Science.gov

Sample records for accelerated electron energy

  1. Neutron energies in medical electron accelerator rooms.

    PubMed

    LaRiviere, P D

    1985-01-01

    Two experimental methods are described for obtaining average energies of neutron spectra produced by an electron accelerator in a medical treatment room. In the first method, the dose equivalent is measured by means of indium activation foils in an Andersson-Braun moderator. Fluences are determined by the usual activation foil techniques. These data lead to the conversion factor, neutrons/(cm2s) per mrem/h, which uniquely defines the effective energy of the unknown spectrum. In the second method, the fast neutron broad-beam attenuation in polyethylene is obtained from measurement of the thermalized fluence versus depth curve, whose slope in the exponential region parallels that of the fast neutron spectrum. It was found for a 24-MV linear accelerator that the effective energy varied from 0.28 MeV at the isocenter under closed collimators to 0.016-0.024 MeV in the entrance maze. These results compare favorably with other measurements and calculations. It is concluded that the dose equivalent can be measured to within +/- 50% with an activation foil in an Andersson-Braun moderator and that the characteristic energy obtained by attenuation at the isocenter closely approximates the average energy of the neutron spectrum escaping the treatment head.

  2. A Proposed High-Energy, Compact, Optical Electron Accelerator Based on Particle Acceleration by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, W. D.; Muggli, P.; Schächter, L.

    2010-11-01

    A new type of advanced accelerator is proposed that is capable of producing high-energy electron beams in a compact geometry, but does not require a high-power laser beam driver nor a linear accelerator. Moreover, it is capable of generating its own microbunched electron beam source and, thus, an electron gun is also not needed. Hence, this has the potential to enable development of compact, high-energy accelerators that are less complex and less costly.

  3. Frequency chirping for resonance-enhanced electron energy during laser acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, D.N.; Suk, H.

    2006-04-15

    The model given by Singh-Tripathi [Phys. Plasmas 11, 743 (2004)] for laser electron acceleration in a magnetic wiggler is revisited by including the effect of laser frequency chirping. Laser frequency chirp helps to maintain the resonance condition longer, which increases the electron energy gain. A significant enhancement in electron energy gain during laser acceleration is observed.

  4. Increased laser-accelerated proton energies via direct laser-light-pressure acceleration of electrons in microcone targetsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, S. A.; Kluge, T.; Flippo, K. A.; Bussmann, M.; Gall, B.; Lockard, T.; Geissel, M.; Offermann, D. T.; Schollmeier, M.; Sentoku, Y.; Cowan, T. E.

    2011-05-01

    We present experimental results showing a laser-accelerated proton beam maximum energy cutoff of 67.5 MeV, with more than 5 × 106 protons per MeV at that energy, using flat-top hollow microcone targets. This result was obtained with a modest laser energy of ˜80 J, on the high-contrast Trident laser at Los Alamos National Laboratory. From 2D particle-in-cell simulations, we attribute the source of these enhanced proton energies to direct laser-light-pressure acceleration of electrons along the inner cone wall surface, where the laser light wave accelerates electrons just outside the surface critical density, in a potential well created by a shift of the electrostatic field maximum with respect to that of the magnetic field maximum. Simulations show that for an increasing acceleration length, the continuous loading of electrons into the accelerating phase of the laser field yields an increase in high-energy electrons.

  5. Non-thermal electron acceleration in low Mach number collisionless shocks. I. Particle energy spectra and acceleration mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2014-10-20

    Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies in low Mach number (M{sub s} ≲ 5) shocks is revealed by radio and X-ray observations of galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Diffusive shock acceleration, also known as first-order Fermi acceleration, cannot be directly invoked to explain the acceleration of electrons. Rather, an additional mechanism is required to pre-accelerate the electrons from thermal to supra-thermal energies, so they can then participate in the Fermi process. In this work, we use two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell plasma simulations to study electron acceleration in low Mach number shocks. We focusmore » on the particle energy spectra and the acceleration mechanism in a reference run with M{sub s} = 3 and a quasi-perpendicular pre-shock magnetic field. We find that about 15% of the electrons can be efficiently accelerated, forming a non-thermal power-law tail in the energy spectrum with a slope of p ≅ 2.4. Initially, thermal electrons are energized at the shock front via shock drift acceleration (SDA). The accelerated electrons are then reflected back upstream where their interaction with the incoming flow generates magnetic waves. In turn, the waves scatter the electrons propagating upstream back toward the shock for further energization via SDA. In summary, the self-generated waves allow for repeated cycles of SDA, similarly to a sustained Fermi-like process. This mechanism offers a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.« less

  6. Determining Energy Distributions of HF-Accelerated Electrons at HAARP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-18

    number density calculated over Gakona, Alaska with the SCIM (bold colors ) and IRI 2007 (faint colors ) models. ............ 13  Figure 6.  Altitude...and plasma number density calculated over Gakona, Alaska with the SCIM (bold colors ) and IRI 2007 (faint colors ) models. 10 8 10 9 10 10 10 11 10 12...and G. P. Mantas (1982), Observations of fluxes of suprathermal electrons accelerated by HF excited instabilities, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys., 44(12), 1089

  7. RF emittance in a low energy electron linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanaye Hajari, Sh.; Haghtalab, S.; Shaker, H.; Kelisani, M. Dayyani

    2018-04-01

    Transverse beam dynamics of an 8 MeV low current (10 mA) S-band traveling wave electron linear accelerator has been studied and optimized. The main issue is to limit the beam emittance, mainly induced by the transverse RF forces. The linac is being constructed at Institute for Research in Fundamental Science (IPM), Tehran Iran Labeled as Iran's First Linac, nearly all components of this accelerator are designed and constructed within the country. This paper discusses the RF coupler induced field asymmetry and the corresponding emittance at different focusing levels, introduces a detailed beam dynamics design of a solenoid focusing channel aiming to reduce the emittance growth and studies the solenoid misalignment tolerances. In addition it has been demonstrated that a prebuncher cavity with appropriate parameters can help improving the beam quality in the transverse plane.

  8. Optimum target source term estimation for high energy electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, M. K.; Sahu, T. K.; Nair, Haridas G.; Nandedkar, R. V.; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Tripathi, R. M.; Hannurkar, P. R.

    2016-05-01

    Optimum target for bremsstrahlung emission is defined as the thickness of the target material, which produces maximum bremsstrahlung yield, on interaction of electron with the target. The bremsstrahlung dose rate per unit electron beam power at a distance of 1 m from the target material gives the optimum target source term. In the present work, simulations were performed for three different electron energies, 450, 1000 and 2500 MeV using EGSnrc Monte-Carlo code to determine the optimum thickness. An empirical relation for optimum target as a function of electron energy and atomic number of the target materials is found out from results. Using the simulated optimum target thickness, experiments are conducted to determine the optimum target source term. For the experimental determination, two available electron energies, 450 MeV and 550 MeV from booster synchrotron of Indus facility is used. The optimum target source term for these two energies are also simulated. The experimental and simulated source term are found to be in very good agreement within ±3%. Based on the agreement of the simulated source term with the experimental source term at 450 MeV and 550 MeV, the same simulation methodology is used to simulate optimum target source term up to 2500 MeV. The paper describes the simulations and experiments carried out on optimum target bremsstrahlung source term and the results obtained.

  9. Energy doubling of 42 GeV electrons in a metre-scale plasma wakefield accelerator.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Christopher E; Decker, Franz-Josef; Hogan, Mark J; Huang, Chengkun; Ischebeck, Rasmus; Iverson, Richard; Joshi, Chandrashekhar; Katsouleas, Thomas; Kirby, Neil; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth A; Mori, Warren B; Muggli, Patric; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert H; Walz, Dieter; Zhou, Miaomiao

    2007-02-15

    The energy frontier of particle physics is several trillion electron volts, but colliders capable of reaching this regime (such as the Large Hadron Collider and the International Linear Collider) are costly and time-consuming to build; it is therefore important to explore new methods of accelerating particles to high energies. Plasma-based accelerators are particularly attractive because they are capable of producing accelerating fields that are orders of magnitude larger than those used in conventional colliders. In these accelerators, a drive beam (either laser or particle) produces a plasma wave (wakefield) that accelerates charged particles. The ultimate utility of plasma accelerators will depend on sustaining ultrahigh accelerating fields over a substantial length to achieve a significant energy gain. Here we show that an energy gain of more than 42 GeV is achieved in a plasma wakefield accelerator of 85 cm length, driven by a 42 GeV electron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The results are in excellent agreement with the predictions of three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Most of the beam electrons lose energy to the plasma wave, but some electrons in the back of the same beam pulse are accelerated with a field of approximately 52 GV m(-1). This effectively doubles their energy, producing the energy gain of the 3-km-long SLAC accelerator in less than a metre for a small fraction of the electrons in the injected bunch. This is an important step towards demonstrating the viability of plasma accelerators for high-energy physics applications.

  10. Inferring the Energy Distribution of Accelerated Electrons in Solar Flares from X-ray Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Sui, Linhui; Su, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the energy distribution of electrons accelerated in solar flares is important for constraining possible acceleration mechanisms and for understanding the relationships between flare X-ray sources, radio sources, and particles observed in space. Solar flare hard X-rays are primarily emitted from dense, thick-target regions in the lower atmosphere, but the electrons are understood to be accelerated higher in the corona. Various processes can distort the X-ray spectrum or the energy distribution of electrons before they reach the thick-target region. After briefly reviewing the processes that affect the X-ray spectrum and the electron distribution, I will describe recent results from a study of flare spectra from RHESSI to determine the importance of these processes in inferring the energy distribution of accelerated electrons.

  11. Undulator-Based Laser Wakefield Accelerator Electron Beam Energy Spread and Emittance Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Bakeman, M.S.; Van Tilborg, J.; Nakamura, K.

    2010-06-01

    The design and current status of experiments to couple the Tapered Hybrid Undulator (THUNDER) to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser plasma accelerator (LPA) to measure electron beam energy spread and emittance are presented.

  12. Undulator-Based Laser Wakefield Accelerator Electron Beam Energy Spread and Emittance Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Bakeman, M. S.; University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV 89557; Van Tilborg, J.

    2010-11-04

    The design and current status of experiments to couple the Tapered Hybrid Undulator (THUNDER) to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser plasma accelerator (LPA) to measure electron beam energy spread and emittance are presented.

  13. Electron energy and electron trajectories in an inverse free-electron laser accelerator based on a novel electrostatic wiggler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikrah, M.; Jafari, S.

    2016-06-01

    We expand here a theory of a high-gradient laser-excited electron accelerator based on an inverse free-electron laser (inverse-FEL), but with innovations in the structure and design. The electrostatic wiggler used in our scheme, namely termed the Paul wiggler, is generated by segmented cylindrical electrodes with applied oscillatory voltages {{V}\\text{osc}}(t) over {{90}\\circ} segments. The inverse-FEL interaction can be described by the equations that govern the electron motion in the combined fields of both the laser pulse and Paul wiggler field. A numerical study of electron energy and electron trajectories has been made using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The results indicate that the electron attains a considerable energy at short distances in this device. It is found that if the electron has got sufficient suitable wiggler amplitude intensities, it can not only gain higher energy in longer distances, but also can retain it even after the passing of the laser pulse. In addition, the results reveal that the electron energy gains different peaks for different initial axial velocities, so that a suitable small initial axial velocity of e-beam produces substantially high energy gain. With regard to the transverse confinement of the electron beam in a Paul wiggler, there is no applied axial guide magnetic field in this device.

  14. Compact Laser Driven Electron and Proton Acceleration with Low Energy Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hine, George Albert

    Laser-driven particle accelerators offer many advantages over conventional particle accelerators. The most significant of these is the magnitude of the accelerating gradient and, consequently, the compactness of the accelerating structure. In this dissertation, experimental and computational advances in laser-based particle acceleration in three intensity regimes are presented. All mechanisms investigated herein are accessible by "tabletop" ultrashort terawatt-class laser systems found in many university labs, with the intention of making them available to more compact and high repetition rate laser systems. The first mechanism considered is the acceleration of electrons in a preformed plasma "slow-wave" guiding structure. Experimental advances in the generation of these plasma guiding structures are presented. The second mechanism is the laser-wakefield acceleration of electrons in the self-modulated regime. A high-density gas target is implemented experimentally leading to electron acceleration at low laser pulse energy. Consequences of operating in this regime are investigated numerically. The third mechanism is the acceleration of protons by a laser-generated magnetic structure. A numerical investigation is performed identifying operating regimes for experimental realizations of this mechanism. The key advances presented in this dissertation are: • The development and demonstration of modulated plasma waveguide generation using both mechanical obstruction and an interferometric laser patterning method. • The acceleration of electrons to MeV energy scales in a high-density hydrogen target with sub-terawatt laser pulses and the generation of bright, ultra-broadband optical pules from the interaction region. • 3D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of self-modulated laser wakefield acceleration in a plasma, showing the generation of broadband radiation, and the role of "direct laser acceleration" in this regime. • 3D PIC simulations of laser wakefield

  15. Generation of high energy electron accelerated by using a tapered capillary discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minseok; Nam, Inhyuk; Lee, Taehee; Lee, Seungwoo; Suk, Hyyong

    2014-10-01

    The tapered plasma density in a gas-filled capillary waveguide can suppress the dephasing problem in laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). As a result, the acceleration distance and the gained electron energy are expected to be increased. For this purpose, we developed a tapered capillary waveguide, which can produce a plasma density of ~ 1018 cm-3. Using this capillary discharge plasma, we performed the acceleration experiments with the high power laser system (20 TW/40 fs) constructed at GIST. In this presentation, the detailed electron acceleration experiments will be reported.

  16. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: High-energy electron accelerators for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimov, Rustam A.

    2000-02-01

    The principle of operation and the design of main parts of high-energy industrial electron accelerators are described. Accelerators based on high-voltage dc rectifiers are very efficient, compact and characterized by a high degree of unification of their main units. In total, more than 70 accelerators have been manufactured at the G I Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, with over 20 of them for export.

  17. Comparing Solar-Flare Acceleration of >-20 MeV Protons and Electrons Above Various Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Albert Y.

