Science.gov

Sample records for accelerated electron energy

  1. High energy electron acceleration with PW-class laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanii, N.; Kondo, K.; Mori, Y.; Miura, E.; Yabuuchi, T.; Tsuji, K.; Suzuki, S.; Asaka, T.; Yanagida, K.; Hanaki, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Makino, K.; Yamane, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Horikawa, K.; Kimura, K.; Takeda, K.; Fukumochi, S.; Kashihara, M.; Tanimoto, T.; Nakamura, H.; Ishikura, T.; Tampo, M.; Kodama, R.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mima, K.; Tanaka, K. A.

    2008-06-01

    We performed electron acceleration experiment with PW-class laser and a plasma tube, which was created by imploding a hollow polystyrene cylinder. In this experiment, electron energies in excess of 600 MeV have been observed. Moreover, the spectra of a comparatively high-density plasma ˜1019 cm-3 had a bump around 10 MeV. Additionally, we performed the absolute sensitivity calibration of imaging plate for 1 GeV electrons from the injector Linac of Spring-8 in order to evaluate absolute number of GeV-class electrons in the laser acceleration experiment.

  2. Frequency chirping for resonance-enhanced electron energy during laser acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, D.N.; Suk, H.

    2006-04-15

    The model given by Singh-Tripathi [Phys. Plasmas 11, 743 (2004)] for laser electron acceleration in a magnetic wiggler is revisited by including the effect of laser frequency chirping. Laser frequency chirp helps to maintain the resonance condition longer, which increases the electron energy gain. A significant enhancement in electron energy gain during laser acceleration is observed.

  3. Electron acceleration and kinetic energy tailoring via ultrafast terahertz fields.

    PubMed

    Greig, S R; Elezzabi, A Y

    2014-11-17

    We propose a mechanism for tuning the kinetic energy of surface plasmon generated electron pulses through control of the time delay between a pair of externally applied terahertz pulses. Varying the time delay results in translation, compression, and broadening of the kinetic energy spectrum of the generated electron pulse. We also observe that the electrons' kinetic energy dependence on the carrier envelope phase of the surface plasmon is preserved under the influence of a terahertz electric field.

  4. Laser acceleration of electrons to giga-electron-volt energies using highly charged ions.

    PubMed

    Hu, S X; Starace, Anthony F

    2006-06-01

    The recent proposal to use highly charged ions as sources of electrons for laser acceleration [S. X. Hu and A. F. Starace, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 245003 (2002)] is investigated here in detail by means of three-dimensional, relativistic Monte Carlo simulations for a variety of system parameters, such as laser pulse duration, ionic charge state, and laser focusing spot size. Realistic laser focusing effects--e.g., the existence of longitudinal laser field components-are taken into account. Results of spatial averaging over the laser focus are also presented. These numerical simulations show that the proposed scheme for laser acceleration of electrons from highly charged ions is feasible with current or near-future experimental conditions and that electrons with GeV energies can be obtained in such experiments.

  5. Laser acceleration of electrons to giga-electron-volt energies using highly charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, S. X.; Starace, Anthony F.

    2006-06-15

    The recent proposal to use highly charged ions as sources of electrons for laser acceleration [S. X. Hu and A. F. Starace, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 245003 (2002)] is investigated here in detail by means of three-dimensional, relativistic Monte Carlo simulations for a variety of system parameters, such as laser pulse duration, ionic charge state, and laser focusing spot size. Realistic laser focusing effects--e.g., the existence of longitudinal laser field components--are taken into account. Results of spatial averaging over the laser focus are also presented. These numerical simulations show that the proposed scheme for laser acceleration of electrons from highlymore » charged ions is feasible with current or near-future experimental conditions and that electrons with GeV energies can be obtained in such experiments.« less

  6. RF emittance in a low energy electron linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanaye Hajari, Sh.; Haghtalab, S.; Shaker, H.; Kelisani, M. Dayyani

    2018-04-01

    Transverse beam dynamics of an 8 MeV low current (10 mA) S-band traveling wave electron linear accelerator has been studied and optimized. The main issue is to limit the beam emittance, mainly induced by the transverse RF forces. The linac is being constructed at Institute for Research in Fundamental Science (IPM), Tehran Iran Labeled as Iran's First Linac, nearly all components of this accelerator are designed and constructed within the country. This paper discusses the RF coupler induced field asymmetry and the corresponding emittance at different focusing levels, introduces a detailed beam dynamics design of a solenoid focusing channel aiming to reduce the emittance growth and studies the solenoid misalignment tolerances. In addition it has been demonstrated that a prebuncher cavity with appropriate parameters can help improving the beam quality in the transverse plane.

  7. Undulator-Based Laser Wakefield Accelerator Electron Beam Energy Spread and Emittance Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Bakeman, M. S.; University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557; Van Tilborg, J.

    The design and current status of experiments to couple the Tapered Hybrid Undulator (THUNDER) to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser plasma accelerator (LPA) to measure electron beam energy spread and emittance are presented.

  8. Electron energy and electron trajectories in an inverse free-electron laser accelerator based on a novel electrostatic wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikrah, M.; Jafari, S.

    2016-06-01

    We expand here a theory of a high-gradient laser-excited electron accelerator based on an inverse free-electron laser (inverse-FEL), but with innovations in the structure and design. The electrostatic wiggler used in our scheme, namely termed the Paul wiggler, is generated by segmented cylindrical electrodes with applied oscillatory voltages {{V}\\text{osc}}(t) over {{90}\\circ} segments. The inverse-FEL interaction can be described by the equations that govern the electron motion in the combined fields of both the laser pulse and Paul wiggler field. A numerical study of electron energy and electron trajectories has been made using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The results indicate that the electron attains a considerable energy at short distances in this device. It is found that if the electron has got sufficient suitable wiggler amplitude intensities, it can not only gain higher energy in longer distances, but also can retain it even after the passing of the laser pulse. In addition, the results reveal that the electron energy gains different peaks for different initial axial velocities, so that a suitable small initial axial velocity of e-beam produces substantially high energy gain. With regard to the transverse confinement of the electron beam in a Paul wiggler, there is no applied axial guide magnetic field in this device.

  9. Aligning the magnetic field of a linear induction accelerator with a low-energy electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, J.C.; Deadrick, F.J.; Kallman, J.S.

    1989-03-10

    The Experimental Test Accelerator II (ETA-II) linear induction accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory uses a solenoid magnet in each acceleration cell to focus and transport an electron beam over the length of the accelerator. To control growth of the corkscrew mode the magnetic field must be precisely aligned over the full length of the accelerate. Concentric with each solenoid magnet is sine/cosmic-wound correction coil to steer the beam and correct field errors. A low-energy electron probe traces the central flux line through the accelerator referenced to a mechanical axis that is defined by a copropagating laser beam. Correction coilsmore » are activated to force the central flux line to cross the mechanical axis at the end of each acceleration cell. The ratios of correction coil currents determined by the low-energy electron probe are then kept fixed to correct for field errors during normal operation with an accelerated beam. We describe the construction of the low-energy electron probe and report the results of experiments we conducted to measure magnetic alignment with and without the correction coils activated. 5 refs., 3 figs.« less

  10. Comparing Solar-Flare Acceleration of >-20 MeV Protons and Electrons Above Various Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Albert Y.

    2010-01-01

    A large fraction (up to tens of percent) of the energy released in solar flares goes into accelerated ions and electrons, and studies indicate that these two populations have comparable energy content. RHESSI observations have shown a striking close linear correlation between the 2.223 MeV neutron-capture gamma-ray line and electron bremsstrahlung emission >300 keV, indicating that the flare acceleration of >^20 MeV protons and >300 keV electrons is roughly proportional over >3 orders of magnitude in fluence. We show that the correlations of neutron-capture line fluence with GOES class or with bremsstrahlung emission at lower energies show deviations from proportionality, primarily for flares with lower fluences. From analyzing thirteen flares, we demonstrate that there appear to be two classes of flares with high-energy acceleration: flares that exhibit only proportional acceleration of ions and electrons down to 50 keV and flares that have an additional soft, low-energy bremsstrahlung component, suggesting two separate populations of accelerated electrons. We use RHESSI spectroscopy and imaging to investigate a number of these flares in detail.

  11. Determining Energy Distributions of HF-Accelerated Electrons at HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-18

    altitude satellites , altitude- resolved side-view optical measurements of artificial airglow emissions combined with full ISR measurements of electron...for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data...3. DATES COVERED. Indicate the time during which the work was performed and the report was written, e.g., Jun 1997 - Jun 1998; 1-10 Jun 1996; May

  12. Three electron beams from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and the energy apportioning question

    PubMed Central

    Yang, X.; Brunetti, E.; Gil, D. Reboredo; Welsh, G. H.; Li, F. Y.; Cipiccia, S.; Ersfeld, B.; Grant, D. W.; Grant, P. A.; Islam, M. R.; Tooley, M. P.; Vieux, G.; Wiggins, S. M.; Sheng, Z. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators are compact devices capable of delivering ultra-short electron bunches with pC-level charge and MeV-GeV energy by exploiting the ultra-high electric fields arising from the interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma. We show experimentally and through numerical simulations that a high-energy electron beam is produced simultaneously with two stable lower-energy beams that are ejected in oblique and counter-propagating directions, typically carrying off 5–10% of the initial laser energy. A MeV, 10s nC oblique beam is ejected in a 30°–60° hollow cone, which is filled with more energetic electrons determined by the injection dynamics. A nC-level, 100s keV backward-directed beam is mainly produced at the leading edge of the plasma column. We discuss the apportioning of absorbed laser energy amongst the three beams. Knowledge of the distribution of laser energy and electron beam charge, which determine the overall efficiency, is important for various applications of laser-wakefield accelerators, including the development of staged high-energy accelerators. PMID:28281679

  13. Shielding for High-Energy Electron Accelerator Installations. National Bureau of Standards Handbook 97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    Recommendations for radiation shielding, protection, and measurement are presented. This handbook is an extension of previous recommendations for protection against radiation from--(1) high energy and power electron accelerators, (2) food processing equipment, and (3) general sterilization equipment. The new recommendations are concerned with…

  14. Electron acceleration to high energies at quasi-parallel shock waves in the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, G.; Classen, H.-T.

    1995-01-01

    In the solar corona shock waves are generated by flares and/or coronal mass ejections. They manifest themselves in solar type 2 radio bursts appearing as emission stripes with a slow drift from high to low frequencies in dynamic radio spectra. Their nonthermal radio emission indicates that electrons are accelerated to suprathermal and/or relativistic velocities at these shocks. As well known by extraterrestrial in-situ measurements supercritical, quasi-parallel, collisionless shocks are accompanied by so-called SLAMS (short large amplitude magnetic field structures). These SLAMS can act as strong magnetic mirrors, at which charged particles can be reflected and accelerated. Thus, thermal electrons gain energy due to multiple reflections between two SLAMS and reach suprathermal and relativistic velocities. This mechanism of accelerating electrons is discussed for circumstances in the solar corona and may be responsible for the so-called 'herringbones' observed in solar type 2 radio bursts.

  15. Formation of electrostatic structures by wakefield acceleration in ultrarelativistic plasma flows: Electron acceleration to cosmic ray energies

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckmann, M.E.; Shukla, P.K.; Eliasson, B.

    2006-06-15

    The ever increasing performance of supercomputers is now enabling kinetic simulations of extreme astrophysical and laser produced plasmas. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of relativistic shocks have revealed highly filamented spatial structures and their ability to accelerate particles to ultrarelativistic speeds. However, these PIC simulations have not yet revealed mechanisms that could produce particles with tera-electron volt energies and beyond. In this work, PIC simulations in one dimension (1D) of the foreshock region of an internal shock in a gamma ray burst are performed to address this issue. The large spatiotemporal range accessible to a 1D simulation enables the self-consistent evolutionmore » of proton phase space structures that can accelerate particles to giga-electron volt energies in the jet frame of reference, and to tens of tera-electron volt in the Earth's frame of reference. One potential source of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays may thus be the thermalization of relativistically moving plasma.« less

  16. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, John S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  17. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  18. Spectrum bandwidth narrowing of Thomson scattering X-rays with energy chirped electron beams from laser wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tong; Chen, Min, E-mail: minchen@sjtu.edu.cn; Li, Fei-Yu

    2014-01-06

    We study incoherent Thomson scattering between an ultrashort laser pulse and an electron beam accelerated from a laser wakefield. The energy chirp effects of the accelerated electron beam on the final radiation spectrum bandwidth are investigated. It is found that the scattered X-ray radiation has the minimum spectrum width and highest intensity as electrons are accelerated up to around the dephasing point. Furthermore, it is proposed that the electron acceleration process inside the wakefield can be studied by use of 90° Thomson scattering. The dephasing position and beam energy chirp can be deduced from the intensity and bandwidth of themore » scattered radiation.« less

  19. Online beam energy measurement of Beijing electron positron collider II linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Iqbal, M.; Liu, R.; Chi, Y.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes online beam energy measurement of Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgraded version II linear accelerator (linac) adequately. It presents the calculation formula, gives the error analysis in detail, discusses the realization in practice, and makes some verification. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring the horizontal beam position with three beam position monitors (BPMs), which eliminates the effect of orbit fluctuation, and is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in this paper.

  20. Online beam energy measurement of Beijing electron positron collider II linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Iqbal, M; Liu, R; Chi, Y

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes online beam energy measurement of Beijing Electron Positron Collider upgraded version II linear accelerator (linac) adequately. It presents the calculation formula, gives the error analysis in detail, discusses the realization in practice, and makes some verification. The method mentioned here measures the beam energy by acquiring the horizontal beam position with three beam position monitors (BPMs), which eliminates the effect of orbit fluctuation, and is much better than the one using the single BPM. The error analysis indicates that this online measurement has further potential usage such as a part of beam energy feedback system. The reliability of this method is also discussed and demonstrated in this paper.

  1. Permanent-magnet energy spectrometer for electron beams from radiotherapy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, David J.; Shikhaliev, Polad M.; Matthews, Kenneth L.

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to adapt a lightweight, permanent magnet electron energy spectrometer for the measurement of energy spectra of therapeutic electron beams. Methods: An irradiation geometry and measurement technique were developed for an approximately 0.54-T, permanent dipole magnet spectrometer to produce suitable latent images on computed radiography (CR) phosphor strips. Dual-pinhole electron collimators created a 0.318-cm diameter, approximately parallel beam incident on the spectrometer and an appropriate dose rate at the image plane (CR strip location). X-ray background in the latent image, reduced by a 7.62-cm thick lead block between the pinhole collimators, was removed usingmore » a fitting technique. Theoretical energy-dependent detector response functions (DRFs) were used in an iterative technique to transform CR strip net mean dose profiles into energy spectra on central axis at the entrance to the spectrometer. These spectra were transformed to spectra at 95-cm source to collimator distance (SCD) by correcting for the energy dependence of electron scatter. The spectrometer was calibrated by comparing peak mean positions in the net mean dose profiles, initially to peak mean energies determined from the practical range of central-axis percent depth-dose (%DD) curves, and then to peak mean energies that accounted for how the collimation modified the energy spectra (recalibration). The utility of the spectrometer was demonstrated by measuring the energy spectra for the seven electron beams (7–20 MeV) of an Elekta Infinity radiotherapy accelerator. Results: Plots of DRF illustrated their dependence on energy and position in the imaging plane. Approximately 15 iterations solved for the energy spectra at the spectrometer entrance from the measured net mean dose profiles. Transforming those spectra into ones at 95-cm SCD increased the low energy tail of the spectra, while correspondingly decreasing the peaks and shifting them to

  2. Permanent-magnet energy spectrometer for electron beams from radiotherapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, David J; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Carver, Robert L; Gibbons, John P; Shikhaliev, Polad M; Matthews, Kenneth L; Clarke, Taylor; Henderson, Alexander; Liang, Edison P

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to adapt a lightweight, permanent magnet electron energy spectrometer for the measurement of energy spectra of therapeutic electron beams. An irradiation geometry and measurement technique were developed for an approximately 0.54-T, permanent dipole magnet spectrometer to produce suitable latent images on computed radiography (CR) phosphor strips. Dual-pinhole electron collimators created a 0.318-cm diameter, approximately parallel beam incident on the spectrometer and an appropriate dose rate at the image plane (CR strip location). X-ray background in the latent image, reduced by a 7.62-cm thick lead block between the pinhole collimators, was removed using a fitting technique. Theoretical energy-dependent detector response functions (DRFs) were used in an iterative technique to transform CR strip net mean dose profiles into energy spectra on central axis at the entrance to the spectrometer. These spectra were transformed to spectra at 95-cm source to collimator distance (SCD) by correcting for the energy dependence of electron scatter. The spectrometer was calibrated by comparing peak mean positions in the net mean dose profiles, initially to peak mean energies determined from the practical range of central-axis percent depth-dose (%DD) curves, and then to peak mean energies that accounted for how the collimation modified the energy spectra (recalibration). The utility of the spectrometer was demonstrated by measuring the energy spectra for the seven electron beams (7-20 MeV) of an Elekta Infinity radiotherapy accelerator. Plots of DRF illustrated their dependence on energy and position in the imaging plane. Approximately 15 iterations solved for the energy spectra at the spectrometer entrance from the measured net mean dose profiles. Transforming those spectra into ones at 95-cm SCD increased the low energy tail of the spectra, while correspondingly decreasing the peaks and shifting them to slightly lower energies. Energy calibration

  3. A Stable High-Energy Electron Source from Laser Wakefield Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Baozhen; Liu, Cheng; Yan, Wenchao; Golovin, Grigory; Banerjee, Sudeep; Chen, Shouyuan; Haden, Daniel; Fruhling, Colton; Umstadter, Donald

    2016-10-01

    The stability of the electron source from laser wake-field acceleration (LWFA) is essential for applications, such as novel x-ray sources and fundamental experiments in high field physics. To obtain such a stable source, we used an optimal laser pulse and a novel gas nozzle. The high-power laser pulse on target was focused to a diffraction-limited spot by the use of adaptive wavefront correction and the pulse duration was transform limited by the use of spectral feedback control. An innovative design for the nozzle led to a stable, flat-top profile with diameters of 4 mm and 8 mm with a high Mach-number ( 6). In experiments to generate high-energy electron beams by LWFA, we were able to obtain reproducible results with beam energy of 800 MeV and charge >10 pC. Higher charge but broader energy spectrum resulted when the plasma density was increased. These developments have resulted in a laser-driven wakefield accelerator that is stable and robust. With this device, we show that narrowband high-energy x-rays beams can be generated by the inverse-Compton scattering process. This accelerator has also been used in recent experiments to study nonlinear effects in the interaction of high-energy electron beams with ultraintense laser pulses. This material is based upon work supported by NSF No. PHY-153700; US DOE, Office of Science, BES, # DE-FG02-05ER15663; AFOSR # FA9550-11-1-0157; and DHS DNDO # HSHQDC-13-C-B0036.

  4. Comparison of measured electron energy spectra for six matched, radiotherapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, David J; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Neck, Daniel W; Gibbons, John P

    2018-05-01

    This study compares energy spectra of the multiple electron beams of individual radiotherapy machines, as well as the sets of spectra across multiple matched machines. Also, energy spectrum metrics are compared with central-axis percent depth-dose (PDD) metrics. A lightweight, permanent magnet spectrometer was used to measure energy spectra for seven electron beams (7-20 MeV) on six matched Elekta Infinity accelerators with the MLCi2 treatment head. PDD measurements in the distal falloff region provided R 50 and R 80-20 metrics in Plastic Water ® , which correlated with energy spectrum metrics, peak mean energy (PME) and full-width at half maximum (FWHM). Visual inspection of energy spectra and their metrics showed whether beams on single machines were properly tuned, i.e., FWHM is expected to increase and peak height decrease monotonically with increased PME. Also, PME spacings are expected to be approximately equal for 7-13 MeV beams (0.5-cm R 90 spacing) and for 13-16 MeV beams (1.0-cm R 90 spacing). Most machines failed these expectations, presumably due to tolerances for initial beam matching (0.05 cm in R 90 ; 0.10 cm in R 80-20 ) and ongoing quality assurance (0.2 cm in R 50 ). Also, comparison of energy spectra or metrics for a single beam energy (six machines) showed outlying spectra. These variations in energy spectra provided ample data spread for correlating PME and FWHM with PDD metrics. Least-squares fits showed that R 50 and R 80-20 varied linearly and supralinearly with PME, respectively; however, both suggested a secondary dependence on FWHM. Hence, PME and FWHM could serve as surrogates for R 50 and R 80-20 for beam tuning by the accelerator engineer, possibly being more sensitive (e.g., 0.1 cm in R 80-20 corresponded to 2.0 MeV in FWHM). Results of this study suggest a lightweight, permanent magnet spectrometer could be a useful beam-tuning instrument for the accelerator engineer to (a) match electron beams prior to beam commissioning

  5. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  6. Cornell-BNL Electron Energy Recovery Linac FFAG Test Accelerator (CBETA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trbojevic, Dejan; Peggs, Steve; Berg, Scott; Brooks, Stephen; Mahler, George; Meot, Francois; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Witte, Holger; Hoffstaetter, Georg; Bazarov, Ivan; Mayes, Christopher; Patterson, Ritchie; Smolenski, Karl; Li, Yulin; Dobbins, John; BNL Team; Cornell University Team

    A novel energy recovery linac (ERL) with Non-Scaling Fixed Field Alternating Gradient (NS-FFAG) racetrack is being constructed as a result of collaboration of the Cornell University with Brookhaven National Laboratory. The existing injector and superconducting linac at Cornell University are being installed together with a single NS-FFAG arcs and straight section at the opposite side of the linac to form an ERL system. The 6 MeV electron beam from injector is transferred into the 36 MeV superconducting linac and accelerated by four successive passes: from 42 to 150 MeV using the same NS-FFAG structure made of permanent magnets. After the maximum energy of 150 MeV is reached, the electron beam is brought back to the linac with opposite Radio Frequency (RF) phase and with 4 passes electron energy is recovered and brought back to the initial energy of 6 MeV. This is going to be the first 4 pass superconducting ERL and the first NS-FFAG permanent magnet structure to bring the electron beam back to the linac.

  7. Mount Aragats as a stable electron accelerator for atmospheric high-energy physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Ashot; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Mnatsakanyan, Eduard

    2016-03-01

    Observation of the numerous thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs), i.e., enhanced fluxes of electrons, gamma rays, and neutrons detected by particle detectors located on the Earth's surface and related to the strong thunderstorms above it, helped to establish a new scientific topic—high-energy physics in the atmosphere. Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) are believed to be a central engine initiating high-energy processes in thunderstorm atmospheres. RREAs observed on Mount Aragats in Armenia during the strongest thunderstorms and simultaneous measurements of TGE electron and gamma-ray energy spectra proved that RREAs are a robust and realistic mechanism for electron acceleration. TGE research facilitates investigations of the long-standing lightning initiation problem. For the last 5 years we were experimenting with the "beams" of "electron accelerators" operating in the thunderclouds above the Aragats research station. Thunderstorms are very frequent above Aragats, peaking in May-June, and almost all of them are accompanied with enhanced particle fluxes. The station is located on a plateau at an altitude 3200 asl near a large lake. Numerous particle detectors and field meters are located in three experimental halls as well as outdoors; the facilities are operated all year round. All relevant information is being gathered, including data on particle fluxes, fields, lightning occurrences, and meteorological conditions. By the example of the huge thunderstorm that took place at Mount Aragats on August 28, 2015, we show that simultaneous detection of all the relevant data allowed us to reveal the temporal pattern of the storm development and to investigate the atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes.

  8. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C. R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts.

  9. Two-dimensional angular energy spectrum of electrons accelerated by the ultra-short relativistic laser pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Borovskiy, A. V.; Galkin, A. L.; Department of Physics of MBF, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, 1 Ostrovitianov Street, Moscow 117997

    The new method of calculating energy spectra of accelerated electrons, based on the parameterization by their initial coordinates, is proposed. The energy spectra of electrons accelerated by Gaussian ultra-short relativistic laser pulse at a selected angle to the axis of the optical system focusing the laser pulse in a low density gas are theoretically calculated. The two-peak structure of the electron energy spectrum is obtained. Discussed are the reasons for its appearance as well as an applicability of other models of the laser field.

  10. Short-pulse, high-energy radiation generation from laser-wakefield accelerated electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumaker, Will

    2013-10-01

    Recent experimental results of laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) of ~GeV electrons driven by the 200TW HERCULES and the 400TW ASTRA-GEMINI laser systems and their subsequent generation of photons, positrons, and neutrons are presented. In LWFA, high-intensity (I >1019 W /cm2), ultra-short (τL < 1 / (2 πωpe)) laser pulses drive highly nonlinear plasma waves which can trap ~ nC of electrons and accelerate them to ~GeV energies over ~cm lengths. These electron beams can then be converted by a high-Z target via bremsstrahlung into low-divergence (< 20 mrad) beams of high-energy (<600 MeV) photons and subsequently into positrons via the Bethe-Heitler process. By increasing the material thickness and Z, the resulting Ne+ /Ne- ratio can approach unity, resulting in a near neutral density plasma jet. These quasi-neutral beams are presumed to retain the short-pulse (τL < 40 fs) characteristic of the electron beam, resulting in a high peak density of ne- /e+ ~ 1016 cm-3 , making the source an excellent candidate for laboratory study of astrophysical leptonic jets. Alternatively, the electron beam can be interacted with a counter-propagating, ultra-high intensity (I >1021 W /cm2) laser pulse to undergo inverse Compton scattering and emit a high-peak brightness beam of high-energy photons. Preliminary results and experimental sensitivities of the electron-laser beam overlap are presented. The high-energy photon beams can be spectrally resolved using a forward Compton scattering spectrometer. Moreover, the photon flux can be characterized by a pixelated scintillator array and by nuclear activation and (γ,n) neutron measurements from the photons interacting with a secondary solid target. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed using FLUKA to support the yield estimates. This research was supported by DOE/NSF-PHY 0810979, NSF CAREER 1054164, DARPA AXiS N66001-11-1-4208, SF/DNDO F021166, and the Leverhulme Trust ECF-2011-383.

  11. Energy limits of electron acceleration in the plasma sheet during substorms: A case study with the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Drew Lawson; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.

    Here, we present multipoint observations of earthward moving dipolarization fronts and energetic particle injections from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission with a focus on electron acceleration. From a case study during a substorm on 02 August 2015, we find that electrons are only accelerated over a finite energy range, from a lower energy threshold at ~7–9 keV up to an upper energy cutoff in the hundreds of keV range. At energies lower than the threshold energy, electron fluxes decrease, potentially due to precipitation by strong parallel electrostatic wavefields or initial sources in the lobes. Electrons at energies higher than the thresholdmore » are accelerated cumulatively by a series of impulsive magnetic dipolarization events. This case demonstrates how the upper energy cutoff increases, in this case from ~130 keV to >500 keV, with each dipolarization/injection during sustained activity. We also present a simple model accounting for these energy limits that reveals that electron energization is dominated by betatron acceleration.« less

  12. Energy limits of electron acceleration in the plasma sheet during substorms: A case study with the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Clemmons, J. H.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, I. J.; Jaynes, A. N.; Craft, J. V.; Wilder, F. D.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Gershman, D. J.; Avanov, L. A.; Dorelli, J. C.; Giles, B. L.; Pollock, C. J.; Schmid, D.; Nakamura, R.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Artemyev, A. V.; Runov, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Spence, H. E.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    We present multipoint observations of earthward moving dipolarization fronts and energetic particle injections from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission with a focus on electron acceleration. From a case study during a substorm on 02 August 2015, we find that electrons are only accelerated over a finite energy range, from a lower energy threshold at 7-9 keV up to an upper energy cutoff in the hundreds of keV range. At energies lower than the threshold energy, electron fluxes decrease, potentially due to precipitation by strong parallel electrostatic wavefields or initial sources in the lobes. Electrons at energies higher than the threshold are accelerated cumulatively by a series of impulsive magnetic dipolarization events. This case demonstrates how the upper energy cutoff increases, in this case from 130 keV to >500 keV, with each dipolarization/injection during sustained activity. We also present a simple model accounting for these energy limits that reveals that electron energization is dominated by betatron acceleration.

  13. Energy limits of electron acceleration in the plasma sheet during substorms: A case study with the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission

    DOE PAGES

    Turner, Drew Lawson; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; ...

    2016-08-01

    Here, we present multipoint observations of earthward moving dipolarization fronts and energetic particle injections from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission with a focus on electron acceleration. From a case study during a substorm on 02 August 2015, we find that electrons are only accelerated over a finite energy range, from a lower energy threshold at ~7–9 keV up to an upper energy cutoff in the hundreds of keV range. At energies lower than the threshold energy, electron fluxes decrease, potentially due to precipitation by strong parallel electrostatic wavefields or initial sources in the lobes. Electrons at energies higher than the thresholdmore » are accelerated cumulatively by a series of impulsive magnetic dipolarization events. This case demonstrates how the upper energy cutoff increases, in this case from ~130 keV to >500 keV, with each dipolarization/injection during sustained activity. We also present a simple model accounting for these energy limits that reveals that electron energization is dominated by betatron acceleration.« less

  14. Energy Limits of Electron Acceleration in the Plasma Sheet During Substorms: A Case Study with the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Clemmons, J. H.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, I. J.; Jaynes, A. N.; Craft, J. V.; Wilder, F. D.; Baker, D. N.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present multipoint observations of earthward moving dipolarization fronts and energetic particle injections from NASAs Magnetospheric Multiscale mission with a focus on electron acceleration. From a case study during a substorm on 02 August 2015, we find that electrons are only accelerated over a finite energy range, from a lower energy threshold at approx. 7-9 keV up to an upper energy cutoff in the hundreds of keV range. At energies lower than the threshold energy, electron fluxes decrease, potentially due to precipitation by strong parallel electrostatic wavefields or initial sources in the lobes. Electrons at energies higher than the threshold are accelerated cumulatively by a series of impulsive magnetic dipolarization events. This case demonstrates how the upper energy cutoff increases, in this case from approx. 130 keV to >500 keV, with each depolarization/injection during sustained activity. We also present a simple model accounting for these energy limits that reveals that electron energization is dominated by betatron acceleration.

  15. Testing relativistic electron acceleration mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Janet Carol

    2002-09-01

    electrons with energy >=4.0 MeV becoming more peaked at 90° during the storm recovery phase. The observation is consistent with but does not confirm the model. Our tests indicate that relativistic electrons are accelerated by an internal source acceleration mechanism but we do not identify a unique mechanism.

  16. High Energy electron and proton acceleration by circularly polarized laser pulse from near critical density hydrogen gas target.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashutosh

    2018-02-01

    Relativistic electron rings hold the possibility of very high accelerating rates, and hopefully a relatively cheap and compact accelerator/collimator for ultrahigh energy proton source. In this work, we investigate the generation of helical shaped quasi-monoenergetic relativistic electron beam and high-energy proton beam from near critical density plasmas driven by petawatt-circularly polarized-short laser pulses. We numerically observe the efficient proton acceleration from magnetic vortex acceleration mechanism by using the three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations; proton beam with peak energy 350 MeV, charge ~10nC and conversion efficiency more than 6% (which implies 2.4 J proton beam out of the 40 J incident laser energy) is reported. We detailed the microphysics involved in the ion acceleration mechanism, which requires investigating the role of self-generated plasma electric and magnetic fields. The concept of efficient generation of quasi-monoenergetic electron and proton beam from near critical density gas targets may be verified experimentally at advanced high power - high repetition rate laser facilities e.g. ELI-ALPS. Such study should be an important step towards the development of high quality electron and proton beam.

  17. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Reginato, Louis L.

    1988-01-01

    An electron beam accelerator comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of .gtoreq.0.1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electrons by about 0.1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially .gtoreq.0.1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of .ltoreq.1 .mu.sec.

  18. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Reginato, Louis L.

    1987-01-01

    An electron beam accelerator comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of .gtoreq.0.1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electrons by about 0.1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially 0.1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of .ltoreq.1 .mu.sec.

  19. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

    1984-03-22

    An electron beam accelerator is described comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of greater than or equal to .1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electron by about .1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially .1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of less than or equal to 1 ..mu..sec.

  20. Critical system issues and modeling requirements: The problem of beam energy sweep in an electron linear induction accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, W.C.; Barrett, D.M.; Sampayan, S.E.

    1990-08-06

    In this paper we discuss system issues and modeling requirements within the context of energy sweep in an electron linear induction accelerator. When needed, particular parameter values are taken from the ETA-II linear induction accelerator at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. For this paper, the most important parameter is energy sweep during a pulse. It is important to have low energy sweep to satisfy the FEL resonance condition and to limit the beam corkscrew motion. It is desired to achieve {Delta}E/E = {plus minus}1% for a 50-ns flattop whereas the present level of performance is {Delta}E/E = {plus minus}1% in 10more » ns. To improve this situation we will identify a number of areas in which modeling could help increase understanding and improve our ability to design linear induction accelerators.« less

  1. Design of High Efficiency High Power Electron Accelerator Systems Based on Normal Conducting RF Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgashev, Valery; Tantawi, Sami

    The goal of this project was to perform engineering design studies of three extremely high efficiency electron accelerators with the following parameters [1]: 2 MeV output beam energy and 1 MW average beam power; 10 MeV output energy and 10 MW; 10 MeV output energy and 1 MW. These linacs are intended for energy and environmental applications [2]. We based our designs on normal conducting radio-frequency technology. We have successfully reached this goal where we show rf-to-beam efficiency of 96.7 %, 97.2 %, and 79.6 % for these linacs.

  2. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeV m−1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. These ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams. PMID:26439410

  3. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    DOE PAGES

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; ...

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm -1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/protonmore » accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.« less

  4. Prompt Acceleration of Magnetospheric Electrons to Ultrarelativistic Energies by the 17 March 2015 Interplanetary Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Fennell, J. F.; Jones, A.; Schiller, Q.; Richardson, I.G.; Li, X.; Turner, D. L.; Califf, S.; Claudepierre, S. G.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Trapped electrons in Earth's outer Van Allen radiation belt are influenced profoundly by solar phenomena such as high-speed solar wind streams, coronal mass ejections (CME), and interplanetary (IP) shocks. In particular, strong IP shocks compress the magnetosphere suddenly and result in rapid energization of electrons within minutes. It is believed that the electric fields induced by the rapid change in the geomagnetic field are responsible for the energization. During the latter part of March 2015, a CME impact led to the most powerful geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -223 nT at 17 March, 23 UT) observed not only during the Van Allen Probe era but also the entire preceding decade. Magnetospheric response in the outer radiation belt eventually resulted in elevated levels of energized electrons. The CME itself was preceded by a strong IP shock whose immediate effects vis-a-vis electron energization were observed by sensors on board the Van Allen Probes. The comprehensive and high-quality data from the Van Allen Probes enable the determination of the location of the electron injection, timescales, and spectral aspects of the energized electrons. The observations clearly show that ultrarelativistic electrons with energies E greater than 6 MeV were injected deep into the magnetosphere at L approximately equals 3 within about 2 min of the shock impact. However, electrons in the energy range of approximately equals 250 keV to approximately equals 900 keV showed no immediate response to the IP shock. Electric and magnetic fields resulting from the shock-driven compression complete the comprehensive set of observations that provide a full description of the near-instantaneous electron energization.

  5. High-energy coherent terahertz radiation emitted by wide-angle electron beams from a laser-wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue; Brunetti, Enrico; Jaroszynski, Dino A.

    2018-04-01

    High-charge electron beams produced by laser-wakefield accelerators are potentially novel, scalable sources of high-power terahertz radiation suitable for applications requiring high-intensity fields. When an intense laser pulse propagates in underdense plasma, it can generate femtosecond duration, self-injected picocoulomb electron bunches that accelerate on-axis to energies from 10s of MeV to several GeV, depending on laser intensity and plasma density. The process leading to the formation of the accelerating structure also generates non-injected, sub-picosecond duration, 1–2 MeV nanocoulomb electron beams emitted obliquely into a hollow cone around the laser propagation axis. These wide-angle beams are stable and depend weakly on laser and plasma parameters. Here we perform simulations to characterise the coherent transition radiation emitted by these beams if passed through a thin metal foil, or directly at the plasma–vacuum interface, showing that coherent terahertz radiation with 10s μJ to mJ-level energy can be produced with an optical to terahertz conversion efficiency up to 10‑4–10‑3.

  6. Maximum Energies of Shock-Accelerated Electrons in Young Shell Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.; Keohane, Jonathan W.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Young supernova remnants (SNRs) are often assumed to be the source of cosmic rays up to energies approaching the slight steepening in the cosmic ray spectrum at around 1000 TeV, known as the "knee." We show that the observed X-ray emission of 14 radio-bright shell remnants, including all five historical shells, can be used to put limits on E(sub max), the energy at which the electron energy distribution must steepen from its slope at radio-emitting energies. Most of the remnants show thermal spectra, so any synchrotron component must fall below the observed X-ray fluxes. We obtain upper limits on E(sub max) by considering the most rapid physically plausible cutoff in the relativistic electron distribution, an exponential, which is as sharp or sharper than found in any more elaborate models. This maximally curved model then gives us the highest possible E(sub max) consistent with not exceeding observed X-rays. Our results are thus independent of particular models for the electron spectrum in SNRs. Assuming homogeneous emitting volumes with a constant magnetic field strength of 10 uG, no object could reach 1000 TeV, and only one, Kes 73, has an upper limit on E(sub max), above 100 TeV. All the other remnants have limits at or below 80 TeV. E(sub max) is probably set by the finite remnant lifetime rather than by synchrotron losses for remnants younger than a few thousand years, so that an observed electron steepening should be accompanied by steepening at the same energy for protons. More complicated, inhomogeneous models could allow higher values of E(sub max) in parts of the remnant, but the emission-weighted average value, that characteristic of typical electrons, should obey these limits. The young remnants are not expected to improve much over their remaining lives at producing the highest energy Galactic cosmic rays; if they cannot, this picture of cosmic-ray origin may need major alteration.

  7. Accelerator Science: Proton vs. Electron

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2018-06-12

    Particle accelerators are one of the most powerful ways to study the fundamental laws that govern the universe. However, there are many design considerations that go into selecting and building a particular accelerator. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of building an accelerator that collides pairs of protons to one that collides electrons.

  8. Accelerator Science: Proton vs. Electron

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    Particle accelerators are one of the most powerful ways to study the fundamental laws that govern the universe. However, there are many design considerations that go into selecting and building a particular accelerator. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of building an accelerator that collides pairs of protons to one that collides electrons.

  9. Electron acceleration by turbulent plasmoid reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Büchner, J.; Widmer, F.; Muñoz, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    In space and astrophysical plasmas, like in planetary magnetospheres, as that of Mercury, energetic electrons are often found near current sheets, which hint at electron acceleration by magnetic reconnection. Unfortunately, electron acceleration by reconnection is not well understood yet, in particular, acceleration by turbulent plasmoid reconnection. We have investigated electron acceleration by turbulent plasmoid reconnection, described by MHD simulations, via test particle calculations. In order to avoid resolving all relevant turbulence scales down to the dissipation scales, a mean-field turbulence model is used to describe the turbulence of sub-grid scales and their effects via a turbulent electromotive force (EMF). The mean-field model describes the turbulent EMF as a function of the mean values of current density, vorticity, magnetic field as well as of the energy, cross-helicity, and residual helicity of the turbulence. We found that, mainly around X-points of turbulent reconnection, strongly enhanced localized EMFs most efficiently accelerated electrons and caused the formation of power-law spectra. Magnetic-field-aligned EMFs, caused by the turbulence, dominate the electron acceleration process. Scaling the acceleration processes to parameters of the Hermean magnetotail, electron energies up to 60 keV can be reached by turbulent plasmoid reconnection through the thermal plasma.

  10. Improvements to laser wakefield accelerated electron beam stability, divergence, and energy spread using three-dimensional printed two-stage gas cell targets

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, M.; Schumaker, W.; He, Z.-H.

    2014-04-28

    High intensity, short pulse lasers can be used to accelerate electrons to ultra-relativistic energies via laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) [T. Tajima and J. M. Dawson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1979)]. Recently, it was shown that separating the injection and acceleration processes into two distinct stages could prove beneficial in obtaining stable, high energy electron beams [Gonsalves et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 862 (2011); Liu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 035001 (2011); Pollock et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 045001 (2011)]. Here, we use a stereolithography based 3D printer to produce two-stage gas targets for LWFA experiments on themore » HERCULES laser system at the University of Michigan. We demonstrate substantial improvements to the divergence, pointing stability, and energy spread of a laser wakefield accelerated electron beam compared with a single-stage gas cell or gas jet target.« less

  11. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high‐energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams

    PubMed Central

    Binukumar, John Pichy; Amri, Iqbal Al; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-01-01

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue‐equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available ‘microdiamond’ detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1 mm, thickness 1×10−3mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ±0.17% (1 SD) (n=11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stopping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long‐term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro‐dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance. PACS number(s): 87.56.Da PMID:27074452

  12. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-03-08

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance.

  13. Optical transition radiation used in the diagnostic of low energy and low current electron beams in particle accelerators.

    PubMed

    Silva, T F; Bonini, A L; Lima, R R; Maidana, N L; Malafronte, A A; Pascholati, P R; Vanin, V R; Martins, M N

    2012-09-01

    Optical transition radiation (OTR) plays an important role in beam diagnostics for high energy particle accelerators. Its linear intensity with beam current is a great advantage as compared to fluorescent screens, which are subject to saturation. Moreover, the measurement of the angular distribution of the emitted radiation enables the determination of many beam parameters in a single observation point. However, few works deals with the application of OTR to monitor low energy beams. In this work we describe the design of an OTR based beam monitor used to measure the transverse beam charge distribution of the 1.9-MeV electron beam of the linac injector of the IFUSP microtron using a standard vision machine camera. The average beam current in pulsed operation mode is of the order of tens of nano-Amps. Low energy and low beam current make OTR observation difficult. To improve sensitivity, the beam incidence angle on the target was chosen to maximize the photon flux in the camera field-of-view. Measurements that assess OTR observation (linearity with beam current, polarization, and spectrum shape) are presented, as well as a typical 1.9-MeV electron beam charge distribution obtained from OTR. Some aspects of emittance measurement using this device are also discussed.

  14. Critical analysis of industrial electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenev, S.

    2004-09-01

    The critical analysis of electron linacs for industrial applications (degradation of PTFE, curing of composites, modification of materials, sterlization and others) is considered in this report. Main physical requirements for industrial electron accelerators consist in the variations of beam parameters, such as kinetic energy and beam power. Questions for regulation of these beam parameters are considered. The level of absorbed dose in the irradiated product and throughput determines the main parameters of electron accelerator. The type of ideal electron linac for industrial applications is discussed.

  15. Neutron Energy and Time-of-flight Spectra Behind the Lateral Shield of a High Energy Electron Accelerator Beam Dump, Part II: Monte Carlo Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Roesler, Stefan

    2002-09-19

    Energy spectra of high-energy neutrons and neutron time-of-flight spectra were calculated for the setup of experiment T-454 performed with a NE213 liquid scintillator at the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The neutrons were created by the interaction a 28.7 GeV electron beam in the aluminum beam dump of the FFTB which is housed inside a thick steel and concrete shielding. In order to determine the attenuation length of high-energy neutrons additional concrete shielding of various thicknesses was placed outside the existing shielding. The calculations were performed using the FLUKA interaction and transport code.more » The energy and time-of-flight were recorded for the location of the detector allowing a detailed comparison with the experimental data. A generally good description of the data is achieved adding confidence to the use of FLUKA for the design of shielding for high-energy electron accelerators.« less

  16. Electron heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, Joel

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection is thought to be an important driver of energetic particles in a variety of astrophysical phenomena such as solar flares and magnetospheric storms. However, the observed fraction of energy imparted to a nonthermal component can vary widely in different regimes. We use kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to demonstrate the important role of the non-reversing (guide) field in controlling the efficiency of electron acceleration in collisionless reconnection. In reconnection where the guide field is smaller than the reconnecting component, the dominant electron accelerator is a Fermi-type mechanism that preferentially energizes the most energetic particles. In strong guide field reconnection, the field-line contraction that drives the Fermi mechanism becomes weak. Instead, parallel electric fields are primarily responsible for driving electron heating but are ineffective in driving the energetic component of the spectrum. Three-dimensional simulations reveal that the stochastic magnetic field that develops during 3D guide field reconnection plays a vital role in particle acceleration and transport. The reconnection outflows that drive Fermi acceleration also expel accelerating particles from energization regions. In 2D reconnection, electrons are trapped in island cores and acceleration ceases, whereas in 3D the stochastic magnetic field enables energetic electrons to leak out of islands and freely sample regions of energy release. A finite guide field is required to break initial 2D symmetry and facilitate escape from island structures. We show that reconnection with a guide field comparable to the reconnecting field generates the greatest number of energetic electrons, a regime where both (a) the Fermi mechanism is an efficient driver and (b) energetic electrons may freely access acceleration sites. These results have important implications for electron acceleration in solar flares and reconnection-driven dissipation in turbulence.

  17. The Energy Spectrum of Accelerated Electrons from Wave-Plasma Interactions in the Ionosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-29

    STATEMENT Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT A HAARP ...data was obtained. It was therefore necessary to find the resources to repeat the campaign effort (see budget below). A HAARP campaign was...were highly structured in space and time. This fact, and the lack of electron temperature data at HAARP , made data analysis difficult. It became

  18. Electron acceleration from rest to GeV energy by chirped axicon Gaussian laser pulse in vacuum in the presence of wiggler magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant, Niti; Rajput, Jyoti; Singh, Arvinder

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a scheme of electron energy enhancement by employing frequency - chirped lowest order axicon focussed radially polarised (RP) laser pulse in vacuum under the influence of wiggler magnetic field. Terawatt RP laser can be focussed down to ∼5μm by an axicon optical element, which produces an intense longitudinal electric field. This unique property of axicon focused Gaussian RP laser pulse is employed for direct electron acceleration in vacuum. A linear frequency chirp increases the time duration of laser-electron interaction, whereas, the applied magnetic wiggler helps in improving the strength of ponderomotive force v→ ×B→ and periodically deflects electron in order to keep it traversing in the accelerating phase up to longer distance. Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the influence of laser, frequency chirp and magnetic field parameters on electron energy enhancement. It is noticed that an electron from rest can be accelerated up to GeV energy under optimized laser and magnetic field parameters. Significant enhancement in the electron energy gain of the order of 11.2 GeV is observed with intense chirped laser pulse in the presence of wiggler magnetic field of strength 96.2 kG.

  19. NOTE: Calibration of low-energy electron beams from a mobile linear accelerator with plane-parallel chambers using both TG-51 and TG-21 protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beddar, A. S.; Tailor, R. C.

    2004-04-01

    A new approach to intraoperative radiation therapy led to the development of mobile linear electron accelerators that provide lower electron energy beams than the usual conventional accelerators commonly encountered in radiotherapy. Such mobile electron accelerators produce electron beams that have nominal energies of 4, 6, 9 and 12 MeV. This work compares the absorbed dose output calibrations using both the AAPM TG-51 and TG-21 dose calibration protocols for two types of ion chambers: a plane-parallel (PP) ionization chamber and a cylindrical ionization chamber. Our results indicate that the use of a 'Markus' PP chamber causes 2 3% overestimation in dose output determination if accredited dosimetry-calibration laboratory based chamber factors \\big(N_{{\\rm D},{\\rm w}}^{{}^{60}{\\rm Co}}, N_x\\big) are used. However, if the ionization chamber factors are derived using a cross-comparison at a high-energy electron beam, then a good agreement is obtained (within 1%) with a calibrated cylindrical chamber over the entire energy range down to 4 MeV. Furthermore, even though the TG-51 does not recommend using cylindrical chambers at the low energies, our results show that the cylindrical chamber has a good agreement with the PP chamber not only at 6 MeV but also down to 4 MeV electron beams.

  20. An MCNP-based model for the evaluation of the photoneutron dose in high energy medical electron accelerators.

    PubMed

    Carinou, Eleutheria; Stamatelatos, Ion Evangelos; Kamenopoulou, Vassiliki; Georgolopoulou, Paraskevi; Sandilos, Panayotis

    The development of a computational model for the treatment head of a medical electron accelerator (Elekta/Philips SL-18) by the Monte Carlo code mcnp-4C2 is discussed. The model includes the major components of the accelerator head and a pmma phantom representing the patient body. Calculations were performed for a 14 MeV electron beam impinging on the accelerator target and a 10 cmx10 cm beam area at the isocentre. The model was used in order to predict the neutron ambient dose equivalent at the isocentre level and moreover the neutron absorbed dose distribution within the phantom. Calculations were validated against experimental measurements performed by gold foil activation detectors. The results of this study indicated that the equivalent dose at tissues or organs adjacent to the treatment field due to photoneutrons could be up to 10% of the total peripheral dose, for the specific accelerator characteristics examined. Therefore, photoneutrons should be taken into account when accurate dose calculations are required to sensitive tissues that are adjacent to the therapeutic X-ray beam. The method described can be extended to other accelerators and collimation configurations as well, upon specification of treatment head component dimensions, composition and nominal accelerating potential.

  1. Energy Innovation Acceleration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, Johanna

    The Energy Innovation Acceleration Program (IAP) – also called U-Launch – has had a significant impact on early stage clean energy companies in the Northeast and on the clean energy economy in the Northeast, not only during program execution (2010-2014), but continuing into the future. Key results include: Leverage ratio of 105:1; $105M in follow-on funding (upon $1M investment by EERE); At least 19 commercial products launched; At least 17 new industry partnerships formed; At least $6.5M in revenue generated; >140 jobs created; 60% of assisted companies received follow-on funding within 1 year of program completion; In addition to themore » direct measurable program results summarized above, two primary lessons emerged from our work executing Energy IAP:; Validation and demonstration awards have an outsized, ‘tipping-point’ effect for startups looking to secure investments and strategic partnerships. An ecosystem approach is valuable, but an approach that evaluates the needs of individual companies and then draws from diverse ecosystem resources to fill them, is most valuable of all.« less

  2. Electron Cloud Effects in Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M.A.

    Abstract We present a brief summary of various aspects of the electron-cloud effect (ECE) in accelerators. For further details, the reader is encouraged to refer to the proceedings of many prior workshops, either dedicated to EC or with significant EC contents, including the entire ?ECLOUD? series [1?22]. In addition, the proceedings of the various flavors of Particle Accelerator Conferences [23] contain a large number of EC-related publications. The ICFA Beam Dynamics Newsletter series [24] contains one dedicated issue, and several occasional articles, on EC. An extensive reference database is the LHC website on EC [25].

  3. Review of the energy check of an electron-only linear accelerator over a 6 year period: sensitivity of the technique to energy shift.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Peter J

    2003-04-01

    The calibration and monthly QA of an electron-only linear accelerator dedicated to intra-operative radiation therapy has been reviewed. Since this machine is calibrated prior to every procedure, there was no necessity to adjust the output calibration at any time except, perhaps, when the magnetron is changed, provided the machine output is reasonably stable. This gives a unique opportunity to study the dose output of the machine per monitor unit, variation in the timer error, flatness and symmetry of the beam and the energy check as a function of time. The results show that, although the dose per monitor unit varied within +/- 2%, the timer error within +/- 0.005 MU and the asymmetry within 1-2%, none of these parameters showed any systematic change with time. On the other hand, the energy check showed a linear drift with time for 6, 9, and 12 MeV (2.1, 3.5, and 2.5%, respectively, over 5 years), while at 15 and 18 MeV, the energy check was relatively constant. It is further shown that based on annual calibrations and RPC TLD checks, the energy of each beam is constant and that therefore the energy check is an exquisitely sensitive one. The consistency of the independent checks is demonstrated.

  4. HF Accelerated Electron Fluxes, Spectra, and Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Herbert C.; Jensen, Joseph B.

    2015-10-01

    Wave particle interactions, an essential aspect of laboratory, terrestrial, and astrophysical plasmas, have been studied for decades by transmitting high power HF radio waves into Earth's weakly ionized space plasma, to use it as a laboratory without walls. Application to HF electron acceleration remains an active area of research (Gurevich in Usp Fizicheskikh Nauk 177(11):1145-1177, 2007) today. HF electron acceleration studies began when plasma line observations proved (Carlson et al. in J Atmos Terr Phys 44:1089-1100, 1982) that high power HF radio wave-excited processes accelerated electrons not to ~eV, but instead to -100 times thermal energy (10 s of eV), as a consequence of inelastic collision effects on electron transport. Gurevich et al (J Atmos Terr Phys 47:1057-1070, 1985) quantified the theory of this transport effect. Merging experiment with theory in plasma physics and aeronomy, enabled prediction (Carlson in Adv Space Res 13:1015-1024, 1993) of creating artificial ionospheres once ~GW HF effective radiated power could be achieved. Eventual confirmation of this prediction (Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 36:L18107, 2009; Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 37:L02106, 2010; Blagoveshchenskaya et al. in Ann Geophys 27:131-145, 2009) sparked renewed interest in optical inversion to estimate electron spectra in terrestrial (Hysell et al. in J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:2038-2045, 2014) and planetary (Simon et al. in Ann Geophys 29:187-195, 2011) atmospheres. Here we present our unpublished optical data, which combined with our modeling, lead to conclusions that should meaningfully improve future estimates of the spectrum of HF accelerated electron fluxes. Photometric imaging data can significantly improve detection of emissions near ionization threshold, and confirm depth of penetration of accelerated electrons many km below the excitation altitude. Comparing observed to modeled emission altitude shows future experiments need electron density profiles

  5. Recirculating Electron Accelerators with Noncircular Electron Orbits as Radiation Sources for Applications (a Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinov, Alexander E.; Ochkina, Elena I.

    2018-05-01

    State-of-the-art compact recirculating electron accelerators operating at intermediate energies (tens of MeV) are reviewed. The acceleration schemes implemented in the rhodotron, ridgetron, fantron, and cylindertron machines are discussed. Major accelerator components such as the electron guns, accelerating cavities, and bending magnets are described. The parameters of currently operating recirculating accelerators are tabulated, and applications of these accelerators in different processes of irradiation are exemplified.

  6. Electron energy boosting in laser-wake-field acceleration with external magnetic field Bapprox1 T and laser prepulses

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei; Yamazaki, Atsushi

    2010-03-22

    Hundred-mega-electron-volt electron beams with quasi-monoenergetic distribution, and a transverse geometrical emittance as small as approx0.02 pi mm mrad are generated by low power (7 TW, 45 fs) laser pulses tightly focused in helium gas jets in an external static magnetic field, Bapprox1 T. Generation of monoenergetic beams strongly correlates with appearance of a straight, at least 2 mm length plasma channel in a short time before the main laser pulse and with the energy of copropagating picosecond pedestal pulses (PPP). For a moderate energy PPP, the multiple or staged electron self-injection in the channel gives several narrow peaks in themore » electron energy distribution.« less

  7. Signature energetic analysis of accelerate electron beam after first acceleration station by accelerating stand of Joint Institute for Nuclear Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sledneva, A. S.; Kobets, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    The linear electron accelerator based on the LINAC - 800 accelerator imported from the Netherland is created at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in the framework of the project on creation of the Testbed with an electron beam of a linear accelerator with an energy up to 250 MV. Currently two accelerator stations with a 60 MV energy of a beam are put in operation and the work is to put the beam through accelerating section of the third accelerator station. The electron beam with an energy of 23 MeV is used for testing the crystals (BaF2, CsI (native), and LYSO) in order to explore the opportunity to use them in particle detectors in experiments: Muon g-2, Mu2e, Comet, whose preparation requires a detailed study of the detectors properties such as their irradiation by the accelerator beams.

  8. Electron acceleration in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Droge, Wolfgang; Meyer, Peter; Evenson, Paul; Moses, Dan

    1989-01-01

    For the period Spetember 1978 to December 1982, 55 solar flare particle events for which the instruments on board the ISEE-3 spacecraft detected electrons above 10 MeV. Combining data with those from the ULEWAT spectrometer electron spectra in the range from 0.1 to 100 MeV were obtained. The observed spectral shapes can be divided into two classes. The spectra of the one class can be fit by a single power law in rigidity over the entire observed range. The spectra of the other class deviate from a power law, instead exhibiting a steepening at low rigidities and a flattening at high rigidities. Events with power-law spectra are associated with impulsive (less than 1 hr duration) soft X-ray emission, whereas events with hardening spectra are associated with long-duration (more than 1 hr) soft X-ray emission. The characteristics of long-duration events are consistent with diffusive shock acceleration taking place high in the corona. Electron spectra of short-duration flares are well reproduced by the distribution functions derived from a model assuming simultaneous second-order Fermi acceleration and Coulomb losses operating in closed flare loops.

  9. Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G. P.; Filippi, F.; Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Ferrario, M.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10-100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10-100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC_LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.

  10. Radial-Poloidal Mapping of the Energy Distribution of Electrons Accelerated by Lower Hybrid Waves in the Scrape-Off Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, J. P.; Petržílka, V.; Fuchs, V.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Hillaret, J.; Kočan, M.; Saint-Laurent, F.

    2009-11-01

    According to theory, Landau damping transfers the power carried by the high n//>50 components of the lower hybrid (LH) wave to thermal SOL electrons and stochastically accelerates them up to a few keV [1]. What amounts to a few percent of the injected LH power is thus transported along field lines and strikes plasma facing components, leading to the formation of well known "LH hot spots." We report on the first measurements of both the energy from 0 to 1 keV and the radial-poloidal distributions of the accelerated electrons using a retarding field analyzer. Two distinct electron populations are present : a cold, thermal population with temperatures between 10 and 30 eV, and a suprathermal component. Only partial attenuation of the electron flux was achieved at maximum applied voltage, indicating energies greater than 1 keV. Detailed 2D mapping of the hot spots was obtained by varying the safety factor stepwise during a single discharge. The radial width of the suprathermal electron beam at full power is rather large, at least about 5-6 cm, in contrast to Landau damping theory of the launched wave that predicts the radial width of the hot spots should not exceed a few millimetres [2]. The electron flux far from the grill is intermittent, with a typical burst rate of the order of 10 kHz.

