II) adsorption of an alginate microsphere. The mechanism of Sr(II) adsorption is inferred as an ion exchange reaction with Ca(II) ions. The effects of the solution pH and co-existing ions in seawater are also investigated. Except for a pH of 1-2, Sr(II) adsorption capacity is not affected by pH. However, increasing the seawater concentration of metal cations seriously decreases Sr(II) uptake. In particular, highly concentrated (15,000 mg/L) Na(I) ions significantly interfere with Sr(II) adsorption. Sr(II) desorption was performed using 0.1 M HCl and CaCl2. Both regenerants show an excellent desorption efficiency, but the FTIR spectrum reveals that the chemical structure of the microsphere is destroyed after repeated use of HCl. Conversely, CaCl2 successfully desorbed Sr(II) without damage, and the Sr(II) adsorption capacity does not decrease after three repeated uses. The alginate microsphere was also applied to the adsorption of Sr(II) in a real seawater medium. Because of inhibition by co-existing ions, the Sr(II) adsorption capacity was decreased and the adsorption rate was retarded compared with D.I. water. Although the Sr(II) adsorption capacity was decreased, the alginate microsphere still exhibited 17.8 mg/g of Sr(II) uptake in the seawater medium. Considering its excellent Sr(II) uptake in seawater and its reusability, an alginate microsphere is an appropriate cost-effective adsorbent for the removal and recovery of Sr(II) from seawater. PMID:26454070

  10. Development of A Real-Time Shaking Map System Using Low Cost Acceleration Sensors and Its Application for Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, K.; Wu, Y.; Lin, T.; Hsiao, N.; Chen, D.

    2013-12-01

    Real-time signals from Palert (low-cost MEMS acceleration sensor) network are used to develop a real-time shaking map system based on the Earthworm environment in Taiwan. This system could provide real-time intensity map and estimate magnitude which is determined by shaking covered areas without earthquake location process. In order to derive an empirical strong motion attenuation relationship between the shaking covered areas and their corresponding earthquake magnitudes, we collected the strong motion records from 42 large crustal earthquakes recorded by the Taiwan Strong Motion Instrumentation Program (TSMIP) stations. The shaking covered areas (A) of certain peak ground acceleration (PGA) could be related to MA as follow: MA=0.002*(PGA)*log(A)+0.279*log(A)+4.236 Records of three earthquakes are used to test our system performance, they are the Hualien earthquake (ML 5.6, MW 5.5) occurred on 7th March 2013, the Nantou earthquake (ML 6.1, MW 5.9) occurred on 27th March 2013, and the Nantou earthquake (ML 6.3, MW 6.2) occurred on 2nd June 2013. Results show that the first report could be provided at about 10 seconds after the earthquake occurrence and the magnitudes are reported as 5.7, 5.7 and 5.8 for Hualien and two Nantou events, respectively. Finally, the stable report could be obtained at about 20, 19 and 17 seconds after the earthquake occurred and the magnitudes are reported as 5.5, 5.9 and 6.0 for Hualien and two Nantou events, respectively. Base on the result from this study, the real-time shaking map system could provide rapidly real-time shaking map and estimate earthquake magnitude within 1 minute even tens of seconds. It will play an important role in seismic hazard mitigation.

  11. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-10-31

    The West Sak (Upper Cretaceous) sands, overlaying the Kuparuk field, would rank among the largest known oil fields in the US, but technical difficulties have so far prevented its commercial exploitation. Steam injection is the most successful and the most commonly-used method of heavy oil recovery, but its application to the West Sak presents major problems. Such difficulties may be overcome by using a novel approach, in which steam is generated downhole in a catalytic Methanator, from Syngas made at the surface from endothermic reactions (Table 1). The Methanator effluent, containing steam and soluble gases resulting from exothermic reactions (Table 1), is cyclically injected into the reservoir by means of a horizontal drainhole while hot produced fluids flow form a second drainhole into a central production tubing. The downhole reactor feed and BFW flow downward to two concentric tubings. The large-diameter casing required to house the downhole reactor assembly is filled above it with Arctic Pack mud, or crude oil, to further reduce heat leaks. A quantitative analysis of this production scheme for the West Sak required a preliminary engineering of the downhole and surface facilities and a tentative forecast of well production rates. The results, based on published information on the West Sak, have been used to estimate the cost of these facilities, per daily barrel of oil produced. A preliminary economic analysis and conclusions are presented together with an outline of future work. Economic and regulatory conditions which would make this approach viable are discussed. 28 figs.

  12. Heat shock protein hsp70 accelerates the recovery of heat-shocked mammalian cells through its modulation of heat shock transcription factor HSF1.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, D; Ouyang, H; Li, G C

    1995-01-01

    The role of mammalian 70-kDa heat shock protein (hsp70) in regulating cellular response to heat shock was examined by using three closely related rat cells: control Rat-1 cells, thermotolerant Rat-1 (TT Rat-1) cells, and heat-resistant M21 cells, a derivative of Rat-1 cells that constitutively overexpress human hsp70. In all these cells, after a prescribed heat shock, the level of the phosphorylated form of heat shock transcription factor HSF1 and that of HSF1 capable of binding to its cognitive DNA sequence heat shock element (HSE) exhibit similar time dependence. The amount of a constitutive HSE-binding activity (CHBA), on the other hand, inversely correlates with those of the two aforementioned forms of HSF1. The recovery kinetics from heat shock are different for the three cell lines, with the thermal-resistant TT Rat-1 and M21 cells showing faster recovery in terms of the state of phosphorylation of HSF1 and its ability to bind HSE or in terms of the reappearance of CHBA. Treatment with okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, delays the recovery kinetics of Rat-1 cells but not that of thermal-resistant M21 cells. These results are interpreted in terms of a role for hsp70 in the recovery of heat-shocked mammalian cells. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7892235

  13. AN EVALUATION OF SAMPLE DISPERSION MEDIAS USED WITH ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION FOR THE EXTRACTION AND RECOVERY OF ARSENICALS FROM LFB AND DORM-2

    EPA Science Inventory

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) device was evaluated as a semi-automated means for extracting arsenicals from quality control (QC) samples and DORM-2 [standard reference material (SRM)]. Unlike conventional extraction procedures, the ASE requires that the sample be dispe...

  14. JLAB Hurricane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    A. Hutton; D. Arenius; J. Benesch; S. Chattopadhyay; E. F. Daly; O. Garza; R. Kazimi; R. Lauzi; L. Merminga; W. Merz; R. Nelson; W. Oren; M. Poelker; P. Powers; J. Preble; V. Ganni; C. R. Reece; R. Rimmer; M. Spata; S. Suhring

    2004-07-01

    Hurricane Isabel, originally a Category 5 storm, arrived at Jefferson Lab on September 18, 2003 with winds of only 75 mph, creating little direct damage to the infrastructure. However, electric power was lost for four days allowing the superconducting cryomodules to warm up and causing a total loss of the liquid helium. The subsequent recovery of the cryomodules and the impact of the considerable amount of opportunistic preventive maintenance provides important lessons for all accelerator complexes, not only those with superconducting elements. The details of how the recovery process was structured and the resulting improvement in accelerator availability will be discussed in detail.

  15. Uncultured undifferentiated adipose-derived nucleated cell fractions combined with inside-out artery graft accelerate sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, R; Asadollahi, A; Amini, K

    2014-09-01

    Effects of transplantation of adipose-derived nucleated cell fractions (ADNCs) on sciatic nerve regeneration were studied. A 10-mm sciatic nerve defect was bridged using artery graft filled with ADNCs. In control group, artery graft was filled with saline alone. Regenerated nerve fibres were studied for 12 weeks. In sham-operated group, sciatic nerve was only exposed and manipulated. Behavioural and functional studies confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in ADNCs transplanted animals than in control group (P<0.05). At the end of study period, animals in ADNCs transplanted group achieved a sciatic functional index (SFI) value of -31.6 ± -3.14, whereas in control group a value of -42.5 ± -3.7 was found. Gastrocnemius muscle mass in ADNCs transplanted animals was found to be significantly higher than that in control group (P=0.001). Morphometric indices of regenerated fibres showed the number and diameter of myelinated fibres to be significantly higher in ADNCs transplanted animals than in control group (P=0.001). On immunohistochemistry, there was more positive staining of S100 in the ADNCs transplanted animals than in control group. ADNCs transplantation into an artery graft could be considered a readily accessible technique that improves functional recovery of sciatic nerve. PMID:24951175

  16. Exogenous endothelial cells as accelerators of hematopoietic reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Despite the successes of recombinant hematopoietic-stimulatory factors at accelerating bone marrow reconstitution and shortening the neutropenic period post-transplantation, significant challenges remain such as cost, inability to reconstitute thrombocytic lineages, and lack of efficacy in conditions such as aplastic anemia. A possible means of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution would be administration of cells capable of secreting hematopoietic growth factors. Advantages of this approach would include: a) ability to regulate secretion of cytokines based on biological need; b) long term, localized production of growth factors, alleviating need for systemic administration of factors that possess unintended adverse effects; and c) potential to actively repair the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Here we overview the field of hematopoietic growth factors, discuss previous experiences with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in accelerating hematopoiesis, and conclude by putting forth the rationale of utilizing exogenous endothelial cells as a novel cellular therapy for acceleration of hematopoietic recovery. PMID:23171397

  17. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  18. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  19. Biomass Program Recovery Act Factsheet

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-01

    The Biomass Program has awarded about $718 million in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act) funds. The projects the Program is supporting are intended to: Accelerate advanced biofuels research, development, and demonstration; Speed the deployment and commercialization of advanced biofuels and bioproducts; Further the U.S. bioindustry through market transformation and creating or saving a range of jobs.

  20. The MESA accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Aulenbacher, Kurt

    2013-11-07

    The MESA accelerator will operate for particle and nuclear physics experiments in two different modes. A first option is conventional c.w. acceleration yielding 150-200MeV spin-polarized external beam. Second, MESA will be operated as a superconducting multi-turn energy recovery linac (ERL), opening the opportunity to perform experiments with a windowless target with beam current of up to 10 mA. The perspectives for innovative experiments with such a machine are discussed together with a sketch of the accelerator physics issues that have to be solved.

  1. Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rh-G-CSF) may accelerate hematopoietic recovery after HLA-identical sibling allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, M; Ustün, C; Akçağlayan, E; Akan, H; Arslan, O; Ilhan, O; Beksaç, M; Gürman, G; Demirer, T; Arat, M; Celebi, H; Konuk, N; Uysal, A; Koç, H

    2001-03-01

    We studied the effects of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on hematopoietic recovery and clinical outcome in patients undergoing allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation. Fifty-six patients with hematological malignancies who underwent allogeneic PBSC transplantation between 1995 and 1998 were entered into this study. Twenty-eight patients who received daily G-CSF from day +1 after allogeneic PBSC transplantation until the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) reached >0.5 x 10(9)/l for 3 consecutive days were compared with 28 patients (control group) who did not receive G-CSF in a non-randomized manner. The study group and the control group were comparable with respect to baseline patient and transplantation characteristics. Median times to ANC of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and 1 x 10(9)/l with or without G-CSF were 12 days (range 8-21), 13 days (10-32) (P = 0.04) and 13 days (9-21), 15 days (11-44) (P = 0.02), respectively. Median times to reach a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l with and without G-CSF were 11 days (0-20) and 13 days (9-26), respectively (P = 0.03). The incidence of febrile episodes was significantly lower with G-CSF, 75% vs 100% (P = 0.008). Patients receiving G-CSF had less grade III-IV mucositis than those who did not receive G-CSF (P = 0.01). There was also no increase in the incidence and severity of acute GVHD in patients using G-CSF (P = 0.22). Although the number of relapsing patients was greater in the G-CSF group (seven vs three patients), this was not statistically significant (P = 0.24). Disease-free and overall survival rates did not differ between the two groups (P = 0.58 and 0.53, respectively). The administration of G-CSF after allogeneic PBSC transplantation provided faster neutrophil and platelet engraftment associated with less severe mucositis and less febrile episodes. PMID:11313683

  2. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC

    ScienceCinema

    Andrei Seryi

    2010-01-08

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  

  3. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Andrei Seryi

    2009-09-09

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  

  4. Reading Recovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Joanna R., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the Arizona Reading Journal focuses on the theme "reading recovery" and includes the following articles: "Why Is an Inservice Programme for Reading Recovery Teachers Necessary?" (Marie M. Clay); "What Is Reading Recovery?" (Gay Su Pinnell); "Teaching a Hard To Teach Child" (Constance A. Compton); "Reading Recovery in Arizona--A…

  5. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  6. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Teng, L.C.

    1960-01-19

    ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

  7. Cost-Effective Fabrication Routes for the Production of Quantum Well Structures and Recovery of Waste Heat from Heavy Duty Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Willigan, Rhonda

    2009-09-30

    The primary objectives of Phase I were: (a) carry out cost, performance and system level models, (b) quantify the cost benefits of cathodic arc and heterogeneous nanocomposites over sputtered material, (c) evaluate the expected power output of the proposed thermoelectric materials and predict the efficiency and power output of an integrated TE module, (d) define market acceptance criteria by engaging Caterpillar's truck OEMs, potential customers and dealers and identify high-level criteria for a waste heat thermoelectric generator (TEG), (e) identify potential TEG concepts, and (f) establish cost/kWatt targets as well as a breakdown of subsystem component cost targets for the commercially viable TEG.

  8. CENTRALIZED TREATMENT OF METAL FINISHING WASTES AT A CLEVELAND RESOURCE RECOVERY PARK: PART 1. DESIGN AND COSTS. PART 2. FINANCING. PART 3. SITE INVESTIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, in three parts, describes the characteristics of the Cleveland (OH) area electroplating industry and an approach and design for a centralized facility to treat cyanide and heavy metal wastes generated by this industry. The facility is termed the Resource Recovery Park...

  9. The Platinum Bullet: An Experimental Evaluation of CUNY's Accelerated Study in Associate Program (ASAP)--New Three-Year Impacts, Cost Analyses, and Implementation Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Michael; Scrivener, Susan; Fresques, Hannah; Ratledge, Alyssa; Rudd, Tim; Sommo, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The City University of New York's (CUNY's) Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) combines many of the ideas from a range of programs into a comprehensive model that requires students to attend school full-time, and provides supports and incentives for three years. ASAP's financial aid reforms, enhanced student services, and scheduling…

  10. Accelerating PV Cost Effectiveness Through Systems Design, Engineering, and Quality Assurance: Phase I Annual Technical Report, 4 November 2004 - 3 November 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Botkin, J.