    2010-01-01

    A large fraction (up to tens of percent) of the energy released in solar flares goes into accelerated ions and electrons, and studies indicate that these two populations have comparable energy content. RHESSI observations have shown a striking close linear correlation between the 2.223 MeV neutron-capture gamma-ray line and electron bremsstrahlung emission >300 keV, indicating that the flare acceleration of >^20 MeV protons and >300 keV electrons is roughly proportional over >3 orders of magnitude in fluence. We show that the correlations of neutron-capture line fluence with GOES class or with bremsstrahlung emission at lower energies show deviations from proportionality, primarily for flares with lower fluences. From analyzing thirteen flares, we demonstrate that there appear to be two classes of flares with high-energy acceleration: flares that exhibit only proportional acceleration of ions and electrons down to 50 keV and flares that have an additional soft, low-energy bremsstrahlung component, suggesting two separate populations of accelerated electrons. We use RHESSI spectroscopy and imaging to investigate a number of these flares in detail.

  18. Intensity and energy spectrum of electrons accelerated in the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Shock waves accelerate charged particles in the solar atmosphere, in interplanetary space and around the earth's magnetosphere. Acceleration of both electrons and protons occurs in the earth's bow-shock. The acceleration of protons up to 100 keV appears to be a steady state process and may even occur upstream from the bow shock due to waves generated by reflected solar wind protons. The electrons, on the other hand, are known to be accelerated in or near the shock. The intensity of these electrons ranges from about 100 to 2,000 per sr-sq cm-sec-keV at 14 keV. The energy spectrum is not a simple power low and is highly variable. If segments of the spectra are fitted to a power low, slopes ranging from -2 to -4.5 result over the energy range 0.5 to 100 keV.

  19. The neutrino electron accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Shukla, P.K.; Stenflo, L.; Bingham, R.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that a wake of electron plasma oscillations can be created by the nonlinear ponderomotive force of an intense neutrino flux. The electrons trapped in the plasma wakefield will be accelerated to high energies. Such processes may be important in supernovas and pulsars. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. The neutrino electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.; Bingham, R.; Bethe, H. A.; Dawson, J. M.; Mendonça, J. T.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that a wake of electron plasma oscillations can be created by the nonlinear ponderomotive force of an intense neutrino flux. The electrons trapped in the plasma wakefield will be accelerated to high energies. Such processes may be important in supernovas and pulsars.

  1. High energy electron beams from a laser wakefield acceleration with a long gas jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Hwangbo, Yong Hun; Lee, Shin-Yeong

    2017-09-01

    A long gas jet was used as a gas target for laser wake field acceleration to increase the energy and quality of the electron beam. When the plasma density was 7 × 1018 cm-3, quasi monoenergetic electron beams with a maximum energy of 152 MeV, a beam divergence 3 mrad, and a pointing stability 4 mrad were generated with a 5 mm long gas jet. The maximum energy was close to the theoretical limit predicted from the bubble model. This means that the length of the plasma was sufficiently long to accelerate the electron to the dephasing length after the electrons were self-injected by self-focusing. As the plasma density increased, the dephasing length decreased and the electron energy decreased. The continuous injection with higher density plasmas generated highly diverging beams. As the laser power increased, a number of electron beams with different propagation directions were generated. As shown by the measured shadowgram, the laser was divided into several filaments and each filament accelerated electron beam having different directions. The electron beam generated at this time decreased as the laser energy decreased due the division of the laser into different directions.

  2. Absolute energy calibration of FD by an electron linear accelerator for Telescope Array

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, T.; Fukushima, M.; Ikeda, D.

    2011-09-22

    The primary energy of the ultra-high energy cosmic rays(UHECR) are measured with the number of fluorescence photons which are detected with fluorescence detectors(FD) in the Telescope Array experiment(TA). Howevery since there is large uncertinty as 19% in the measurement of the energy scale, the most important theme is improvement of the energy calibration. The electron light source(ELS) is a small electron linear accelerator for new energy calibration. The ELS is located 100 m far from the FD station, and injects electron beam which is accelerated to 40 MeV energy into the sky. We can calibrate the FD energy scale bymore » detection the air shower directly which is generated by the electron beam. The ELS was developed in KEK Japan, and moved to the TA site in March 2009. We started the beam operation in September 2010, in consequence we detected the air shower which was generated by electron beam in the air. The output kinetic energy of the electron beam was 41.1 MeV, we adjusted the output charge from 40 to 140 pC/pulse. We expect that we can improve the uncertinty of the energy scale to about 10% with the ELS, futhermore ELS will be a very useful apparatus for R and D of future UHECR observation.« less

  3. Bremsstrahlung source term estimation for high energy electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, M. K.; Sahu, T. K.; Nair, H. G.; Nandedkar, R. V.; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Tripathi, R. M.; Hannurkar, P. R.; Sharma, D. N.

    2015-08-01

    Thick target bremsstrahlung source term for 450 MeV and 550 MeV electrons are experimentally determined using booster synchrotron of Indus facility at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore, India. The source term is also simulated using EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. Results from experiment and simulation are found to be in very good agreement. Based on the agreement between experimental and simulated data, the source term is determined up to 3000 MeV by simulation. The paper also describes the studies carried out on the variation of source term when a thin target is considered in place of a thick target, used in earlier studies.

  4. Three electron beams from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and the energy apportioning question

    PubMed Central

    Yang, X.; Brunetti, E.; Gil, D. Reboredo; Welsh, G. H.; Li, F. Y.; Cipiccia, S.; Ersfeld, B.; Grant, D. W.; Grant, P. A.; Islam, M. R.; Tooley, M. P.; Vieux, G.; Wiggins, S. M.; Sheng, Z. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    Laser-wakefield accelerators are compact devices capable of delivering ultra-short electron bunches with pC-level charge and MeV-GeV energy by exploiting the ultra-high electric fields arising from the interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma. We show experimentally and through numerical simulations that a high-energy electron beam is produced simultaneously with two stable lower-energy beams that are ejected in oblique and counter-propagating directions, typically carrying off 5–10% of the initial laser energy. A MeV, 10s nC oblique beam is ejected in a 30°–60° hollow cone, which is filled with more energetic electrons determined by the injection dynamics. A nC-level, 100s keV backward-directed beam is mainly produced at the leading edge of the plasma column. We discuss the apportioning of absorbed laser energy amongst the three beams. Knowledge of the distribution of laser energy and electron beam charge, which determine the overall efficiency, is important for various applications of laser-wakefield accelerators, including the development of staged high-energy accelerators. PMID:28281679

  5. Three electron beams from a laser-plasma wakefield accelerator and the energy apportioning question.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Brunetti, E; Gil, D Reboredo; Welsh, G H; Li, F Y; Cipiccia, S; Ersfeld, B; Grant, D W; Grant, P A; Islam, M R; Tooley, M P; Vieux, G; Wiggins, S M; Sheng, Z M; Jaroszynski, D A

    2017-03-10

    Laser-wakefield accelerators are compact devices capable of delivering ultra-short electron bunches with pC-level charge and MeV-GeV energy by exploiting the ultra-high electric fields arising from the interaction of intense laser pulses with plasma. We show experimentally and through numerical simulations that a high-energy electron beam is produced simultaneously with two stable lower-energy beams that are ejected in oblique and counter-propagating directions, typically carrying off 5-10% of the initial laser energy. A MeV, 10s nC oblique beam is ejected in a 30°-60° hollow cone, which is filled with more energetic electrons determined by the injection dynamics. A nC-level, 100s keV backward-directed beam is mainly produced at the leading edge of the plasma column. We discuss the apportioning of absorbed laser energy amongst the three beams. Knowledge of the distribution of laser energy and electron beam charge, which determine the overall efficiency, is important for various applications of laser-wakefield accelerators, including the development of staged high-energy accelerators.

  6. Simulations of slow positron production using a low-energy electron accelerator.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, B E; Hayashizaki, N; Kinomura, A; Kuroda, R; Minehara, E J; Ohdaira, T; Oshima, N; Suzuki, R

    2011-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of slow positron production via energetic electron interaction with a solid target have been performed. The aim of the simulations was to determine the expected slow positron beam intensity from a low-energy, high-current electron accelerator. By simulating (a) the fast positron production from a tantalum electron-positron converter and (b) the positron depth deposition profile in a tungsten moderator, the slow positron production probability per incident electron was estimated. Normalizing the calculated result to the measured slow positron yield at the present AIST linear accelerator, the expected slow positron yield as a function of energy was determined. For an electron beam energy of 5 MeV (10 MeV) and current 240 μA (30 μA), production of a slow positron beam of intensity 5 × 10(6) s(-1) is predicted. The simulation also calculates the average energy deposited in the converter per electron, allowing an estimate of the beam heating at a given electron energy and current. For low-energy, high-current operation the maximum obtainable positron beam intensity will be limited by this beam heating. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  7. Simulations of slow positron production using a low-energy electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, B. E.; Hayashizaki, N.; Kinomura, A.; Kuroda, R.; Minehara, E. J.; Ohdaira, T.; Oshima, N.; Suzuki, R.

    2011-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of slow positron production via energetic electron interaction with a solid target have been performed. The aim of the simulations was to determine the expected slow positron beam intensity from a low-energy, high-current electron accelerator. By simulating (a) the fast positron production from a tantalum electron-positron converter and (b) the positron depth deposition profile in a tungsten moderator, the slow positron production probability per incident electron was estimated. Normalizing the calculated result to the measured slow positron yield at the present AIST linear accelerator, the expected slow positron yield as a function of energy was determined. For an electron beam energy of 5 MeV (10 MeV) and current 240 μA (30 μA), production of a slow positron beam of intensity 5 × 106 s-1 is predicted. The simulation also calculates the average energy deposited in the converter per electron, allowing an estimate of the beam heating at a given electron energy and current. For low-energy, high-current operation the maximum obtainable positron beam intensity will be limited by this beam heating.

  8. Shielding for High-Energy Electron Accelerator Installations. National Bureau of Standards Handbook 97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC.

    Recommendations for radiation shielding, protection, and measurement are presented. This handbook is an extension of previous recommendations for protection against radiation from--(1) high energy and power electron accelerators, (2) food processing equipment, and (3) general sterilization equipment. The new recommendations are concerned with…

  9. ELECTRON ACCELERATION DURING SUBSTORMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Zhou, M.; Schriver, D.; El-Alaoui, M.; Deng, X.; Richard, R. L.; Walker, R. J.; Sergeev, V. A.

    2009-12-01

    THEMIS spacecraft located within the near-Earth plasma sheet have observed a series of magnetic field dipolarizations coupled with electron acceleration and intense plasma wave activity. In this study we use a combination of data analysis and simulations to investigate the acceleration of electrons during dipolarizations. A global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere is used to determine the overall magnetospheric structure and dynamics. In the electric and magnetic fields from the MHD simulations, distributions of electrons are launched to understand their transport and acceleration during the dipolarization event. The electron large scale kinetic calculations indicate that adiabatic motion may not be sufficient to account for the observed energies implying that waves play an important role in electron acceleration. To study the effect of wave-particle interactions, particle in cell simulations have been carried out. The results show that both adiabatic acceleration (Fermi and betatron) and wave particle interactions are necessary to account for electron heating during substorm dipolarizations.

  10. Electron acceleration to high energies at quasi-parallel shock waves in the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, G.; Classen, H.-T.

    1995-01-01

    In the solar corona shock waves are generated by flares and/or coronal mass ejections. They manifest themselves in solar type 2 radio bursts appearing as emission stripes with a slow drift from high to low frequencies in dynamic radio spectra. Their nonthermal radio emission indicates that electrons are accelerated to suprathermal and/or relativistic velocities at these shocks. As well known by extraterrestrial in-situ measurements supercritical, quasi-parallel, collisionless shocks are accompanied by so-called SLAMS (short large amplitude magnetic field structures). These SLAMS can act as strong magnetic mirrors, at which charged particles can be reflected and accelerated. Thus, thermal electrons gain energy due to multiple reflections between two SLAMS and reach suprathermal and relativistic velocities. This mechanism of accelerating electrons is discussed for circumstances in the solar corona and may be responsible for the so-called 'herringbones' observed in solar type 2 radio bursts.

  11. Application of aluminum and titanium foils in low-energy wide-aperture electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodakin, L. V.; Gusakov, A. I.; Komarov, O. V.; Kosogorov, S. L.; Motovilov, S. A.; Uspenskii, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    We have reported on the results of theoretical and experimental investigations of characteristics of aluminum and titanium foils used in devices to extract electron beams from wide-aperture low-energy accelerators with a high current density. The mechanical properties of foils at different temperatures and the electron beam transmission and absorption coefficients have been compared. The results of analyzing the dependences of the efficiency of the electron beam extraction from accelerators on the type of the electron-optical system, material, and thickness of the foil for various sizes of extraction windows and the same type of the slot support grids have been presented. We have proposed an analytic model for calculating the temperature of the foil in the unit cell of the support grid. The electron transmittance and absorbance, as well as the temperature regimes of the foils, have been calculated using different methods.

  12. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, John S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  13. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  14. Permanent-magnet energy spectrometer for electron beams from radiotherapy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, David J.; Shikhaliev, Polad M.; Matthews, Kenneth L.