  11. Electron dynamics in a plasma focus. [electron acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohl, F.; Gary, S. P.; Winters, P. A.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented of a numerical integration of the three-dimensional relativistic equations of motion of electrons subject to given electric and magnetic fields deduced from experiments. Fields due to two different models are investigated. For the first model, the fields are those due to a circular distribution of axial current filaments. As the current filaments collapse toward the axis, large azimuthal magnetic and axial electric fields are induced. These fields effectively heat the electrons to a temperature of approximately 8 keV and accelerate electrons within the radius of the filaments to high axial velocities. Similar results are obtained for the current-reduction phase of focus formation. For the second model, the fields are those due to a uniform current distribution. Both the current-reduction and the compression phases were studied. These is little heating or acceleration of electrons during the compression phase because the electrons are tied to the magnetic field. However, during the current-reduction phase, electrons near the axis are accelerated toward the center electrode and reach energies of 100 keV. A criterion is obtained which limits the runaway electron current to about 400 A.

  12. Thomson-backscattered x rays from laser-accelerated electrons.

    PubMed

    Schwoerer, H; Liesfeld, B; Schlenvoigt, H-P; Amthor, K-U; Sauerbrey, R

    2006-01-13

    We present the first observation of Thomson-backscattered light from laser-accelerated electrons. In a compact, all-optical setup, the "photon collider," a high-intensity laser pulse is focused into a pulsed He gas jet and accelerates electrons to relativistic energies. A counterpropagating laser probe pulse is scattered from these high-energy electrons, and the backscattered x-ray photons are spectrally analyzed. This experiment demonstrates a novel source of directed ultrashort x-ray pulses and additionally allows for time-resolved spectroscopy of the laser acceleration of electrons.

  13. Trapping of high-energy electrons into regime of surfatron acceleration by electromagnetic waves in space plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Erokhin, A. N.; Erokhin, N. S.; Milant'ev, V. P.

    2012-05-15

    The phenomenon of trapping of weakly relativistic charged particles (with kinetic energies on the order of mc{sup 2}) into a regime of surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave that propagates in plasma across a weak external magnetic field has been studied using nonlinear numerical calculations based on a solution of the relativistic equations of motion. Analysis showed that, for the wave amplitude above a certain threshold value and the initial wave phase outside the interval favorable for the surfing regime, the trajectory of a charged particle initially corresponds to its cyclotron rotation in the external magnetic field. For the initialmore » particle energies studied, the period of this rotation is relatively short. After a certain number (from several dozen to several thousand and above) of periods of rotation, the wave phase takes a value that is favorable for trapping of the charged particle on its trajectory by the electromagnetic wave, provided the Cherenkov resonance conditions are satisfied. As a result, the wave traps the charged particle and imparts it an ultrarelativistic acceleration. In momentum space, the region of trapping into the regime of surfing on an electromagnetic wave turns out to be rather large.« less

  14. Energy sweep compensation of induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Y-J

    1990-09-12

    The ETA-II linear induction accelerator (LIA) is designed to drive a microwave free electron laser (FEL). Beam energy sweep must be limited to {plus minus}1% for 50 ns to limit beam corkscrew motion and ensure high power FEL output over the full duration of the beam flattop. To achieve this energy sweep requirement, we have implemented a pulse distribution system and are planning implementation of a tapered pulse forming line (PFL) in the pulse generators driving acceleration gaps. The pulse distribution system assures proper phasing of the high voltage pulse to the electron beam. Additionally, cell-to-cell coupling of beam inducedmore » transients is reduced. The tapered PFL compensates for accelerator cell and loading nonlinearities. Circuit simulations show good agreement with preliminary data and predict the required energy sweep requirement can be met.« less

  15. Pulsed electron accelerator for radiation technologies in the enviromental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenev, Sergey

    1997-05-01

    The project of pulsed electron accelerator for radiation technologies in the environmental applications is considered. An accelerator consists of high voltage generator with vacuum insulation and vacuum diode with plasma cathode on the basis discharge on the surface of dielectric of large dimensions. The main parameters of electron accelerators are following: kinetic energy 0.2 - 2.0 MeV, electron beam current 1 - 30 kA and pulse duration 1- 5 microseconds. The main applications of accelerator for decomposition of wastewaters are considered.

  16. HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Courant, E.D.; Livingston, M.S.; Snyder, H.S.

    1959-04-14

    An improved apparatus is presented for focusing charged particles in an accelerator. In essence, the invention includes means for establishing a magnetic field in discrete sectors along the path of moving charged particles, the magnetic field varying in each sector in accordance with the relation. B = B/ sub 0/ STAln (r-r/sub 0/)/r/sub 0/!, where B/sub 0/ is the value of the magnetic field at the equilibrium orbit of radius r/sub 0/ of the path of the particles, B equals the magnetic field at the radius r of the chamber and n equals the magnetic field gradient index, the polarity of n being abruptly reversed a plurality of times as the particles travel along their arcuate path. With this arrangement, the particles are alternately converged towards the axis of their equillbrium orbit and diverged therefrom in successive sectors with a resultant focusing effect.

  17. Acceleration of electron bunches by intense laser pulse in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, J. F.; Ho, Y. K.; Lin, Y. Z.; Cao, N.

    2003-08-01

    This paper addresses the output characteristics of real electron bunches accelerated with ultra-intense laser pulse in vacuum by the capture & acceleration scenario (CAS) scheme (see, e.g., Phys. Rev. E66 (2002) 066501). Normally, the size of an electron bunch is much larger than that of a tightly focused and compressed laser pulse. We examine in detail the features of the intersection region, the distribution of electrons which can experience an intense laser field and be accelerated to high energy. Furthermore, the output properties of the accelerated CAS electrons, such as the energy spectra, the angular distributions, the energy-angle correlations, the acceleration gradient, the energy which can be reached with this scheme, the emittances of the outgoing electron bunches, and the dependence of the output properties on the incident electron beam qualities such as the emittance, focusing status, etc. were studied and explained. We found that with intense laser systems and electron beam technology currently available nowadays, the number of CAS electrons can reach 10 4-10 5, when the total number of incident electrons in the practical bunch reaches ˜10 8. These results demonstrate that CAS is promising to become a novel mechanism of vacuum laser accelerators.

  18. Electron cyclotron wave acceleration outside a flaring loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1983-01-01

    A model for the secondary acceleration of electrons outside a flaring loop is proposed. The results suggest that the narrow bandwidth radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring loop can become the driver for secondary electron acceleration outside the loop. It is shown that a system of electrons gyrating about and streaming along an adiabatically spatially varying, static magnetic field can be efficiently accelerated to high energies by an electromagnetic wave propagating along and polarized transverse to the static magnetic field. The predictions from our model appear to be in general agreement with existing observations.

  19. Free electron laser using Rf coupled accelerating and decelerating structures

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    A free electron laser and free electron laser amplifier using beam transport devices for guiding an electron beam to a wiggler of a free electron laser and returning the electron beam to decelerating cavities disposed adjacent to the accelerating cavities of the free electron laser. Rf energy is generated from the energy depleted electron beam after it emerges from the wiggler by means of the decelerating cavities which are closely coupled to the accelerating cavities, or by means of a second bore within a single set of cavities. Rf energy generated from the decelerated electron beam is used to supplement energy provided by an external source, such as a klystron, to thereby enhance overall efficiency of the system.

  20. Identification of High-Z Materials With Photoneutrons Driven by a Low-Energy Electron Linear Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yigang; Zhang, Zhi; Chen, Huaibi; Li, Yulan; Li, Yuanjing

    2017-07-01

    Contraband-detection systems can use X-rays and photoneutrons delivered from the same 7-MeV electron linear accelerator (e-LINAC) to stimulate and extract information from inspected materials. The X-ray attenuation information is used to measure the mass thickness, which is combined with the photoneutron attenuation information to categorize inspected materials as common organic materials, metals, and heavy metals. Once a heavy metal is found, the beta-delayed neutrons stimulated by the (γ,fission) reaction are measured by a polyethylene-moderated 3He counter to clarify if the material is fissile. The presence of neutron events 2000 μs after the X-ray pulse confirms the existence of the fissile material. The isotopes in the material are then identified using the time-of-flight method to analyze the resonant attenuation of the fissile material to the 10-1-102 eV photoneutrons emitted from and thermalized by the D2O photonto-neutron convertor, which converts X-rays to photoneutrons. Eight high-Z simulants are tested to confirm the feasibility of identifying the isotopes from the photoneutron resonance. The underlying principles and experimental results are discussed.

  1. Vacuum electron acceleration by coherent dipole radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Troha, A.L.; Van Meter, J.R.; Landahl, E.C.

    1999-07-01

    The validity of the concept of laser-driven vacuum acceleration has been questioned, based on an extrapolation of the well-known Lawson-Woodward theorem, which stipulates that plane electromagnetic waves cannot accelerate charged particles in vacuum. To formally demonstrate that electrons can indeed be accelerated in vacuum by focusing or diffracting electromagnetic waves, the interaction between a point charge and coherent dipole radiation is studied in detail. The corresponding four-potential exactly satisfies both Maxwell{close_quote}s equations and the Lorentz gauge condition everywhere, and is analytically tractable. It is found that in the far-field region, where the field distribution closely approximates that of a planemore » wave, we recover the Lawson-Woodward result, while net acceleration is obtained in the near-field region. The scaling of the energy gain with wave-front curvature and wave amplitude is studied systematically. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}« less

  2. Laser-plasma interactions from thin tapes for high-energy electron accelerators and seeding compact FELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Brian Henry

    This thesis comprises a detailed investigation of the physics of using a plasma mirror (PM) from a tape by reflecting ultrashort pulses from a laser-triggered surface plasma. The tapes used in the characterization of the PM are VHS and computer data storage tape. The tapes are 6.6 m (computer storage tape) and 15 m (VHS) thick. Each tape is 0.5 inches wide, and 10s of meters of tape are spooled using a tape drive; providing thousands of shots on a single reel of tape. The amount of reflected energy of the PM was studied for different input intensities. The fluence was varied by translating the focus of the laser upstream and downstream of the tape, which changed the spot size on the tape surface and hence changed the fluence. This study measured reflectances from both sides of the two tapes, and for input light of both s and p-polarizations. Lastly, an analytic model was developed to understand the reflectance as a function of fluence for each tape material and polarization. Another application that benefits from the advancements of LPA technology is an LPAbased FEL. By sending a high quality electron bunch through an undulator (a periodic structure of positive and negative magnetic poles), the electrons oscillate transversely to the propagation axis and produce radiation. The 1.5 m THUNDER undulator at the BELLA Center has been commissioned using electron beams of 400MeV beams with broad energy spread (35%). To produce a coherent LPA-based FEL, the beam quality would need to improve to sub-percent level energy spread. A seed source could be used to help induce bunching of the electron beam within the undulator. This thesis described the experimental investigation of the physics of using solid-based surface high-harmonic generation (SHHG) from a thin tape as a possible seed source for an FEL. A thin tape placed within centimeters of the undulator's entrance could act as a harmonic generating source, while simultaneously transmitting an electron beam. This removes

  3. Applications of Electron Linear Induction Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westenskow*, Glen; Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    Linear Induction Accelerators (LIAs) can readily produce intense electron beams. For example, the ATA accelerator produced a 500 GW beam and the LIU-30 a 4 TW beam (see Chap. 2). Since the induction accelerator concept was proposed in the late 1950s [1, 2], there have been many proposed schemes to convert the beam power to other forms. Categories of applications that have been demonstrated for electron LIAs include:

  4. Design of an X -band electron linear accelerator dedicated to decentralized 99Mo/99mTc supply: From beam energy selection to yield estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jaewoong; Yamamoto, Masashi; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2017-10-01

    The most frequently used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine, 99mTc, is generally obtained by the decay of its parent radionuclide, 99Mo. Recently, concerns have been raised over shortages of 99Mo/99mTc, owing to aging of the research reactors which have been supplying practically all of the global demand for 99Mo in a centralized fashion. In an effort to prevent such 99Mo/99mTc supply disruption and, furthermore, to ameliorate the underlying instability of the centralized 99Mo/99mTc supply chain, we designed an X -band electron linear accelerator which can be distributed over multiple regions, whereby 99Mo/99mTc can be supplied with improved accessibility. The electron beam energy was designed to be 35 MeV, at which an average beam power of 9.1 kW was calculated by the following beam dynamics analysis. Subsequent radioactivity modeling suggests that 11 of the designed electron linear accelerators can realize self-sufficiency of 99Mo/99mTc in Japan.

  5. Accelerator Science: Luminosity vs. Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    In the world of high energy physics there are several parameters that are important when one constructs a particle accelerator. Two crucial ones are the energy of the beam and the luminosity, which is another word for the number of particles in the beam. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the differences and the pros and cons. He even works in an unexpected sporting event.

  6. Accelerator Science: Luminosity vs. Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2018-06-12

    In the world of high energy physics there are several parameters that are important when one constructs a particle accelerator. Two crucial ones are the energy of the beam and the luminosity, which is another word for the number of particles in the beam. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the differences and the pros and cons. He even works in an unexpected sporting event.

  7. Probing electron acceleration and x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Thaury, C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Corde, S.

    2013-06-15

    While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam, is focused on the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion, which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction lengthmore » to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied.« less

  8. Choosing a therapy electron accelerator target.

    PubMed

    Hutcheon, R M; Schriber, S O; Funk, L W; Sherman, N K

    1979-01-01

    Angular distributions of photon depth dose produced by 25-MeV electrons incident on several fully stopping single-element targets (C, Al, Cu, Mo, Ta, Pb) and two composite layered targets (Ni-Al, W-Al) were studied. Depth-dose curves measured using TLD-700 (thermoluminescent dosimeter) chips embedded in lucite phantoms. Several useful therapy electron accelerator design curves were determined, including relative flattener thickness as a function of target atomic number, "effective" bremsstrahlung endpoint energy or beam "hardness" as a function of target atomic number and photon emission angle, and estimates of shielding thickness as a function of angle required to reduce the radiation outside the treatment cone to required levels.

  9. Stochastic acceleration of electrons from multiple uncorrelated plasma waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, David; Michel, Pierre; Wurtele, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    One-dimensional theory puts a strict limit on the maximum energy attainable by an electron trapped and accelerated by an electron plasma wave (EPW). However, experimental measurements of hot electron distributions accelerated by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in ICF experiments typically show a thermal distribution with temperatures of the order of the kinetic energy of the resonant EPW's (Thot mvp2 , where vp is the phase velocity of the EPW's driven by SRS) and no clear cutoff at high energies. In this project, we are investigating conditions under which electrons can be stochastically accelerated by multiple uncorrelated EPW's, such as those generated by incoherent laser speckles in large laser spots like the ones used on NIF ( mm-size), and reproduce distributions similar to those observed in experiments. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. Giga-electronvolt electrons due to a transition from laser wakefield acceleration to plasma wakefield acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Mo, M. Z.; Ali, A.; Fourmaux, S.; Lassonde, P.; Kieffer, J. C.; Rozmus, W.; Teychenné, D.; Fedosejevs, R.

    2014-12-01

    We show through experiments that a transition from laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) regime to a plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) regime can drive electrons up to energies close to the GeV level. Initially, the acceleration mechanism is dominated by the bubble created by the laser in the nonlinear regime of LWFA, leading to an injection of a large number of electrons. After propagation beyond the depletion length, leading to a depletion of the laser pulse, whose transverse ponderomotive force is not able to sustain the bubble anymore, the high energy dense bunch of electrons propagating inside bubble will drive its own wakefield by a PWFA regime. This wakefield will be able to trap and accelerate a population of electrons up to the GeV level during this second stage. Three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations support this analysis and confirm the scenario.

  11. Giga-electronvolt electrons due to a transition from laser wakefield acceleration to plasma wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Masson-Laborde, P. E., E-mail: paul-edouard.masson-laborde@cea.fr; Teychenné, D.; Mo, M. Z.

    2014-12-15

    We show through experiments that a transition from laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) regime to a plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) regime can drive electrons up to energies close to the GeV level. Initially, the acceleration mechanism is dominated by the bubble created by the laser in the nonlinear regime of LWFA, leading to an injection of a large number of electrons. After propagation beyond the depletion length, leading to a depletion of the laser pulse, whose transverse ponderomotive force is not able to sustain the bubble anymore, the high energy dense bunch of electrons propagating inside bubble will drive its ownmore » wakefield by a PWFA regime. This wakefield will be able to trap and accelerate a population of electrons up to the GeV level during this second stage. Three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations support this analysis and confirm the scenario.« less

  12. Low-energy (< 200 eV) electron acceleration by ULF waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer: Van Allen Probes observation

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jie; Zong, Q. G.; Miyoshi, Y.

    Here, we report observational evidence of cold plamsmaspheric electron (< 200 eV) acceleration by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer on 10 September 2015. Strongly enhanced cold electron fluxes in the energy spectrogram were observed along with second harmonic mode waves with a period of about 1 minute which lasted several hours during two consecutive Van Allen Probe B orbits. Cold electron (<200 eV) and energetic proton (10-20 keV) bi-directional pitch angle signatures observed during the event are suggestive of the drift-bounce resonance mechanism. The correlation between enhanced energy fluxes and ULF waves leads to the conclusions thatmore » plasmaspheric dynamics is strongly affected by ULF waves. Van Allen Probe A and B, GOES 13, GOES 15 and MMS 1 observations suggest ULF waves in the event were strongest on the dusk-side magnetosphere. Measurements from MMS 1 contain no evidence of an external wave source during the period when ULF waves and injected energetic protons with a bump-on-tail distribution were detected by Van Allen Probe B. This suggests that the observed ULF waves were probably excited by a localized drift-bounce resonant instability, with the free energy supplied by substorm-injected energetic protons. The observations by Van Allen Probe B suggest that energy transfer between particle species in different energy ranges can take place through the action of ULF waves, demonstrating the important role of these waves in the dynamical processes of the inner magnetosphere.« less

  13. Low-energy (< 200 eV) electron acceleration by ULF waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer: Van Allen Probes observation

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Jie; Zong, Q. G.; Miyoshi, Y.; ...

    2017-08-30

    Here, we report observational evidence of cold plamsmaspheric electron (< 200 eV) acceleration by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer on 10 September 2015. Strongly enhanced cold electron fluxes in the energy spectrogram were observed along with second harmonic mode waves with a period of about 1 minute which lasted several hours during two consecutive Van Allen Probe B orbits. Cold electron (<200 eV) and energetic proton (10-20 keV) bi-directional pitch angle signatures observed during the event are suggestive of the drift-bounce resonance mechanism. The correlation between enhanced energy fluxes and ULF waves leads to the conclusions thatmore » plasmaspheric dynamics is strongly affected by ULF waves. Van Allen Probe A and B, GOES 13, GOES 15 and MMS 1 observations suggest ULF waves in the event were strongest on the dusk-side magnetosphere. Measurements from MMS 1 contain no evidence of an external wave source during the period when ULF waves and injected energetic protons with a bump-on-tail distribution were detected by Van Allen Probe B. This suggests that the observed ULF waves were probably excited by a localized drift-bounce resonant instability, with the free energy supplied by substorm-injected energetic protons. The observations by Van Allen Probe B suggest that energy transfer between particle species in different energy ranges can take place through the action of ULF waves, demonstrating the important role of these waves in the dynamical processes of the inner magnetosphere.« less

  14. An Undulator-Based Laser Wakefield Accelerator Electron Beam Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakeman, Michael S.

    Currently particle accelerators such as the Large Hadron Collider use RF cavities with a maximum field gradient of 50-100 MV/m to accelerate particles over long distances. A new type of plasma based accelerator called a Laser Plasma Accelerator (LPA) is being investigated at the LOASIS group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory which can sustain field gradients of 10-100 GV/m. This new type of accelerator offers the potential to create compact high energy accelerators and light sources. In order to investigate the feasibility of producing a compact light source an undulator-based electron beam diagnostic for use on the LOASIS LPA has been built and calibrated. This diagnostic relies on the principal that the spectral analysis of synchrotron radiation from an undulator can reveal properties of the electron beam such as emittance, energy and energy spread. The effects of electron beam energy spread upon the harmonics of undulator produced synchrotron radiation were derived from the equations of motion of the beam and numerically simulated. The diagnostic consists of quadrupole focusing magnets to collimate the electron beam, a 1.5 m long undulator to produce the synchrotron radiation, and a high resolution high gain XUV spectrometer to analyze the radiation. The undulator was aligned and tuned in order to maximize the flux of synchrotron radiation produced. The spectrometer was calibrated at the Advanced Light Source, with the results showing the ability to measure electron beam energy spreads at resolutions as low as 0.1% rms, a major improvement over conventional magnetic spectrometers. Numerical simulations show the ability to measure energy spreads on realistic LPA produced electron beams as well as the improvements in measurements made with the quadrupole magnets. Experimentally the quadrupoles were shown to stabilize and focus the electron beams at specific energies for their insertion into the undulator, with the eventual hope of producing an all optical

  15. Acceleration of electrons in strong beam-plasma interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, K.; Bernstein, W.; Kellogg, P. J.; Whalen, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of strong beam-plasma interactions on the electron population of the upper atmosphere have been investigated in an electron acceleration experiment performed with a sounding rocket. The rocket carried the Several Complex Experiments (SCEX) payload which included an electron accelerator, three disposable 'throwaway' detectors (TADs), and a stepped electron energy analyzer. The payload was launched in an auroral arc over the rocket at altitudes of 157 and 178 km, respectively. The performance characteristics of the instruments are discussed in detail. The data are combined with the results of laboratory measurements and show that electrons with energies of at least two and probably four times the injection energy of 2 keV were observed during strong beam-plasma interaction events. The interaction events occurred at pitch angles of 54 and 126 degrees. On the basis of the data it is proposed that the superenergization of the electrons is correlated with the length of the beam-plasma interaction region.

  16. Electron acceleration via magnetic island coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, I.; Yumura, T.; Tanaka, K. G.; Fujimoto, M.

    2009-06-01

    Electron acceleration via fast magnetic island coalescence that happens as quick magnetic reconnection triggering (QMRT) proceeds has been studied. We have carried out a three-dimensional full kinetic simulation of the Harris current sheet with a large enough simulation run for two magnetic islands coalescence. Due to the strong inductive electric field associated with the non-linear evolution of the lower-hybrid-drift instability and the magnetic island coalescence process observed in the non-linear stage of the collisionless tearing mode, electrons are significantly accelerated at around the neutral sheet and the subsequent X-line. The accelerated meandering electrons generated by the non-linear evolution of the lower-hybrid-drift instability are resulted in QMRT, and QMRT leads to fast magnetic island coalescence. As a whole, the reconnection triggering and its transition to large-scale structure work as an effective electron accelerator.

  17. F + centre generation in MgO crystals at high density of excitation by accelerated electrons of subthreshold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annenkov, Y. M.; Surzhikov, A. P.; Surzhikov, V. P.; Pogrebnjak, A. D.

    1981-07-01

    Optical absorption spectra and the angular distribution of annihilated positrons in MgO crystals irradiated by subtreshold superdense electron pulses are measured. The experimental results obtained show the effective contribution of the creation mechanism of non-impact radiation defects in MgO crystals at the highest electron irradiation densities.

  18. Electron acceleration by inertial Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, B.J.; Lysak, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    Alfven waves reflected by the ionosphere and by inhomogeneities in the Alfven speed can develop an oscillating parallel electric field when electron inertial effects are included. These waves, which have wavelengths of the order of an Earth radius, can develop a coherent structure spanning distances of several Earth radii along geomagnetic field lines. This system has characteristic frequencies in the range of 1 Hz and can exhibit electric fields capable of accelerating electrons in several senses: via Landua resonance, bounce or transit time resonance as discussed by Andre and Eliasson or through the effective potential drop which appears when themore » transit time of the electrons is much smaller than the wave period, so that the electric fields appear effectively static. A time-dependent model of wave propagation is developed which represents inertial Alfven wave propagation along auroral field lines. The disturbance is modeled as it travels earthward, experiences partial reflections in regions of rapid variation, and finally reflects off a conducting ionosphere to continue propagating antiearthward. The wave experiences partial trapping by the ionospheric and the Alfven speed peaks discussed earlier by Polyakov and Rapoport and Trakhtengerts and Feldstein and later by Lysak. Results of the wave simulation and an accompanying test particle simulation are presented, which indicate that inertial Alfven waves are a possible mechanism for generating electron conic distributions and field-aligned particle precipitation. The model incorporates conservation of energy by allowing electrons to affect the wave via Landau damping, which appears to enhance the effect of the interactions which heat electron populations. 22 refs., 14 figs.« less

  19. Laser-driven dielectric electron accelerator for radiobiology researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Kazuyoshi; Matsumura, Yosuke; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Natsui, Takuya; Aimierding, Aimidula

    2013-05-01

    In order to estimate the health risk associated with a low dose radiation, the fundamental process of the radiation effects in a living cell must be understood. It is desired that an electron bunch or photon pulse precisely knock a cell nucleus and DNA. The required electron energy and electronic charge of the bunch are several tens keV to 1 MeV and 0.1 fC to 1 fC, respectively. The smaller beam size than micron is better for the precise observation. Since the laser-driven dielectric electron accelerator seems to suite for the compact micro-beam source, a phase-modulation-masked-type laser-driven dielectric accelerator was studied. Although the preliminary analysis made a conclusion that a grating period and an electron speed must satisfy the matching condition of LG/λ = v/c, a deformation of a wavefront in a pillar of the grating relaxed the matching condition and enabled the slow electron to be accelerated. The simulation results by using the free FDTD code, Meep, showed that the low energy electron of 20 keV felt the acceleration field strength of 20 MV/m and gradually felt higher field as the speed was increased. Finally the ultra relativistic electron felt the field strength of 600 MV/m. The Meep code also showed that a length of the accelerator to get energy of 1 MeV was 3.8 mm, the required laser power and energy were 11 GW and 350 mJ, respectively. Restrictions on the laser was eased by adopting sequential laser pulses. If the accelerator is illuminated by sequential N pulses, the pulse power, pulse width and the pulse energy are reduced to 1/N, 1/N and 1/N2, respectively. The required laser power per pulse is estimated to be 2.2 GW when ten pairs of sequential laser pulse is irradiated.

  20. Electron Surfing Acceleration in High Mach Number Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, M.; Amano, T.; Matsumoto, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Many energetic events associated with shock waves have been argued in this context of the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA), and the origin of high-energy particles observed in astrophysical shocks are believed to be attributed to DSA. However, electron nonthermal acceleration still remains an unresolved issue of considerable interest. While cosmic rays of supernova remnant shocks with power-law spectra are believed to be produced by DSA, energetic electrons with a power-law energy spectrum are rarely ever observed at interplanetary shocks and at planetary bow shocks (e.g., Lario et al. 2003), and the diffusive-type acceleration seems to be necessarily malfunctioning in the heliosphere. The malfunctioning reason is thought to be a lack of pre-acceleration mechanism of supra-thermal electrons.In this presentation, we propose that the supra-thermal electrons can be generated by the mechanism of shock surfing acceleration (SSA) in a high Mach number magnetosonic shock. In the surfing mechanism, a series of large-amplitude electrostatic waves are excited by Buneman instability in the foot region under the interaction between the reflected ions and the incoming electrons, and it is argued that the electrons trapped in the electrostatic waves can be accelerated up to a relativistic energy (Hoshino and Shimada, 2002). Since the electron SSA has been studied based on one- or two-dimensional PIC simulations so far, SSA in three-dimensional system is questionable and remains an open question. We discuss based on our theoretical model and three-dimensional PIC simulation with a high-performance computing that the efficiency of SSA in three-dimensional system remains amazingly strong and plays an important role on the electron pre-acceleration/injection problem.

  1. Enhancement of Electron Acceleration in Laser Wakefields by Random Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataronis, J. A.; Petržílka, V.

    1999-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that intense laser pulses can accelerate electrons to high energies. The energy appears to increase with the distance over which the electrons are accelerated. This is difficult to explain by electron trapping in a single wakefield wave.^1 We demonstrate that enhanced electron acceleration can arise in inhomogeneous laser wakefields through the effects of spontaneously excited random fields. This acceleration mechanism is analogous to fast electron production by random fields near rf antennae in fusion devices and helicon plasma sources.^2 Electron acceleration in a transverse laser wave due to random field effects was recently found.^3 In the present study we solve numerically the governing equations of an ensemble of test electrons in a longitudinal electric wakefield perturbed by random fields. [1pt] Supported by the Czech grant IGA A1043701 and the U.S. DOE under grant No. DE-FG02-97ER54398. [1pt] 1. A. Pukhov and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, in Superstrong Fields in Plasmas, AIP Conf. Proc. 426, p. 93 (1997). 2. V. Petržílka, J. A. Tataronis, et al., in Proc. Varenna - Lausanne Fusion Theory Workshop, p. 95 (1998). 3. J. Meyer-ter-Vehn and Z. M. Sheng, Phys. Plasmas 6, 641 (1999).

  2. Possibility for ultra-bright electron beam acceleration in dielectric wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu.

    2012-12-21

    We describe a conceptual proposal to combine the Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (DWA) with the Emittance Exchanger (EEX) to demonstrate a high-brightness DWA with a gradient of above 100 MV/m and less than 0.1% induced energy spread in the accelerated beam. We currently evaluate the DWA concept as a performance upgrade for the future LANL signature facility MaRIE with the goal of significantly reducing the electron beam energy spread. The preconceptual design for MaRIE is underway at LANL, with the design of the electron linear accelerator being one of the main research goals. Although generally the baseline design needs to bemore » conservative and rely on existing technology, any future upgrade would immediately call for looking into the advanced accelerator concepts capable of boosting the electron beam energy up by a few GeV in a very short distance without degrading the beam's quality. Scoping studies have identified large induced energy spreads as the major cause of beam quality degradation in high-gradient advanced accelerators for free-electron lasers. We describe simulations demonstrating that trapezoidal bunch shapes can be used in a DWA to greatly reduce the induced beam energy spread, and, in doing so, also preserve the beam brightness at levels never previously achieved. This concept has the potential to advance DWA technology to a level that would make it suitable for the upgrades of the proposed Los Alamos MaRIE signature facility.« less

  3. Millisecond newly born pulsars as efficient accelerators of electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanov, Zaza; Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Chkheidze, Nino

    2015-09-01

    The newly born millisecond pulsars are investigated as possible energy sources for creating ultra-high energy electrons. The transfer of energy from the star rotation to high energy electrons takes place through the Landau damping of centrifugally driven (via a two stream instability) electrostatic Langmuir waves. Generated in the bulk magnetosphere plasma, such waves grow to high amplitudes, and then damp, very effectively, on relativistic electrons driving them to even higher energies. We show that the rate of transfer of energy is so efficient that no energy losses might affect the mechanism of particle acceleration; the electrons might achieve energies of the order of 1018 eV for parameters characteristic of a young star.

  4. Electron Heating and Acceleration in a Reconnecting Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Alaoui, M.; Zhou, M.; Lapenta, G.; Berchem, J.; Richard, R. L.; Schriver, D.; Walker, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Electron heating and acceleration in the magnetotail have been investigated intensively. A major site for this process is the reconnection region. However, where and how the electrons are accelerated in a realistic three-dimensional X-line geometry is not fully understood. In this study, we employed a three-dimensional implicit particle-in-cell (iPIC3D) simulation and large-scale kinetic (LSK) simulation to address these problems. We modeled a magnetotail reconnection event observed by THEMIS in an iPIC3D simulation with initial and boundary conditions given by a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of Earth's magnetosphere. The iPIC3D simulation system includes the region of fast outflow emanating from the reconnection site that drives dipolarization fronts. We found that current sheet electrons exhibit elongated (cigar-shaped) velocity distributions with a higher parallel temperature. Using LSK we then followed millions of test electrons using the electromagnetic fields from iPIC3D. We found that magnetotail reconnection can generate power law spectra around the near-Earth X-line. A significant number of electrons with energies higher than 50 keV are produced. We identified several acceleration mechanisms at different locations that were responsible for energizing these electrons: non-adiabatic cross-tail drift, betatron and Fermi acceleration. Relative contributions to the energy gain of these high energy electrons from the different mechanisms will be discussed.

  5. Overview of Accelerator Applications in Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, Robert W.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    An overview of the application of accelerators and accelerator technology in energy is presented. Applications span a broad range of cost, size, and complexity and include large-scale systems requiring high-power or high-energy accelerators to drive subcritical reactors for energy production or waste transmutation, as well as small-scale industrial systems used to improve oil and gas exploration and production. The enabling accelerator technologies will also be reviewed and future directions discussed.

  6. Secondary electron emission from plasma processed accelerating cavity grade niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basovic, Milos

    Advances in the particle accelerator technology have enabled numerous fundamental discoveries in 20th century physics. Extensive interdisciplinary research has always supported further development of accelerator technology in efforts of reaching each new energy frontier. Accelerating cavities, which are used to transfer energy to accelerated charged particles, have been one of the main focuses of research and development in the particle accelerator field. Over the last fifty years, in the race to break energy barriers, there has been constant improvement of the maximum stable accelerating field achieved in accelerating cavities. Every increase in the maximum attainable accelerating fields allowed for higher energy upgrades of existing accelerators and more compact designs of new accelerators. Each new and improved technology was faced with ever emerging limiting factors. With the standard high accelerating gradients of more than 25 MV/m, free electrons inside the cavities get accelerated by the field, gaining enough energy to produce more electrons in their interactions with the walls of the cavity. The electron production is exponential and the electron energy transfer to the walls of a cavity can trigger detrimental processes, limiting the performance of the cavity. The root cause of the free electron number gain is a phenomenon called Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). Even though the phenomenon has been known and studied over a century, there are still no effective means of controlling it. The ratio between the electrons emitted from the surface and the impacting electrons is defined as the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY). A SEY ratio larger than 1 designates an increase in the total number of electrons. In the design of accelerator cavities, the goal is to reduce the SEY to be as low as possible using any form of surface manipulation. In this dissertation, an experimental setup was developed and used to study the SEY of various sample surfaces that were treated

  7. Secondary Electron Emission from Plasma Processed Accelerating Cavity Grade Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Basovic, Milos

    Advances in the particle accelerator technology have enabled numerous fundamental discoveries in 20th century physics. Extensive interdisciplinary research has always supported further development of accelerator technology in efforts of reaching each new energy frontier. Accelerating cavities, which are used to transfer energy to accelerated charged particles, have been one of the main focuses of research and development in the particle accelerator field. Over the last fifty years, in the race to break energy barriers, there has been constant improvement of the maximum stable accelerating field achieved in accelerating cavities. Every increase in the maximum attainable accelerating fields allowed for highermore » energy upgrades of existing accelerators and more compact designs of new accelerators. Each new and improved technology was faced with ever emerging limiting factors. With the standard high accelerating gradients of more than 25 MV/m, free electrons inside the cavities get accelerated by the field, gaining enough energy to produce more electrons in their interactions with the walls of the cavity. The electron production is exponential and the electron energy transfer to the walls of a cavity can trigger detrimental processes, limiting the performance of the cavity. The root cause of the free electron number gain is a phenomenon called Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). Even though the phenomenon has been known and studied over a century, there are still no effective means of controlling it. The ratio between the electrons emitted from the surface and the impacting electrons is defined as the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY). A SEY ratio larger than 1 designates an increase in the total number of electrons. In the design of accelerator cavities, the goal is to reduce the SEY to be as low as possible using any form of surface manipulation. In this dissertation, an experimental setup was developed and used to study the SEY of various sample surfaces that were

  8. Direct longitudinal laser acceleration of electrons in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajo, Sergio; Nanni, Emilio A.; Wong, Liang Jie; Moriena, Gustavo; Keathley, Phillip D.; Laurent, Guillaume; Miller, R. J. Dwayne; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2016-02-01

    Compact laser-driven accelerators are pursued heavily worldwide because they make novel methods and tools invented at national laboratories widely accessible in science, health, security, and technology [V. Malka et al., Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators, Nat. Phys. 4, 447 (2008)]. Current leading laser-based accelerator technologies [S. P. D. Mangles et al., Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions, Nature (London) 431, 535 (2004); T. Toncian et al., Ultrafast laser-driven microlens to focus and energy-select mega-electron volt protons, Science 312, 410 (2006); S. Tokita et al. Single-shot ultrafast electron diffraction with a laser-accelerated sub-MeV electron pulse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111911 (2009)] rely on a medium to assist the light to particle energy transfer. The medium imposes material limitations or may introduce inhomogeneous fields [J. R. Dwyer et al., Femtosecond electron diffraction: "Making the molecular movie,", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 741 (2006)]. The advent of few cycle ultraintense radially polarized lasers [S. Carbajo et al., Efficient generation of ultraintense few-cycle radially polarized laser pulses, Opt. Lett. 39, 2487 (2014)] has ushered in a novel accelerator concept [L. J. Wong and F. X. Kärtner, Direct acceleration of an electron in infinite vacuum by a pulsed radially polarized laser beam, Opt. Express 18, 25035 (2010); F. Pierre-Louis et al. Direct-field electron acceleration with ultrafast radially polarized laser beams: Scaling laws and optimization, J. Phys. B 43, 025401 (2010); Y. I. Salamin, Electron acceleration from rest in vacuum by an axicon Gaussian laser beam, Phys. Rev. A 73, 043402 (2006); C. Varin and M. Piché, Relativistic attosecond electron pulses from a free-space laser-acceleration scheme, Phys. Rev. E 74, 045602 (2006); A. Sell and F. X. Kärtner, Attosecond electron bunches accelerated and compressed by radially polarized laser

  9. Two-screen single-shot electron spectrometer for laser wakefield accelerated electron beams.

    PubMed

    Soloviev, A A; Starodubtsev, M V; Burdonov, K F; Kostyukov, I Yu; Nerush, E N; Shaykin, A A; Khazanov, E A

    2011-04-01

    The laser wakefield acceleration electron beams can essentially deviate from the axis of the system, which distinguishes them greatly from beams of conventional accelerators. In case of energy measurements by means of a permanent-magnet electron spectrometer, the deviation angle can affect accuracy, especially for high energies. A two-screen single-shot electron spectrometer that correctly allows for variations of the angle of entry is considered. The spectrometer design enables enhancing accuracy of measuring narrow electron beams significantly as compared to a one-screen spectrometer with analogous magnetic field, size, and angular acceptance. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  10. Bulk Acceleration of Electrons in Solar Flares?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    2014-06-01

    In two recent papers it has been argued that RHESSI observations of two coronal “above-the-loop-top” hard X-ray sources, together with EUV observations, show that ALL the electrons in the source volumes must have been accelerated. I will briefly review these papers and show that the interpretation most consistent with the combined flare observations is multi-thermal, with hot, thermal plasma in the “above-the-loop-top” sources and only a fraction, albeit a substantial fraction, of the electrons accelerated. Thus, there is no credible scientific evidence for bulk acceleration of electrons in flares. Differential emission measure (DEM) models deduced from SDO/AIA and RHESSI data, including the inversion of the AIA data to determine DEM, will be discussed as part of this analysis.

  11. The Bonn Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA: Past and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillert, W.

    2006-05-01

    In 1953, it was decided to build a 500MeV electron synchrotron in Bonn. It came into operation 1958, being the first alternating gradient synchrotron in Europe. After five years of performing photoproduction experiments at this accelerator, a larger 2.5GeV electron synchrotron was built and set into operation in 1967. Both synchrotrons were running for particle physics experiments, until from 1982 to 1987 a third accelerator, the electron stretcher ring ELSA, was constructed and set up in a separate ring tunnel below the physics institute. ELSA came into operation in 1987, using the pulsed 2.5GeV synchrotron as pre-accelerator. ELSA serves either as storage ring producing synchrotron radiation, or as post-accelerator and pulse stretcher. Applying a slow extraction close to a third integer resonance, external electron beams with energies up to 3.5GeV and high duty factors are delivered to hadron physics experiments. Various photo- and electroproduction experiments, utilising the experimental set-ups PHOENICS, ELAN, SAPHIR, GDH and Crystal Barrel have been carried out. During the late 90's, a pulsed GaAs source of polarised electrons was constructed and set up at the accelerator. ELSA was upgraded in order to accelerate polarised electrons, compensating for depolarising resonances by applying the methods of fast tune jumping and harmonic closed orbit correction. With the experimental investigation of the GDH sum rule, the first experiment requiring a polarised beam and a polarised target was successfully performed at the accelerator. In the near future, the stretcher ring will be further upgraded to increase polarisation and current of the external electron beams. In addition, the aspects of an increase of the maximum energy to 5GeV using superconducting resonators will be investigated.

  12. Energy limit in cyclotron autoresonance acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.; Hirshfield, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    A multimegawatt gyroharmonic converter depends critically on the parameters of a spatiotemporally modulated gyrating electron beam prepared using a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA). This paper extends a prior analysis of CARA [B. Hafizi, P. Sprangle, and J. L. Hirshfield, Phys. Rev. E 50, 3077 (1994)] to identify an approximate constant of the motion and, therefore, to give limits to the beam energy from CARA that can be utilized in a harmonic converter. It is also shown that particles are strongly phase trapped during acceleration in CARA and thus are insensitive to deviations from exact autoresonance. This fact could simplify constructionmore » of the up-tapered guide magnetic field in the device and augurs well for production of high-quality multimegawatt beams using CARA.« less

  13. Gamma-ray emission and electron acceleration in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, Vahe; Mctiernan, James M.; Marschhauser, Holger

    1994-01-01

    Recent observations have extended the spectra of the impulsive phase of flares to the GeV range. Such high-energy photons can be produced either by electron bremsstrahlung or by decay of pions produced by accelerated protons. In this paper we investigate the effects of processes which become important at high energies. We examine the effects of synchrotron losses during the transport of electrons as they travel from the acceleration region in the corona to the gamma-ray emission sites deep in the chromosphere and photosphere, and the effects of scattering and absorption of gamma rays on their way from the photosphere to space instruments. These results are compared with the spectra from so-called electron-dominated flares, observed by GRS on the Solar Maximum Mission, which show negligible or no detectable contribution from accelerated protons. The spectra of these flares show a distinct steepening at energies below 100 keV and a rapid falloff at energies above 50 MeV. Following our earlier results based on lower energy gamma-ray flare emission we have modeled these spectra. We show that neither the radiative transfer effects, which are expected to become important at higher energies, nor the transport effects (Coulomb collisions, synchrotron losses, or magnetic field convergence) can explain such sharp spectral deviations from a simple power law. These spectral deviations from a power law are therefore attributed to the acceleration process. In a stochastic acceleration model the low-energy steepening can be attributed to Coulomb collision and the rapid high-energy steepening can result from synchrotron losses during the acceleration process.

  14. Novel aspects of direct laser acceleration of relativistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefiev, Alexey

    2015-11-01

    Production of energetic electrons is a keystone aspect of ultraintense laser-plasma interactions that underpins a variety of topics and applications, including fast ignition inertial confinement fusion and compact particle and radiation sources. There is a wide range of electron acceleration regimes that depend on the duration of the laser pulse and the plasma density. This talk focuses on the regime in which the plasma is significantly underdense and the laser pulse duration is longer than the electron response time, so that, in contrast to the wakefield acceleration regime, the pulse creates a quasi-static channel in the electron density. Such a regime is of particular interest, since it can naturally arise in experiments with solid density targets where the pre-pulse of an ultraintense laser produces an extended sub-critical pre-plasma. This talk examines the impact of several key factors on electron acceleration by the laser pulse and the resulting electron energy gain. A detailed consideration is given to the role played by: (1) the static longitudinal electric field, (2) the static transverse electric field, (3) the electron injection into the laser pulse, (4) the electromagnetic dispersion, and (5) the static longitudinal magnetic field. It is shown that all of these factors lead, under conditions outlined in the talk, to a considerable electron energy gain that greatly exceeds the ponderomotive limit. The static fields do not directly transfer substantial energy to electrons. Instead, they alter the longitudinal dephasing between the electrons and the laser pulse, which then allows the electrons to gain extra energy from the pulse. The talk will also outline a time-resolution criterion that must be satisfied in order to correctly reproduce these effects in particle-in-cell simulations. Supported by AFOSR Contract No. FA9550-14-1-0045, National Nuclear Security Administration Contract No. DE-FC52-08NA28512, and US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FG02

  15. Acceleration and Precipitation of Electrons during Substorm Dipolarization Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Richard, Robert; Donovan, Eric; Zhou, Meng; Goldstein, Mevlyn; El-Alaoui, Mostafa; Schriver, David; Walker, Raymond

    Observations and modeling have established that during geomagnetically disturbed times the Earth’s magnetotail goes through large scale changes that result in enhanced electron precipitation into the ionosphere and earthward propagating dipolarization fronts that contain highly energized plasma. Such events originate near reconnection regions in the magnetotail at about 20-30 R_E down tail. As the dipolarization fronts propagate earthward, strong acceleration of both ions and electrons occurs due to a combination of non-adiabatic and adiabatic (betatron and Fermi) acceleration, with particle energies reaching up to 100 keV within the dipolarization front. One consequence of the plasma transport that occurs during these events is direct electron precipitation into the ionosphere, which form auroral precipitation. Using global kinetic simulations along with spacecraft and ground-based data, causes of electron precipitation are determined during well-documented, disturbed events. It is found that precipitation of keV electrons in the pre-midnight sector at latitudes around 70(°) occur due to two distinct physical processes: (1) higher latitude (≥72(°) ) precipitation due to electrons that undergo relatively rapid non-adiabatic pitch angle scattering into the loss cone just earthward of the reconnection region at around 20 R_E downtail, and (2) lower latitude (≤72(°) ) precipitation due to electrons that are more gradually accelerated primarily parallel to the geomagnetic field during its bounce motion by Fermi acceleration and enter the loss cone much closer to the Earth at 10-15 R_E, somewhat tailward of the dipolarization front. As the dipolarization fronts propagate earthward, the electron precipitation shifts to lower latitudes and occurs over a wider region in the auroral ionosphere. Our results show a direct connection between electron acceleration in the magnetotail and electron precipitation in the ionosphere during disturbed times. The electron

  16. Chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser vacuum accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Landahl, Eric C.

    2002-01-01

    A chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) vacuum accelerator for high gradient laser acceleration in vacuum. By the use of an ultrashort (femtosecond), ultrahigh intensity chirped laser pulse both the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased, thus yielding large gains in a compact system. In addition, the IFEL resonance condition can be maintained throughout the interaction region by using a chirped drive laser wave. In addition, diffraction can be alleviated by taking advantage of the laser optical bandwidth with negative dispersion focusing optics to produce a chromatic line focus. The combination of these features results in a compact, efficient vacuum laser accelerator which finds many applications including high energy physics, compact table-top laser accelerator for medical imaging and therapy, material science, and basic physics.

  17. GeV Electrons due to a Transition from Laser Wakefield Acceleration to Plasma Wakefield Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, M. Z.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Ali, A.; Fourmaux, S.; Lassonde, P.; Kieffer, J.-C.; Rozmus, W.; Teychenné, D.; Fedosejevs, R.

    2014-10-01

    The Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) experiments performed with the 200 TW laser system located at the Canadian Advanced Laser Light Source facility at INRS, Varennes (Québec) observed at relatively high plasma densities (1 × 1019cm-3) electron bunches of GeV energy gain, more than double of the predicted energy using Lu's scaling law. This energy boost phenomena can be attributed to a transition from LWFA regime to a plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) regime. In the first stage, the acceleration mechanism is dominated by the bubble created by the laser in the regime of LWFA, leading to an injection of a large number of electrons. After propagation beyond the depletion length, where the laser pulse is depleted and it can no longer sustain the bubble anymore, the dense bunch of high energy electrons propagating inside the bubble will drive its own wakefield in the PWFA regime that can trap and accelerate a secondary population of electrons up to the GeV level. 3D particle-in-cell simulations support this analysis, and confirm the scenario.

  18. Relativistic Electron Acceleration with Ultrashort Mid-IR Laser Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feder, Linus; Woodbury, Daniel; Shumakova, Valentina; Gollner, Claudia; Miao, Bo; Schwartz, Robert; Pugžlys, Audrius; Baltuška, Andrius; Milchberg, Howard

    2017-10-01

    We report the first results of laser plasma wakefield acceleration driven by ultrashort mid-infrared laser pulses (λ = 3.9 μm , pulsewidth 100 fs, energy <20 mJ, peak power <1 TW), which enables near- and above-critical density interactions with moderate-density gas jets. We present thresholds for electron acceleration based on critical parameters for relativistic self-focusing and target width, as well as trends in the accelerated beam profiles, charge and energy spectra which are supported by 3D particle-in-cell simulations. These results extend earlier work with sub-TW self-modulated laser wakefield acceleration using near IR drivers to the Mid-IR, and enable us to capture time-resolved images of relativistic self-focusing of the laser pulse. This work supported by DOE (DESC0010706TDD, DESC0015516); AFOSR(FA95501310044, FA95501610121); NSF(PHY1535519); DHS.

  19. Angular distribution of electrons from powerful accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepovik, A. P.; Lartsev, V. D.; Blinov, V. S.

    2007-07-01

    A technique for measuring the angular distribution of electrons escaping from the center of the window of the IGUR-3 and ÉMIR-M powerful accelerators (designed at the All-Russia Institute of Technical Physics, Russian Federal Nuclear Center) into ambient air is presented, and measurement data are reported. The number of electrons is measured with cable detectors (the solid angle of the collimator of the detector is ≈0.01 sr). The measurements are made in three azimuthal directions in 120° intervals in the polar angle range 0 22°. The angular distributions of the electrons coming out of the accelerators are represented in the form of B splines.

  20. Electron linear accelerator system for natural rubber vulcanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimjaem, S.; Kongmon, E.; Rhodes, M. W.; Saisut, J.; Thongbai, C.

    2017-09-01

    Development of an electron accelerator system, beam diagnostic instruments, an irradiation apparatus and electron beam processing methodology for natural rubber vulcanization is underway at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The project is carried out with the aims to improve the qualities of natural rubber products. The system consists of a DC thermionic electron gun, 5-cell standing-wave radio-frequency (RF) linear accelerator (linac) with side-coupling cavities and an electron beam irradiation apparatus. This system is used to produce electron beams with an adjustable energy between 0.5 and 4 MeV and a pulse current of 10-100 mA at a pulse repetition rate of 20-400 Hz. An average absorbed dose between 160 and 640 Gy is expected to be archived for 4 MeV electron beam when the accelerator is operated at 400 Hz. The research activities focus firstly on assembling of the accelerator system, study on accelerator properties and electron beam dynamic simulations. The resonant frequency of the RF linac in π/2 operating mode is 2996.82 MHz for the operating temperature of 35 °C. The beam dynamic simulations were conducted by using the code ASTRA. Simulation results suggest that electron beams with an average energy of 4.002 MeV can be obtained when the linac accelerating gradient is 41.7 MV/m. The rms transverse beam size and normalized rms transverse emittance at the linac exit are 0.91 mm and 10.48 π mm·mrad, respectively. This information can then be used as the input data for Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the electron beam penetration depth and dose distribution in the natural rubber latex. The study results from this research will be used to define optimal conditions for natural rubber vulcanization with different electron beam energies and doses. This is very useful for development of future practical industrial accelerator units.

  1. UNDULATOR-BASED LASER WAKEFIELD ACCELERATOR ELECTRON BEAM DIAGNOSTIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bakeman, M.S.; Fawley, W.M.; Leemans, W. P.

    to couple the THUNDER undulator to the LOASIS Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA). Currently the LWFA has achieved quasi-monoenergetic electron beams with energies up to 1 GeV. These ultra-short, high-peak-current, electron beams are ideal for driving a compact XUV free electron laser (FEL). Understanding the electron beam properties such as the energy spread and emittance is critical for achieving high quality light sources with high brightness. By using an insertion device such as an undulator and observing changes in the spontaneous emission spectrum, the electron beam energy spread and emittance can be measured with high precision.more » The initial experiments will use spontaneous emission from 1.5 m of undulator. Later experiments will use up to 5 m of undulator with a goal of a high gain, XUV FEL.« less

  2. Radiobiological effectiveness of laser accelerated electrons in comparison to electron beams from a conventional linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Laschinsky, Lydia; Baumann, Michael; Beyreuther, Elke; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Kaluza, Malte; Karsch, Leonhard; Lessmann, Elisabeth; Naumburger, Doreen; Nicolai, Maria; Richter, Christian; Sauerbrey, Roland; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Pawelke, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The notable progress in laser particle acceleration technology promises potential medical application in cancer therapy through compact and cost effective laser devices that are suitable for already existing clinics. Previously, consequences on the radiobiological response by laser driven particle beams characterised by an ultra high peak dose rate have to be investigated. Therefore, tumour and non-malignant cells were irradiated with pulsed laser accelerated electrons at the JETI facility for the comparison with continuous electrons of a conventional therapy LINAC. Dose response curves were measured for the biological endpoints clonogenic survival and residual DNA double strand breaks. The overall results show no significant differences in radiobiological response for in vitro cell experiments between laser accelerated pulsed and clinical used electron beams. These first systematic in vitro cell response studies with precise dosimetry to laser driven electron beams represent a first step toward the long term aim of the application of laser accelerated particles in radiotherapy.

  3. Trends for Electron Beam Accelerator Applications in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machi, Sueo

    2011-02-01

    Electron beam (EB) accelerators are major pieces of industrial equipment used for many commercial radiation processing applications. The industrial use of EB accelerators has a history of more than 50 years and is still growing in terms of both its economic scale and new applications. Major applications involve the modification of polymeric materials to create value-added products, such as heat-resistant wires, heat-shrinkable sheets, automobile tires, foamed plastics, battery separators and hydrogel wound dressing. The surface curing of coatings and printing inks is a growing application for low energy electron accelerators, resulting in an environmentally friendly and an energy-saving process. Recently there has been the acceptance of the use of EB accelerators in lieu of the radioactive isotope cobalt-60 as a source for sterilizing disposable medical products. Environmental protection by the use of EB accelerators is a new and important field of application. A commercial plant for the cleaning flue gases from a coal-burning power plant is in operation in Poland, employing high power EB accelerators. In Korea, a commercial plant uses EB to clean waste water from a dye factory.

  4. Spatially inhomogeneous acceleration of electrons in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stackhouse, Duncan J.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2018-04-01

    The imaging spectroscopy capabilities of the Reuven Ramaty high energy solar spectroscopic imager (RHESSI) enable the examination of the accelerated electron distribution throughout a solar flare region. In particular, it has been revealed that the energisation of these particles takes place over a region of finite size, sometimes resolved by RHESSI observations. In this paper, we present, for the first time, a spatially distributed acceleration model and investigate the role of inhomogeneous acceleration on the observed X-ray emission properties. We have modelled transport explicitly examining scatter-free and diffusive transport within the acceleration region and compare with the analytic leaky-box solution. The results show the importance of including this spatial variation when modelling electron acceleration in solar flares. The presence of an inhomogeneous, extended acceleration region produces a spectral index that is, in most cases, different from the simple leaky-box prediction. In particular, it results in a generally softer spectral index than predicted by the leaky-box solution, for both scatter-free and diffusive transport, and thus should be taken into account when modelling stochastic acceleration in solar flares.

  5. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  6. Scintillator for low accelerating voltage scanning electron microscopy imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowser, Christopher; Tzolov, Marian; Barbi, Nicholas

    Scintillators are essential in detecting electrons in SEM. The conventional scintillators such as YAP and YAG have poor response at low accelerating voltages due to a top conductive layer of ITO or Al. We have developed a thin film ZnWO4 scintillator with high photoluminescence quantum efficiency of 60% with enough electrical conductivity to prevent charging. We are showing that the ZnWO4 films are effective in detecting electrons at low accelerating voltages. This makes it a good option for a top layer on crystalline scintillators and we have integrated ZnWO4 with YAP to explore the high response of YAP at high electron energies and the effective response of ZnWO4 at low electron energies. We will compare the spectral intensities over a range of accelerating voltages between 1 and 30kV between the conventional and coupled thin film scintillator. The results are interpreted using a simulation of the depth profile of the electron penetration in the scintillator using CASINO. We have verified the absence of charging by measuring the sum of the secondary and backscattered electron coefficients. We have built detectors with the combined scintillators and we will compare SEM images recorded simultaneously by conventional and ZnWO4-based scintillators.

  7. Discrete and broadband electron acceleration in Jupiter's powerful aurora.

    PubMed

    Mauk, B H; Haggerty, D K; Paranicas, C; Clark, G; Kollmann, P; Rymer, A M; Bolton, S J; Levin, S M; Adriani, A; Allegrini, F; Bagenal, F; Bonfond, B; Connerney, J E P; Gladstone, G R; Kurth, W S; McComas, D J; Valek, P

    2017-09-06

    The most intense auroral emissions from Earth's polar regions, called discrete for their sharply defined spatial configurations, are generated by a process involving coherent acceleration of electrons by slowly evolving, powerful electric fields directed along the magnetic field lines that connect Earth's space environment to its polar regions. In contrast, Earth's less intense auroras are generally caused by wave scattering of magnetically trapped populations of hot electrons (in the case of diffuse aurora) or by the turbulent or stochastic downward acceleration of electrons along magnetic field lines by waves during transitory periods (in the case of broadband or Alfvénic aurora). Jupiter's relatively steady main aurora has a power density that is so much larger than Earth's that it has been taken for granted that it must be generated primarily by the discrete auroral process. However, preliminary in situ measurements of Jupiter's auroral regions yielded no evidence of such a process. Here we report observations of distinct, high-energy, downward, discrete electron acceleration in Jupiter's auroral polar regions. We also infer upward magnetic-field-aligned electric potentials of up to 400 kiloelectronvolts, an order of magnitude larger than the largest potentials observed at Earth. Despite the magnitude of these upward electric potentials and the expectations from observations at Earth, the downward energy flux from discrete acceleration is less at Jupiter than that caused by broadband or stochastic processes, with broadband and stochastic characteristics that are substantially different from those at Earth.