    2006-07-01

    During Phase I of this PV Manufacturing R&D subcontract, PowerLight Corporation has made significant progress toward the reduction of installed costs for commercial-scale, rooftop PV systems. PowerLight has worked to reduce operating costs by improving long-term reliability and performance through the development of more sophisticated tools used in system design and monitoring. Additionally, PowerLight has implemented design improvements with the goal of reducing cost while maintaining and/or improving product quality. As part of this effort, PowerLight also modified manufacturing and shipping processes to accommodate these design changes, streamline material flow, reduce cost, and decrease waste streams. During Phase II of this project, PowerLight plans to continue this work with the goal of reducing system cost and improving system performance.

  11. Enhanced recovery pathways in pancreatic surgery: State of the art

    PubMed Central

    Pecorelli, Nicolò; Nobile, Sara; Partelli, Stefano; Cardinali, Luca; Crippa, Stefano; Balzano, Gianpaolo; Beretta, Luigi; Falconi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic surgery is being offered to an increasing number of patients every year. Although postoperative outcomes have significantly improved in the last decades, even in high-volume centers patients still experience significant postoperative morbidity and full recovery after surgery takes longer than we think. In recent years, enhanced recovery pathways incorporating a large number of evidence-based perioperative interventions have proved to be beneficial in terms of improved postoperative outcomes, and accelerated patient recovery in the context of gastrointestinal, genitourinary and orthopedic surgery. The role of these pathways for pancreatic surgery is still unclear as high-quality randomized controlled trials are lacking. To date, non-randomized studies have shown that care pathways for pancreaticoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy are safe with no difference in postoperative morbidity, leading to early discharge and no increase in hospital readmissions. Hospital costs are reduced due to better organization of care and resource utilization. However, further research is needed to clarify the effect of enhanced recovery pathways on patient recovery and post-discharge outcomes following pancreatic resection. Future studies should be prospective and follow recent recommendations for the design and reporting of enhanced recovery pathways. PMID:27605881

  12. Enhanced recovery pathways in pancreatic surgery: State of the art.

    PubMed

    Pecorelli, Nicolò; Nobile, Sara; Partelli, Stefano; Cardinali, Luca; Crippa, Stefano; Balzano, Gianpaolo; Beretta, Luigi; Falconi, Massimo

    2016-07-28

    Pancreatic surgery is being offered to an increasing number of patients every year. Although postoperative outcomes have significantly improved in the last decades, even in high-volume centers patients still experience significant postoperative morbidity and full recovery after surgery takes longer than we think. In recent years, enhanced recovery pathways incorporating a large number of evidence-based perioperative interventions have proved to be beneficial in terms of improved postoperative outcomes, and accelerated patient recovery in the context of gastrointestinal, genitourinary and orthopedic surgery. The role of these pathways for pancreatic surgery is still unclear as high-quality randomized controlled trials are lacking. To date, non-randomized studies have shown that care pathways for pancreaticoduodenectomy and distal pancreatectomy are safe with no difference in postoperative morbidity, leading to early discharge and no increase in hospital readmissions. Hospital costs are reduced due to better organization of care and resource utilization. However, further research is needed to clarify the effect of enhanced recovery pathways on patient recovery and post-discharge outcomes following pancreatic resection. Future studies should be prospective and follow recent recommendations for the design and reporting of enhanced recovery pathways. PMID:27605881

  13. The Cost Effectiveness of a Tailored, Web-Based Care Program to Enhance Postoperative Recovery in Gynecologic Patients in Comparison With Usual Care: Protocol of a Stepped Wedge Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bouwsma, Esther VA; Anema, Johannes R; Vonk Noordegraaf, Antonie; Knol, Dirk L; Bosmans, Judith E; Schraffordt Koops, Steven E; van Kesteren, Paul JM; van Baal, W Marchien; Lips, Jos P; Emanuel, Mark H; Scholten, Petrus C; Mozes, Alexander; Adriaanse, Albert H; Brölmann, Hans AM

    2014-01-01

    Background The length of recovery after benign gynecological surgery and return to work frequently exceeds the period that is recommended or expected by specialists. A prolonged recovery is associated with a poorer quality of life. In addition, costs due to prolonged sick leave following gynecological surgery cause a significant financial burden on society. Objective The objective of our study was to present the protocol of a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the cost effectiveness of a new care program for patients undergoing hysterectomy and/or adnexal surgery for benign disease, compared to the usual care. Methods The care program under study, designed to improve convalescence and to prevent delayed return to work, targets two levels. At the hospital level, guidelines will be distributed among clinical staff in order to stimulate evidence-based patient education. At the patient level, additional perioperative guidance is provided by means of an eHealth intervention, equipping patients with tailored convalescence advice, and an occupational intervention is available for those patients at risk of prolonged sick leave. Due to the stepped wedge design of the trial, the care program will be sequentially rolled out among the 9 participating hospitals, from which the patients are recruited. Eligible for this study are employed women, 18-65 years of age, who are scheduled for hysterectomy and/or laparoscopic adnexal surgery. The primary outcome is full sustainable return to work. The secondary outcomes include general recovery, quality of life, self-efficacy, coping, and pain. The data will be collected by means of self-reported electronic questionnaires before surgery and at 2, 6, 12, 26, and 52 weeks after surgery. Sick leave and cost data are measured by monthly sick leave calendars, and cost diaries during the 12 month follow-up period. The economic evaluation will be performed from the societal perspective. All statistical analyses will

  14. Accelerated/abbreviated test methods for predicting life of solar cell encapsulants to Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology for the encapsulation task of the low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolyer, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    An important principle is that encapsulants should be tested in a total array system allowing realistic interaction of components. Therefore, micromodule test specimens were fabricated with a variety of encapsulants, substrates, and types of circuitry. One common failure mode was corrosion of circuitry and solar cell metallization due to moisture penetration. Another was darkening and/or opacification of encapsulant. A test program plan was proposed. It includes multicondition accelerated exposure. Another method was hyperaccelerated photochemical exposure using a solar concentrator. It simulates 20 year of sunlight exposure in a short period of one to two weeks. The study was beneficial in identifying some cost effective encapsulants and array designs.

  15. Plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, R.D.; Chen, P.

    1986-03-01

    In this paper we discuss plasma accelerators which might provide high gradient accelerating fields suitable for TeV linear colliders. In particular we discuss two types of plasma accelerators which have been proposed, the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator. We show that the electric fields in the plasma for both schemes are very similar, and thus the dynamics of the driven beams are very similar. The differences appear in the parameters associated with the driving beams. In particular to obtain a given accelerating gradient, the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator has a higher efficiency and a lower total energy for the driving beam. Finally, we show for the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator that one can accelerate high quality low emittance beams and, in principle, obtain efficiencies and energy spreads comparable to those obtained with conventional techniques.

  16. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD IN SAN JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Don L. Hanosh

    2004-01-01

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps. The project was funded through a cooperative 50% cost sharing agreement between Enerdyne LLC and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), United States Department of Energy, executed on April 16, 2003. The total estimated cost for this first phase of the agreement was $386,385.00 as detailed in Phase I Authorization For Expenditure (AFE). This report describes the tasks performed, the results, and conclusions for the first phase (Phase I) of the cooperative agreement.

  17. Accelerator physics: Surf's up at SLAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downer, Mike; Zgadzaj, Rafal

    2014-11-01

    A 'plasma afterburner' just 30 centimetres long accelerates electrons hundreds of times faster than giant conventional accelerators. The result may ultimately open up a low-cost technology for particle colliders. See Letter p.92

  18. Accurate molecular dynamics and nuclear quantum effects at low cost by multiple steps in real and imaginary time: Using density functional theory to accelerate wavefunction methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapil, V.; VandeVondele, J.; Ceriotti, M.

    2016-02-01

    The development and implementation of increasingly accurate methods for electronic structure calculations mean that, for many atomistic simulation problems, treating light nuclei as classical particles is now one of the most serious approximations. Even though recent developments have significantly reduced the overhead for modeling the quantum nature of the nuclei, the cost is still prohibitive when combined with advanced electronic structure methods. Here we present how multiple time step integrators can be combined with ring-polymer contraction techniques (effectively, multiple time stepping in imaginary time) to reduce virtually to zero the overhead of modelling nuclear quantum effects, while describing inter-atomic forces at high levels of electronic structure theory. This is demonstrated for a combination of MP2 and semi-local DFT applied to the Zundel cation. The approach can be seamlessly combined with other methods to reduce the computational cost of path integral calculations, such as high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator or generalized Langevin equation thermostats.

  19. Using Cable Suspended Submersible Pumps to Reduce Production Costs to Increase Ultimate Recovery in the Red Mountain Field of the San Juan Basin Region

    SciTech Connect

    Don L. Hanosh

    2006-08-15

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells, installing cable suspended submersible pumps ( Phase I ) and operating the oil field for approximately one year ( Phase II ). Upon the completion of Phases I and II ( Budget Period I ), Enerdyne LLC commenced work on Phase III which required additional drilling in an attempt to improve field economics ( Budget Period II ). The project was funded through a cooperative 50% cost sharing agreement between Enerdyne LLC and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), United States Department of Energy, executed on April 16, 2003. The total estimated cost for the two Budget Periods, of the Agreement, was $1,205,008.00 as detailed in Phase I, II & III Authorization for Expenditures (AFE). This report describes tasks performed and results experienced by Enerdyne LLC during the three phases of the cooperative agreement.

  20. USING CABLE SUSPENDED SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS TO REDUCE PRODUCTION COSTS TO INCREASE ULTIMATE RECOVERY IN THE RED MOUNTAIN FIELD IN SAN JUAN BASIN REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Pat Fort; Don L. Hanosh

    2003-11-01

    A joint venture between Enerdyne LLC, a small independent oil and gas producer, and Pumping Solutions Inc., developer of a low volume electric submersible pump, suspended from a cable, both based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has re-established marginal oil production from the Red Mountain Oil Field, located in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico by working over 17 existing wells and installing submersible pumps. Resume marginal oil production operations in the Red Mountain oil fields located in McKinley County, New Mexico by installing a cable suspended electric submersible pumping system (HDESP), determine if this system can reduce lift costs making it a more cost effective production system for similar oil fields within the region, and if warranted, drill additional wells to improved the economics. Three Phases of work have been defined in the DOE Form 4600.1 Notice of Financial Assistance Award for this project, in which the project objectives are to be attained through a joint venture between Enerdyne LLC (Enerdyne), owner and operator of the fields and Pumping Solutions Inc. (PSI), developer of the submersible pumping system. Upon analysis of the results of each Phase, the DOE will determine if the results justify the continuation of the project and approve the next Phase to proceed or terminate the project and request that the wells be plugged. This topical report shall provide the DOE with Phase I results and conclusions reached by Enerdyne and PSI.

  1. Recovery Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Since the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) in 1935, programs offering opportunity for recovery from alcoholism and other addictions have undergone vast changes. The Internet has created nearly limitless opportunities for recovering people and those seeking recovery to find both meetings and places where they can gather virtually and discuss…

  2. Psychosocial Recovery and Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses a psychosocial recovery and rehabilitation recovery model that uses an intensive case management approach. The approach offers an interdisciplinary model that integrates pharmacotherapy, social skills training, cognitive remediation, family involvement, and community integration. This evidence-based plan of care instills hope and nurtures one's capacity to learn and improve function and quality of life. It is cost-effective and offers psychiatric nurses opportunities to facilitate symptomatic remission, facilitate self-efficacy, and improve communication and social cognition skills. Nurses in diverse practice settings must be willing to plan and implement innovative treatment models that provide seamless mental health care across the treatment continuum. PMID:27229282

  3. Accurate molecular dynamics and nuclear quantum effects at low cost by multiple steps in real and imaginary time: Using density functional theory to accelerate wavefunction methods.

    PubMed

    Kapil, V; VandeVondele, J; Ceriotti, M

    2016-02-01

    The development and implementation of increasingly accurate methods for electronic structure calculations mean that, for many atomistic simulation problems, treating light nuclei as classical particles is now one of the most serious approximations. Even though recent developments have significantly reduced the overhead for modeling the quantum nature of the nuclei, the cost is still prohibitive when combined with advanced electronic structure methods. Here we present how multiple time step integrators can be combined with ring-polymer contraction techniques (effectively, multiple time stepping in imaginary time) to reduce virtually to zero the overhead of modelling nuclear quantum effects, while describing inter-atomic forces at high levels of electronic structure theory. This is demonstrated for a combination of MP2 and semi-local DFT applied to the Zundel cation. The approach can be seamlessly combined with other methods to reduce the computational cost of path integral calculations, such as high-order factorizations of the Boltzmann operator or generalized Langevin equation thermostats. PMID:26851912

  4. Accelerating advanced-materials commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maine, Elicia; Seegopaul, Purnesh

    2016-05-01

    Long commercialization times, high capital costs and sustained uncertainty deter investment in innovation for advanced materials. With appropriate strategies, technology and market uncertainties can be reduced, and the commercialization of advanced materials accelerated.

  5. Joint optimisation of price, warranty and recovery planning in remanufacturing of used products under linear and non-linear demand, return and cost functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdian, Seyed Ahmad; Shahanaghi, Kamran; Makui, Ahmad

    2016-04-01

    We investigate joint optimisation of remanufacturing, pricing and warranty decision-making for end-of-life products. A novel mathematical-statistical model is proposed where decisions involve pricing of returned used products (cores), degree of their remanufacturing, selling price and the warranty period for the final remanufactured products. The virtual age reliability improvement approach is chosen to model the upgrading of the cores to higher quality levels. We consider price- and warranty-dependent demand, price- and age-dependent return, and age-dependent remanufacturing cost in the model development. Both linear and non-linear forms of these functions are investigated. First, under some restrictive conditions of upgrade level and age distribution of received cores, special cases of the problem, which can be solved using a recently developed non-linear optimisation solver, are presented. We also implement a particle swarm optimisation algorithm for the solution of the original problem when all the restrictive assumptions are dropped. Finally, numerical experiments and sensitivity analysis are presented to address different aspects of the model and the solution approaches.

  6. A Low-Cost Multielectrode System for Data Acquisition Enabling Real-Time Closed-Loop Processing with Rapid Recovery from Stimulation Artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Rolston, John D.; Gross, Robert E.; Potter, Steve M.