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to adapt a lightweight, permanent magnet electron energy spectrometer for the measurement of energy spectra of therapeutic electron beams. Methods: An irradiation geometry and measurement technique were developed for an approximately 0.54-T, permanent dipole magnet spectrometer to produce suitable latent images on computed radiography (CR) phosphor strips. Dual-pinhole electron collimators created a 0.318-cm diameter, approximately parallel beam incident on the spectrometer and an appropriate dose rate at the image plane (CR strip location). X-ray background in the latent image, reduced by a 7.62-cm thick lead block between the pinhole collimators, was removed usingmore » a fitting technique. Theoretical energy-dependent detector response functions (DRFs) were used in an iterative technique to transform CR strip net mean dose profiles into energy spectra on central axis at the entrance to the spectrometer. These spectra were transformed to spectra at 95-cm source to collimator distance (SCD) by correcting for the energy dependence of electron scatter. The spectrometer was calibrated by comparing peak mean positions in the net mean dose profiles, initially to peak mean energies determined from the practical range of central-axis percent depth-dose (%DD) curves, and then to peak mean energies that accounted for how the collimation modified the energy spectra (recalibration). The utility of the spectrometer was demonstrated by measuring the energy spectra for the seven electron beams (7–20 MeV) of an Elekta Infinity radiotherapy accelerator. Results: Plots of DRF illustrated their dependence on energy and position in the imaging plane. Approximately 15 iterations solved for the energy spectra at the spectrometer entrance from the measured net mean dose profiles. Transforming those spectra into ones at 95-cm SCD increased the low energy tail of the spectra, while correspondingly decreasing the peaks and shifting them to

  15. Permanent-magnet energy spectrometer for electron beams from radiotherapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, David J; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Carver, Robert L; Gibbons, John P; Shikhaliev, Polad M; Matthews, Kenneth L; Clarke, Taylor; Henderson, Alexander; Liang, Edison P

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to adapt a lightweight, permanent magnet electron energy spectrometer for the measurement of energy spectra of therapeutic electron beams. An irradiation geometry and measurement technique were developed for an approximately 0.54-T, permanent dipole magnet spectrometer to produce suitable latent images on computed radiography (CR) phosphor strips. Dual-pinhole electron collimators created a 0.318-cm diameter, approximately parallel beam incident on the spectrometer and an appropriate dose rate at the image plane (CR strip location). X-ray background in the latent image, reduced by a 7.62-cm thick lead block between the pinhole collimators, was removed using a fitting technique. Theoretical energy-dependent detector response functions (DRFs) were used in an iterative technique to transform CR strip net mean dose profiles into energy spectra on central axis at the entrance to the spectrometer. These spectra were transformed to spectra at 95-cm source to collimator distance (SCD) by correcting for the energy dependence of electron scatter. The spectrometer was calibrated by comparing peak mean positions in the net mean dose profiles, initially to peak mean energies determined from the practical range of central-axis percent depth-dose (%DD) curves, and then to peak mean energies that accounted for how the collimation modified the energy spectra (recalibration). The utility of the spectrometer was demonstrated by measuring the energy spectra for the seven electron beams (7-20 MeV) of an Elekta Infinity radiotherapy accelerator. Plots of DRF illustrated their dependence on energy and position in the imaging plane. Approximately 15 iterations solved for the energy spectra at the spectrometer entrance from the measured net mean dose profiles. Transforming those spectra into ones at 95-cm SCD increased the low energy tail of the spectra, while correspondingly decreasing the peaks and shifting them to slightly lower energies. Energy calibration

  16. Comparison of measured electron energy spectra for six matched, radiotherapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, David J; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Neck, Daniel W; Gibbons, John P

    2018-03-30

    This study compares energy spectra of the multiple electron beams of individual radiotherapy machines, as well as the sets of spectra across multiple matched machines. Also, energy spectrum metrics are compared with central-axis percent depth-dose (PDD) metrics. A lightweight, permanent magnet spectrometer was used to measure energy spectra for seven electron beams (7-20 MeV) on six matched Elekta Infinity accelerators with the MLCi2 treatment head. PDD measurements in the distal falloff region provided R 50 and R 80-20 metrics in Plastic Water ® , which correlated with energy spectrum metrics, peak mean energy (PME) and full-width at half maximum (FWHM). Visual inspection of energy spectra and their metrics showed whether beams on single machines were properly tuned, i.e., FWHM is expected to increase and peak height decrease monotonically with increased PME. Also, PME spacings are expected to be approximately equal for 7-13 MeV beams (0.5-cm R 90 spacing) and for 13-16 MeV beams (1.0-cm R 90 spacing). Most machines failed these expectations, presumably due to tolerances for initial beam matching (0.05 cm in R 90 ; 0.10 cm in R 80-20 ) and ongoing quality assurance (0.2 cm in R 50 ). Also, comparison of energy spectra or metrics for a single beam energy (six machines) showed outlying spectra. These variations in energy spectra provided ample data spread for correlating PME and FWHM with PDD metrics. Least-squares fits showed that R 50 and R 80-20 varied linearly and supralinearly with PME, respectively; however, both suggested a secondary dependence on FWHM. Hence, PME and FWHM could serve as surrogates for R 50 and R 80-20 for beam tuning by the accelerator engineer, possibly being more sensitive (e.g., 0.1 cm in R 80-20 corresponded to 2.0 MeV in FWHM). Results of this study suggest a lightweight, permanent magnet spectrometer could be a useful beam-tuning instrument for the accelerator engineer to (a) match electron beams prior to beam commissioning

  17. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  18. Theoretical and experimental study of electron-optical systems in low-energy wide-aperture electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosogorov, S. L.

    2011-07-01

    A large-area electron accelerator based on filament cathodes that operates in a continuous mode is described. The results of calculations of electron-optical systems of triode- and tetrode-type accelerators in accordance with the proposed engineering approach are considered, and experimental and calculated parameters of the accelerator are compared.

  19. Mount Aragats as a stable electron accelerator for atmospheric high-energy physics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, Ashot; Hovsepyan, Gagik; Mnatsakanyan, Eduard

    2016-03-01

    Observation of the numerous thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs), i.e., enhanced fluxes of electrons, gamma rays, and neutrons detected by particle detectors located on the Earth's surface and related to the strong thunderstorms above it, helped to establish a new scientific topic—high-energy physics in the atmosphere. Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) are believed to be a central engine initiating high-energy processes in thunderstorm atmospheres. RREAs observed on Mount Aragats in Armenia during the strongest thunderstorms and simultaneous measurements of TGE electron and gamma-ray energy spectra proved that RREAs are a robust and realistic mechanism for electron acceleration. TGE research facilitates investigations of the long-standing lightning initiation problem. For the last 5 years we were experimenting with the "beams" of "electron accelerators" operating in the thunderclouds above the Aragats research station. Thunderstorms are very frequent above Aragats, peaking in May-June, and almost all of them are accompanied with enhanced particle fluxes. The station is located on a plateau at an altitude 3200 asl near a large lake. Numerous particle detectors and field meters are located in three experimental halls as well as outdoors; the facilities are operated all year round. All relevant information is being gathered, including data on particle fluxes, fields, lightning occurrences, and meteorological conditions. By the example of the huge thunderstorm that took place at Mount Aragats on August 28, 2015, we show that simultaneous detection of all the relevant data allowed us to reveal the temporal pattern of the storm development and to investigate the atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes.

  20. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C. R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts.

  1. Energy Limits of Electron Acceleration in the Plasma Sheet During Substorms: A Case Study with the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Clemmons, J. H.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, I. J.; Jaynes, A. N.; Craft, J. V.; Wilder, F. D.; Baker, D. N.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present multipoint observations of earthward moving dipolarization fronts and energetic particle injections from NASAs Magnetospheric Multiscale mission with a focus on electron acceleration. From a case study during a substorm on 02 August 2015, we find that electrons are only accelerated over a finite energy range, from a lower energy threshold at approx. 7-9 keV up to an upper energy cutoff in the hundreds of keV range. At energies lower than the threshold energy, electron fluxes decrease, potentially due to precipitation by strong parallel electrostatic wavefields or initial sources in the lobes. Electrons at energies higher than the threshold are accelerated cumulatively by a series of impulsive magnetic dipolarization events. This case demonstrates how the upper energy cutoff increases, in this case from approx. 130 keV to >500 keV, with each depolarization/injection during sustained activity. We also present a simple model accounting for these energy limits that reveals that electron energization is dominated by betatron acceleration.

  2. Energy limits of electron acceleration in the plasma sheet during substorms: A case study with the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Drew Lawson; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.

    2016-08-01

    Here, we present multipoint observations of earthward moving dipolarization fronts and energetic particle injections from NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale mission with a focus on electron acceleration. From a case study during a substorm on 02 August 2015, we find that electrons are only accelerated over a finite energy range, from a lower energy threshold at ~7–9 keV up to an upper energy cutoff in the hundreds of keV range. At energies lower than the threshold energy, electron fluxes decrease, potentially due to precipitation by strong parallel electrostatic wavefields or initial sources in the lobes. Electrons at energies higher than the thresholdmore » are accelerated cumulatively by a series of impulsive magnetic dipolarization events. This case demonstrates how the upper energy cutoff increases, in this case from ~130 keV to >500 keV, with each dipolarization/injection during sustained activity. We also present a simple model accounting for these energy limits that reveals that electron energization is dominated by betatron acceleration.« less

  3. Neutron-induced electronic failures around a high-energy linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Kry, Stephen F; Johnson, Jennifer L; White, R Allen; Howell, Rebecca M; Kudchadker, Rajat J; Gillin, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    After a new in-vault CT-on-rails system repeatedly malfunctioned following use of a high-energy radiotherapy beam, we investigated the presence and impact of neutron radiation on this electronic system, as well as neutron shielding options. We first determined the CT scanner's failure rate as a function of the number of 18 MV monitor units (MUs) delivered. We then re-examined the failure rate with both 2.7-cm-thick and 7.6-cm-thick borated polyethylene (BPE) covering the linac head for neutron shielding. To further examine shielding options, as well as to explore which neutrons were relevant to the scanner failure, Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the neutron fluence and spectrum in the bore of the CT scanner. Simulations included BPE covering the CT scanner itself as well as covering the linac head. We found that the CT scanner had a 57% chance of failure after the delivery of 200 MUs. While the addition of neutron shielding to the accelerator head reduced this risk of failure, the benefit was minimal and even 7.6 cm of BPE was still associated with a 29% chance of failure after the delivery of 200 MU. This shielding benefit was achieved regardless of whether the linac head or CT scanner was shielded. Additionally, it was determined that fast neutrons were primarily responsible for the electronic failures. As illustrated by the CT-on-rails system in the current study, physicists should be aware that electronic systems may be highly sensitive to neutron radiation. Medical physicists should therefore monitor electronic systems that have not been evaluated for potential neutron sensitivity. This is particularly relevant as electronics are increasingly common in the therapy vault and newer electronic systems may exhibit increased sensitivity.

  4. High Energy electron and proton acceleration by circularly polarized laser pulse from near critical density hydrogen gas target.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashutosh

    2018-02-01

    Relativistic electron rings hold the possibility of very high accelerating rates, and hopefully a relatively cheap and compact accelerator/collimator for ultrahigh energy proton source. In this work, we investigate the generation of helical shaped quasi-monoenergetic relativistic electron beam and high-energy proton beam from near critical density plasmas driven by petawatt-circularly polarized-short laser pulses. We numerically observe the efficient proton acceleration from magnetic vortex acceleration mechanism by using the three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations; proton beam with peak energy 350 MeV, charge ~10nC and conversion efficiency more than 6% (which implies 2.4 J proton beam out of the 40 J incident laser energy) is reported. We detailed the microphysics involved in the ion acceleration mechanism, which requires investigating the role of self-generated plasma electric and magnetic fields. The concept of efficient generation of quasi-monoenergetic electron and proton beam from near critical density gas targets may be verified experimentally at advanced high power - high repetition rate laser facilities e.g. ELI-ALPS. Such study should be an important step towards the development of high quality electron and proton beam.

  5. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, P; Chakravarthy, D P

    2009-12-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10(11) cm(-3) and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 pi mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  6. High Gradient Two-Beam Electron Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Kazakov, S. Yu.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2010-11-01

    A high-gradient two-beam electron accelerator structure using detuned cavities is described. A self-consistent theory based on a circuit model is presented to calculate idealized acceleration gradient, transformer ratio, and efficiency for energy transfer from the drive beam to the accelerated beam. Experimental efforts are being carried out to demonstrate this acceleration concept.

  7. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Reginato, Louis L.

    1988-01-01

    An electron beam accelerator comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of .gtoreq.0.1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electrons by about 0.1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially .gtoreq.0.1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of .ltoreq.1 .mu.sec.

  8. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOEpatents

    Birx, Daniel L.; Reginato, Louis L.

    1987-01-01

    An electron beam accelerator comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of .gtoreq.0.1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electrons by about 0.1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially 0.1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of .ltoreq.1 .mu.sec.

  9. Electron beam accelerator with magnetic pulse compression and accelerator switching

    DOEpatents

    Birx, D.L.; Reginato, L.L.

    1984-03-22

    An electron beam accelerator is described comprising an electron beam generator-injector to produce a focused beam of greater than or equal to .1 MeV energy electrons; a plurality of substantially identical, aligned accelerator modules to sequentially receive and increase the kinetic energies of the beam electron by about .1-1 MeV per module. Each accelerator module includes a pulse-forming network that delivers a voltage pulse to the module of substantially .1-1 MeV maximum energy over a time duration of less than or equal to 1 ..mu..sec.

  10. Estimation of bremsstrahlung photon energy in the environment of high-energy electron accelerator using CaSO4:Dy based TL dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, A K; Nayak, M K; Haridas, G; Chatterjee, S; Kher, R K

    2008-01-01

    High-energy bremsstrahlung X rays constitute the major radiation hazard to working personnel around the high-energy electron accelerators. Thermoluminescent (TL) dosemeter system based on CaSO4:Dy Teflon disc used in the routine individual monitoring was used to estimate the bremsstruhlung photon energy at different locations of the experimental hall of 450-MeV synchrotron accelerator. The response of TL discs under different filter regions of the dosemeter system undergo change with photon energy due to the lack of build up and interaction of photon in the metal filters. This change in the response of the discs used to estimate the energy of the bremsstrauhlung photon in conjunction with suitable calibration curve generated using known photon energy from medical linear accelerator. The photon energies estimated were in the range 1-4 MeV, depending on the locations.

  11. The neupert effect and new RHESSI measures of the total energy in electrons accelerated in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, B. R.; Veronig, A.; Schwartz, R. A.; Sui, L.; Tolbert, A. K.; Zarro, D. M.; Rhessi Team

    It is believed that a large fraction of the total energy released in a solar flare goes initially into acceleratedelectrons. These electrons generate the observed hard X-ray bremsstrahlung as they lose most of their energy by coulomb collisions in the lower corona and chromosphere. Results from the Solar Maximum Mission showed that there may be even more energy in accelerated electrons with energies above 25 keV than in the soft X-ray emitting thermal plasma. If this is the case, it is difficult to understand why the Neupert Effect — the empirical result that for many flares the time integral of the hard X-ray emission closely matches the temporal variation of the soft X-ray emission — is not more clearly observed in many flares. From recent studies, it appears that the fraction of the released energy going into accelerated electrons is lower, on average, for smaller flares than for larger flares. Also, from relative timing differences, about 25% of all flares are inconsistent with the Neupert Effect. The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) is uniquely capable of investigating the Neupert Effec since it covers soft X-rays down to 3 keV (when both attenuators are out of the field of view) and hard X-rays with keV energy resolution, arcsecond-class angular resolution, and sub-second time resolution. When combined with the anticipated observations from the Soft X-ray Imager on the next GOES satellite, these observations will provide us with the ability to track the Neupert Effect in space and time and learn more about the relation between plasma heating and particle acceleration. The early results from RHESSI show that the electron spectrum extends down to as low as 10 keV in many flares, thus increasing the total energy estimates of the accelerated electrons by an order of magnitude or more compared with the SMM values. This combined with the possible effects of filling factors smaller than unity for the soft X-ray plasma suggest that

  12. The low-energy electron accelerator lea for pilot scale operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehnert, R.; Klenert, P.