  8. Ponderomotive electron acceleration in a silicon-based nanoplasmonic waveguide.

    PubMed

    Sederberg, S; Elezzabi, A Y

    2014-10-17

    Ponderomotive electron acceleration is demonstrated in a semiconductor-loaded nanoplasmonic waveguide. Photogenerated free carriers are accelerated by the tightly confined nanoplasmonic fields and reach energies exceeding the threshold for impact ionization. Broadband (375 nm ≤ λ ≤ 650  nm) white light emission is observed from the nanoplasmonic waveguides. Exponential growth of visible light emission confirms the exponential growth of the electron population, demonstrating the presence of an optical-field-driven electron avalanche. Electron sweeping dynamics are visualized using pump-probe measurements, and a sweeping time of 1.98 ± 0.40 ps is measured. These findings offer a means to harness the potential of the emerging field of ultrafast nonlinear nanoplasmonics.

  9. ELECTRON ACCELERATION IN CONTRACTING MAGNETIC ISLANDS DURING SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Borovikov, D.; Tenishev, V.; Gombosi, T. I.

    Electron acceleration in solar flares is well known to be efficient at generating energetic particles that produce the observed bremsstrahlung X-ray spectra. One mechanism proposed to explain the observations is electron acceleration within contracting magnetic islands formed by magnetic reconnection in the flare current sheet. In a previous study, a numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulation of an eruptive solar flare was analyzed to estimate the associated electron acceleration due to island contraction. That analysis used a simple analytical model for the island structure and assumed conservation of the adiabatic invariants of particle motion. In this paper, we perform the first-ever rigorous integrationmore » of the guiding-center orbits of electrons in a modeled flare. An initially isotropic distribution of particles is seeded in a contracting island from the simulated eruption, and the subsequent evolution of these particles is followed using guiding-center theory. We find that the distribution function becomes increasingly anisotropic over time as the electrons’ energy increases by up to a factor of five, in general agreement with the previous study. In addition, we show that the energized particles are concentrated on the Sunward side of the island, adjacent to the reconnection X-point in the flare current sheet. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates that the electron energy gain is dominated by betatron acceleration in the compressed, strengthened magnetic field of the contracting island. Fermi acceleration by the shortened field lines of the island also contributes to the energy gain, but it is less effective than the betatron process.« less

  10. Repetitive nanosecond electron accelerators type URT-1 for radiation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokovnin, S. Yu.; Balezin, M. E.

    2018-03-01

    The electron accelerator URT-1М-300 for mobile installation was created for radiation disinfecting to correct drawbacks that were found the URT-1M electron accelerator operation (the accelerating voltage up to 1 МV, repetition rate up to 300 pps, electron beam size 400 × 100 mm, the pulse width about 100 ns). Accelerator configuration was changed that allowed to reduce significantly by 20% tank volume with oil where is placed the system of formation high-voltage pulses, thus the average power of the accelerator is increased by 6 times at the expense of increase in pulses repetition rate. Was created the system of the computerized monitoring parameters (output parameters and thermal mode) and remote control of the accelerator (charge voltage, pulse repetition rate), its elements and auxiliary systems (heat of the thyratron, vacuum system), the remote control panel is connected to the installation by the fiber-optical channel, what lightens the work for service personnel. For generating an electron beam up to 400 mm wide there are used metal- ceramic] and metal-dielectric cold cathodes of several emission elements (plates) with a non-uniform distribution of the electron beam current density on the output foil ± 15%. It was found that emission drop of both type of cathodes, during the operation at the high repetition rate (100 pps) is substantial at the beginning of the process, and then proceeds rather slowly that allows for continuous operation up to 40 h. Experiments showed that linear dependence of the voltage and a signal from the pin-diode remains within the range of the charge voltage 45-65 kV. Thus, voltage increases from 690 to 950 kV, and the signal from the pin-diode - from (2,8-4,6)*104 Gy/s. It allows to select electron energy quite precisely with consideration of the radiation technology requirements.

  11. Electron Acceleration and Efficiency in Nonthermal Gamma-Ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. M.; Meszaros, P.

    1996-04-01

    In energetic nonthermal sources such as gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, or galactic jets, etc., one expects both relativistic and transrelativistic shocks accompanied by violent motions of moderately relativistic plasma. We present general considerations indicating that these sites are electron and positron accelerators leading to a modified power-law spectrum. The electron (or e+/-) energy index is very hard, ~ gamma -1 or flatter, up to a comoving frame break energy gamma *, and becomes steeper above that. In the example of gamma-ray bursts, the Lorentz factor reaches gamma * ~ 103 for e+/- accelerated by the internal shock ensemble on subhydrodynamical timescales. For pairs accelerated on hydrodynamical timescales in the external shocks, similar hard spectra are obtained, and the break Lorentz factor can be as high as gamma * <~ 105. Radiation from the nonthermal electrons produces photon spectra with shapes and characteristic energies in qualitative agreement with observed generic gamma-ray burst and blazar spectra. The scenario described here provides a plausible way to solve one of the crucial problems of nonthermal high-energy sources, namely, the efficient transfer of energy from the proton flow to an appropriate nonthermal lepton component.

  12. Electron acceleration behind a wavy dipolarization front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mingyu; Lu, Quanming; Volwerk, Martin; Nakamura, Rumi; Zhang, Tielong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, with the in-situ observations from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) probes we report a wavy dipolarization front (DF) event, where the DF has different magnetic structures and electron distributions at different y positions in the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric (GSM) coordinates. At y ˜2.1RE (RE is the radius of Earth), the DF has a relatively simple structure, which is similar to that of a conventional DF. At y ˜3.0RE, the DF is revealed to have a multiple DF structure, where the plasma exhibits a vortex flow. Such a wavy DF could be the results of the interchange instability. The different structure of such a wavy DF at different sites has a great effect on electron acceleration. Fermi acceleration can occur at the site of the DF with a simple or multiple DF structure, while betatron acceleration as a local process has the contribution to energetic electrons only at the site of the DF with a simple structure.

  13. Electron acceleration by wave turbulence in a magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, A.; Cruz, F.; Albertazzi, B.; Bamford, R.; Bell, A. R.; Cross, J. E.; Fraschetti, F.; Graham, P.; Hara, Y.; Kozlowski, P. M.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Lamb, D. Q.; Lebedev, S.; Marques, J. R.; Miniati, F.; Morita, T.; Oliver, M.; Reville, B.; Sakawa, Y.; Sarkar, S.; Spindloe, C.; Trines, R.; Tzeferacos, P.; Silva, L. O.; Bingham, R.; Koenig, M.; Gregori, G.

    2018-05-01

    Astrophysical shocks are commonly revealed by the non-thermal emission of energetic electrons accelerated in situ1-3. Strong shocks are expected to accelerate particles to very high energies4-6; however, they require a source of particles with velocities fast enough to permit multiple shock crossings. While the resulting diffusive shock acceleration4 process can account for observations, the kinetic physics regulating the continuous injection of non-thermal particles is not well understood. Indeed, this injection problem is particularly acute for electrons, which rely on high-frequency plasma fluctuations to raise them above the thermal pool7,8. Here we show, using laboratory laser-produced shock experiments, that, in the presence of a strong magnetic field, significant electron pre-heating is achieved. We demonstrate that the key mechanism in producing these energetic electrons is through the generation of lower-hybrid turbulence via shock-reflected ions. Our experimental results are analogous to many astrophysical systems, including the interaction of a comet with the solar wind9, a setting where electron acceleration via lower-hybrid waves is possible.

  14. A novel electron accelerator for MRI-Linac radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Brendan; Gierman, Stephen; Holloway, Lois; Schmerge, John; Keall, Paul; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    MRI guided radiotherapy is a rapidly growing field; however, current electron accelerators are not designed to operate in the magnetic fringe fields of MRI scanners. As such, current MRI-Linac systems require magnetic shielding, which can degrade MR image quality and limit system flexibility. The purpose of this work was to develop and test a novel medical electron accelerator concept which is inherently robust to operation within magnetic fields for in-line MRI-Linac systems. Computational simulations were utilized to model the accelerator, including the thermionic emission process, the electromagnetic fields within the accelerating structure, and resulting particle trajectories through these fields. The spatial and energy characteristics of the electron beam were quantified at the accelerator target and compared to published data for conventional accelerators. The model was then coupled to the fields from a simulated 1 T superconducting magnet and solved for cathode to isocenter distances between 1.0 and 2.4 m; the impact on the electron beam was quantified. For the zero field solution, the average current at the target was 146.3 mA, with a median energy of 5.8 MeV (interquartile spread of 0.1 MeV), and a spot size diameter of 1.5 mm full-width-tenth-maximum. Such an electron beam is suitable for therapy, comparing favorably to published data for conventional systems. The simulated accelerator showed increased robustness to operation in in-line magnetic fields, with a maximum current loss of 3% compared to 85% for a conventional system in the same magnetic fields. Computational simulations suggest that replacing conventional DC electron sources with a RF based source could be used to develop medical electron accelerators which are robust to operation in in-line magnetic fields. This would enable the development of MRI-Linac systems with no magnetic shielding around the Linac and reduce the requirements for optimization of magnetic fringe field, simplify design of

  15. A novel electron accelerator for MRI-Linac radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Brendan; Gierman, Stephen; Holloway, Lois; Schmerge, John; Keall, Paul; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: MRI guided radiotherapy is a rapidly growing field; however, current electron accelerators are not designed to operate in the magnetic fringe fields of MRI scanners. As such, current MRI-Linac systems require magnetic shielding, which can degrade MR image quality and limit system flexibility. The purpose of this work was to develop and test a novel medical electron accelerator concept which is inherently robust to operation within magnetic fields for in-line MRI-Linac systems. Methods: Computational simulations were utilized to model the accelerator, including the thermionic emission process, the electromagnetic fields within the accelerating structure, and resulting particle trajectories through these fields. The spatial and energy characteristics of the electron beam were quantified at the accelerator target and compared to published data for conventional accelerators. The model was then coupled to the fields from a simulated 1 T superconducting magnet and solved for cathode to isocenter distances between 1.0 and 2.4 m; the impact on the electron beam was quantified. Results: For the zero field solution, the average current at the target was 146.3 mA, with a median energy of 5.8 MeV (interquartile spread of 0.1 MeV), and a spot size diameter of 1.5 mm full-width-tenth-maximum. Such an electron beam is suitable for therapy, comparing favorably to published data for conventional systems. The simulated accelerator showed increased robustness to operation in in-line magnetic fields, with a maximum current loss of 3% compared to 85% for a conventional system in the same magnetic fields. Conclusions: Computational simulations suggest that replacing conventional DC electron sources with a RF based source could be used to develop medical electron accelerators which are robust to operation in in-line magnetic fields. This would enable the development of MRI-Linac systems with no magnetic shielding around the Linac and reduce the requirements for optimization of

  16. Generation of attosecond electron packets via conical surface plasmon electron acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Greig, S. R.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a method for the generation of high kinetic energy attosecond electron packets via magnetostatic and aperture filtering of conical surface plasmon (SP) accelerated electrons. The conical SP waves are excited by coupling an ultrafast radially polarized laser beam to a conical silica lens coated with an Ag film. Electromagnetic and particle tracking models are employed to characterize the ultrafast electron packets. PMID:26764129

  17. Demonstration of transmission high energy electron microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Merrill, F. E.; Goett, J.; Gibbs, J. W.; ...

    2018-04-06

    High energy electrons have been used to investigate an extension of transmission electron microscopy. This technique, transmission high energy electron microscopy (THEEM), provides two additional capabilities to electron microscopy. First, high energy electrons are more penetrating than low energy electrons, and thus, they are able to image through thicker samples. Second, the accelerating mode of a radio-frequency linear accelerator provides fast exposures, down to 1 ps, which are ideal for flash radiography, making THEEM well suited to study the evolution of fast material processes under dynamic conditions. Lastly, initial investigations with static objects and during material processing have been performedmore » to investigate the capabilities of this technique.« less

  18. Low Energy Accelerators for Cargo Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chuanxiang

    Cargo inspection by X-rays has become essential for seaports and airports. With the emphasis on homeland security issues, the identification of dangerous things, such as explosive items and nuclear materials, is the key feature of a cargo inspection system. And new technologies based on dual energy X-rays, neutrons and monoenergetic X-rays have been studied to achieve sufficiently good material identification. An interpretation of the principle of X-ray cargo inspection technology and the features of X-ray sources are presented in this article. As most of the X-ray sources are based on RF electron linear accelerators (linacs), we give a relatively detailed description of the principle and characteristics of linacs. Cargo inspection technologies based on neutron imaging, neutron analysis, nuclear resonance fluorescence and computer tomography are also mentioned here. The main vendors and their products are summarized at the end of the article.

  19. 2-D energy analyzer for low energy electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Karkare, Siddharth, E-mail: ssk226@cornell.edu; Cultrera, Luca; Hwang, Yoon-Woo

    2015-03-15

    A 2-D electron energy analyzer is designed and constructed to measure the transverse and longitudinal energy distribution of low energy (<1 eV) electrons. The analyzer operates on the principle of adiabatic invariance and motion of low energy electrons in a strong longitudinal magnetic field. The operation of the analyzer is studied in detail and a design to optimize the energy resolution, signal to noise ratio, and physical size is presented. An energy resolution better than 6 meV has been demonstrated. Such an analyzer is a powerful tool to study the process of photoemission which limits the beam quality in modernmore » accelerators.« less

  20. Towards Attosecond High-Energy Electron Bunches: Controlling Self-Injection in Laser-Wakefield Accelerators Through Plasma-Density Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooley, M. P.; Ersfeld, B.; Yoffe, S. R.; Noble, A.; Brunetti, E.; Sheng, Z. M.; Islam, M. R.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    Self-injection in a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator is usually achieved by increasing the laser intensity until the threshold for injection is exceeded. Alternatively, the velocity of the bubble accelerating structure can be controlled using plasma density ramps, reducing the electron velocity required for injection. We present a model describing self-injection in the short-bunch regime for arbitrary changes in the plasma density. We derive the threshold condition for injection due to a plasma density gradient, which is confirmed using particle-in-cell simulations that demonstrate injection of subfemtosecond bunches. It is shown that the bunch charge, bunch length, and separation of bunches in a bunch train can be controlled by tailoring the plasma density profile.

  1. Electron acceleration in downward auroral field-aligned currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cran-McGreehin, Alexandra P.; Wright, Andrew N.

    2005-10-01

    The auroral downward field-aligned current is mainly carried by electrons accelerated up from the ionosphere into the magnetosphere along magnetic field lines. Current densities are typically of the order of a few μ Am-2, and the associated electrons are accelerated to energies of several hundred eV up to a few keV. This downward current has been modeled by Temerin and Carlson (1998) using an electron fluid. This paper extends that model by describing the electron populations via distribution functions and modeling all of the F region. We assume a given ion density profile, and invoke quasi-neutrality to solve for the potential along the field line. Several important locations and quantities emerge from this model: the ionospheric trapping point, below which the ionospheric population is trapped by an ambipolar electric field; the location of maximum E∥, of the order of a few mVm-1, which lies earthward of the B/n peak; the acceleration region, located around the B/n peak, which normally extends between altitudes of 500 and 3000 km; and the total potential increase along the field line, of the order of a few hundred V up to several kV. The B/n peak is found to be the central factor determining the altitude and magnitude of the accelerating potential required. Indeed, the total potential drop is found to depend solely on the equilibrium properties in the immediate vicinity of the B/n peak.

  2. Variable energy constant current accelerator structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, O.A.

    1988-07-13

    A variable energy, constant current ion beam accelerator structure is disclosed comprising an ion source capable of providing the desired ions, a pre-accelerator for establishing an initial energy level, a matching/pumping module having means for focusing means for maintaining the beam current, and at least one main accelerator module for continuing beam focus, with means capable of variably imparting acceleration to the beam so that a constant beam output current is maintained independent of the variable output energy. In a preferred embodiment, quadrupole electrodes are provided in both the matching/pumping module and the one or more accelerator modules, and are formed using four opposing cylinder electrodes which extend parallel to the beam axis and are spaced around the beam at 90/degree/ intervals with opposing electrodes maintained at the same potential. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Proceedings of the 1995 Particle Accelerator Conference and international Conference on High-Energy Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1996-01-01

    Papers from the sixteenth biennial Particle Accelerator Conference, an international forum on accelerator science and technology held May 1–5, 1995, in Dallas, Texas, organized by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), jointly sponsored by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society (NPSS), the American Physical Society (APS) Division of Particles and Beams (DPB), and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), and conducted with support from the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research.

  4. High energy electron cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very closemore » to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.« less

  5. ELECTRON ACCELERATION BY CASCADING RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR CORONA. II. RESISTIVE ELECTRIC FIELD EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Gan, W.; Liu, S.

    We investigate electron acceleration by electric fields induced by cascading reconnections in current sheets trailing coronal mass ejections via a test particle approach in the framework of the guiding-center approximation. Although the resistive electric field is much weaker than the inductive electric field, the electron acceleration is still dominated by the former. Anomalous resistivity η is switched on only in regions where the current carrier’s drift velocity is large enough. As a consequence, electron acceleration is very sensitive to the spatial distribution of the resistive electric fields, and electrons accelerated in different segments of the current sheet have different characteristics.more » Due to the geometry of the 2.5-dimensional electromagnetic fields and strong resistive electric field accelerations, accelerated high-energy electrons can be trapped in the corona, precipitating into the chromosphere or escaping into interplanetary space. The trapped and precipitating electrons can reach a few MeV within 1 s and have a very hard energy distribution. Spatial structure of the acceleration sites may also introduce breaks in the electron energy distribution. Most of the interplanetary electrons reach hundreds of keV with a softer distribution. To compare with observations of solar flares and electrons in solar energetic particle events, we derive hard X-ray spectra produced by the trapped and precipitating electrons, fluxes of the precipitating and interplanetary electrons, and electron spatial distributions.« less

  6. Collective acceleration of ions in picosecond pinched electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshnikov, V. I.; Paperny, V. L.; Shipayev, I. V.

    2017-10-01

    Сharacteristics of intense electron-ion beams emitted by a high-voltage (280 kV) electron accelerator with a pulse duration of 200 ps and current 5 kA are studied. The capture phenomena and the subsequent collective acceleration of multi charged ions of the cathode material by the electric field of the electron beam are observed. It is shown that the electron-ion beam diameter does not exceed 30 µm therein in the case of lighter ions, and the decay of the pinched beam occurs at a shorter distance from the cathode. It is established that the ions of the cathode material Tin+ captured by the electron beam are accelerated up to an energy of  ⩽10 MeV, and the ion fluence reaches 1017 ion cm-2 in the pulse. These ions are effectively embedded into the lattice sites of the irradiated substrate (sapphire crystal), forming the luminescent areas of the micron scale.

  7. Accelerated Electron-Beam Formation with a High Capture Coefficient in a Parallel Coupled Accelerating Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernousov, Yu. D.; Shebolaev, I. V.; Ikryanov, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    An electron beam with a high (close to 100%) coefficient of electron capture into the regime of acceleration has been obtained in a linear electron accelerator based on a parallel coupled slow-wave structure, electron gun with microwave-controlled injection current, and permanent-magnet beam-focusing system. The high capture coefficient was due to the properties of the accelerating structure, beam-focusing system, and electron-injection system. Main characteristics of the proposed systems are presented.

  8. Electron Accelerator Shielding Design of KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Zhaopeng; Gohar, Yousry

    The Argonne National Laboratory of the United States and the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology of the Ukraine have been collaborating on the design, development and construction of a neutron source facility at Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology utilizing an electron-accelerator-driven subcritical assembly. The electron beam power is 100 kW using 100-MeV electrons. The facility was designed to perform basic and applied nuclear research, produce medical isotopes, and train nuclear specialists. The biological shield of the accelerator building was designed to reduce the biological dose to less than 5.0e-03 mSv/h during operation. The main source of the biologicalmore » dose for the accelerator building is the photons and neutrons generated from different interactions of leaked electrons from the electron gun and the accelerator sections with the surrounding components and materials. The Monte Carlo N-particle extended code (MCNPX) was used for the shielding calculations because of its capability to perform electron-, photon-, and neutron-coupled transport simulations. The photon dose was tallied using the MCNPX calculation, starting with the leaked electrons. However, it is difficult to accurately tally the neutron dose directly from the leaked electrons. The neutron yield per electron from the interactions with the surrounding components is very small, similar to 0.01 neutron for 100-MeV electron and even smaller for lower-energy electrons. This causes difficulties for the Monte Carlo analyses and consumes tremendous computation resources for tallying the neutron dose outside the shield boundary with an acceptable accuracy. To avoid these difficulties, the SOURCE and TALLYX user subroutines of MCNPX were utilized for this study. The generated neutrons were banked, together with all related parameters, for a subsequent MCNPX calculation to obtain the neutron dose. The weight windows variance reduction technique was also utilized for both neutron

  9. Acceleration of runaway electrons in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Goertz, C. K.

    1990-01-01

    The dc electric field acceleration of electrons out of a thermal plasma and the evolution of the runaway tail are studied numerically, using a relativistic quasi-linear code based on the Ritz-Galerkin method and finite elements. A small field-aligned electric field is turned on at a certain time. The resulting distribution function from the runaway process is used to calculate the synchrotron emission during the evolution of the runaway tail. It is found that, during the runaway tail formation, which lasts a few tens of seconds for typical solar flare conditions, the synchrotron emission level is low, almost ot the same order as the emission from the thermal plasma, at the high-frequency end of the spectrum. However, the emission is enhanced explosively in a few microseconds by several orders of magnitude at the time the runaway tail stops growing along the magnetic field and tends toward isotropy due to the pitch-angle scattering of the fast particles. Results indicate that, in order to account for the observed synchrotron emission spectrum of a typical solar flare, the electric field acceleration phase must be accompanied or preceded by a heating phase which yields an enhanced electron temperature of about 2-15 keV in the flare region if the electric field is 0.1-0.2 times the Dreicer field and cyclotron-to-plasma frequency ratios are of order 1-2.

  10. Acceleration of auroral electrons in parallel electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, R. L.; Walker, D. N.; Arnoldy, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    Rocket observations of auroral electrons are compared with the predictions of a number of theoretical acceleration mechanisms that involve an electric field parallel to the earth's magnetic field. The theoretical models are discussed in terms of required plasma sources, the location of the acceleration region, and properties of necessary wave-particle scattering mechanisms. We have been unable to find any steady state scatter-free electric field configuration that predicts electron flux distributions in agreement with the observations. The addition of a fluctuating electric field or wave-particle scattering several thousand kilometers above the rocket can modify the theoretical flux distributions so that they agree with measurements. The presence of very narrow energy peaks in the flux contours implies a characteristic temperature of several tens of electron volts or less for the source of field-aligned auroral electrons and a temperature of several hundred electron volts or less for the relatively isotropic 'monoenergetic' auroral electrons. The temperature of the field-aligned electrons is more representative of the magnetosheath or possibly the ionosphere as a source region than of the plasma sheet.

  11. Self-shielded electron linear accelerators designed for radiation technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belugin, V. M.; Rozanov, N. E.; Pirozhenko, V. M.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes self-shielded high-intensity electron linear accelerators designed for radiation technologies. The specific property of the accelerators is that they do not apply an external magnetic field; acceleration and focusing of electron beams are performed by radio-frequency fields in the accelerating structures. The main characteristics of the accelerators are high current and beam power, but also reliable operation and a long service life. To obtain these characteristics, a number of problems have been solved, including a particular optimization of the accelerator components and the application of a variety of specific means. The paper describes features of the electron beam dynamics, accelerating structure, and radio-frequency power supply. Several compact self-shielded accelerators for radiation sterilization and x-ray cargo inspection have been created. The introduced methods made it possible to obtain a high intensity of the electron beam and good performance of the accelerators.

  12. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1979-10-25

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

  13. Acceleration of Ions and Electrons by Coronal Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandroos, A.

    2013-12-01

    Diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) of particles at collisionless shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is the best developed theory for the genesis of gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events. According to DSA, particles scatter from fluctuations present in the ambient magnetic field, which causes some particles to encounter the shock front repeatedly and to gain energy during each crossing. DSA operating in solar corona is a complex process whose outcome depends on multiple parameters such as shock speed and strength, magnetic geometry, and composition of seed particles. Currently, STEREO and other near-Earth spacecraft are providing valuable multi-point information on how SEP properties, such as composition and energy spectra, vary in longitude. Initial results have shown that longitude distributions of large CME-associated SEP events are much wider than previously thought. These findings have many important consequences on SEP modeling. For example, it is important to extend the present models into two or three spatial coordinates to properly account for the effects of coronal and interplanetary magnetic geometry and the evolution of the CME-driven shock wave on the acceleration and transport of SEPs. We present a new model for the shock acceleration of ions and electrons in the solar corona and discuss implications for particle properties (energy spectra, longitudinal distribution, composition) in the resulting gradual SEP events. We also discuss the possible emission of type II radio waves by the accelerated coronal electrons. In the new model, the ion pitch angle scattering rate is calculated from modeled Alfvén wave power spectra using quasilinear theory. The energy gained by ions in scatterings are self-consistently removed from waves so that total energy (ions+waves) is conserved. New model has been implemented on massively parallel simulation platform Corsair.

  14. Undulator radiation from laser-plasma-accelerated electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, B.; van Tilborg, J.; Gonsalves, A.; Nakamura, K.; Sokollik, T.; Shiraishi, S.; Mittal, R.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.; Toth, C.; Leemans, W. P.

    2012-12-01

    Recent experiments coupled electron beams from the LOASIS TREX laser plasma accelerator (LPA) [1, 2, 3] to the Tapered Hybrid Undulator (THUNDER). Using the 1.5m, 66 period undulator, followed by an XUV spectrometer, spontaneous radiation was observed at photon energies extending to 100 eV. Previous experiments have reported visible [4] and soft-x-ray [5] radiation. The purpose of our experiments is to do highly precise, single shot diagnostics of the energy spread and emittance for each electron beam. We present recent results including measurements of electron beam transport through the undulator with and without the use of permanent magnetic quadrapoles, and measurements of XUV spectra up to 100 eV from LPA produced e-beams.

  15. GPU-accelerated computation of electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Höfinger, Siegfried; Acocella, Angela; Pop, Sergiu C; Narumi, Tetsu; Yasuoka, Kenji; Beu, Titus; Zerbetto, Francesco

    2012-11-05

    Electron transfer is a fundamental process that can be studied with the help of computer simulation. The underlying quantum mechanical description renders the problem a computationally intensive application. In this study, we probe the graphics processing unit (GPU) for suitability to this type of problem. Time-critical components are identified via profiling of an existing implementation and several different variants are tested involving the GPU at increasing levels of abstraction. A publicly available library supporting basic linear algebra operations on the GPU turns out to accelerate the computation approximately 50-fold with minor dependence on actual problem size. The performance gain does not compromise numerical accuracy and is of significant value for practical purposes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Variable energy constant current accelerator structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1990-01-01

    A variable energy, constant current ion beam accelerator structure is disclosed comprising an ion source capable of providing the desired ions, a pre-accelerator for establishing an initial energy level, a matching/pumping module having means for focusing means for maintaining the beam current, and at least one main accelerator module for continuing beam focus, with means capable of variably imparting acceleration to the beam so that a constant beam output current is maintained independent of the variable output energy. In a preferred embodiment, quadrupole electrodes are provided in both the matching/pumping module and the one or more accelerator modules, and are formed using four opposing cylinder electrodes which extend parallel to the beam axis and are spaced around the beam at 90.degree. intervals with opposing electrodes maintained at the same potential. Adjacent cylinder electrodes of the quadrupole structure are maintained at different potentials to thereby reshape the cross section of the charged particle beam to an ellipse in cross section at the mid point along each quadrupole electrode unit in the accelerator modules. The beam is maintained in focus by alternating the major axis of the ellipse along the x and y axis respectively at adjacent quadrupoles. In another embodiment, electrostatic ring electrodes may be utilized instead of the quadrupole electrodes.

  17. Direct acceleration in intense laser fields used for bunch amplification of relativistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braenzel, J.; Andreev, A. A.; Ehrentraut, L.; Schnürer, M.

    2017-05-01

    A method, how electrons can be directly accelerated in intense laser fields, is investigated experimentally and discussed with numerical and analytical simulation. When ultrathin foil targets are exposed with peak laser intensities of 1x1020 W/cm2 , slow electrons ( keV kinetic energy), that are emitted from the ultrathin foil target along laser propagation direction, are post-accelerated in the transmitted laser field. They received significant higher kinetic energies (MeV), when this interaction was limited in duration and an enhanced number of fast electrons were detected. The decoupling of the light field from the electron interaction we realized with a second separator foil, blocking the transmitted laser light at a particular distance and allowing the fast electrons to pass. Variation of the propagation distance in the laser field results in different energy gains for the electrons. This finding is explained with electron acceleration in the electromagnetic field of a light pulse and confirms a concept being discussed for some time. In the experiments the effect manifests in an electron number amplification of about 3 times around a peak at 1 MeV electron energy. Measurements confirmed that the overall number in the whole bunch is enhanced to about 109 electrons covering kinetic energies between 0.5 to 5 MeV. The method holds promise for ultrashort electron bunch generation at MeV energies for direct application, e.g. ultra-fast electron diffraction, or for injection into post accelerator stages for different purposes.

  18. Multispacecraft observations of the electron current sheet, neighboring magnetic islands, and electron acceleration during magnetotail reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Lijen; Bessho, Naoki; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    Open questions concerning structures and dynamics of diffusion regions and electron acceleration in collisionless magnetic reconnection are addressed based on data from the four-spacecraft mission Cluster and particle-in-cell simulations. Using time series of electron distribution functions measured by the four spacecraft, distinct electron regions around a reconnection layer are mapped out to set the framework for studying diffusion regions. A spatially extended electron current sheet (ecs), a series of magnetic islands, and bursts of energetic electrons within islands are identified during magnetotail reconnection with no appreciable guide field. The ecs is collocated with a layer of electron-scale electric fields normalmore » to the ecs and pointing toward the ecs center plane. Both the observed electron and ion densities vary by more than a factor of 2 within one ion skin depth north and south of the ecs, and from the ecs into magnetic islands. Within each of the identified islands, there is a burst of suprathermal electrons whose fluxes peak at density compression sites [L.-J. Chen et al., Nat. Phys. 4, 19 (2008)] and whose energy spectra exhibit power laws with indices ranging from 6 to 7.3. These results indicate that the in-plane electric field normal to the ecs can be of the electron scale at certain phases of reconnection, electrons and ions are highly compressible within the ion diffusion region, and for reconnection involving magnetic islands, primary electron acceleration occurs within the islands.« less

  19. Electron acceleration and high harmonic generation by relativistic surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantono, Giada; Luca Fedeli Team; Andrea Sgattoni Team; Andrea Macchi Team; Tiberio Ceccotti Team

    2016-10-01

    Intense, short laser pulses with ultra-high contrast allow resonant surface plasmons (SPs) excitation on solid wavelength-scale grating targets, opening the way to the extension of Plasmonics in the relativistic regime and the manipulation of intense electromagnetic fields to develop new short, energetic, laser-synchronized radiation sources. Recent theoretical and experimental studies have explored the role of SP excitation in increasing the laser-target coupling and enhancing ion acceleration, high-order harmonic generation and surface electron acceleration. Here we present our results on SP driven electron acceleration from grating targets at ultra-high laser intensities (I = 5 ×1019 W/cm2, τ = 25 fs). When the resonant condition for SP excitation is fulfilled, electrons are emitted in a narrow cone along the target surface, with a total charge of about 100 pC and energy spectra peaked around 5 MeV. Distinguishing features of the resonant process were investigated by varying the incidence angle, grating type and with the support of 3D PIC simulations, which closely reproduced the experimental data. Open challenges and further measurements on high-order harmonic generation in presence of a relativistic SP will also be discussed.

  20. BOOK REVIEW: Electron acceleration in the aurora and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClements, K. G.

    1999-08-01

    Duncan Bryant is a retired space plasma physicist who spent most of his career at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire, England. For many years he has been challenging a widely accepted theory, that auroral electrons are accelerated by double layers, on the grounds that it contains a fundamental error (allegedly, an implicit assumption that charged particles can gain energy from conservative fields). It is, of course, right that models of particle acceleration in natural plasmas should be scrutinized carefully in terms of their consistency with basic physical principles, and I believe that Dr Bryant has performed a valuable service by highlighting this issue. He maintains that auroral electron acceleration by double layers is fundamentally untenable, and that acceleration takes place instead via resonant interactions with lower hybrid waves. In successive chapters, he asserts that essentially the same process can account for electron acceleration observed at the Earth's bow shock, in the neighbourhood of an `artificial comet' produced as part of the Active Magnetospheric Particle Explorers (AMPTE) space mission in 1984/85, in the solar wind, at the Earth's magnetopause, and in the Earth's magneto- sphere. The evidence for this is not always convincing: waves with frequencies of the order of the lower hybrid resonance are often observed in these plasma environments, but in general it is difficult to identify clearly which wave mode is being observed (whistlers, for example, have frequencies in approximately the same range as lower hybrid waves). Moreover, it is not at all clear that the waves which are observed, even if they were of the appropriate type, would have sufficient intensity to accelerate electrons to the extent observed. The author makes a persuasive case, however, that acceleration in the aurora, and in other plasma environments accessible to in situ measurements, involves some form of wave turbulence. In Chapter 2 it is pointed out that

  1. Calculating the radiation characteristics of accelerated electrons in laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, X. F.; Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, 7-1-2 Yohtoh, Utsunomiya 321-8585; Yu, Q.

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, we studied the characteristics of radiation emitted by electrons accelerated in a laser–plasma interaction by using the Lienard–Wiechert field. In the interaction of a laser pulse with a underdense plasma, electrons are accelerated by two mechanisms: direct laser acceleration (DLA) and laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). At the beginning of the process, the DLA electrons emit most of the radiation, and the DLA electrons emit a much higher peak photon energy than the LWFA electrons. As the laser–plasma interaction progresses, the LWFA electrons become the major radiation emitter; however, even at this stage, the contribution from DLA electronsmore » is significant, especially to the peak photon energy.« less

  2. Electron Bulk Acceleration and Thermalization at Earth's Quasiperpendicular Bow Shock.

    PubMed

    Chen, L-J; Wang, S; Wilson, L B; Schwartz, S; Bessho, N; Moore, T; Gershman, D; Giles, B; Malaspina, D; Wilder, F D; Ergun, R E; Hesse, M; Lai, H; Russell, C; Strangeway, R; Torbert, R B; F-Vinas, A; Burch, J; Lee, S; Pollock, C; Dorelli, J; Paterson, W; Ahmadi, N; Goodrich, K; Lavraud, B; Le Contel, O; Khotyaintsev, Yu V; Lindqvist, P-A; Boardsen, S; Wei, H; Le, A; Avanov, L

    2018-06-01

    Electron heating at Earth's quasiperpendicular bow shock has been surmised to be due to the combined effects of a quasistatic electric potential and scattering through wave-particle interaction. Here we report the observation of electron distribution functions indicating a new electron heating process occurring at the leading edge of the shock front. Incident solar wind electrons are accelerated parallel to the magnetic field toward downstream, reaching an electron-ion relative drift speed exceeding the electron thermal speed. The bulk acceleration is associated with an electric field pulse embedded in a whistler-mode wave. The high electron-ion relative drift is relaxed primarily through a nonlinear current-driven instability. The relaxed distributions contain a beam traveling toward the shock as a remnant of the accelerated electrons. Similar distribution functions prevail throughout the shock transition layer, suggesting that the observed acceleration and thermalization is essential to the cross-shock electron heating.

  3. Electron Bulk Acceleration and Thermalization at Earth's Quasiperpendicular Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.-J.; Wang, S.; Wilson, L. B.; Schwartz, S.; Bessho, N.; Moore, T.; Gershman, D.; Giles, B.; Malaspina, D.; Wilder, F. D.; Ergun, R. E.; Hesse, M.; Lai, H.; Russell, C.; Strangeway, R.; Torbert, R. B.; F.-Vinas, A.; Burch, J.; Lee, S.; Pollock, C.; Dorelli, J.; Paterson, W.; Ahmadi, N.; Goodrich, K.; Lavraud, B.; Le Contel, O.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Boardsen, S.; Wei, H.; Le, A.; Avanov, L.

    2018-06-01

    Electron heating at Earth's quasiperpendicular bow shock has been surmised to be due to the combined effects of a quasistatic electric potential and scattering through wave-particle interaction. Here we report the observation of electron distribution functions indicating a new electron heating process occurring at the leading edge of the shock front. Incident solar wind electrons are accelerated parallel to the magnetic field toward downstream, reaching an electron-ion relative drift speed exceeding the electron thermal speed. The bulk acceleration is associated with an electric field pulse embedded in a whistler-mode wave. The high electron-ion relative drift is relaxed primarily through a nonlinear current-driven instability. The relaxed distributions contain a beam traveling toward the shock as a remnant of the accelerated electrons. Similar distribution functions prevail throughout the shock transition layer, suggesting that the observed acceleration and thermalization is essential to the cross-shock electron heating.

  4. High Energy Density Physics and Exotic Acceleration Schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, T.; /General Atomics, San Diego; Colby, E.

    2005-09-27

    The High Energy Density and Exotic Acceleration working group took as our goal to reach beyond the community of plasma accelerator research with its applications to high energy physics, to promote exchange with other disciplines which are challenged by related and demanding beam physics issues. The scope of the group was to cover particle acceleration and beam transport that, unlike other groups at AAC, are not mediated by plasmas or by electromagnetic structures. At this Workshop, we saw an impressive advancement from years past in the area of Vacuum Acceleration, for example with the LEAP experiment at Stanford. And wemore » saw an influx of exciting new beam physics topics involving particle propagation inside of solid-density plasmas or at extremely high charge density, particularly in the areas of laser acceleration of ions, and extreme beams for fusion energy research, including Heavy-ion Inertial Fusion beam physics. One example of the importance and extreme nature of beam physics in HED research is the requirement in the Fast Ignitor scheme of inertial fusion to heat a compressed DT fusion pellet to keV temperatures by injection of laser-driven electron or ion beams of giga-Amp current. Even in modest experiments presently being performed on the laser-acceleration of ions from solids, mega-amp currents of MeV electrons must be transported through solid foils, requiring almost complete return current neutralization, and giving rise to a wide variety of beam-plasma instabilities. As keynote talks our group promoted Ion Acceleration (plenary talk by A. MacKinnon), which historically has grown out of inertial fusion research, and HIF Accelerator Research (invited talk by A. Friedman), which will require impressive advancements in space-charge-limited ion beam physics and in understanding the generation and transport of neutralized ion beams. A unifying aspect of High Energy Density applications was the physics of particle beams inside of solids, which is

  5. Heavy ion beam-ionosphere interactions - Electron acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, R. L.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Moore, T. E.; Kintner, P. M.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Moore et al. (1982) described a number of unexpected effects which were observed during the first Argon Release Controlled Study (ARCS 1, or rocket flight 29:014). The present paper provides a description of detailed analyses of the interaction of the argon beam with the ionosphere. An important feature of the considered test was that all detectors and the Ar(+) gun remained attached to the rocket throughout the flight. It is pointed out that the most dramatic effect of ion gun operation on ARCS 1 involved large changes in the fluxes of electrons with energies below about 600 eV. The observations are discussed, taking into account the distribution functions, azimuth dependence, and electron and ion trajectories. Attention is given to the perpendicular ion beam, the parallel ion beam, the acceleration of downgoing and upgoing electrons, and aspects of wave generation.

  6. Nonthermally dominated electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection in a low- β plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xiaocan; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui; ...

    2015-09-24

    By means of fully kinetic simulations, we investigate electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection in a nonrelativistic proton–electron plasma with conditions similar to solar corona and flares. We demonstrate that reconnection leads to a nonthermally dominated electron acceleration with a power-law energy distribution in the nonrelativistic low-β regime but not in the high-β regime, where β is the ratio of the plasma thermal pressure and the magnetic pressure. The accelerated electrons contain most of the dissipated magnetic energy in the low-β regime. A guiding-center current description is used to reveal the role of electron drift motions during the bulk nonthermal energization.more » We find that the main acceleration mechanism is a Fermi-type acceleration accomplished by the particle curvature drift motion along the electric field induced by the reconnection outflows. Although the acceleration mechanism is similar for different plasma β, low-β reconnection drives fast acceleration on Alfvénic timescales and develops power laws out of thermal distribution. Thus, the nonthermally dominated acceleration resulting from magnetic reconnection in low-β plasma may have strong implications for the highly efficient electron acceleration in solar flares and other astrophysical systems.« less

  7. Electron Beam Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen

    2011-06-27

    A comprehensive study of charge diagnostics is conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). First, a scintillating screen (Lanex) was extensively studied using subnanosecond electron beams from the Advanced Light Source booster synchrotron, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Lanex was cross calibrated with an integrating current transformer (ICT) for up to the electron energy of 1.5 GeV, and the linear response of the screen was confirmed for charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm{sup 2} and 0.4 pC/(ps mm{sup 2}), respectively. After the radio-frequency accelerator based cross calibration, amore » series of measurements was conducted using electron beams from an LPA. Cross calibrations were carried out using an activation-based measurement that is immune to electromagnetic pulse noise, ICT, and Lanex. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8%, showing that they all can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs.« less

  8. Energetic Electron Acceleration, Injection, and Transport in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, R. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; Baker, D. N.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Electrons are accelerated in Mercury’s magnetotail by dipolarization events, flux ropes, and magnetic reconnection directly. Following energization, these electrons are injected close to Mercury where they drift eastward in Shabansky-like orbits.

  9. Laser wakefield accelerated electron beam monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, J. K.; Mori, M.; Kotaki, H.

    2016-03-25

    We will discuss our participation in the ImPACT project, which has as one of its goals the development of an ultra-compact electron accelerator using lasers (< 1 GeV, < 10   m) and the generation of an x-ray beam from the accelerated electrons. Within this context we will discuss our investigation into electron beam monitoring and control. Since laser accelerated electrons will be used for x-ray beam generation combined with an undulator, we will present investigation into the possibilities of the improvement of electron beam emittance through cooling.

  10. Acceleration of runaway electrons and Joule heating in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    The electric field acceleration of electrons out of a thermal plasma and the simultaneous Joule heating of the plasma are studied. Acceleration and heating timescales are derived and compared, and upper limits are obtained on the acceleration volume and the rate at which electrons can be accelerated. These upper limits, determined by the maximum magnetic field strength observed in flaring regions, place stringent restrictions upon the acceleration process. The role of the plasma resistivity in these processes is examined, and possible sources of anomalous resistivity are summarized. The implications of these results for the microwave and hard X-ray emission from solar flares are examined.

  11. Acceleration of runaway electrons and Joule heating in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, G. D.

    1984-01-01

    The electric field acceleration of electrons out of a thermal plasma and the simultaneous Joule heating of the plasma are studied. Acceleration and heating timescales are derived and compared, and upper limits are obtained on the acceleration volume and the rate at which electrons can be accelerated. These upper limits, determined by the maximum magnetic field strength observed in flaring regions, place stringent restrictions upon the acceleration process. The role of the plasma resistivity in these processes is examined, and possible sources of anomalous resistivity are summarized. The implications of these results for the microwave and hard X-ray emission from solar flares are examined.

  12. SOME PROBLEMS IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN ELECTRON LINEAR ACCELERATOR (in Dutch)

    SciTech Connect

    Verhaeghe, J.; Vanhuyse, V.; Van Leuven, P.

    1959-01-01

    Special problems encountered in the construction of the electron linear accelerator of the Natuurkundig Laboratorium der Rijksuniversiteit of Ghent are discussed. The subjects considered are magnetic focusing, magnetic screening of the electron gun cathode, abnormal attenuation-multipactor effects, and electron energy control. (J.S.R.)

  13. Dynamics of electron injection and acceleration driven by laser wakefield in tailored density profiles

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Patrick; Maynard, G.; Audet, T. L.; ...

    2016-11-16

    The dynamics of electron acceleration driven by laser wakefield is studied in detail using the particle-in-cell code WARP with the objective to generate high-quality electron bunches with narrow energy spread and small emittance, relevant for the electron injector of a multistage accelerator. Simulation results, using experimentally achievable parameters, show that electron bunches with an energy spread of ~11% can be obtained by using an ionization-induced injection mechanism in a mm-scale length plasma. By controlling the focusing of a moderate laser power and tailoring the longitudinal plasma density profile, the electron injection beginning and end positions can be adjusted, while themore » electron energy can be finely tuned in the last acceleration section.« less

  14. Local re-acceleration and a modified thick target model of solar flare electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. C.; Turkmani, R.; Kontar, E. P.; MacKinnon, A. L.; Vlahos, L.

    2009-12-01

    Context: The collisional thick target model (CTTM) of solar hard X-ray (HXR) bursts has become an almost “standard model” of flare impulsive phase energy transport and radiation. However, it faces various problems in the light of recent data, particularly the high electron beam density and anisotropy it involves. Aims: We consider how photon yield per electron can be increased, and hence fast electron beam intensity requirements reduced, by local re-acceleration of fast electrons throughout the HXR source itself, after injection. Methods: We show parametrically that, if net re-acceleration rates due to e.g. waves or local current sheet electric (E) fields are a significant fraction of collisional loss rates, electron lifetimes, and hence the net radiative HXR output per electron can be substantially increased over the CTTM values. In this local re-acceleration thick target model (LRTTM) fast electron number requirements and anisotropy are thus reduced. One specific possible scenario involving such re-acceleration is discussed, viz, a current sheet cascade (CSC) in a randomly stressed magnetic loop. Results: Combined MHD and test particle simulations show that local E fields in CSCs can efficiently accelerate electrons in the corona and and re-accelerate them after injection into the chromosphere. In this HXR source scenario, rapid synchronisation and variability of impulsive footpoint emissions can still occur since primary electron acceleration is in the high Alfvén speed corona with fast re-acceleration in chromospheric CSCs. It is also consistent with the energy-dependent time-of-flight delays in HXR features. Conclusions: Including electron re-acceleration in the HXR source allows an LRTTM modification of the CTTM in which beam density and anisotropy are much reduced, and alleviates theoretical problems with the CTTM, while making it more compatible with radio and interplanetary electron numbers. The LRTTM is, however, different in some respects such as

  15. Effects of Shock and Turbulence Properties on Electron Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, G.; Kong, F.-J.; Zhang, L.-H.

    2018-06-01

    Using test particle simulations, we study electron acceleration at collisionless shocks with a two-component model turbulent magnetic field with slab component including dissipation range. We investigate the importance of the shock-normal angle θ Bn, magnetic turbulence level {(b/{B}0)}2, and shock thickness on the acceleration efficiency of electrons. It is shown that at perpendicular shocks the electron acceleration efficiency is enhanced with the decrease of {(b/{B}0)}2, and at {(b/{B}0)}2=0.01 the acceleration becomes significant due to a strong drift electric field with long time particles staying near the shock front for shock drift acceleration (SDA). In addition, at parallel shocks the electron acceleration efficiency is increasing with the increase of {(b/{B}0)}2, and at {(b/{B}0)}2=10.0 the acceleration is very strong due to sufficient pitch-angle scattering for first-order Fermi acceleration, as well as due to the large local component of the magnetic field perpendicular to the shock-normal angle for SDA. On the other hand, the high perpendicular shock acceleration with {(b/{B}0)}2=0.01 is stronger than the high parallel shock acceleration with {(b/{B}0)}2=10.0, the reason might be the assumption that SDA is more efficient than first-order Fermi acceleration. Furthermore, for oblique shocks, the acceleration efficiency is small no matter whether the turbulence level is low or high. Moreover, for the effect of shock thickness on electron acceleration at perpendicular shocks, we show that there exists the bendover thickness, L diff,b. The acceleration efficiency does not noticeably change if the shock thickness is much smaller than L diff,b. However, if the shock thickness is much larger than L diff,b, the acceleration efficiency starts to drop abruptly.

  16. An in situ Comparison of Electron Acceleration at Collisionless Shocks under Differing Upstream Magnetic Field Orientations

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.; Sulaiman, A. H.

    A leading explanation for the origin of Galactic cosmic rays is acceleration at high-Mach number shock waves in the collisionless plasma surrounding young supernova remnants. Evidence for this is provided by multi-wavelength non-thermal emission thought to be associated with ultrarelativistic electrons at these shocks. However, the dependence of the electron acceleration process on the orientation of the upstream magnetic field with respect to the local normal to the shock front (quasi-parallel/quasi-perpendicular) is debated. Cassini spacecraft observations at Saturn’s bow shock have revealed examples of electron acceleration under quasi-perpendicular conditions, and the first in situ evidence of electron acceleration at amore » quasi-parallel shock. Here we use Cassini data to make the first comparison between energy spectra of locally accelerated electrons under these differing upstream magnetic field regimes. We present data taken during a quasi-perpendicular shock crossing on 2008 March 8 and during a quasi-parallel shock crossing on 2007 February 3, highlighting that both were associated with electron acceleration to at least MeV energies. The magnetic signature of the quasi-perpendicular crossing has a relatively sharp upstream–downstream transition, and energetic electrons were detected close to the transition and immediately downstream. The magnetic transition at the quasi-parallel crossing is less clear, energetic electrons were encountered upstream and downstream, and the electron energy spectrum is harder above ∼100 keV. We discuss whether the acceleration is consistent with diffusive shock acceleration theory in each case, and suggest that the quasi-parallel spectral break is due to an energy-dependent interaction between the electrons and short, large-amplitude magnetic structures.« less

  17. High Energy Electron Detection with ATIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Ahn, H.; Ampe, J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) balloon-borne ionization calorimeter is well suited to record and identify high energy cosmic ray electrons. The instrument was exposed to high-energy beams at CERN H2 bean-dine in September of 1999. We have simulated the performance of the instrument, and compare the simulations with actual high energy electron exposures at the CERN accelerator. Simulations and measurements do not compare exactly, in detail, but overall the simulations have predicted actual measured behavior quite well.

  18. Negative energy seen by accelerated observers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, L. H.; Roman, Thomas A.

    2013-04-01

    The sampled negative energy density seen by inertial observers, in arbitrary quantum states is limited by quantum inequalities, which take the form of an inverse relation between the magnitude and duration of the negative energy. The quantum inequalities severely limit the utilization of negative energy to produce gross macroscopic effects, such as violations of the second law of thermodynamics. The restrictions on the sampled energy density along the worldlines of accelerated observers are much weaker than for inertial observers. Here we will illustrate this with several explicit examples. We consider the worldline of a particle undergoing sinusoidal motion in space in the presence of a single mode squeezed vacuum state of the electromagnetic field. We show that it is possible for the integrated energy density along such a worldline to become arbitrarily negative at a constant average rate. Thus the averaged weak energy condition is violated in these examples. This can be the case even when the particle moves at nonrelativistic speeds. We use the Raychaudhuri equation to show that there can be net defocusing of a congruence of these accelerated worldlines. This defocusing is an operational signature of the negative integrated energy density. These results in no way invalidate nor undermine either the validity or utility of the quantum inequalities for inertial observers. In particular, they do not change previous constraints on the production of macroscopic effects with negative energy, e.g., the maintenance of traversable wormholes.

  19. Electron Beam Transport in Advanced Plasma Wave Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ronald L

    2013-01-31

    The primary goal of this grant was to develop a diagnostic for relativistic plasma wave accelerators based on injecting a low energy electron beam (5-50keV) perpendicular to the plasma wave and observing the distortion of the electron beam's cross section due to the plasma wave's electrostatic fields. The amount of distortion would be proportional to the plasma wave amplitude, and is the basis for the diagnostic. The beat-wave scheme for producing plasma waves, using two CO2 laser beam, was modeled using a leap-frog integration scheme to solve the equations of motion. Single electron trajectories and corresponding phase space diagrams weremore » generated in order to study and understand the details of the interaction dynamics. The electron beam was simulated by combining thousands of single electrons, whose initial positions and momenta were selected by random number generators. The model was extended by including the interactions of the electrons with the CO2 laser fields of the beat wave, superimposed with the plasma wave fields. The results of the model were used to guide the design and construction of a small laboratory experiment that may be used to test the diagnostic idea.« less

  20. Electrostatic accelerators with high energy resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, T.; Agawa, Y.; Nishihashi, T.; Takagi, K.; Yamakawa, H.; Isoya, A.; Takai, M.; Namba, S.

    1991-05-01

    Several models of electrostatic accelerators based on rotating disks (Disktron) have been manufactured for various ion beam applications like surface analyses and implantation. The high voltage terminal of the Disktron with a terminal voltage of up to 500 kV is open in air, while the generator part is enclosed in FRP (fiber reinforced plastics) or a ceramic vessel filled with sf 6 gas. The 1 MV model is completely enclosed in a steel vessel. A compact tandem accelerator of the pellet chain type with a terminal voltage of 1.5 MV has also been manufactured. The good energy stability of these accelerators, typically in the range of 10 -4, has proved to be quite favorable for applications in precise studies of material surfaces, including the use of microbeam techniques.

  1. Joule heating and runaway electron acceleration in a solar flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Kundu, Mukul R.; Kane, Sharad R.

    1989-01-01

    The hard and soft x ray and microwave emissions from a solar flare (May 14, 1980) were analyzed and interpreted in terms of Joule heating and runaway electron acceleration in one or more current sheets. It is found that all three emissions can be generated with sub-Dreicer electric fields. The soft x ray emitting plasma can only be heated by a single current sheet if the resistivity in the sheet is well above the classical, collisional resistivity of 10(exp 7) K, 10(exp 11)/cu cm plasma. If the hard x ray emission is from thermal electrons, anomalous resistivity or densities exceeding 3 x 10(exp 12)/cu cm are required. If the hard x ray emission is from nonthermal electrons, the emissions can be produced with classical resistivity in the current sheets if the heating rate is approximately 4 times greater than that deduced from the soft x ray data (with a density of 10(exp 10)/cu cm in the soft x ray emitting region), if there are at least 10(exp 4) current sheets, and if the plasma properties in the sheets are characteristic of the superhot plasma observed in some flares by Lin et al., and with Hinotori. Most of the released energy goes directly into bulk heating, rather than accelerated particles.

  2. Cosmic Acceleration, Dark Energy, and Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Michael S.; Huterer, Dragan

    2007-11-01

    A web of interlocking observations has established that the expansion of the Universe is speeding up and not slowing, revealing the presence of some form of repulsive gravity. Within the context of general relativity the cause of cosmic acceleration is a highly elastic ( p˜-ρ), very smooth form of energy called “dark energy” accounting for about 75% of the Universe. The “simplest” explanation for dark energy is the zero-point energy density associated with the quantum vacuum; however, all estimates for its value are many orders-of-magnitude too large. Other ideas for dark energy include a very light scalar field or a tangled network of topological defects. An alternate explanation invokes gravitational physics beyond general relativity. Observations and experiments underway and more precise cosmological measurements and laboratory experiments planned for the next decade will test whether or not dark energy is the quantum energy of the vacuum or something more exotic, and whether or not general relativity can self consistently explain cosmic acceleration. Dark energy is the most conspicuous example of physics beyond the standard model and perhaps the most profound mystery in all of science.

  3. Power Supplies for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Pranab Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The on-going research and the development projects with Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland has generated enormous enthusiasm and interest amongst all to know about the ultimate findings on `God's Particle'. This paper has made an attempt to unfold the power supply requirements and the methodology adopted to provide the stringent demand of such high energy particle accelerators during the initial stages of the search for the ultimate particles. An attempt has also been made to highlight the present status on the requirement of power supplies in some high energy accelerators with a view that, precautionary measures can be drawn during design and development from earlier experience which will be of help for the proposed third generation synchrotron to be installed in India at a huge cost.

  4. Construction of a High Energy Linear Accelerator for Research in Free Electron Lasers, Beam-Wave Interactions, Spectroscopy and Microcircuitry Fabrication.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-03

    will be published in Particle Accelerators. .. 0$ , . ’ ,,". . ". ..... " .. " ,", ’ - .’’--%:’ -i: .’ .’’" --.- ’ " FIL.M FD - * -" DIO1 DT IC

  5. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Scisciò, M.; Antici, P., E-mail: patrizio.antici@polytechnique.edu; INRS-EMT, Université du Québec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2

    2016-03-07

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequencymore » (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.« less

  6. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scisciò, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Antici, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.

  7. The Energy Spectrum of Solar Energetic Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Yang, L.; Krucker, S.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Bale, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present a statistical survey of the energy spectrum of solar energetic electron events (SEEs) observed by the WIND 3DP instrument from 1995 though 2014. For SEEs with the minimum energy below 10 keV and the maximum energy above 100 keV, ~85% (~2%) have a double-power-law energy spectrum with a steepening (hardening) above the break energy, while ~13% have a single-power-law energy spectrum at all energies. The average spectral index is ~2.4 below the energy break and is ~4.0 above the energy break. For SEEs detected only at energies <10 keV (>20 keV), they generally show a single-power-law spectrum with the average index of ~3.0 (~3.3). The spectrum of SEEs detected only below 10 keV appears to get harder with increasing solar activity, but the spectrum of SEEs with higher-energy electrons shows no clear correlation with solar activity. We will also investigate whether the observed energy spectrum of SEEs at 1 AU mainly reflects the electron acceleration at the Sun or the electron transport in the interplanetary medium.

  8. Accelerator Driven Nuclear Energy: The Thorium Option

    ScienceCinema

    Raja, Rajendran

    2018-01-05

    Conventional nuclear reactors use enriched Uranium as fuel and produce nuclear waste which needs to be stored away for over 10,000 years.   At the current rate of use, existing sources of Uranium will last for 50-100 years.  We describe a solution to the problem that uses particle accelerators to produce fast neutrons that can be used to burn existing nuclear waste and produce energy.  Such systems, initially proposed by Carlo Rubbia and collaborators in the 1990's, are being seriously considered by many countries as a possible solution to the green energy problem.  Accelerator driven reactors operate in a sub-critical regime and, thus, are safer and can obtain energy from plentiful elements such as Thorium-232 and Uranium-238. What is missing is the high intensity (10MW) accelerator that produces 1 GeV protons. We will describe scenarios which if implemented will make such systems a reality.  