    2009-01-01

    Commercially available data acquisition systems for multielectrode recording from freely moving animals are expensive, often rely on proprietary software, and do not provide detailed, modifiable circuit schematics. When used in conjunction with electrical stimulation, they are prone to prolonged, saturating stimulation artifacts that prevent the recording of short-latency evoked responses. Yet electrical stimulation is integral to many experimental designs, and critical for emerging brain-computer interfacing and neuroprosthetic applications. To address these issues, we developed an easy-to-use, modifiable, and inexpensive system for multielectrode neural recording and stimulation. Setup costs are less than US$10,000 for 64 channels, an order of magnitude lower than comparable commercial systems. Unlike commercial equipment, the system recovers rapidly from stimulation and allows short-latency action potentials (<1 ms post-stimulus) to be detected, facilitating closed-loop applications and exposing neural activity that would otherwise remain hidden. To illustrate this capability, evoked activity from microstimulation of the rodent hippocampus is presented. System noise levels are similar to existing platforms, and extracellular action potentials and local field potentials can be recorded simultaneously. The system is modular, in banks of 16 channels, and flexible in usage: while primarily designed for in vivo use, it can be combined with commercial preamplifiers to record from in vitro multielectrode arrays. The system's open-source control software, NeuroRighter, is implemented in C#, with an easy-to-use graphical interface. As C# functions in a managed code environment, which may impact performance, analysis was conducted to ensure comparable speed to C++ for this application. Hardware schematics, layout files, and software are freely available. Since maintaining wired headstage connections with freely moving animals is difficult, we describe a new method of

  7. 28 CFR 100.15 - Disallowed costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS...) costs are disallowed. G&A costs include, but are not limited to, any management, financial, and other... limited to: (1) Accounting and Finance, External Relations, Human Resources, Information Management,...

  8. 28 CFR 100.15 - Disallowed costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS...) costs are disallowed. G&A costs include, but are not limited to, any management, financial, and other... limited to: (1) Accounting and Finance, External Relations, Human Resources, Information Management,...

  9. Accelerated Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of Accelerated Reader, a system of computerized testing and record-keeping that supplements the regular classroom reading program. Accelerated Reader's primary goal is to increase literature-based reading practice. The program offers a computer-aided reading comprehension and management program intended to motivate…

  10. Energy Recovery Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolitsa Merminga

    2007-06-01

    The success and continuing progress of the three operating FELs based on Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), the Jefferson Lab IR FEL Upgrade, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) FEL, and the Novosibirsk High Power THz FEL, have inspired multiple future applications of ERLs, which include higher power FELs, synchrotron radiation sources, electron cooling devices, and high luminosity electron-ion colliders. The benefits of using ERLs for these applications are presented. The key accelerator physics and technology challenges of realizing future ERL designs, and recent developments towards resolving these challenges are reviewed.

  11. Recovery Ship Freedom Star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Freedom Star, one of NASA's two solid rocket booster recovery ships, is towing a barge containing the third Space Shuttle Super Lightweight External Tank (SLWT) into Port Canaveral. This SLWT was slated for use to launch the orbiter Discovery on mission STS-95 in October 1998. This first time towing arrangement, part of a cost saving plan by NASA to prudently manage existing resources, began June 12 from the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans where the Shuttle's external tanks were manufactured. The barge was transported up Banana River to the LC-39 turn basin using a conventional tug boat. Previously, NASA relied on an outside contractor to provide external tank towing services at a cost of about $120,000 per trip. The new plan allowed NASA's Space Flight Operations contractor, United Space Alliance (USA), to provide the same service to NASA using the recovery ships during their downtime between Shuttle launches. Studies showed a potential savings of about $50,000 per trip. The cost of the necessary ship modifications would be paid back by the fourteenth tank delivery. The other recovery ship, Liberty Star, also underwent deck strengthening enhancements and had the necessary towing wench installed.

  12. Recent Advances in Plasma Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Mark

    2007-03-19

    The costs and the time scales of colliders intended to reach the energy frontier are such that it is important to explore new methods of accelerating particles to high energies. Plasma-based accelerators are particularly attractive because they are capable of producing accelerating fields that are orders of magnitude larger than those used in conventional colliders. In these accelerators a drive beam, either laser or particle, produces a plasma wave (wakefield) that accelerates charged particles. The ultimate utility of plasma accelerators will depend on sustaining ultra-high accelerating fields over a substantial length to achieve a significant energy gain. More than 42 GeV energy gain was achieved in an 85 cm long plasma wakefield accelerator driven by a 42 GeV electron drive beam in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) Facility at SLAC. Most of the beam electrons lose energy to the plasma wave, but some electrons in the back of the same beam pulse are accelerated with a field of {approx}52 GV/m. This effectively doubles their energy, producing the energy gain of the 3 km long SLAC accelerator in less than a meter for a small fraction of the electrons in the injected bunch. Prospects for a drive-witness bunch configuration and high-gradient positron acceleration experiments planned for the SABER facility will be discussed.

  13. Financial Responsibility at Universities. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Energy and Commerce, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session, on Indirect Cost Recovery Practices at U.S. Universities for Federal Research Grants and Contracts (March 13 and May 9, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    In connection with its jurisdiction over biomedical research and development at higher education institutions, the House Committee on Energy and Commerce's Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations met twice to hear testimony on abuses in the indirect cost recovery practices at universities for Federal research grants and contracts. At the…

  14. Financial Responsibility at Universities (Part 2). Hearing on Indirect Cost Recovery Practices at U.S. Universities for Federal Research Grants and Contracts, before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    In connection with its jurisdiction over biomedical research and development at higher education institutions, the House Committee on Energy and Commerce's Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations met a second time to hear testimony on abuses in the indirect cost recovery practices at universities for federal research grants and contracts. The…

  15. Wall-plug efficiency and beam dynamics in free-electron lasers using energy recovery linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Sprangle, P.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Penano, J.; Hafizi, B.

    2010-08-01

    In a high average power free-electron laser (FEL) the wall-plug efficiency is of critical importance in determining the size, complexity, and cost of the overall system. The wall-plug efficiency for the FEL oscillator and amplifier (uniform and tapered wiggler) is strongly dependent on the energy recovery process. A theoretical model for electron beam dynamics in the energy recovery linac is derived and applied to the acceleration and deceleration of nano-Coulomb electron bunches for a tapered FEL amplifier. For the tapered amplifier, the spent electron beam exiting the wiggler consists of trapped and untrapped electrons. Decelerating these two populations using different phases of the radio-frequency wave in the recovery process enhances wall-plug efficiency. For the parameters considered here, the wall-plug efficiency for the tapered amplifier can be {approx}10% using this approach.

  16. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  17. Accelerating the culture change!

    PubMed

    Klunk, S W; Panetta, J; Wooten, J

    1996-11-01

    Exide Electronics, a major supplier of uninterruptible power system equipment, embarked on a journey of changing a culture to improve quality, enhance customer responsiveness, and reduce costs. This case study examines the evolution of change over a period of seven years, with particular emphasis on the most recent years, 1992 through 1995. The article focuses on the Raleigh plant operations and describes how each succeeding year built on the successes and fixed the shortcomings of the prior years to accelerate the culture change, including corrective action and continuous improvement processes, organizational structures, expectations, goals, achievements, and pitfalls. The real challenge to changing the culture was structuring a dynamic approach to accelerate change! The presentation also examines how the evolutionary process itself can be created and accelerated through ongoing communication, regular feedback of progress and goals, constant evaluation and direction of the process, and measuring and paying for performance. PMID:10162360

  18. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  19. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  20. ION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Bell, J.S.

    1959-09-15

    An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.

  1. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  2. 28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS... reimbursement under section 109(e) CALEA are: (1) All reasonable plant costs directly associated with the... surveillance by a government law enforcement agency, this part permits recovery of only the incremental cost...

  3. 50 CFR 680.44 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... reconsideration. An RCR permit holder who receives an IAD may either appeal the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43 or... under 50 CFR 679.43 will begin anew upon issuance of the Regional Administrator's reconsidered IAD. The... fails to file an appeal of the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43 or request reconsideration within the...

  4. 50 CFR 680.44 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... reconsideration. An RCR permit holder who receives an IAD may either appeal the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43 or... under 50 CFR 679.43 will begin anew upon issuance of the Regional Administrator's reconsidered IAD. The... fails to file an appeal of the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43 or request reconsideration within the...

  5. 50 CFR 680.44 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reconsideration. An RCR permit holder who receives an IAD may either appeal the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43 or... under 50 CFR 679.43 will begin anew upon issuance of the Regional Administrator's reconsidered IAD. The... fails to file an appeal of the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43 or request reconsideration within the...

  6. 50 CFR 680.44 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reconsideration. An RCR permit holder who receives an IAD may either appeal the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43 or... under 50 CFR 679.43 will begin anew upon issuance of the Regional Administrator's reconsidered IAD. The... fails to file an appeal of the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43 or request reconsideration within the...

  7. 50 CFR 680.44 - Cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reconsideration. An RCR permit holder who receives an IAD may either appeal the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43 or... under 50 CFR 679.43 will begin anew upon issuance of the Regional Administrator's reconsidered IAD. The... fails to file an appeal of the IAD pursuant to 50 CFR 679.43 or request reconsideration within the...

  8. Overview of Accelerator Applications in Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, Robert W.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    An overview of the application of accelerators and accelerator technology in energy is presented. Applications span a broad range of cost, size, and complexity and include large-scale systems requiring high-power or high-energy accelerators to drive subcritical reactors for energy production or waste transmutation, as well as small-scale industrial systems used to improve oil and gas exploration and production. The enabling accelerator technologies will also be reviewed and future directions discussed.

  9. Dielectric laser accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    England, R. Joel; Noble, Robert J.; Bane, Karl; Dowell, David H.; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Spencer, James E.; Tantawi, Sami; Wu, Ziran; Byer, Robert L.; Peralta, Edgar; Soong, Ken; Chang, Chia-Ming; Montazeri, Behnam; Wolf, Stephen J.; Cowan, Benjamin; Dawson, Jay; Gai, Wei; Hommelhoff, Peter; Huang, Yen-Chieh; Jing, Chunguang; McGuinness, Christopher; Palmer, Robert B.; Naranjo, Brian; Rosenzweig, James; Travish, Gil; Mizrahi, Amit; Schachter, Levi; Sears, Christopher; Werner, Gregory R.; Yoder, Rodney B.

    2014-10-01

    The use of infrared lasers to power optical-scale lithographically fabricated particle accelerators is a developing area of research that has garnered increasing interest in recent years. The physics and technology of this approach is reviewed, which is referred to as dielectric laser acceleration (DLA). In the DLA scheme operating at typical laser pulse lengths of 0.1 to 1 ps, the laser damage fluences for robust dielectric materials correspond to peak surface electric fields in the GV /m regime. The corresponding accelerating field enhancement represents a potential reduction in active length of the accelerator between 1 and 2 orders of magnitude. Power sources for DLA-based accelerators (lasers) are less costly than microwave sources (klystrons) for equivalent average power levels due to wider availability and private sector investment. Because of the high laser-to-particle coupling efficiency, required pulse energies are consistent with tabletop microJoule class lasers. Combined with the very high (MHz) repetition rates these lasers can provide, the DLA approach appears promising for a variety of applications, including future high-energy physics colliders, compact light sources, and portable medical scanners and radiative therapy machines.

  10. Water recovery in space.

    PubMed

    Tamponnet, C; Savage, C J; Amblard, P; Lasserre, J C; Personne, J C; Germain, J C

    1999-03-01

    In the absence of recycling, water represents over 90% of the life-support consumables for a manned spacecraft. In addition, over 90% of the waste water generated can be classified as moderately or slightly contaminated (e.g. shower water, condensate from the air-conditioning system, etc.). The ability to recover potable water from moderately contaminated waste water hence enables significant savings to be made in resupply costs. A development model of such a water-recovery system, based on membrane technology has been produced and tested using "real waste water" based on used shower water Results indicate some 95% recovery of potable water meeting ESA standards, with total elimination of microbial contaminants such as bacteria, spores and viruses. PMID:11725802

  11. Population divergence in compensatory growth responses and their costs in sticklebacks

    PubMed Central

    Ab Ghani, Nurul Izza; Merilä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG) may be an adaptive mechanism that helps to restore an organisms’ growth trajectory and adult size from deviations caused by early life resource limitation. Yet, few studies have investigated the genetic basis of CG potential and existence of genetically based population differentiation in CG potential. We studied population differentiation, genetic basis, and costs of CG potential in nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius) differing in their normal growth patterns. As selection favors large body size in pond and small body size in marine populations, we expected CG to occur in the pond but not in the marine population. By manipulating feeding conditions (viz. high, low and recovery feeding treatments), we found clear evidence for CG in the pond but not in the marine population, as well as evidence for catch-up growth (i.e., size compensation without growth acceleration) in both populations. In the marine population, overcompensation occurred individuals from the recovery treatment grew eventually larger than those from the high feeding treatment. In both populations, the recovery feeding treatment reduced maturation probability. The recovery feeding treatment also reduced survival probability in the marine but not in the pond population. Analysis of interpopulation hybrids further suggested that both genetic and maternal effects contributed to the population differences in CG. Hence, apart from demonstrating intrinsic costs for recovery growth, both genetic and maternal effects were identified to be important modulators of CG responses. The results provide an evidence for adaptive differentiation in recovery growth potential. PMID:25628860

  12. Acceleration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work to support the NASA MSFC Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) was performed. Four tasks (analysis development, analysis research, analysis documentation, and acceleration analysis) were addressed by parallel projects. Work concentrated on preparation for and implementation of near real-time SAMS data analysis during the USMP-1 mission. User support documents and case specific software documentation and tutorials were developed. Information and results were presented to microgravity users. ACAP computer facilities need to be fully implemented and networked, data resources must be cataloged and accessible, future microgravity missions must be coordinated, and continued Orbiter characterization is necessary.

  13. 28 CFR 100.15 - Disallowed costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disallowed costs. 100.15 Section 100.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.15 Disallowed costs. (a) General and Administrative (G&A) costs are disallowed. G&A costs include,...

  14. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  15. Accelerated Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

  16. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

    DOEpatents

    Pope, K.E.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

  17. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  18. Ocean recovery of Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junker, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Cost effective recovery of the expended Space-Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) from the ocean will result in significant overall cost savings to the Space Shuttle Program. The ocean recovery mission begins with the dispatching of the recovery team to the predicted splashdown area. The SRBs, drogue parachutes and main parachutes must be tracked, located, retrieved, and transported to land where they will be refurbished and recycled for reuse. Trade studies to be conducted will consider the recovery mission requirements and weigh the advantages, disadvantages and costs of various candidate recovery systems. Major parameters effecting the selection of the final system will ensure that the system will meet overall objectives. Large- and small-scale SRB model testing has been conducted to establish characteristics of SRBs during water entry, floating free and under tow.

  19. Electromagnetic modeling in accelerator designs

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.K.; Chan, K.C.D.

    1990-01-01

    Through the years, electromagnetic modeling using computers has proved to be a cost-effective tool for accelerator designs. Traditionally, electromagnetic modeling of accelerators has been limited to resonator and magnet designs in two dimensions. In recent years with the availability of powerful computers, electromagnetic modeling of accelerators has advanced significantly. Through the above conferences, it is apparent that breakthroughs have been made during the last decade in two important areas: three-dimensional modeling and time-domain simulation. Success in both these areas have been made possible by the increasing size and speed of computers. In this paper, the advances in these two areas will be described.