    An electron processor equipped with a linear cathode has been developed for use in pilot scale radiation processing. It can provide electron beam powers up to 6 kW at energies between 150 and 200 keV. The design of some components of the processor system and first results of its operation as part of a pilot unit for curing of furniture elements will be discussed.

  13. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    DOE PAGES

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; ...

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm -1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/protonmore » accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.« less

  14. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeV m−1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. These ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams. PMID:26439410

  15. Prompt Acceleration of Magnetospheric Electrons to Ultrarelativistic Energies by the 17 March 2015 Interplanetary Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Fennell, J. F.; Jones, A.; Schiller, Q.; Richardson, I.G.; Li, X.; Turner, D. L.; Califf, S.; Claudepierre, S. G.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Trapped electrons in Earth's outer Van Allen radiation belt are influenced profoundly by solar phenomena such as high-speed solar wind streams, coronal mass ejections (CME), and interplanetary (IP) shocks. In particular, strong IP shocks compress the magnetosphere suddenly and result in rapid energization of electrons within minutes. It is believed that the electric fields induced by the rapid change in the geomagnetic field are responsible for the energization. During the latter part of March 2015, a CME impact led to the most powerful geomagnetic storm (minimum Dst = -223 nT at 17 March, 23 UT) observed not only during the Van Allen Probe era but also the entire preceding decade. Magnetospheric response in the outer radiation belt eventually resulted in elevated levels of energized electrons. The CME itself was preceded by a strong IP shock whose immediate effects vis-a-vis electron energization were observed by sensors on board the Van Allen Probes. The comprehensive and high-quality data from the Van Allen Probes enable the determination of the location of the electron injection, timescales, and spectral aspects of the energized electrons. The observations clearly show that ultrarelativistic electrons with energies E greater than 6 MeV were injected deep into the magnetosphere at L approximately equals 3 within about 2 min of the shock impact. However, electrons in the energy range of approximately equals 250 keV to approximately equals 900 keV showed no immediate response to the IP shock. Electric and magnetic fields resulting from the shock-driven compression complete the comprehensive set of observations that provide a full description of the near-instantaneous electron energization.

  16. High-energy coherent terahertz radiation emitted by wide-angle electron beams from a laser-wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xue; Brunetti, Enrico; Jaroszynski, Dino A.

    2018-04-01

    High-charge electron beams produced by laser-wakefield accelerators are potentially novel, scalable sources of high-power terahertz radiation suitable for applications requiring high-intensity fields. When an intense laser pulse propagates in underdense plasma, it can generate femtosecond duration, self-injected picocoulomb electron bunches that accelerate on-axis to energies from 10s of MeV to several GeV, depending on laser intensity and plasma density. The process leading to the formation of the accelerating structure also generates non-injected, sub-picosecond duration, 1–2 MeV nanocoulomb electron beams emitted obliquely into a hollow cone around the laser propagation axis. These wide-angle beams are stable and depend weakly on laser and plasma parameters. Here we perform simulations to characterise the coherent transition radiation emitted by these beams if passed through a thin metal foil, or directly at the plasma–vacuum interface, showing that coherent terahertz radiation with 10s μJ to mJ-level energy can be produced with an optical to terahertz conversion efficiency up to 10‑4–10‑3.

  17. Energy Stabilization of Electrostatic Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, J.

    1997-12-01

    Electrostatic accelerators, such as the Van de Graaf generator, are among the most established and well-developed particle accelerators. One of the key issues in the maturation of these accelerators has been the development of methods used to stabilize the energies of the particles they produce. Energy Stabilization of Electrostatic Accelerators presents a comprehensive overview of the key methods of stabilizing the energy of ions produced by electrostatic accelerators. After giving comprehensive background information on the subject, it explains the basis of high voltage generation, covering both the Van de Graaf charge transfer and the Crockcroft Walton voltage multiplier principle. This is followed by a description of the various methods used to detect the fluctuation in the energy of the accelerated ions. The later chapters describe the various ways used to stabilize the energy of the ions, gradually leading the reader to models of more complicated multi-loop stabilizers, composed from the simple models derived in the previous chapters. Some of the information on the mathematical modeling of physical phenomena applied in the stabilization has not been published before. Also featured is a whole chapter devoted to the problem of modulating the energy of the ions to a predetermined way. Energy Stabilization of Electrostatic Accelerators has been written with the accelerator designer and user in mind, but will also prove extremely useful to researchers and graduate students engaged in accelerator-based research, both pure and applied, whose interests lie in improving accelerator performance. It assumes only a basic knowledge of feedback and control system theory and Laplace transformation, which makes it readily understandable for any readers with physics and electronic engineering backgrounds.

  18. Maximum Energies of Shock-Accelerated Electrons in Young Shell Supernova Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.; Keohane, Jonathan W.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Young supernova remnants (SNRs) are often assumed to be the source of cosmic rays up to energies approaching the slight steepening in the cosmic ray spectrum at around 1000 TeV, known as the "knee." We show that the observed X-ray emission of 14 radio-bright shell remnants, including all five historical shells, can be used to put limits on E(sub max), the energy at which the electron energy distribution must steepen from its slope at radio-emitting energies. Most of the remnants show thermal spectra, so any synchrotron component must fall below the observed X-ray fluxes. We obtain upper limits on E(sub max) by considering the most rapid physically plausible cutoff in the relativistic electron distribution, an exponential, which is as sharp or sharper than found in any more elaborate models. This maximally curved model then gives us the highest possible E(sub max) consistent with not exceeding observed X-rays. Our results are thus independent of particular models for the electron spectrum in SNRs. Assuming homogeneous emitting volumes with a constant magnetic field strength of 10 uG, no object could reach 1000 TeV, and only one, Kes 73, has an upper limit on E(sub max), above 100 TeV. All the other remnants have limits at or below 80 TeV. E(sub max) is probably set by the finite remnant lifetime rather than by synchrotron losses for remnants younger than a few thousand years, so that an observed electron steepening should be accompanied by steepening at the same energy for protons. More complicated, inhomogeneous models could allow higher values of E(sub max) in parts of the remnant, but the emission-weighted average value, that characteristic of typical electrons, should obey these limits. The young remnants are not expected to improve much over their remaining lives at producing the highest energy Galactic cosmic rays; if they cannot, this picture of cosmic-ray origin may need major alteration.

  19. Electron accelerators for nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, S.

    1995-07-01

    In this review a brief description of the capabilities and current sta of electron accelerators which are used for medium energy nuclear physics research is given. The facilities described are the mainz MAMI 885 MeV at 100 Ma, the University of Saskatchewan SAL 100-300 MeV, the Bonn ELSA 3.5 GeV at 200 nA, and the European Collaboration ELFE 15 GeV at 5 μA. Also, the physics programs at each of these facilities are described. (AIP)

  20. Accelerator Science: Proton vs. Electron

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2018-01-16

    Particle accelerators are one of the most powerful ways to study the fundamental laws that govern the universe. However, there are many design considerations that go into selecting and building a particular accelerator. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of building an accelerator that collides pairs of protons to one that collides electrons.

  1. Accelerator Science: Proton vs. Electron

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-10-11

    Particle accelerators are one of the most powerful ways to study the fundamental laws that govern the universe. However, there are many design considerations that go into selecting and building a particular accelerator. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the pros and cons of building an accelerator that collides pairs of protons to one that collides electrons.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of silver nanoparticles by using a low energy electron accelerator with a flow reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byungnam; Park, Ji Hyun; Lee, Ho Sang; Kim, Myung Man

    2016-10-01

    The mass production of silver nanoparticles by using a low-energy-electron accelerator with a flow reactor was carried out. The flux of the silver precursor was 55 ml/min, and the electron beam's conditions were a fixed beam energy of 0.2 MeV and a beam current of 1 mA. The irradiation area and time were 8 cm × 2 cm and 9.7 seconds, respectively. The yield of silver nanoparticles was about 26.67% in a flow reactor. On the other hand, the yield of silver nanoparticles was around 9% in a batch reactor. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed a synthesis of pure silver nano particles whose surfaces were not oxidized. The size distribution of the fabricated silver nanoparticles was very uniform with sizes from 40 to 50 nm, and the sheet resistance measured using a four-point probe was lower than 3.5 mΩ/sq.

  3. Electron acceleration by turbulent plasmoid reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Büchner, J.; Widmer, F.; Muñoz, P. A.

    2018-04-01

    In space and astrophysical plasmas, like in planetary magnetospheres, as that of Mercury, energetic electrons are often found near current sheets, which hint at electron acceleration by magnetic reconnection. Unfortunately, electron acceleration by reconnection is not well understood yet, in particular, acceleration by turbulent plasmoid reconnection. We have investigated electron acceleration by turbulent plasmoid reconnection, described by MHD simulations, via test particle calculations. In order to avoid resolving all relevant turbulence scales down to the dissipation scales, a mean-field turbulence model is used to describe the turbulence of sub-grid scales and their effects via a turbulent electromotive force (EMF). The mean-field model describes the turbulent EMF as a function of the mean values of current density, vorticity, magnetic field as well as of the energy, cross-helicity, and residual helicity of the turbulence. We found that, mainly around X-points of turbulent reconnection, strongly enhanced localized EMFs most efficiently accelerated electrons and caused the formation of power-law spectra. Magnetic-field-aligned EMFs, caused by the turbulence, dominate the electron acceleration process. Scaling the acceleration processes to parameters of the Hermean magnetotail, electron energies up to 60 keV can be reached by turbulent plasmoid reconnection through the thermal plasma.

  4. Electron accelerators: History, applications, and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, M. N.; Silva, T. F.

    2014-02-01

    This paper will present an outlook on sources of radiation, focusing on electron accelerators. We will review advances that were important for the development of particle accelerators, concentrating on those that led to modern electron accelerators. Electron accelerators are multipurpose machines that deliver beams with energies spanning five orders of magnitude, and are used in applications that range from fundamental studies of particle interactions to cross-linking polymer chains in industrial plants. Each accelerator type presents specific characteristics that make it more suitable for certain applications. Our work will focus on radiation sources for medical applications, dominated by electron linacs (linear accelerators), and those used for research, field where electron rings dominate. We will outline the main technological advances that occurred in the past decades, which made possible the construction of machines fit for clinical environments. Their compactness, efficiency and reliability have been key to their acceptance in clinical applications. This outline will include advances that allowed for the construction of brighter synchrotron light sources, where the relevant beam characteristics are good optical quality and high beam current. The development of insertion devices will also be discussed, as well the development of Free Electron Lasers (FEL). We conclude the review with an outline of the new developments of electron accelerators and the expectations for Energy Recovery Linacs.

  5. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high-energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams.

    PubMed

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, John Pichy; Al Amri, Iqbal; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-03-08

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue-equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available 'microdiamond' detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1mm, thickness 1 x10(-3) mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ± 0.17% (1 SD) (n = 11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stop-ping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long-term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro-dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance.

  6. Diamond detector in absorbed dose measurements in high‐energy linear accelerator photon and electron beams

    PubMed Central

    Binukumar, John Pichy; Amri, Iqbal Al; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony

    2016-01-01

    Diamond detectors (DD) are preferred in small field dosimetry of radiation beams because of small dose profile penumbras, better spatial resolution, and tissue‐equivalent properties. We investigated a commercially available ‘microdiamond’ detector in realizing absorbed dose from first principles. A microdiamond detector, type TM 60019 with tandem electrometer is used to measure absorbed doses in water, nylon, and PMMA phantoms. With sensitive volume 0.004 mm3, radius 1.1 mm, thickness 1×10−3mm, the nominal response is 1 nC/Gy. It is assumed that the diamond detector could collect total electric charge (nC) developed during irradiation at 0 V bias. We found that dose rate effect is less than 0.7% for changing dose rate by 500 MU/min. The reproducibility in obtaining readings with diamond detector is found to be ±0.17% (1 SD) (n=11). The measured absorbed doses for 6 MV and 15 MV photons arrived at using mass energy absorption coefficients and stopping power ratios compared well with Nd, water calibrated ion chamber measured absorbed doses within 3% in water, PMMA, and nylon media. The calibration factor obtained for diamond detector confirmed response variation is due to sensitivity due to difference in manufacturing process. For electron beams, we had to apply ratio of electron densities of water to carbon. Our results qualify diamond dosimeter as a transfer standard, based on long‐term stability and reproducibility. Based on micro‐dimensions, we recommend these detectors for pretreatment dose verifications in small field irradiations like stereotactic treatments with image guidance. PACS number(s): 87.56.Da PMID:27074452

  7. Neutron Energy and Time-of-flight Spectra Behind the Lateral Shield of a High Energy Electron Accelerator Beam Dump, Part II: Monte Carlo Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Roesler, Stefan

    2002-09-19

    Energy spectra of high-energy neutrons and neutron time-of-flight spectra were calculated for the setup of experiment T-454 performed with a NE213 liquid scintillator at the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The neutrons were created by the interaction a 28.7 GeV electron beam in the aluminum beam dump of the FFTB which is housed inside a thick steel and concrete shielding. In order to determine the attenuation length of high-energy neutrons additional concrete shielding of various thicknesses was placed outside the existing shielding. The calculations were performed using the FLUKA interaction and transport code.more » The energy and time-of-flight were recorded for the location of the detector allowing a detailed comparison with the experimental data. A generally good description of the data is achieved adding confidence to the use of FLUKA for the design of shielding for high-energy electron accelerators.« less

  8. Electron acceleration from rest to GeV energy by chirped axicon Gaussian laser pulse in vacuum in the presence of wiggler magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kant, Niti; Rajput, Jyoti; Singh, Arvinder

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a scheme of electron energy enhancement by employing frequency - chirped lowest order axicon focussed radially polarised (RP) laser pulse in vacuum under the influence of wiggler magnetic field. Terawatt RP laser can be focussed down to ∼5μm by an axicon optical element, which produces an intense longitudinal electric field. This unique property of axicon focused Gaussian RP laser pulse is employed for direct electron acceleration in vacuum. A linear frequency chirp increases the time duration of laser-electron interaction, whereas, the applied magnetic wiggler helps in improving the strength of ponderomotive force v→ ×B→ and periodically deflects electron in order to keep it traversing in the accelerating phase up to longer distance. Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the influence of laser, frequency chirp and magnetic field parameters on electron energy enhancement. It is noticed that an electron from rest can be accelerated up to GeV energy under optimized laser and magnetic field parameters. Significant enhancement in the electron energy gain of the order of 11.2 GeV is observed with intense chirped laser pulse in the presence of wiggler magnetic field of strength 96.2 kG.