  9. Laser-driven acceleration of electrons in a partially ionized plasma channel.

    PubMed

    Rowlands-Rees, T P; Kamperidis, C; Kneip, S; Gonsalves, A J; Mangles, S P D; Gallacher, J G; Brunetti, E; Ibbotson, T; Murphy, C D; Foster, P S; Streeter, M J V; Budde, F; Norreys, P A; Jaroszynski, D A; Krushelnick, K; Najmudin, Z; Hooker, S M

    2008-03-14

    The generation of quasimonoenergetic electron beams, with energies up to 200 MeV, by a laser-plasma accelerator driven in a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide is investigated. Injection and acceleration of electrons is found to depend sensitively on the delay between the onset of the discharge current and the arrival of the laser pulse. A comparison of spectroscopic and interferometric measurements suggests that injection is assisted by laser ionization of atoms or ions within the channel.

  10. Wakefield acceleration in planetary atmospheres: A possible source of MeV electrons. The collisionless case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrayás, M.; Cubero, D.; Montanya, J.; Seviour, R.; Trueba, J. L.

    2018-07-01

    Intense electromagnetic pulses interacting with a plasma can create a wake of plasma oscillations. Electrons trapped in such oscillations can be accelerated under certain conditions to very high energies. We study the optimal conditions for the wakefield acceleration to produce MeV electrons in planetary plasmas under collisionless conditions. The conditions for the optimal plasma densities can be found in the Earth atmosphere at higher altitudes than 10-15 km, which are the altitudes where lightning leaders can take place.

  11. Quasi-monoenergetic laser-plasma acceleration of electrons to 2 GeV

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Fazel, Neil; Li, Zhengyan; Yi, S. A.; Zhang, Xi; Henderson, Watson; Chang, Y.-Y.; Korzekwa, R.; Tsai, H.-E.; Pai, C.-H.; Quevedo, H.; Dyer, G.; Gaul, E.; Martinez, M.; Bernstein, A. C.; Borger, T.; Spinks, M.; Donovan, M.; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.; Ditmire, T.; Downer, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-plasma accelerators of only a centimetre’s length have produced nearly monoenergetic electron bunches with energy as high as 1 GeV. Scaling these compact accelerators to multi-gigaelectronvolt energy would open the prospect of building X-ray free-electron lasers and linear colliders hundreds of times smaller than conventional facilities, but the 1 GeV barrier has so far proven insurmountable. Here, by applying new petawatt laser technology, we produce electron bunches with a spectrum prominently peaked at 2 GeV with only a few per cent energy spread and unprecedented sub-milliradian divergence. Petawatt pulses inject ambient plasma electrons into the laser-driven accelerator at much lower density than was previously possible, thereby overcoming the principal physical barriers to multi-gigaelectronvolt acceleration: dephasing between laser-driven wake and accelerating electrons and laser pulse erosion. Simulations indicate that with improvements in the laser-pulse focus quality, acceleration to nearly 10 GeV should be possible with the available pulse energy. PMID:23756359

  12. Rapid electron beam accelerator (REBA-tron)

    SciTech Connect

    Kapetanakos, C.A.; Sprangle, P.A.; Dialetis, D.

    1986-03-05

    This invention comprises a particle accelerator with a toroidal vacuum chamber, an injector for injecting a charged-paticle beam into the chamber and an exit port to extract the accelerated particle beam. A toroidal magnetic field to confine the beam in the chamber is generated by a set of coils with their axis along the minor axis of the chamber and by two twisted wires that carry current in the same direction wrapped around the chamber. The two twisted wires also generate a torsatron magnetic field that controls the minor radius of the beam. A time-varying magnetic field is generated bymore » two concentric cylindrical plates surrounding the chamber. A convoluted transmission line generates a localized electric field in the chamber to accelerate the beam.« less

  13. Stochastic acceleration of electrons. I - Effects of collisions in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Russell J.; Petrosian, Vahe

    1992-01-01

    Stochastic acceleration of thermal electrons to nonrelativistic energies is studied under solar flare conditions. We show that, in turbulent regions, electron-whistler wave interactions can result in the acceleration of electrons in times comparable to or shorter than the Coulomb collision time. The kinetic equation describing the evolution of the electron energy distribution including stochastic acceleration by whistlers and energy loss via Coulomb interactions is solved for an initial thermal electron energy spectrum. In general, the shape of the resulting electron distributions are characterized by the energy E(c) where systematic energy gain by turbulence equals energy loss due to Coulomb collisions. For energies less than E(c), the spectra are steep (quasi-thermal) whereas above E(c), the spectra are power laws. We find that hard X-ray spectra computed using the electron distributions obtained from our numerical simulations are able to explain the complex spectral shapes and variations observed in impulsive hard X-ray bursts. In particular, we show that the gradual steepening observed by Lin et al. (1981) could be due to a systematic increase in the density of the plasma (due to evaporation) and the increasing importance of collisions instead of the appearance of a superhot thermal component.

  14. Single event effects in high-energy accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Alía, Rubén; Brugger, Markus; Danzeca, Salvatore; Cerutti, Francesco; de Carvalho Saraiva, Joao Pedro; Denz, Reiner; Ferrari, Alfredo; Foro, Lionel L.; Peronnard, Paul; Røed, Ketil; Secondo, Raffaello; Steckert, Jens; Thurel, Yves; Toccafondo, Iacocpo; Uznanski, Slawosz

    2017-03-01

    The radiation environment encountered at high-energy hadron accelerators strongly differs from the environment relevant for space applications. The mixed-field expected at modern accelerators is composed of charged and neutral hadrons (protons, pions, kaons and neutrons), photons, electrons, positrons and muons, ranging from very low (thermal) energies up to the TeV range. This complex field, which is extensively simulated by Monte Carlo codes (e.g. FLUKA) is due to beam losses in the experimental areas, distributed along the machine (e.g. collimation points) and deriving from the interaction with the residual gas inside the beam pipe. The resulting intensity, energy distribution and proportion of the different particles largely depends on the distance and angle with respect to the interaction point as well as the amount of installed shielding material. Electronics operating in the vicinity of the accelerator will therefore be subject to both cumulative damage from radiation (total ionizing dose, displacement damage) as well as single event effects which can seriously compromise the operation of the machine. This, combined with the extensive use of commercial-off-the-shelf components due to budget, performance and availability reasons, results in the need to carefully characterize the response of the devices and systems to representative radiation conditions.

  15. Method and apparatus for varying accelerator beam output energy

    DOEpatents

    Young, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    A coupled cavity accelerator (CCA) accelerates a charged particle beam with rf energy from a rf source. An input accelerating cavity receives the charged particle beam and an output accelerating cavity outputs the charged particle beam at an increased energy. Intermediate accelerating cavities connect the input and the output accelerating cavities to accelerate the charged particle beam. A plurality of tunable coupling cavities are arranged so that each one of the tunable coupling cavities respectively connect an adjacent pair of the input, output, and intermediate accelerating cavities to transfer the rf energy along the accelerating cavities. An output tunable coupling cavity can be detuned to variably change the phase of the rf energy reflected from the output coupling cavity so that regions of the accelerator can be selectively turned off when one of the intermediate tunable coupling cavities is also detuned.

  16. Modeling of a new electron-streamer acceleration mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihaddadene, K. M. A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Liu, N.; Celestin, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Lightning stepped leaders and laboratory spark discharges in air are known to produce X-rays [e.g., Dwyer et al., Geophys. Res. lett., 32, L20809, 2005; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 45, 425202, 2012]. However, the processes behind the production of these X-rays are still not very well understood. During discharges, encounters between streamers of different polarities are very common. For example, during the formation of a new leader step, the negative streamer zone around the tip of a negative leader and the positive streamers initiated from the posiive part of a bidirectional space leader strongly interact. In laboratory experiments, when streamers are approaching a sharp electrode, streamers with the opposite polarity are initiated from the electrode and collide with the former streamers. Recently, the encounter between negative and positive streamers has been proposed as a plausible mechanism for the production of X-rays by spark discharges [Cooray et la., JASTP, 71, 1890, 2009; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 45, 425202, 2012], but modeling results have shown later that the increase of the electric field involved in this process, which is above the conventional breakdown threshold field, is accompanied by a strong increase of the electron density. The resulting increase in the conductivity, in turn, causes this electric field to collapse over a few tens of picoseconds, preventing the electrons reaching high energies and producing significant X-ray emissions [e.g., Ihaddadene and Celestin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 5644, 2015]. In this work, we will present simulation results of a new electron acceleration mechanism for producing runaway electron energies above hundred keV. The mechanism couples multiple single streamers and streamer head-on collisions, similar to a laboratory discharge, and is suitable for explaining the high-energy X-rays produced by discharges in air and by lightning stepped leaders.

  17. Study on the parameters of the scanning system for the 300 keV electron accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, K. W.; Chulan, R. M., E-mail: leo@nm.gov.my; Hashim, S. A.

    2016-01-22

    This paper describes the method to identify the magnetic coil parameters of the scanning system. This locally designed low energy electron accelerator with the present energy of 140 keV will be upgraded to 300 keV. In this accelerator, scanning system is required to deflect the energetic electron beam across a titanium foil in vertical and horizontal direction. The excitation current of the magnetic coil is determined by the energy of the electron beam. Therefore, the magnetic coil parameters must be identified to ensure the matching of the beam energy and excitation coil current. As the result, the essential parameters ofmore » the effective lengths for X-axis and Y-axis have been found as 0.1198 m and 0.1134 m and the required excitation coil currents which is dependenton the electron beam energies have be identified.« less

  18. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; ...

    2015-09-07

    In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for electron acceleration to >1 MeV energies in the heart of the outermore » radiation belt. We also evaluate chorus wave evolution using the superposed epoch analysis for the identified efficient and inefficient acceleration events and find that chorus wave intensity is much stronger and lasts longer during efficient electron acceleration events, supporting the scenario that chorus waves play a key role in MeV electron acceleration.« less

  19. Flat electron beam sources for DLA accelerators

    DOE PAGES

    Ody, A.; Musumeci, P.; Maxson, J.; ...

    2016-10-26

    In this study we discuss the application of the flat beam transform to generate beams suitable for injection into slab-symmetric dielectric laser-driven accelerators (DLAs). A study of the focusing requirements to keep the particles within the tight apertures characterizing these accelerators shows the benefits of employing ultralow beam emittances. The slab geometry of the many dielectric accelerating structures strongly favors the use of flat beams with large ratio between vertical and horizontal emittances. We employ particle tracking simulations to study the application of the flat beam transform for two injector designs, a DC non relativistic photogun and a 1.6 cellmore » S-band RF photoinjector, obtaining in both cases emittance ratios between the horizontal and vertical plane in excess of 100 in agreement with simple analytical estimates. The 4 MeV RF photoinjector study-case can be directly applied to the UCLA Pegasus beamline and shows normalized emittances down to < 3 nm in the vertical dimension for beam charges up to 20 fC, enabling a two-stage DLA experiment.« less

  20. Laboratory laser acceleration and high energy astrophysics: {gamma}-ray bursts and cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.

    1998-08-20

    Recent experimental progress in laser acceleration of charged particles (electrons) and its associated processes has shown that intense electromagnetic pulses can promptly accelerate charged particles to high energies and that their energy spectrum is quite hard. On the other hand some of the high energy astrophysical phenomena such as extremely high energy cosmic rays and energetic components of {gamma}-ray bursts cry for new physical mechanisms for promptly accelerating particles to high energies. The authors suggest that the basic physics involved in laser acceleration experiments sheds light on some of the underlying mechanisms and their energy spectral characteristics of the promptlymore » accelerated particles in these high energy astrophysical phenomena.« less

  1. Collective electron driven linac for high energy physics

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.

    1983-08-01

    A linac design is presented in which an intense ultrarelativistic electron bunch is used to excite fields in a series of cavities and accelerate charged particles. The intense electron bunch is generated in a simple storage ring to have the required transverse and longitudinal dimensions. The bunch is then transferred to the linac. The linac structure can be inexpensively constructed of spacers and washers. The fields in the cells resulting from the bunch passage are calculated using the program BCI. The results show that certain particles within the driving bunch and also trailing particles of any sign charge can bemore » accelerated. With existing electron storage rings, accelerating gradients greater than 16 MV/m are possible. Examples of two accelerators are given: a 30 GeV electron/positron accelerator useful as an injector for a high energy storage ring and 2) a 110 GeV per beam electron-positron collider.« less

  2. High-quality electron beam generation in a proton-driven hollow plasma wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Xia, G.; Lotov, K. V.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Hanahoe, K.; Mete-Apsimon, O.

    2017-10-01

    Simulations of proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerators have demonstrated substantially higher accelerating gradients compared to conventional accelerators and the viability of accelerating electrons to the energy frontier in a single plasma stage. However, due to the strong intrinsic transverse fields varying both radially and in time, the witness beam quality is still far from suitable for practical application in future colliders. Here we demonstrate the efficient acceleration of electrons in proton-driven wakefields in a hollow plasma channel. In this regime, the witness bunch is positioned in the region with a strong accelerating field, free from plasma electrons and ions. We show that the electron beam carrying the charge of about 10% of 1 TeV proton driver charge can be accelerated to 0.6 TeV with a preserved normalized emittance in a single channel of 700 m. This high-quality and high-charge beam may pave the way for the development of future plasma-based energy frontier colliders.

  3. Application of Plasma Waveguides to High Energy Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Milchberg, Howard M

    2013-03-30

    The eventual success of laser-plasma based acceleration schemes for high-energy particle physics will require the focusing and stable guiding of short intense laser pulses in reproducible plasma channels. For this goal to be realized, many scientific issues need to be addressed. These issues include an understanding of the basic physics of, and an exploration of various schemes for, plasma channel formation. In addition, the coupling of intense laser pulses to these channels and the stable propagation of pulses in the channels require study. Finally, new theoretical and computational tools need to be developed to aid in the design and analysismore » of experiments and future accelerators. Here we propose a 3-year renewal of our combined theoretical and experimental program on the applications of plasma waveguides to high-energy accelerators. During the past grant period we have made a number of significant advances in the science of laser-plasma based acceleration. We pioneered the development of clustered gases as a new highly efficient medium for plasma channel formation. Our contributions here include theoretical and experimental studies of the physics of cluster ionization, heating, explosion, and channel formation. We have demonstrated for the first time the generation of and guiding in a corrugated plasma waveguide. The fine structure demonstrated in these guides is only possible with cluster jet heating by lasers. The corrugated guide is a slow wave structure operable at arbitrarily high laser intensities, allowing direct laser acceleration, a process we have explored in detail with simulations. The development of these guides opens the possibility of direct laser acceleration, a true miniature analogue of the SLAC RF-based accelerator. Our theoretical studies during this period have also contributed to the further development of the simulation codes, Wake and QuickPIC, which can be used for both laser driven and beam driven plasma based acceleration

  4. Comments on shielding for dual energy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Rossi, M C; Lincoln, H M; Quarin, D J; Zwicker, R D

    2008-06-01

    Determination of shielding requirements for medical linear accelerators has been greatly facilitated by the publication of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) latest guidelines on this subject in NCRP Report No. 151. In the present report the authors review their own recent experience with patient treatments on conventional dual energy linear accelerators to examine the various input parameters needed to follow the NCRP guidelines. Some discussion is included of workloads, occupancy, use factors, and field size, with the effects of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatments included. Studies of collimator settings showed average values of 13.1 x 16.2 cm2 for 6 MV and 14.1 x 16.8 cm2 for 18 MV conventional ports, and corresponding average unblocked areas of 228 and 254 cm2, respectively. With an average of 77% of the field area unblocked, this gives a mean irradiated area of 196 cm2 for the 18 MV beam, which dominates shielding considerations for most dual energy machines. Assuming conservatively small room dimensions, a gantry bin angle of 18 degrees was found to represent a reasonable unit for tabulation of use factors. For conventional 18 MV treatments it was found that the usual treatment angles of 0, 90, 180, and 270 degrees were still favored, and use factors of 0.25 represent reasonable estimates for these beams. As expected, the IMRT fields (all at 6 MV) showed a high degree of gantry angle randomization, with no bin having a use factor in excess of 0.10. It is concluded that unless a significant number of patients are treated with high energy IMRT, the traditional use factors of 0.25 are appropriate for the dominant high energy beam.

  5. ION-STABILIZED ELECTRON INDUCTION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Finkelstein, D.

    1960-03-22

    A method and apparatus for establishing an ion-stabilized self-focusing relativistic electron beam from a plasma are reported. A plasma is introduced into a specially designed cavity by plasma guns, and a magnetic field satisfying betatron conditions is produced in the cavity by currents flowing in the highly conductive, non-magnetic surface of the cavity. This field forms the electron beam by induction from the plasma.

  6. Electron Beam Focusing in the Linear Accelerator (linac)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui, Luis

    2015-10-01

    To produce consistent data with an electron accelerator, it is critical to have a well-focused beam. To keep the beam focused, quadrupoles (quads) are employed. Quads are magnets, which focus the beam in one direction (x or y) and defocus in the other. When two or more quads are used in series, a net focusing effect is achieved in both vertical and horizontal directions. At start up there is a 5% calibration error in the linac at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. This means that the momentum of particles passing through the quads isn't always what is expected, which affects the focusing of the beam. The objective is to find exactly how sensitive the focusing in the linac is to this 5% error. A linac was simulated, which contained 290 RF Cavities with random electric fields (to simulate the 5% calibration error), and a total momentum kick of 1090 MeV. National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Jefferson Lab, Old Dominion University.

  7. A Variable Energy CW Compact Accelerator for Ion Cancer Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, Carol J.; Taylor, J.; Edgecock, R.

    2016-03-10

    Cancer is the second-largest cause of death in the U.S. and approximately two-thirds of all cancer patients will receive radiation therapy with the majority of the radiation treatments performed using x-rays produced by electron linacs. Charged particle beam radiation therapy, both protons and light ions, however, offers advantageous physical-dose distributions over conventional photon radiotherapy, and, for particles heavier than protons, a significant biological advantage. Despite recognition of potential advantages, there is almost no research activity in this field in the U.S. due to the lack of clinical accelerator facilities offering light ion therapy in the States. In January, 2013, amore » joint DOE/NCI workshop was convened to address the challenges of light ion therapy [1], inviting more than 60 experts from diverse fields related to radiation therapy. This paper reports on the conclusions of the workshop, then translates the clinical requirements into accelerat or and beam-delivery technical specifications. A comparison of available or feasible accelerator technologies is compared, including a new concept for a compact, CW, and variable energy light ion accelerator currently under development. This new light ion accelerator is based on advances in nonscaling Fixed-Field Alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator design. The new design concepts combine isochronous orbits with long (up to 4m) straight sections in a compact racetrack format allowing inner circulating orbits to be energy selected for low-loss, CW extraction, effectively eliminating the high-loss energy degrader in conventional CW cyclotron designs.« less

  8. Laser-driven electron acceleration in a plasma channel with an additional electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Li-Hong; Xue, Ju-Kui, E-mail: xuejk@nwnu.edu.cn; Liu, Jie, E-mail: liu-jie@iapcm.ac.cn

    2016-05-15

    We examine the electron acceleration in a two-dimensional plasma channel under the action of a laser field and an additional static electric field. We propose to design an appropriate additional electric field (its direction and location), in order to launch the electron onto an energetic trajectory. We find that the electron acceleration strongly depends on the coupled effects of the laser polarization, the direction, and location of the additional electric field. The additional electric field affects the electron dynamics by changing the dephasing rate. Particularly, a suitably designed additional electric field leads to a considerable energy gain from the lasermore » pulse after the interaction with the additional electric field. The electron energy gain from the laser with the additional electric field can be much higher than that without the additional electric field. This engineering provides a possible means for producing high energetic electrons.« less

  9. Generation of X-rays by electrons recycling through thin internal targets of cyclic accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplin, V.; Kuznetsov, S.; Uglov, S.

    2018-05-01

    The use of thin (< 10‑3 radiation length) internal targets in cyclic accelerators leads to multiple passes (recycling effect) of electrons through them. The multiplicity of electron passes (M) is determined by the electron energy, accelerator parameters, the thickness, structure and material of a target and leads to an increase in the effective target thickness and the efficiency of radiation generation. The increase of M leads to the increase in the emittance of electron beams which can change the characteristics of radiation processes. The experimental results obtained using the Tomsk synchrotron and betatron showed the possibility of increasing the yield and brightness of coherent X-rays generated by the electrons passing (recycling) through thin crystals and periodic multilayers placed into the chambers of accelerators, when the recycling effect did not influence on the spectral and angular characteristics of generated X-rays.

  10. Refluxed electrons direct laser acceleration in ultrahigh laser and relativistic critical density plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-986, Mianyang 621900; Zhao, Z. Q.

    2015-01-15

    Refluxed electrons direct laser acceleration is proposed so as to generate a high-charge energetic electron beam. When a laser pulse is incident on a relativistic critical density target, the rising edge of the pulse heats the target and the sheath fields on the both sides of the target reflux some electrons inside the expanding target. These electrons can be trapped and accelerated due to the self-transparency and the negative longitudinal electrostatic field in the expanding target. Some of the electrons can be accelerated to energies exceeding the ponderomotive limit 1/2a{sub 0}{sup 2}mc{sup 2}. Effective temperature significantly above the ponderomotive scalingmore » is observed. Furthermore, due to the limited expanding length, the laser propagating instabilities are suppressed in the interaction. Thus, high collimated beams with tens of μC charge can be generated.« less

  11. The energy spectra of solar flare electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evenson, P. A.; Hovestadt, D.; Meyer, P.; Moses, D.

    1985-01-01

    A survey of 50 electron energy spectra from .1 to 100 MeV originating from solar flares was made by the combination of data from two spectrometers onboard the International Sun Earth Explorer-3 spacecraft. The observed spectral shapes of flare events can be divided into two classes through the criteria of fit to an acceleration model. This standard two step acceleration model, which fits the spectral shape of the first class of flares, involves an impulsive step that accelerates particles up to 100 keV and a second step that further accelerates these particles up to 100 MeV by a single shock. This fit fails for the second class of flares that can be characterized as having excessively hard spectra above 1 MeV relative to the predictions of the model. Correlations with soft X-ray and meter radio observations imply that the acceleration of the high energy particles in the second class of flares is dominated by the impulsive phase of the flares.

  12. Innovative single-shot diagnostics for electrons accelerated through laser-plasma interaction at FLAME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisesto, F. G.; Anania, M. P.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Costa, G.; Curcio, A.; Ferrario, M.; Galletti, M.; Pompili, R.; Schleifer, E.; Zigler, A.

    2017-05-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (> 100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeters. Here we present all the plasma related activities currently underway at SPARC LAB exploiting the high power laser FLAME. In particular, we will give an overview of the single shot diagnostics employed: Electro Optic Sampling (EOS) for temporal measurement and optical transition radiation (OTR) for an innovative one shot emittance measurements. In detail, the EOS technique has been employed to measure for the first time the longitudinal profile of electric field of fast electrons escaping from a solid target, driving the ions and protons acceleration, and to study the impact of using different target shapes. Moreover, a novel scheme for one shot emittance measurements based on OTR, developed and tested at SPARC LAB LINAC, will be shown.

  13. Emitting electron spectra and acceleration processes in the jet of PKS 0447-439

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yao; Yan, Dahai; Dai, Benzhong; Zhang, Li

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the electron energy distributions (EEDs) and the corresponding acceleration processes in the jet of PKS 0447-439, and estimate its redshift through modeling its observed spectral energy distribution (SED) in the frame of a one-zone synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) model. Three EEDs formed in different acceleration scenarios are assumed: the power-law with exponential cut-off (PLC) EED (shock-acceleration scenario or the case of the EED approaching equilibrium in the stochastic-acceleration scenario), the log-parabolic (LP) EED (stochastic-acceleration scenario and the acceleration dominating), and the broken power-law (BPL) EED (no acceleration scenario). The corresponding fluxes of both synchrotron and SSC are then calculated. The model is applied to PKS 0447-439, and modeled SEDs are compared to the observed SED of this object by using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The results show that the PLC model fails to fit the observed SED well, while the LP and BPL models give comparably good fits for the observed SED. The results indicate that it is possible that a stochastic acceleration process acts in the emitting region of PKS 0447-439 and the EED is far from equilibrium (acceleration dominating) or no acceleration process works (in the emitting region). The redshift of PKS 0447-439 is also estimated in our fitting: z = 0.16 ± 0.05 for the LP case and z = 0.17 ± 0.04 for BPL case.

  14. Enhanced Laser-Driven Ion Acceleration by Superponderomotive Electrons Generated from Near-Critical-Density Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, J. H.; Yeung, M.; Gong, Z.; Wang, H. Y.; Kreuzer, C.; Zhou, M. L.; Streeter, M. J. V.; Foster, P. S.; Cousens, S.; Dromey, B.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Zepf, M.; Schreiber, J.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the experimental studies of laser driven ion acceleration from a double-layer target where a near-critical density target with a few-micron thickness is coated in front of a nanometer-thin diamondlike carbon foil. A significant enhancement of proton maximum energies from 12 to ˜30 MeV is observed when a relativistic laser pulse impinges on the double-layer target under linear polarization. We attributed the enhanced acceleration to superponderomotive electrons that were simultaneously measured in the experiments with energies far beyond the free-electron ponderomotive limit. Our interpretation is supported by two-dimensional simulation results.

  15. Self-injection of electrons in a laser-wakefield accelerator by using longitudinal density ripple

    SciTech Connect

    Dahiya, Deepak; Sharma, A. K.; Sajal, Vivek

    By introducing a longitudinal density ripple (periodic modulation in background plasma density), we demonstrate self-injection of electrons in a laser-wakefield accelerator. The wakefield driven plasma wave, in presence of density ripple excites two side band waves of same frequency but different wave numbers. One of these side bands, having smaller phase velocity compared to wakefield driven plasma wave, preaccelerates the background plasma electrons. Significant number of these preaccelerated electrons get trapped in the laser-wakefield and further accelerated to higher energies.

  16. The Strongest 40 keV Electron Acceleration By ICME-driven Shocks At 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Wang, L.; Li, G.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; He, J.; Tu, C. Y.; Bale, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present a comprehensive case study of the in situ electron acceleration at the two ICME-driven shocks observed by WIND/3DP on February 11, 2000 and July 22, 2004. For the 11 February 2000 shock (the 22 July 2004 shock), the shocked electrons in the downstream show significant flux enhancements over the ambient solar wind electrons at energies up to 40 keV (66 keV) with a 6.0 times (1.9 times) ehancment at 40 keV, the strongest among all the quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) ICME-driven shocks observed by the WIND spacecraft at 1 AU from 1995 through 2014. We find that in both shocks, the shocked electron fluxes at 0.5-40 keV fit well to a double power-law spectrum, J ˜ E-β, bending up at ˜2 keV. In the downstream, these shocked electrons show stronger fluxes in the anti-sunward direction, but their enhancement over the ambient fluxes peaks near 90° pitch angle (PA). For the 11 February 2000 shock, the electron spectral index, β, appears to not vary with the electron PA, while for the 22 July 2004 shock, β roughly decreases from the anti-sunward PA direction to the sunward PA direction. All of these spectral indexes are strongly larger than the theoretical prediction of diffusive shock acceleration. At energies above (below) 2 keV, however, the shocked electron β is similar to the solar wind superhalo (halo) electrons observed at quiet times. These results suggest that the electron acceleration at the ICME-driven shocks at 1 AU may favor the shock drift acceleration, and the superthermal electrons accelerated by the interplanetary shocks may contribute to the formation of the halo and superhalo electron populations in the solar wind.

  17. Dynamics of electron injection in a laser-wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Buck, A.; Chou, S.-W.; Schmid, K.; Shen, B.; Tajima, T.; Kaluza, M. C.; Veisz, L.

    2017-08-01

    The detailed temporal evolution of the laser-wakefield acceleration process with controlled injection, producing reproducible high-quality electron bunches, has been investigated. The localized injection of electrons into the wakefield has been realized in a simple way—called shock-front injection—utilizing a sharp drop in plasma density. Both experimental and numerical results reveal the electron injection and acceleration process as well as the electron bunch's temporal properties. The possibility to visualize the plasma wave gives invaluable spatially resolved information about the local background electron density, which in turn allows for an efficient suppression of electron self-injection before the controlled process of injection at the sharp density jump. Upper limits for the electron bunch duration of 6.6 fs FWHM, or 2.8 fs (r.m.s.) were found. These results indicate that shock-front injection not only provides stable and tunable, but also few-femtosecond short electron pulses for applications such as ultrashort radiation sources, time-resolved electron diffraction or for the seeding of further acceleration stages.

  18. Collective Acceleration with Rotating Relativistic Electron Beams.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-11

    experiments[ where rela- tivistic electron beams were injected into neutral gas filled drift tubes . This paper presents results of recent experiments in...was applied in the drift tube . Rander7 has measured the beamfront velocity, ion yield and ion momentum distribution for non- rotating beams in hydrogen...fields (axial and azimuthal) and currents induced in the drift tube wall.8 Diode voltage and current are V - 900 kV, I - 80 kA for r" - 100 ns, with

  19. Relativistic Acceleration of Electrons Injected by a Plasma Mirror into a Radially Polarized Laser Beam.

    PubMed

    Zaïm, N; Thévenet, M; Lifschitz, A; Faure, J

    2017-09-01

    We propose a method to generate femtosecond, relativistic, and high-charge electron bunches using few-cycle and tightly focused radially polarized laser pulses. In this scheme, the incident laser pulse reflects off an overdense plasma that injects electrons into the reflected pulse. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the plasma injects electrons ideally, resulting in a dramatic increase of charge and energy of the accelerated electron bunch in comparison to previous methods. This method can be used to generate femtosecond pC bunches with energies in the 1-10 MeV range using realistic laser parameters corresponding to current kHz laser systems.

  20. Prolonged electron accelerations at a high-Mach-number, quasi-perpendicular shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Amano, T.; Kato, T.; Hoshino, M.

    2016-12-01

    Elucidating acceleration mechanisms of charged particles have been of great interests in laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasmas. Among other mechanisms, a collision-less shock is thought as an efficient particle accelerator. The idea has been strengthened by radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray observations of astrophysical objects such as supernova remnant shocks, where it has been indicated that protons and electrons are efficiently accelerated to TeV energies at such very strong shock waves. Efficient electron accelerations at high-Mach-number shocks was also suggested recently by in-situ measurements at the Saturn's bow shock. Motivated by these circumstances, laboratory experiments using high-power laser facilities emerge to provide a new platform to tackle these problems.Numerical simulations have revealed that electrons can be efficiently heated and accelerated via so-called the shock surfing acceleration mechanism in which electron-scale Buneman instability played key roles. Recently, Matsumoto et al. [2015] proposed a stochastic acceleration mechanism by turbulent reconnection in the shock transition region through excitation of the ion Weibel instability. In order to deal with the two different acceleration mechanisms in a self-consistent system, we examined 3D PIC simulations of a quasi-perpendicular, high-Mach-number shock. We successfully followed a long term evolution in which two different acceleration mechanisms coexist in the 3D shock structure. The Buneman instability is strongly excited ahead of the shock front in the same manner as have been found in 2D simulations. The surfing acceleration is found to be very effective in the present 3D system. In the transition region, the ion-beam Weibel instability generated strong magnetic field turbulence in 3D space. Energetic electrons, which initially experienced the surfing acceleration, undergo pitch-angle diffusion by interacting with the turbulent fields and thus stay in the upstream regions. The ion

  1. Effects of Spatial Gradients on Electron Runaway Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, Peter; Ljepojevic, N. N.

    1996-01-01

    The runaway process is known to accelerate electrons in many laboratory plasmas and has been suggested as an acceleration mechanism in some astrophysical plasmas, including solar flares. Current calculations of the electron velocity distributions resulting from the runaway process are greatly restricted because they impose spatial homogeneity on the distribution. We have computed runaway distributions which include consistent development of spatial gradients in the energetic tail. Our solution for the electron velocity distribution is presented as a function of distance along a finite length acceleration region, and is compared with the equivalent distribution for the infinitely long homogenous system (i.e., no spatial gradients), as considered in the existing literature. All these results are for the weak field regime. We also discuss the severe restrictiveness of this weak field assumption.

  2. Electron Injections: A Study of Electron Acceleration by Multiple Dipolarizing Flux Bundles Using an Analytical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielse, C.; Angelopoulos, V.; Artemyev, A.; Runov, A.; Harris, C.

    2016-12-01

    We study energetic electron injections using an analytical model that self-consistently describes electric and magnetic field perturbations of transient, localized dipolarizing flux bundles (DFBs). Previous studies using THEMIS, Van Allen Probes, and the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission have shown that injections can occur on short (minutes) or long (10s of minutes) timescales. These studies suggest that the short timescale injections correspond to a single DFB, whereas long timescale injections are likely caused by an aggregate of multiple DFBs, each incrementally heating the particle population. We therefore model the effects of multiple DFBs on the electron population using multi-spacecraft observations of the fields and particle fluxes to constrain the model parameters. The analytical model is the first of its kind to model multiple dipolarization fronts in order to better understand the transport and acceleration process throughout the plasma sheet. It can reproduce most injection signatures at multiple locations simultaneously, reaffirming earlier findings that multiple earthward-traveling DFBs can both transport and accelerate electrons to suprathermal energies, and can thus be considered the injections' primary driver.

  3. Electron Accelerators for Research at the Frontiers of Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hartline, Beverly; Grunder, Hermann

    1986-10-01

    Electron accelerators for the frontiers of nuclear physics must provide high duty factor (gte 80) for coincidence measurements; few-hundred-MeV through few-GeV energy for work in the nucleonic, hadronic, and confinement regimes; energy resolution of ~ 10 -4; and high current (gte 100 zA). To fulfill these requirements new machines and upgrades of existing ones are being planned or constructed. Representative microtron-based facilities are the upgrade of MAMI at the University of Mainz (West Germany), the proposed two-stage cascade microtron at the University of Illinois (U.S.A.), and the three-stage Troitsk ``polytron'' (USSR). Representative projects to add pulse stretcher rings to existingmore » linacs are the upgrades at MIT-Bates (U.S.A.) and at NIKHEF-K (Netherlands). Recent advances in superconducting rf technology, especially in cavity design and fabrication, have made large superconducting cw linacs become feasible. Recirculating superconducting cw linacs are under construc« less

  4. Validity of the paraxial approximation for electron acceleration with radially polarized laser beams.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Vincent; Varin, Charles; Piché, Michel

    2013-03-15

    In the study of laser-driven electron acceleration, it has become customary to work within the framework of paraxial wave optics. Using an exact solution to the Helmholtz equation as well as its paraxial counterpart, we perform numerical simulations of electron acceleration with a high-power TM(01) beam. For beam waist sizes at which the paraxial approximation was previously recognized valid, we highlight significant differences in the angular divergence and energy distribution of the electron bunches produced by the exact and the paraxial solutions. Our results demonstrate that extra care has to be taken when working under the paraxial approximation in the context of electron acceleration with radially polarized laser beams.

  5. Laser-driven electron beam acceleration and future application to compact light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafz, N.; Jeong, T. M.; Lee, S. K.; Pae, K. H.; Sung, J. H.; Choi, I. W.; Yu, T. J.; Jeong, Y. U.; Lee, J.

    2009-07-01

    Laser-driven plasma accelerators are gaining much attention by the advanced accelerator community due to the potential these accelerators hold in miniaturizing future high-energy and medium-energy machines. In the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA), the ponderomotive force of an ultrashort high intensity laser pulse excites a longitudinal plasma wave or bubble. Due to huge charge separation, electric fields created in the plasma bubble can be several orders of magnitude higher than those available in conventional microwave and RF-based accelerator facilities which are limited (up to ˜100 MV/m) by material breakdown. Therefore, if an electron bunch is injected into the bubble in phase with its field, it will gain relativistic energies within an extremely short distance. Here, in the LWFA we show the generation of high-quality and high-energy electron beams up to the GeV-class within a few millimeters of gas-jet plasmas irradiated by tens of terawatt ultrashort laser pulses. Thus we realize approximately four orders of magnitude acceleration gradients higher than available by conventional technology. As a practical application of the stable high-energy electron beam generation, we are planning on injecting the electron beams into a few-meters long conventional undulator in order to realize compact X-ray synchrotron (immediate) and FEL (future) light sources. Stable laser-driven electron beam and radiation devices will surely open a new era in science, medicine and technology and will benefit a larger number of users in those fields.

  6. 77 FR 54777 - Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...--Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency Executive Order 13625--Improving Access to Mental... Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency By the authority vested in me as President by the... helping to facilitate investments in energy efficiency at industrial facilities, it is hereby ordered as...

  7. Experimental demonstration of high efficiency electron cyclotron autoresonance acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    LaPointe, M.A.; Yoder, R.B.; Wang, C.

    1996-04-01

    First experimental results are reported on the operation of a multimegawatt 2.856 GHz cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA). A 90{endash}100 kV, 2{endash}3 MW linear electron beam has had up to6.6 MW added to it in CARA, with an rf-to-beam power efficiency of up to 96{percent}. This efficiency level is larger than that reported for any fast-wave interaction between radiation and electrons, and also larger than that in normal conducting rf linear accelerators. The results obtained are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  8. Drive electrostatic plasma oscillations in a closed electron drift accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, A.I.; Nevrovskii, V.A.; Smirnov, V.A.

    1973-09-01

    The present work describes and experimental investigation of the perturbations created in the plasma of a closed electron drift accelerator (CEDA) by a time-varying potential applied to an electrode in the plasma. In particular, the driven electrostatic oscillations are in phase over the entire volume of the channel and the attenuation of the signal amplitude is sensitive to the direction of the electron flux in the accelerator. Certain aspects of the propagation of the harmonic signals and pulses in the plasma are established. A substantial drop in signal amplitude occurs between the electrode and the plasma. (auth)

  9. Radiation belt electron acceleration during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm: Observations and simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; ...

    2016-06-10

    Various physical processes are known to cause acceleration, loss, and transport of energetic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative roles in different time and space need further investigation. During the largest storm over the past decade (17 March 2015), relativistic electrons experienced fairly rapid acceleration up to ~7 MeV within 2 days after an initial substantial dropout, as observed by Van Allen Probes. In the present paper, we evaluate the relative roles of various physical processes during the recovery phase of this large storm using a 3-D diffusion simulation. By quantitatively comparing the observed and simulated electronmore » evolution, we found that chorus plays a critical role in accelerating electrons up to several MeV near the developing peak location and produces characteristic flat-top pitch angle distributions. By only including radial diffusion, the simulation underestimates the observed electron acceleration, while radial diffusion plays an important role in redistributing electrons and potentially accelerates them to even higher energies. Moreover, plasmaspheric hiss is found to provide efficient pitch angle scattering losses for hundreds of keV electrons, while its scattering effect on > 1 MeV electrons is relatively slow. Although an additional loss process is required to fully explain the overestimated electron fluxes at multi-MeV, the combined physical processes of radial diffusion and pitch angle and energy diffusion by chorus and hiss reproduce the observed electron dynamics remarkably well, suggesting that quasi-linear diffusion theory is reasonable to evaluate radiation belt electron dynamics during this big storm.« less

  10. Radiation belt electron acceleration during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm: Observations and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.

    Various physical processes are known to cause acceleration, loss, and transport of energetic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative roles in different time and space need further investigation. During the largest storm over the past decade (17 March 2015), relativistic electrons experienced fairly rapid acceleration up to ~7 MeV within 2 days after an initial substantial dropout, as observed by Van Allen Probes. In the present paper, we evaluate the relative roles of various physical processes during the recovery phase of this large storm using a 3-D diffusion simulation. By quantitatively comparing the observed and simulated electronmore » evolution, we found that chorus plays a critical role in accelerating electrons up to several MeV near the developing peak location and produces characteristic flat-top pitch angle distributions. By only including radial diffusion, the simulation underestimates the observed electron acceleration, while radial diffusion plays an important role in redistributing electrons and potentially accelerates them to even higher energies. Moreover, plasmaspheric hiss is found to provide efficient pitch angle scattering losses for hundreds of keV electrons, while its scattering effect on > 1 MeV electrons is relatively slow. Although an additional loss process is required to fully explain the overestimated electron fluxes at multi-MeV, the combined physical processes of radial diffusion and pitch angle and energy diffusion by chorus and hiss reproduce the observed electron dynamics remarkably well, suggesting that quasi-linear diffusion theory is reasonable to evaluate radiation belt electron dynamics during this big storm.« less

  11. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y H; Yang, X Y; Lin, C; Wang, L; Xu, M; Wang, X G; Xiao, C J

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  12. Electron acceleration by a focused laser pulse in a static magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shihua; Wu Fengmin; Zhao Xianghao

    2007-12-15

    The model given by K. P. Singh [Phys. Rev. E 69, 056410 (2004)] for vacuum laser acceleration in a static magnetic field is revisited by including the effects of diffraction and the longitudinal electric field of a focused laser beam. Compared with a similar model without a static magnetic field, a simulation shows that electrons can gain much more net energy in this model even using the fifth-order corrected equations for the field of a focused laser beam. The acceleration mechanism and the acceleration efficiency are also investigated.

  13. Quasi-monoenergetic electron acceleration in relativistic laser-plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukhov, Alexander; Gordienko, Sergei; Seredov, Vasili; Kostyukov, Igor

    2009-03-01

    Using Particle-in-Cell simulations as well as analytical theory we study electron acceleration in underdense plasmas both in the Bubble regime and in the weakly relativistic periodic wake fields. In the Bubble regime, electron trapping is taken as a function of the propagated distance. The number of trapped electrons depends on the effective phase velocity of the X-point at the rear of the Bubble. For the weakly relativistic periodic wakes, we show that the phase synchronism between the wake and the relativistic electrons can be maintained over very long distances when the plasma density is tapered properly. Moreover, one can use layered plasmas to control and improve the accelerated beam quality. To cite this article: A. Pukhov et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  14. Tailored electron bunches with smooth current profiles for enhanced transformer ratios in beam-driven acceleration

    DOE PAGES

    Lemery, F.; Piot, P.

    2015-08-03

    Collinear high-gradient O(GV/m) beam-driven wakefield methods for charged-particle acceleration could be critical to the realization of compact, cost-efficient, accelerators, e.g., in support of TeV-scale lepton colliders or multiple-user free-electron laser facilities. To make these options viable, the high accelerating fields need to be complemented with large transformer ratios >2, a parameter characterizing the efficiency of the energy transfer between a wakefield-exciting “drive” bunch to an accelerated “witness” bunch. While several potential current distributions have been discussed, their practical realization appears challenging due to their often discontinuous nature. In this paper we propose several alternative continuously differentiable (smooth) current profiles whichmore » support enhanced transformer ratios. We especially demonstrate that one of the devised shapes can be implemented in a photo-emission electron source by properly shaping the photocathode-laser pulse. We finally discuss a possible superconducting linear-accelerator concept that could produce shaped drive bunches at high-repetition rates to drive a dielectric-wakefield accelerator with accelerating fields on the order of ~60 MV/m and a transformer ratio ~5 consistent with a recently proposed multiuser free-electron laser facility.« less

  15. Tailored electron bunches with smooth current profiles for enhanced transformer ratios in beam-driven acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Lemery, F.; Piot, P.

    Collinear high-gradient O(GV/m) beam-driven wakefield methods for charged-particle acceleration could be critical to the realization of compact, cost-efficient, accelerators, e.g., in support of TeV-scale lepton colliders or multiple-user free-electron laser facilities. To make these options viable, the high accelerating fields need to be complemented with large transformer ratios >2, a parameter characterizing the efficiency of the energy transfer between a wakefield-exciting “drive” bunch to an accelerated “witness” bunch. While several potential current distributions have been discussed, their practical realization appears challenging due to their often discontinuous nature. In this paper we propose several alternative continuously differentiable (smooth) current profiles whichmore » support enhanced transformer ratios. We especially demonstrate that one of the devised shapes can be implemented in a photo-emission electron source by properly shaping the photocathode-laser pulse. We finally discuss a possible superconducting linear-accelerator concept that could produce shaped drive bunches at high-repetition rates to drive a dielectric-wakefield accelerator with accelerating fields on the order of ~60 MV/m and a transformer ratio ~5 consistent with a recently proposed multiuser free-electron laser facility.« less

  16. The electron-optical system of the LIU-2 induction accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, G. I.; Batazova, M. A.

    2014-09-01

    The electron-optical system (EOS) of an induction accelerator for generation of an electron beam with an energy of 2 MeV, a current of 2 kA, an impulse duration of 2 × 10-7 s, and a geometric output emittance not exceeding the thermal value of it is described. The EOS consists of two parts. The first part is a diode gun with a perveance of 2 × 10-6 A/B3/2 and a cathode-anode voltage of 1 MeV. The second part is an accelerating tube with uniform distribution of the same accelerating voltage. A beam is transported at a distance of about 4 m from the cathode and focused on a spot with a diameter of about 1 mm. The compliance tests results of the linear-induction accelerator precisely conform to the calculated design parameters.

  17. ILU industrial electron accelerators for medical-product sterilization and food treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglov, V. V.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Vlasov, A. Yu.; Voronin, L. A.; Panfilov, A. D.; Radchenko, V. M.; Tkachenko, V. O.; Shtarklev, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Pulse linear electron accelerators of the ILU type have been developed and produced by the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, for more than 30 years. Their distinctive features are simplicity of design, convenience in operation, and reliability during long work under conditions of industrial production. ILU accelerators have a range of energy of 0.7-10 MeV at a power of accelerated beam of up to 100 kW and they are optimally suitable for use as universal sterilizing complexes. The scientific novelty of these accelerators consists of their capability to work both in the electron-treatment mode of production and in the bremsstrahlung generation mode, which has high penetrating power.

  18. Anderson acceleration and application to the three-temperature energy equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hengbin; Jia, Xiaowei; Walker, Homer F.

    2017-10-01

    The Anderson acceleration method is an algorithm for accelerating the convergence of fixed-point iterations, including the Picard method. Anderson acceleration was first proposed in 1965 and, for some years, has been used successfully to accelerate the convergence of self-consistent field iterations in electronic-structure computations. Recently, the method has attracted growing attention in other application areas and among numerical analysts. Compared with a Newton-like method, an advantage of Anderson acceleration is that there is no need to form the Jacobian matrix. Thus the method is easy to implement. In this paper, an Anderson-accelerated Picard method is employed to solve the three-temperature energy equations, which are a type of strong nonlinear radiation-diffusion equations. Two strategies are used to improve the robustness of the Anderson acceleration method. One strategy is to adjust the iterates when necessary to satisfy the physical constraint. Another strategy is to monitor and, if necessary, reduce the matrix condition number of the least-squares problem in the Anderson-acceleration implementation so that numerical stability can be guaranteed. Numerical results show that the Anderson-accelerated Picard method can solve the three-temperature energy equations efficiently. Compared with the Picard method without acceleration, Anderson acceleration can reduce the number of iterations by at least half. A comparison between a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, the Picard method, and the Anderson-accelerated Picard method is conducted in this paper.

  19. Ultrashort laser pulse driven inverse free electron laser accelerator experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Moody, J. T.; Anderson, S. G.; Anderson, G.

    In this paper we discuss the ultrashort pulse high gradient Inverse Free Electron laser accelerator experiment carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory which demonstrated gra- dients exceeding 200 MV/m using a 4 TW 100 fs long 800 nm Ti:Sa laser pulse. Due to the short laser and electron pulse lengths, synchronization was determined to be one of the main challenges in this experiment. This made necessary the implementation of a single-shot, non destructive, electro-optic sampling based diagnostics to enable time-stamping of each laser accelerator shot with < 100 fs accuracy. The results of this experiment are expected tomore » pave the way towards the development of future GeV-class IFEL accelerators.« less

  20. Ultrashort laser pulse driven inverse free electron laser accelerator experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Moody, J. T.; Anderson, S. G.; Anderson, G.; ...

    2016-02-29

    In this paper we discuss the ultrashort pulse high gradient Inverse Free Electron laser accelerator experiment carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory which demonstrated gra- dients exceeding 200 MV/m using a 4 TW 100 fs long 800 nm Ti:Sa laser pulse. Due to the short laser and electron pulse lengths, synchronization was determined to be one of the main challenges in this experiment. This made necessary the implementation of a single-shot, non destructive, electro-optic sampling based diagnostics to enable time-stamping of each laser accelerator shot with < 100 fs accuracy. The results of this experiment are expected tomore » pave the way towards the development of future GeV-class IFEL accelerators.« less

  1. Method for generating a plasma wave to accelerate electrons

    DOEpatents

    Umstadter, D.; Esarey, E.; Kim, J.K.

    1997-06-10

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for generating large amplitude nonlinear plasma waves, driven by an optimized train of independently adjustable, intense laser pulses. In the method, optimal pulse widths, interpulse spacing, and intensity profiles of each pulse are determined for each pulse in a series of pulses. A resonant region of the plasma wave phase space is found where the plasma wave is driven most efficiently by the laser pulses. The accelerator system of the invention comprises several parts: the laser system, with its pulse-shaping subsystem; the electron gun system, also called beam source, which preferably comprises photo cathode electron source and RF-LINAC accelerator; electron photo-cathode triggering system; the electron diagnostics; and the feedback system between the electron diagnostics and the laser system. The system also includes plasma source including vacuum chamber, magnetic lens, and magnetic field means. The laser system produces a train of pulses that has been optimized to maximize the axial electric field amplitude of the plasma wave, and thus the electron acceleration, using the method of the invention. 21 figs.

  2. Method for generating a plasma wave to accelerate electrons

    DOEpatents

    Umstadter, Donald; Esarey, Eric; Kim, Joon K.

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for generating large amplitude nonlinear plasma waves, driven by an optimized train of independently adjustable, intense laser pulses. In the method, optimal pulse widths, interpulse spacing, and intensity profiles of each pulse are determined for each pulse in a series of pulses. A resonant region of the plasma wave phase space is found where the plasma wave is driven most efficiently by the laser pulses. The accelerator system of the invention comprises several parts: the laser system, with its pulse-shaping subsystem; the electron gun system, also called beam source, which preferably comprises photo cathode electron source and RF-LINAC accelerator; electron photo-cathode triggering system; the electron diagnostics; and the feedback system between the electron diagnostics and the laser system. The system also includes plasma source including vacuum chamber, magnetic lens, and magnetic field means. The laser system produces a train of pulses that has been optimized to maximize the axial electric field amplitude of the plasma wave, and thus the electron acceleration, using the method of the invention.

  3. Beam by design: Laser manipulation of electrons in modern accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsing, Erik; Stupakov, Gennady; Xiang, Dao; Zholents, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Accelerator-based light sources such as storage rings and free-electron lasers use relativistic electron beams to produce intense radiation over a wide spectral range for fundamental research in physics, chemistry, materials science, biology, and medicine. More than a dozen such sources operate worldwide, and new sources are being built to deliver radiation that meets with the ever-increasing sophistication and depth of new research. Even so, conventional accelerator techniques often cannot keep pace with new demands and, thus, new approaches continue to emerge. In this article, a variety of recently developed and promising techniques that rely on lasers to manipulate and rearrange the electron distribution in order to tailor the properties of the radiation are reviewed. Basic theories of electron-laser interactions, techniques to create microstructures and nanostructures in electron beams, and techniques to produce radiation with customizable waveforms are reviewed. An overview of laser-based techniques for the generation of fully coherent x rays, mode-locked x-ray pulse trains, light with orbital angular momentum, and attosecond or even zeptosecond long coherent pulses in free-electron lasers is presented. Several methods to generate femtosecond pulses in storage rings are also discussed. Additionally, various schemes designed to enhance the performance of light sources through precision beam preparation including beam conditioning, laser heating, emittance exchange, and various laser-based diagnostics are described. Together these techniques represent a new emerging concept of "beam by design" in modern accelerators, which is the primary focus of this article.

  4. The 20 kilovolt rocket borne electron accelerator. [equipment specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, R.

    1973-01-01

    The accelerator system is a preprogrammed multi-voltage system capable of operating at a current level of 1/2 ampere at the 20 kilovolt level. The five major functional areas which comprise this system are: (1) Silver zinc battery packs; (2) the electron gun assembly; (3) gun control and opening circuits; (4) the telemetry conditioning section; and (5) the power conversion section.

  5. Temporal Electron-bunch Shaping from a Photoinjector for Advanced Accelerator Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lemery, Francois; Piot, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Advanced-accelerator applications often require the production of bunches with shaped temporal distributions. An example of sought-after shape is a linearly-ramped current profile that can be improve the transformer ratio in beam-driven acceleration, or produce energy-modulated pulse for, e.g., the subsequent generation of THz radiation. Typically,  such a shaping is achieved by manipulating ultra-relativistic electron bunches. In this contribution we discuss the possibility of shaping the bunch via photoemission and demonstrate using particle-in-cell simulations the production of MeV electron bunches with quasi-ramped current profile.

  6. Plasma physics. Stochastic electron acceleration during spontaneous turbulent reconnection in a strong shock wave.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Y; Amano, T; Kato, T N; Hoshino, M

    2015-02-27

    Explosive phenomena such as supernova remnant shocks and solar flares have demonstrated evidence for the production of relativistic particles. Interest has therefore been renewed in collisionless shock waves and magnetic reconnection as a means to achieve such energies. Although ions can be energized during such phenomena, the relativistic energy of the electrons remains a puzzle for theory. We present supercomputer simulations showing that efficient electron energization can occur during turbulent magnetic reconnection arising from a strong collisionless shock. Upstream electrons undergo first-order Fermi acceleration by colliding with reconnection jets and magnetic islands, giving rise to a nonthermal relativistic population downstream. These results shed new light on magnetic reconnection as an agent of energy dissipation and particle acceleration in strong shock waves. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Electron and Ion Acceleration Associated with Magnetotail Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Haoming

    This dissertation is dedicated to understanding electron and ion acceleration associated with magnetotail reconnection during substorms by using numerical simulations. Electron dynamics were investigated by using the UCLA global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model and large scale kinetic (LSK) simulations. The neutral line configurations and magnetotail flows modify the amounts of the adiabatic and non-adiabatic acceleration that electrons undergo. This causes marked differences in the temperature anisotropy for different substorms. In particular, one substorm event analyzed shows T⊥ > T∥ (T⊥ / T ∥ ≈ 2.3)at -10RE while another shows T ∥ > T⊥ (T ⊥ / T∥ ≈ 0.8), where T⊥ and T∥ (second order moments of the distribution functions) are defined with respect to the magnetic field. These differences determine the subsequent acceleration of the energetic electrons in the inner magnetosphere. Whether the acceleration is mostly parallel or perpendicular is determined by the location of dayside reconnection. A 2.5D implicit Particle-in-Cell simulation was used to study the effects produced by oxygen ions on magnetotail reconnection, and the associated acceleration of protons and oxygen ions. The inertia of oxygen ions reduces the reconnection rate and slows down the earthward propagation of dipolarization fronts (DFs). An ambipolar electric field in the oxygen diffusion region contributes to the smaller reconnection rate. This change in the reconnection rate affects the ion acceleration. In particular 67% of protons and 58% of oxygen ions were accelerated in the exhaust (between the X-point and the DF) in a simulation corresponding to a magnetic storm in which there was a 50% concentration of oxygen ions. In addition, 42% of lobe oxygen-ions are accelerated locally by the Hall electric field, far away from the X-point without entering the exhaust. Protons at the same locations experience Ex B drift. This finding extends previous knowledge that oxygen and

  8. Electron acceleration by surface plasma waves in double metal surface structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. S.; Kumar, Gagan; Singh, D. B.; Tripathi, V. K.

    2007-12-01

    Two parallel metal sheets, separated by a vacuum region, support a surface plasma wave whose amplitude is maximum on the two parallel interfaces and minimum in the middle. This mode can be excited by a laser using a glass prism. An electron beam launched into the middle region experiences a longitudinal ponderomotive force due to the surface plasma wave and gets accelerated to velocities of the order of phase velocity of the surface wave. The scheme is viable to achieve beams of tens of keV energy. In the case of a surface plasma wave excited on a single metal-vacuum interface, the field gradient normal to the interface pushes the electrons away from the high field region, limiting the acceleration process. The acceleration energy thus achieved is in agreement with the experimental observations.

  9. Acceleration and Storage of Energetic Electrons in Magnetic Loops in the Course of Electric Current Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, V. V.; Stepanov, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    A mechanism of electron acceleration and storage of energetic particles in solar and stellar coronal magnetic loops, based on oscillations of the electric current, is considered. The magnetic loop is presented as an electric circuit with the electric current generated by convective motions in the photosphere. Eigenoscillations of the electric current in a loop induce an electric field directed along the loop axis. It is shown that the sudden reductions that occur in the course of type IV continuum and pulsating type III observed in various frequency bands (25 - 180 MHz, 110 - 600 MHz, 0.7 - 3.0 GHz) in solar flares provide evidence for acceleration and storage of the energetic electrons in coronal magnetic loops. We estimate the energization rate and the energy of accelerated electrons and present examples of the storage of energetic electrons in loops in the course of flares on the Sun or on ultracool stars. We also discuss the efficiency of the suggested mechanism as compared with the electron acceleration during the five-minute photospheric oscillations and with the acceleration driven by the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

  10. Energetics of small electron acceleration episodes in the solar corona from radio noise storm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Tomin; Subramanian, Prasad

    2018-05-01

    Observations of radio noise storms can act as sensitive probes of nonthermal electrons produced in small acceleration events in the solar corona. We use data from noise storm episodes observed jointly by the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) and the Nancay Radioheliograph (NRH) to study characteristics of the nonthermal electrons involved in the emission. We find that the electrons carry 1021 to 1024 erg/s, and that the energy contained in the electrons producing a representative noise storm burst ranges from 1020 to 1023 ergs. These results are a direct probe of the energetics involved in ubiquitous, small-scale electron acceleration episodes in the corona, and could be relevant to a nanoflare-like scenario for coronal heating.