  20. Olefin recovery via chemical absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Barchas, R.

    1998-06-01

    The recovery of fight olefins in petrochemical plants has generally been accomplished through cryogenic distillation, a process which is very capital and energy intensive. In an effort to simplify the recovery process and reduce its cost, BP Chemicals has developed a chemical absorption technology based on an aqueous silver nitrate solution. Stone & Webster is now marketing, licensing, and engineering the technology. The process is commercially ready for recovering olefins from olefin derivative plant vent gases, such as vents from polyethylene, polypropylene, ethylene oxide, and synthetic ethanol units. The process can also be used to debottleneck C{sub 2} or C{sub 3} splinters, or to improve olefin product purity. This paper presents the olefin recovery imp technology, discusses its applications, and presents economics for the recovery of ethylene and propylene.

  1. Prospects for Accelerator Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Alan

    2011-02-01

    Accelerator technology today is a greater than US$5 billion per annum business. Development of higher-performance technology with improved reliability that delivers reduced system size and life cycle cost is expected to significantly increase the total accelerator technology market and open up new application sales. Potential future directions are identified and pitfalls in new market penetration are considered. Both of the present big market segments, medical radiation therapy units and semiconductor ion implanters, are approaching the "maturity" phase of their product cycles, where incremental development rather than paradigm shifts is the norm, but they should continue to dominate commercial sales for some time. It is anticipated that large discovery-science accelerators will continue to provide a specialty market beset by the unpredictable cycles resulting from the scale of the projects themselves, coupled with external political and economic drivers. Although fraught with differing market entry difficulties, the security and environmental markets, together with new, as yet unrealized, industrial material processing applications, are expected to provide the bulk of future commercial accelerator technology growth.

  2. Resource Recovery. Energy and Environment. Teacher's Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Smith and Hills, Inc., Jacksonville, FL.

    Designed to assist students in understanding solid waste resource recovery, this teaching aid package aims to get students involved in practical activities that require participation, observation, and interpretation. Provided in this package are definitions, methods, causes and effects, costs, and benefits of resource recovery presented in the…

  3. Thermal recovery of the NIF amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Steven B.; Erlandson, A. E.; London, Richard A.; Manes, Kenneth R.; Marshall, Christopher D.; Petty, Charles S.; Pierce, R.; Smith, Larry K.; Zapata, Luis E.; Beullier, J.; Bicrel, B.

    1999-07-01

    With approximately 99 percent of the electrical energy supplied to the NIF appearing as heat in the amplifiers, thermal recovery of the NIF system is a major consideration in the design process. The NIF shot rate is one shot every 8 hours, with a goal of 4 hours between shots. This necessitates that thermal recovery take place in no more than 7 hours, with a goal of 3 hours for the accelerated shot rate. Residual optical distortions, which restrict the shot rate, are grouped into two discrete categories: (1) distortions associated with residual temperature gradients in the laser slabs, and (2) distortions associated with buoyantly driven convective currents in the amplifier cavity and beam-tube regions. Thermal recovery of the amplifiers is achieved by cooling the flashlamps and blastshields with a heat deposited in the slabs and edge claddings. Advanced concepts, such as the use of slightly chilled gas to accelerate some aspects of recovery, are addressed. To quantify recovery rates of the amplifiers, experiments and numerical models are used to measure and calculate the temperatures and optical distortions in NIF-like amplifier elements. The calculation results are benchmarked against AMPLAB temperature measurements, thus allowing a quantitative prediction of NIF thermal recovery. These results indicate that the NIF requirement of 7 hour thermal recovery can be achieved with chilled temperature cooling gas. It is further shown that residual temperature gradient driven distortions in the slabs reach an acceptable level, after 4 hours of thermal recovery.

  4. Compact accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  5. BICEP's acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2014-10-01

    The recent Bicep2 [1] detection of, what is claimed to be primordial B-modes, opens up the possibility of constraining not only the energy scale of inflation but also the detailed acceleration history that occurred during inflation. In turn this can be used to determine the shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) for the first time — if a single, scalar inflaton is assumed to be driving the acceleration. We carry out a Monte Carlo exploration of inflationary trajectories given the current data. Using this method we obtain a posterior distribution of possible acceleration profiles ε(N) as a function of e-fold N and derived posterior distributions of the primordial power spectrum P(k) and potential V(φ). We find that the Bicep2 result, in combination with Planck measurements of total intensity Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, induces a significant feature in the scalar primordial spectrum at scales k∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc {sup -1}. This is in agreement with a previous detection of a suppression in the scalar power [2].

  6. Chemically enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.C.

    1989-03-01

    Yet when conducted according to present state of the art, chemical flooding (i.e., micellar/polymer flooding, surfactant/polymer flooding, surfactant flooding) can mobilize more residual crude oil than any other method of enhanced oil recovery. It also is one of the most expensive methods of enhanced oil recovery. This contribution will describe some of the technology that comprises the state of the art technology that must be adhered to if a chemical flood is to be successful. Although some of the efforts to reduce cost and other points are discussed, the principle focus is on technical considerations in designing a good chemical flooding system. The term chemical flooding is restricted here to methods of enhanced oil recovery that employs a surfactant, either injected into the oil reservoir or generated in situ, primarily to reduce oil-water interfacial tension. Hence, polymer-water floods for mobility or profile control, steam foams, and carbon dioxide foams are excluded. Some polymer considerations are mentioned because they apply to providing mobility control for chemical flooding systems.

  7. EM Structure Based and Vacuum Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, E.R.; /SLAC

    2005-09-27

    The importance of particle acceleration may be judged from the number of applications which require some sort of accelerated beam. In addition to accelerator-based high energy physics research, non-academic applications include medical imaging and treatment, structural biology by x-ray diffraction, pulse radiography, cargo inspection, material processing, food and medical instrument sterilization, and so on. Many of these applications are already well served by existing technologies and will profit only marginally from developments in accelerator technology. Other applications are poorly served, such as structural biology, which is conducted at synchrotron radiation facilities, and medical treatment using proton accelerators, the machines for which are rare because they are complex and costly. Developments in very compact, high brightness and high gradient accelerators will change how accelerators are used for such applications, and potentially enable new ones. Physical and technical issues governing structure-based and vacuum acceleration of charged particles are reviewed, with emphasis on practical aspects.

  8. Combination of Local Transplantation of In Vitro Bone-marrow Stromal Cells and Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields Accelerate Functional Recovery of Transected Sciatic Nerve Regeneration: A Novel Approach in Transected Nerve Repair.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Rahim; Mahmoodzadeh, Sirvan

    2015-01-01

    Effect of combination of undifferentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on transected sciatic nerve regeneration was assessed in rats. A 10 mm nerve segment was excised and a vein graft was used to bridge the gap. Twenty microliter undifferentiated BMSCs (2× 107 cells /mL) were administered into the graft inBMSC group with no exposure to PEMF. In BMSC/PEMF group the whole body was exposed to PEMF (0.3 mT, 2Hz) for 4h/day within 1-5 days. In PEMF group the transected nerve was bridged and phosphate buffered saline was administered into the graft. In authograft group (AUTO), the transected nervesegments were reimplanted reversely and the whole body was exposed to PEMF. The regenerated nerve fibers were studied within 12 weeks after surgery. Behavioral, functional, electrophysiological, biomechanical, gastrocnemius muscle mass findings, morphometric indices and immuonohistochemical reactions confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in BMSC/PEMF group compared to those in the other groups (P<0.05). The use of undifferentiated BMSCs with whole body exposure to PEMF improved functional recovery. Combination of local transplantation of in vitro bone-marrow stromal cells and pulsed electromagnetic fields could be considered as an effective, safe and tolerable treatment for peripheral nerve repair in clinical practice. PMID:26044808

  9. The CEOS Recovery Observatory Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosford, S.; Proy, C.; Giros, A.; Eddy, A.; Petiteville, I.; Ishida, C.; Gaetani, F.; Frye, S.; Zoffoli, S.; Danzeglocke, J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last decade, large populations living in vulnerable areas have led to record damages and substantial loss of life in mega-disasters ranging from the deadly Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 and Haiti earthquake of 2010; the catastrophic flood damages of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Tohoku tsunami of 2011, and the astonishing extent of the environmental impact of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2009. These major catastrophes have widespread and long-lasting impacts with subsequent recovery and reconstruction costing billions of euros and lasting years. While satellite imagery is used on an ad hoc basis after many disasters to support damage assessment, there is currently no standard practice or system to coordinate acquisition of data and facilitate access for early recovery planning and recovery tracking and monitoring. CEOS led the creation of a Recovery Observatory Oversight Team, which brings together major recovery stakeholders such as the UNDP and the World Bank/Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, value-adding providers and leading space agencies. The principal aims of the Observatory are to: 1. Demonstrate the utility of a wide range of earth observation data to facilitate the recovery and reconstruction phase following a major catastrophic event; 2. Provide a concrete case to focus efforts in identifying and resolving technical and organizational obstacles to facilitating the visibility and access to a relevant set of EO data; and 3. Develop dialogue and establish institutional relationships with the Recovery phase user community to best target data and information requirements; The paper presented here will describe the work conducted in preparing for the triggering of a Recovery Observatory including support to rapid assessments and Post Disaster Needs Assessments by the EO community.

  10. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  11. An evidence-based review of enhanced recovery interventions in knee replacement surgery

    PubMed Central

    Alazzawi, S; Nizam, I; Haddad, FS

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Total knee replacement (TKR) is a very common surgical procedure. Improved pain management techniques, surgical practices and the introduction of novel interventions have enhanced the patient’s postoperative experience after TKR. Safe, efficient pathways are needed to address the increasing need for knee arthroplasty in the UK. Enhanced recovery programmes can help to reduce hospital stays following knee replacements while maintaining patient safety and satisfaction. This review outlines common evidence-based pre, intra and postoperative interventions in use in enhanced recovery protocols following TKR. Methods A thorough literature search of the electronic healthcare databases (MEDLINE®, Embase™ and the Cochrane Library) was conducted to identify articles and studies concerned with enhanced recovery and fast track pathways for TKR. Results A literature review revealed several non-operative and operative interventions that are effective in enhanced recovery following TKR including preoperative patient education, pre-emptive and local infiltration analgesia, preoperative nutrition, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, pulsed electromagnetic fields, perioperative rehabilitation, modern wound dressings, different standard surgical techniques, minimally invasive surgery and computer assisted surgery. Conclusions Enhanced recovery programmes require a multidisciplinary team of dedicated professionals, principally involving preoperative education, multimodal pain control and accelerated rehabilitation; this will be boosted if combined with minimally invasive surgery. The current economic climate and restricted healthcare budget further necessitate brief hospitalisation while minimising costs. These non-operative interventions are the way forward to achieve such requirements. PMID:24025284

  12. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  13. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  14. Space Shuttle booster recovery planning.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godfrey, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    At the initiation of the Space Shuttle Program, recoverable solid rocket boosters were base-lined, with an estimated savings of 30 per cent over expendable solid rockets. Present studies indicate that the solid rocket boosters in the 142-inch diameter range can be recovered using state-of-the-art recovery systems. Marshall Space Flight Center is conducting extensive studies to establish the most cost effective recovery system for the present Shuttle boosters. Model drop testing, in various facilities, and structural load testing are being conducted with model sizes ranging from 6 inches to 120 inches in diameter.

  15. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies. PMID:27214029

  16. Chemically enhanced in situ recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, T.; Pitts, M.; Wyatt, K.

    1996-08-01

    Chemically enhanced recovery is a promising alternative to current technologies for management of subsurface releases of organic liquids. Through the inclusion of surfactants, solvents, polymers, and/or alkaline agents to a waterflood, the transport of targeted organic compounds can be increased and rates of recovery enhanced. By far, the vast majority of work done in the field of chemically enhanced recovery has been at a laboratory scale. The following text focuses on chemically enhanced recovery from a field application perspective with emphasis given to chlorinated solvents in a low permeability setting. While chlorinated solvents are emphasized, issues discussed are also relevant to organic liquids less dense than water such as petroleum products. Topics reviewed include: (1) Description of technology; (2) General technology considerations; (3) Low permeability media considerations; (4) Cost and reliability considerations; (5) Commercial availability; and (6) Case histories. Through this paper an appreciation is developed of both the potential and limitations of chemically enhanced recovery. Excluded from the scope of this paper is the in situ destruction of organic compounds through processes such as chemical or biological oxidation, chemically enhanced recovery of inorganic compounds, and ex situ soil treatment processes. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Reading Recovery. [Fact Sheets].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading Recovery Council of North America, Columbus, OH.

    This set of 10 fact sheets (each 2 to 4 pages long) addresses aspects of Reading Recovery, a program that helps children to be proficient readers and writers by the end of the first grade. It discusses the basic facts of Reading Recovery; Reading Recovery for Spanish literacy; Reading Recovery lessons; Reading Recovery professional development;…

  18. 78 FR 41911 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC008 Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery... Endangered Species Act (ESA) recovery plan for Lower Columbia River Chinook salmon (Oncoryhnchus tschawytscha... the time and costs required to implement recovery actions. The Endangered Species Act (ESA)...

  19. 28 CFR 100.12 - Reasonable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) The burden of proof shall be upon the carrier to justify that such cost is reasonable under this part... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.12 Reasonable costs. (a) A cost is reasonable if, in...

  20. 28 CFR 100.11 - Allowable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Allowable costs. 100.11 Section 100.11 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.11 Allowable costs. (a) Costs that are eligible...

  1. 28 CFR 100.12 - Reasonable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reasonable costs. 100.12 Section 100.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.12 Reasonable costs. (a) A cost is reasonable if, in...

  2. A Survey of Hadron Therapy Accelerator Technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA, T.; FLANZ, J.

    2007-06-25

    Hadron therapy has entered a new age [1]. The number of facilities grows steadily, and 'consumer' interest is high. Some groups are working on new accelerator technology, while others optimize existing designs by reducing capital and operating costs, and improving performance. This paper surveys the current requirements and directions in accelerator technology for hadron therapy.