  9. Energy Innovation Acceleration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, Johanna

    2015-06-15

    The Energy Innovation Acceleration Program (IAP) – also called U-Launch – has had a significant impact on early stage clean energy companies in the Northeast and on the clean energy economy in the Northeast, not only during program execution (2010-2014), but continuing into the future. Key results include: Leverage ratio of 105:1; $105M in follow-on funding (upon $1M investment by EERE); At least 19 commercial products launched; At least 17 new industry partnerships formed; At least $6.5M in revenue generated; >140 jobs created; 60% of assisted companies received follow-on funding within 1 year of program completion; In addition to themore » direct measurable program results summarized above, two primary lessons emerged from our work executing Energy IAP:; Validation and demonstration awards have an outsized, ‘tipping-point’ effect for startups looking to secure investments and strategic partnerships. An ecosystem approach is valuable, but an approach that evaluates the needs of individual companies and then draws from diverse ecosystem resources to fill them, is most valuable of all.« less

  10. A parametric model to describe neutron spectra around high-energy electron accelerators and its application in neutron spectrometry with Bonner Spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedogni, Roberto; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Esposito, Adolfo

    2010-03-01

    Due to the increased interest of the scientific community in the applications of synchrotron light, there is an increasing demand of high-energy electron facilities, testified by the construction of several new facilities worldwide. The radiation protection around such facilities requires accurate experimental methods to determine the dose due to prompt radiation fields. Neutron fields, in particular, are the most complex to measure, because they extend in energy from thermal (10 -8 MeV) up to hundreds MeV and because the responses of dosemeters and survey meters usually have large energy dependence. The Bonner Spheres Spectrometer (BSS) is in practice the only instrument able to respond over the whole energy range of interest, and for this reason it is frequently used to derive neutron spectra and dosimetric quantities in accelerator workplaces. Nevertheless, complex unfolding algorithms are needed to derive the neutron spectra from the experimental BSS data. This paper presents a parametric model specially developed for the unfolding of the experimental data measured with BSS around high-energy electron accelerators. The work consists of the following stages: (1) Generation with the FLUKA code, of a set of neutron spectra representing the radiation environment around accelerators with different electron energies; (2) formulation of a parametric model able to describe these spectra, with particular attention to the high-energy component (>10 MeV), which may be responsible for a large part of the dose in workplaces; and (3) implementation of this model in an existing unfolding code.

  11. Electron Accelerators for Environmental Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2011-02-01

    This article gives an overview of existing and possible electron accelerator applications for environmental pollution control. Laboratory and pilot plant tests and industrial applications have illustrated the possibility of applying this technology for purification and treatment of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes. Examples of ionizing radiation application to protect the environment and human health are discussed.

  12. Review of the energy check of an electron-only linear accelerator over a 6 year period: sensitivity of the technique to energy shift.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Peter J

    2003-04-01

    The calibration and monthly QA of an electron-only linear accelerator dedicated to intra-operative radiation therapy has been reviewed. Since this machine is calibrated prior to every procedure, there was no necessity to adjust the output calibration at any time except, perhaps, when the magnetron is changed, provided the machine output is reasonably stable. This gives a unique opportunity to study the dose output of the machine per monitor unit, variation in the timer error, flatness and symmetry of the beam and the energy check as a function of time. The results show that, although the dose per monitor unit varied within +/- 2%, the timer error within +/- 0.005 MU and the asymmetry within 1-2%, none of these parameters showed any systematic change with time. On the other hand, the energy check showed a linear drift with time for 6, 9, and 12 MeV (2.1, 3.5, and 2.5%, respectively, over 5 years), while at 15 and 18 MeV, the energy check was relatively constant. It is further shown that based on annual calibrations and RPC TLD checks, the energy of each beam is constant and that therefore the energy check is an exquisitely sensitive one. The consistency of the independent checks is demonstrated.

  13. HF Accelerated Electron Fluxes, Spectra, and Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Herbert C.; Jensen, Joseph B.

    2015-10-01

    Wave particle interactions, an essential aspect of laboratory, terrestrial, and astrophysical plasmas, have been studied for decades by transmitting high power HF radio waves into Earth's weakly ionized space plasma, to use it as a laboratory without walls. Application to HF electron acceleration remains an active area of research (Gurevich in Usp Fizicheskikh Nauk 177(11):1145-1177, 2007) today. HF electron acceleration studies began when plasma line observations proved (Carlson et al. in J Atmos Terr Phys 44:1089-1100, 1982) that high power HF radio wave-excited processes accelerated electrons not to ~eV, but instead to -100 times thermal energy (10 s of eV), as a consequence of inelastic collision effects on electron transport. Gurevich et al (J Atmos Terr Phys 47:1057-1070, 1985) quantified the theory of this transport effect. Merging experiment with theory in plasma physics and aeronomy, enabled prediction (Carlson in Adv Space Res 13:1015-1024, 1993) of creating artificial ionospheres once ~GW HF effective radiated power could be achieved. Eventual confirmation of this prediction (Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 36:L18107, 2009; Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 37:L02106, 2010; Blagoveshchenskaya et al. in Ann Geophys 27:131-145, 2009) sparked renewed interest in optical inversion to estimate electron spectra in terrestrial (Hysell et al. in J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:2038-2045, 2014) and planetary (Simon et al. in Ann Geophys 29:187-195, 2011) atmospheres. Here we present our unpublished optical data, which combined with our modeling, lead to conclusions that should meaningfully improve future estimates of the spectrum of HF accelerated electron fluxes. Photometric imaging data can significantly improve detection of emissions near ionization threshold, and confirm depth of penetration of accelerated electrons many km below the excitation altitude. Comparing observed to modeled emission altitude shows future experiments need electron density profiles

  14. The continuous electron beam accelerator facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunder, H. A.; Bisognano, J. J.; Diamond, W. I.; Hartline, B. K.; Leemann, C. W.; Mougey, J.; Sundelin, R. M.; York, R. C.

    On February 13, 1987, construction started on the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility, a 4-GeV, 200 microA, continuous beam, electron accelerator facility designed for nuclear physics research. The machine has a racetrack configuration with two antiparallel, 500-MeV, superconducting linac segments connected by beam lines to allow four passes of recirculation. The accelerating structure consists of 1500-MHz, five-cell niobium cavities developed at Cornell University. A liquid helium cryogenic system cools the cavities to an operating temperature of 2 K. Beam extraction after any three of the four passes allows simultaneous delivery of up to three beams of independently variable currents and different, but correlated, energies to the three experimental areas. Beam breakup thresholds exceed the design current by nearly two orders of magnitude. Project completion and the start of physics operations are scheduled for 1993. The total estimated cost is 255 million dollars.

  15. Electron energy boosting in laser-wake-field acceleration with external magnetic field Bapprox1 T and laser prepulses

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei; Yamazaki, Atsushi

    2010-03-22

    Hundred-mega-electron-volt electron beams with quasi-monoenergetic distribution, and a transverse geometrical emittance as small as approx0.02 pi mm mrad are generated by low power (7 TW, 45 fs) laser pulses tightly focused in helium gas jets in an external static magnetic field, Bapprox1 T. Generation of monoenergetic beams strongly correlates with appearance of a straight, at least 2 mm length plasma channel in a short time before the main laser pulse and with the energy of copropagating picosecond pedestal pulses (PPP). For a moderate energy PPP, the multiple or staged electron self-injection in the channel gives several narrow peaks in themore » electron energy distribution.« less

  16. Electrostatic accelerator free electron lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, L. R.

    1981-10-01

    The amplification of short wavelength coherent electromagnetic radiation by relativistic electrons moving through a spatially periodic transverse magnetic field was first demonstrated at Stanford University. These experiments were carried out using the bunched electron beam emerging from a radio frequency linear accelerator. Although the electron beam quality was ideally suited to study the most important operating characteristics of the free electron laser, the small amount of available average electron beam current coupled with only a small laser extraction efficiency contributed to limit both the amount of average laser power produced (P=0.5 watts) and the overall operating efficiency of the device (e<0.1%). Since the Stanford experiments a considerable amount of work has been done to study various schemes directed toward the development of efficient high power free electron lasers. In some of the schemes high single pass laser extraction efficiency is pursued using for example variable parameter wigglers, constant period wigglers consisting of only a few magnet periods and constant period gain-expanded wigglers. In other schemes the electron beam is recirculated several times through the laser interaction region increase total overall efficiency while retaining the characteristically small single pass efficiency of a constant period wiggler.

  17. Therapeutic dose from a pyroelectric electron accelerator.

    PubMed

    Fullem, T Z; Fazel, K C; Geuther, J A; Danon, Y

    2009-11-01

    Simple heating of pyroelectric crystals has been used as the basis for compact sources of X rays, electrons, ions and neutrons. We report on the evaluation of the feasibility of using a portable pyroelectric electron accelerator to deliver a therapeutic dose to tissue. Such a device could be mass produced as a handheld, battery-powered instrument. Experiments were conducted with several crystal sizes in which the crystal was heated inside a vacuum chamber and the emitted electrons were allowed to penetrate a thin beryllium window into the surrounding air. A Faraday cup was used to count the number of electrons that exited the window. The energy of these electrons was determined by measuring the energy spectrum of the X rays that resulted from the electron interactions with the Faraday cup. Based on these measurements, the dose that this source could deliver to tissue was calculated using Monte Carlo calculations. It was found that 10(13) electrons with a peak energy of the order of 100 keV were emitted from the beryllium window and could deliver a dose of 1664 Gy to a 2-cm-diameter, 110-microm-deep region of tissue located 1.5 cm from the window with air between the window and the tissue. This dose level is high enough to consider this technology for medical applications in which shallow energy deposition is beneficial.

  18. Radiation containment at a 1 MW high energy electron accelerator: Status of LCLS-II radiation physics design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, M. Santana; Blaha, J.; Guetg, M. W.; Li, Z.; Liu, J. C.; Mao, S. X.; Nicolas, L.; Rokni, S. H.; Xiao, S.; Ge, L.

    2017-09-01

    LCLS-II will add a 4 GeV, 1 MHz, SCRF electron accelerator in the first 700 meters of the SLAC 2-mile Linac, as well as adjustable gap polarized undulators in the down-beam electron lines, to produce tunable, fully coherent X-rays in programmable bunch patterns. This facility will work in unison with the existing Linac Coherent Light Source, which uses the legacy copper cavities in the last third of the linac to deliver electrons between 2 and 17 GeV to an undulator line. The upgrade plan includes new beam lines, five stages of state of the art collimation that shall clean the high-power beam well up-beam of the radio-sensitive undulators, and new electron and photon beam dumps. This paper describes the challenges encountered to define efficient measures to protect machine, personnel, public and the environment from the potentially destructive power of the beam, while maximizing the reuse of existing components and infrastructure, and allowing for complex operational modes.

  19. Electron Accelerators for Novel Cargo Inspection Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsaev, S.; Agustsson, R.; Arodzero, A.; Boucher, S.; Hartzell, J.; Murokh, A.; O'Shea, F.; Smirnov, A. Yu.

    One of the main factors limiting the performance of conventional x-ray cargo inspection with material discrimination (MD) is the interlaced mode of system operation. Such systems use pulsed linac or betatron x-ray generators and produce alternate bremsstrahlung pulses with lower- and higher- end-point energies. Consequently, these systems provide about 50 mm lower penetration than a system operated in a non-interlaced mode, have a limited range of cargo areal densities with valid MD, and cannot perform MD of objects smaller than the pulse separation. Also, the limited pulse repetition rate of x-ray generators in interlaced mode limits the radiographic image quality at nominal commercial speeds of vehicles or trains. Several new methods of cargo inspection with MD were recently introduced to address the above-mentioned limitations: dual-energy methods based on Scintillation-Cherenkov detectors [1]; multi-energy method based on intrapulse time-varying of spectral content of x-ray [1,2]; multi-energy method utilized ramping-up energy packet of short x-ray pulses [3,4]; and methods based on multi-energy betatron [5,6]. All of these methods have electron accelerators as a core element. However, the accelerator requirements and, thus, their designs, are different for each system. In this paper, we will discuss the requirements for the accelerators, provide some details about their designs, and present several novel solutions for current and future projects.

  20. Dynamics of Plasma Heating and Energy Distributions of Accelerated Electrons During Solar Flares Based on X-Ray and Ultraviolet Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motorina, Galina G.

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the thesis is the study of properties of solar flares via reconstruction of energy distributions of accelerated/heated electrons, diagnostics of flare plasma based on EUV and X-ray observations, as well as the estimation of the thermal balance within the "standard" flare model. The X-ray data were obtained from the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Russian solar observatory KORONAS-F (IRIS experiment). The EUV data were obtained from the Solar Dynamics Observatory / Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA). In the first chapter a new technique is presented, which allowed to determine at first the photon spectra based on the KORONAS-F/IRIS observations and then to reconstruct the energy spectra of the emitting electrons using the random search method and the Tikhonov regularization method. In the second chapter the developed technique of simultaneously fitting the model differential emission measure functions (DEM) to RHESSI and SDO/AIA data is introduced, which allowed to infer the electron distribution from X-ray and EUV observations. The proposed method allows to reconstruct of both the spectra of accelerated/heated electrons and the basic parameters of the flare plasma, such as temperature, emission measure, total electron number density, and flare energy. In addition, the analytical function suitable for both DEM analysis and mean electron flux spectra in flares has been developed and applied, as well as kappa-distribution in the form of differential emission measure. The thermal balance and hard X-ray emission of coronal loops from different flare regions within the "standard" flare model is considered in the third chapter. This thesis is based on the next papers: Motorina et al., TePh, 2012, Motorina & Kontar, Ge&Ae, 2015, Battaglia et al., ApJ, 2015, Motorina et al., TePh, 2016, Tsap et al., Ge&Ae, 2016.