  11. Saul Perlmutter, Distant Supernovae, Dark Energy, and the Accelerating

    Science.gov Websites

    , Distant Supernovae, Dark Energy, and the Accelerating Expansion of the Universe Resources with Additional nature of dark energy.'1 'The accelerating expansion means that the universe could expand forever until , in the distant future, it is cold and dark. The teams' discovery led to speculation that there is a

  12. Electron Acceleration in the Magnetotail during Substorms in Semi-Global PIC Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, R. L.; Schriver, D.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.; El-Alaoui, M.; Lapenta, G.; Walker, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the acceleration of electrons during a substorm reconnection event we have applied a semi-global particle in cell (PIC) simulation box embedded within a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of Earth's magnetosphere for an event on February 15, 2008. The MHD results were used to populate the PIC simulation and to set the boundary conditions. In the magnetotail we found that a series of dipolarizations formed due to unsteady reconnection. We also found that the most energetic electrons were in the separatrices far from the x-point. We attributed the acceleration to a streaming instability in the separatrices. To further understand electron acceleration we have applied the large scale kinetic (LSK) technique in which tens- to hundreds- of thousands of electrons are followed within the electric and magnetic fields from the PIC simulations., Electrons are already included in the PIC simulation, but the LSK simulations will allow selected individual particles to be followed and analyzed. Initially we performed electron LSK calculations in a two dimensional version of the PIC simulation in which electrons were allowed to move in the ignorable cross tail direction. These LSK calculations showed that electrons gained energy primarily for two reasons: (1) acceleration by the average dawn to dusk electric field and (2) acceleration by intense but localized electric field structures. The overall electron transport was more dawnward than duskward due to the average electric field. At the same time electrons typically moved away from the reconnection region in both the earthward and tailward directions. Superimposed on this large-scale transport was motion in both the dusk and dawn directions across the tail because of the electric field structures, which were particularly intense in the separatrices. LSK calculations are now being carried out by using the full three-dimensional magnetic and electric fields from the PIC simulation and these results will be

  13. Electron beam accelerator: A new tool for environmental preservation in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Siti Aiasah; Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Othman, Mohd Nahar

    2012-09-01

    Electron beam accelerators are widely used for industrial applications such as surface curing, crosslinking of wires and cables and sterilization/ decontamination of pharmaceutical products. The energy of the electron beam determines the type of applications. This is due to the penetration power of the electron that is limited by the energy. In the last decade, more work has been carried out to utilize the energetic electron for remediation of environmental pollution. For this purposes, 1 MeV electron beam accelerator is sufficient to treat wastewater from textile industry and flue gases from fossil fuel combustions. In Nuclear Malaysia, a variable energy Cockroft Walton type accelerator has been utilized to initiate investigations in these two areas. An electron beam flue gas treatment test rig was built to treat emission from diesel combustion, where it was found that using EB parameters of 1MeV and 12mA can successfully remove at least 80% of nitric oxide in the emission. Wastewater from textile industries was treated using combination of biological treatment and EB. The initial findings indicated that the quality of water had improved based on the CODCr, BOD5 indicators.

  14. STUDIES OF A FREE ELECTRON LASER DRIVEN BY A LASER-PLASMA ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, A.; Schroeder, C.; Fawley, W.

    A free electron laser (FEL) uses an undulator, a set of alternating magnets producing a periodic magnetic fi eld, to stimulate emission of coherent radiation from a relativistic electron beam. The Lasers, Optical Accelerator Systems Integrated Studies (LOASIS) group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) will use an innovative laserplasma wakefi eld accelerator to produce an electron beam to drive a proposed FEL. In order to optimize the FEL performance, the dependence on electron beam and undulator parameters must be understood. Numerical modeling of the FEL using the simulation code GINGER predicts the experimental results for given input parameters. Amongmore » the parameters studied were electron beam energy spread, emittance, and mismatch with the undulator focusing. Vacuum-chamber wakefi elds were also simulated to study their effect on FEL performance. Energy spread was found to be the most infl uential factor, with output FEL radiation power sharply decreasing for relative energy spreads greater than 0.33%. Vacuum chamber wakefi elds and beam mismatch had little effect on the simulated LOASIS FEL at the currents considered. This study concludes that continued improvement of the laser-plasma wakefi eld accelerator electron beam will allow the LOASIS FEL to operate in an optimal regime, producing high-quality XUV and x-ray pulses.« less

  15. Finite element analyses of a linear-accelerator electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, M., E-mail: muniqbal.chep@pu.edu.pk, E-mail: muniqbal@ihep.ac.cn; Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; Wasy, A.

    Thermo-structural analyses of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII) linear-accelerator, electron gun, were performed for the gun operating with the cathode at 1000 °C. The gun was modeled in computer aided three-dimensional interactive application for finite element analyses through ANSYS workbench. This was followed by simulations using the SLAC electron beam trajectory program EGUN for beam optics analyses. The simulations were compared with experimental results of the assembly to verify its beam parameters under the same boundary conditions. Simulation and test results were found to be in good agreement and hence confirmed the design parameters under the defined operating temperature. The gunmore » is operating continuously since commissioning without any thermal induced failures for the BEPCII linear accelerator.« less

  16. Finite element analyses of a linear-accelerator electron gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M.; Wasy, A.; Islam, G. U.; Zhou, Z.

    2014-02-01

    Thermo-structural analyses of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII) linear-accelerator, electron gun, were performed for the gun operating with the cathode at 1000 °C. The gun was modeled in computer aided three-dimensional interactive application for finite element analyses through ANSYS workbench. This was followed by simulations using the SLAC electron beam trajectory program EGUN for beam optics analyses. The simulations were compared with experimental results of the assembly to verify its beam parameters under the same boundary conditions. Simulation and test results were found to be in good agreement and hence confirmed the design parameters under the defined operating temperature. The gun is operating continuously since commissioning without any thermal induced failures for the BEPCII linear accelerator.

  17. Finite element analyses of a linear-accelerator electron gun.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Wasy, A; Islam, G U; Zhou, Z

    2014-02-01

    Thermo-structural analyses of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII) linear-accelerator, electron gun, were performed for the gun operating with the cathode at 1000 °C. The gun was modeled in computer aided three-dimensional interactive application for finite element analyses through ANSYS workbench. This was followed by simulations using the SLAC electron beam trajectory program EGUN for beam optics analyses. The simulations were compared with experimental results of the assembly to verify its beam parameters under the same boundary conditions. Simulation and test results were found to be in good agreement and hence confirmed the design parameters under the defined operating temperature. The gun is operating continuously since commissioning without any thermal induced failures for the BEPCII linear accelerator.

  18. Acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons during small geomagnetic storms.

    PubMed

    Anderson, B R; Millan, R M; Reeves, G D; Friedel, R H W

    2015-12-16

    Past studies of radiation belt relativistic electrons have favored active storm time periods, while the effects of small geomagnetic storms ( D s t  > -50 nT) have not been statistically characterized. In this timely study, given the current weak solar cycle, we identify 342 small storms from 1989 through 2000 and quantify the corresponding change in relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit. Surprisingly, small storms can be equally as effective as large storms at enhancing and depleting fluxes. Slight differences exist, as small storms are 10% less likely to result in flux enhancement and 10% more likely to result in flux depletion than large storms. Nevertheless, it is clear that neither acceleration nor loss mechanisms scale with storm drivers as would be expected. Small geomagnetic storms play a significant role in radiation belt relativistic electron dynamics and provide opportunities to gain new insights into the complex balance of acceleration and loss processes.

  19. Acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons during small geomagnetic storms

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, B. R.; Millan, R. M.; Reeves, G. D.; ...

    2015-12-02

    We report that past studies of radiation belt relativistic electrons have favored active storm time periods, while the effects of small geomagnetic storms (Dst >₋50 nT) have not been statistically characterized. In this timely study, given the current weak solar cycle, we identify 342 small storms from 1989 through 2000 and quantify the corresponding change in relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit. Surprisingly, small storms can be equally as effective as large storms at enhancing and depleting fluxes. Slight differences exist, as small storms are 10% less likely to result in flux enhancement and 10% more likely to result inmore » flux depletion than large storms. Nevertheless, it is clear that neither acceleration nor loss mechanisms scale with storm drivers as would be expected. Small geomagnetic storms play a significant role in radiation belt relativistic electron dynamics and provide opportunities to gain new insights into the complex balance of acceleration and loss processes.« less

  20. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Stirling, William L.

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

  1. Acceleration of electrons and ions by strong lower-hybrid turbulence in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spicer, D. S.; Bingham, R.; Su, J. J.; Shapiro, V. D.; Shevchenko, V.; Ma, S.; Dawson, J. M.; Mcclements, K. G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in solar flare theory is how to explain the 10-20 keV and greater hard x-ray emissions by a thick target bremsstrahlung model. The model requires the acceleration mechanism to accelerate approximately 10(exp 35) electrons sec(exp -l) with comparable energies, without producing a large return current which persists for long time scales after the beam ceases to exist due to Lenz's law, thereby, producing a self-magnetic field of order a few mega-Gauss. In this paper, we investigate particle acceleration resulting from the relaxation of unstable ion ring distributions, producing strong wave activity at the lower hybrid frequency. It is shown that strong lower hybrid wave turbulence collapses in configuration space producing density cavities containing intense electrostatic lower hybrid wave activity. The collapse of these intense nonlinear wave packets saturate by particle acceleration producing energetic electron and ion tails. There are several mechanisms whereby unstable ion distributions could be formed in the solar atmosphere, including reflection at perpendicular shocks, tearing modes, and loss cone depletion. Numerical simulations of ion ring relaxation processes, obtained using a 2 1/2-D fully electromagnetic, relativistic particle in cell code are discussed. We apply the results to the problem of explaining energetic particle production in solar flares. The results show the simultaneous acceleration of both electrons and ions to very high energies: electrons are accelerated to energies in the range 10-500 keV, while ions are accelerated to energies of the order of MeVs, giving rise to x-ray emission and gamma-ray emission respectively. Our simulations also show wave generation at the electron cyclotron frequency. We suggest that these waves are the solar millisecond radio spikes. The strong turbulence collapse process leads to a highly filamented plasma producing many localized regions for particle acceleration and resulting in

  2. Controlled Electron Injection into Plasma Accelerators and SpaceCharge Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Fubiani, Gwenael G.J.

    2005-09-01

    Plasma based accelerators are capable of producing electron sources which are ultra-compact (a few microns) and high energies (up to hundreds of MeVs) in much shorter distances than conventional accelerators. This is due to the large longitudinal electric field that can be excited without the limitation of breakdown as in RF structures.The characteristic scale length of the accelerating field is the plasma wavelength and for typical densities ranging from 10 18 - 10 19 cm -3, the accelerating fields and scale length can hence be on the order of 10-100GV/m and 10-40 μm, respectively. The production of quasimonoenergetic beams wasmore » recently obtained in a regime relying on self-trapping of background plasma electrons, using a single laser pulse for wakefield generation. In this dissertation, we study the controlled injection via the beating of two lasers (the pump laser pulse creating the plasma wave and a second beam being propagated in opposite direction) which induce a localized injection of background plasma electrons. The aim of this dissertation is to describe in detail the physics of optical injection using two lasers, the characteristics of the electron beams produced (the micrometer scale plasma wavelength can result in femtosecond and even attosecond bunches) as well as a concise estimate of the effects of space charge on the dynamics of an ultra-dense electron bunch with a large energy spread.« less

  3. Electron Acceleration from the Interaction of VULCAN 100TW Laser with Au Foils and its Dependence on Laser Polarisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, S. R.; Bellei, C.; Kneip, S.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Palmer, C.; Willingale, L.; Dangor, A. E.; Najmudin, Z.; Clarke, R. J.; Heathcote, R.; Henig, A.; Schreiber, J.; Saevert, A.; Kaluza, M.

    2008-11-01

    Electrons as well as ions can be accelerated to high energies (MeV) by high intensity laser interactions with solid targets. An overview of an experiment on the Vulcan laser (pulse length cτ˜150μm, energy on target ˜60 J), will be presented. In this experiment electron acceleration from thick overdense plasmas is investigated by conducting thickness scans using Au foil targets ranging from 10 to 100 μm. The electron spectra, of the most energetic electrons produced in the interaction, are measured along the laser direction and extend up to 40MeV. Surprisingly the electron acceleration depends on target thickness. Simultaneously rear surface proton beam profiles show a dependence of target thickness. Both effects are attributed to electron recirculation. In addition the effects of polarisation was investigated. A decrease in number and effective temperature of energetic electrons is observed for circular polarisation as compared to linear polarisation.

  4. Research and Development of a High Power-Laser Driven Electron-Accelerator Suitable for Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-12

    autocorrelator to measure the temporal duration, an optical imaging system to correct for phase front tilt and a FROG device to measure and optimize the... Phase II Task Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 D.1 Module I: High-Energy Electron Accelerator . . . . . . 4 D.2 Module II: High-Energy...During Phase I of the HRS program, the team from the University of Ne- braska, Lincoln (UNL) made use of the unique capabilities of their high-power

  5. Innovative single-shot diagnostics for electrons from laser wakefield acceleration at FLAME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisesto, F. G.; Anania, M. P.; Cianchi, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Curcio, A.; Ferrario, M.; Pompili, R.; Zigler, A.

    2017-07-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (> 100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeters. Here we present all the plasma related activities currently underway at SPARC_LAB exploiting the high power laser FLAME. In particular, we will give an overview of the single shot diagnostics employed: Electro Optic Sampling (EOS) for temporal measurement and Optical Transition Radiation (OTR) for an innovative one shot emittance measurements. In detail, the EOS technique has been employed to measure for the first time the longitudinal profile of electric field of fast electrons escaping from a solid target, driving the ions and protons acceleration, and to study the impact of using different target shapes. Moreover, a novel scheme for one shot emittance measurements based on OTR, developed and tested at SPARC_LAB LINAC, used in an experiment on electrons from laser wakefield acceleration still undergoing, will be shown.

  6. Construction of a 1 MeV Electron Accelerator for High Precision Beta Decay Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longfellow, Brenden

    2014-09-01

    Beta decay energy calibration for detectors is typically established using conversion sources. However, the calibration points from conversion sources are not evenly distributed over the beta energy spectrum and the foil backing of the conversion sources produces perturbations in the calibration spectrum. To improve this, an external, tunable electron beam coupled by a magnetic field can be used to calibrate the detector. The 1 MeV electron accelerator in development at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) utilizes a pelletron charging system. The electron gun shoots 104 electrons per second with an energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV and is pulsed at a 10 kHz rate with a few ns width. The magnetic field in the spectrometer is 1 T and guiding fields of 0.01 to 0.05 T for the electron gun are used to produce a range of pitch angles. This accelerator can be used to calibrate detectors evenly over its energy range and determine the detector response over a range of pitch angles. Beta decay energy calibration for detectors is typically established using conversion sources. However, the calibration points from conversion sources are not evenly distributed over the beta energy spectrum and the foil backing of the conversion sources produces perturbations in the calibration spectrum. To improve this, an external, tunable electron beam coupled by a magnetic field can be used to calibrate the detector. The 1 MeV electron accelerator in development at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) utilizes a pelletron charging system. The electron gun shoots 104 electrons per second with an energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV and is pulsed at a 10 kHz rate with a few ns width. The magnetic field in the spectrometer is 1 T and guiding fields of 0.01 to 0.05 T for the electron gun are used to produce a range of pitch angles. This accelerator can be used to calibrate detectors evenly over its energy range and determine the detector response over a range of pitch angles

  7. Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons in Solid Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, Drew Pitney

    2013-01-01

    The cone-guided fast ignition approach to Inertial Con nement Fusion requires laser-accelerated relativistic electrons to deposit kilojoules of energy within an imploded fuel core to initiate fusion burn. One obstacle to coupling electron energy into the core is the ablation of material, known as preplasma, by laser energy proceeding nanoseconds prior to the main pulse. This causes the laser-absorption surface to be pushed back hundreds of microns from the initial target surface; thus increasing the distance that electrons must travel to reach the imploded core. Previous experiments have shown an order of magnitude decrease in coupling into surrogate targets whenmore » intentionally increasing the amount of preplasma. Additionally, for electrons to deposit energy within the core, they should have kinetic energies on the order of a few MeV, as less energetic electrons will be stopped prior to the core and more energetic electrons will pass through the core without depositing much energy. Thus a quantitative understanding of the electron energy spectrum and how it responds to varied laser parameters is paramount for fast ignition. For the rst time, this dissertation quantitatively investigates the acceleration of electrons using an ultra-high-contrast laser. Ultra-high-contrast lasers reduce the laser energy that reaches the target prior to the main pulse; drastically reducing the amount of preplasma. Experiments were performed in a cone-wire geometry relevant to fast ignition. These experiments irradiated the inner-tip of a Au cone with the laser and observed electrons that passed through a Cu wire attached to the outer-tip of the cone. The total emission of K x-rays is used as a diagnostic to infer the electron energy coupled into the wire. Imaging the x-ray emission allowed an e ective path-length of electrons within the wire to be determined, which constrained the electron energy spectrum. Experiments were carried out on the ultra-high-contrast Trident laser at

  8. Accelerating Quinoline Biodegradation and Oxidation with Endogenous Electron Donors.

    PubMed

    Bai, Qi; Yang, Lihui; Li, Rongjie; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Yongming; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2015-10-06

    Quinoline, a recalcitrant heterocyclic compound, is biodegraded by a series of reactions that begin with mono-oxygenations, which require an intracellular electron donor. Photolysis of quinoline can generate readily biodegradable products, such as oxalate, whose bio-oxidation can generate endogenous electron donors that ought to accelerate quinoline biodegradation and, ultimately, mineralization. To test this hypothesis, we compared three protocols for the biodegradation of quinoline: direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis of 1 h (P1h+B) or 2 h (P2h+B), and biodegradation by adding oxalate commensurate to the amount generated from photolysis of 1 h (O1+B) or 2 h (O2+B). The experimental results show that P1h+B and P2h+B accelerated quinoline biodegradation by 19% and 50%, respectively, compared to B. Protocols O1+B and O2+B also gave 19% and 50% increases, respectively. During quinoline biodegradation, its first intermediate, 2-hydroxyquinoline, accumulated gradually in parallel to quinoline loss but declined once quinoline was depleted. Mono-oxygenation of 2-hydroxyquinoline competed with mono-oxygenation of quinoline, but the inhibition was relieved when extra electrons donors were added from oxalate, whether formed by UV photolysis or added exogenously. Rapid oxalate oxidation stimulated both mono-oxygenations, which accelerated the overall quinoline oxidation that provided the bulk of the electron donor.

  9. Non-thermal particle acceleration in collisionless relativistic electron-proton reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.; Cerutti, B.; Nalewajko, K.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic reconnection in relativistic collisionless plasmas can accelerate particles and power high-energy emission in various astrophysical systems. Whereas most previous studies focused on relativistic reconnection in pair plasmas, less attention has been paid to electron-ion plasma reconnection, expected in black hole accretion flows and relativistic jets. We report a comprehensive particle-in-cell numerical investigation of reconnection in an electron-ion plasma, spanning a wide range of ambient ion magnetizations σi, from the semirelativistic regime (ultrarelativistic electrons but non-relativistic ions, 10-3 ≪ σi ≪ 1) to the fully relativistic regime (both species are ultrarelativistic, σi ≫ 1). We investigate how the reconnection rate, electron and ion plasma flows, electric and magnetic field structures, electron/ion energy partitioning, and non-thermal particle acceleration depend on σi. Our key findings are: (1) the reconnection rate is about 0.1 of the Alfvénic rate across all regimes; (2) electrons can form concentrated moderately relativistic outflows even in the semirelativistic, small-σi regime; (3) while the released magnetic energy is partitioned equally between electrons and ions in the ultrarelativistic limit, the electron energy fraction declines gradually with decreased σi and asymptotes to about 0.25 in the semirelativistic regime; and (4) reconnection leads to efficient non-thermal electron acceleration with a σi-dependent power-law index, p(σ _i)˜eq const+0.7σ _i^{-1/2}. These findings are important for understanding black hole systems and lend support to semirelativistic reconnection models for powering non-thermal emission in blazar jets, offering a natural explanation for the spectral indices observed in these systems.

  10. Ultra high energy electrons powered by pulsar rotation.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Osmanov, Zaza; Chkheidze, Nino

    2013-01-01

    A new mechanism of particle acceleration, driven by the rotational slow down of the Crab pulsar, is explored. The rotation, through the time dependent centrifugal force, can efficiently excite unstable Langmuir waves in the electron-positron (hereafter e(±)) plasma of the star magnetosphere. These waves, then, Landau damp on electrons accelerating them in the process. The net transfer of energy is optimal when the wave growth and the Landau damping times are comparable and are both very short compared to the star rotation time. We show, by detailed calculations, that these are precisely the conditions for the parameters of the Crab pulsar. This highly efficient route for energy transfer allows the electrons in the primary beam to be catapulted to multiple TeV (~ 100 TeV) and even PeV energy domain. It is expected that the proposed mechanism may, unravel the puzzle of the origin of ultra high energy cosmic ray electrons.

  11. Properties of the electron cloud in a high-energy positron and electron storage ring

    DOE PAGES

    Harkay, K. C.; Rosenberg, R. A.

    2003-03-20

    Low-energy, background electrons are ubiquitous in high-energy particle accelerators. Under certain conditions, interactions between this electron cloud and the high-energy beam can give rise to numerous effects that can seriously degrade the accelerator performance. These effects range from vacuum degradation to collective beam instabilities and emittance blowup. Although electron-cloud effects were first observed two decades ago in a few proton storage rings, they have in recent years been widely observed and intensely studied in positron and proton rings. Electron-cloud diagnostics developed at the Advanced Photon Source enabled for the first time detailed, direct characterization of the electron-cloud properties in amore » positron and electron storage ring. From in situ measurements of the electron flux and energy distribution at the vacuum chamber wall, electron-cloud production mechanisms and details of the beam-cloud interaction can be inferred. A significant longitudinal variation of the electron cloud is also observed, due primarily to geometrical details of the vacuum chamber. Furthermore, such experimental data can be used to provide realistic limits on key input parameters in modeling efforts, leading ultimately to greater confidence in predicting electron-cloud effects in future accelerators.« less

  12. Energetic electron acceleration and injection during dipolarization events in Mercury's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, R. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; Baker, D. N.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    MESSENGER frequently observed bursts of energetic electrons (>10 keV to 300 keV) within Mercury's miniature terrestrial-like magnetosphere. These bursts are observed most often in the post-midnight sector near the magnetic equator, suggestive of the acceleration and injection of electrons from the magnetotail and their eastward drift about the planet. We use the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer's high-time resolution (10 ms) energetic electron measurements to examine the relationship between energetic electron injections and magnetospheric dynamics in Mercury's magnetotail. We find that these electron injections were observed most frequently in association with magnetic field dipolarization. Between March 2013 and April 2015, we identified 2976 magnetotail electron events of which 538 were coincident with the leading edge of a dipolarization event. These dipolarization fronts were detected on the basis of their rapid ( 2 s) increase in the northward component of the tail magnetic field (ΔBz 30 nT), which typically persists for 10 s. We find electrons experience brief, yet intense, betatron and Fermi acceleration during these dipolarization events, reaching energies 160 keV and contributing to nightside precipitation. Dipolarization events, and subsequently, the electron acceleration associated with them, display a strong dawn-dusk asymmetry, suggestive of a post-midnight maximum in magnetotail reconnection.

  13. Probing SEP Acceleration Processes With Near-relativistic Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haggerty, Dennis K.; Roelof, Edmond C.

    2009-11-01

    Processes in the solar corona are prodigious accelerators of near-relativistic electrons. Only a small fraction of these electrons escape the low corona, yet they are by far the most abundant species observed in Solar Energetic Particle events. These beam-like energetic electron events are sometimes time-associated with coronal mass ejections from the western solar hemisphere. However, a significant number of events are observed without any apparent association with a transient event. The relationship between solar energetic particle events, coronal mass ejections, and near-relativistic electron events are better ordered when we classify the intensity time profiles during the duration of the beam-like anisotropies into three broad categories: 1) Spikes (rapid and equal rise and decay) 2) Pulses (rapid rise, slower decay) and 3) Ramps (rapid rise followed by a plateau). We report on the results of a study that is based on our catalog (covering nearly the complete Solar Cycle 23) of 216 near-relativistic electron events and their association with: solar electromagnetic emissions, shocks driven by coronal mass ejections, models of the coronal magnetic fields and energetic protons. We conclude that electron events with time-intensity profiles of Spikes and Pulses are associated with explosive events in the low corona while events with time-intensity profiles of Ramps are associated with the injection/acceleration process of the CME driven shock.

  14. Characteristics of GeV Electron Bunches Accelerated by Intense Lasers in Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. X.; Ho, Y. K.; Kong, Q.; Yuan, X. Q.; Cao, N.; Feng, L.

    This paper studies the characteristics of GeV electron bunches driven by ultra-intense lasers in vacuum based on the mechanism of capture and violent acceleration scenario [CAS, see, e.g. J. X. Wang et al., Phys. Rev. E58, 6575 (1998)], which shows an interesting prospect of becoming a new principle of laser-driven accelerators. It has been found that the accelerated GeV electron bunch is a macro-pulse composed of a lot of micro-pulses, which is analogous to the structure of the bunches produced by conventional linacs. The macro-pulse corresponds to the duration of the laser pulse while the micro-pulse corresponds to the periodicity of the laser wave. Therefore, provided that the incoming electron bunch with comparable sizes as that of the laser pulse synchronously impinges on the laser pulse, the total fraction of electrons captured and accelerated to GeV energy can reach more than 20%. These results demonstrate that the mechanisms of CAS is a relatively effective accelerator mechanism.

  15. Electron Acceleration by Beating of Two Intense Cross-Focused Hollow Gaussian Laser Beams in Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Saleh T.; Gauniyal, Rakhi; Ahmad, Nafis; Rawat, Priyanka; Purohit, Gunjan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents propagation of two cross-focused intense hollow Gaussian laser beams (HGBs) in collisionless plasma and its effect on the generation of electron plasma wave (EPW) and electron acceleration process, when relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities are simultaneously operative. Nonlinear differential equations have been set up for beamwidth of laser beams, power of generated EPW, and energy gain by electrons using WKB and paraxial approximations. Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the effect of typical laser-plasma parameters on the focusing of laser beams in plasmas and further its effect on power of excited EPW and acceleration of electrons. It is observed that focusing of two laser beams in plasma increases for higher order of hollow Gaussian beams, which significantly enhanced the power of generated EPW and energy gain. The amplitude of EPW and energy gain by electrons is found to enhance with an increase in the intensity of laser beams and plasma density. This study will be useful to plasma beat wave accelerator and in other applications requiring multiple laser beams. Supported by United Arab Emirates University for Financial under Grant No. UPAR (2014)-31S164

  16. Electron beam accelerator: A new tool for environmental preservation in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Siti Aiasah; Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Othman, Mohd Nahar

    2012-09-26

    Electron beam accelerators are widely used for industrial applications such as surface curing, crosslinking of wires and cables and sterilization/ decontamination of pharmaceutical products. The energy of the electron beam determines the type of applications. This is due to the penetration power of the electron that is limited by the energy. In the last decade, more work has been carried out to utilize the energetic electron for remediation of environmental pollution. For this purposes, 1 MeV electron beam accelerator is sufficient to treat wastewater from textile industry and flue gases from fossil fuel combustions. In Nuclear Malaysia, a variable energymore » Cockroft Walton type accelerator has been utilized to initiate investigations in these two areas. An electron beam flue gas treatment test rig was built to treat emission from diesel combustion, where it was found that using EB parameters of 1MeV and 12mA can successfully remove at least 80% of nitric oxide in the emission. Wastewater from textile industries was treated using combination of biological treatment and EB. The initial findings indicated that the quality of water had improved based on the COD{sub Cr}, BOD{sub 5} indicators.« less

  17. SEE induced in SRAM operating in a superconducting electron linear accelerator environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, D.; Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Grecki, M.; Simrock, Stefan

    2005-02-01

    Strong fields of bremsstrahlung photons and photoneutrons are produced during the operation of high-energy electron linacs. Therefore, a mixed gamma and neutron radiation field dominates the accelerators environment. The gamma radiation induced Total Ionizing Dose (TID) effect manifests the long-term deterioration of the electronic devices operating in accelerator environment. On the other hand, the neutron radiation is responsible for Single Event Effects (SEE) and may cause a temporal loss of functionality of electronic systems. This phenomenon is known as Single Event Upset (SEU). The neutron dose (KERMA) was used to scale the neutron induced SEU in the SRAM chips. Hence, in order to estimate the neutron KERMA conversion factor for Silicon (Si), dedicated calibration experiments using an Americium-Beryllium (241Am/Be) neutron standard source was carried out. Single Event Upset (SEU) influences the short-term operation of SRAM compared to the gamma induced TID effect. We are at present investigating the feasibility of an SRAM based real-time beam-loss monitor for high-energy accelerators utilizing the SEU caused by fast neutrons. This paper highlights the effects of gamma and neutron radiations on Static Random Access Memory (SRAM), placed at selected locations near the Superconducting Linear Accelerator driving the Vacuum UV Free Electron Laser (VUVFEL) of DESY.

  18. Using field-particle correlations to study auroral electron acceleration in the LAPD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, J. W. R.; Howes, G. G.; Skiff, F.; Kletzing, C. A.; Carter, T. A.; Vincena, S.; Dorfman, S.

    2017-10-01

    Resonant nonlinear Alfvén wave-particle interactions are believed to contribute to the acceleration of auroral electrons. Experiments in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA have been performed with the goal of providing the first direct measurement of this nonlinear process. Recent progress includes a measurement of linear fluctuations of the electron distribution function associated with the production of inertial Alfvén waves in the LAPD. These linear measurements have been analyzed using the field-particle correlation technique to study the nonlinear transfer of energy between the Alfvén wave electric fields and the electron distribution function. Results of this analysis indicate collisions alter the resonant signature of the field-particle correlation, and implications for resonant Alfvénic electron acceleration in the LAPD are considered. This work was supported by NSF, DOE, and NASA.

  19. Electron acceleration and radiation signatures in loop coronal transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Gergely, T. E.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that in loop coronal transients an erupting loop moves away from the solar surface, with a velocity exceeding the local Alfven speed, pushing against the overlying magnetic fields and driving a shock in the front of the moving part of the loop. Lower hybrid waves are excited at the shock front and propagate radially toward the center of the loop with phase velocity along the magnetic field that exceeds the thermal velocity. The lower hybrid waves stochastically accelerate the tail of the electron distribution inside the loop. The manner in which the accelerated electrons are trapped in the moving loop are discussed, and their radiation signature is estimated. It is suggested that plasma radiation can explain the power observed in stationary and moving type IV bursts.

  20. Intense γ ray generated by refocusing laser pulse on wakefield accelerated electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Wang, Jinguang; Li, Yifei; Zhu, Changqing; Li, Minghua; He, Yuhang; Li, Dazhang; Wang, Weimin; Chen, Liming

    2017-09-01

    Ultrafast x/γ ray emission from the combination of laser wake-field acceleration and plasma mirror has been investigated as a promising Thomson scattering source. However, the photon energy and yield of radiation are limited to the intensity of reflected laser pulses. We use the 2D particle in cell simulation to demonstrate that a 75TW driven laser pulse can be refocused on the accelerated electron bunches through a hemispherical plasma mirror with a small f number of 0.25. The energetic electrons with the maximum energy about 350 MeV collide with the reflected laser pulse of a0 = 3.82 at the focal spot, producing high order multi-photon Thomson scattering, and resulting in the scattering spectrum which extends up to 21.2 MeV. Such a high energy γ ray source could be applied to photonuclear reaction and materials science.

  1. Strong field acceleration and steering of ultrafast electron pulses from a sharp metallic nanotip.

    PubMed

    Park, Doo Jae; Piglosiewicz, Bjoern; Schmidt, Slawa; Kollmann, Heiko; Mascheck, Manfred; Lienau, Christoph

    2012-12-14

    We report a strong, laser-field induced modification of the propagation direction of ultrashort electron pulses emitted from nanometer-sized gold tapers. Angle-resolved kinetic energy spectra of electrons emitted from such tips are recorded using ultrafast near-infrared light pulses of variable wavelength and intensity for excitation. For sufficiently long wavelengths, we observe a pronounced strong-field acceleration of electrons within the field gradient at the taper apex. We find a distinct narrowing of the emission cone angle of the fastest electrons. We ascribe this to the field-induced steering of subcycle electrons as opposed to the diverging emission of quiver electrons. Our findings are corroborated by simulations based on a modified Simpleman model incorporating the curved, vectorial field gradient in the vicinity of the tip. Our results indicate new pathways for designing highly directional nanometer-sized ultrafast electron sources.

  2. Electron acceleration by parametrically excited Langmuir waves. [in ionospheric modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejer, J. A.; Graham, K. N.

    1974-01-01

    Simple physical arguments are used to estimate the downward-going energetic electron flux due to parametrically excited Langmuir waves in ionospheric modification experiments. The acceleration mechanism is a single velocity reversal as seen in the frame of the Langmuir wave. The flux is sufficient to produce the observed ionospheric airglow if focusing-type instabilities are invoked to produce moderate local enhancements of the pump field.

  3. NOTE: Blood irradiation with accelerator produced electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butson, M. J.; Cheung, T.; Yu, P. K. N.; Stokes, M. J.

    2000-11-01

    Blood and blood products are irradiated with gamma rays to reduce the risk of graft versus host disease (GVHD). A simple technique using electron beams produced by a medical linear accelerator has been studied to evaluate irradiation of blood and blood products. Variations in applied doses for a single field 20 MeV electron beam are measured in a phantom study. Doses have been verified with ionization chambers and commercial diode detectors. Results show that the blood product volume can be given a relatively homogeneous dose to within 6% using 20 MeV electrons without the need to rotate the blood bags or the beam entry point. The irradiation process takes approximately 6.5 minutes for 30 Gy applied dose to complete as opposed to 12 minutes for a dual field x-ray field irradiation at our centre. Electron beams can be used to satisfactorily irradiate blood and blood products in a minimal amount of time.

  4. Observation of 690 MV m -1 Electron Accelerating Gradient with a Laser-Driven Dielectric Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, K. P.; Wu, Z.; Cowan, B. M.

    Acceleration of electrons using laser-driven dielectric microstructures is a promising technology for the miniaturization of particle accelerators. In this work, experimental results are presented of relativistic electron acceleration with 690±100 MVm -1 gradient. This is a record-high accelerating gradient for a dielectric microstructure accelerator, nearly doubling the previous record gradient. To reach higher acceleration gradients the present experiment employs 90 fs duration laser pulses.

  5. Separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.

    2015-09-01

    A separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator apparatus and method. The accelerator includes a first linac, a second linac, and a plurality of arcs of differing path lengths, including a plurality of up arcs, a plurality of downgoing arcs, and a full energy arc providing a path independent of the up arcs and downgoing arcs. The up arcs have a path length that is substantially a multiple of the RF wavelength and the full energy arc includes a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer multiple of the RF wavelength. Operation of the accelerator includes accelerating the beam utilizing the linacs and up arcs until the beam is at full energy, at full energy executing a full recirculation to the second linac using a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer of the RF wavelength, and then decelerating the beam using the linacs and downgoing arcs.

  6. Energy boost in laser wakefield accelerators using sharp density transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Döpp, A.; Guillaume, E.; Thaury, C.

    The energy gain in laser wakefield accelerators is limited by dephasing between the driving laser pulse and the highly relativistic electrons in its wake. Since this phase depends on both the driver and the cavity length, the effects of dephasing can be mitigated with appropriate tailoring of the plasma density along propagation. Preceding studies have discussed the prospects of continuous phase-locking in the linear wakefield regime. However, most experiments are performed in the highly non-linear regime and rely on self-guiding of the laser pulse. Due to the complexity of the driver evolution in this regime, it is much more difficultmore » to achieve phase locking. As an alternative, we study the scenario of rapid rephasing in sharp density transitions, as was recently demonstrated experimentally. Starting from a phenomenological model, we deduce expressions for the electron energy gain in such density profiles. The results are in accordance with particle-in-cell simulations, and we present gain estimations for single and multiple stages of rephasing.« less

  7. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, developmentmore » of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.« less

  8. Variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.; Potter, J.M.; Stovall, J.E.

    A linear accelerator system includes a plurality of post-coupled drift-tubes wherein each post coupler is bistably positionable to either of two positions which result in different field distributions. With binary control over a plurality of post couplers, a significant accumlative effect in the resulting field distribution is achieved yielding a variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator.

  9. Variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.; Potter, James M.; Stovall, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A linear accelerator system includes a plurality of post-coupled drift-tubes wherein each post coupler is bistably positionable to either of two positions which result in different field distributions. With binary control over a plurality of post couplers, a significant accumlative effect in the resulting field distribution is achieved yielding a variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator.

  10. Corkscrew Motion of an Electron Beam due to Coherent Variations in Accelerating Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Ekdahl, Carl August

    2016-09-13

    Corkscrew motion results from the interaction of fluctuations of beam electron energy with accidental magnetic dipoles caused by misalignment of the beam transport solenoids. Corkscrew is a serious concern for high-current linear induction accelerators (LIA). A simple scaling law for corkscrew amplitude derived from a theory based on a constant-energy beam coasting through a uniform magnetic field has often been used to assess LIA vulnerability to this effect. We use a beam dynamics code to verify that this scaling also holds for an accelerated beam in a non-uniform magnetic field, as in a real accelerator. Results of simulations with thismore » code are strikingly similar to measurements on one of the LIAs at Los Alamos National Laboratory.« less

  11. Energy research: accelerator builders eager to aid fusion work.

    PubMed

    Metz, W D

    1976-10-15

    Useful fusion energy may be generated by means of heavy ion accelerator driven implosions if the contraints dictated by the physics and economics of thermonuclear targets and reactors can be satisfied.

  12. Study of photon emission by electron capture during solar nuclei acceleration. 2: Delimitation of conditions for charge transfert establishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    The conditions for establishment of charge transfer during acceleration of nuclei up to Fe, for typical conditions of solar flare regions T = 5 x 10 to the 3rd power to 2.5 x 10 to the 8th power degrees K were explored. Results show that such conditions are widely assorted, depending on the acceleration mechanism, the kind of projections and their velocity, the target elements, the source temperature and consequently on the degree of ionization of matter and the local charge state of the accelerated ions. Nevertheless, in spite of that assorted behavior, there are some general tendencies that can be summarized as follows. In atomic H electron capture is systematically established from thermal energies up to high energies, whatever the element and for both acceleration process. For a given element and fixed temperature (T), the probability and energy domain of electron capture and loss with Fermi are higher than with Betatron acceleration. For a given acceleration process the heavier the ion the higher the probability and the wider the energy range for electron capture and loss. For given acceleration mechanism and fixed element the importance and energy domain of capture and loss increase with T: for those reasons, the energy range of charge equilibrium (illustrated with solid lines on the next figs.) is wider with Fermi and increases with temperature and atomic number of projectiles. For the same reasons, electron loss is smaller while the lighter the element, the lower the temperature and the Betatron process, such that there are conditions for which electron loss is not allowed at low energies, but only electron capture is established.

  13. Thermo electronic laser energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, L. K.; Rasor, N. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermo electronic laser energy converter (TELEC) is described and compared to the Waymouth converter and the conventional thermionic converter. The electrical output characteristics and efficiency of TELEC operation are calculated for a variety of design variables. Calculations and results are briefly outlined. It is shown that the TELEC concept can potentially convert 25 to 50 percent of incident laser radiation into electric power at high power densities and high waste heat rejection temperatures.

  14. Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons: A Comparison of Two Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J. C.; Kivelson, M. G.

    2001-12-01

    Observations of relativistic electron fluxes show order of magnitude increases during some geomagnetic storms. Many electron acceleration models have been proposed to explain the flux enhancements but attempts to validate these models have yielded ambiguous results. Here we examine two models of electron acceleration, radial diffusion via enhanced ULF wave activity [Elkington et al.,1999] and acceleration by resonant interaction with whistler waves[Summers,1998; Roth et al.,1999]. Two methods are used to compare observations with features predicted by the models. First, the evolution of phase space density as a function of L during flux enhancement events is evaluated. The phase space density (PSD) is calculated at constant first, second and third adiabatic invariants using data obtained by the CEPPAD-HIST instrument and the MFE instrument onboard the Polar spacecraft. Liouville's theorem states that PSD calculated at constant adiabatic invariants does not change with time unless some mechanism violates one of the invariants. The radial diffusion model predicts that only the flux invariant will be violated during the acceleration process while acceleration by whistler waves violates the first invariant. Therefore, the two models predict a different evolution of the PSD as a function of time and L. Previous examinations of the evolution of PSD have yielded ambiguous results because PSD calculations are highly dependent on the global accuracy of magnetic field models. We examine the PSD versus L profiles for a series of geomagnetic storms and in addition determine how errors in the Tsyganenko 96 field model affect the results by comparing the measured magnetic field to the model magnetic field used in the calculations. Second, the evolution of the relativistic electron pitch angle distributions is evaluated. Previous studies of pitch angle distributions were limited because few spacecraft have the necessary instrumentation and global coverage. The CEPPAD

  15. Holographic dark energy and late cosmic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón, Diego

    2007-06-01

    It has been persuasively argued that the number of effective degrees of freedom of a macroscopic system is proportional to its area rather than to its volume. This entails interesting consequences for cosmology. Here we present a model based on this 'holographic principle' that accounts for the present stage of accelerated expansion of the Universe and significantly alleviates the coincidence problem also for non-spatially flat cosmologies. Likewise, we comment on a recently proposed late transition to a fresh decelerated phase.

  16. Recent Progress in Understanding the Origin and Acceleration of Suprathermal Ions and Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Mihir; Dayeh, Maher

    2017-04-01

    Ions and electrons with energies that lie above (i.e., ˜2 keV) that of the core or bulk solar wind protons and electrons are known as suprathermal particles. Observations over the last decade have shown that such suprathermal particles are an important constituent of the overall seed population that is accelerated in solar and interplanetary events. Despite their increased level of importance, where these populations originate from and how they are accelerated remains highly controversial. This is partly due to the fact that these particles exist in the so-called tail regions of the corresponding solar wind distributions where high temporal and sensitivity measurements are sparse. Moreover, observations comprising long-term averages (between ˜hours to more than a day) have shown conflicting results. For instance, below ˜40 keV/nucleon the ion differential intensities in the solar wind frame appear to exhibit a near-constant power-law spectral slope of ˜1.5, perhaps indicating a universal acceleration mechanism. In contrast, at energies greater than ˜40 keV/nucleon, the ion composition changes with solar activity and the energy spectra are significantly steeper, perhaps indicating that the suprathermal pool of material also comprises lower-energy particle populations accelerated in corotating interaction regions, interplanetary shocks, and solar energetic particle events. This talk discusses recent observations of suprathermal ions and electrons in terms of state-of-the-art theories and models that have been put forward to account for their origins and acceleration.

  17. Economics of food irradiation: Comparison between electron accelerators and cobalt-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. M.

    The Codex Alimentarius Commission's proposed international standard permits three types of ionizing radiation to be used on foods: gamma rays from radioactive cobalt-60 or cesium-137, high energy electrons, and x-rays. The latter two types of radiation are produced by electron accelerators powered by electricity. Unlike gamma rays and x-rays which can penetrate pallet loads of foods, electrons of the allowed energy levels only penetrate 1 to 3 inches when irradiated from one side. Thus, electrons are limited to treating the surface of foods or foods in thin packages or a shallow stream of grains, powders, or liquids. Average costs per kilogram (kg) of irradiating selected foods are similar for the electron accelerator and cobalt-60 irradiators analyzed in this study, but initial investment costs generally vary by U.S. $1 million. Irradiation treatment costs range from 1 to 15 U.S. cents per kg for the foods and annual volumes examined with larger volumes having lower treatment costs. Cobalt-60 is less expensive than electrons when annual volumes are below 23 million kgs. For radiation source requirements above the equivalent of about 1 million curies of cobalt-60, electrons become more economical. The largest differences in costs occur with the papaya irradiators where using x-rays to penetrate the fruit is more expensive than using cobalt-60.

  18. Ultra-low emittance electron beam generation using ionization injection in a plasma beatwave accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Carl; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2017-10-01

    Ultra-low emittance beams can be generated using ionization injection of electrons into a wakefield excited by a plasma beatwave accelerator. This all-optical method of electron beam generation uses three laser pulses of different colors. Two long-wavelength laser pulses, with frequency difference equal to the plasma frequency, resonantly drive a plasma wave without fully ionizing a gas. A short-wavelength injection laser pulse (with a small ponderomotive force and large peak electric field), co-propagating and delayed with respect to the beating long-wavelength lasers, ionizes a fraction of the remaining bound electrons at a trapped wake phase, generating an electron beam that is accelerated in the wakefield. Using the beating of long-wavelength pulses to generate the wakefield enables atomically-bound electrons to remain at low ionization potentials, reducing the required amplitude of the ionization pulse, and, hence, the initial transverse momentum and emittance of the injected electrons. An example is presented using two lines of a CO2 laser to form a plasma beatwave accelerator to drive the wake and a frequency-doubled Ti:Al2O3 laser for ionization injection. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  19. ATTO SECOND ELECTRON BEAMS GENERATION AND CHARACTERIZATION EXPERIMENT AT THE ACCELERATOR TEST FACILITY.

    SciTech Connect

    ZOLOTOREV, M.; ZHOLENTS, A.; WANG, X.J.

    2002-02-01

    We are proposing an Atto-second electron beam generation and diagnostics experiment at the Brookhaven Accelerator Test facility (ATF) using 1 {micro}m Inverse Free Electron Laser (IFEL). The proposed experiment will be carried out by an BNL/LBNL collaboration, and it will be installed at the ATF beam line II. The proposed experiment will employ a one-meter long undulator with 1.8 cm period (VISA undulator). The electron beam energy will be 63 MeV with emittance less than 2 mm-mrad and energy spread less than 0.05%. The ATF photocathode injector driving laser will be used for energy modulation by Inverse Free Electron Lasermore » (IFEL). With 10 MW laser peak power, about 2% total energy modulation is expected. The energy modulated electron beam will be further bunched through either a drift space or a three magnet chicane into atto-second electron bunches. The attosecond electron beam bunches will be analyzed using the coherent transition radiation (CTR).« less

  20. Diverse Electron and Ion Acceleration Characteristics Observed Over Jupiter's Main Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Haggerty, D. K.; Paranicas, C.; Clark, G.; Kollmann, P.; Rymer, A. M.; Peachey, J. M.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S. M.; Adriani, A.; Allegrini, F.; Bagenal, F.; Bonfond, B.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Ebert, R. W.; Gladstone, G. R.; Kurth, W. S.; McComas, D. J.; Ranquist, D.; Valek, P.

    2018-02-01

    Two new Juno-observed particle features of Jupiter's main aurora demonstrate substantial diversity of processes generating Jupiter's mysterious auroral emissions. It was previously speculated that sometimes-observed potential-driven aurora (up to 400 kV) can turn into broadband stochastic acceleration (dominating at Jupiter) by means of instability. Here direct evidence for such a process is revealed with a "mono-energetic" electron inverted-V rising in energy to 200 keV, transforming into a region of broadband acceleration with downward energy fluxes tripling to 3,000 mW/m2, and then transforming back into a mono-energetic structure ramping down from 200 keV. But a second feature of interest observed nearby is unlikely to have operated in the same way. Here a downward accelerated proton inverted-V, with inferred potentials to 300-400 kV, occurred simultaneously with downward accelerated broadband electrons with downward energy fluxes as high as any observed ( 3,000 mW/m2). This latter feature has no known precedent with Earth auroral observations.

  1. Artificial stimulation of auroral electron acceleration by intense field aligned currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmgren, G.; Bostrom, R.; Kelley, M. C.; Kintner, P. M.; Lundin, R.; Bering, E. A.; Sheldon, W. R.; Fahleson, U. V.

    1979-01-01

    A cesium-doped high explosion was detonated at 165 km altitude in the auroral ionosphere during quiet conditions. An Alfven wave pulse with a 200-mV/m electric field was observed, with the peak occurring 135 ms after the explosion at a distance of about 1 km. The count rate of fixed energy 2-keV electron detectors abruptly increased at 140 ms, peaked at 415 ms, and indicated a downward field-aligned beam of accelerated electrons. An anomalously high-field aligned beam of backscattered electrons was also detected. The acceleration is interpreted as due to production of an electrostatic shock or double layer between 300 and 800 km altitude. The structure was probably formed by an instability of the intense field-aligned currents in the Alfven wave launched by the charge-separation electric field due to the explosion.

  2. Cyclotron Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons through Landau Resonance with Obliquely Propagating Whistler Mode Chorus Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omura, Y.; Hsieh, Y. K.; Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Kletzing, C.; Baker, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    A recent test particle simulation of obliquely propagating whistler mode wave-particle interaction [Hsieh and Omura, 2017] shows that the perpendicular wave electric field can play a significant role in trapping and accelerating relativistic electrons through Landau resonance. A further theoretical and numerical investigation verifies that there occurs nonlinear wave trapping of relativistic electrons by the nonlinear Lorentz force of the perpendicular wave magnetic field. An electron moving with a parallel velocity equal to the parallel phase velocity of an obliquely propagating wave basically see a stationary wave phase. Since the electron position is displaced from its gyrocenter by a distance ρ*sin(φ), where ρ is the gyroradius and φ is the gyrophase, the wave phase is modulated with the gyromotion, and the stationary wave fields as seen by the electron are expanded as series of Bessel functions Jn with phase variations n*φ. The J1 components of the wave electric and magnetic fields rotate in the right-hand direction with the gyrofrequency, and they can be in resonance with the electron undergoing the gyromotion, resulting in effective electron acceleration and pitch angle scattering. We have performed a subpacket analysis of chorus waveforms observed by the Van Allen Probes [Foster et al., 2017], and calculated the energy gain by the cyclotron acceleration through Landau resonance. We compare the efficiencies of accelerations by cyclotron and Landau resonances in typical events of rapid electron acceleration observed by the Van Allen Probes.References:[1] Hsieh, Y.-K., and Y. Omura (2017), Nonlinear dynamics of electrons interacting with oblique whistler mode chorus in the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 675-694, doi:10.1002/2016JA023255.[2] Foster, J. C., P. J. Erickson, Y. Omura, D. N. Baker, C. A. Kletzing, and S. G. Claudepierre (2017), Van Allen Probes observations of prompt MeV radiation belt electron acceleration in nonlinear

  3. Experimental evidence of nonthermal acceleration of relativistic electrons by an intensive laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramitsu, Y.; Nakanii, N.; Kondo, K.; Sakawa, Y.; Mori, Y.; Miura, E.; Tsuji, K.; Kimura, K.; Fukumochi, S.; Kashihara, M.; Tanimoto, T.; Nakamura, H.; Ishikura, T.; Takeda, K.; Tampo, M.; Kodama, R.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mima, K.; Tanaka, K. A.; Hoshino, M.; Takabe, H.

    2011-02-01

    Nonthermal acceleration of relativistic electrons is investigated with an intensive laser pulse. An energy distribution function of energetic particles in the universe or cosmic rays is well represented by a power-law spectrum, therefore, nonthermal acceleration is essential to understand the origin of cosmic rays. A possible candidate for the origin of cosmic rays is wakefield acceleration at relativistic astrophysical perpendicular shocks. The wakefield is considered to be excited by large-amplitude precursor light waves in the upstream of the shocks. Substituting an intensive laser pulse for the large amplitude light waves, we performed a model experiment of the shock environments in a laboratory plasma. An intensive laser pulse was propagated in a plasma tube created by imploding a hollow polystyrene cylinder, as the large amplitude light waves propagated in the upstream plasma at an astrophysical shock. Nonthermal electrons were generated, and the energy distribution functions of the electrons have a power-law component with an index of ~2. We described the detailed procedures to obtain the nonthermal components from data obtained by an electron spectrometer.

  4. Maintaining stable radiation pressure acceleration of ion beams via cascaded electron replenishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, X. F.; Qiao, B.; Chang, H. X.; Zhang, W. L.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T.

    2017-03-01

    A method to maintain ion stable radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) from laser-irradiated thin foils is proposed, where a series of high-Z nanofilms are placed behind to successively replenish co-moving electrons into the accelerating foil as electron charging stations (ECSs). Such replenishment of co-moving electrons, on the one hand, helps to keep a dynamic balance between the electrostatic pressure in the accelerating slab and the increasing laser radiation pressure with a Gaussian temporal profile at the rising front, i.e. dynamically matching the optimal condition of RPA; on the other hand, it aids in suppressing the foil Coulomb explosion due to loss of electrons induced by transverse instabilities during RPA. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that a monoenergetic Si14+ beam with a peak energy of 3.7 GeV and particle number 4.8× {10}9 (charge 11 nC) can be obtained at an intensity of 7 × 1021 W cm-2 and the conversion efficiency from laser to high energy ions is improved significantly by using the ECSs in our scheme.

  5. Developing field emission electron sources based on ultrananocrystalline diamond for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshev, Sergey V.; Jing, Chunguang; Qiu, Jiaqi

    Radiofrequency (RF) electron guns work by establishing an RF electromagnetic field inside a cavity having conducting walls. Electrons from a cathode are generated in the injector and immediately become accelerated by the RF electric field, and exit the gun as a series of electron bunches. Finding simple solutions for electron injection is a long standing problem. While energies of 30-50 MeV are achievable in linear accelerators (linacs), finding an electron source able to survive under MW electric loads and provide an average current of 1-10 mA is important. Meeting these requirements would open various linac applications for industry. The naturalmore » way to simplify and integrate RF injector architectures with the electron source would be to place the source directly into the RF cavity with no need for additional heaters/lasers. Euclid TechLabs in collaboration with Argonne National Lab are prototyping a family of highly effective field emission electron sources based on a nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond ((N)UNCD) platform. Determined metrics suggest that our emitters are emissive enough to meet requirements for magnetized cooling at electron-ion colliders, linac-based radioisotope production and X-ray sterilization, and others.« less

  6. Energetic Electron Acceleration and Injection During Dipolarization Events in Mercury's Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Ryan M.; Slavin, James A.; Raines, Jim M.; Baker, Daniel N.; Lawrence, David J.

    2017-12-01

    Energetic particle bursts associated with dipolarization events within Mercury's magnetosphere were first observed by Mariner 10. The events appear analogous to particle injections accompanying dipolarization events at Earth. The Energetic Particle Spectrometer (3 s resolution) aboard MESSENGER determined the particle bursts are composed entirely of electrons with energies ≳ 300 keV. Here we use the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer high-time-resolution (10 ms) energetic electron measurements to examine the relationship between energetic electron injections and magnetic field dipolarization in Mercury's magnetotail. Between March 2013 and April 2015, we identify 2,976 electron burst events within Mercury's magnetotail, 538 of which are closely associated with dipolarization events. These dipolarizations are detected on the basis of their rapid ( 2 s) increase in the northward component of the tail magnetic field (ΔBz 30 nT), which typically persists for 10 s. Similar to those at Earth, we find that these dipolarizations appear to be low-entropy, depleted flux tubes convecting planetward following the collapse of the inner magnetotail. We find that electrons experience brief, yet intense, betatron and Fermi acceleration during these dipolarizations, reaching energies 130 keV and contributing to nightside precipitation. Thermal protons experience only modest betatron acceleration. While only 25% of energetic electron events in Mercury's magnetotail are directly associated with dipolarization, the remaining events are consistent with the Near-Mercury Neutral Line model of magnetotail injection and eastward drift about Mercury, finding that electrons may participate in Shabansky-like closed drifts about the planet. Magnetotail dipolarization may be the dominant source of energetic electron acceleration in Mercury's magnetosphere.

  7. Formation of Ultrarelativistic Electron Rings from a Laser-Wakefield Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Pollock, B B; Tsung, F S; Albert, F; Shaw, J L; Clayton, C E; Davidson, A; Lemos, N; Marsh, K A; Pak, A; Ralph, J E; Mori, W B; Joshi, C

    2015-07-31

    Ultrarelativistic-energy electron ring structures have been observed from laser-wakefield acceleration experiments in the blowout regime. These electron rings had 170-280 MeV energies with 5%-25% energy spread and ∼10  pC of charge and were observed over a range of plasma densities and compositions. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that laser intensity enhancement in the wake leads to sheath splitting and the formation of a hollow toroidal pocket in the electron density around the wake behind the first wake period. If the laser propagates over a distance greater than the ideal dephasing length, some of the dephasing electrons in the second period can become trapped within the pocket and form an ultrarelativistic electron ring that propagates in free space over a meter-scale distance upon exiting the plasma. Such a structure acts as a relativistic potential well, which has applications for accelerating positively charged particles such as positrons.

  8. WE-G-BRD-09: Novel MRI Compatible Electron Accelerator for MRI-Linac Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, B; Keall, P; Gierman, S

    Purpose: MRI guided radiotherapy is a rapidly growing field; however current linacs are not designed to operate in MRI fringe fields. As such, current MRI- Linac systems require magnetic shielding, impairing MR image quality and system flexibility. Here, we present a bespoke electron accelerator concept with robust operation in in-line magnetic fields. Methods: For in-line MRI-Linac systems, electron gun performance is the major constraint on accelerator performance. To overcome this, we propose placing a cathode directly within the first accelerating cavity. Such a configuration is used extensively in high energy particle physics, but not previously for radiotherapy. Benchmarked computational modellingmore » (CST, Darmstadt, Germany) was employed to design and assess a 5.5 cell side coupled accelerator with a temperature limited thermionic cathode in the first accelerating cell. This simulation was coupled to magnetic fields from a 1T MRI model to assess robustness in magnetic fields for Source to Isocenter Distance between 1 and 2 meters. Performance was compared to a conventional electron gun based system in the same magnetic field. Results: A temperature limited cathode (work function 1.8eV, temperature 1245K, emission constant 60A/K/cm{sup 2}) will emit a mean current density of 24mA/mm{sup 2} (Richardson’s Law). We modeled a circular cathode with radius 2mm and mean current 300mA. Capture efficiency of the device was 43%, resulting in target current of 130 mA. The electron beam had a FWHM of 0.2mm, and mean energy of 5.9MeV (interquartile spread of 0.1MeV). Such an electron beam is suitable for radiotherapy, comparing favourably to conventional systems. This model was robust to operation the MRI fringe field, with a maximum current loss of 6% compared to 85% for the conventional system. Conclusion: The bespoke electron accelerator is robust to operation in in-line magnetic fields. This will enable MRI-Linacs with no accelerator magnetic shielding, and

  9. Evidence for Field-parallel Electron Acceleration in Solar Flares

    SciTech Connect

    Haerendel, G.