  3. APT accelerator. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.; Rusthoi, D.

    1995-03-01

    The Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) project, sponsored by Department of Energy Defense Programs (DOE/DP), involves the preconceptual design of an accelerator system to produce tritium for the nation`s stockpile of nuclear weapons. Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen used in nuclear weapons, and must be replenished because of radioactive decay (its half-life is approximately 12 years). Because the annual production requirements for tritium has greatly decreased since the end of the Cold War, an alternative approach to reactors for tritium production, based on a linear accelerator, is now being seriously considered. The annual tritium requirement at the time this study was undertaken (1992-1993) was 3/8 that of the 1988 goal, usually stated as 3/8-Goal. Continued reduction in the number of weapons in the stockpile has led to a revised (lower) production requirement today (March, 1995). The production requirement needed to maintain the reduced stockpile, as stated in the recent Nuclear Posture Review (summer 1994) is approximately 3/16-Goal, half the previous level. The Nuclear Posture Review also requires that the production plant be designed to accomodate a production increase (surge) to 3/8-Goal capability within five years, to allow recovery from a possible extended outage of the tritium plant. A multi-laboratory team, collaborating with several industrial partners, has developed a preconceptual APT design for the 3/8-Goal, operating at 75% capacity. The team has presented APT as a promising alternative to the reactor concepts proposed for Complex-21. Given the requirements of a reduced weapons stockpile, APT offers both significant safety, environmental, and production-fexibility advantages in comparison with reactor systems, and the prospect of successful development in time to meet the US defense requirements of the 21st Century.

  4. Savannah River Remediation Cost Savings Initiative - 12339

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Neil R.

    2012-07-01

    Savannah River enjoyed two years of increased funding as a result of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act and Department of Energy (DOE) directed scope additions. Moving into FY2012, a much lower funding level is anticipated. In the past, the first response to a reduced funding scenario was to defer scope and slow down the program. This time, Savannah River decided that a better process was needed to try to maximize value to the government. This approach was named the Cost Savings Initiative (CSI). The CSI process is similar to a zero-based budget concept. Every element of work scope was screened to eliminate everything that was not directly related to safety and regulatory compliance. Then the schedules for the regulatory-driven scope were deferred such that the regulatory milestones were achieved just in time with no acceleration. This resulted in a strategy that met regulatory requirements in FY2012-13 with some remaining funding but not in FY2014-15. The remaining funding was then invested in cost savings initiatives in FY2012-13 to reduce the future cost of doing business in the FY2014-15 timeframe and beyond. This resulted in a Strategy that: - Meets all regulatory commitments; - Meets some regulatory commitments early; and - Preserves most of the life cycle savings that were built in to the baseline plan The CSI process used at Savannah River may be considered for application elsewhere in the DOE Complex. (authors)

  5. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  6. Assembly of oxygen-evolving Photosystem II efficiently occurs with the apo-Cytb559 but the holo-Cytb559 accelerates the recovery of a functional enzyme upon photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Miwa; Nakamura, Makoto; Koyama, Kazumi; Boussac, Alain

    2015-02-01

    Cytb559 in Photosystem II is a heterodimeric b-type cytochrome. The subunits, PsbE and PsbF, consist each in a membrane α-helix. Roles for Cytb559 remain elusive. In Thermosynechococcus elongatus, taking advantage of the robustness of the PSII variant with PsbA3 as the D1 subunit (WT*3), 4 mutants were designed hoping to get mutants nevertheless the obligatory phototrophy of this cyanobacterium. In two of them, an axial histidine ligand of the haem-iron was substituted for either a methionine, PsbE/H23M, which could be potentially a ligand or for an alanine, PsbE/H23A, which cannot. In the other mutants, PsbE/Y19F and PsbE/T26P, the environment around PsbE/H23 was expected to be modified. From EPR, MALDI-TOF and O2 evolution activity measurements, the following results were obtained: Whereas the PsbE/H23M and PsbE/H23A mutants assemble only an apo-Cytb559 the steady-state level of active PSII was comparable to that in WT*3. The lack of the haem or, in PsbE/T26P, conversion of the high-potential into a lower potential form, slowed-down the recovery rate of the O2 activity after high-light illumination but did not affect the photoinhibition rate. This resulted in the following order for the steady-state level of active PSII centers under high-light conditions: PsbE/H23M≈PsbE/H23A< PsbE/Y19F≤PsbE/T26P≤WT*3. These data show i) that the haem has no structural role provided that PsbE and PsbF are present, ii) a lack of correlation between the rate of photoinhibition and the Em of the haem and iii) that the holo-Cytb559 favors the recovery of a functional enzyme upon photoinhibition. PMID:25481108

  7. Attention's Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Robert M G; McClenahan, Laura J; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2016-06-01

    How do people get attention to operate at peak efficiency in high-pressure situations? We tested the hypothesis that the general mechanism that allows this is the maintenance of multiple target representations in working and long-term memory. We recorded subjects' event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing the working memory and long-term memory representations used to control attention while performing visual search. We found that subjects used both types of memories to control attention when they performed the visual search task with a large reward at stake, or when they were cued to respond as fast as possible. However, under normal circumstances, one type of target memory was sufficient for slower task performance. The use of multiple types of memory representations appears to provide converging top-down control of attention, allowing people to step on the attentional accelerator in a variety of high-pressure situations. PMID:27056975

  8. Heart Attack Recovery FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Heart Attack Recovery FAQs Updated:Aug 24,2016 Most people ... recovery. View an animation of a heart attack . Heart Attack Recovery Questions and Answers What treatments will I ...

  9. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Shaun S.; Reid, Donald; Marras, Stefano; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fueled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope (AS) or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced AS could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how AS and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden gray mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26°C, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and AS using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasize that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with vigilance and recovery from anaerobic exercise

  10. Accelerating video carving from unallocated space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalva, Hari; Parikh, Anish; Srinivasan, Avinash

    2013-03-01

    Video carving has become an essential tool in digital forensics. Video carving enables recovery of deleted video files from hard disks. Processing data to extract videos is a computationally intensive task. In this paper we present two methods to accelerate video carving: a method to accelerate fragment extraction, and a method to accelerate combining of these fragments into video segments. Simulation results show that complexity of video fragment extraction can be reduced by as much as 75% with minimal impact on the videos recovered.

  11. The Berkeley accelerator space effects facility (BASE) - A newmission for the 88-inch cyclotron at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    McMahan, M.A.

    2005-09-06

    In FY04, the 88-Inch Cyclotron began a new operating mode that supports a local research program in nuclear science, R&D in accelerator technology and a test facility for the National Security Space (NSS) community (the U.S. Air Force and NRO). The NSS community (and others on a cost recovery basis) can take advantage of both the light- and heavy-ion capabilities of the Cyclotron to simulate the space radiation environment. A significant portion of this work involves the testing of microcircuits for single event effects. The experimental areas within the building that are used for the radiation effects testing are now called the Berkeley Accelerator and Space Effects (BASE) facility. Improvements to the facility to provide increased reliability, quality assurance and new capabilities are underway and will be discussed. These include a 16 AMeV ''cocktail'' of beams for heavy ion testing, a neutron beam, more robust dosimetry, and other upgrades.

  12. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration.

    PubMed

    Nanni, Emilio A; Huang, Wenqian R; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Miller, R J Dwayne; Kärtner, Franz X

    2015-01-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30-50 MeV m(-1) gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. These ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams. PMID:26439410

  13. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.

  14. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeV m−1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. These ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams. PMID:26439410

  15. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30-50 MeV m-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. These ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.

  16. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  17. Acceleration modules in linear induction accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shao-Heng; Deng, Jian-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) is a unique type of accelerator that is capable of accelerating kilo-Ampere charged particle current to tens of MeV energy. The present development of LIA in MHz bursting mode and the successful application into a synchrotron have broadened LIA's usage scope. Although the transformer model is widely used to explain the acceleration mechanism of LIAs, it is not appropriate to consider the induction electric field as the field which accelerates charged particles for many modern LIAs. We have examined the transition of the magnetic cores' functions during the LIA acceleration modules' evolution, distinguished transformer type and transmission line type LIA acceleration modules, and re-considered several related issues based on transmission line type LIA acceleration module. This clarified understanding should help in the further development and design of LIA acceleration modules.

  18. Progress on plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1986-05-01

    Several plasma accelerator concepts are reviewed, with emphasis on the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator (PWFA). Various accelerator physics issues regarding these schemes are discussed, and numerical examples on laboratory scale experiments are given. The efficiency of plasma accelerators is then revealed with suggestions on improvements. Sources that cause emittance growth are discussed briefly.

  19. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton acceleratorsmore » with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.« less

  20. Accelerating deactivation

    SciTech Connect

    FISHBACK, K.M.

    1999-02-01

    In recent years, the focus of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex has shifted from defense production to facility stabilization, decommissioning, and environmental restoration. This shift from production to cleanup requires a parallel shift from operations-focused management to project-focused management for an efficient facility deactivation. In the operation-focused management organization, activities are planned and executed based on production goals and are typically repetitive and cyclic. In the project-focused management environment, activities are based on a defined scope/end objective, start date, and completion date. Since the workforce used to perform production operations is also usually relied onto perform facility deactivation, it is important to shift from an operations management approach to a project management approach. It is best if the transition is accomplished quickly so the project can move forward and workers don't spend a lot of energy anticipating change. Therefore, it is essential that managers, planners, and other workers understand the key elements associated with planning a deactivation project. This paper describes a planning approach that has been used successfully to plan deactivation projects consistent with the requirements provided in DOE Order 430.1A Life Cycle Asset Management and the companion Deactivation Implementation Guide, G430. 1A-3, while exceeding schedule expectations and reducing costs. Although the planning of a deactivation project closely mirrors the classic project planning for construction projects, there are unique variations associated with facility deactivation. The key elements of planning a deactivation project are discussed relative to scope, schedule, and cost. Management tools such as project metrics and histograms are discussed as desired outputs from the planning process. In addition, lessons learned from planning deactivation projects across the DOE complex are discussed relative to making the

  1. Acceleration schedules for a recirculating heavy-ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-05-01

    Recent advances in solid-state switches have made it feasible to design programmable, high-repetition-rate pulsers for induction accelerators. These switches could lower the cost of recirculating induction accelerators, such as the ''small recirculator'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), by substantially reducing the number of induction modules. Numerical work is reported here to determine what effects the use of fewer pulsers at higher voltage would have on the beam quality of the LLNL small recirculator. Lattices with different numbers of pulsers are examined using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE, and several schedules for acceleration and compression are compared for each configuration. For selected schedules, the phase-space dynamics is also studied using the particle-in-cell code WARP3d.

  2. KEKB accelerator control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasaka, Nobumasa; Akiyama, Atsuyoshi; Araki, Sakae; Furukawa, Kazuro; Katoh, Tadahiko; Kawamoto, Takashi; Komada, Ichitaka; Kudo, Kikuo; Naito, Takashi; Nakamura, Tatsuro; Odagiri, Jun-ichi; Ohnishi, Yukiyoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Suetake, Masaaki; Takeda, Shigeru; Takeuchi, Yasunori; Yamamoto, Noboru; Yoshioka, Masakazu; Kikutani, Eji

    2003-02-01

    The KEKB accelerator control system including a control computer system, a timing distribution system, and a safety control system are described. KEKB accelerators were installed in the same tunnel where the TRISTAN accelerator was. There were some constraints due to the reused equipment. The control system is based on Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). In order to reduce the cost and labor for constructing the KEKB control system, as many CAMAC modules as possible are used again. The guiding principles of the KEKB control computer system are as follows: use EPICS as the controls environment, provide a two-language system for developing application programs, use VMEbus as frontend computers as a consequence of EPICS, use standard buses, such as CAMAC, GPIB, VXIbus, ARCNET, RS-232 as field buses and use ergonomic equipment for operators and scientists. On the software side, interpretive Python and SAD languages are used for coding application programs. The purpose of the radiation safety system is to protect personnel from radiation hazards. It consists of an access control system and a beam interlock system. The access control system protects people from strong radiation inside the accelerator tunnel due to an intense beam, by controlling access to the beamline area. On the other hand, the beam interlock system prevents people from radiation exposure by interlocking the beam operation. For the convenience of accelerator operation and access control, the region covered by the safety system is divided into three major access control areas: the KEKB area, the PF-AR area, and the beam-transport (BT) area. The KEKB control system required a new timing system to match a low longitudinal acceptance due to a low-alpha machine. This timing system is based on a frequency divider/multiply technique and a digital delay technique. The RF frequency of the KEKB rings and that of the injector Linac are locked with a common divisor frequency. The common

  3. Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation: Advancing Computational Science for Future Accelerators and Accelerator Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Spentzouris, P.; Cary, J.; McInnes, L.C.; Mori, W.; Ng, C.; Ng, E.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-11-14

    for software development and applications accounts for the natural domain areas (beam dynamics, electromagnetics, and advanced acceleration), and all areas depend on the enabling technologies activities, such as solvers and component technology, to deliver the desired performance and integrated simulation environment. The ComPASS applications focus on computationally challenging problems important for design or performance optimization to all major HEP, NP, and BES accelerator facilities. With the cost and complexity of particle accelerators rising, the use of computation to optimize their designs and find improved operating regimes becomes essential, potentially leading to significant cost savings with modest investment.

  4. New coal breaker said to cost less, separate out more sulfur and ash than rotary types

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    A second-generation coal breaker that can reduce coal top size to 1/4 inch will cost less and do a better job of separating ash and sulfur from coal, according to the manufacturer Harrison Handling, Inc. The new equipment could make conventional coal breaking and crushing equipment obsolete. Citing test results, a company spokesman describes a 1% reduction in sulfur and 2.5% reduction in ash content and a higher Btu recovery rate. One utility expressed interest in whether the accelerator would handle tramp iron vetter. 3 figures.

  5. Control systems for Coline accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baczewski, Artur; Latała, Agata; Ceglińska, Kaja; Andrasiak, Michał

    2008-01-01

    Medical linear accelerators are the largest group of devices for therapy of cancer diseases because of their compact design, relatively low operating costs, advanced features and broad range of treatment procedures. Their reliability and ease of operation are very important but the most crucial is to ensure personnel and patient safety. For this reason the development of control and safety systems is the current "leading edge" in medical linear accelerators technology. Provided internal monitoring, machine control and steering, interlock system as well as the automatic recording of the device and patient parameters are nowadays fully controlled by the computer. This paper describes in details projects connected to advanced development of Coline accelerators. As it is crucial to assure reliable steering and monitoring of all the machine settings and actual dose delivered to the patient, advanced control systems composed of steering, control and interlock systems, communication protocol as well as data management system have been developed.