  1. Calculation of Neutron Time-of-Flight and Energy Spectra Behind Thick Shielding of an Electron Accelerator and Comparison to Experimental Data

    SciTech Connect

    Roesler, Stefan

    2002-05-06

    Energy spectra of high-energy neutrons and neutron time-of-flight spectra were calculated for the setup of experiment T-454 performed with a NE213 liquid scintillator at the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The neutrons were created by the interaction a 28.7 GeV electron beam in the aluminum beam dump of the FFTB which is housed inside a thick steel and concrete shielding. In order to determine the attenuation length of high-energy neutrons additional concrete shielding of various thicknesses was placed outside the existing shielding. The calculations were performed using the FLUKA interaction and transport code.more » The energy and time-of-flight were recorded for the location of the detector allowing a detailed comparison with the experimental data. A generally good description of the data is achieved adding confidence to the use of FLUKA for the design of shielding for high-energy electron accelerators.« less

  2. Plasmonic electron acceleration with the meta-surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Ling-Bao; Chen, Zhaoyang

    2017-08-01

    A mechanism for electron acceleration by spoof surface-plasmons (SSP) is proposed. By using a specially designed meta-surface with gradient structural size, the SSP and electrons can be accelerated simultaneously along the surface, which gives rise to a long-range and efficient electron-SSP interaction. Compared with the homogeneous meta-surfaces, the increment of electron kinetic energy, ˜19 keV, is enhanced by two orders of magnitude. The effect may be valuable for developing efficient plasmonic electron accelerators.

  3. HIGH ENERGY PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Courant, E.D.; Livingston, M.S.; Snyder, H.S.

    1959-04-14

    An improved apparatus is presented for focusing charged particles in an accelerator. In essence, the invention includes means for establishing a magnetic field in discrete sectors along the path of moving charged particles, the magnetic field varying in each sector in accordance with the relation. B = B/ sub 0/ STAln (r-r/sub 0/)/r/sub 0/!, where B/sub 0/ is the value of the magnetic field at the equilibrium orbit of radius r/sub 0/ of the path of the particles, B equals the magnetic field at the radius r of the chamber and n equals the magnetic field gradient index, the polarity of n being abruptly reversed a plurality of times as the particles travel along their arcuate path. With this arrangement, the particles are alternately converged towards the axis of their equillbrium orbit and diverged therefrom in successive sectors with a resultant focusing effect.

  4. Fermi Acceleration of Electrons inside Foreshock Transient Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. Z.; Lu, S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Hietala, H.; Wilson, L. B., III

    2017-12-01

    Foreshock transients upstream of Earth's bow shock have been recently observed to accelerate electrons to many times their thermal energy. How such acceleration occurs is unknown, however. Using THEMIS case studies, we examine a subset of acceleration events (31 of 247 events) in foreshock transients with cores that exhibit gradual electron energy increases accompanied by low background magnetic field strength and large-amplitude magnetic fluctuations. Using the evolution of electron distributions and the energy increase rates at multiple spacecraft, we suggest that Fermi acceleration between a converging foreshock transient's compressional boundary and the bow shock is responsible for the observed electron acceleration. We then show that a one-dimensional test particle simulation of an ideal Fermi acceleration model in fluctuating fields prescribed by the observations can reproduce the observed evolution of electron distributions, energy increase rate, and pitch-angle isotropy, providing further support for our hypothesis. Thus, Fermi acceleration is likely the principal electron acceleration mechanism in at least this subset of foreshock transient cores.

  5. Free electron laser using Rf coupled accelerating and decelerating structures

    DOEpatents

    Brau, Charles A.; Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    A free electron laser and free electron laser amplifier using beam transport devices for guiding an electron beam to a wiggler of a free electron laser and returning the electron beam to decelerating cavities disposed adjacent to the accelerating cavities of the free electron laser. Rf energy is generated from the energy depleted electron beam after it emerges from the wiggler by means of the decelerating cavities which are closely coupled to the accelerating cavities, or by means of a second bore within a single set of cavities. Rf energy generated from the decelerated electron beam is used to supplement energy provided by an external source, such as a klystron, to thereby enhance overall efficiency of the system.

  6. 10.3 Electron Accelerators and Electron-Positron Colliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeman, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the the Section '10.3 Electron Accelerators and Electron-Positron Colliders' of the Chapter '10 The Largest Accelerators and Colliders of Their Time' with the content:

  7. High-efficiency acceleration of an electron beam in a plasma wakefield accelerator.

    PubMed

    Litos, M; Adli, E; An, W; Clarke, C I; Clayton, C E; Corde, S; Delahaye, J P; England, R J; Fisher, A S; Frederico, J; Gessner, S; Green, S Z; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Lu, W; Marsh, K A; Mori, W B; Muggli, P; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N; Walz, D; White, G; Wu, Z; Yakimenko, V; Yocky, G

    2014-11-06

    High-efficiency acceleration of charged particle beams at high gradients of energy gain per unit length is necessary to achieve an affordable and compact high-energy collider. The plasma wakefield accelerator is one concept being developed for this purpose. In plasma wakefield acceleration, a charge-density wake with high accelerating fields is driven by the passage of an ultra-relativistic bunch of charged particles (the drive bunch) through a plasma. If a second bunch of relativistic electrons (the trailing bunch) with sufficient charge follows in the wake of the drive bunch at an appropriate distance, it can be efficiently accelerated to high energy. Previous experiments using just a single 42-gigaelectronvolt drive bunch have accelerated electrons with a continuous energy spectrum and a maximum energy of up to 85 gigaelectronvolts from the tail of the same bunch in less than a metre of plasma. However, the total charge of these accelerated electrons was insufficient to extract a substantial amount of energy from the wake. Here we report high-efficiency acceleration of a discrete trailing bunch of electrons that contains sufficient charge to extract a substantial amount of energy from the high-gradient, nonlinear plasma wakefield accelerator. Specifically, we show the acceleration of about 74 picocoulombs of charge contained in the core of the trailing bunch in an accelerating gradient of about 4.4 gigavolts per metre. These core particles gain about 1.6 gigaelectronvolts of energy per particle, with a final energy spread as low as 0.7 per cent (2.0 per cent on average), and an energy-transfer efficiency from the wake to the bunch that can exceed 30 per cent (17.7 per cent on average). This acceleration of a distinct bunch of electrons containing a substantial charge and having a small energy spread with both a high accelerating gradient and a high energy-transfer efficiency represents a milestone in the development of plasma wakefield acceleration into a

  8. Laser-plasma interactions from thin tapes for high-energy electron accelerators and seeding compact FELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Brian Henry

    This thesis comprises a detailed investigation of the physics of using a plasma mirror (PM) from a tape by reflecting ultrashort pulses from a laser-triggered surface plasma. The tapes used in the characterization of the PM are VHS and computer data storage tape. The tapes are 6.6 m (computer storage tape) and 15 m (VHS) thick. Each tape is 0.5 inches wide, and 10s of meters of tape are spooled using a tape drive; providing thousands of shots on a single reel of tape. The amount of reflected energy of the PM was studied for different input intensities. The fluence was varied by translating the focus of the laser upstream and downstream of the tape, which changed the spot size on the tape surface and hence changed the fluence. This study measured reflectances from both sides of the two tapes, and for input light of both s and p-polarizations. Lastly, an analytic model was developed to understand the reflectance as a function of fluence for each tape material and polarization. Another application that benefits from the advancements of LPA technology is an LPAbased FEL. By sending a high quality electron bunch through an undulator (a periodic structure of positive and negative magnetic poles), the electrons oscillate transversely to the propagation axis and produce radiation. The 1.5 m THUNDER undulator at the BELLA Center has been commissioned using electron beams of 400MeV beams with broad energy spread (35%). To produce a coherent LPA-based FEL, the beam quality would need to improve to sub-percent level energy spread. A seed source could be used to help induce bunching of the electron beam within the undulator. This thesis described the experimental investigation of the physics of using solid-based surface high-harmonic generation (SHHG) from a thin tape as a possible seed source for an FEL. A thin tape placed within centimeters of the undulator's entrance could act as a harmonic generating source, while simultaneously transmitting an electron beam. This removes

  9. Electron acceleration during streamer collisions in air.

    PubMed

    Köhn, Christoph; Chanrion, Olivier; Neubert, Torsten

    2017-03-16

    High-voltage laboratory experiments show that discharges in air, generated over a gap of one meter with maximal voltage of 1 MV, may produce X-rays with photon energies up to 1 MeV. It has been suggested that the photons are bremsstrahlung from electrons accelerated by the impulsive, enhanced field during collisions of negative and a positive streamers. To explore this process, we have conducted the first self-consistent particle simulations of streamer encounters. Our simulation model is a 2-D, cylindrically symmetric, particle-in-cell code tracing the electron dynamics and solving the space charge fields, with a Monte Carlo scheme accounting for collisions and ionization. We present the electron density, the electric field, and the velocity distribution as functions of space and time. Assuming a background electric field 1.5 times the breakdown field, we find that the electron density reaches 2·10 21  m -3 , the size of the encounter region is ∼3·10 -12  m 3 and that the field enhances to ∼9 times the breakdown field during ∼10 -11  s. We further find that the radial component becomes comparable to the parallel component, which together with angular scattering leads to an almost isotropic distribution of electrons. This is consistent with laboratory observations that X-rays are emitted isotropically. However, the maximum energy of electrons reached in the simulation is ∼600 eV, which is well below the energies required to explain observations. The reason is that the encounter region is small in size and duration. For the photon energies observed, the field must be enhanced in a larger region and/or for a longer time.

  10. Collective ion acceleration with intense electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    Collective acceleration methods that employ an intense relativistic electron beam (IREE) are discussed. A brief history and a classification of collective acceleration methods are given. Methods examined include IREB injection into neutral gas; IREB injection into vacuum; plasma-filled IREB diodes; and vacuum-filled IREB diodes. Accelerating fields of order 10 6 V/cm have been observed experimentally. The collective acceleration processes for IREB injection into neutral gas and vacuum are discussed. It is noted that the collective acceleration processes for IREB diodes have not been elucidated, yet. A summary of present collective ion acceleration research areas that involve IREB's is given.

  11. Design of an X -band electron linear accelerator dedicated to decentralized 99Mo/99mTc supply: From beam energy selection to yield estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jaewoong; Yamamoto, Masashi; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2017-10-01

    The most frequently used radionuclide in diagnostic nuclear medicine, 99mTc, is generally obtained by the decay of its parent radionuclide, 99Mo. Recently, concerns have been raised over shortages of 99Mo/99mTc, owing to aging of the research reactors which have been supplying practically all of the global demand for 99Mo in a centralized fashion. In an effort to prevent such 99Mo/99mTc supply disruption and, furthermore, to ameliorate the underlying instability of the centralized 99Mo/99mTc supply chain, we designed an X -band electron linear accelerator which can be distributed over multiple regions, whereby 99Mo/99mTc can be supplied with improved accessibility. The electron beam energy was designed to be 35 MeV, at which an average beam power of 9.1 kW was calculated by the following beam dynamics analysis. Subsequent radioactivity modeling suggests that 11 of the designed electron linear accelerators can realize self-sufficiency of 99Mo/99mTc in Japan.

  12. Accelerator Science: Luminosity vs. Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2018-01-16

    In the world of high energy physics there are several parameters that are important when one constructs a particle accelerator. Two crucial ones are the energy of the beam and the luminosity, which is another word for the number of particles in the beam. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the differences and the pros and cons. He even works in an unexpected sporting event.

  13. Accelerator Science: Luminosity vs. Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-09-19

    In the world of high energy physics there are several parameters that are important when one constructs a particle accelerator. Two crucial ones are the energy of the beam and the luminosity, which is another word for the number of particles in the beam. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains the differences and the pros and cons. He even works in an unexpected sporting event.

  14. Choosing a therapy electron accelerator target.

    PubMed

    Hutcheon, R M; Schriber, S O; Funk, L W; Sherman, N K

    1979-01-01

    Angular distributions of photon depth dose produced by 25-MeV electrons incident on several fully stopping single-element targets (C, Al, Cu, Mo, Ta, Pb) and two composite layered targets (Ni-Al, W-Al) were studied. Depth-dose curves measured using TLD-700 (thermoluminescent dosimeter) chips embedded in lucite phantoms. Several useful therapy electron accelerator design curves were determined, including relative flattener thickness as a function of target atomic number, "effective" bremsstrahlung endpoint energy or beam "hardness" as a function of target atomic number and photon emission angle, and estimates of shielding thickness as a function of angle required to reduce the radiation outside the treatment cone to required levels.

  15. Probing electron acceleration and x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Thaury, C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Corde, S.

    2013-06-15

    While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam, is focused on the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion, which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction lengthmore » to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied.« less

  16. Stochastic acceleration of electrons from multiple uncorrelated plasma waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, David; Michel, Pierre; Wurtele, Jonathan

    2017-10-01

    One-dimensional theory puts a strict limit on the maximum energy attainable by an electron trapped and accelerated by an electron plasma wave (EPW). However, experimental measurements of hot electron distributions accelerated by stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in ICF experiments typically show a thermal distribution with temperatures of the order of the kinetic energy of the resonant EPW's (Thot mvp2 , where vp is the phase velocity of the EPW's driven by SRS) and no clear cutoff at high energies. In this project, we are investigating conditions under which electrons can be stochastically accelerated by multiple uncorrelated EPW's, such as those generated by incoherent laser speckles in large laser spots like the ones used on NIF ( mm-size), and reproduce distributions similar to those observed in experiments. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Wide-angle electron beams from laser-wakefield accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunetti, E.; Yang, X.; Li, F. Y.; Reboredo Gil, D.; Welsh, G. H.; Cipiccia, S.; Ersfeld, B.; Grant, D. W.; Grant, P. A.; Islam, M. R.; Shahzad, M.; Tooley, M. P.; Vieux, G.; Wiggins, S. M.; Sheng, Z. M.; Jaroszynski, D. A.

    2017-05-01

    Advances in laser technology have driven the development of laser-wakefield accelerators, compact devices that are capable of accelerating electrons to GeV energies over centimetre distances by exploiting the strong electric field gradients arising from the interaction of intense laser pulses with an underdense plasma. A side-effect of this acceleration mechanism is the production of high-charge, low-energy electron beams at wide angles. Here we present an experimental and numerical study of the properties of these wide-angle electron beams, and show that they carry off a significant fraction of the energy transferred from the laser to the plasma. These high-charge, wide-angle beams can also cause damage to laser-wakefield accelerators based on capillaries, as well as become source of unwanted bremsstrahlung radiation.