    It is proposed that the coincidence of higher brightness and upward electric current observed by Janvier et al. during a flare indicates electron acceleration by field-parallel potential drops sustained by extremely strong field-aligned currents of the order of 10{sup 4} A m{sup −2}. A consequence of this is the concentration of the currents in sheets with widths of the order of 1 m. The high current density suggests that the field-parallel potential drops are maintained by current-driven anomalous resistivity. The origin of these currents remains a strong challenge for theorists.

  10. Implications of X-Ray Observations for Electron Acceleration and Propagation in Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, G. D.; Aschwanden, M. J.; Aurass, H.; Battaglia, M.; Grigis, P. C.; Kontar, E. P.; Liu, W.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy X-rays and gamma-rays from solar flares were discovered just over fifty years ago. Since that time, the standard for the interpretation of spatially integrated flare X-ray spectra at energies above several tens of keV has been the collisional thick-target model. After the launch of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) in early 2002, X-ray spectra and images have been of sufficient quality to allow a greater focus on the energetic electrons responsible for the X-ray emission, including their origin and their interactions with the flare plasma and magnetic field. The result has been new insights into the flaring process, as well as more quantitative models for both electron acceleration and propagation, and for the flare environment with which the electrons interact. In this article we review our current understanding of electron acceleration, energy loss, and propagation in flares. Implications of these new results for the collisional thick-target model, for general flare models, and for future flare studies are discussed.

  11. Electron acceleration in combined intense laser fields and self-consistent quasistatic fields in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Bin; He, X. T.; Zhu, Shao-ping; Zheng, C. Y.

    2005-08-01

    The acceleration of plasma electron in intense laser-plasma interaction is investigated analytically and numerically, where the conjunct effect of laser fields and self-consistent spontaneous fields (including quasistatic electric field Esl, azimuthal quasistatic magnetic field Bsθ and the axial one Bsz) is completely considered for the first time. An analytical relativistic electron fluid model using test-particle method has been developed to give an explicit analysis about the effects of each quasistatic fields. The ponderomotive accelerating and scattering effects on electrons are partly offset by Esl, furthermore, Bsθ pinches and Bsz collimates electrons along the laser axis. The dependences of energy gain and scattering angle of electron on its initial radial position, plasma density, and laser intensity are, respectively, studied. The qualities of the relativistic electron beam (REB), such as energy spread, beam divergence, and emitting (scattering) angle, generated by both circularly polarized (CP) and linearly polarized (LP) lasers are studied. Results show CP laser is of clear advantage comparing to LP laser for it can generate a better REB in collimation and stabilization.

  12. Electron Beams Escaping the Sun: Hard X-ray Diagnostics of Jet-related Electron Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, L.; Musset, S.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Fleishman, G. D.; Krucker, S.; Christe, S.; Shih, A. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal jets, which arise via an interaction between closed and open magnetic field, offer a convenient configuration for accelerated electrons to escape the low corona. Jets occur in all regions of the Sun, but those flare-related jets that occur in active regions are associated with bremsstrahlung hard X-rays (HXRs) from accelerated electrons. However, HXR measurement of the escaping beams themselves is elusive as it requires extremely high sensitivity. Jets are strongly correlated with Type III radio bursts in the corona and in interplanetary space. In this poster we present RHESSI observations of HXRs from flare-related jets, including multiwavelength analysis (with extreme ultraviolet and radio emission) and modeling of the emitting electron populations. We also present predicted observations of Type III-emitting electron beams by the FOXSI Small Explorer, which is currently undergoing a NASA Phase A concept study. FOXSI will measure HXRs from jets and flares in the low corona, providing quantitative diagnostics of accelerated electron beams at their origin. These same electron beams will be measured at higher altitudes by instruments aboard NASA's Parker Solar Probe and ESA's Solar Orbiter. With a planned launch in the rising phase of Solar Cycle 25, FOXSI will be ideally timed and optimized for collaborative study of electron beams escaping the Sun.

  13. Optimizing chirped laser pulse parameters for electron acceleration in vacuum

    SciTech Connect

    Akhyani, Mina; Jahangiri, Fazel; Niknam, Ali Reza

    2015-11-14

    Electron dynamics in the field of a chirped linearly polarized laser pulse is investigated. Variations of electron energy gain versus chirp parameter, time duration, and initial phase of laser pulse are studied. Based on maximizing laser pulse asymmetry, a numerical optimization procedure is presented, which leads to the elimination of rapid fluctuations of gain versus the chirp parameter. Instead, a smooth variation is observed that considerably reduces the accuracy required for experimentally adjusting the chirp parameter.

  14. Laser-plasma mirrors: from electron acceleration to harmonics generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thévenet, Maxence; Bocoum, Maïmouna; Faure, Jérôme; Leblanc, Adrien; Vincenti, Henri; Quéré, Fabien

    2016-10-01

    Accelerating electrons in the > 10 TV/m fields inside an ultrashort ultraintense laser pulse has been a long-standing goal in experimental physics, motivated by promising theoretical predictions. The biggest hurdle was to have electrons injected in the center of the laser pulse. Recent experimental and numerical results showed that this problem could be solved using a plasma mirror, i.e. an overdense plasma with a sharp (electron beam. Using particle-in-cell simulations, the ejection process was identified as a push-pull mechanism occuring at each laser period, resulting in a train of attosecond electron bunches injected in the reflected field. We present a study and a model of this process, and show the gradient characteristic length is the crucial parameter for this phenomenon. Finally, the electron ejection process was put into perspective with respect to the high harmonic generation mechanisms on plasma mirrors, giving new insights into the motion of the plasma mirror surface. funded by the European Research Council, Contract No. 306708, ERC Starting Grant FEMTOELEC.

  15. Generation of high quality electron beams via ionization injection in a plasma wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vafaei-Najafabadi, Navid; Joshi, Chan; E217 SLAC Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Ionization injection in a beam driven plasma wakefield accelerator has been used to generate electron beams with over 30 GeV of energy in a 130 cm of lithium plasma. The experiments were performed using the 3 nC, 20.35 GeV electron beam at the FACET facility of the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory as the driver of the wakefield. The ionization of helium atoms in the up ramp of a lithium plasma were injected into the wake and over the length of acceleration maintained an emittance on the order of 30 mm-mrad, which was an order of magnitude smaller than the drive beam, albeit with an energy spread of 10-20%. The process of ionization injection occurs due to an increase in the electric field of the drive beam as it pinches through its betatron oscillations. Thus, this energy spread is attributed to the injection region encompassing multiple betatron oscillations. In this poster, we will present evidence through OSIRIS simulations of producing an injected beam with percent level energy spread and low emittance by designing the plasma parameters appropriately, such that the ionization injection occurs over a very limited distance of one betatron cycle. Work at UCLA was supported by the NSF Grant Number PHY-1415386 and DOE Grant Number DE-SC0010064. Work at SLAC was supported by DOE contract number DE-AC02-76SF00515. Simulations used the Hoffman cluster at UCLA.

  16. Energetic electron acceleration observed by MMS in the vicinity of an X-line crossing

    DOE PAGES

    Jaynes, A. N.; Turner, D. L.; Wilder, F. D.; ...

    2016-07-25

    During the first months of observations, the Magnetospheric Multiscale Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer instrument has observed several instances of electron acceleration up to >100 keV while in the vicinity of the dayside reconnection region. While particle acceleration associated with magnetic reconnection has been seen to occur up to these energies in the tail region, it had not yet been reported at the magnetopause. This study reports on observations of electron acceleration up to hundreds of keV that were recorded on 19 September 2015 around 1000 UT, in the midst of an X-line crossing. In the region surrounding the X-line,more » whistler-mode and broadband electrostatic waves were observed simultaneously with the appearance of highly energetic electrons which exhibited significant energization in the perpendicular direction. The mechanisms by which particles may be accelerated via reconnection-related processes are intrinsic to understanding particle dynamics among a wide range of spatial scales and plasma environments.« less

  17. Energetic Electron Acceleration Observed by MMS in the Vicinity of an X-Line Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, A. N.; Turner, D. L.; Wilder, F. D.; Osmane, A.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Cohen, I. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Reeves, G. D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    During the first months of observations, the Magnetospheric Multiscale Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer instrument has observed several instances of electron acceleration up to greater than 100 keV while in the vicinity of the dayside reconnection region. While particle acceleration associated with magnetic reconnection has been seen to occur up to these energies in the tail region, it had not yet been reported at the magnetopause. This study reports on observations of electron acceleration up to hundreds of keV that were recorded on 19 September 2015 around 1000 UT, in the midst of an X-line crossing. In the region surrounding the X-line, whistler-mode and broadband electrostatic waves were observed simultaneously with the appearance of highly energetic electrons which exhibited significant energization in the perpendicular direction. The mechanisms by which particles may be accelerated via reconnection-related processes are intrinsic to understanding particle dynamics among a wide range of spatial scales and plasma environments.

  18. Energy-Dependent Ionization States of Shock-Accelerated Particles in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.; Ng, C. K.; Tylka, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the range of possible energy dependence of the ionization states of ions that are shock-accelerated from the ambient plasma of the solar corona. If acceleration begins in a region of moderate density, sufficiently low in the corona, ions above about 0.1 MeV/amu approach an equilibrium charge state that depends primarily upon their speed and only weakly on the plasma temperature. We suggest that the large variations of the charge states with energy for ions such as Si and Fe observed in the 1997 November 6 event are consistent with stripping in moderately dense coronal. plasma during shock acceleration. In the large solar-particle events studied previously, acceleration occurs sufficiently high in the corona that even Fe ions up to 600 MeV/amu are not stripped of electrons.

  19. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-14

    and was published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods A [11]. For similar targets, it was found that by monitoring the divergence of a low- energy ...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0015 High energy ion acceleration by extreme laser radiation pressure Paul McKenna UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE VIZ ROYAL COLLEGE...MM-YYYY)   14-03-2017 2. REPORT TYPE  Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To)  01 May 2013 to 31 Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High energy ion acceleration

  20. Symposium on electron linear accelerators in honor of Richard B. Neal's 80th birthday: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    The papers presented at the conference are: (1) the construction of SLAC and the role of R.B. Neal; (2) symposium speech; (3) lessons learned from the SLC; (4) alternate approaches to future electron-positron linear colliders; (5) the NLC technical program; (6) advanced electron linacs; (7) medical uses of linear accelerators; (8) linac-based, intense, coherent X-ray source using self-amplified spontaneous emission. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Active Plasma Lensing for Relativistic Laser-Plasma-Accelerated Electron Beams

    DOE PAGES

    van Tilborg, J.; Steinke, S.; Geddes, C. G. R.; ...

    2015-10-28

    The compact, tunable, radially symmetric focusing of electrons is critical to laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) applications. Experiments are presented demonstrating the use of a discharge-capillary active plasma lens to focus 100-MeV-level LPA beams. The lens can provide tunable field gradients in excess of 3000 T/m, enabling cm-scale focal lengths for GeV-level beam energies and allowing LPA-based electron beams and light sources to maintain their compact footprint. For a range of lens strengths, excellent agreement with simulation was obtained.

  2. High Energy Electron and Gamma - Ray Detection with ATIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon borne ionization calorimeter is well suited to record and identify high energy cosmic ray electrons, and at very high energies gamma-ray photons as well. We have simulated the performance of the instrument, and compare the simulations with actual high energy electron exposures at the CERN accelerator. Simulations and measurements do not compare exactly, in detail, but overall the simulations have predicted actual measured behavior quite well. ATIC has had its first 16 day balloon flight at the turn of the year over Antarctica, and first results obtained using the analysis methods derived from simulations and calibrations will be reported.

  3. The effect of stochastic re-acceleration on the energy spectrum of shock-accelerated protons

    SciTech Connect

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Vainio, Rami; Kocharov, Leon

    2014-07-20

    The energy spectra of particles in gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events do not always have a power-law form attributed to the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. In particular, the observed spectra in major SEP events can take the form of a broken (double) power law. In this paper, we study the effect of a process that can modify the power-law spectral form produced by the diffusive shock acceleration: the stochastic re-acceleration of energetic protons by enhanced Alfvénic turbulence in the downstream region of a shock wave. There are arguments suggesting that this process can be important when the shock propagatesmore » in the corona. We consider a coronal magnetic loop traversed by a shock and perform Monte Carlo simulations of interactions of shock-accelerated protons with Alfvén waves in the loop. The wave-particle interactions are treated self-consistently, so the finiteness of the available turbulent energy is taken into account. The initial energy spectrum of particles is taken to be a power law. The simulations reveal that the stochastic re-acceleration leads either to the formation of a spectrum that is described in a wide energy range by a power law (although the resulting power-law index is different from the initial one) or to a broken power-law spectrum. The resulting spectral form is determined by the ratio of the energy density of shock-accelerated protons to the wave energy density in the shock's downstream region.« less

  4. Demonstration of acceleration of relativistic electrons at a dielectric microstructure using femtosecond laser pulses

    DOE PAGES

    Wootton, Kent P.; Wu, Ziran; Cowan, Benjamin M.; ...

    2016-06-02

    Acceleration of electrons using laser-driven dielectric microstructures is a promising technology for the miniaturization of particle accelerators. Achieving the desired GV m –1 accelerating gradients is possible only with laser pulse durations shorter than ~1 ps. In this Letter, we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of acceleration of relativistic electrons at a dielectric microstructure driven by femtosecond duration laser pulses. Furthermore, using this technique, an electron accelerating gradient of 690±100 MV m –1 was measured—a record for dielectric laser accelerators.

  5. 9 GeV energy gain in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, M.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.

    2016-02-15

    An electron beam has gained a maximum energy of 9 GeV per particle in a 1.3 m-long electron beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. The amount of charge accelerated in the spectral peak was 28.3 pC, and the root-mean-square energy spread was 5.0%. The mean accelerated charge and energy gain per particle of the 215 shot data set was 115 pC and 5.3 GeV, respectively, corresponding to an acceleration gradient of 4.0 GeV m -1 at the spectral peak. Moreover, the mean energy spread of the data set was 5.1%. Our results are consistent with the extrapolation of the previously reported energymore » gain results using a shorter, 36 cm-long plasma source to within 10%, evincing a non-evolving wake structure that can propagate distances of over a meter in length. Wake-loading effects were evident in the data through strong dependencies observed between various spectral properties and the amount of accelerated charge.« less

  6. Simulated Prompt Acceleration of Multi-MeV Electrons by the 17 March 2015 Interplanetary Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Mary; Jaynes, Allison; Kress, Brian; Li, Zhao; Patel, Maulik; Shen, Xiao-Chen; Thaller, Scott; Wiltberger, Michael; Wygant, John

    2017-10-01

    Prompt enhancement of relativistic electron flux at L = 3-5 has been reported from Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) measurements associated with the 17 March 2015 interplanetary shock compression of the dayside magnetosphere. Acceleration by ˜1 MeV is inferred on less than a drift timescale as seen in prior shock compression events, which launch a magnetosonic azimuthal electric field impulse tailward. This impulse propagates from the dayside around the flanks accelerating electrons in drift resonance at the dusk flank. Such longitudinally localized acceleration events produce a drift echo signature which was seen at >1 MeV energy on both Van Allen Probe spacecraft, with sustained observations by Probe B outbound at L = 5 at 2100 MLT at the time of impulse arrival, measured by the Electric Fields and Waves instrument. MHD test particle simulations are presented which reproduce drift echo features observed in the REPT measurements at Probe B, including the energy and pitch angle dependence of drift echoes observed. While the flux enhancement was short lived for this event due to subsequent inward motion of the magnetopause, stronger events with larger electric field impulses, as observed in March 1991 and the Halloween 2003 storm, produce enhancements which can be quantified by the inward radial transport and energization determined by the induction electric field resulting from dayside compression.

  7. Search by mariner 10 for electrons and protons accelerated in association with venus.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J A; Eraker, J H; Lamport, J E; Walpole, P H

    1974-03-29

    The University of Chicago instrumnents on board the Mariner 10 spacecraft bound for Mercury have measured energy spectra and fluxes of electrons from 0.18 to 30 million electron volts and protons from 0.5 to 68 million electron volts along the plasma wake and in the bow shock regions associated with Venus. Unusually quiet solar conditions and improved instrumentation made it possible to search for much lower fluxes of protons and electrons in similar energy regions as compared to earlier Mariner missions to Venus-that is, lower by a factor of 10(2) for protons and 10(3) for electrons. We found no evidence for electrons or protons either in the form of increases of intensity or energy spectral changes in the vicinity of the planet, nor any evidence of bursts of radiation in or near the observed bow shock where bursts of electrons might have been expected in analogy with the bow shock at the earth. The importance of these null results for determining the necessary and sufficient conditions for particle acceleration is discussed with respect to magnetometer evidence that Venus does not have a magnetosphere.

  8. Electron acceleration in quantum plasma with spin-up and spin-down exchange interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Punit; Singh, Shiv; Ahmad, Nafees

    2018-05-01

    Electron acceleration by ponderomotive force of an intense circularly polarized laser pulse in high density magnetized quantum plasma with two different spin states embedded in external static magnetic field. The basic mechanism involves electron acceleration by axial gradient in the ponderomotive potential of laser. The effects of Bohm potential, fermi pressure and intrinsic spin of electron have been taken into account. A simple solution for ponderomotive electron acceleration has been established and effect of spin polarization is analyzed.

  9. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, S. P.; Brown, G.; Chase, T. F.

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition ratemore » with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability.« less

  10. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Weathersby, S P; Brown, G; Centurion, M; Chase, T F; Coffee, R; Corbett, J; Eichner, J P; Frisch, J C; Fry, A R; Gühr, M; Hartmann, N; Hast, C; Hettel, R; Jobe, R K; Jongewaard, E N; Lewandowski, J R; Li, R K; Lindenberg, A M; Makasyuk, I; May, J E; McCormick, D; Nguyen, M N; Reid, A H; Shen, X; Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Vecchione, T; Vetter, S L; Wu, J; Yang, J; Dürr, H A; Wang, X J

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition rate with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability.

  11. A neutron track etch detector for electron linear accelerators in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vukovic, Branko; Faj, Dario; Poje, Marina; Varga, Maja; Radolic, Vanja; Miklavcic, Igor; Ivkovic, Ana; Planinic, Josip

    2010-01-01

    Background Electron linear accelerators in medical radiotherapy have replaced cobalt and caesium sources of radiation. However, medical accelerators with photon energies over 10 MeV generate undesired fast neutron contamination in a therapeutic X-ray photon beam. Photons with energies above 10 MeV can interact with the atomic nucleus of a high-Z material, of which the target and the head of an accelerator consist, and lead to the neutron ejection. Results and conclusions. Our neutron dosimeter, composed of the LR-115 track etch detector and boron foil BN-1 converter, was calibrated on thermal neutrons generated in the nuclear reactor of the Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia), and applied to dosimetry of undesirable neutrons in photon radiotherapy by the linear accelerator 15 MV Siemens Mevatron. Having considered a high dependence of a cross-section between neutron and boron on neutron energy, and broad neutron spectrum in a photon beam, as well as outside the entrance door to maze of the Mevatron, we developed a method for determining the effective neutron detector response. A neutron dose rate in the photon beam was measured to be 1.96 Sv/h. Outside the Mevatron room the neutron dose rate was 0.62 μSv/h. PACS: 87.52. Ga; 87.53.St; 29.40.Wk. PMID:22933893

  12. Proceedings of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.E.

    2006-02-27

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) organized a workshop at ORNL July 14-15, 2005, to highlight the unique measurement capabilities of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) facility and to emphasize the important role of ORELA for performing differential cross-section measurements in the low-energy resonance region that is important for nuclear applications such as nuclear criticality safety, nuclear reactor and fuel cycle analysis, stockpile stewardship, weapons research, medical diagnosis, and nuclear astrophysics. The ORELA workshop (hereafter referred to as the Workshop) provided the opportunity to exchange ideas and information pertaining to nuclear cross-section measurements and their importance for nuclearmore » applications from a variety of perspectives throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Approximately 50 people, representing DOE, universities, and seven U.S. national laboratories, attended the Workshop. The objective of the Workshop was to emphasize the technical community endorsement for ORELA in meeting nuclear data challenges in the years to come. The Workshop further emphasized the need for a better understanding of the gaps in basic differential nuclear measurements and identified the efforts needed to return ORELA to a reliable functional measurement facility. To accomplish the Workshop objective, nuclear data experts from national laboratories and universities were invited to provide talks emphasizing the unique and vital role of the ORELA facility for addressing nuclear data needs. ORELA is operated on a full cost-recovery basis with no single sponsor providing complete base funding for the facility. Consequently, different programmatic sponsors benefit by receiving accurate cross-section data measurements at a reduced cost to their respective programs; however, leveraging support for a complex facility such as ORELA has a distinct disadvantage in that the programmatic funds are only used to support program

  13. Resonantly Enhanced Betatron Hard X-rays from Ionization Injected Electrons in a Laser Plasma Accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Huang, K.; Li, Y. F.; Li, D. Z.; Chen, L. M.; Tao, M. Z.; Ma, Y.; Zhao, J. R.; Li, M. H.; Chen, M.; Mirzaie, M.; Hafz, N.; Sokollik, T.; Sheng, Z. M.; Zhang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast betatron x-ray emission from electron oscillations in laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) has been widely investigated as a promising source. Betatron x-rays are usually produced via self-injected electron beams, which are not controllable and are not optimized for x-ray yields. Here, we present a new method for bright hard x-ray emission via ionization injection from the K-shell electrons of nitrogen into the accelerating bucket. A total photon yield of 8 × 108/shot and 108 photons with energy greater than 110 keV is obtained. The yield is 10 times higher than that achieved with self-injection mode in helium under similar laser parameters. The simulation suggests that ionization-injected electrons are quickly accelerated to the driving laser region and are subsequently driven into betatron resonance. The present scheme enables the single-stage betatron radiation from LWFA to be extended to bright γ-ray radiation, which is beyond the capability of 3rd generation synchrotrons. PMID:27273170

  14. Influence of the carrier-envelope phase of few-cycle pulses on ponderomotive surface-plasmon electron acceleration.

    PubMed

    Irvine, S E; Dombi, P; Farkas, Gy; Elezzabi, A Y

    2006-10-06

    Control over basic processes through the electric field of a light wave can lead to new knowledge of fundamental light-matter interaction phenomena. We demonstrate, for the first time, that surface-plasmon (SP) electron acceleration can be coherently controlled through the carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of an excitation optical pulse. Analysis indicates that the physical origin of the CEP sensitivity arises from the electron's ponderomotive interaction with the oscillating electromagnetic field of the SP wave. The ponderomotive electron acceleration mechanism provides sensitive (nJ energies), high-contrast, single-shot CEP measurement capability of few-cycle laser pulses.

  15. Green Peace: Can Biofuels Accelerate Energy Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    http://www.navy.mil/features/Navy_EnergySecurity.pdf 6 James T. Bartis and Lawrence Van Bibber. Alternative Fuels for Military Applications, (Santa...2013) 28 James T. Bartis and Lawrence Van Bibber, Alternative Fuels for Military Applications, (Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation, 2011), http...research/algae-based-biofuels (accessed 18 November 2012). 55 John Laitner, Karen Ehrhardt-Martinez, and Vanessa McKinney, Examining the Scale of

  16. The converter mechanism of particle acceleration and the maximum energy of cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocharovsky, Vl. V.; Aharonian, F. A.; Derishev, E. V.; Kocharovsky, V. V.

    We consider the fundamental limits on the energy of particles accelerated by electromagnetic forces in various astrophysical objects [1]. We show that accelerator's parameters are strongly limited not only by the particle confinement in large-scale magnetic field or by the difference in electric potentials (generalized Hillas criterion) but also by the curvature and other types of radiative losses of accelerated particles. Optimization of these requirements in terms of accelerator's size and the magnetic field strength results in the ultimate lower limit on the overall source energy budget, which scales as the fifth power of attainable particle energy. It is demonstrated that the curvature gamma-rays accompanying the acceleration gives further restrictions for potential acceleration sites. We compare different acceleration mechanisms and show, that the converter mechanism, which we suggested earlier [2], is the least sensitive to the geometry of the magnetic field in accelerators and allows to reach cosmic-ray energies close to the fundamental limit. The converter mechanism works most efficiently in relativistic shocks or shear flows. It utilizes multiple conversions of charged particles into neutral ones (protons to neutrons and electrons/positrons to photons) and back by means of photon-induced reactions or inelastic nucleon- nucleon collisions. We discuss the properties of gamma-ray radiation, which accompanies acceleration of cosmic rays via the converter mechanism and can provide an evidence for the latter. 1. F.A. Aharonian, A.A. Belyanin, E.V. Derishev, V.V. Kocharovsky, and Vl.V. Kocharovsky, Phys. Rev. D 66, 023005 (2002). 2. E.V. Derishev, F.A. Aharonian, V.V. Kocharovsky, and Vl.V. Kocharovsky, Phys. Rev. D 68, 043003 (2003).

  17. Exploring high dimensional free energy landscapes: Temperature accelerated sliced sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awasthi, Shalini; Nair, Nisanth N.

    2017-03-01

    Biased sampling of collective variables is widely used to accelerate rare events in molecular simulations and to explore free energy surfaces. However, computational efficiency of these methods decreases with increasing number of collective variables, which severely limits the predictive power of the enhanced sampling approaches. Here we propose a method called Temperature Accelerated Sliced Sampling (TASS) that combines temperature accelerated molecular dynamics with umbrella sampling and metadynamics to sample the collective variable space in an efficient manner. The presented method can sample a large number of collective variables and is advantageous for controlled exploration of broad and unbound free energy basins. TASS is also shown to achieve quick free energy convergence and is practically usable with ab initio molecular dynamics techniques.

  18. Housing Electrons: Relating Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels, and Electron Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Anthony

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that combines the concepts of quantum numbers and probability locations, energy levels, and electron configurations in a concrete, hands-on way. Uses model houses constructed out of foam board and colored beads to represent electrons. (JRH)

  19. ELECTRON ACCELERATION IN PULSAR-WIND TERMINATION SHOCKS: AN APPLICATION TO THE CRAB NEBULA GAMMA-RAY FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Kroon, John J.; Becker, Peter A.; Dermer, Charles D.

    The γ -ray flares from the Crab Nebula observed by AGILE and Fermi -LAT reaching GeV energies and lasting several days challenge the standard models for particle acceleration in pulsar-wind nebulae because the radiating electrons have energies exceeding the classical radiation-reaction limit for synchrotron. Previous modeling has suggested that the synchrotron limit can be exceeded if the electrons experience electrostatic acceleration, but the resulting spectra do not agree very well with the data. As a result, there are still some important unanswered questions about the detailed particle acceleration and emission processes occurring during the flares. We revisit the problem usingmore » a new analytical approach based on an electron transport equation that includes terms describing electrostatic acceleration, stochastic wave-particle acceleration, shock acceleration, synchrotron losses, and particle escape. An exact solution is obtained for the electron distribution, which is used to compute the associated γ -ray synchrotron spectrum. We find that in our model the γ -ray flares are mainly powered by electrostatic acceleration, but the contributions from stochastic and shock acceleration play an important role in producing the observed spectral shapes. Our model can reproduce the spectra of all the Fermi -LAT and AGILE flares from the Crab Nebula, using magnetic field strengths in agreement with the multi-wavelength observational constraints. We also compute the spectrum and duration of the synchrotron afterglow created by the accelerated electrons, after they escape into the region on the downstream side of the pulsar-wind termination shock. The afterglow is expected to fade over a maximum period of about three weeks after the γ -ray flare.« less

  20. The effect of a longitudinal density gradient on electron plasma wake field acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiklauri, David

    2016-12-01

    Three-dimensional, particle-in-cell, fully electromagnetic simulations of electron plasma wake field acceleration in the blow-out regime are presented. Earlier results are extended by (i) studying the effect of a longitudinal density gradient, (ii) avoiding the use of a co-moving simulation box, (iii) inclusion of ion motion, and (iv) studying fully electromagnetic plasma wake fields. It is established that injecting driving and trailing electron bunches into a positive density gradient of 10-fold increasing density over 10 cm long lithium vapour plasma results in spatially more compact and three times larger, compared with the uniform density case, electric fields (-6.4×1010 V m-1), leading to acceleration of the trailing bunch up to 24.4 GeV (starting from an initial 20.4 GeV), with energy transfer efficiencies from the leading to trailing bunch of 75%. In the uniform density case, a -2.5×1010 V m-1 wake is created leading to acceleration of the trailing bunch up to 22.4 GeV, with energy transfer efficiencies of 65%. It is also established that injecting the electron bunches into a negative density gradient of 10-fold decreasing density over 10 cm long plasma results in spatially more spread and two and a half smaller electric fields (-1.0×1010 V m-1), leading to a weaker acceleration of the trailing bunch up to 21.4 GeV, with energy transfer efficiencies of 45%. Taking ion motions into consideration shows that in the plasma wake ion number density can increase over a few times the background value. It is also shown that transverse electromagnetic fields in a plasma wake are of the same order as the longitudinal (electrostatic) ones.

  1. Effects of laser-polarization and wiggler magnetic fields on electron acceleration in laser-cluster interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh Ghotra, Harjit; Kant, Niti

    2018-06-01

    We examine the electron dynamics during laser-cluster interaction. In addition to the electrostatic field of an individual cluster and laser field, we consider an external transverse wiggler magnetic field, which plays a pivotal role in enhancing the electron acceleration. Single-particle simulation has been presented with a short pulse linearly polarized as well as circularly polarized laser pulses for electron acceleration in a cluster. The persisting Coulomb field allows the electron to absorb energy from the laser field. The stochastically heated electron finds a weak electric field at the edge of the cluster from where it is ejected. The wiggler magnetic field connects the regions of the stochastically heated, ejected electron from the cluster and high energy gain by the electron from the laser field outside the cluster. This increases the field strength and hence supports the electron to meet the phase of the laser field for enhanced acceleration. A long duration resonance appears with an optimized magnetic wiggler field of about 3.4 kG. Hence, the relativistic energy gain by the electron is enhanced up to a few 100 MeV with an intense short pulse laser with an intensity of about 1019 W cm‑2 in the presence of a wiggler magnetic field.

  2. The Effect of Background Pressure on Electron Acceleration from Ultra-Intense Laser-Matter Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Manh; Ngirmang, Gregory; Orban, Chris; Morrison, John; Chowdhury, Enam; Roquemore, William

    2017-10-01

    We present two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations that investigate the role of background pressure on the acceleration of electrons from ultra intense laser interaction at normal incidence with liquid density ethylene glycol targets. The interaction was simulated at ten different pressures varying from 7.8 mTorr to 26 Torr. We calculated conversion efficiencies from the simulation results and plotted the efficiencies with respect to the background pressure. The results revealed that the laser to > 100 keV electron conversion efficiency remained flat around 0.35% from 7.8 mTorr to 1.2 Torr and increased exponentially from 1.2 Torr onward to about 1.47% at 26 Torr. Increasing the background pressure clearly has a dramatic effect on the acceleration of electrons from the target. We explain how electrostatic effects, in particular the neutralization of the target by the background plasma, allows electrons to escape more easily and that this effect is strengthened with higher densities. This work could facilitate the design of future experiments in increasing laser to electron conversion efficiency and generating substantial bursts of electrons with relativistic energies. This research is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under LRIR Project 17RQCOR504 under the management of Dr. Riq Parra and Dr. Jean-Luc Cambier. Support was also provided by the DOD HPCMP Internship Program.

  3. Pyroclast acceleration and energy partitioning in fake explosive eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, Damien; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Scheu, Bettina; Valentine, Greg; Capponi, Antonio; Kueppers, Ulrich; Graettiger, Allison; Sonder, Ingo

    2014-05-01

    Explosive eruptions are characterized by the fast release of energy, with gas expansion playing a lead role. An excess of pressure may be generated either by the exsolution and accumulation of volatiles (e.g., vulcanian and strombolian explosions) or by in situ vaporization of water (e.g., phreato-magmatic explosions). The release of pressurized gas ejects magma and country rock pyroclasts at velocities that can reach several hundred of meters per second. The amount and velocity of pyroclasts is determined not only by the total released energy, but also by the system-specific dynamics of the energy transfer from gas to pyroclasts. In this context, analogue experiments are crucial, since the amount of available energy is determined. Here, we analyze three different experiments, designed to reproduce different aspects of explosive volcanism, focusing on the acceleration phase of the pyroclasts, in order to compare how the potential energy is transferred to the pyroclasts in different systems. In the first, shock-tube-type experiment, salt crystals resting in a pressurized Plexiglas cylinder are accelerated when a diaphragm set is suddenly opened, releasing the gas. In the second experiment, a pressurized air bubble is released in a water-filled Plexiglas pipe; diaphragm opening causes sudden expansion and bursting of the bubble and ejection of water droplets. In the last experiment, specifically focusing on phreatomagmatic eruptions, buried explosive charges accelerate the overlying loose material. All experiments were monitored by multiple high speed cameras and a variety of sensors. Despite the largely differing settings and processes, particle ejection velocity above the vent from the three experiments share a non-linear decay over time. Fitting this decay allows to estimate a characteristic depth that is related to the specific acceleration processes. Given that the initial available energy is experimentally controlled a priori, the information on the

  4. Prospects for laser-driven ion acceleration through controlled displacement of electrons by standing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnusson, J.; Mackenroth, F.; Marklund, M.; Gonoskov, A.

    2018-05-01

    During the interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with various targets, the natural mechanisms of laser energy transformation inherently lack temporal control and thus commonly do not provide opportunities for a controlled generation of a well-collimated, high-charge beam of ions with a given energy of particular interest. In an effort to alleviate this problem, it was recently proposed that the ions can be dragged by an electron bunch trapped in a controllably moving potential well formed by laser radiation. Such standing-wave acceleration (SWA) can be achieved through reflection of a chirped laser pulse from a mirror, which has been formulated as the concept of chirped-standing-wave acceleration (CSWA). Here, we analyse general feasibility aspects of the SWA approach and demonstrate its reasonable robustness against field structure imperfections, such as those caused by misalignment, ellipticity, and limited contrast. Using this, we also identify prospects and limitations of the CSWA concept.

  5. Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons in Solid Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginson, Drew Pitney

    The cone-guided fast ignition approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion requires laser-accelerated relativistic electrons to deposit kilojoules of energy within an imploded fuel core to initiate fusion burn. One obstacle to coupling electron energy into the core is the ablation of material, known as preplasma, by laser energy proceeding nanoseconds prior to the main pulse. This causes the laser-absorption surface to be pushed back hundreds of microns from the initial target surface; thus increasing the distance that electrons must travel to reach the imploded core. Previous experiments have shown an order of magnitude decrease in coupling into surrogate targets when intentionally increasing the amount of preplasma. Additionally, for electrons to deposit energy within the core, they should have kinetic energies on the order of a few MeV, as less energetic electrons will be stopped prior to the core and more energetic electrons will pass through the core without depositing much energy. Thus a quantitative understanding of the electron energy spectrum and how it responds to varied laser parameters is paramount for fast ignition. For the first time, this dissertation quantitatively investigates the acceleration of electrons using an ultra-high-contrast laser. Ultra-high-contrast lasers reduce the laser energy that reaches the target prior to the main pulse; drastically reducing the amount of preplasma. Experiments were performed in a cone-wire geometry relevant to fast ignition. These experiments irradiated the inner-tip of a Au cone with the laser and observed electrons that passed through a Cu wire attached to the outer-tip of the cone. The total emission of Kalpha x-rays is used as a diagnostic to infer the electron energy coupled into the wire. Imaging the x-ray emission allowed an effective path-length of electrons within the wire to be determined, which constrained the electron energy spectrum. Experiments were carried out on the ultra-high-contrast Trident laser

  6. Gravitational vacuum energy in our recently accelerating universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bludman, Sidney

    2009-04-01

    We review current observations of the homogeneous cosmological expansion which, because they measure only kinematic variables, cannot determine the dynamics driving the recent accelerated expansion. The minimal fit to the data, the flat ACDM model, consisting of cold dark matter and a cosmological constant, interprets 4? geometrically as a classical spacetime curvature constant of nature, avoiding any reference to quantum vacuum energy. (The observed Uehling and Casimir effects measure forces due to QED vacuum polarization, but not any quantum material vacuum energies.) An Extended Anthropic Principle, that Dark Energy and Dark Gravity be indistinguishable, selects out flat ACDM. Prospective cosmic shear and galaxy clustering observations of the growth of fluctuations are intended to test whether the 'dark energy' driving the recent cosmological acceleration is static or moderately dynamic. Even if dynamic, observational differences between an additional negative-pressure material component within general relativity (Dark Energy) and low-curvature modifications of general relativity (Dark Gravity) will be extremely small.

  7. APPARATUS FOR CONTROL OF HIGH-ENERGY ACCELERATORS

    DOEpatents

    Heard, H.G.

    1961-10-24

    A particle beam positioning control for a synchrotron or the like is described. The control includes means for selectively impressing a sinusoidal perturbation upon the rising voltage utilized to sweep the frequency of the f-m oscillator which is conventionally coupled to the accelerating electrode of a synchrotron. The perturbation produces a variation in the normal rate of change of frequency of the accelerating voltage applied to the accelerating electrode, resulting in an expansion or contraction of the particle beam orbit diameter during the perturbation. The beam may thus be controlled such that a portion strikes a target positioned close to the expanded or contracted orbit diameter and returns to the original orbit for further acceleration to the final energy. (AEC)

  8. Accelerating electron tomography reconstruction algorithm ICON with GPU.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Zihao; Zhang, Jingrong; Li, Lun; Wan, Xiaohua; Sun, Fei; Zhang, Fa

    2017-01-01

    Electron tomography (ET) plays an important role in studying in situ cell ultrastructure in three-dimensional space. Due to limited tilt angles, ET reconstruction always suffers from the "missing wedge" problem. With a validation procedure, iterative compressed-sensing optimized NUFFT reconstruction (ICON) demonstrates its power in the restoration of validated missing information for low SNR biological ET dataset. However, the huge computational demand has become a major problem for the application of ICON. In this work, we analyzed the framework of ICON and classified the operations of major steps of ICON reconstruction into three types. Accordingly, we designed parallel strategies and implemented them on graphics processing units (GPU) to generate a parallel program ICON-GPU. With high accuracy, ICON-GPU has a great acceleration compared to its CPU version, up to 83.7×, greatly relieving ICON's dependence on computing resource.

  9. Investigation of the Electron Acceleration by a High-Power Laser and a Density-Tapered Mixed-Gas Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jinju; Phung, Vanessa L. J.; Kim, Minseok; Hur, Min-Sup; Suk, Hyyong

    2017-10-01

    Plasma-based accelerators can generate about 1000 times stronger acceleration field compared with RF-based conventional accelerators, which can be done by high power laser and plasma. There are many issues in this research and one of them is development of a good plasma source for higher electron beam energy. For this purpose, we are investigating a special type of plasma source, which is a density-tapered gas cell with a mixed-gas for easy injection. By this type of special gas cell, we expect higher electron beam energies with easy injection in the wakefield. In this poster, some experimental results for electron beam generation with the density-tapered mixed-gas cell are presented. In addition to the experimental results, CFD (Computational-Fluid-Dynamics) and PIC (Particle-In-Cell) simulation results are also presented for comparison studies.

  10. Spatial Control of Laser Wakefield Accelerated Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimchuk, A.; Behm, K.; Zhao, T.; Joglekar, A. S.; Hussein, A.; Nees, J.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Elle, J.; Lucero, A.; Samarin, G. M.; Sarry, G.; Warwick, J.

    2017-10-01

    The laser wakefield experiments to study and control spatial properties of electron beams were performed using HERCULES laser at the University of Michigan at power of 100 TW. In the first experiment multi-electron beam generation was demonstrated using co-propagating, parallel laser beams with a π-phase shift mirror and showing that interaction between the wakefields can cause injection to occur for plasma and laser parameters in which a single wakefield displays no significant injection. In the second experiment a magnetic triplet quadrupole system was used to refocus and stabilize electron beams at the distance of 60 cm from the interaction region. This produced a 10-fold increase in remote gamma-ray activation of 63Cu using a lead converter. In the third experiment measurements of un-trapped electrons with high transverse momentum produce a 500 mrad (FWHM) ring. This ring is formed by electrons that receive a forward momentum boost by traversing behind the bubble and its size is inversely proportional to the plasma density. The characterization of divergence and charge of this electron ring may reveal information about the wakefield structure and trapping potential. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Administration and Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  11. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.

    2015-08-15

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C{sup 4+} and C{sup 6+} ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 10{sup 10} C{sup 4+} ions per pulse and about 5 × 10{sup 9} C{sup 6+} ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 10{sup 11} C{sup 6+} ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can bemore » increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the {sup 11}C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C{sup 4+} ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of {sup 11}C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated {sup 11}C{sup 4+} beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the {sup 11}C{sup 4+} beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.« less

  12. Vlasov simulations of electron acceleration by radio frequency heating near the upper hybrid layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najmi, A.; Eliasson, B.; Shao, X.; Milikh, G.; Sharma, A. S.; Papadopoulos, K.

    2017-10-01

    It is shown by using a combination of Vlasov and test particles simulations that the electron distribution function resulting from energization due to Upper Hybrid (UH) plasma turbulence depends critically on the closeness of the pump wave to the double resonance, defined as ω ≈ ωUH ≈ nωce, where n is an integer. For pump frequencies, away from the double resonance, the electron distribution function is very close to Maxwellian, while as the pump frequency approaches the double resonance, it develops a high energy tail. The simulations show turbulence involving coupling between Lower Hybrid (LH) and UH waves, followed by excitation of Electron Bernstein (EB) modes. For the particular case of a pump with frequency between n = 3 and n = 4, the EB modes cover the range from the first to the 5th mode. The simulations show that when the injected wave frequency is between the 3rd and 4th harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency, bulk electron heating occurs due to the interaction between the electrons and large amplitude EB waves, primarily on the first EB branch leading to an essentially thermal distribution. On the other hand, when the frequency is slightly above the 4th electron cyclotron harmonic, the resonant interaction is predominantly due to the UH branch and leads to a further acceleration of high-velocity electrons and a distribution function with a suprathermal tail of energetic electrons. The results are consistent with ionospheric experiments and relevant to the production of Artificial Ionospheric Plasma Layers.

  13. Direct acceleration of electrons by a CO2 laser in a curved plasma waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Longqing; Pukhov, Alexander; Shen, Baifei

    2016-01-01

    Laser plasma interaction with micro-engineered targets at relativistic intensities has been greatly promoted by recent progress in the high contrast lasers and the manufacture of advanced micro- and nano-structures. This opens new possibilities for the physics of laser-matter interaction. Here we propose a novel approach that leverages the advantages of high-pressure CO2 laser, laser-waveguide interaction, as well as micro-engineered plasma structure to accelerate electrons to peak energy greater than 1 GeV with narrow slice energy spread (~1%) and high overall efficiency. The acceleration gradient is 26 GV/m for a 1.3 TW CO2 laser system. The micro-bunching of a long electron beam leads to the generation of a chain of ultrashort electron bunches with the duration roughly equal to half-laser-cycle. These results open a way for developing a compact and economic electron source for diverse applications. PMID:27320197

  14. Design of an electron-accelerator-driven compact neutron source for non-destructive assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, A.; Ikeda, S.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2017-09-01

    The threat of nuclear and radiological terrorism remains one of the greatest challenges to international security, and the threat is constantly evolving. In order to prevent nuclear terrorism, it is important to avoid unlawful import of nuclear materials, such as uranium and plutonium. Development of technologies for non-destructive measurement, detection and recognition of nuclear materials is essential for control at national borders. At Tokyo Institute of Technology, a compact neutron source system driven by an electron-accelerator has been designed for non-destructive assay (NDA). This system is composed of a combination of an S-band (2.856 GHz) RF-gun, a tungsten target to produce photons by bremsstrahlung, a beryllium target, which is suitable for use in generating neutrons because of the low threshold energy of photonuclear reactions, and a moderator to thermalize the fast neutrons. The advantage of this system can accelerate a short pulse beam with a pulse width less than 1 μs which is difficult to produce by neutron generators. The amounts of photons and neutron produced by electron beams were simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS 2.82. When the RF-gun is operated with an average electron beam current of 0.1 mA, it is expected that the neutron intensities are 1.19 × 109 n/s and 9.94 × 109 n/s for incident electron beam energies of 5 MeV and 10 MeV, respectively.

  15. Acceleration of the highest energy cosmic rays through proton-neutron conversions in relativistic bulk flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derishev, E.; Aharonian, F.

    We show that, in the presence of radiation field, relativistic bulk flows can very quikly accelerate protons and electrons up to the energies limited either by Hillas criterion or by synchrotron losses. Unlike the traditional approach, we take advantage of continuous photon-induced conversion of charged particle species to neutral ones, and vice versa (proton-neutron or electron-photon). Such a conversion, though it leads to considerable energy losses, allows accelerated particles to increase their energies in each scattering by a factor roughly equal to the bulk Lorentz factor, thus avoiding the need in slow and relatively inefficient diffusive acceleration. The optical depth of accelerating region with respect to inelastic photon-induced reactions (pair production for electrons and photomeson reactions for protons) should be a substancial fraction of unity. Remarkably, self-tuning of the optical depth is automatically achieved as long as the photon density depends on the distance along the bulk flow. This mechanism can work in Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), microquasars, or any other object with relativistic bulk flows embedded in radiation-reach environment. Both GRBs and AGNs turn out to be capable of producing 1020 eV cosmic rays.

  16. Dose properties of a laser accelerated electron beam and prospects for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Kainz, K K; Hogstrom, K R; Antolak, J A; Almond, P R; Bloch, C D; Chiu, C; Fomytskyi, M; Raischel, F; Downer, M; Tajima, T

    2004-07-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) technology has evolved to where it should be evaluated for its potential as a future competitor to existing technology that produces electron and x-ray beams. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the dosimetric properties of an electron beam that should be achievable using existing LWFA technology, and to document the necessary improvements to make radiotherapy application for LWFA viable. This paper first qualitatively reviews the fundamental principles of LWFA and describes a potential design for a 30 cm accelerator chamber containing a gas target. Electron beam energy spectra, upon which our dose calculations are based, were obtained from a uniform energy distribution and from two-dimensional particle-in-cell (2D PIC) simulations. The 2D PIC simulation parameters are consistent with those reported by a previous LWFA experiment. According to the 2D PIC simulations, only approximately 0.3% of the LWFA electrons are emitted with an energy greater than 1 MeV. We studied only the high-energy electrons to determine their potential for clinical electron beams of central energy from 9 to 21 MeV. Each electron beam was broadened and flattened by designing a dual scattering foil system to produce a uniform beam (103%>off-axis ratio>95%) over a 25 x 25 cm2 field. An energy window (deltaE) ranging from 0.5 to 6.5 MeV was selected to study central-axis depth dose, beam flatness, and dose rate. Dose was calculated in water at a 100 cm source-to-surface distance using the EGS/BEAM Monte Carlo algorithm. Calculations showed that the beam flatness was fairly insensitive to deltaE. However, since the falloff of the depth-dose curve (R10-R90) and the dose rate both increase with deltaE, a tradeoff between minimizing (R10-R90) and maximizing dose rate is implied. If deltaE is constrained so that R10-R90 is within 0.5 cm of its value for a monoenergetic beam, the maximum practical dose rate based on 2D PIC is approximately 0.1 Gy min

  17. Injection of externally produced kinetic electrons into a self-guided laser wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Bradley; Ralph, Joseph; Albert, Felicie; Shaw, Jessica; Clayton, Christopher; Marsh, Ken; Joshi, Chan; Mori, Warren; Kesler, Leigh; Mills, Sarah; Severson, Brian; Rigby, Alexandra; Glenzer, Siegfried

    2012-10-01

    A two-stage laser wakefield accelerator is being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using the Callisto laser system. The first stage is a high density (˜10^19 cm-3), 5 mm He gas jet plasma which is driven by 30 TW of 800 nm laser light focused to an a0˜ 2. The <100 MeV electrons produced in this stage are deflected by a 0.5 T dipole magnet onto the axis of the second stage, which is a low density (˜10^18 cm-3), 15 mm He gas cell driven by 200 TW of 800 nm light also focused to an a0˜ 2; no additional electrons are trapped in this stage. Electrons injected into the second stage can then be further accelerated to higher energy without increasing the energy spread. Measurements of the transmitted laser profile and spectrum from the second stage indicate that the laser pulse is self-guided throughout the gas cell and that a strong wake is driven. These results compare well with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations performed with the code OSIRIS. This work was performed under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC52-07NA-27344.

  18. Compact beam transport system for free-electron lasers driven by a laser plasma accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Dong; ...

    2017-02-01

    Utilizing laser-driven plasma accelerators (LPAs) as a high-quality electron beam source is a promising approach to significantly downsize the x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility. A multi-GeV LPA beam can be generated in several-centimeter acceleration distance, with a high peak current and a low transverse emittance, which will considerably benefit a compact FEL design. However, the large initial angular divergence and energy spread make it challenging to transport the beam and realize FEL radiation. In this paper, a novel design of beam transport system is proposed to maintain the superior features of the LPA beam and a transverse gradient undulator (TGU)more » is also adopted as an effective energy spread compensator to generate high-brilliance FEL radiation. As a result, theoretical analysis and numerical simulations are presented based on a demonstration experiment with an electron energy of 380 MeV and a radiation wavelength of 30 nm.« less

  19. Reinventing the Accelerator for the High Energy Frontier

    ScienceCinema

    Rosenzweig, James [UCLA, Los Angeles, California, United States

    2017-12-09

    The history of discovery in high-energy physics has been intimately connected with progress in methods of accelerating particles for the past 75 years. This remains true today, as the post-LHC era in particle physics will require significant innovation and investment in a superconducting linear collider. The choice of the linear collider as the next-generation discovery machine, and the selection of superconducting technology has rather suddenly thrown promising competing techniques -- such as very large hadron colliders, muon colliders, and high-field, high frequency linear colliders -- into the background. We discuss the state of such conventional options, and the likelihood of their eventual success. We then follow with a much longer view: a survey of a new, burgeoning frontier in high energy accelerators, where intense lasers, charged particle beams, and plasmas are all combined in a cross-disciplinary effort to reinvent the accelerator from its fundamental principles on up.

  20. On the longitudinal distribution of electric field in the acceleration zones of plasma accelerators and thrusters with closed electron drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, V. P.

    2017-04-01

    The long-term experience in controlling the electric field distribution in the discharge gaps of plasma accelerators and thrusters with closed electron drift and the key ideas determining the concepts of these devices and tendencies of their development are analyzed. It is shown that an electrostatic mechanism of ion acceleration in plasma by an uncompensated space charge of the cloud of magnetized electrons "kept" to the magnetic field takes place in the acceleration zones and that the electric field distribution can be controlled by varying the magnetic field in the discharge gap. The role played by the space charge makes the mechanism of ion acceleration in this type of thrusters is fundamentally different from the acceleration mechanism operating in purely electrostatic thrusters.

  1. Dosimetric characteristics of electron beams produced by a mobile accelerator for IORT.

    PubMed

    Pimpinella, M; Mihailescu, D; Guerra, A S; Laitano, R F

    2007-10-21

    Energy and angular distributions of electron beams with different energies were simulated by Monte Carlo calculations. These beams were generated by the NOVAC7 system (Hitesys, Italy), a mobile electron accelerator specifically dedicated to intra-operative radiation therapy (IORT). The electron beam simulations were verified by comparing the measured dose distributions with the corresponding calculated distributions. As expected, a considerable difference was observed in the energy and angular distributions between the IORT beams studied in the present work and the electron beams produced by conventional accelerators for non-IORT applications. It was also found that significant differences exist between the IORT beams used in this work and other IORT beams with different collimation systems. For example, the contribution from the scattered electrons to the total dose was found to be up to 15% higher in the NOVAC7 beams. The water-to-air stopping power ratios of the IORT beams used in this work were calculated on the basis of the beam energy distributions obtained by the Monte Carlo simulations. These calculated stopping power ratios, s(w,air), were compared with the corresponding s(w,air) values recommended by the TRS-381 and TRS-398 IAEA dosimetry protocols in order to estimate the deviations between a dosimetry based on generic parameters and a dosimetry based on parameters specifically obtained for the actual IORT beams. The deviations in the s(w,air) values were found to be as large as up to about 1%. Therefore, we recommend that a preliminary analysis should always be made when dealing with IORT beams in order to assess to what extent the possible differences in the s(w,air) values have to be accounted for or may be neglected on the basis of the specific accuracy needed in clinical dosimetry.

  2. Electron acceleration by laser produced wake field: Pulse shape effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Hitendra K.; Kumar, Sandeep; Nishida, Yasushi

    2007-12-01

    Analytical expressions are obtained for the longitudinal field (wake field: Ex), density perturbations ( ne') and the potential ( ϕ) behind a laser pulse propagating in a plasma with the pulse duration of the electron plasma period. A feasibility study on the wake field is carried out with Gaussian-like (GL) pulse, rectangular-triangular (RT) pulse and rectangular-Gaussian (RG) pulse considering one-dimensional weakly nonlinear theory ( ne'/n0≪1), and the maximum energy gain acquired by an electron is calculated for all these three types of the laser pulse shapes. A comparative study infers that the RT pulse yields the best results: In its case maximum electron energy gain is 33.5 MeV for a 30 fs pulse duration whereas in case of GL (RG) pulse of the same duration the gain is 28.6 (28.8)MeV at the laser frequency of 1.6 PHz and the intensity of 3.0 × 10 18 W/m 2. The field of the wake and hence the energy gain get enhanced for the higher laser frequency, larger pulse duration and higher laser intensity for all types of the pulses.

  3. 1 MeV, 10 kW DC electron accelerator for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, B.; Acharya, S.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Bakhtsingh, R. I.; Rajan, R.; Sharma, D. K.; Dewangan, S.; Sharma, V.; Patel, R.; Tiwari, R.; Benarjee, S.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    Several modern applications of radiation processing like medical sterilization, rubber vulcanization, polymerization, cross-linking and pollution control from thermal power stations etc. require D.C. electron accelerators of energy ranging from a few hundred keVs to few MeVs and power from a few kilowatts to hundreds of kilowatts. To match these requirements, a 3 MeV, 30 kW DC electron linac has been developed at BARC, Mumbai and current operational experience of 1 MeV, 10 kW beam power will be described in this paper. The LINAC composed mainly of Electron Gun, Accelerating Tubes, Magnets, High Voltage source and provides 10 kW beam power at the Ti beam window stably after the scanning section. The control of the LINAC is fully automated. Here Beam Optics study is carried out to reach the preferential parameters of Accelerating as well as optical elements. Beam trials have been conducted to find out the suitable operation parameters of the system.

  4. Development of a dual-pulse RF driver for an S-band (= 2856 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byeong-No; Lee, Byung Cheol; Cha, Hyungki; Ha, Jang Ho; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hui Su; Buaphad, Pikad

    2016-04-01

    The radiation equipment research division of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed a Container Inspection System (CIS) using a Radio Frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for port security. The primary purpose of the CIS is to detect nuclear materials and explosives, as well country-specific prohibited substances, e.g., smuggled. The CIS consists of a 9/6 MeV dualenergy electron linear accelerator for distinguishing between organic and inorganic materials. The accelerator consists of an electron gun, an RF accelerating structure, an RF driver, a modulator, electromagnets, a cooling system, a X-ray generating target, X-ray collimator, a detector, and a container moving system. The RF driver is an important part of the configuration because it is the RF power source: it supplies the RF power to the accelerating structure. A unique aspect of the RF driver is that it generates dual RF power to generate dual energy (9/6 MeV). The advantage of this RF driver is that it can allow the pulse width to vary and can be used to obtain a wide range of energy output, and pulse repetition rates up to 300 Hz. For this reason, 140 W (5 MW - 9 MeV) and 37 W (3.4 MW - 6 MeV) power outputs are available independently. A high power test for 20 minutes demonstrate that stable dual output powers can be generated. Moreover, the dual power can be applied to the accelerator which has stable accelerator operation. In this paper, the design, fabrication and high power test of the RF driver for the RF electron linear accelerator (linac) are presented.

  5. The solutions and thermodynamic dark energy in the accelerating universe

    SciTech Connect

    Demirel, E. C. Günay

    Recently, Tachyonic matter expressed in terms of scalar field is suggested to be the reason of acceleration of the universe as dark energy [1]-[3]. In this study, dynamic solutions and thermodynamic properties of matters such as Tachyonic matters were investigated.

  6. Energy spread minimization in a cascaded laser wakefield accelerator via velocity bunching

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Wentao; Wang, Wentao

    2016-05-15

    We propose a scheme to minimize the energy spread of an electron beam (e-beam) in a cascaded laser wakefield accelerator to the one-thousandth-level by inserting a stage to compress its longitudinal spatial distribution. In this scheme, three-segment plasma stages are designed for electron injection, e-beam length compression, and e-beam acceleration, respectively. The trapped e-beam in the injection stage is transferred to the zero-phase region at the center of one wakefield period in the compression stage where the length of the e-beam can be greatly shortened owing to the velocity bunching. After being seeded into the third stage for acceleration, themore » e-beam can be accelerated to a much higher energy before its energy chirp is compensated owing to the shortened e-beam length. A one-dimensional theory and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations have demonstrated this scheme and an e-beam with 0.2% rms energy spread and low transverse emittance could be generated without loss of charge.« less

  7. Optically controlled laser-plasma electron accelerator for compact gamma-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmykov, S. Y.; Davoine, X.; Ghebregziabher, I.; Shadwick, B. A.