  6. Faces of the Recovery Act: 1366 Technologies

    ScienceCinema

    Sachs, Ely; Mierlo, Frank van; Obama, Barack

    2013-05-29

    LEXINGTON, MA - At 1366 Technologies, Ely Sachs and Frank van Mierlo are using ARPA-E Recovery Act funding to dramatically reduce the costs of solar panel production. To read more about the project: http://arpa-e.energy.gov/FundedProjects.aspx#1366 To see more projects funded by the Recovery Act through ARPA-E: http://arpa-e.energy.gov/FundedProjects.aspx

  7. Faces of the Recovery Act: 1366 Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, Ely; Mierlo, Frank van; Obama, Barack

    2010-01-01

    LEXINGTON, MA - At 1366 Technologies, Ely Sachs and Frank van Mierlo are using ARPA-E Recovery Act funding to dramatically reduce the costs of solar panel production. To read more about the project: http://arpa-e.energy.gov/FundedProjects.aspx#1366 To see more projects funded by the Recovery Act through ARPA-E: http://arpa-e.energy.gov/FundedProjects.aspx

  8. Accelerating Spectrum Sharing Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Juan D. Deaton; Lynda L. Brighton; Rangam Subramanian; Hussein Moradi; Jose Loera

    2013-09-01

    Spectrum sharing potentially holds the promise of solving the emerging spectrum crisis. However, technology innovators face the conundrum of developing spectrum sharing technologies without the ability to experiment and test with real incumbent systems. Interference with operational incumbents can prevent critical services, and the cost of deploying and operating an incumbent system can be prohibitive. Thus, the lack of incumbent systems and frequency authorization for technology incubation and demonstration has stymied spectrum sharing research. To this end, industry, academia, and regulators all require a test facility for validating hypotheses and demonstrating functionality without affecting operational incumbent systems. This article proposes a four-phase program supported by our spectrum accountability architecture. We propose that our comprehensive experimentation and testing approach for technology incubation and demonstration will accelerate the development of spectrum sharing technologies.

  9. Energy recovery through termites. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Granger, J.A.

    1981-12-15

    This project, Energy Recovery Through Termites, was based on the proposed development of an energy recovery system to produce low cost animal protein for use in animal feeds. The result of my study shows that to date we are unable to establish viable colonies of termites. This is based on several key factors as follows: (a) inability to capture reproductives to establish new colonies in a confined area needed to offer recovery or harvest of protein; (b) confinement of colonies (even without queen or reproductives) has proven to be far too complex to establish in low cost and modest facilities; (c) the proposal is not cost effective. The resources of skill and materials could not be repaid from the protein recovered.

  10. Strontium-90 and promethium-147 recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hoisington, J.E.; McDonell, W.R.

    1982-08-30

    Strontium-90 and promethium-147 are fission product radionuclides with potential for use as heat source materials in high reliability, non-interruptible power supplies. Interest has recently been expressed in their utilization for Department of Defense (DOD) applications. This memorandum summarizes the current inventories, the annual production rates, and the possible recovery of Sr-90 and Pm-147 from nuclear materials production operations at Hanford and Savannah River. Recovery of these isotopes from LWR spend fuel utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP) is also considered. Unit recovery costs at each site are provided.

  11. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Cheryl R.; Stanley, Margaret C.; Burns, Bruce R.; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return. PMID

  12. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes.

    PubMed

    Krull, Cheryl R; Stanley, Margaret C; Burns, Bruce R; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return. PMID

  13. Injector Design for Advanced Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henestroza, Enrique; Faltens, A.

    1996-11-01

    Accelerator designs intended to provide acceleration at a much lower cost per Joule than the ILSE or ELISE designs are under study. For these designs, which typically have many beams, an injector of significantly lower cost is needed. A goal, which from our design appears to be achievable, is to reduce the transverse dimension to half that of the 2 MeV, 800 mA ILSE injector(E. Henestroza, ``Injectors for Heavy Ion Fusion", Proc. of the 11th International Wkshp. on Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena, 1993.) while generating about the same current. A single channel of a lower cost injector includes an 800 kV column, accelerating a 700 mA beam extracted from a potassium source of 4 cm radius by a 120 kV electrode. The beam passes into a superconducting 7 T solenoid of 15 cm aperture and 15 cm length. This high-field solenoid provides the focusing needed for a small beam without increasing the electric field gradient. The injector and its matching section, also designed, fit within a 12 cm radius, which is small enough to allow construction of attractive multi-beam injectors. We will present solutions for the generation and transport of 700 mA potassium beams of up to 1.6 MeV within the same transverse constraint.

  14. A single pass electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Marlin N.; Vroom, David A.

    1995-02-01

    Higher volumes, increasing competition and the need to improve quality have led us to re-examine the process for irradiation of tubing and wire. Traditionallyin Raychem, product irradiation has involved the use of large multi-purpose facilities that were designed to handle relatively small volumes of a large variety of products as a separate process. Today, with larger volumes of certain products, there is an interest in combining processes to improve quality and reduce cost. We have recently designed and constructed a small, low voltage accelerator system that can be placed in-line with another manufacturing process and can uniformly irradiate a tube or wire product in a single pass. The system is comprised of two conventional accelerator systems having elongated filaments and placed on opposite sides of a linear product path. The ribbon shaped electron beams from these two accelerators are scanned, after acceleration toward the product path, in a conventional manner and 180 degrees out of phase from each other. The two accelerated electron beams then enter a third magnetic field that is synchronous with the scanning magnets and whose oscillating polarity is such that the ribbon beams are converged onto a tubular shaped window close to and around a segment of the product path. Trials with a prototype system have produced tubing having a dose concentricity of better than ± 10 percent on a single pass through the system.

  15. A variable acceleration calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas H.

    2011-12-01

    A variable acceleration calibration system that applies loads using gravitational and centripetal acceleration serves as an alternative, efficient and cost effective method for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances. Two proof-of-concept variable acceleration calibration systems are designed, fabricated and tested. The NASA UT-36 force balance served as the test balance for the calibration experiments. The variable acceleration calibration systems are shown to be capable of performing three component calibration experiments with an approximate applied load error on the order of 1% of the full scale calibration loads. Sources of error are indentified using experimental design methods and a propagation of uncertainty analysis. Three types of uncertainty are indentified for the systems and are attributed to prediction error, calibration error and pure error. Angular velocity uncertainty is shown to be the largest indentified source of prediction error. The calibration uncertainties using a production variable acceleration based system are shown to be potentially equivalent to current methods. The production quality system can be realized using lighter materials and a more precise instrumentation. Further research is needed to account for balance deflection, forcing effects due to vibration, and large tare loads. A gyroscope measurement technique is shown to be capable of resolving the balance deflection angle calculation. Long term research objectives include a demonstration of a six degree of freedom calibration, and a large capacity balance calibration.

  16. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1979-10-25

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

  17. Educational Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert

    Problems in educational cost accounting and a new cost accounting approach are described in this paper. The limitations of the individualized cost (student units) approach and the comparative cost approach (in the form of fund-function-object) are illustrated. A new strategy, an activity-based system of accounting, is advocated. Borrowed from…

  18. Opportunities for TeV Laser Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Kando, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Koga, J.K.; Bulanov, S.; Chao, A.W.; Esirkepov, T.; Hajima, R.; Tajima, T.; /JAERI, Kyoto

    2008-06-02

    A set of ballpark parameters for laser, plasma, and accelerator technologies that define for electron energies reaching as high as TeV are identified. These ballpark parameters are carved out from the fundamental scaling laws that govern laser acceleration, theoretically suggested and experimentally explored over a wide range in the recent years. In the density regime on the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}, the appropriate laser technology, we find, matches well with that of a highly efficient high fluence LD driven Yb ceramic laser. Further, the collective acceleration technique applies to compactify the beam stoppage stage by adopting the beam-plasma wave deceleration, which contributes to significantly enhance the stopping power and energy recovery capability of the beam. Thus we find the confluence of the needed laser acceleration parameters dictated by these scaling laws and the emerging laser technology. This may herald a new technology in the ultrahigh energy frontier.

  19. The +Gz recovery of consciousness curve

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The limiting physiological envelope to extreme gravitational stress is defined by neurologic symptoms and signs that result from exceeding neurologic tolerance. The edge of the limiting envelope is defined by the complete incapacitation associated with acceleration (+Gz) induced loss of consciousness. Should + Gz-induced loss of consciousness occur in-flight, brisk recovery of conscious function is essential for aircraft recovery. If recovery does not occur, accident investigation aimed at preventing such accidents is enhanced by understanding the temporal aspects of the resulting incapacitation. The mechanistic basis of neurological reintegration leading to consciousness recovery is of broad medical and scientific interest. Methods Recovery of consciousness episodes from a prospectively developed +Gz-induced loss of consciousness repository of healthy individuals was analyzed to define variables influencing recovery of consciousness. The time from loss to recovery of consciousness as measured by observable signs, is defined as the absolute incapacitation period. The absolute incapacitation period from 760 episodes of loss and recovery of consciousness in healthy humans was analyzed to define +Gz-profile variables that determine the duration of functional neurologic compromise. Results Mean time from loss to return of consciousness for 760 episodes of consciousness recovery was 10.4 ± 5.1 s; minimum 1 s; maximum 38 s. Offset rate for the +Gz-exposure deceleration profiles varied from a minimum of 0.17 Gs−1 to a maximum of 7.93 Gs−1.The curve produced by plotting +Gz-offset rate (Gs−1; y) versus absolute incapacitation period (s; x) described a hyperbolic relationship. The hyperbolic relationship indicates there is a minimum time (mean 8.29 ± 3.84 s) required for recovery of consciousness when complete loss of consciousness occurs. Conclusions Mean recovery time from +Gz-induced unconsciousness is dependent on the deceleration profile's offset

  20. Dusty-Plasma Particle Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2005-01-01

    A dusty-plasma apparatus is being investigated as means of accelerating nanometer- and micrometer-sized particles. Applications for the dusty-plasma particle accelerators fall into two classes: Simulation of a variety of rapidly moving dust particles and micrometeoroids in outer-space environments that include micrometeoroid streams, comet tails, planetary rings, and nebulae and Deposition or implantation of nanoparticles on substrates for diverse industrial purposes that could include hardening, increasing thermal insulation, altering optical properties, and/or increasing permittivities of substrate materials. Relative to prior apparatuses used for similar applications, dusty-plasma particle accelerators offer such potential advantages as smaller size, lower cost, less complexity, and increased particle flux densities. A dusty-plasma particle accelerator exploits the fact that an isolated particle immersed in plasma acquires a net electric charge that depends on the relative mobilities of electrons and ions. Typically, a particle that is immersed in a low-temperature, partially ionized gas, wherein the average kinetic energy of electrons exceeds that of ions, causes the particle to become negatively charged. The particle can then be accelerated by applying an appropriate electric field. A dusty-plasma particle accelerator (see figure) includes a plasma source such as a radio-frequency induction discharge apparatus containing (1) a shallow cup with a biasable electrode to hold the particles to be accelerated and (2) a holder for the substrate on which the particles are to impinge. Depending on the specific design, a pair of electrostatic-acceleration grids between the substrate and discharge plasma can be used to both collimate and further accelerate particles exiting the particle holder. Once exposed to the discharge plasma, the particles in the cup quickly acquire a negative charge. Application of a negative voltage pulse to the biasable electrode results in the

  1. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2006-04-18

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  2. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2005-06-14

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  3. Nutrition for recovery in aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Mujika, Iñigo

    2014-08-01

    Postexercise recovery is an important topic among aquatic athletes and involves interest in the quality, quantity, and timing of intake of food and fluids after workouts or competitive events to optimize processes such as refueling, rehydration, repair, and adaptation. Recovery processes that help to minimize the risk of illness and injury are also important but are less well documented. Recovery between workouts or competitive events may have two separate goals: (a) restoration of body losses and changes caused by the first session to restore performance for the next and (b) maximization of the adaptive responses to the stress provided by the session to gradually make the body become better at the features of exercise that are important for performance. In some cases, effective recovery occurs only when nutrients are supplied, and an early supply of nutrients may also be valuable in situations in which the period immediately after exercise provides an enhanced stimulus for recovery. This review summarizes contemporary knowledge of nutritional strategies to promote glycogen resynthesis, restoration of fluid balance, and protein synthesis after different types of exercise stimuli. It notes that some scenarios benefit from a proactive approach to recovery eating, whereas others may not need such attention. In fact, in some situations it may actually be beneficial to withhold nutritional support immediately after exercise. Each athlete should use a cost-benefit analysis of the approaches to recovery after different types of workouts or competitive events and then periodize different recovery strategies into their training or competition programs. PMID:24901517

  4. Evolution of hosts paying manifold costs of defence

    PubMed Central

    Cressler, Clayton E.; Graham, Andrea L.; Day, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Hosts are expected to incur several physiological costs in defending against parasites. These include constitutive energetic (or other resource) costs of a defence system, facultative resource costs of deploying defences when parasites strike, and immunopathological costs of collateral damage. Here, we investigate the evolution of host recovery rates, varying the source and magnitude of immune costs. In line with previous work, we find that hosts paying facultative resource costs evolve faster recovery rates than hosts paying constitutive costs. However, recovery rate is more sensitive to changes in facultative costs, potentially explaining why constitutive costs are hard to detect empirically. Moreover, we find that immunopathology costs which increase with recovery rate can erode the benefits of defence, promoting chronicity of infection. Immunopathology can also lead to hosts evolving low recovery rate in response to virulent parasites. Furthermore, when immunopathology reduces fecundity as recovery rate increases (e.g. as for T-cell responses to urogenital chlamydiosis), then recovery and reproductive rates do not covary as predicted in eco-immunology. These results suggest that immunopathological and resource costs have qualitatively different effects on host evolution and that embracing the complexity of immune costs may be essential for explaining variability in immune defence in nature. PMID:25740895

  5. Disaster Recovery Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jeannine W.

    1985-01-01

    Every school needs an effective disaster recovery plan that is flexible, comprehensive and designed to take into account unexpected disasters. Presents guidelines for preparing such a plan, with immediate and long-range recovery procedures. (MD)

  6. Recovery Act Milestones

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  7. Recovery Act Milestones

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2013-05-29

    Every 100 days, the Department of Energy is held accountable for a progress report on the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. Update at 200 days, hosted by Matt Rogers, Senior Advisor to Secretary Steven Chu for Recovery Act Implementation.

  8. Youth in Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Miranda, John; Williams, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Young people are entering long-term recovery probably in greater numbers than ever before. A key word here is "probably" because we know precious little about the phenomenon of young people who recover from alcohol and drug addition. This article is a preliminary exploration of youth in recovery. It reviews several types of recovery support…

  9. What Is "No Recovery?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Thanatologists, as Balk recently commented (Balk, 2004), have been saying that there is no recovery from bereavement, or that we should not speak of bereavement as leading to a recovery. The term recovery has a high level of plasticity and can be shaped to fit diverse meanings, including contradictory meanings. We will sort our way through some of…

  10. Enhanced oil recovery update

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.V

    1989-03-01

    Technology continues to grow in the realm of enhanced oil recovery. Since 1950 several processes have proven economic for oil recovery. Others are still in their infancy and must be custom designed for each reservoir. This paper gives a general overview of these processes. The author focuses on the latest technology and the outlook for enhanced oil recovery operations.

  11. Electron accelerators: History, applications, and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, M. N.; Silva, T. F.