  18. Intrinsic normalized emittance growth in laser-driven electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migliorati, M.; Bacci, A.; Benedetti, C.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.; Antici, P.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-based electron sources are attracting strong interest from the conventional accelerator community due to their unique characteristics in terms of high initial energy, low emittance, and significant beam current. Extremely strong electric fields (up to hundreds of GV/m) generated in the plasma allow accelerating gradients much higher than in conventional accelerators and set the basis for achieving very high final energies in a compact space. Generating laser-driven high-energy electron beam lines therefore represents an attractive challenge for novel particle accelerators. In this paper we show that laser-driven electrons generated by the nowadays consolidated TW laser systems, when leaving the interaction region, are subject to a very strong, normalized emittance worsening which makes them quickly unusable for any beam transport. Furthermore, due to their intrinsic beam characteristics, controlling and capturing the full beam current can only be achieved improving the source parameters.

  19. Demonstration of transmission high energy electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrill, F. E.; Goett, J.; Gibbs, J. W.; Imhoff, S. D.; Mariam, F. G.; Morris, C. L.; Neukirch, L. P.; Perry, J.; Poulson, D.; Simpson, R.; Volegov, P. L.; Walstrom, P. L.; Wilde, C. H.; Hast, C.; Jobe, K.; Smith, T.; Wienands, U.; Clarke, A. J.; Tourret, D.

    2018-04-01

    High energy electrons have been used to investigate an extension of transmission electron microscopy. This technique, transmission high energy electron microscopy (THEEM), provides two additional capabilities to electron microscopy. First, high energy electrons are more penetrating than low energy electrons, and thus, they are able to image through thicker samples. Second, the accelerating mode of a radio-frequency linear accelerator provides fast exposures, down to 1 ps, which are ideal for flash radiography, making THEEM well suited to study the evolution of fast material processes under dynamic conditions. Initial investigations with static objects and during material processing have been performed to investigate the capabilities of this technique.

  20. Giga-electronvolt electrons due to a transition from laser wakefield acceleration to plasma wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Masson-Laborde, P. E., E-mail: paul-edouard.masson-laborde@cea.fr; Teychenné, D.; Mo, M. Z.

    2014-12-15

    We show through experiments that a transition from laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) regime to a plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) regime can drive electrons up to energies close to the GeV level. Initially, the acceleration mechanism is dominated by the bubble created by the laser in the nonlinear regime of LWFA, leading to an injection of a large number of electrons. After propagation beyond the depletion length, leading to a depletion of the laser pulse, whose transverse ponderomotive force is not able to sustain the bubble anymore, the high energy dense bunch of electrons propagating inside bubble will drive its ownmore » wakefield by a PWFA regime. This wakefield will be able to trap and accelerate a population of electrons up to the GeV level during this second stage. Three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations support this analysis and confirm the scenario.« less

  1. Low-energy (< 200 eV) electron acceleration by ULF waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer: Van Allen Probes observation

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Jie; Zong, Q. G.; Miyoshi, Y.

    2017-08-30

    Here, we report observational evidence of cold plamsmaspheric electron (< 200 eV) acceleration by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves in the plasmaspheric boundary layer on 10 September 2015. Strongly enhanced cold electron fluxes in the energy spectrogram were observed along with second harmonic mode waves with a period of about 1 minute which lasted several hours during two consecutive Van Allen Probe B orbits. Cold electron (<200 eV) and energetic proton (10-20 keV) bi-directional pitch angle signatures observed during the event are suggestive of the drift-bounce resonance mechanism. The correlation between enhanced energy fluxes and ULF waves leads to the conclusions thatmore » plasmaspheric dynamics is strongly affected by ULF waves. Van Allen Probe A and B, GOES 13, GOES 15 and MMS 1 observations suggest ULF waves in the event were strongest on the dusk-side magnetosphere. Measurements from MMS 1 contain no evidence of an external wave source during the period when ULF waves and injected energetic protons with a bump-on-tail distribution were detected by Van Allen Probe B. This suggests that the observed ULF waves were probably excited by a localized drift-bounce resonant instability, with the free energy supplied by substorm-injected energetic protons. The observations by Van Allen Probe B suggest that energy transfer between particle species in different energy ranges can take place through the action of ULF waves, demonstrating the important role of these waves in the dynamical processes of the inner magnetosphere.« less

  2. High-Power Electron Accelerators for Space (and other) Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong; Lewellen, John W.

    2016-05-23

    This is a presentation on high-power electron accelerators for space and other applications. The main points covered are: electron beams for space applications, new designs of RF accelerators, high-power high-electron mobility transistors (HEMT) testing, and Li-ion battery design. In summary, the authors have considered a concept of 1-MeV electron accelerator that can operate up to several seconds. This concept can be extended to higher energy to produce higher beam power. Going to higher beam energy requires adding more cavities and solid-state HEMT RF power devices. The commercial HEMT have been tested for frequency response and RF output power (up tomore » 420 W). Finally, the authors are testing these HEMT into a resonant load and planning for an electron beam test in FY17.« less

  3. Electromagnetic Structure and Electron Acceleration in Shock–Shock Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Nakanotani, Masaru; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Hada, Tohru

    2017-09-10

    A shock–shock interaction is investigated by using a one-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulation. The simulation reproduces the collision of two symmetrical high Mach number quasi-perpendicular shocks. The basic structure of the shocks and ion dynamics is similar to that obtained by previous hybrid simulations. The new aspects obtained here are as follows. Electrons are already strongly accelerated before the two shocks collide through multiple reflection. The reflected electrons self-generate waves upstream between the two shocks before they collide. The waves far upstream are generated through the right-hand resonant instability with the anomalous Doppler effect. The waves generated near the shock aremore » due to firehose instability and have much larger amplitudes than those due to the resonant instability. The high-energy electrons are efficiently scattered by the waves so that some of them gain large pitch angles. Those electrons can be easily reflected at the shock of the other side. The accelerated electrons form a power-law energy spectrum. Due to the accelerated electrons, the pressure of upstream electrons increases with time. This appears to cause the deceleration of the approaching shock speed. The accelerated electrons having sufficiently large Larmor radii are further accelerated through the similar mechanism working for ions when the two shocks are colliding.« less

  4. Laser-driven dielectric electron accelerator for radiobiology researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Kazuyoshi; Matsumura, Yosuke; Uesaka, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Natsui, Takuya; Aimierding, Aimidula

    2013-05-01

    In order to estimate the health risk associated with a low dose radiation, the fundamental process of the radiation effects in a living cell must be understood. It is desired that an electron bunch or photon pulse precisely knock a cell nucleus and DNA. The required electron energy and electronic charge of the bunch are several tens keV to 1 MeV and 0.1 fC to 1 fC, respectively. The smaller beam size than micron is better for the precise observation. Since the laser-driven dielectric electron accelerator seems to suite for the compact micro-beam source, a phase-modulation-masked-type laser-driven dielectric accelerator was studied. Although the preliminary analysis made a conclusion that a grating period and an electron speed must satisfy the matching condition of LG/λ = v/c, a deformation of a wavefront in a pillar of the grating relaxed the matching condition and enabled the slow electron to be accelerated. The simulation results by using the free FDTD code, Meep, showed that the low energy electron of 20 keV felt the acceleration field strength of 20 MV/m and gradually felt higher field as the speed was increased. Finally the ultra relativistic electron felt the field strength of 600 MV/m. The Meep code also showed that a length of the accelerator to get energy of 1 MeV was 3.8 mm, the required laser power and energy were 11 GW and 350 mJ, respectively. Restrictions on the laser was eased by adopting sequential laser pulses. If the accelerator is illuminated by sequential N pulses, the pulse power, pulse width and the pulse energy are reduced to 1/N, 1/N and 1/N2, respectively. The required laser power per pulse is estimated to be 2.2 GW when ten pairs of sequential laser pulse is irradiated.

  5. Diffusive electron acceleration at SNR shock fronts and the observed SNR radio spectral indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, T. J.; Lee, M. A.; Lerche, I.; Webb, G. M.

    1986-01-01

    The radio synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons in shell supernova remnants (SNRs) provides a unique opportunity to probe the energy distribution of energetic electrons at their acceleration site (SNR shock fronts). This information provides insight into the acceleration mechanism(s). The implications of these observations for the diffusive (first-order Fermi) acceleration of electrons at the SNR shock fronts are discussed.

  6. Millisecond newly born pulsars as efficient accelerators of electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osmanov, Zaza; Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Chkheidze, Nino

    2015-09-01

    The newly born millisecond pulsars are investigated as possible energy sources for creating ultra-high energy electrons. The transfer of energy from the star rotation to high energy electrons takes place through the Landau damping of centrifugally driven (via a two stream instability) electrostatic Langmuir waves. Generated in the bulk magnetosphere plasma, such waves grow to high amplitudes, and then damp, very effectively, on relativistic electrons driving them to even higher energies. We show that the rate of transfer of energy is so efficient that no energy losses might affect the mechanism of particle acceleration; the electrons might achieve energies of the order of 1018 eV for parameters characteristic of a young star.

  7. Possibility for ultra-bright electron beam acceleration in dielectric wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Yu.

    2012-12-21

    We describe a conceptual proposal to combine the Dielectric Wakefield Accelerator (DWA) with the Emittance Exchanger (EEX) to demonstrate a high-brightness DWA with a gradient of above 100 MV/m and less than 0.1% induced energy spread in the accelerated beam. We currently evaluate the DWA concept as a performance upgrade for the future LANL signature facility MaRIE with the goal of significantly reducing the electron beam energy spread. The preconceptual design for MaRIE is underway at LANL, with the design of the electron linear accelerator being one of the main research goals. Although generally the baseline design needs to bemore » conservative and rely on existing technology, any future upgrade would immediately call for looking into the advanced accelerator concepts capable of boosting the electron beam energy up by a few GeV in a very short distance without degrading the beam's quality. Scoping studies have identified large induced energy spreads as the major cause of beam quality degradation in high-gradient advanced accelerators for free-electron lasers. We describe simulations demonstrating that trapezoidal bunch shapes can be used in a DWA to greatly reduce the induced beam energy spread, and, in doing so, also preserve the beam brightness at levels never previously achieved. This concept has the potential to advance DWA technology to a level that would make it suitable for the upgrades of the proposed Los Alamos MaRIE signature facility.« less

  8. Electron Acceleration in Shock-Shock Interaction: Simulations and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanotani, M.; Matsukiyo, S.; Mazelle, C. X.; Hada, T.

    2015-12-01

    Collisionless shock waves play a crucial role in producing high energy particles (cosmic rays) in space. While most of the past studies about particle acceleration assume the presence of a single shock, in space two shocks frequently come close to or even collide with each other. Hietala et al. [2011] observed the collision of an interplanetary shock and the earth's bow shock and the associated acceleration of energetic ions. The kinetic natures of a shock-shock collision has not been well understood. Only the work done by using hybrid simulation was reported by Cargill et al. [1986], in which they focus on a collision of two supercritical shocks and the resultant ion acceleration. We expect similarly that electron acceleration can also occur in shock-shock collision. To investigate the electron acceleration process in a shock-shock collision, we perform one-dimensional full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In the simulation energetic electrons are observed between the two approaching shocks before colliding. These energetic electrons are efficiently accelerated through multiple reflections at the two shocks (Fermi acceleration). The reflected electrons create a temperature anisotropy and excite large amplitude waves upstream via the electron fire hose instability. The large amplitude waves can scatter the energetic electrons in pitch angle so that some of them gain large pitch angles and are easily reflected when they encounter the shocks subsequently. The reflected electrons can sustain, or probably even strengthen, them. We further discuss observational results of an interaction of interplanetary shocks and the earth's bow shock by examining mainly Cluster data. We focus on whether or not electrons are accelerated in the shock-shock interaction.

  9. Time-dependent chemical compositions of 13N and 15O induced in air by the operation of a high energy electron accelerator.

    PubMed

    Endo, A; Henshaw, J; Mignanelli, M A

    1998-04-01

    Time-dependent chemical compositions for 13N and 15O induced in the air atmosphere of a high energy electron accelerator room have been studied using a computer simulation method. A radiation chemistry model was developed to describe the chemical reactions of 13N and 15O species with the air molecules and their radiolytic products. By assuming several chemical forms of 13N and 15O generated by the (gamma, n) reaction, the variations of the concentrations of 13N and 15O species were simulated under a radiation field. From the comparison between the simulations and experiment in a 100 MeV electron linear accelerator (linac) facility, the following conclusions were obtained: (1) Just after the (gamma, n) reaction, 25-50% of 13N and 15O are present as atoms (13N, 15O) and/or their ions (13N+, 15O+) and the remainder as nitrogen and oxygen molecules (13NN, 15OO) and/or their ions (13NN+, 15OO+); (2) Neutralization of 13N+ and 15O+ ions into 13N and 15O atoms occurs instantaneously and the same is the case with the neutralization of 13NN+ and 15OO+ ions to 13NN and 15OO molecules; (3) The neutralized 13N and 15O atoms react with the air molecules and the radiolytic products to form nitrogen oxide compounds and ozone, while 13NN and 15OO remain as these molecules. Factors that control the chemical reactions of 13N and 15O are discussed.

  10. Electron Heating and Acceleration in a Reconnecting Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Alaoui, M.; Zhou, M.; Lapenta, G.; Berchem, J.; Richard, R. L.; Schriver, D.; Walker, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Electron heating and acceleration in the magnetotail have been investigated intensively. A major site for this process is the reconnection region. However, where and how the electrons are accelerated in a realistic three-dimensional X-line geometry is not fully understood. In this study, we employed a three-dimensional implicit particle-in-cell (iPIC3D) simulation and large-scale kinetic (LSK) simulation to address these problems. We modeled a magnetotail reconnection event observed by THEMIS in an iPIC3D simulation with initial and boundary conditions given by a global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of Earth's magnetosphere. The iPIC3D simulation system includes the region of fast outflow emanating from the reconnection site that drives dipolarization fronts. We found that current sheet electrons exhibit elongated (cigar-shaped) velocity distributions with a higher parallel temperature. Using LSK we then followed millions of test electrons using the electromagnetic fields from iPIC3D. We found that magnetotail reconnection can generate power law spectra around the near-Earth X-line. A significant number of electrons with energies higher than 50 keV are produced. We identified several acceleration mechanisms at different locations that were responsible for energizing these electrons: non-adiabatic cross-tail drift, betatron and Fermi acceleration. Relative contributions to the energy gain of these high energy electrons from the different mechanisms will be discussed.