    2018-02-01

    Generating quasi-monochromatic, femtosecond γ-ray pulses via Thomson scattering (TS) demands exceptional electron beam (e-beam) quality, such as percent-scale energy spread and five-dimensional brightness over 1016 A m-2. We show that near-GeV e-beams with these metrics can be accelerated in a cavity of electron density, driven with an incoherent stack of Joule-scale laser pulses through a mm-size, dense plasma (n 0 ˜ 1019 cm-3). Changing the time delay, frequency difference, and energy ratio of the stack components controls the e-beam phase space on the femtosecond scale, while the modest energy of the optical driver helps afford kHz-scale repetition rate at manageable average power. Blue-shifting one stack component by a considerable fraction of the carrier frequency makes the stack immune to self-compression. This, in turn, minimizes uncontrolled variation in the cavity shape, suppressing continuous injection of ambient plasma electrons, preserving a single, ultra-bright electron bunch. In addition, weak focusing of the trailing component of the stack induces periodic injection, generating, in a single shot, a train of bunches with controllable energy spacing and femtosecond synchronization. These designer e-beams, inaccessible to conventional acceleration methods, generate, via TS, gigawatt γ-ray pulses (or multi-color pulse trains) with the mean energy in the range of interest for nuclear photonics (4-16 MeV), containing over 106 photons within a microsteradian-scale observation cone.

  8. RADIO DIAGNOSTICS OF ELECTRON ACCELERATION SITES DURING THE ERUPTION OF A FLUX ROPE IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Carley, Eoin P.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Vilmer, Nicole, E-mail: eoin.carley@obspm.fr

    Electron acceleration in the solar corona is often associated with flares and the eruption of twisted magnetic structures known as flux ropes. However, the locations and mechanisms of such particle acceleration during the flare and eruption are still subject to much investigation. Observing the exact sites of particle acceleration can help confirm how the flare and eruption are initiated and how they evolve. Here we use the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly to analyze a flare and erupting flux rope on 2014 April 18, while observations from the Nançay Radio Astronomy Facility allow us to diagnose the sites of electron acceleration duringmore » the eruption. Our analysis shows evidence of a pre-formed flux rope that slowly rises and becomes destabilized at the time of a C-class flare, plasma jet, and the escape of ≳75 keV electrons from the rope center into the corona. As the eruption proceeds, continued acceleration of electrons with energies of ∼5 keV occurs above the flux rope for a period over 5 minutes. At the flare peak, one site of electron acceleration is located close to the flare site, while another is driven by the erupting flux rope into the corona at speeds of up to 400 km s{sup −1}. Energetic electrons then fill the erupting volume, eventually allowing the flux rope legs to be clearly imaged from radio sources at 150–445 MHz. Following the analysis of Joshi et al. (2015), we conclude that the sites of energetic electrons are consistent with flux rope eruption via a tether cutting or flux cancellation scenario inside a magnetic fan-spine structure. In total, our radio observations allow us to better understand the evolution of a flux rope eruption and its associated electron acceleration sites, from eruption initiation to propagation into the corona.« less

  9. Temporal characterization of ultrashort linearly chirped electron bunches generated from a laser wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, C. J.; Hua, J. F.; Wan, Y.

    A new method for diagnosing the temporal characteristics of ultrashort electron bunches with linear energy chirp generated from a laser wakefield accelerator is described. When the ionization-injected bunch interacts with the back of the drive laser, it is deflected and stretched along the direction of the electric field of the laser. Upon exiting the plasma, if the bunch goes through a narrow slit in front of the dipole magnet that disperses the electrons in the plane of the laser polarization, it can form a series of bunchlets that have different energies but are separated by half a laser wavelength. Sincemore » only the electrons that are undeflected by the laser go through the slit, the energy spectrum of the bunch is modulated. By analyzing the modulated energy spectrum, the shots where the bunch has a linear energy chirp can be recognized. Consequently, the energy chirp and beam current profile of those bunches can be reconstructed. Lastly, this method is demonstrated through particle-in-cell simulations and experiment.« less

  10. An introduction to the physics of high energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.A.; Syphers, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of a course given by the authors at various universities and particle accelerator schools. It starts from the basic physics principles governing particle motion inside an accelerator, and leads to a full description of the complicated phenomena and analytical tools encountered in the design and operation of a working accelerator. The book covers acceleration and longitudinal beam dynamics, transverse motion and nonlinear perturbations, intensity dependent effects, emittance preservation methods and synchrotron radiation. These subjects encompass the core concerns of a high energy synchrotron. The authors apparently do not assume the reader has much previous knowledgemore » about accelerator physics. Hence, they take great care to introduce the physical phenomena encountered and the concepts used to describe them. The mathematical formulae and derivations are deliberately kept at a level suitable for beginners. After mastering this course, any interested reader will not find it difficult to follow subjects of more current interests. Useful homework problems are provided at the end of each chapter. Many of the problems are based on actual activities associated with the design and operation of existing accelerators.« less

  11. Two-stage Electron Acceleration by 3D Collisionless Guide-field Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buechner, J.; Munoz, P.

    2017-12-01

    We discuss a two-stage process of electron acceleration near X-lines of 3D collisionless guide-field magnetic reconnection. Non-relativistic electrons are first pre-accelerated by magnetic-field-aligned (parallel) electric fields. At the nonlinear stage of 3D guide-field magnetic reconnection electric and magnetic fields become filamentary structured due to streaming instabilities. This causes an additional curvature-driven electron acceleration in the guide-field direction. The resulting spectrum of the accelerated electrons follows a power law.

  12. The Strongest Acceleration of >40 keV Electrons by ICME-driven Shocks at 1 au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Wang, Linghua; Li, Gang; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Tian, Hui; Bale, Stuart D.

    2018-01-01

    We present two case studies of the in-situ electron acceleration during the 2000 February 11 shock and the 2004 July 22 shock, with the strongest electron flux enhancement at 40 keV across the shock, among all the quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel ICME-driven shocks observed by the WIND 3DP instrument from 1995 through 2014 at 1 au. We find that for this quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shock on 2000 February 11 (2004 July 22), the shocked electron differential fluxes at ∼0.4–50 keV in the downstream generally fit well to a double-power-law spectrum, J ∼ E ‑β , with an index of β ∼ 3.15 (4.0) at energies below a break at ∼3 keV (∼1 keV) and β ∼ 2.65 (2.6) at energies above. For both shock events, the downstream electron spectral indices appear to be similar for all pitch angles, which are significantly larger than the index prediction by diffusive shock acceleration. In addition, the downstream electron pitch-angle distributions show the anisotropic beams in the anti-sunward-traveling direction, while the ratio of the downstream over ambient fluxes appears to peak near 90° pitch angles, at all energies of ∼0.4–50 keV. These results suggest that in both shocks, shock drift acceleration likely plays an important role in accelerating electrons in situ at 1 au. Such ICME-driven shocks could contribute to the formation of solar wind halo electrons at energies ≲2 keV, as well as the production of solar wind superhalo electrons at energies ≳2 keV in interplanetary space.

  13. Electron bulk acceleration and thermalization at Earth's quasi-perpendicular bow shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.-J.; Wang, S.; Wilson, L. B., III; Schwartz, S. J.; Bessho, N.; Moore, T. E.; Gershman, D. J.; Giles, B. L.; Malaspina, D. M.; Wilder, F. D.; Ergun, R. E.; Hesse, M.; Lai, H.; Russell, C. T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Vinas, A. F.-; Burch, J. L.; Lee, S.; Pollock, C.; Dorelli, J.; Paterson, W. R.; Ahmadi, N.; Goodrich, K. A.; Lavraud, B.; Le Contel, O.; Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Boardsen, S.; Wei, H.; Le, A.; Avanov, L. A.

    2018-05-01

    Electron heating at Earth's quasiperpendicular bow shock has been surmised to be due to the combined effects of a quasistatic electric potential and scattering through wave-particle interaction. Here we report the observation of electron distribution functions indicating a new electron heating process occurring at the leading edge of the shock front. Incident solar wind electrons are accelerated parallel to the magnetic field toward downstream, reaching an electron-ion relative drift speed exceeding the electron thermal speed. The bulk acceleration is associated with an electric field pulse embedded in a whistler-mode wave. The high electron-ion relative drift is relaxed primarily through a nonlinear current-driven instability. The relaxed distributions contain a beam traveling toward the shock as a remnant of the accelerated electrons. Similar distribution functions prevail throughout the shock transition layer, suggesting that the observed acceleration and thermalization is essential to the cross-shock electron heating.

  14. Electron beam directed energy device and methods of using same

    DOEpatents

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for an electron beam directed energy device. The device consists of an electron gun with one or more electron beams. The device includes one or more accelerating plates with holes aligned for beam passage. The plates may be flat or preferably shaped to direct each electron beam to exit the electron gun at a predetermined orientation. In one preferred application, the device is located in outer space with individual beams that are directed to focus at a distant target to be used to impact and destroy missiles. The aimings of the separate beams are designed to overcome Coulomb repulsion. A method is also presented for directing the beams to a target considering the variable terrestrial magnetic field. In another preferred application, the electron beam is directed into the ground to produce a subsurface x-ray source to locate and/or destroy buried or otherwise hidden objects including explosive devices.

  15. Comment on 'Electron acceleration by an intense short pulse laser in a static magnetic field in vacuum'

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shihua; Wu Fengmin

    2006-12-15

    K. P. Singh [Phys. Rev. E 69, 056410 (2004)] put forward a scheme of vacuum laser acceleration in a static magnetic field. We point out that one of the assumptions used in their model does not stand on a solid physical ground and that it seriously influences electrons to obtain net energy gains from the laser field.

  16. Free electron lasers for transmission of energy in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segall, S. B.; Hiddleston, H. R.; Catella, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    A one-dimensional resonant-particle model of a free electron laser (FEL) is used to calculate laser gain and conversion efficiency of electron energy to photon energy. The optical beam profile for a resonant optical cavity is included in the model as an axial variation of laser intensity. The electron beam profile is matched to the optical beam profile and modeled as an axial variation of current density. Effective energy spread due to beam emittance is included. Accelerators appropriate for a space-based FEL oscillator are reviewed. Constraints on the concentric optical resonator and on systems required for space operation are described. An example is given of a space-based FEL that would produce 1.7 MW of average output power at 0.5 micrometer wavelength with over 50% conversion efficiency of electrical energy to laser energy. It would utilize a 10 m-long amplifier centered in a 200 m-long optical cavity. A 3-amp, 65 meV electrostatic accelerator would provide the electron beam and recover the beam after it passes through the amplifier. Three to five shuttle flights would be needed to place the laser in orbit.

  17. The conversion of CESR to operate as the Test Accelerator, CesrTA. Part 3: Electron cloud diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Billing, M. G.; Conway, J. V.; Crittenden, J. A.

    Cornell's electron/positron storage ring (CESR) was modified over a series of accelerator shutdowns beginning in May 2008, which substantially improves its capability for research and development for particle accelerators. CESR's energy span from 1.8 to 5.6 GeV with both electrons and positrons makes it ideal for the study of a wide spectrum of accelerator physics issues and instrumentation related to present light sources and future lepton damping rings. Additionally a number of these are also relevant for the beam physics of proton accelerators. This paper is the third in a series of four describing the conversion of CESR to themore » test accelerator, CESRTA. The first two papers discuss the overall plan for the conversion of the storage ring to an instrument capable of studying advanced accelerator physics issues [1] and the details of the vacuum system upgrades [2]. This paper focuses on the necessary development of new instrumentation, situated in four dedicated experimental regions, capable of studying such phenomena as electron clouds (ECs) and methods to mitigate EC effects. The fourth paper in this series describes the vacuum system modifications of the superconducting wigglers to accommodate the diagnostic instrumentation for the study of EC behavior within wigglers. Lastly, while the initial studies of CESRTA focused on questions related to the International Linear Collider damping ring design, CESRTA is a very versatile storage ring, capable of studying a wide range of accelerator physics and instrumentation questions.« less

  18. The conversion of CESR to operate as the Test Accelerator, CesrTA. Part 3: Electron cloud diagnostics

    DOE PAGES

    Billing, M. G.; Conway, J. V.; Crittenden, J. A.; ...

    2016-04-28

    Cornell's electron/positron storage ring (CESR) was modified over a series of accelerator shutdowns beginning in May 2008, which substantially improves its capability for research and development for particle accelerators. CESR's energy span from 1.8 to 5.6 GeV with both electrons and positrons makes it ideal for the study of a wide spectrum of accelerator physics issues and instrumentation related to present light sources and future lepton damping rings. Additionally a number of these are also relevant for the beam physics of proton accelerators. This paper is the third in a series of four describing the conversion of CESR to themore » test accelerator, CESRTA. The first two papers discuss the overall plan for the conversion of the storage ring to an instrument capable of studying advanced accelerator physics issues [1] and the details of the vacuum system upgrades [2]. This paper focuses on the necessary development of new instrumentation, situated in four dedicated experimental regions, capable of studying such phenomena as electron clouds (ECs) and methods to mitigate EC effects. The fourth paper in this series describes the vacuum system modifications of the superconducting wigglers to accommodate the diagnostic instrumentation for the study of EC behavior within wigglers. Lastly, while the initial studies of CESRTA focused on questions related to the International Linear Collider damping ring design, CESRTA is a very versatile storage ring, capable of studying a wide range of accelerator physics and instrumentation questions.« less

  19. FLARE VERSUS SHOCK ACCELERATION OF HIGH-ENERGY PROTONS IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Cliver, E. W.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence for a significant to dominant role for a flare-resident acceleration process for high-energy protons in large (“gradual”) solar energetic particle (SEP) events, contrary to the more generally held view that such protons are primarily accelerated at shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The new support for this flare-centric view is provided by correlations between the sizes of X-ray and/or microwave bursts and associated SEP events. For one such study that considered >100 MeV proton events, we present evidence based on CME speeds and widths, shock associations, and electron-to-proton ratios that indicates that eventsmore » omitted from that investigation’s analysis should have been included. Inclusion of these outlying events reverses the study’s qualitative result and supports shock acceleration of >100 MeV protons. Examination of the ratios of 0.5 MeV electron intensities to >100 MeV proton intensities for the Grechnev et al. event sample provides additional support for shock acceleration of high-energy protons. Simply scaling up a classic “impulsive” SEP event to produce a large >100 MeV proton event implies the existence of prompt 0.5 MeV electron events that are approximately two orders of magnitude larger than are observed. While classic “impulsive” SEP events attributed to flares have high electron-to-proton ratios (≳5 × 10{sup 5}) due to a near absence of >100 MeV protons, large poorly connected (≥W120) gradual SEP events, attributed to widespread shock acceleration, have electron-to-proton ratios of ∼2 × 10{sup 3}, similar to those of comparably sized well-connected (W20–W90) SEP events.« less

  20. Flare vs. Shock Acceleration of High-energy Protons in Solar Energetic Particle Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliver, E. W.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence for a significant to dominant role for a flare-resident acceleration process for high-energy protons in large (“gradual”) solar energetic particle (SEP) events, contrary to the more generally held view that such protons are primarily accelerated at shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The new support for this flare-centric view is provided by correlations between the sizes of X-ray and/or microwave bursts and associated SEP events. For one such study that considered >100 MeV proton events, we present evidence based on CME speeds and widths, shock associations, and electron-to-proton ratios that indicates that events omitted from that investigation’s analysis should have been included. Inclusion of these outlying events reverses the study’s qualitative result and supports shock acceleration of >100 MeV protons. Examination of the ratios of 0.5 MeV electron intensities to >100 MeV proton intensities for the Grechnev et al. event sample provides additional support for shock acceleration of high-energy protons. Simply scaling up a classic “impulsive” SEP event to produce a large >100 MeV proton event implies the existence of prompt 0.5 MeV electron events that are approximately two orders of magnitude larger than are observed. While classic “impulsive” SEP events attributed to flares have high electron-to-proton ratios (≳5 × 105) due to a near absence of >100 MeV protons, large poorly connected (≥W120) gradual SEP events, attributed to widespread shock acceleration, have electron-to-proton ratios of ˜2 × 103, similar to those of comparably sized well-connected (W20-W90) SEP events.

  1. HF-enhanced 4278-Å airglow: evidence of accelerated ionosphere electrons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallen, C. T.; Watkins, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    aurora maintained by HF-accelerated (non-thermal) electrons. The numerical results presented here do not necessarily rule out the presence of HF-accelerated electrons with energies exceeding 18 eV. However, vertical or field-aligned airglow intensity measurements made during twilight conditions do not provide definitive evidence of energetic HF-accelerated electrons. Consequently, artificial blue-line airglow measurements should not be used to estimate N2+ ionization rates without also accounting for temperature-dependent chemistry and diffusion. Future experiments that make simultaneous measurements of N2+ ion airglow emissions from both the first negative bands and the Meinel bands can potentially resolve the relative contributions of accelerated electron and resonant scattering mechanisms. Airglow emission rates from these bands are expected to be in strict proportion when the emissions result from electron impact ionization of N2 molecules. Side-view altitude-resolved 4278-Å airglow measurements may also indicate the presence of energetic HF-accelerated electrons if the blue-line emissions are determined to occur below the shadow height.

  2. Decomposition of PCBs in transformer oil using an electron beam accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, In-Ha; Lee, Myun-Joo; Mah, Yoon-Jung

    2012-07-01

    Decomposition of PCBs in commercially used transformer oil used for more than 30 years has been carried out at normal temperature and pressure without any additives using an electron beam accelerator. The experiments were carried out in two ways: batch and continuous pilot plant with 1.5 MeV of energy, a 50 mA current, and 75 kW of power in a commercial scale accelerator. The electron beam irradiation seemed to transform large molecular weight compounds into lower ones, but the impact was considered too small on the physical properties of oil. Residual concentrations of PCBs after irradiation depend on the absorption dose of the electron beam energy, but aliphatic chloride compounds were produced at higher doses of irradiation. As the results from FT-NMR, chloride ions decomposed from the PCBs are likely to react with aliphatic hydro carbon compounds rather than existing as free radical ions in the transformer oil. Since this is a dry process, treated oil can be used as cutting oil or machine oil for heavy equipment without any additional treatments.

  3. Interaction of an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train with a W-band accelerating structure: High power and high gradient

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, D.; Antipov, S.; Jing, C.; ...

    2016-02-05

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to themore » interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. As a result, measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method.« less

  4. Statistical Comparisons of Meso- and Small-Scale Field-Aligned Currents with Auroral Electron Acceleration Mechanisms from FAST Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dombeck, J. P.; Cattell, C. A.; Prasad, N.; Sakher, A.; Hanson, E.; McFadden, J. P.; Strangeway, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Field-aligned currents (FACs) provide a fundamental driver and means of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (M-I) coupling. These currents need to be supported by local physics along the entire field line generally with quasi-static potential structures, but also supporting the time-evolution of the structures and currents, producing Alfvén waves and Alfvénic electron acceleration. In regions of upward current, precipitating auroral electrons are accelerated earthward. These processes can result in ion outflow, changes in ionospheric conductivity, and affect the particle distributions on the field line, affecting the M-I coupling processes supporting the individual FACs and potentially the entire FAC system. The FAST mission was well suited to study both the FACs and the electron auroral acceleration processes. We present the results of the comparisons between meso- and small-scale FACs determined from FAST using the method of Peria, et al., 2000, and our FAST auroral acceleration mechanism study when such identification is possible for the entire ˜13 year FAST mission. We also present the latest results of the electron energy (and number) flux ionospheric input based on acceleration mechanism (and FAC characteristics) from our FAST auroral acceleration mechanism study.

  5. Electron energy distributions measured during electron beam/plasma interactions. [in E region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, R. J.; Anderson, H. R.; Mcgarity, J. O.

    1980-01-01

    In the large vacuum facility at the NASA-Johnson Space Center an electron beam was projected 20 m parallel to B from a gun with variable accelerating potential (1.0 to 2.5 kV) to an aluminum target. The ionospheric neutral pressure and field were approximated. Beam electron energy distributions were measured directly using an electrostatic deflection analyzer and indirectly with a detector that responded to the X-rays produced by electron impact on the target. At low currents the distribution is sharply peaked at the acceleration potential. At high currents a beam plasma discharge occurs and electrons are redistributed in energy so that the former energy peak broadens to 10-15 percent FWHM with a strongly enhanced low energy tail. At the 10% of maximum point the energy spectrum ranges from less than 1/2 to 1.2 times the gun energy. The effect is qualitatively the same at all pitch angles and locations sampled.

  6. Intercomparison of photon dose measurements at the 8 MeV electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelescu, T.; Ghiordănescu, N.; Băl ţă ţeanu, N.; Labău, V.; Vasilescu, A.

    1997-02-01

    Measurements of dose with thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) and an ionisation chamber were performed in the range of 5-70 Gy in the electron bremsstrahlung field with a maximum energy of 8 MeV of the Bucharest linear accelerator. Previous calibration was done with a 60Co source. The results of the intercomparison were used in dosimetry of the n - γ field of the ΣΣ irradiation facility, with a photon spectrum similar to the 8 MeV bremsstrahlung field [T. Angelescu et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 378 (1996) 594].

  7. Acceleration and Propagation of Anomalous Cosmic Rays and Near-Relativistic Electrons in the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelof, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Voyager 1/2 LECP observations at the termination shock (TS) crossings established that energetic ions (40keV-1MeV) appeared to be locally accelerated "termination shock particles", and since then have exhibited remarkably steady and similar intensities at both spacecraft throughout the heliosheath (HS). On the other hand, the anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs, 4-80 MeV total energy H, He, and O ions) increased more or less steadily across the shock and then gradually peaked years later. All the time in the HS, the ACRs at each spacecraft exhibited a striking "common spectrum", i.e., closely similar intensity histories when ordered by total energy. Near-relativistic electrons (30 keV-1 MeV) exhibited seemingly mutually inconsistent behavior while the two Voyagers transited the shock and HS, with the VGR2 electrons peaking at the shock, but later disappearing for a year (in 2010) and then slowly recovering, as opposed to the less variable VGR1 electrons whose remarkably smooth time history (2008-2012) was very similar to the VGR1 ACRs. Consequently, shock acceleration seems to be operating locally at the TS along with another spatially distributed acceleration/transport mechanism within the HS. The "reservoir" equation (Roelof, AIP Conf. Proc., 1500, 174-179 and 180-184, 2012) offers quantitative explanations for many of these apparently disparate observations. Meso-scale gradients and curvatures in the magnetic field produce transverse transport of energetic particles and (in direct consequence) "transverse compressive" acceleration that relates the fractional rate of momentum d(lnp)/dt=-(1/3)div(Vperp) to the divergence of the component of the plasma velocity transverse to the magnetic field. However, this acceleration rate must compete with the extinction rate of singly-charged ions due to charge exchange with the cold interstellar neutral H-atoms that permeate the HS. The agreement of the Voyager 1/2 LECP observations with the acceleration/extinction processes has

  8. Control of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators with adjustable shock density profile

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Hai-En; Swanson, Kelly K.; Barber, Sam K.

    The injection physics in a shock-induced density down-ramp injector was characterized, demonstrating precise control of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA). Using a jet-blade assembly, experiments systematically v aried the shock injector profile, including shock angle, shock position, up-ramp width, and acceleration length. Our work demonstrates that beam energy, energy spread, and pointing can be controlled by adjusting these parameters. As a result, an electron beam that was highly tunable from 25 to 300 MeV with 8% energy spread (ΔE FWHM/E), 1.5 mrad divergence, and 0.35 mrad pointing fluctuation was produced. Particle-in-cell simulation characterized how variation in the shock angle and up-rampmore » width impacted the injection process. This highly controllable LPA represents a suitable, compact electron beam source for LPA applications such as Thomson sources and free-electron lasers.« less

  9. Control of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators with adjustable shock density profile

    DOE PAGES

    Tsai, Hai-En; Swanson, Kelly K.; Barber, Sam K.; ...

    2018-04-13

    The injection physics in a shock-induced density down-ramp injector was characterized, demonstrating precise control of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA). Using a jet-blade assembly, experiments systematically v aried the shock injector profile, including shock angle, shock position, up-ramp width, and acceleration length. Our work demonstrates that beam energy, energy spread, and pointing can be controlled by adjusting these parameters. As a result, an electron beam that was highly tunable from 25 to 300 MeV with 8% energy spread (ΔE FWHM/E), 1.5 mrad divergence, and 0.35 mrad pointing fluctuation was produced. Particle-in-cell simulation characterized how variation in the shock angle and up-rampmore » width impacted the injection process. This highly controllable LPA represents a suitable, compact electron beam source for LPA applications such as Thomson sources and free-electron lasers.« less

  10. Control of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators with adjustable shock density profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Swanson, Kelly K.; Barber, Sam K.; Lehe, Remi; Mao, Hann-Shin; Mittelberger, Daniel E.; Steinke, Sven; Nakamura, Kei; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Leemans, Wim

    2018-04-01

    The injection physics in a shock-induced density down-ramp injector was characterized, demonstrating precise control of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA). Using a jet-blade assembly, experiments systematically varied the shock injector profile, including shock angle, shock position, up-ramp width, and acceleration length. Our work demonstrates that beam energy, energy spread, and pointing can be controlled by adjusting these parameters. As a result, an electron beam that was highly tunable from 25 to 300 MeV with 8% energy spread (ΔEFWHM/E), 1.5 mrad divergence, and 0.35 mrad pointing fluctuation was produced. Particle-in-cell simulation characterized how variation in the shock angle and up-ramp width impacted the injection process. This highly controllable LPA represents a suitable, compact electron beam source for LPA applications such as Thomson sources and free-electron lasers.

  11. Parametric emittance measurements of electron beams produced by a laser plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, S. K.; van Tilborg, J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Lehe, R.; Tsai, H.-E.; Swanson, K. K.; Steinke, S.; Nakamura, K.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2018-05-01

    Laser plasma accelerators (LPA) offer an exciting possibility to deliver high energy, high brightness electrons beams in drastically smaller distance scales than is typical for conventional accelerators. As such, LPAs draw considerable attention as potential drivers for next generation light sources and for a compact linear collider. In order to asses the viability of an LPA source for a particular application, the brightness of the source should be properly characterized. In this paper, we present charge dependent transverse emittance measurements of LPA sources using both ionization injection and shock induced density down ramp injection, with the latter delivering smaller transverse emittances by a factor of two when controlling for charge density. The single shot emittance method is described in detail with a discussion on limitations related to second order transport effects. The direct role of space charge is explored through a series of simulations and found to be consistent with experimental observations.

  12. Acceleration of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays in starburst superwinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo

    2018-03-01

    The sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) have been stubbornly elusive. However, the latest report of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides a compelling indication for a possible correlation between the arrival directions of UHECRs and nearby starburst galaxies. We argue that if starbursts are sources of UHECRs, then particle acceleration in the large-scale terminal shock of the superwind that flows from the starburst engine represents the best known concept model in the market. We investigate new constraints on the model and readjust free parameters accordingly. We show that UHECR acceleration above about 1 011 GeV remains consistent with observation. We also show that the model could accommodate hard source spectra as required by Auger data. We demonstrate how neutrino emission can be used as a discriminator among acceleration models.

  13. A direct current rectification scheme for microwave space power conversion using traveling wave electron acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    The formation of the Vision-21 conference held three years ago allowed the present author to reflect and speculate on the problem of converting electromagnetic energy to a direct current by essentially reversing the process used in traveling wave tubes that converts energy in the form of a direct current to electromagnetic energy. The idea was to use the electric field of the electromagnetic wave to produce electrons through the field emission process and accelerate these electrons by the same field to produce an electric current across a large potential difference. The acceleration process was that of cyclotron auto-resonance. Since that time, this rather speculative ideas has been developed into a method that shows great promise and for which a patent is pending and a prototype design will be demonstrated in a potential laser power beaming application. From the point of view of the author, a forum such as Vision-21 is becoming an essential component in the rather conservative climate in which our initiatives for space exploration are presently formed. Exchanges such as Vision-21 not only allows us to deviate from the 'by-the-book' approach and rediscover the ability and power in imagination, but provides for the discussion of ideas hitherto considered 'crazy' so that they may be given the change to transcend from the level of eccentricity to applicability.

  14. Generation of low-emittance electron beams in electrostatic accelerators for FEL applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Teng; Elias, Luis R.

    1995-02-01

    This paper reports results of transverse emittance studies and beam propagation in electrostatic accelerators for free electron laser applications. In particular, we discuss emittance growth analysis of a low current electron beam system consisting of a miniature thermoionic electron gun and a National Electrostatics Accelerator (NEC) tube. The emittance growth phenomenon is discussed in terms of thermal effects in the electron gun cathode and aberrations produced by field gradient changes occurring inside the electron gun and throughout the accelerator tube. A method of reducing aberrations using a magnetic solenoidal field is described. Analysis of electron beam emittance was done with the EGUN code. Beam propagation along the accelerator tube was studied using a cylindrically symmetric beam envelope equation that included beam self-fields and the external accelerator fields which were derived from POISSON simulations.

  15. Faint Coronal Hard X-rays From Accelerated Electrons in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glesener, Lindsay Erin

    Solar flares are huge explosions on the Sun that release a tremendous amount of energy from the coronal magnetic field, up to 1033 ergs, in a short time (100--1000 seconds), with much of the energy going into accelerated electrons and ions. An efficient acceleration mechanism is needed, but the details of this mechanism remain relatively unknown. A fraction of this explosive energy reaches the Earth in the form of energetic particles, producing geomagnetic storms and posing dangers to spaceborne instruments, astronauts, and Earthbound power grids. There are thus practical reasons, as well as intellectual ones, for wishing to understand this extraordinary form of energy release. Through imaging spectroscopy of the hard X-ray (HXR) emission from solar flares, the behavior of flare-accelerated electrons can be studied. The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI ) spacecraft launched in 2002 with the goal of better understanding flare particle acceleration. Using rotation modulation collimators, RHESSI is able to cover a wide energy range (3 keV--17 MeV) with fine angular and energy resolutions. RHESSI's success in the last 10 years in investigating the relationship between energetic electrons and ions, the nature of faint sources in the corona, the energy distribution of flares, and several other topics have significantly advanced the understanding of flares. But along with the wealth of information revealed by RHESSI come some clear observational challenges. Very few, if any, RHESSI observations have come close to imaging the electron acceleration region itself. This is undoubtedly due to a lack of both sensitivity (HXRs from electron beams in the tenuous corona are faint) and dynamic range (HXR sources at chromospheric flare footpoints are much brighter and tend to obscure faint coronal sources). Greater sensitivity is also required to investigate the role that small flares in the quiet Sun could play in heating the corona. The Focusing Optics

  16. Time-resolved energy spectrum measurement of a linear induction accelerator with the magnetic analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Guo; Yang, Guo-Jun; Chen, Si-Fu; Zhang, Zhuo; Wei, Tao; Li, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We recently set up a time-resolved optical beam diagnostic system. Using this system, we measured the high current electron beam energy in the accelerator under construction. This paper introduces the principle of the diagnostic system, describes the setup, and shows the results. A bending beam line was designed using an existing magnetic analyzer with a 300 mm-bending radius and a 60° bending angle at hard-edge approximation. Calculations show that the magnitude of the beam energy is about 18 MeV, and the energy spread is within 2%. Our results agree well with the initial estimates deduced from the diode voltage approach.

  17. Application of magnetically insulated transmission lines for high current, high voltage electron beam accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shope, S. L.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Frost, C. A.; Poukey, J. W.; Turman, B. N.

    Self Magnetically Insulated Transmission Lines (MITL) adders were used successfully in a number of Sandia accelerators such as HELIA, HERMES III, and SABRE. Most recently we used at MITL adder in the RADLAC/SMILE electron beam accelerator to produce high quality, small radius (r(sub rho) less than 2 cm), 11 - 15 MeV, 50 - 100-kA beams with a small transverse velocity v(perpendicular)/c = beta(perpendicular) less than or equal to 0.1. In RADLAC/SMILE, a coaxial MITL passed through the eight, 2 MV vacuum envelopes. The MITL summed the voltages of all eight feeds to a single foilless diode. The experimental results are in good agreement with code simulations. Our success with the MITL technology led us to investigate the application to higher energy accelerator designs. We have a conceptual design for a cavity-fed MITL that sums the voltages from 100 identical, inductively-isolated cavities. Each cavity is a toroidal structure that is driven simultaneously by four 8-ohm pulse-forming lines, providing a 1-MV voltage pulse to each of the 100 cavities. The point design accelerator is 100 MV, 500 kA, with a 30 - 50 ns FWHM output pulse.

  18. Electronic energy density in chemical reaction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Akitomo

    2001-08-01

    The energy of chemical reaction is visualized in real space using the electronic energy density nE(r⃗) associated with the electron density n(r⃗). The electronic energy density nE(r⃗) is decomposed into the kinetic energy density nT(r⃗), the external potential energy density nV(r⃗), and the interelectron potential energy density nW(r⃗). Using the electronic energy density nE(r⃗) we can pick up any point in a chemical reaction system and find how the electronic energy E is assigned to the selected point. We can then integrate the electronic energy density nE(r⃗) in any region R surrounding the point and find out the regional electronic energy ER to the global E. The kinetic energy density nT(r⃗) is used to identify the intrinsic shape of the reactants, the electronic transition state, and the reaction products along the course of the chemical reaction coordinate. The intrinsic shape is identified with the electronic interface S that discriminates the region RD of the electronic drop from the region RA of the electronic atmosphere in the density distribution of the electron gas. If the R spans the whole space, then the integral gives the total E. The regional electronic energy ER in thermodynamic ensemble is realized in electrochemistry as the intrinsic Volta electric potential φR and the intrinsic Herring-Nichols work function ΦR. We have picked up first a hydrogen-like atom for which we have analytical exact expressions of the relativistic kinetic energy density nTM(r⃗) and its nonrelativistic version nT(r⃗). These expressions are valid for any excited bound states as well as the ground state. Second, we have selected the following five reaction systems and show the figures of the nT(r⃗) as well as the other energy densities along the intrinsic reaction coordinates: a protonation reaction to He, addition reactions of HF to C2H4 and C2H2, hydrogen abstraction reactions of NH3+ from HF and NH3. Valence electrons possess their unique

  19. Electron gyroharmonic effects in ionization and electron acceleration during high-frequency pumping in the ionosphere.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, B; Leyser, T B; Kosch, M; Rietveld, M T; Steen, A; Brändström, B U E; Aso, T

    2006-11-10

    Optical emissions and incoherent scatter radar data obtained during high-frequency electromagnetic pumping of the ionospheric plasma from the ground give data on electron energization in an energy range from 2 to 100 eV. Optical emissions at 4278 A from N2+ that require electrons with energies above the 18 eV ionization energy give the first images ever of pump-induced ionization of the thermosphere. The intensity at 4278 A is asymmetric around the ionospheric electron gyroharmonic, being stronger above the gyroresonance. This contrasts with emissions at 6300 A from O(1D) and of electron temperature enhancements, which have minima at the gyroharmonic but have no apparent asymmetry. This direct evidence of pump-induced ionization contradicts previous indirect evidence, which indicated that ionization is most efficiently produced when the pump frequency was below the gyroharmonic.

  20. Energy Conversion Mechanism for Electron Perpendicular Energy in High Guide-Field Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xuehan; Horiuchi, Ritoku; Kaminou, Yasuhiro; Cheng, Frank; Ono, Yasushi

    2016-10-01

    The energy conversion mechanism for electron perpendicular energy, both the thermal and the kinetic energy, is investigated by means of two-dimensional, full-particle simulations in an open system. It is shown that electron perpendicular heating is mainly due to the breaking of magnetic moment conservation in separatrix region because the charge separation generates intense variation of electric field within the electron Larmor radius. Meanwhile, electron perpendicular acceleration takes place manly due to the polarization drift term as well as the curvature drift term of E . u⊥ in the downstream near the X-point. The enhanced electric field due to the charge separation there results in a significant effect of the polarization drift term on the dissipation of magnetic energy within the ion inertia length in the downstream. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS) Fellows 15J03758.

  1. Optical control of hard X-ray polarization by electron injection in a laser wakefield accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Michael; Sävert, Alexander; Uschmann, Ingo; Reuter, Maria; Nicolai, Maria; Kämpfer, Tino; Landgraf, Björn; Jäckel, Oliver; Jansen, Oliver; Pukhov, Alexander; Kaluza, Malte Christoph; Spielmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Laser-plasma particle accelerators could provide more compact sources of high-energy radiation than conventional accelerators. Moreover, because they deliver radiation in femtosecond pulses, they could improve the time resolution of X-ray absorption techniques. Here we show that we can measure and control the polarization of ultra-short, broad-band keV photon pulses emitted from a laser-plasma-based betatron source. The electron trajectories and hence the polarization of the emitted X-rays are experimentally controlled by the pulse-front tilt of the driving laser pulses. Particle-in-cell simulations show that an asymmetric plasma wave can be driven by a tilted pulse front and a non-symmetric intensity distribution of the focal spot. Both lead to a notable off-axis electron injection followed by collective electron–betatron oscillations. We expect that our method for an all-optical steering is not only useful for plasma-based X-ray sources but also has significance for future laser-based particle accelerators. PMID:24026068

  2. Slow positron beam production by a 14 MeV C.W. electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begemann, M.; Gräff, G.; Herminghaus, H.; Kalinowsky, H.; Ley, R.

    1982-10-01

    A 14 MeV c.w. electron accelerator is used for pair production in a tungsten target of 0.7 radiation lengths thickness. A small fraction of the positrons is thermalized and diffuses out of the surface ofsurface of a well annealed tungsten foil coated with MgO which is positioned immediately behind the target. The slow positrons are extracted from the target region and magnetically guided over a distance of 10 m onto a channelplate multiplier at the end of an S-shaped solenoid. The positrons are identified by their annihilation radiation using two NaI-detectors. The intensity of the slow positrons is proportional to the accelerator electron beam current. The maximum intensity of 2.2 × 10 5 slow positrons per second reaching thedetector at an accelerator current of 15 μA was limited by the power deposited in the uncooled target. The energy of the positrons is concentrated in a small region at about 1 eV and clearly demonstrates the emission of thermal positrons.

  3. Low energy electron catalyst: the electronic origin of catalytic strategies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daly; Sajeev, Y

    2016-10-12

    Using a low energy electron (LEE) as a catalyst, the electronic origin of the catalytic strategies corresponding to substrate selectivity, reaction specificity and reaction rate enhancement is investigated for a reversible unimolecular elementary reaction. An electronic energy complementarity between the catalyst and the substrate molecule is the origin of substrate selectivity and reaction specificity. The electronic energy complementarity is induced by tuning the electronic energy of the catalyst. The energy complementarity maximizes the binding forces between the catalyst and the molecule. Consequently, a new electronically metastable high-energy reactant state and a corresponding new low barrier reaction path are resonantly created for a specific reaction of the substrate through the formation of a catalyst-substrate transient adduct. The LEE catalysis also reveals a fundamental structure-energy correspondence in the formation of the catalyst-substrate transient adduct. Since the energy complementarities corresponding to the substrate molecules of the forward and the backward steps of the reversible reactions are not the same due to their structural differences, the LEE catalyst exhibits a unique one-way catalytic strategy, i.e., the LEE catalyst favors the reversible reaction more effectively in one direction. A characteristic stronger binding of the catalyst to the transition state of the reaction than in the initial reactant state and the final product state is the molecular origin of barrier lowering.

  4. Two Step Acceleration Process of Electrons in the Outer Van Allen Radiation Belt by Time Domain Electric Field Bursts and Large Amplitude Chorus Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Lejosne, S.

    2014-12-01

    A huge number of different non-linear structures (double layers, electron holes, non-linear whistlers, etc) have been observed by the electric field experiment on the Van Allen Probes in conjunction with relativistic electron acceleration in the Earth's outer radiation belt. These structures, found as short duration (~0.1 msec) quasi-periodic bursts of electric field in the high time resolution electric field waveform, have been called Time Domain Structures (TDS). They can quite effectively interact with radiation belt electrons. Due to the trapping of electrons into these non-linear structures, they are accelerated up to ~10 keV and their pitch angles are changed, especially for low energies (˜1 keV). Large amplitude electric field perturbations cause non-linear resonant trapping of electrons into the effective potential of the TDS and these electrons are then accelerated in the non-homogeneous magnetic field. These locally accelerated electrons create the "seed population" of several keV electrons that can be accelerated by coherent, large amplitude, upper band whistler waves to MeV energies in this two step acceleration process. All the elements of this chain acceleration mechanism have been observed by the Van Allen Probes.

  5. Femtosecond MeV Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R. K.; Wang, X. J.

    2017-11-01

    Pump-probe electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) with femtosecond temporal resolution will be a transformative research tool for studying nonequilibrium chemistry and electronic dynamics of matter. In this paper, we propose a concept of femtosecond EELS utilizing mega-electron-volt electron beams from a radio-frequency (rf) photocathode source. The high acceleration gradient and high beam energy of the rf gun are critical to the generation of 10-fs electron beams, which enables an improvement of the temporal resolution by more than 1 order of magnitude beyond the state of the art. In our proposal, the "reference-beam technique" relaxes the energy stability requirement of the rf power source by roughly 2 orders of magnitude. The requirements for the electron-beam quality, photocathode, spectrometer, and detector are also discussed. Supported by particle-tracking simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of achieving sub-electron-volt energy resolution and approximately 10-fs temporal resolution with existing or near-future hardware performance.

  6. Free electron lasers driven by linear induction accelerators: High power radiation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orzechowski, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    The technology of Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and linear induction accelerators (LIAs) is addressed by outlining the following topics: fundamentals of FELs; basic concepts of linear induction accelerators; the Electron Laser Facility (a microwave FEL); PALADIN (an infrared FEL); magnetic switching; IMP; and future directions (relativistic klystrons). This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  7. Enhanced quasi-static particle-in-cell simulation of electron cloud instabilities in circular accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bing

    Electron cloud instabilities have been observed in many circular accelerators around the world and raised concerns of future accelerators and possible upgrades. In this thesis, the electron cloud instabilities are studied with the quasi-static particle-in-cell (PIC) code QuickPIC. Modeling in three-dimensions the long timescale propagation of beam in electron clouds in circular accelerators requires faster and more efficient simulation codes. Thousands of processors are easily available for parallel computations. However, it is not straightforward to increase the effective speed of the simulation by running the same problem size on an increasingly number of processors because there is a limit to domain size in the decomposition of the two-dimensional part of the code. A pipelining algorithm applied on the fully parallelized particle-in-cell code QuickPIC is implemented to overcome this limit. The pipelining algorithm uses multiple groups of processors and optimizes the job allocation on the processors in parallel computing. With this novel algorithm, it is possible to use on the order of 102 processors, and to expand the scale and the speed of the simulation with QuickPIC by a similar factor. In addition to the efficiency improvement with the pipelining algorithm, the fidelity of QuickPIC is enhanced by adding two physics models, the beam space charge effect and the dispersion effect. Simulation of two specific circular machines is performed with the enhanced QuickPIC. First, the proposed upgrade to the Fermilab Main Injector is studied with an eye upon guiding the design of the upgrade and code validation. Moderate emittance growth is observed for the upgrade of increasing the bunch population by 5 times. But the simulation also shows that increasing the beam energy from 8GeV to 20GeV or above can effectively limit the emittance growth. Then the enhanced QuickPIC is used to simulate the electron cloud effect on electron beam in the Cornell Energy Recovery Linac

  8. End-boundary sheath potential, electron and ion energy distribution in the low-pressure non-ambipolar electron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lee; Chen, Zhiying; Funk, Merritt

    2013-12-01

    The end-boundary floating-surface sheath potential, electron and ion energy distribution functions (EEDf, IEDf) in the low-pressure non-ambipolar electron plasma (NEP) are investigated. The NEP is heated by an electron beam extracted from an inductively coupled electron-source plasma (ICP) through a dielectric injector by an accelerator located inside the NEP. This plasma's EEDf has a Maxwellian bulk followed by a broad energy continuum connecting to the most energetic group with energies around the beam energy. The NEP pressure is 1-3 mTorr of N2 and the ICP pressure is 5-15 mTorr of Ar. The accelerator is biased positively from 80 to 600 V and the ICP power range is 200-300 W. The NEP EEDf and IEDf are determined using a retarding field energy analyser. The EEDf and IEDf are measured at various NEP pressures, ICP pressures and powers as a function of accelerator voltage. The accelerator current and sheath potential are also measured. The IEDf reveals mono-energetic ions with adjustable energy and it is proportionally controlled by the sheath potential. The NEP end-boundary floating surface is bombarded by a mono-energetic, space-charge-neutral plasma beam. When the injected energetic electron beam is adequately damped by the NEP, the sheath potential is linearly controlled at almost a 1 : 1 ratio by the accelerator voltage. If the NEP parameters cannot damp the electron beam sufficiently, leaving an excess amount of electron-beam power deposited on the floating surface, the sheath potential will collapse and become unresponsive to the accelerator voltage.

  9. Radiation pressure acceleration: The factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy

    DOE PAGES

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; ...

    2016-04-15

    Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case,more » finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it transparent for radiation and effectively terminating the acceleration. The off-normal incidence of the laser on the target, due either to the experimental setup, or to the deformation of the target, will also lead to establishing a limit on maximum ion energy.« less

  10. MeV electron acceleration at 1kHz with <10 mJ laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Fatholah; Goers, Andy; Hine, George; Feder, Linus; Kuk, Donghoon; Kim, Ki-Yong; Milchberg, Howard

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate laser driven acceleration of electrons at 1 kHz repetition rate with pC charge above 1MeV per shot using < 10 mJ pulse energies focused on a near-critical density He or H2 gas jet. Using the H2 gas jet, electron acceleration to 0.5 MeV in 10 fC bunches was observed with laser pulse energy as low as 1.3mJ . Using a near-critical density gas jet sets the critical power required for relativistic self-focusing low enough for mJ scale laser pulses to self- focus and drive strong wakefields. Experiments and particle-in-cell simulations show that optimal drive pulse duration and chirp for maximum electron bunch charge and energy depends on the target gas species. High repetition rate, high charge, and short duration electron bunches driven by very modest pulse energies constitutes an ideal portable electron source for applications such as ultrafast electron diffraction experiments and high rep. rate γ-ray production. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  11. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    ScienceCinema

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2018-05-18

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  12. ELECTRON ACCELERATION AT A CORONAL SHOCK PROPAGATING THROUGH A LARGE-SCALE STREAMER-LIKE MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Xiangliang; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei

    2016-04-10

    Using a test-particle simulation, we investigate the effect of large-scale coronal magnetic fields on electron acceleration at an outward-propagating coronal shock with a circular front. The coronal field is approximated by an analytical solution with a streamer-like magnetic field featuring a partially open magnetic field and a current sheet at the equator atop the closed region. We show that the large-scale shock-field configuration, especially the relative curvature of the shock and the magnetic field line across which the shock is sweeping, plays an important role in the efficiency of electron acceleration. At low shock altitudes, when the shock curvature ismore » larger than that of the magnetic field lines, the electrons are mainly accelerated at the shock flanks; at higher altitudes, when the shock curvature is smaller, the electrons are mainly accelerated at the shock nose around the top of closed field lines. The above process reveals the shift of the efficient electron acceleration region along the shock front during its propagation. We also find that, in general, the electron acceleration at the shock flank is not as efficient as that at the top of the closed field because a collapsing magnetic trap can be formed at the top. In addition, we find that the energy spectra of electrons are power-law-like, first hardening then softening with the spectral index varying in a range of −3 to −6. Physical interpretations of the results and implications for the study of solar radio bursts are discussed.« less

  13. Electron acceleration at a coronal shock propagating through a large-scale streamer-like magnetic field

    DOE PAGES

    Kong, Xiangliang; Chen, Yao; Guo, Fan; ...

    2016-04-05

    With a test-particle simulation, we investigate the effect of large-scale coronal magnetic fields on electron acceleration at an outward-propagating coronal shock with a circular front. The coronal field is approximated by an analytical solution with a streamer-like magnetic field featured by partially open magnetic field and a current sheet at the equator atop the closed region. We show that the large-scale shock-field configuration, especially the relative curvature of the shock and the magnetic field line across which the shock is sweeping, plays an important role in the efficiency of electron acceleration. At low shock altitudes, when the shock curvature ismore » larger than that of magnetic field lines, the electrons are mainly accelerated at the shock flanks; at higher altitudes, when the shock curvature is smaller, the electrons are mainly accelerated at the shock nose around the top of closed field lines. The above process reveals the shift of efficient electron acceleration region along the shock front during its propagation. We also found that in general the electron acceleration at the shock flank is not so efficient as that at the top of closed field since at the top a collapsing magnetic trap can be formed. In addition, we find that the energy spectra of electrons is power-law like, first hardening then softening with the spectral index varying in a range of -3 to -6. In conclusion, physical interpretations of the results and implications on the study of solar radio bursts are discussed.« less

  14. Attainment of Electron Beam Suitable for Medium Energy Electron Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, Sergei M.

    Electron cooling of charged particle beams is a well-established technique at electron energies of up to 300 keV. However, up to the present time the advance of electron cooling to the MeV-range energies has remained a purely theoretical possibility. The electron cooling project at Fermilab has recently demonstrated the ¯rst cooling of 8.9 GeV/c antiprotons in the Recycler ring, and therefore, has proved the validity of the idea of relativistic electron cool- ing. The Recycler Electron Cooler (REC) is the key component of the Teva- tron Run II luminosity upgrade project. Its performance depends critically on the quality of electronmore » beam. A stable electron beam of 4.3 MeV car- rying 0.5 A of DC current is required. The beam suitable for the Recycler Electron Cooler must have an angular spread not exceeding 200 ¹rad. The full-scale prototype of the REC was designed, built and tested at Fermilab in the Wideband laboratory to study the feasibility of attaining the high-quality electron beam. In this thesis I describe various aspects of development of the Fermilab electron cooling system, and the techniques used to obtain the electron beam suitable for the cooling process. In particular I emphasize those aspects of the work for which I was principally responsible.« less

  15. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in electron beams: energy dependence.

    PubMed

    Robar, V; Zankowski, C; Olivares Pla, M; Podgorsak, E B

    1996-05-01

    The response of thermoluminescent dosimeters to electron irradiations depends on the radiation dose, mean electron energy at the position of the dosimeter in phantom, and the size of the dosimeter. In this paper the semi-empirical expression proposed by Holt et al. [Phys. Med. Biol. 20, 559-570 (1975)] is combined with the calculated electron dose fraction to determine the thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) response as a function of the mean electron energy and the dosimeter size. The electron and photon dose fractions, defined as the relative contributions of electrons and bremsstrahlung photons to the total dose for a clinical electron beam, are calculated with Monte Carlo techniques using EGS4. Agreement between the calculated and measured TLD response is very good. We show that the considerable reduction in TLD response per unit dose at low electron energies, i.e., at large depths in phantom, is offset by an ever-increasing relative contribution of bremsstrahlung photons to the total dose of clinical electron beams. This renders the TLD sufficiently reliable for dose measurements over the entire electron depth dose distribution despite the dependence of the TLD response on electron beam energy.

  16. Initial Observations of Micropulse Elongation of Electron Beams in a SCRF Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Edstrom Jr., D.

    2016-10-09

    Commissioning at the SCRF accelerator at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) Facility has included the implementation of a versatile bunch-length monitor located after the 4-dipole chicane bunch compressor for electron beam energies of 20-50 MeV and integrated charges in excess of 10 nC. The team has initially used a Hamamatsu C5680 synchroscan streak camera to assess the effects of space charge on the electron beam bunch lengths. An Al-coated Si screen was used to generate optical transition radiation (OTR) resulting from the beam’s interaction with the screen. The chicane bypass beamline allowed the measurements of the bunch lengthmore » without the compression stage at the downstream beamline location using OTR and the streak camera. We have observed electron beam bunch lengths from 5 to 16 ps (sigma) for micropulse charges of 60 pC to 800 pC, respectively. We also report a compressed sub-ps micropulse case.« less

  17. Energy spectra variations of high energy electrons in magnetic storms observed by ARASE and HIMAWARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, T.; Higashio, N.; Mitani, T.; Nagatsuma, T.; Yoshizumi, M.

    2017-12-01

    The ARASE spacecraft was launched in December 20, 2016 to investigate mechanisms for acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts during space storms. The six particle instruments with wide energy range (a few eV to 10MeV) are onboard the ARASE spacecraft. Especially, two particle instruments, HEP and XEP observe high energy electron with energy range from 70keV to over 10Mev. Those instruments observed several geomagnetic storms caused by coronal hole high speed streams or coronal mass ejections from March in 2017. The relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt were disappeared/increased and their energy spectra were changed dynamically in some storms observed by XEP/HEP onboard the ARASE spacecraft. In the same time, SEDA-e with energy range 200keV-4.5MeV for electron on board the HIMAWARI-8, Japanese weather satellite on GEO, observed increase of relativistic electron in different local time. We will report on energy spectra variations of high energy electrons including calibrations of differential flux between XEP and HEP and discuss comparisons with energy spectra between ARAE and HIMAWARI that observed each storm in different local time.

  18. Electron and ion acceleration in relativistic shocks with applications to GRB afterglows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Donald C.; Ellison, Donald C.; Bykov, Andrei M.; Lee, Shiu-Hang

    2015-09-01

    We have modelled the simultaneous first-order Fermi shock acceleration of protons, electrons, and helium nuclei by relativistic shocks. By parametrizing the particle diffusion, our steady-state Monte Carlo simulation allows us to follow particles from particle injection at non-relativistic thermal energies to above PeV energies, including the non-linear smoothing of the shock structure due to cosmic ray (CR) backpressure. We observe the mass-to-charge (A/Z) enhancement effect believed to occur in efficient Fermi acceleration in non-relativistic shocks and we parametrize the transfer of ion energy to electrons seen in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. For a given set of environmental and model parameters, the Monte Carlo simulation determines the absolute normalization of the particle distributions and the resulting synchrotron, inverse Compton, and pion-decay emission in a largely self-consistent manner. The simulation is flexible and can be readily used with a wide range of parameters typical of γ-ray burst (GRB) afterglows. We describe some preliminary results for photon emission from shocks of different Lorentz factors and outline how the Monte Carlo simulation can be generalized and coupled to hydrodynamic simulations of GRB blast waves. We assume Bohm diffusion for simplicity but emphasize that the non-linear effects we describe stem mainly from an extended shock precursor where higher energy particles diffuse further upstream. Quantitative differences will occur with different diffusion models, particularly for the maximum CR energy and photon emission, but these non-linear effects should be qualitatively similar as long as the scattering mean-free path is an increasing function of momentum.

  19. Shielding analyses for repetitive high energy pulsed power accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jow, H. N.; Rao, D. V.

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs, tests and operates a variety of accelerators that generate large amounts of high energy Bremsstrahlung radiation over an extended time. Typically, groups of similar accelerators are housed in a large building that is inaccessible to the general public. To facilitate independent operation of each accelerator, test cells are constructed around each accelerator to shield it from the radiation workers occupying surrounding test cells and work-areas. These test cells, about 9 ft. high, are constructed of high density concrete block walls that provide direct radiation shielding. Above the target areas (radiation sources), lead or steel plates are used to minimize skyshine radiation. Space, accessibility and cost considerations impose certain restrictions on the design of these test cells. SNL Health Physics division is tasked to evaluate the adequacy of each test cell design and compare resultant dose rates with the design criteria stated in DOE Order 5480.11. In response, SNL Health Physics has undertaken an intensive effort to assess existing radiation shielding codes and compare their predictions against measured dose rates. This paper provides a summary of the effort and its results.

  20. Electron acceleration by a tightly focused Hermite-Gaussian beam: higher-order corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Zhiguo; Institute of Laser Physics and Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064; Yang Dangxiao

    2008-03-15

    Taking the TEM{sub 1,0}-mode Hermite-Gaussian (H-G) beam as a numerical calculation example, and based on the method of the perturbation series expansion, the higher-order field corrections of H-G beams are derived and used to study the electron acceleration by a tightly focused H-G beam in vacuum. For the case of the off-axis injection the field corrections to the terms of order f{sup 3} (f=1/kw{sub 0}, k and w{sub 0} being the wavenumber and waist width, respectively) are considered, and for the case of the on-axis injection the contributions of the terms of higher orders are negligible. By a suitable optimizationmore » of injection parameters the energy gain in the giga-electron-volt regime can be achieved.« less

  1. Femtosecond MeV Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Li, R. K.; Wang, X. J.

    2017-11-09

    Pump-probe electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) with femtosecond temporal resolution will be a transformative research tool for studying nonequilibrium chemistry and electronic dynamics of matter. Here in this article, we propose a concept of femtosecond EELS utilizing mega-electron-volt electron beams from a radio-frequency (rf) photocathode source. The high acceleration gradient and high beam energy of the rf gun are critical to the generation of 10-fs electron beams, which enables an improvement of the temporal resolution by more than 1 order of magnitude beyond the state of the art. In our proposal, the “referencebeam technique” relaxes the energy stability requirement of themore » rf power source by roughly 2 orders of magnitude. The requirements for the electron-beam quality, photocathode, spectrometer, and detector are also discussed. Supported by particle-tracking simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of achieving subelectron- volt energy resolution and approximately 10-fs temporal resolution with existing or near-future hardware performance.« less

  2. Femtosecond MeV Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, R. K.; Wang, X. J.

    Pump-probe electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) with femtosecond temporal resolution will be a transformative research tool for studying nonequilibrium chemistry and electronic dynamics of matter. Here in this article, we propose a concept of femtosecond EELS utilizing mega-electron-volt electron beams from a radio-frequency (rf) photocathode source. The high acceleration gradient and high beam energy of the rf gun are critical to the generation of 10-fs electron beams, which enables an improvement of the temporal resolution by more than 1 order of magnitude beyond the state of the art. In our proposal, the “referencebeam technique” relaxes the energy stability requirement of themore » rf power source by roughly 2 orders of magnitude. The requirements for the electron-beam quality, photocathode, spectrometer, and detector are also discussed. Supported by particle-tracking simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of achieving subelectron- volt energy resolution and approximately 10-fs temporal resolution with existing or near-future hardware performance.« less

  3. Basic design considerations for free-electron lasers driven by electron beams from RF accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gover, A.; Freund, H.; Granatstein, V. L.; McAdoo, J. H.; Tang, C.-M.