    2014-02-01

    This paper will present an outlook on sources of radiation, focusing on electron accelerators. We will review advances that were important for the development of particle accelerators, concentrating on those that led to modern electron accelerators. Electron accelerators are multipurpose machines that deliver beams with energies spanning five orders of magnitude, and are used in applications that range from fundamental studies of particle interactions to cross-linking polymer chains in industrial plants. Each accelerator type presents specific characteristics that make it more suitable for certain applications. Our work will focus on radiation sources for medical applications, dominated by electron linacs (linear accelerators), and those used for research, field where electron rings dominate. We will outline the main technological advances that occurred in the past decades, which made possible the construction of machines fit for clinical environments. Their compactness, efficiency and reliability have been key to their acceptance in clinical applications. This outline will include advances that allowed for the construction of brighter synchrotron light sources, where the relevant beam characteristics are good optical quality and high beam current. The development of insertion devices will also be discussed, as well the development of Free Electron Lasers (FEL). We conclude the review with an outline of the new developments of electron accelerators and the expectations for Energy Recovery Linacs.

  12. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-12

    In June 2009, ArcelorMittal learned about the potential to receive a 50% cost-matching grant from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ArcelorMittal applied for the competitive grant and, in November, received $31.6 million as a DOE cost-sharing award. By matching the federal funding, ArcelorMittal was able to construct a new, high efficiency Energy Recovery & Reuse 504 Boiler and supporting infrastructure.

  13. Hybrid Laser-Plasma Wakefield Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Hidding, B.; Koenigstein, T.; Willi, O.; Pretzler, G.; Karsch, S.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2010-11-04

    The concept of driving a driver/witness-type plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) with quasimonoenergetic double electron bunches from a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) is studied. In the quasimonoenergetic LWFA/SMLWFA (self-modulated LWFA) regime, it is possible to generate multiple quasimonoenergetic electron bunches with durations of only a few fs and distances of only a few tens of fs with a comparably simple experimental setup. In a subsequent high-density plasma afterburner stage the witness bunch energy can be boosted in the plasma wakefield generated by the driver. Such a hybrid system can increase the maximum energy output of a laser wakefield accelerator and is well suited to study driver/witness plasma accelerator phenomena and can be used as a cost-effective test-bed for future high-energy plasma-based accelerators.

  14. Hybrid Laser-Plasma Wakefield Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidding, B.; Königstein, T.; Karsch, S.; Willi, O.; Pretzler, G.; Rosenzweig, J. B.

    2010-11-01

    The concept of driving a driver/witness-type plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) with quasimonoenergetic double electron bunches from a laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) is studied. In the quasimonoenergetic LWFA/SMLWFA (self-modulated LWFA) regime, it is possible to generate multiple quasimonoenergetic electron bunches with durations of only a few fs and distances of only a few tens of fs with a comparably simple experimental setup. In a subsequent high-density plasma afterburner stage the witness bunch energy can be boosted in the plasma wakefield generated by the driver. Such a hybrid system can increase the maximum energy output of a laser wakefield accelerator and is well suited to study driver/witness plasma accelerator phenomena and can be used as a cost-effective test-bed for future high-energy plasma-based accelerators.

  15. Accelerator-induced transients in Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Ali; Lindley, Benjamin A.; Parks, Geoffrey T.

    2012-12-01

    Achieving higher particles energies and beam powers have long been the main focus of research in accelerator technology. Since Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactors (ADSRs) have become the subject of increasing interest, accelerator reliability and modes of operation have become important matters that require further research and development in order to accommodate the engineering and economic needs of ADSRs. This paper focuses on neutronic and thermo-mechanical analyses of accelerator-induced transients in an ADSR. Such transients fall into three main categories: beam interruptions (trips), pulsed-beam operation, and beam overpower. The concept of a multiple-target ADSR is shown to increase system reliability and to mitigate the negative effects of beam interruptions, such as thermal cyclic fatigue in the fuel cladding and the huge financial cost of total power loss. This work also demonstrates the effectiveness of the temperature-to-reactivity feedback mechanisms in ADSRs. A comparison of shutdown mechanisms using control rods and beam cut-off highlights the intrinsic safety features of ADSRs. It is evident that the presence of control rods is crucial in an industrial-scale ADSR. This paper also proposes a method to monitor core reactivity online using the repetitive pattern of beam current fluctuations in a pulsed-beam operation mode. Results were produced using PTS-ADS, a computer code developed specifically to study the dynamic neutronic and thermal responses to beam transients in subcritical reactor systems.

  16. Operational cost drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, Arthur L.; Dickinson, William J.

    1988-01-01

    To be economically viable, the operations cost of launch vehicles must be reduced by an order of magnitude as compared to the Space Transportation System (STS). A summary of propulsion-related operations cost drivers derived from a two-year study of Shuttle ground operations is presented. Examples are given of the inordinate time and cost of launch operations caused by propulsion systems designs that did not adequately consider impacts on prelaunching processing. Typical of these cost drivers are those caused by central hydraulic systems, storable propellants, gimballed engines, multiple propellants, He and N2 systems and purges, hard starts, high maintenance turbopumps, accessibility problems, and most significantly, the use of multiple, nonintegrated RCS, OMS, and main propulsion systems. Recovery and refurbishment of SRBs have resulted in expensive crash and salvage operations. Vehicle system designers are encouraged to be acutely aware of these cost drivers and to incorporate solutions (beginning with the design concepts) to avoid business as usual and costs as usual.

  17. Cost goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoag, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cost goal activities for the point focusing parabolic dish program are reported. Cost goals involve three tasks: (1) determination of the value of the dish systems to potential users; (2) the cost targets of the dish system are set out; (3) the value side and cost side are integrated to provide information concerning the potential size of the market for parabolic dishes. The latter two activities are emphasized.

  18. Options to accelerate ozone recovery:ozone and climate benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, J. S.; Fleming, E. L.; Portmann, R. W.; Velders, G. J. M.; Jackman, C. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2010-04-01

    Hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), including N2O, are evaluated in terms of effects on equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), globally-averaged total column ozone, and radiative forcing through 2100. Due to the established success of the Montreal Protocol, these actions can have only a fraction of the impact that regulations already in force have had. If all anthropogenic ODS emissions were halted beginning in 2011, ozone is calculated to be higher by about 1-2{%} during the period 2030-2100 compared to a case of no additional ODS restrictions. Radiative forcing by 2100 would be about 0.23 W/m2 lower due to the elimination of N2O emissions and about 0.005 W/m2 lower due to destruction of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) bank. The ability of EESC to be a suitable metric for total ozone is also quantified. Responding to the recent suggestion that N2O should be considered an ODS, we provide an approach to incorporate N2O into the EESC formulation.

  19. Options to accelerate ozone recovery: ozone and climate benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, J. S.; Fleming, E. L.; Portmann, R. W.; Velders, G. J. M.; Jackman, C. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2010-08-01

    Hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) and N2O are evaluated in terms of effects on equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC), globally-averaged total column ozone, and radiative forcing through 2100. Due to the established success of the Montreal Protocol, these actions can have only a fraction of the impact on ozone depletion that regulations already in force have had. If all anthropogenic ODS and N2O emissions were halted beginning in 2011, ozone is calculated to be higher by about 1-2% during the period 2030-2100 compared to a case of no additional restrictions. Direct radiative forcing by 2100 would be about 0.23 W/m2 lower from the elimination of anthropogenic N2O emissions and about 0.005 W/m2 lower from the destruction of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) bank. Due to the potential impact of N2O on future ozone levels, we provide an approach to incorporate it into the EESC formulation, which is used extensively in ozone depletion analyses. The ability of EESC to describe total ozone changes arising from additional ODS and N2O controls is also quantified.

  20. Accelerating Recovery from Poverty: Prevention Effects for Recently Separated Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated benefits of a preventive intervention to the living standards of recently separated mothers. In the Oregon Divorce Study's randomized experimental design, data were collected 5 times over 30 months and evaluated with Hierarchical Linear Growth Models. Relative to their no-intervention control counterparts, experimental mothers…

  1. Accelerating Recovery from Poverty: Prevention Effects for Recently Separated Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Forgatch, Marion S.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated benefits of a preventive intervention to the living standards of recently separated mothers. In the Oregon Divorce Study’s randomized experimental design, data were collected 5 times over 30 months and evaluated with Hierarchical Linear Growth Models. Relative to their no-intervention control counterparts, experimental mothers had greater improvements in gross annual income, discretionary annual income, poverty threshold, income-to-needs ratios, and financial stress. Comparisons showed the intervention to produce a greater increase in income-to-needs and a greater rise-above-poverty threshold. Benefits to income-to-needs were statistically independent of maternal depressed mood, divorce status, child support, and repartnering. Financial stress reductions were explained by the intervention effect on income-to-needs. The importance of helping disadvantaged families with evidence-based programs is discussed. PMID:19043620

  2. Options to Accelerate Ozone Recovery: Ozone and Climate Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, E. L.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Velders, G. J. M.; Jackman, C. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.

    2010-01-01

    The humankind or anthropogenic influence on ozone primarily originated from the chlorofluorocarbons and halons (chlorine and bromine). Representatives from governments have met periodically over the years to establish international regulations starting with the Montreal Protocol in 1987, which greatly limited the release of these ozone-depleting substances (DDSs). Two global models have been used to investigate the impact of hypothetical reductions in future emissions of ODSs on total column ozone. The investigations primarily focused on chlorine- and bromine-containing gases, but some computations also included nitrous oxide (N2O). The Montreal Protocol with ODS controls have been so successful that further regulations of chlorine- and bromine-containing gases could have only a fraction of the impact that regulations already in force have had. if all anthropogenic ODS emissions were halted beginning in 2011, ozone is calculated to be higher by about 1-2% during the period 2030-2100 compared to a case of no additional ODS restrictions. Chlorine- and bromine-containing gases and nitrous oxide are also greenhouse gases and lead to warming of the troposphere. Elimination of N 20 emissions would result in a reduction of radiative forcing of 0.23 W/sq m in 2100 than presently computed and destruction of the CFC bank would produce a reduction in radiative forcing of 0.005 W/sq m in 2100. This paper provides a quantitative way to consider future regulations of the CFC bank and N 20 emissions

  3. Influenza vaccination accelerates recovery of ferrets from lymphopenia.

    PubMed

    Music, Nedzad; Reber, Adrian J; Lipatov, Aleksandr S; Kamal, Ram P; Blanchfield, Kristy; Wilson, Jason R; Donis, Ruben O; Katz, Jacqueline M; York, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    Ferrets are a useful animal model for human influenza virus infections, since they closely mimic the pathogenesis of influenza viruses observed in humans. However, a lack of reagents, especially for flow cytometry of immune cell subsets, has limited research in this model. Here we use a panel of primarily species cross-reactive antibodies to identify ferret T cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), B cells, and granulocytes in peripheral blood. Following infection with seasonal H3N2 or H1N1pdm09 influenza viruses, these cell types showed rapid and dramatic changes in frequency, even though clinically the infections were mild. The loss of B cells and CD4 and CD8 T cells, and the increase in neutrophils, were especially marked 1-2 days after infection, when about 90% of CD8+ T cells disappeared from the peripheral blood. The different virus strains led to different kinetics of leukocyte subset alterations. Vaccination with homologous vaccine reduced clinical symptoms slightly, but led to a much more rapid return to normal leukocyte parameters. Assessment of clinical symptoms may underestimate the effectiveness of influenza vaccine in restoring homeostasis. PMID:24968319

  4. Tracking Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Paul W.

    2010-01-01

    Even though there's been a slight reprieve in energy costs, the reality is that the cost of non-renewable energy is increasing, and state education budgets are shrinking. One way to keep energy and operations costs from overshadowing education budgets is to develop a 10-year energy audit plan to eliminate waste. First, facility managers should…

  5. The aerodynamic challenges of SRB recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacchus, D. L.; Kross, D. A.; Moog, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Recovery and reuse of the Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters was baselined to support the primary goal to develop a low cost space transportation system. The recovery system required for the 170,000-lb boosters was for the largest and heaviest object yet to be retrieved from exoatmospheric conditions. State-of-the-art design procedures were ground-ruled and development testing minimized to produce both a reliable and cost effective system. The ability to utilize the inherent drag of the boosters during the initial phase of reentry was a key factor in minimizing the parachute loads, size and weight. A wind tunnel test program was devised to enable the accurate prediction of booster aerodynamic characteristics. Concurrently, wind tunnel, rocket sled and air drop tests were performed to develop and verify the performance of the parachute decelerator subsystem. Aerodynamic problems encountered during the overall recovery system development and the respective solutions are emphasized.

  6. The direction of acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Burde, Jan-Philipp; Lück, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration is a physical quantity that is difficult to understand and hence its complexity is often erroneously simplified. Many students think of acceleration as equivalent to velocity, a ˜ v. For others, acceleration is a scalar quantity, which describes the change in speed Δ|v| or Δ|v|/Δt (as opposed to the change in velocity). The main difficulty with the concept of acceleration therefore lies in developing a correct understanding of its direction. The free iOS app AccelVisu supports students in acquiring a correct conception of acceleration by showing acceleration arrows directly at moving objects.

  7. TURBULENT SHEAR ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2013-04-10

    We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a length scale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation that contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration becomes important on small scales. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm that the ensemble-averaged transport equation describes the turbulent shear acceleration.

  8. ASHRAE's new Chiller Heat Recovery Application Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Dorgan, C.B.; Dorgan, C.E.

    2000-07-01

    The new Chiller Heat Recovery Application Guide, published by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), provides a comprehensive reference manual on the options available for chiller heat recovery. The information in the guide will assist engineers, owners, and system operators in evaluating the potential of integrating chiller heat recovery into their cooling and heating systems. The primary focus is on new construction and applications where a chiller is being replaced due to inefficiency, high operating and maintenance (O and M) costs, or elimination of refrigerants containing ozone-depleting chemicals known as CFC/HCFCs. While chiller systems for commercial buildings are the primary focus of the guide, the information and procedures also apply to industrial heat pumps. The function of this paper is to highlight key information contained in the guide, including the major benefits of chiller heat recovery, primary candidates, and application procedures. A description of the guide's general format and contents is also provided.