    A design procedure and design criteria are derived for free-electron lasers driven by electron beams from RF accelerators. The procedure and criteria permit an estimate of the oscillation-buildup time and the laser output power of various FEL schemes: with waveguide resonator or open resonator, with initial seed-radiation injection or with spontaneous-emission radiation source, with a linear wiggler or with a helical wiggler. Expressions are derived for computing the various FEL parameters, allowing for the design and optimization of the FEL operational characteristics under ideal conditions or with nonideal design parameters that may be limited by technological or practical constraints. The design procedure enables one to derive engineering curves and scaling laws for the FEL operating parameters. This can be done most conveniently with a computer program based on flowcharts given in the appendices.

  4. Trajectories of electrons with large longitudinal momenta in the phase plane during surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtichyan, G. S., E-mail: hay-13@mail.ru

    2015-07-15

    The trajectories of electrons with large longitudinal momenta in the phase plane in the course of their surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave propagating in space plasma across the external magnetic field are analyzed. Electrons with large longitudinal momenta are trapped immediately if the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory is positive. For negative values of Ψ(0), no electrons trapping by the wave is observed over the available computational times. According to numerical calculations, the trajectories of trapped particles in the phase plane have a singular point of the stable focus type and the behavior of the trajectorymore » corresponds to the motion in a complex nonstationary effective potential well. For some initial phases, electrons are confined in the region of the accelerating electric field for relatively short time, the energy gain being about 50–130% and more.« less

  5. Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Solar Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Ponseca, Carlito S; Chábera, Pavel; Uhlig, Jens; Persson, Petter; Sundström, Villy

    2017-08-23

    Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted. In photocatalytic solar fuel production, these electron processes are coupled to chemical reactions leading to storage of the energy of light in chemical bonds. With the focus on the ultrafast time scale, we here discuss the light-induced electron processes underlying the function of several molecular and hybrid materials currently under development for solar energy applications in dye or quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, polymer-fullerene polymer solar cells, organometal halide perovskite solar cells, and finally some photocatalytic systems.

  6. Electronic Excitation of Furan by Low Energy Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargreaves, Leigh R.; Khakoo, Murtadha A.; Lopes, Maria Cristina A.; da Costa, Romarly; Bettega, Marcio H. F.; Lima, Marco A. P.

    2011-10-01

    We present absolute differential cross section (DCS) measurements and calculations of electron impact excitation of the lowest lying triplet 3B2 and 3A1 electronic states of furan. The incident electron energy range of the present study was 5-15eV. The experimental data were normalized to the elastic DCS data of. The cross sections were determined by unfolding electron energy loss spectra, using an open source data analysis package and the spectroscopic assignments of. The calculations employ a Multichannel Schwinger method with a 9-state closed coupling CI configuration including polarized pseudo-potentials. The preliminary theoretical results show reasonable agreement with experiment below 10eV, but differ at higher energies. Funded by the US NSF and the Brazilian funding agencies CNPq, CAPES and FAPESP.

  7. The role of three-dimensional transport in driving enhanced electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlin, J. T.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important driver of energetic particles in many astrophysical phenomena. Using kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, we explore the impact of three-dimensional reconnection dynamics on the efficiency of particle acceleration. In two-dimensional systems, Alfvénic outflows expel energetic electrons into flux ropes where they become trapped and disconnected from acceleration regions. However, in three-dimensional systems these flux ropes develop an axial structure that enables particles to leak out and return to acceleration regions. This requires a finite guide field so that particles may move quickly along the flux rope axis. We show that greatest energetic electron production occurs when the guide field is of the same order as the reconnecting component: large enough to facilitate strong transport, but not so large as to throttle the dominant Fermi mechanism responsible for efficient electron acceleration. This suggests a natural explanation for the envelope of electron acceleration during the impulsive phase of eruptive flares.

  8. Electron injection and acceleration in the plasma bubble regime driven by an ultraintense laser pulse combined with using dense-plasma wall and block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xue-Yan; Xie, Bai-Song; Wu, Hai-Cheng; Zhang, Shan; Hong, Xue-Ren; Aimidula, Aimierding

    2012-03-01

    An optimizing and alternative scheme for electron injection and acceleration in the wake bubble driven by an ultraintense laser pulse is presented. In this scheme, the dense-plasma wall with an inner diameter matching the expected bubble size is placed along laser propagation direction. Meanwhile, a dense-plasma block dense-plasma is adhered inward transversely at some certain position of the wall. Particle-in-cell simulations are performed, which demonstrate that the block plays an important role in the first electron injection and acceleration. The result shows that a collimated electron bunch with a total number of about 4.04×108μm-1 can be generated and accelerated stably to 1.61 GeV peak energy with 2.6% energy spread. The block contributes about 50% to the accelerated electron injection bunch by tracing and sorting statistically the source.

  9. The Scanning Electron Microscope As An Accelerator For The Undergraduate Advanced Physics Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Randolph S.; Berggren, Karl K.; Mondol, Mark

    2011-06-01

    Few universities or colleges have an accelerator for use with advanced physics laboratories, but many of these institutions have a scanning electron microscope (SEM) on site, often in the biology department. As an accelerator for the undergraduate, advanced physics laboratory, the SEM is an excellent substitute for an ion accelerator. Although there are no nuclear physics experiments that can be performed with a typical 30 kV SEM, there is an opportunity for experimental work on accelerator physics, atomic physics, electron-solid interactions, and the basics of modern e-beam lithography.

  10. Acceleration of deuterons with suppression of electronic conductance in a vacuum diode with a laser target on the anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikanov, A. E.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Kozlovskii, K. I.; Shatokhin, V. L.

    2016-12-01

    We report new experimental results on the acceleration of deuterons in a compact coaxial diode with the suppression of electronic conductance by a constant longitudinal magnetic field. Plasma containing deuterons is created on a laser TiD target located on the anode. The pulse of accelerating voltage is formed by means of the Arkad'ev-Marx generator. The cathode symmetrically surrounds the anode and comprises a hollow permanent ring magnet with an inner radius of no more than 0.02 m and an on-axis induction of up to 0.4 T, which provides the magnetic insulation of the accelerating gap. The experiments demonstrate the possibility of obtaining accelerated deuterons with energy of up to 300 keV and a current of up to 0.5 kA with a pulse duration of 0.2 μs.

  11. First Observations of Laser-Driven Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons in a Semi-Infinite Vacuum Space

    SciTech Connect

    Plettner, T.; Byer, R.L.; Smith, T.I.

    2006-02-17

    We have observed acceleration of relativistic electrons in vacuum driven by a linearly polarized visible laser beam incident on a thin gold-coated reflective boundary. The observed energy modulation effect follows all the characteristics expected for linear acceleration caused by a longitudinal electric field. As predicted by the Lawson-Woodward theorem the laser driven modulation only appears in the presence of the boundary. It shows a linear dependence with the strength of the electric field of the laser beam and also it is critically dependent on the laser polarization. Finally, it appears to follow the expected angular dependence of the inverse transitionmore » radiation process. experiment as the Laser Electron Accelerator Project (LEAP).« less

  12. Calculations of beam dynamics in Sandia linear electron accelerators, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Poukey, J.W.; Coleman, P.D.

    1985-03-01

    A number of code and analytic studies were made during 1984 which pertain to the Sandia linear accelerators MABE and RADLAC. In this report the authors summarize the important results of the calculations. New results include a better understanding of gap-induced radial oscillations, leakage currents in a typical MABE gas, emittance growth in a beam passing through a series of gaps, some new diocotron results, and the latest diode simulations for both accelerators. 23 references, 30 figures, 1 table.

  13. Study of photon emission by electron capture during solar nuclei acceleration. 3: Photon production evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    Lower limits of photon fluxes were evaluated from electron capture during acceleration in solar flares, because the arbitrary q sub c asterisk assumed in this work evolves very slow with velocity, probably much more slowly than the physical actual situation: in fact, more emission is expected toward the IR region. Nevertheless the authors claim to show that the factibility of sounding acceleration processes, charge evolution processes and physical parameters of the source itself, by the observational analysis of this kind of emissions. For instance, it would be interesting to search observationally, for the predicted flux and energy drift of F sub e ions interacting with the atomic 0 and F sub e of the source matter, or, even more feasible for the X-ray lines at 4.2 keV and 2.624 + 0.003 KeV from Fe and S ions in ionized Fe at T = 10 to the 7th power K respectively, the 418 + or - 2 eV and 20 + or - 4 eV lines of Fe and S in ionized Fe at 5 x 10 to the 6th power K, which are predicted from Fermi acceleration.

  14. THE MECHANISMS OF ELECTRON ACCELERATION DURING MULTIPLE X LINE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION WITH A GUIDE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can

    2016-04-20

    The interactions between magnetic islands are considered to play an important role in electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection. In this paper, two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed to study electron acceleration during multiple X line reconnection with a guide field. Because the electrons remain almost magnetized, we can analyze the contributions of the parallel electric field, Fermi, and betatron mechanisms to electron acceleration during the evolution of magnetic reconnection through comparison with a guide-center theory. The results show that with the magnetic reconnection proceeding, two magnetic islands are formed in the simulation domain. Next, the electrons are accelerated by both themore » parallel electric field in the vicinity of the X lines and the Fermi mechanism due to the contraction of the two magnetic islands. Then, the two magnetic islands begin to merge into one, and, in such a process, the electrons can be accelerated by both the parallel electric field and betatron mechanisms. During the betatron acceleration, the electrons are locally accelerated in the regions where the magnetic field is piled up by the high-speed flow from the X line. At last, when the coalescence of the two islands into one big island finishes, the electrons can be further accelerated by the Fermi mechanism because of the contraction of the big island. With the increase of the guide field, the contributions of the Fermi and betatron mechanisms to electron acceleration become less and less important. When the guide field is sufficiently large, the contributions of the Fermi and betatron mechanisms are almost negligible.« less

  15. Detectors for low energy electron cooling in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Carlier, F. S.

    Low-energy operation of RHIC is of particular interest to study the location of a possible critical point in the QCD phase diagram. The performance of RHIC at energies equal to or lower than 10 GV/nucleon is limited by nonlinearities, Intra-BeamScattering (IBS) processes and space-charge effects. To successfully address the luminosity and ion store lifetime limitations imposed by IBS, the method of electron cooling has been envisaged. During electron cooling processes electrons are injected along with the ion beam at the nominal ion bunch velocities. The velocity spread of the ion beam is reduced in all planes through Coulomb interactions betweenmore » the cold electron beam and the ion beam. The electron cooling system proposed for RHIC will be the first of its kind to use bunched beams for the delivery of the electron bunches, and will therefore be accompanied by the necessary challenges. The designed electron cooler will be located in IP2. The electron bunches will be accelerated by a linac before being injected along side the ion beams. Thirty consecutive electron bunches will be injected to overlap with a single ion bunch. They will first cool the yellow beam before being extracted, turned by 180-degrees, and reinjected into the blue beam for cooling. As such, both the yellow and blue beams will be cooled by the same ion bunches. This will pose considerable challenges to ensure proper electron beam quality to cool the second ion beam. Furthermore, no ondulator will be used in the electron cooler so radiative recombination between the ions and the electrons will occur.« less

  16. Favorable target positions for intense laser acceleration of electrons in hydrogen-like, highly-charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, Liang-Wen; Starace, Anthony F.; Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-4030

    2015-09-15

    Classical relativistic Monte Carlo simulations of petawatt laser acceleration of electrons bound initially in hydrogen-like, highly-charged ions show that both the angles and energies of the laser-accelerated electrons depend on the initial ion positions with respect to the laser focus. Electrons bound in ions located after the laser focus generally acquire higher (≈GeV) energies and are ejected at smaller angles with respect to the laser beam. Our simulations assume a tightly-focused linearly-polarized laser pulse with intensity approaching 10{sup 22 }W/cm{sup 2}. Up to fifth order corrections to the paraxial approximation of the laser field in the focal region are taken intomore » account. In addition to the laser intensity, the Rayleigh length in the focal region is shown to play a significant role in maximizing the final energy of the accelerated electrons. Results are presented for both Ne{sup 9+} and Ar{sup 17+} target ions.« less

  17. Shielding calculations for industrial 5/7.5MeV electron accelerators using the MCNP Monte Carlo Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peri, Eyal; Orion, Itzhak

    2017-09-01

    High energy X-rays from accelerators are used to irradiate food ingredients to prevent growth and development of unwanted biological organisms in food, and by that extend the shelf life of the products. The production of X-rays is done by accelerating 5 MeV electrons and bombarding them into a heavy target (high Z). Since 2004, the FDA has approved using 7.5 MeV energy, providing higher production rates with lower treatments costs. In this study we calculated all the essential data needed for a straightforward concrete shielding design of typical food accelerator rooms. The following evaluation is done using the MCNP Monte Carlo code system: (1) Angular dependence (0-180°) of photon dose rate for 5 MeV and 7.5 MeV electron beams bombarding iron, aluminum, gold, tantalum, and tungsten targets. (2) Angular dependence (0-180°) spectral distribution simulations of bremsstrahlung for gold, tantalum, and tungsten bombarded by 5 MeV and 7.5 MeV electron beams. (3) Concrete attenuation calculations in several photon emission angles for the 5 MeV and 7.5 MeV electron beams bombarding a tantalum target. Based on the simulation, we calculated the expected increase in dose rate for facilities intending to increase the energy from 5 MeV to 7.5 MeV, and the concrete width needed to be added in order to keep the existing dose rate unchanged.

  18. Applications in Energy, Optics and Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the applications of thin films in energy, optics and electronics. The use of thin-film technologies for heat mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, interference filters, solar cells, and metal contacts is included. (HM)

  19. Diffraction of electrons at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascolani, H.; Barrachina, R. O.; Guraya, M. M.; Zampieri, G.

    1992-08-01

    We present a theory of the elastic scattering of electrons from crystalline surfaces that contains both low-energy-electron-diffraction (LEED) effects at low energies and x-ray-photoelectron- and Auger-electron-diffraction (XPD/AED) effects at intermediate energies. The theory is based on a cluster-type approach to the scattering problem and includes temperature effects. The transition from one regime to the other may be explained as follows: At low energies all the scattered waves add coherently, and the intensity is dominated by LEED effects. At intermediate energies the thermal vibration of the atoms destroys the long-range coherency responsible for the LEED peaks, but affects little the interference of those waves that share parts of their paths inside the solid. Thus, the interference of these waves comes to dominate the intensity, giving rise to structures similar to those observed in XPD/AED experiments. We perform a calculation of the elastic reflection of electrons from Cu(001) that is in good agreement with the experiment in the range 200-1500 eV. At low energies the intensity is dominated by LEED peaks; at 400 eV LEED peaks and XPD/AED structures coexist; and above this energy the intensity is dominated by the latter. We analyze the contributions to the intensity at intermediate energies of the interferences in the incoming and outgoing parts of the electron path.

  20. Effect of injection-gas concentration on the electron beam quality from a laser-plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaie, Mohammad; Zhang, Guobo; Li, Song; Gao, Kai; Li, Guangyu; Ain, Quratul; Hafz, Nasr A. M.

    2018-04-01

    By using 25-45 TW ultra-short (30 fs) laser pulses, we report on the effect of the injection gas concentration on the quality of electron beams generated by a laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration employing the ionization-injection. For a plasma formed from helium-nitrogen gas mixture and depending on the concentration of the nitrogen gas, we could distinguish a clear trend for the quality of the generated electron beams in terms of their peak energy, energy-spread, divergence angle, and beam charge. The results clearly showed that the lower the nitrogen concentration, the better the quality (higher peak energy, smaller energy spread, and smaller emittance) of the generated electron beams. The results are in reasonable agreement with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations.

  1. High-quality electron beams from beam-driven plasma accelerators by wakefield-induced ionization injection.

    PubMed

    Martinez de la Ossa, A; Grebenyuk, J; Mehrling, T; Schaper, L; Osterhoff, J

    2013-12-13

    We propose a new and simple strategy for controlled ionization-induced trapping of electrons in a beam-driven plasma accelerator. The presented method directly exploits electric wakefields to ionize electrons from a dopant gas and capture them into a well-defined volume of the accelerating and focusing wake phase, leading to high-quality witness bunches. This injection principle is explained by example of three-dimensional particle-in-cell calculations using the code OSIRIS. In these simulations a high-current-density electron-beam driver excites plasma waves in the blowout regime inside a fully ionized hydrogen plasma of density 5×10(17)cm-3. Within an embedded 100  μm long plasma column contaminated with neutral helium gas, the wakefields trigger ionization, trapping of a defined fraction of the released electrons, and subsequent acceleration. The hereby generated electron beam features a 1.5 kA peak current, 1.5  μm transverse normalized emittance, an uncorrelated energy spread of 0.3% on a GeV-energy scale, and few femtosecond bunch length.

  2. An energy-dependent electron backscattering coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, W., Jr.; Antolak, A. J.; Meredith, R. J.

    1987-05-01

    An energy-dependent electron backscattering coefficient is derived based on the continuous slowing down approximation and the Bethe stopping power. Backscattering coefficients are given for 10-50-keV electrons incident on bulk and thin-film aluminum, silver, and gold targets. The results are compared with the Everhart theory and empirical fits to experimental data. The energy-dependent theory agrees better with experimental work.

  3. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    DOEpatents

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  4. Shock Acceleration of Electrons and Synchrotron Emission from the Dynamical Ejecta of Neutron Star Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shiu-Hang; Maeda, Keiichi; Kawanaka, Norita

    2018-05-01

    Neutron star mergers (NSMs) eject energetic subrelativistic dynamical ejecta into circumbinary media. Analogous to supernovae and supernova remnants, the NSM dynamical ejecta are expected to produce nonthermal emission by electrons accelerated at a shock wave. In this paper, we present the expected radio and X-ray signals by this mechanism, taking into account nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) and magnetic field amplification. We suggest that the NSM is unique as a DSA site, where the seed relativistic electrons are abundantly provided by the decays of r-process elements. The signal is predicted to peak at a few 100–1000 days after the merger, determined by the balance between the decrease of the number of seed electrons and the increase of the dissipated kinetic energy, due to the shock expansion. While the resulting flux can ideally reach the maximum flux expected from near-equipartition, the available kinetic energy dissipation rate of the NSM ejecta limits the detectability of such a signal. It is likely that the radio and X-ray emission are overwhelmed by other mechanisms (e.g., an off-axis jet) for an observer placed in a jet direction (i.e., for GW170817). However, for an off-axis observer, to be discovered once a number of NSMs are identified, the dynamical ejecta component is predicted to dominate the nonthermal emission. While the detection of this signal is challenging even with near-future facilities, this potentially provides a robust probe of the creation of r-process elements in NSMs.

  5. Generating multi-GeV electron bunches using single stage laser wakefield acceleration in a 3D nonlinear regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, W.; Tzoufras, M.; Joshi, C.; Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.; Vieira, J.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2007-06-01

    The extraordinary ability of space-charge waves in plasmas to accelerate charged particles at gradients that are orders of magnitude greater than in current accelerators has been well documented. We develop a phenomenological framework for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) in the 3D nonlinear regime, in which the plasma electrons are expelled by the radiation pressure of a short pulse laser, leading to nearly complete blowout. Our theory provides a recipe for designing a LWFA for given laser and plasma parameters and estimates the number and the energy of the accelerated electrons whether self-injected or externally injected. These formulas apply for self-guided as well as externally guided pulses (e.g. by plasma channels). We demonstrate our results by presenting a sample particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of a 30fs, 200 TW laser interacting with a 0.75 cm long plasma with density 1.5×1018cm-3 to produce an ultrashort (10 fs) monoenergetic bunch of self-injected electrons at 1.5 GeV with 0.3 nC of charge. For future higher-energy accelerator applications, we propose a parameter space, which is distinct from that described by Gordienko and Pukhov [Phys. Plasmas 12, 043109 (2005)PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.1884126] in that it involves lower plasma densities and wider spot sizes while keeping the intensity relatively constant. We find that this helps increase the output electron beam energy while keeping the efficiency high.

  6. Microdosimetry of low-energy electrons.

    PubMed

    Liamsuwan, Thiansin; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris; Uehara, Shuzo; Nikjoo, Hooshang

    2012-12-01

    To investigate differences in energy depositions and microdosimetric parameters of low-energy electrons in liquid and gaseous water using Monte Carlo track structure simulations. KURBUC-liq (Kyushu University and Radiobiology Unit Code for liquid water) was used for simulating electron tracks in liquid water. The inelastic scattering cross sections of liquid water were obtained from the dielectric response model of Emfietzoglou et al. (Radiation Research 2005;164:202-211). Frequencies of energy deposited in nanometre-size cylindrical targets per unit absorbed dose and associated lineal energies were calculated for 100-5000 eV monoenergetic electrons and the electron spectrum of carbon K edge X-rays. The results for liquid water were compared with those for water vapour. Regardless of electron energy, there is a limit how much energy electron tracks can deposit in a target. Phase effects on the frequencies of energy depositions are largely visible for the targets with diameters and heights smaller than 30 nm. For the target of 2.3 nm by 2.3 nm (similar to dimension of DNA segments), the calculated frequency- and dose-mean lineal energies for liquid water are up to 40% smaller than those for water vapour. The corresponding difference is less than 12% for the targets with diameters ≥ 30 nm. Condensed-phase effects are non-negligible for microdosimetry of low-energy electrons for targets with sizes smaller than a few tens of nanometres, similar to dimensions of DNA molecular structures and nucleosomes.

  7. Accelerated weight histogram method for exploring free energy landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, V.; Lidmar, J.; Hess, B.

    2014-07-01

    Calculating free energies is an important and notoriously difficult task for molecular simulations. The rapid increase in computational power has made it possible to probe increasingly complex systems, yet extracting accurate free energies from these simulations remains a major challenge. Fully exploring the free energy landscape of, say, a biological macromolecule typically requires sampling large conformational changes and slow transitions. Often, the only feasible way to study such a system is to simulate it using an enhanced sampling method. The accelerated weight histogram (AWH) method is a new, efficient extended ensemble sampling technique which adaptively biases the simulation to promote exploration of the free energy landscape. The AWH method uses a probability weight histogram which allows for efficient free energy updates and results in an easy discretization procedure. A major advantage of the method is its general formulation, making it a powerful platform for developing further extensions and analyzing its relation to already existing methods. Here, we demonstrate its efficiency and general applicability by calculating the potential of mean force along a reaction coordinate for both a single dimension and multiple dimensions. We make use of a non-uniform, free energy dependent target distribution in reaction coordinate space so that computational efforts are not wasted on physically irrelevant regions. We present numerical results for molecular dynamics simulations of lithium acetate in solution and chignolin, a 10-residue long peptide that folds into a β-hairpin. We further present practical guidelines for setting up and running an AWH simulation.

  8. Accelerated weight histogram method for exploring free energy landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, V; Lidmar, J; Hess, B

    2014-07-28

    Calculating free energies is an important and notoriously difficult task for molecular simulations. The rapid increase in computational power has made it possible to probe increasingly complex systems, yet extracting accurate free energies from these simulations remains a major challenge. Fully exploring the free energy landscape of, say, a biological macromolecule typically requires sampling large conformational changes and slow transitions. Often, the only feasible way to study such a system is to simulate it using an enhanced sampling method. The accelerated weight histogram (AWH) method is a new, efficient extended ensemble sampling technique which adaptively biases the simulation to promote exploration of the free energy landscape. The AWH method uses a probability weight histogram which allows for efficient free energy updates and results in an easy discretization procedure. A major advantage of the method is its general formulation, making it a powerful platform for developing further extensions and analyzing its relation to already existing methods. Here, we demonstrate its efficiency and general applicability by calculating the potential of mean force along a reaction coordinate for both a single dimension and multiple dimensions. We make use of a non-uniform, free energy dependent target distribution in reaction coordinate space so that computational efforts are not wasted on physically irrelevant regions. We present numerical results for molecular dynamics simulations of lithium acetate in solution and chignolin, a 10-residue long peptide that folds into a β-hairpin. We further present practical guidelines for setting up and running an AWH simulation.

  9. Insights into electron and ion acceleration and transport from x-ray and gamma-ray imaging spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, Gordon J.; Krucker, Samuel

    The previous solar maximum has featured high resolution imaging/spectroscopy observations at hard x-ray and gamma-ray energies by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar/Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). Highlights of these observations will be reviewed, along with their impli-cations for our understanding of ion and electron acceleration and transport processes. The results to date have included new insights into the location of the acceleration region and the thick target model, a new appreciation of the significance of x-ray albedo, observation of coronal gamma-ray sources and their implications for electron trapping, and indications of differences in the acceleration and transport between electrons and ions. The role of RHESSI's observational strengths and weaknesses in determining the character of its scientific results will also be discussed and used to identify what aspects of the acceleration and transport processes must await the next generation of instrumentation. The extent to which new instrumentation now under development, such as Solar Orbiter/STIX, GRIPS, and FOXSI, can address these open issues will be outlined.

  10. Photoneutron radiation field of ducts in barrier of 15 MV medical electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Chen, Yi-shui; Tu, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Shielding body of the high-energy medical electron accelerators is always penetrated by ducts, which would influence the shielding capability of local barrier. In order to quantitatively analyze the duct's impact on shielding of the photoneutron from 15 MV accelerators, the ambient dose equivalent rate and energy spectrum at the center of a typical duct and the external mouth of duct were calculated based on MCNP program for the first time. The results demonstrate that leakage neutrons at the external mouth of duct are mainly thermal neutron, and its dose rate is decreased with the increase of the intersection angle between duct and wall as well as the reduction of duct diameter. When a duct in a diameter no more than 30 cm penetrates the wall unidirectionally and the inclined Angle (θ) is 60°, neutron dose rate at the external mouth of duct could meet the requirements of protection. At last, according to the calculation results, some suggestions are proposed for the shielding design of ducts in walls.

  11. Fluence Uniformity Measurements in an Electron Accelerator Used for Irradiation of Extended Area Solar Cells and Electronic Circuits for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uribe, Roberto M.; Filppi, Ed; Zhang, Shubo

    2007-01-01

    It is common to have liquid crystal displays and electronic circuit boards with area sizes of the order of 20x20 sq cm on board of satellites and space vehicles. Usually irradiating them at different fluence values assesses the radiation damage in these types of devices. As a result, there is a need for a radiation source with large spatial fluence uniformity for the study of the damage by radiation from space in those devices. Kent State University s Program on Electron Beam Technology has access to an electron accelerator used for both research and industrial applications. The electron accelerator produces electrons with energies in the interval from 1 to 5 MeV and a maximum beam power of 150 kW. At such high power levels, the electron beam is continuously scanned back and forth in one dimension in order to provide uniform irradiation and to prevent damage to the sample. This allows for the uniform irradiation of samples with an area of up to 1.32 sq m. This accelerator has been used in the past for the study of radiation damage in solar cells (1). However in order to irradiate extended area solar cells there was a need to measure the uniformity of the irradiation zone in terms of fluence. In this paper the methodology to measure the fluence uniformity on a sample handling system (linear motion system), used for the irradiation of research samples, along the irradiation zone of the above-mentioned facility is described and the results presented. We also illustrate the use of the electron accelerator for the irradiation of large area solar cells (of the order of 156 sq cm) and include in this paper the electrical characterization of these types of solar cells irradiated with 5 MeV electrons to a total fluence of 2.6 x 10(exp 15) e/sq cm.

  12. Beam dynamics performances and applications of a low-energy electron-beam magnetic bunch compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Prokop, C. R.; Piot, P.; Carlsten, B. E.

    2013-08-01

    Many front-end applications of electron linear accelerators rely on the production of temporally compressed bunches. The shortening of electron bunches is often realized with magnetic bunch compressors located in high-energy sections of accelerators. Magnetic compression is subject to collective effects including space charge and self interaction via coherent synchrotron radiation. In this paper we explore the application of magnetic compression to low-energy (~40MeV), high-charge (nC) electron bunches with low normalized transverse emittances (<5@mm).

  13. Electronic Devices and Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Centre-Southwest, Waco, TX.

    This course in electronic devices and systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  14. Hold the Applause!: Do Accelerated Reader (TM) and Electronic Bookshelf (TM) Send the Right Message?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Betty

    1996-01-01

    Although the computerized reading management programs, Accelerated Reader and Electronic Bookshelf, increase library circulation and standardized test scores, they have drawbacks. Both programs devalue reading, diminish motivation, limit title choice, restrict materials selection and collection development, discourage independent selection of…

  15. Accelerating Clean Energy Commercialization. A Strategic Partnership Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Richard; Pless, Jacquelyn; Arent, Douglas J.

    Technology development in the clean energy and broader clean tech space has proven to be challenging. Long-standing methods for advancing clean energy technologies from science to commercialization are best known for relatively slow, linear progression through research and development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D); and characterized by well-known valleys of death for financing. Investment returns expected by traditional venture capital investors have been difficult to achieve, particularly for hardware-centric innovations, and companies that are subject to project finance risks. Commercialization support from incubators and accelerators has helped address these challenges by offering more support services to start-ups; however, more effort ismore » needed to fulfill the desired clean energy future. The emergence of new strategic investors and partners in recent years has opened up innovative opportunities for clean tech entrepreneurs, and novel commercialization models are emerging that involve new alliances among clean energy companies, RDD&D, support systems, and strategic customers. For instance, Wells Fargo and Company (WFC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have launched a new technology incubator that supports faster commercialization through a focus on technology development. The incubator combines strategic financing, technology and technical assistance, strategic customer site validation, and ongoing financial support.« less

  16. Acceleration of plasma electrons by intense nonrelativistic ion and electron beams propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we study the effects of the two-stream instability on the propagation of intense nonrelativistic ion and electron beams in background plasma. Development of the two-stream instability between the beam ions and plasma electrons leads to beam breakup, a slowing down of the beam particles, acceleration of the plasma particles, and transfer of the beam energy to the plasma particles and wave excitations. Making use of the particle-in-cell codes EDIPIC and LSP, and analytic theory we have simulated the effects of the two-stream instability on beam propagation over a wide range of beam and plasma parameters. Because of the two-stream instability the plasma electrons can be accelerated to velocities as high as twice the beam velocity. The resulting return current of the accelerated electrons may completely change the structure of the beam self - magnetic field, thereby changing its effect on the beam from focusing to defocusing. Therefore, previous theories of beam self-electromagnetic fields that did not take into account the effects of the two-stream instability must be significantly modified. This effect can be observed on the National Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II) facility by measuring the spot size of the extracted beamlet propagating through several meters of plasma. Particle-in-cell, fluid simulations, and analytical theory also reveal the rich complexity of beam- plasma interaction phenomena: intermittency and multiple regimes of the two-stream instability in dc discharges; band structure of the growth rate of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a bounded plasma and repeated acceleration of electrons in a finite system. In collaboration with E. Tokluoglu, D. Sydorenko, E. A. Startsev, J. Carlsson, and R. C. Davidson. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. High fidelity 3-dimensional models of beam-electron cloud interactions in circular accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiz Zarrin Ghalam, Ali

    Electron cloud is a low-density electron profile created inside the vacuum chamber of circular machines with positively charged beams. Electron cloud limits the peak current of the beam and degrades the beams' quality through luminosity degradation, emittance growth and head to tail or bunch to bunch instability. The adverse effects of electron cloud on long-term beam dynamics becomes more and more important as the beams go to higher and higher energies. This problem has become a major concern in many future circular machines design like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Due to the importance of the problem several simulation models have been developed to model long-term beam-electron cloud interaction. These models are based on "single kick approximation" where the electron cloud is assumed to be concentrated at one thin slab around the ring. While this model is efficient in terms of computational costs, it does not reflect the real physical situation as the forces from electron cloud to the beam are non-linear contrary to this model's assumption. To address the existing codes limitation, in this thesis a new model is developed to continuously model the beam-electron cloud interaction. The code is derived from a 3-D parallel Particle-In-Cell (PIC) model (QuickPIC) originally used for plasma wakefield acceleration research. To make the original model fit into circular machines environment, betatron and synchrotron equations of motions have been added to the code, also the effect of chromaticity, lattice structure have been included. QuickPIC is then benchmarked against one of the codes developed based on single kick approximation (HEAD-TAIL) for the transverse spot size of the beam in CERN-LHC. The growth predicted by QuickPIC is less than the one predicted by HEAD-TAIL. The code is then used to investigate the effect of electron cloud image charges on the long-term beam dynamics, particularly on the

  18. Beam dynamics study of a 30 MeV electron linear accelerator to drive a neutron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Yang, Haeryong; Kang, Heung-Sik

    2014-02-01

    An experimental neutron facility based on 32 MeV/18.47 kW electron linac has been studied by means of PARMELA simulation code. Beam dynamics study for a traveling wave constant gradient electron accelerator is carried out to reach the preferential operation parameters (E = 30 MeV, P = 18 kW, dE/E < 12.47% for 99% particles). The whole linac comprises mainly E-gun, pre-buncher, buncher, and 2 accelerating columns. A disk-loaded, on-axis-coupled, 2π/3-mode type accelerating rf cavity is considered for this linac. After numerous optimizations of linac parameters, 32 MeV beam energy is obtained at the end of the linac. As high electron energy is required to produce acceptable neutron flux. The final neutron flux is estimated to be 5 × 1011 n/cm2/s/mA. Future development will be the real design of a 30 MeV electron linac based on S band traveling wave.

  19. Resource Letter AFHEP-1: Accelerators for the Future of High-Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, William A.

    2012-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature concerning the development of accelerators for the future of high-energy physics. Research articles, books, and Internet resources are cited for the following topics: motivation for future accelerators, present accelerators for high-energy physics, possible future machine, and laboratory and collaboration websites.

  20. Stable electron beams from laser wakefield acceleration with few-terawatt driver using a supersonic air jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boháček, K.; Kozlová, M.; Nejdl, J.; Chaulagain, U.; Horný, V.; Krůs, M.; Ta Phuoc, K.

    2018-03-01

    The generation of stable electron beams produced by the laser wakefield acceleration mechanism with a few-terawatt laser system (600 mJ, 50 fs) in a supersonic synthetic air jet is reported and the requirements necessary to build such a stable electron source are experimentally investigated in conditions near the bubble regime threshold. The resulting electron beams have stable energies of (17.4 ± 1.1) MeV and an energy spread of (13.5 ± 1.5) MeV (FWHM), which has been achieved by optimizing the properties of the supersonic gas jet target for the given laser system. Due to the availability of few-terawatt laser systems in many laboratories around the world these stable electron beams open possibilities for applications of this type of particle source.

  1. Electron acceleration in the Solar corona - 3D PiC code simulations of guide field reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejandro Munoz Sepulveda, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    The efficient electron acceleration in the solar corona detected by means of hard X-ray emission is still not well understood. Magnetic reconnection through current sheets is one of the proposed production mechanisms of non-thermal electrons in solar flares. Previous works in this direction were based mostly on test particle calculations or 2D fully-kinetic PiC simulations. We have now studied the consequences of self-generated current-aligned instabilities on the electron acceleration mechanisms by 3D magnetic reconnection. For this sake, we carried out 3D Particle-in-Cell (PiC) code numerical simulations of force free reconnecting current sheets, appropriate for the description of the solar coronal plasmas. We find an efficient electron energization, evidenced by the formation of a non-thermal power-law tail with a hard spectral index smaller than -2 in the electron energy distribution function. We discuss and compare the influence of the parallel electric field versus the curvature and gradient drifts in the guiding-center approximation on the overall acceleration, and their dependence on different plasma parameters.

  2. Electron acceleration in a secondary magnetic island formed during magnetic reconnection with a guide field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Wang, Shui

    2017-05-01

    Secondary magnetic islands may be generated in the vicinity of an X line during magnetic reconnection. In this paper, by performing two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the role of a secondary magnetic island in electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection with a guide field. The electron motions are found to be adiabatic, and we analyze the contributions of the parallel electric field and Fermi and betatron mechanisms to electron acceleration in the secondary island during the evolution of magnetic reconnection. When the secondary island is formed, electrons are accelerated by the parallel electric field due to the existence of the reconnection electric field in the electron current sheet. Electrons can be accelerated by both the parallel electric field and Fermi mechanism when the secondary island begins to merge with the primary magnetic island, which is formed simultaneously with the appearance of X lines. With the increase in the guide field, the contributions of the Fermi mechanism to electron acceleration become less and less important. When the guide field is sufficiently large, the contribution of the Fermi mechanism is almost negligible.

  3. Load management strategy for Particle-In-Cell simulations in high energy particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, A.; Frederiksen, J. T.; Dérouillat, J.

    2016-09-01

    In the wake of the intense effort made for the experimental CILEX project, numerical simulation campaigns have been carried out in order to finalize the design of the facility and to identify optimal laser and plasma parameters. These simulations bring, of course, important insight into the fundamental physics at play. As a by-product, they also characterize the quality of our theoretical and numerical models. In this paper, we compare the results given by different codes and point out algorithmic limitations both in terms of physical accuracy and computational performances. These limitations are illustrated in the context of electron laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). The main limitation we identify in state-of-the-art Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes is computational load imbalance. We propose an innovative algorithm to deal with this specific issue as well as milestones towards a modern, accurate high-performance PIC code for high energy particle acceleration.

  4. MeV electron acceleration at 1 kHz with <10 mJ laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Fatholah; Goers, Andy; Hine, George; Feder, Linus; Kuk, Donghoon; Miao, Bo; Woodbury, Daniel; Kim, Ki-Yong; Milchberg, Howard

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate laser driven acceleration of electrons to MeV-scale energies at 1 kHz repetition rate using <10 mJ pulses focused on near-critical density He and H2 gas jets. Using the H2 gas jet, electron acceleration to 0.5 MeV in 10 fC bunches was observed with laser pulse energy as low as 1.3 mJ. Increasing the pulse energy to 10 mJ, we measure 1pC charge bunches with >1 MeV energy for both He and H gas jets. Such a high repetition rate, high flux ultrafast source has immediate application to time resolved probing of matter for scientific, medical, or security applications, either using the electrons directly or using a high-Z foil converter to generate ultrafast γ-rays. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  5. Image simulation for electron energy loss spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Oxley, Mark P.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2007-10-22

    In this paper, aberration correction of the probe forming optics of the scanning transmission electron microscope has allowed the probe-forming aperture to be increased in size, resulting in probes of the order of 1 Å in diameter. The next generation of correctors promise even smaller probes. Improved spectrometer optics also offers the possibility of larger electron energy loss spectrometry detectors. The localization of images based on core-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy is examined as function of both probe-forming aperture and detector size. The effective ionization is nonlocal in nature, and two common local approximations are compared to full nonlocal calculations.more » Finally, the affect of the channelling of the electron probe within the sample is also discussed.« less

  6. Electron acceleration in connection with radio noise storm onsets or enhancements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmer, N.; Trottet, G.

    2008-11-01

    Radio noise storms are generated by suprathermal (≃ 10 keV) electrons accelerated continuously over time scales of hours or days in active region magnetic fields. They are related to emerging magnetic loops interacting with overlying loops and leading to magnetic coronal reconfiguration (e.g. Bentley et al. 2000). Noise storm onsets or enhancements have been sometimes observed in association with a flare-like sudden energy release in the active region producing a localized microwave (Raulin et al. 1991) or soft X-ray brightening (Raulin & Klein 1994). A few cases have also been reported in which 10-30 keV emission from a superhot plasma or from non-thermal electrons have been observed at the onset of noise storms (Crosby et al. 1996) confirming that a flare-like energy release in the lower corona could be a necessary condition for noise storms to start. No spatially resolved hard X-ray observations were however available in the case of the latter analysis, allowing to check that the flare-like emission and the noise storm were originating from the same active region. We present here an event for which both radio and hard X-ray (HXR) spatially resolved observations are available.

  7. Performance characteristics and typical industrial applications of Selfshield® electron accelerators (< 300 kV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaronson, Judith N.; Nablo, Sam V.

    1985-05-01

    Selfshielded electron accelerators have been successfully used in industry for more than ten years. One of the important advantages of these machines is their compactness for easy adaptation to conventional coating and product finishing machinery. It is equally important that these machines qualify for use under "unrestricted" conditions as specified by OSHA. The shielding and product handling configurations which make this unrestricted designation possible for operating voltages under 300 kV are discussed. Thin film dosimetry techniques used for the determination of the machine performance parameters are discussed along with the rotary scanner techniques employed for the dose rate studies which are important in the application of these processors. Paper and wood coatings, which are important industrial applications involving electron initiated polymerization, are reviewed. The sterilization and disinfestation applications are also discussed. The increasing concern of these industries for the more efficient use of energy and for compliance with more stringent pollution regulations, coupled with the novel processes this energy source makes possible, assure a bright future for this developing technology.

  8. Ion response to relativistic electron bunches in the blowout regime of laser-plasma accelerators.

    PubMed

    Popov, K I; Rozmus, W; Bychenkov, V Yu; Naseri, N; Capjack, C E; Brantov, A V

    2010-11-05

    The ion response to relativistic electron bunches in the so called bubble or blowout regime of a laser-plasma accelerator is discussed. In response to the strong fields of the accelerated electrons the ions form a central filament along the laser axis that can be compressed to densities 2 orders of magnitude higher than the initial particle density. A theory of the filament formation and a model of ion self-compression are proposed. It is also shown that in the case of a sharp rear plasma-vacuum interface the ions can be accelerated by a combination of three basic mechanisms. The long time ion evolution that results from the strong electrostatic fields of an electron bunch provides a unique diagnostic of laser-plasma accelerators.

  9. The role of three-dimensional transport in driving enhanced electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisdak, M.; Dahlin, J. T.; Drake, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important driver of energetic particles in many space and astrophysical phenomena. Using kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, we explore the effects that the dynamics in three-dimensions has on reconnection and the efficiency of particle acceleration. In two-dimensional systems, Alfvenic outflows expel energetic electrons into flux ropes where they become trapped and disconnected from acceleration regions. However, in three-dimensional systems these flux ropes develop axial structure that enables particles to leak out and return to acceleration regions. This requires a finite guide field so that particles may move quickly along the flux rope axis. The greatest energetic electron production occurs when the guide field is of the same order as the reconnecting component: large enough to facilitate strong transport, but not so large as to throttle the dominant Fermi mechanism responsible for efficient electron acceleration.

  10. The design of the electron beam dump unit of Turkish Accelerator Center (TAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Cite, L. H., E-mail: hcite@gantep.edu.tr; Yilmaz, M., E-mail: Mustafa.Yilmaz@gaziantep.edu.tr

    The required simulations of the electron beam interactions for the design of electron beam dump unit for an accelerator which will operate to get two Infra-Red Free Electron Lasers (IR-FEL) covering the range of 3-250 microns is presented in this work. Simulations have been carried out to understand the interactions of a bulk of specially shaped of four different and widely used materials for the dump materials for a 77 pC, 40 MeV, 13 MHz repetition rate e-beam. In the simulation studies dump materials are chosen to absorb the 99% of the beam energy and to restrict the radio-isotope production in themore » bulk of the dump. A Lead shielding also designed around the dump core to prevent the leakage out of the all the emitted secondary radiations, e.g., neutrons, photons. The necessary dump material requirements, for the overall design considerations and the possible radiation originated effects on the dump unit, are discussed and presented.« less

  11. Neutron yield and induced radioactivity: a study of 235-MeV proton and 3-GeV electron accelerators.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yung-Cheng; Lai, Bo-Lun; Sheu, Rong-Jiun

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the magnitude of potential neutron yield and induced radioactivity of two new accelerators in Taiwan: a 235-MeV proton cyclotron for radiation therapy and a 3-GeV electron synchrotron serving as the injector for the Taiwan Photon Source. From a nuclear interaction point of view, neutron production from targets bombarded with high-energy particles is intrinsically related to the resulting target activation. Two multi-particle interaction and transport codes, FLUKA and MCNPX, were used in this study. To ensure prediction quality, much effort was devoted to the associated benchmark calculations. Comparisons of the accelerators' results for three target materials (copper, stainless steel and tissue) are presented. Although the proton-induced neutron yields were higher than those induced by electrons, the maximal neutron production rates of both accelerators were comparable according to their respective beam outputs during typical operation. Activation products in the targets of the two accelerators were unexpectedly similar because the primary reaction channels for proton- and electron-induced activation are (p,pn) and (γ,n), respectively. The resulting residual activities and remnant dose rates as a function of time were examined and discussed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The IBA Rhodotron: an industrial high-voltage high-powered electron beam accelerator for polymers radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Lancker, Marc; Herer, Arnold; Cleland, Marshall R.; Jongen, Yves; Abs, Michel

    1999-05-01

    The Rhodotron is a high-voltage, high-power electron beam accelerator based on a design concept first proposed in 1989 by J. Pottier of the French Atomic Agency, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA). In December 1991, the Belgian particle accelerator manufacturer, Ion Beam Applications s.a. (IBA) entered into an exclusive agreement with the CEA to develop and industrialize the Rhodotron. Electron beams have long been used as the preferential method to cross-link a variety of polymers, either in their bulk state or in their final form. Used extensively in the wire and cable industry to toughen insulating jackets, electron beam-treated plastics can demonstrate improved tensile and impact strength, greater abrasion resistance, increased temperature resistance and dramatically improved fire retardation. Electron beams are used to selectively cross-link or degrade a wide range of polymers in resin pellets form. Electron beams are also used for rapid curing of advanced composites, for cross-linking of floor-heating and sanitary pipes and for cross-linking of formed plastic parts. Other applications include: in-house and contract medical device sterilization, food irradiation in both electron and X-ray modes, pulp processing, electron beam doping of semi-conductors, gemstone coloration and general irradiation research. IBA currently markets three models of the Rhodotron, all capable of 10 MeV and alternate beam energies from 3 MeV upwards. The Rhodotron models TT100, TT200 and TT300 are typically specified with guaranteed beam powers of 35, 80 and 150 kW, respectively. Founded in 1986, IBA, a spin-off of the Cyclotron Research Center at the University of Louvain (UCL) in Belgium, is a pioneer in accelerator design for industrial-scale production.

  13. Lattice design and beam dynamics studies of the high energy beam transport line in the RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Jeon, Dong-O.

    2015-12-01

    In RAON heavy ion accelerator, beams generated by superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS) or Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) system are accelerated by lower energy superconducting linac and high energy superconducting linac. The accelerated beams are used in the high energy experimental hall which includes bio-medical and muon-SR facilities, after passing through the high energy beam transport lines. At the targets of those two facilities, the stable and small beams meeting the requirements rigorously are required in the transverse plane. Therefore the beams must be safely sent to the targets and simultaneously satisfy the two requirements, the achromatic condition and the mid-plane symmetric condition, of the targets. For this reason, the lattice design of the high energy beam transport lines in which the long deflecting sections are included is considered as a significant issue in the RAON accelerator. In this paper, we will describe the calculated beam optics satisfying the conditions and present the result of particle tracking simulations with the designed lattice of the high energy beam transport lines in the RAON accelerator. Also, the orbit distortion caused by the machine imperfections and the orbit correction with correctors will be discussed.

  14. Energy broadening due to space-charge oscillations in high current electron beams. [SEPAC payload experiment on Spacelab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, I.; Jongeward, G. A.; Parks, D. E.; Reasoner, D. L.; Purvis, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    During electron beam accelerator operation on Spacelab I, substantial fluxes of electrons were observed with energies greater than the initial beam energy. Numerical calculations are performed for the emission of an unneutralized, one-dimensional electron beam. These calculations show clearly that space charge oscillations, which are associated with the charge buildup on the emitter, strongly modify the beam and cause the returning beam particles to have a distribution of kinetic energies ranging from half to over twice the initial energy.

  15. Preliminary research concerning the use of electron accelerators to improve the conservability and to extend the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minea, R.; Oproiu, C.; Pascanu, S.; Matei, C.; Ferdes, O.

    1996-06-01

    The potential of ionizing radiation treatment for food preservation, shelf-life extension, control of microbial load and reduction of pathogenic microorganism was demonstrated. The irradiations were performed under normal conditions on the Institute of Physics and Technology for Radiation Device's linear electron accelerator, which has the following parameters: 5 μA mean beam current, 6 MeV electron mean energy, pulse period 3.5 μs and dose rates between 100-1500 Gy/min. This research project was aimed at assuring the consumer's acceptance for radiation-treated food and to obtain a significant reduction of food losses. We also propose a promising solution for the radiation processing of some bulk food products at the place of storage, consisting of a mobile electron accelerator. The main characteristics of the mobile electron accelerator are: electron energy 3 to 5 MeV, maximum beam power 5 kW, vertical electron beam; irradiation is possible both with electron beams and with bremsstrahlung. The results of our preliminary research lead to the conclusion that electron-beam irradiation and the use of electron accelerators is a promising solution for food preservation and food safety. Interesting future applications are outlined.

  16. New estimation method of neutron skyshine for a high-energy particle accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Joo-Hee; Jung, Nam-Suk; Lee, Hee-Seock; Ko, Seung-Kook

    2016-09-01

    A skyshine is the dominant component of the prompt radiation at off-site. Several experimental studies have been done to estimate the neutron skyshine at a few accelerator facilities. In this work, the neutron transports from a source place to off-site location were simulated using the Monte Carlo codes, FLUKA and PHITS. The transport paths were classified as skyshine, direct (transport), groundshine and multiple-shine to understand the contribution of each path and to develop a general evaluation method. The effect of each path was estimated in the view of the dose at far locations. The neutron dose was calculated using the neutron energy spectra obtained from each detector placed up to a maximum of 1 km from the accelerator. The highest altitude of the sky region in this simulation was set as 2 km from the floor of the accelerator facility. The initial model of this study was the 10 GeV electron accelerator, PAL-XFEL. Different compositions and densities of air, soil and ordinary concrete were applied in this calculation, and their dependences were reviewed. The estimation method used in this study was compared with the well-known methods suggested by Rindi, Stevenson and Stepleton, and also with the simple code, SHINE3. The results obtained using this method agreed well with those using Rindi's formula.

  17. Electron energy loss spectrometry of interstellar diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1990-01-01

    The results are reported of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) measurements on diamond residues from carbonaceous meteorites designed to elucidate the structure and composition of interstellar diamonds. Dynamic effective medium theory is used to model the dielectric properties of the diamonds and in particular to synthesize the observed spectra as mixtures of diamond and various pi-bonded carbons. The results are shown to be quantitatively consistent with the idea that diamonds and their surfaces are the only contributors to the electron energy loss spectra of the diamond residues and that these peculiar spectra are the result of the exceptionally small grain size and large specific surface area of the interstellar diamonds.

  18. Accelerating the deployment of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Shickman, Kurt

    Purpose of the project was to accelerate the deployment of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies in South Africa. Activities were undertaken to reduce barriers to deployment by improving product awareness for the South African market; market and policy intelligence for U.S. manufacturers; product/service availability; local technical capacity at the workforce, policymaker and expert levels; and ease of conducting business for these technologies/services in the South African market.

  19. First results of 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for KBSI accelerator.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Yong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Kim, Hyun Gyu; Shin, Chang Seouk; Hong, Jonggi; Bahng, Jungbae; Won, Mi-Sook

    2016-02-01

    The 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed to produce a high current heavy ion for the linear accelerator at KBSI (Korea Basic Science Institute). The objective of this study is to generate fast neutrons with a proton target via a p(Li,n)Be reaction. The design and fabrication of the essential components of the ECR ion source, which include a superconducting magnet with a liquid helium re-condensed cryostat and a 10 kW high-power microwave, were completed. The waveguide components were connected with a plasma chamber including a gas supply system. The plasma chamber was inserted into the warm bore of the superconducting magnet. A high voltage system was also installed for the ion beam extraction. After the installation of the ECR ion source, we reported the results for ECR plasma ignition at ECRIS 2014 in Russia. Following plasma ignition, we successfully extracted multi-charged ions and obtained the first results in terms of ion beam spectra from various species. This was verified by a beam diagnostic system for a low energy beam transport system. In this article, we present the first results and report on the current status of the KBSI accelerator project.

  20. First results of 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source for KBSI accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jin Yong; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Choi, Seyong

    The 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed to produce a high current heavy ion for the linear accelerator at KBSI (Korea Basic Science Institute). The objective of this study is to generate fast neutrons with a proton target via a p(Li,n)Be reaction. The design and fabrication of the essential components of the ECR ion source, which include a superconducting magnet with a liquid helium re-condensed cryostat and a 10 kW high-power microwave, were completed. The waveguide components were connected with a plasma chamber including a gas supply system. The plasma chamber was inserted intomore » the warm bore of the superconducting magnet. A high voltage system was also installed for the ion beam extraction. After the installation of the ECR ion source, we reported the results for ECR plasma ignition at ECRIS 2014 in Russia. Following plasma ignition, we successfully extracted multi-charged ions and obtained the first results in terms of ion beam spectra from various species. This was verified by a beam diagnostic system for a low energy beam transport system. In this article, we present the first results and report on the current status of the KBSI accelerator project.« less

  1. Essential energy space random walk via energy space metadynamics method to accelerate molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongzhi; Min, Donghong; Liu, Yusong; Yang, Wei

    2007-09-01

    To overcome the possible pseudoergodicity problem, molecular dynamic simulation can be accelerated via the realization of an energy space random walk. To achieve this, a biased free energy function (BFEF) needs to be priori obtained. Although the quality of BFEF is essential for sampling efficiency, its generation is usually tedious and nontrivial. In this work, we present an energy space metadynamics algorithm to efficiently and robustly obtain BFEFs. Moreover, in order to deal with the associated diffusion sampling problem caused by the random walk in the total energy space, the idea in the original umbrella sampling method is generalized to be the random walk in the essential energy space, which only includes the energy terms determining the conformation of a region of interest. This essential energy space generalization allows the realization of efficient localized enhanced sampling and also offers the possibility of further sampling efficiency improvement when high frequency energy terms irrelevant to the target events are free of activation. The energy space metadynamics method and its generalization in the essential energy space for the molecular dynamics acceleration are demonstrated in the simulation of a pentanelike system, the blocked alanine dipeptide model, and the leucine model.

  2. On The Detection Of Footprints From Strong Electron Acceleration In High-Intensity Laser Fields, Including The Unruh Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirolf, P. G.; Habs, D.; Homma, K.; Hörlein, R.; Karsch, S.; Krausz, F.; Maia, C.; Osterhoff, J.; Popp, A.; Schmid, K.; Schreiber, J.; Schützhold, R.; Tajima, T.; Veisz, L.; Wulz, J.; Yamazaki, T.

    2010-04-01

    The ultra-high fields of high-power short-pulse lasers are expected to contribute to understanding fundamental properties of the quantum vacuum and quantum theory in very strong fields. For example, the neutral QED vacuum breaks down at the Schwinger field strength of 1.3 1018V/m, where a virtual e+e- pair gains its rest mass energy over a Compton wavelength and materializes as a real pair. At such an ultra-high field strength, an electron experiences an acceleration of as = 2 1028 g and hence fundamental phenomena such as the long predicted Unruh effect start to play a role. The Unruh effect implies that the accelerated electron experiences the vacuum as a thermal bath with the Unruh temperature. In its accelerated frame the electron scatters photons off the thermal bath, corresponding to the emission of an entangled pair of photons in the laboratory frame. In upcoming experiments with intense accelerating fields, we will encounter a set of opportunities to experimentally study the radiation from electrons under extreme fields. Even before the Unruh radiation detection, we should run into the copious Larmor radiation. The detection of Larmor radiation and its characterization themselves have never been experimentally carried out to the best of our knowledge, and thus this amounts to a first serious study of physics at extreme acceleration. For example, we can study radiation damping effects like the Landau-Lifshitz radiation. Furthermore, the experiment should be able to confirm or disprove whether the Larmor and Landau-Lifshitz radiation components may be enhanced by a collective (N2) radiation, if a tightly clumped cluster of electrons is accelerated. The technique of laser driven dense electron sheet formation by irradiating a thin DLC foil target should provide such a coherent electron cluster with a very high density. If and when such mildly relativistic electron sheets are realized, a counterpropagating second laser can interact with them coherently. Under

  3. Electron acceleration at localized wave structures in the solar corona (German Title: Elektronenbeschleunigung an lokalen Wellenstrukturen in der Sonnenkorona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miteva, Rositsa Stoycheva

    2007-07-01

    Our dynamic Sun manifests its activity by different phenomena: from the 11-year cyclic sunspot pattern to the unpredictable and violent explosions in the case of solar flares. During flares, a huge amount of the stored magnetic energy is suddenly released and a substantial part of this energy is carried by the energetic electrons, considered to be the source of the nonthermal radio and X-ray radiation. One of the most important and still open question in solar physics is how the electrons are accelerated up to high energies within (the observed in the radio emission) short time scales. Because the acceleration site is extremely small in spatial extent as well (compared to the solar radius), the electron acceleration is regarded as a local process. The search for localized wave structures in the solar corona that are able to accelerate electrons together with the theoretical and numerical description of the conditions and requirements for this process, is the aim of the dissertation. Two models of electron acceleration in the solar corona are proposed in the dissertation: I. Electron acceleration due to the solar jet interaction with the background coronal plasma (the jet--plasma interaction) A jet is formed when the newly reconnected and highly curved magnetic field lines are relaxed by shooting plasma away from the reconnection site. Such jets, as observed in soft X-rays with the Yohkoh satellite, are spatially and temporally associated with beams of nonthermal electrons (in terms of the so-called type III metric radio bursts) propagating through the corona. A model that attempts to give an explanation for such observational facts is developed here. Initially, the interaction of such jets with the background plasma leads to an (ion-acoustic) instability associated with growing of electrostatic fluctuations in time for certain range of the jet initial velocity. During this process, any test electron that happen to feel this electrostatic wave field is drawn to co

  4. Study on acceleration processes of the radiation belt electrons through interaction with sub-packet chorus waves in parallel propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiraga, R.; Omura, Y.

    2017-12-01

    By recent observations, chorus waves include fine structures such as amplitude fluctuations (i.e. sub-packet structure), and it has not been verified in detail yet how energetic electrons are efficiently accelerated under the wave features. In this study, we firstly focus on the acceleration process of a single