  9. Economic feasibility study for phosphorus recovery processes.

    PubMed

    Molinos-Senante, María; Hernández-Sancho, Francesc; Sala-Garrido, Ramón; Garrido-Baserba, Manel

    2011-06-01

    Phosphorus recovery from wastewater has become a necessity for sustainable development because phosphorus is a non-renewable essential resource, and its discharge into the environment causes serious negative impacts. There are no economic incentives for the implementation of phosphorus recovery technologies because the selling price of rock phosphate is lower than phosphorus recovered from sewage. The methodologies used to determine the feasibility of such projects are usually focused on internal costs without considering environmental externalities. This article shows a methodology to assess the economic feasibility of wastewater phosphorus recovery projects that takes into account internal and external impacts. The shadow price of phosphorus is estimated using the directional distance function to measure the environmental benefits obtained by preventing the discharge of phosphorus into the environment. The economic feasibility analysis taking into account the environmental benefits shows that the phosphorus recovery is viable not only from sustainable development but also from an economic point of view. PMID:21809783

  10. The use of sugammadex for bariatric surgery: analysis of recovery time from neuromuscular blockade and possible economic impact

    PubMed Central

    De Robertis, Edoardo; Zito Marinosci, Geremia; Romano, Giovanni Marco; Piazza, Ornella; Iannuzzi, Michele; Cirillo, Fabrizio; De Simone, Stefania; Servillo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuromuscular block (NMB) monitoring and use of reversal agents accelerate the recovery time and improve the workflow in the operating room. We aimed to compare recovery times after sugammadex or neostigmine administration, and estimate the time spent in operating theater and the possible economic impact of a faster recovery, in morbidly obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods We conducted a retrospective study that analyzed data from records of morbidly obese patients (body mass index >40 kg/m2) undergoing elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery in which sugammadex or neostigmine were used to reverse NMB. Patients were divided in two groups: group 1 (sugammadex group [SUG]) received rocuronium and sugammadex for reversal and group 2 (neostigmine group [NEO]) received either rocuronium or cisatracurium and neostigmine. Data are presented as mean (standard deviation). Results Compared with NEO, SUG group showed shorter times to achieve train-of-four ratio of 0.9 (P<0.05) and an Aldrete score of 10 (P<0.05), a higher cost (€146.7 vs €3.6 [P<0.05]), plus a remarkable less duration of operating theater occupancy (P<0.05). Sugammadex cost accounted for 2.58% of the total cost per surgery, while neostigmine cost accounted for 0.06%. Total time saved in SUG group was 19.4 hours, which could be used to perform 12 extra laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomies. Conclusion Reversal from NMB was significantly faster with sugammadex than with neostigmine. Although sugammadex was substantially more expensive, duration of operating theater occupancy was reduced with potentially workflow increase or personnel reduced cost. PMID:27418846

  11. Personal computers in accelerator control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderssen, P. S.

    1988-07-01

    The advent of the personal computer has created a popular movement which has also made a strong impact on science and engineering. Flexible software environments combined with good computational performance and large storage capacities are becoming available at steadily decreasing costs. Of equal importance, however, is the quality of the user interface offered on many of these products. Graphics and screen interaction is available in ways that were only possible on specialized systems before. Accelerator engineers were quick to pick up the new technology. The first applications were probably for controllers and data gatherers for beam measurement equipment. Others followed, and today it is conceivable to make personal computer a standard component of an accelerator control system. This paper reviews the experience gained at CERN so far and describes the approach taken in the design of the common control center for the SPS and the future LEP accelerators. The design goal has been to be able to integrate personal computers into the accelerator control system and to build the operator's workplace around it.

  12. A portable accelerator control toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.A. III

    1997-06-01

    In recent years, the expense of creating good control software has led to a number of collaborative efforts among laboratories to share this cost. The EPICS collaboration is a particularly successful example of this trend. More recently another collaborative effort has addressed the need for sophisticated high level software, including model driven accelerator controls. This work builds upon the CDEV (Common DEVice) software framework, which provides a generic abstraction of a control system, and maps that abstraction onto a number of site-specific control systems including EPICS, the SLAC control system, CERN/PS and others. In principle, it is now possible to create portable accelerator control applications which have no knowledge of the underlying and site-specific control system. Applications based on CDEV now provide a growing suite of tools for accelerator operations, including general purpose displays, an on-line accelerator model, beamline steering, machine status displays incorporating both hardware and model information (such as beam positions overlaid with beta functions) and more. A survey of CDEV compatible portable applications will be presented, as well as plans for future development.

  13. Energy Recovery in Individuals with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sparling, Tawnee L.; Schmitt, Daniel; Miller, Charlotte E.; Guilak, Farshid; Somers, Tamara J.; Keefe, Francis J.; Queen, Robin M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pathological gaits have been shown to limit transfer between potential (PE) and kinetic (KE) energy during walking, which can increase locomotor costs. The purpose of this study was to examine whether energy exchange would be limited in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Ground reaction forces during walking were collected from 93 subjects with symptomatic knee OA (self-selected and fast speeds) and 13 healthy controls (self-selected speed) and used to calculate their center of mass (COM) movements, PE and KE relationships, and energy recovery during a stride. Correlations and linear regressions examined the impact of energy fluctuation phase and amplitude, walking velocity, body mass, self-reported pain, and radiographic severity on recovery. Paired t-tests were run to compare energy recovery between cohorts. Results Symptomatic knee OA subjects displayed lower energetic recovery during self-selected walking speeds than healthy controls (p=0.0018). PE and KE phase relationships explained the majority (66%) of variance in recovery. Recovery had a complex relationship with velocity and its change across speeds was significantly influenced by the self-selected walking speed of each subject. Neither radiographic OA scores nor subject self-reported measures demonstrated any relationship with energy recovery. Conclusions Knee OA reduces effective exchange of PE and KE, potentially increasing the muscular work required to control movements of the COM. Gait retraining may return subjects to more normal patterns of energy exchange and allow them to reduce fatigue. PMID:24752039

  14. Recovery and use of fission product noble metals

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.A.; Rohmann, C.A.; Perrigo, L.D.

    1980-06-01

    Noble metals in fission products are of strategic value. Market prices for noble metals are rising more rapidly than recovery costs. A promising concept has been developed for recovery of noble metals from fission product waste. Although the assessment was made only for the three noble metal fission products (Rh, Pd, Ru), there are other fission products and actinides which have potential value. (DLC)

  15. Making cents of acid recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Ondrey, G.; Shanley, A.

    1993-04-01

    Acid recovery may be expensive, but rising transportation and landfill costs may soon make it the only alternative. Traditionally, acids used in processes from titanium dioxide production to gasoline alkylation and metal pickling were neutralized and discharged into waterways or injected into deep wells. Today, however, discharge permits are being phased out in many countries, and deep well injection is coming under closer scrutiny. An even cheaper option was selling spent acid to fertilizer producers, who used it to dissolve phosphate ores. Health concerns, a depressed fertilizer market and tightening disposal regulations for gypsum byproduct have dried up this option. The paper discusses the processes and costs involved in spent acid regeneration, gypsum-free gas treatments, and problems with explosive contaminants.

  16. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  17. Improved plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  18. Integrated operations/payloads/fleet analysis. Volume 3: System costs. Appendix A: Program direct costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Individualized program direct costs for each satellite program are presented. This breakdown provides the activity level dependent costs for each satellite program. The activity level dependent costs, or, more simply, program direct costs, are comprised of the total payload costs (as these costs are strictly program dependent) and the direct launch vehicle costs. Only those incremental launch vehicle costs associated directly with the satellite program are considered. For expendable launch vehicles the direct costs include the vehicle investment hardware costs and the launch operations costs. For the reusable STS vehicles the direct costs include only the launch operations, recovery operations, command and control, vehicle maintenance, and propellant support. The costs associated with amortization of reusable vehicle investment, RDT&E range support, etc., are not included.

  19. Acceleration gradient of a plasma wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.

    2008-02-25

    The phase velocity of the wakefield waves is identical to the electron beam velocity. A theoretical analysis indicates that the acceleration gradient of the wakefield accelerator normalized by the wave breaking amplitude is K{sub 0}({xi})/K{sub 1}({xi}), where K{sub 0}({xi}) and K{sub 1}({xi}) are the modified Bessel functions of the second kind of order zero and one, respectively and {xi} is the beam parameter representing the beam intensity. It is also shown that the beam density must be considerably higher than the diffuse plasma density for the large radial velocity of plasma electrons that are required for a high acceleration gradient.

  20. Far field acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail.

  1. Angular Acceleration Without Torque?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.2

  2. Sustained linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, T. M.

    1973-01-01

    The subjective effects of sustained acceleration are discussed, including positive, negative, forward, backward, and lateral acceleration effects. Physiological effects, such as retinal and visual response, unconsciousness and cerebral function, pulmonary response, and renal output, are studied. Human tolerance and performance under sustained acceleration are ascertained.

  3. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  4. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  5. R&D Topics for Neutrino Factory Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, J. Scott

    2008-02-01

    The muons in a neutrino factory must be accelerated from the energy of the capture, phase rotation, and cooling systems (around 120 MeV kinetic energy) to the energy of the storage ring (around 25 GeV). This is done with a sequence of accelerators of different types: a linac, one or more recirculating linear accelerators, and finally one or more fixed field alternating gradient accelerators (FFAGs). I discuss the R&D that is needed to arrive at a complete system which we can have confidence will accelerate the beam and for which we can obtain a cost estimate.

  6. Low cost space.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, A. O.

    1973-01-01

    It is pointed out that a contradiction between boundless space and limited resources has put the space program in the distressing position of cutting good and worthy projects from its activities during this decade. One approach to ameliorate the situation is to increase the productivity of space activities by greater utilization of the equipment developed for its projects. The Space Shuttle constitutes the first big step in that direction. The reusable character of the Shuttle orbiter will cut operational costs by permitting recovery and reuse of payload equipment through routine round-trip operations to space.

  7. Intermediate water recovery system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.

  8. The CEBAF Energy Recovery Experiment: Update and Future Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Arne Freyberger; Kevin Beard; S. Bogacz; Yu-Chiu Chao; Swapan Chattopadhyay; David Douglas; Andrew Hutton; Nikolitsa Merminga; Christopher Tennant; Michael Tiefenback

    2004-07-01

    A successful GeV scale energy recovery demonstration with a high ratio of peak-to-injection energies (50:1) was carried out on the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) recirculating superconducting linear accelerator in the spring of 2003. To gain a quantitative understanding of the beam behavior through the machine, data was taken to characterize the 6D phase space during the CEBAF-ER (CEBAF with Energy Recovery) experimental run. The transverse emittance of the accelerating and energy recovered beams was measured in several locations to ascertain the beam quality preservation during energy recovery. Measurements also included the RF system's response to the energy recovery process and transverse beam profile of the energy recovered beam. One of the salient conclusions from the experiment is that the energy recovery process does not contribute significantly to the emittance degradation. The current status of the data analysis will be presented as well as plans for a GeV scale energy recovery experimental run with current doubling.

  9. Apollo Recovery Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Describe the organization of recovery force command and control and landing areas; b) Describe the function and timeline use of the Earth Landing System (ELS); c) Describe Stable 1 vs Stable 2 landing configurations and the function of the Command Module Uprighting System; d) Explain the activities of the helicopter and swimmer teams in egress and recovery of the crew; e)Explain the activities of the swimmer teams and primary recovery ship in recovery of the Command Module; and f) Describe several landing incidents that occurred during Apollo.

  10. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  11. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  12. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  13. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  14. 28 CFR 100.14 - Directly allocable costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 100.14 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS ASSISTANCE FOR LAW ENFORCEMENT ACT OF 1994 § 100.14 Directly allocable costs. (a) A cost is directly allocable to the CALEA compliance effort: (1) If it is a plant cost incurred specifically to...

  15. Indirect Costs: The Past, Present, and a Possible Institutional Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zyblut, Douglas J.

    1992-01-01

    Federal regulations concerning recovery of indirect costs of university research projects are changing. Institutions should explore possible alternatives for managing reporting of indirect costs for individual projects. One system, reporting indirect cost categories in the same format as direct costs, may give insight into expenditures and help…

  16. Compact Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2004-01-01

    A plasma accelerator has been conceived for both material-processing and spacecraft-propulsion applications. This accelerator generates and accelerates ions within a very small volume. Because of its compactness, this accelerator could be nearly ideal for primary or station-keeping propulsion for spacecraft having masses between 1 and 20 kg. Because this accelerator is designed to generate beams of ions having energies between 50 and 200 eV, it could also be used for surface modification or activation of thin films.

  17. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  18. Fiber Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Andrew P.; /Reed Coll. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    One of the options for future particle accelerators are photonic band gap (PBG) fiber accelerators. PBG fibers are specially designed optical fibers that use lasers to excite an electric field that is used to accelerate electrons. To improve PBG accelerators, the basic parameters of the fiber were tested to maximize defect size and acceleration. Using the program CUDOS, several accelerating modes were found that maximized these parameters for several wavelengths. The design of multiple defects, similar to having closely bound fibers, was studied to find possible coupling or the change of modes. The amount of coupling was found to be dependent on distance separated. For certain distances accelerating coupled modes were found and examined. In addition, several non-periodic fiber structures were examined using CUDOS. The non-periodic fibers produced several interesting results and promised more modes given time to study them in more detail.

  19. Economic analysis of vertical wells for coalbed methane recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Previous economic studies of the recovery and utilization of methane from coalbeds using vertical wells were based on drainage in advance of mining where a single seam is drained with well spacing designed for rapid predrainage. This study extends the earlier work and shows that methane recovery costs can be reduced significantly by increasing well spacing and draining multiple coalbeds. A favorable return on investment can be realized in many geologic settings using this method. Sensitivity of recovery economics to certain development costs and parametric variations are also examined as are the economics of three methane utilization options.

  20. Acceleration in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    The origin of cosmic rays and applicable laboratory experiments are discussed. Some of the problems of shock acceleration for the production of cosmic rays are discussed in the context of astrophysical conditions. These are: The presumed unique explanation of the power law spectrum is shown instead to be a universal property of all lossy accelerators; the extraordinary isotropy of cosmic rays and the limited diffusion distances implied by supernova induced shock acceleration requires a more frequent and space-filling source than supernovae; the near perfect adiabaticity of strong hydromagnetic turbulence necessary for reflecting the accelerated particles each doubling in energy roughly 10{sup 5} to {sup 6} scatterings with negligible energy loss seems most unlikely; the evidence for acceleration due to quasi-parallel heliosphere shocks is weak. There is small evidence for the expected strong hydromagnetic turbulence, and instead, only a small number of particles accelerate after only a few shock traversals; the acceleration of electrons in the same collisionless shock that accelerates ions is difficult to reconcile with the theoretical picture of strong hydromagnetic turbulence that reflects the ions. The hydromagnetic turbulence will appear adiabatic to the electrons at their much higher Larmor frequency and so the electrons should not be scattered incoherently as they must be for acceleration. Therefore the electrons must be accelerated by a different mechanism. This is unsatisfactory, because wherever electrons are accelerated these sites, observed in radio emission, may accelerate ions more favorably. The acceleration is coherent provided the reconnection is coherent, in which case the total flux, as for example of collimated radio sources, predicts single charge accelerated energies much greater than observed.