  11. Secondary Electron Emission from Plasma Processed Accelerating Cavity Grade Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Basovic, Milos

    2016-05-01

    Advances in the particle accelerator technology have enabled numerous fundamental discoveries in 20th century physics. Extensive interdisciplinary research has always supported further development of accelerator technology in efforts of reaching each new energy frontier. Accelerating cavities, which are used to transfer energy to accelerated charged particles, have been one of the main focuses of research and development in the particle accelerator field. Over the last fifty years, in the race to break energy barriers, there has been constant improvement of the maximum stable accelerating field achieved in accelerating cavities. Every increase in the maximum attainable accelerating fields allowed for highermore » energy upgrades of existing accelerators and more compact designs of new accelerators. Each new and improved technology was faced with ever emerging limiting factors. With the standard high accelerating gradients of more than 25 MV/m, free electrons inside the cavities get accelerated by the field, gaining enough energy to produce more electrons in their interactions with the walls of the cavity. The electron production is exponential and the electron energy transfer to the walls of a cavity can trigger detrimental processes, limiting the performance of the cavity. The root cause of the free electron number gain is a phenomenon called Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). Even though the phenomenon has been known and studied over a century, there are still no effective means of controlling it. The ratio between the electrons emitted from the surface and the impacting electrons is defined as the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY). A SEY ratio larger than 1 designates an increase in the total number of electrons. In the design of accelerator cavities, the goal is to reduce the SEY to be as low as possible using any form of surface manipulation. In this dissertation, an experimental setup was developed and used to study the SEY of various sample surfaces that were

  12. Secondary electron emission from plasma processed accelerating cavity grade niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basovic, Milos

    Advances in the particle accelerator technology have enabled numerous fundamental discoveries in 20th century physics. Extensive interdisciplinary research has always supported further development of accelerator technology in efforts of reaching each new energy frontier. Accelerating cavities, which are used to transfer energy to accelerated charged particles, have been one of the main focuses of research and development in the particle accelerator field. Over the last fifty years, in the race to break energy barriers, there has been constant improvement of the maximum stable accelerating field achieved in accelerating cavities. Every increase in the maximum attainable accelerating fields allowed for higher energy upgrades of existing accelerators and more compact designs of new accelerators. Each new and improved technology was faced with ever emerging limiting factors. With the standard high accelerating gradients of more than 25 MV/m, free electrons inside the cavities get accelerated by the field, gaining enough energy to produce more electrons in their interactions with the walls of the cavity. The electron production is exponential and the electron energy transfer to the walls of a cavity can trigger detrimental processes, limiting the performance of the cavity. The root cause of the free electron number gain is a phenomenon called Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). Even though the phenomenon has been known and studied over a century, there are still no effective means of controlling it. The ratio between the electrons emitted from the surface and the impacting electrons is defined as the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY). A SEY ratio larger than 1 designates an increase in the total number of electrons. In the design of accelerator cavities, the goal is to reduce the SEY to be as low as possible using any form of surface manipulation. In this dissertation, an experimental setup was developed and used to study the SEY of various sample surfaces that were treated

  13. Electron accelerators for industrial processing—a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharf, Waldemar; Wieszczycka, Wioletta

    1999-06-01

    The applications of over 1000 electron beam (EB) accelerator processors used recently worldwide span technological fields from material modification to medical sterilization and food processing. The performance level achieved by the main manufacturers is demonstrated by some selected parameters of processors in the energy range from 0.1 MeV to 10 MeV. The design of the new generation of low cost compact in-line and stand-alone accelerators is discussed.

  14. Direct longitudinal laser acceleration of electrons in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajo, Sergio; Nanni, Emilio A.; Wong, Liang Jie; Moriena, Gustavo; Keathley, Phillip D.; Laurent, Guillaume; Miller, R. J. Dwayne; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2016-02-01

    Compact laser-driven accelerators are pursued heavily worldwide because they make novel methods and tools invented at national laboratories widely accessible in science, health, security, and technology [V. Malka et al., Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators, Nat. Phys. 4, 447 (2008)]. Current leading laser-based accelerator technologies [S. P. D. Mangles et al., Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions, Nature (London) 431, 535 (2004); T. Toncian et al., Ultrafast laser-driven microlens to focus and energy-select mega-electron volt protons, Science 312, 410 (2006); S. Tokita et al. Single-shot ultrafast electron diffraction with a laser-accelerated sub-MeV electron pulse, Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 111911 (2009)] rely on a medium to assist the light to particle energy transfer. The medium imposes material limitations or may introduce inhomogeneous fields [J. R. Dwyer et al., Femtosecond electron diffraction: "Making the molecular movie,", Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 364, 741 (2006)]. The advent of few cycle ultraintense radially polarized lasers [S. Carbajo et al., Efficient generation of ultraintense few-cycle radially polarized laser pulses, Opt. Lett. 39, 2487 (2014)] has ushered in a novel accelerator concept [L. J. Wong and F. X. Kärtner, Direct acceleration of an electron in infinite vacuum by a pulsed radially polarized laser beam, Opt. Express 18, 25035 (2010); F. Pierre-Louis et al. Direct-field electron acceleration with ultrafast radially polarized laser beams: Scaling laws and optimization, J. Phys. B 43, 025401 (2010); Y. I. Salamin, Electron acceleration from rest in vacuum by an axicon Gaussian laser beam, Phys. Rev. A 73, 043402 (2006); C. Varin and M. Piché, Relativistic attosecond electron pulses from a free-space laser-acceleration scheme, Phys. Rev. E 74, 045602 (2006); A. Sell and F. X. Kärtner, Attosecond electron bunches accelerated and compressed by radially polarized laser

  15. Low energy electron magnetometer using a monoenergetic electron beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Wood, G. M.; Rayborn, G. H.; White, F. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A low energy electron beam magnetometer utilizes near-monoenergetic electrons thereby reducing errors due to electron energy spread and electron nonuniform angular distribution. In a first embodiment, atoms in an atomic beam of an inert gas are excited to a Rydberg state and then electrons of near zero energy are detached from the Rydberg atoms. The near zero energy electrons are then accelerated by an electric field V(acc) to form the electron beam. In a second embodiment, a filament emits electrons into an electrostatic analyzer which selects electrons at a predetermined energy level within a very narrow range. These selected electrons make up the electron beam that is subjected to the magnetic field being measured.

  16. Polarized beams for electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulenbacher, K.

    2011-09-01

    NEA-GaAs based photocathodes allow the production of spin-polarized electron beams for fundamental research. We demonstrate how semiconductor properties influence salient parameters such as polarization and beam brightness. We present techniques that provide remedies for the extreme sensitivity to environmental factors. These are discussed for the specific installation that has provided spin-polarized beam at the MAMI facility during the last decade.

  17. Design of a tandem accelerator free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Gover, A.; Jerby, E.; Sokolowski, J. S.; Wachtel, J.

    1988-05-01

    The motivation for using a tandem electrostatic accelerator as an electron accelerator for a free electron laser (FEL) is presented. The adaptation of the HVEC EN tandem at the Weizmann Institute for this purpose, electron beam optics and nonlinear FEL computation relevant for this FEL realization are described. In the tandem configuration the terminal is held at a positive potential. The electron beam is accelerated from ground potential to the terminal in one beam tube and then decelerated down the other beam tube. The FEL wiggler and cavity are at the terminal. Due to the beam energy recovery this scheme produces a high power beam at the terminal with a small investment in electrical power.

  18. Novel aspects of direct laser acceleration of relativistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefiev, Alexey

    2015-11-01

    Production of energetic electrons is a keystone aspect of ultraintense laser-plasma interactions that underpins a variety of topics and applications, including fast ignition inertial confinement fusion and compact particle and radiation sources. There is a wide range of electron acceleration regimes that depend on the duration of the laser pulse and the plasma density. This talk focuses on the regime in which the plasma is significantly underdense and the laser pulse duration is longer than the electron response time, so that, in contrast to the wakefield acceleration regime, the pulse creates a quasi-static channel in the electron density. Such a regime is of particular interest, since it can naturally arise in experiments with solid density targets where the pre-pulse of an ultraintense laser produces an extended sub-critical pre-plasma. This talk examines the impact of several key factors on electron acceleration by the laser pulse and the resulting electron energy gain. A detailed consideration is given to the role played by: (1) the static longitudinal electric field, (2) the static transverse electric field, (3) the electron injection into the laser pulse, (4) the electromagnetic dispersion, and (5) the static longitudinal magnetic field. It is shown that all of these factors lead, under conditions outlined in the talk, to a considerable electron energy gain that greatly exceeds the ponderomotive limit. The static fields do not directly transfer substantial energy to electrons. Instead, they alter the longitudinal dephasing between the electrons and the laser pulse, which then allows the electrons to gain extra energy from the pulse. The talk will also outline a time-resolution criterion that must be satisfied in order to correctly reproduce these effects in particle-in-cell simulations. Supported by AFOSR Contract No. FA9550-14-1-0045, National Nuclear Security Administration Contract No. DE-FC52-08NA28512, and US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-FG02

  19. Performance Evaluation Of An Irradiation Facility Using An Electron Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, R. M.; Filppi, E.; Hullihen, K.

    2011-06-01

    Irradiation parameters over a period of seven years have been evaluated for a radiation processing electron accelerator facility. The parameters monitored during this time were the electron beam energy, linearity of beam current, linearity of dose with the reciprocal value of the samples speed, and dose uniformity along the scanning area after a maintenance audit performed by the electron accelerator manufacturer. The electron energy was determined from the depth-dose curve by using a two piece aluminum wedge and measuring the practical range from the obtained curves. The linearity of dose with beam current, and reciprocal value of the speed and dose uniformity along the scanning area of the electron beam were determined by measuring the dose under different beam current and cart conveyor speed conditions using film dosimetry. The results of the experiments have shown that the energy in the range from 1 to 5 MeV has not changed by more than 15% from the High Voltage setting of the machine over the evaluation period, and dose linearity with beam current and cart conveyor speed has not changed. The dose uniformity along the scanning direction of the beam showed a dose uniformity of 90% or better for energies between 2 and 5 MeV, however for 1 MeV electrons this value was reduced to 80%. This parameter can be improved by changing the beam optics settings in the control console of the accelerator though.

  20. Performance Evaluation Of An Irradiation Facility Using An Electron Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, R. M.; Hullihen, K.; Filppi, E.

    2011-06-01

    Irradiation parameters over a period of seven years have been evaluated for a radiation processing electron accelerator facility. The parameters monitored during this time were the electron beam energy, linearity of beam current, linearity of dose with the reciprocal value of the samples speed, and dose uniformity along the scanning area after a maintenance audit performed by the electron accelerator manufacturer. The electron energy was determined from the depth-dose curve by using a two piece aluminum wedge and measuring the practical range from the obtained curves. The linearity of dose with beam current, and reciprocal value of the speed andmore » dose uniformity along the scanning area of the electron beam were determined by measuring the dose under different beam current and cart conveyor speed conditions using film dosimetry. The results of the experiments have shown that the energy in the range from 1 to 5 MeV has not changed by more than 15% from the High Voltage setting of the machine over the evaluation period, and dose linearity with beam current and cart conveyor speed has not changed. The dose uniformity along the scanning direction of the beam showed a dose uniformity of 90% or better for energies between 2 and 5 MeV, however for 1 MeV electrons this value was reduced to 80%. This parameter can be improved by changing the beam optics settings in the control console of the accelerator though.« less

  1. Statistical acceleration of electrons by lower-hybrid turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. S.; Gaffey, J. D., Jr.; Liberman, B.

    1981-01-01

    The statistical acceleration of electrons along an ambient magnetic field by large-amplitude lower-hybrid turbulence is discussed. Perturbations driven by a crossfield current and propagating nearly perpendicular to the applied magnetic field are considered. It is assumed that the instability saturates rapidly and that the fluctuating electric field is predominantly electrostatic. If the turbulence is characterized by a spectrum of small parallel wavenumbers, such that the parallel phase velocity of the waves is greater than the electron thermal velocity, then the turbulence can only accelerate electrons moving with large velocities along the magnetic field. The quasi-linear diffusion equation is solved using a Green's function technique, assuming a power law spectral energy density. The time evolution of an initial Maxwellian distribution is given and the time rate of change of the mean electron energy is calculated for various cases.

  2. Chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser vacuum accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Hartemann, Frederic V.; Baldis, Hector A.; Landahl, Eric C.

    2002-01-01

    A chirped pulse inverse free-electron laser (IFEL) vacuum accelerator for high gradient laser acceleration in vacuum. By the use of an ultrashort (femtosecond), ultrahigh intensity chirped laser pulse both the IFEL interaction bandwidth and accelerating gradient are increased, thus yielding large gains in a compact system. In addition, the IFEL resonance condition can be maintained throughout the interaction region by using a chirped drive laser wave. In addition, diffraction can be alleviated by taking advantage of the laser optical bandwidth with negative dispersion focusing optics to produce a chromatic line focus. The combination of these features results in a compact, efficient vacuum laser accelerator which finds many applications including high energy physics, compact table-top laser accelerator for medical imaging and therapy, material science, and basic physics.

  3. Electron acceleration in the heart of the Van Allen radiation belts.

    PubMed

    Reeves, G D; Spence, H E; Henderson, M G; Morley, S K; Friedel, R H W; Funsten, H O; Baker, D N; Kanekal, S G; Blake, J B; Fennell, J F; Claudepierre, S G; Thorne, R M; Turner, D L; Kletzing, C A; Kurth, W S; Larsen, B A; Niehof, J T

    2013-08-30

    The Van Allen radiation belts contain ultrarelativistic electrons trapped in Earth's magnetic field. Since their discovery in 1958, a fundamental unanswered question has been how electrons can be accelerated to such high energies. Two classes of processes have been proposed: transport and acceleration of electrons from a source population located outside the radiation belts (radial acceleration) or acceleration of lower-energy electrons to relativistic energies in situ in the heart of the radiation belts (local acceleration). We report measurements from NASA's Van Allen Radiation Belt Storm Probes that clearly distinguish between the two types of acceleration. The observed radial profiles of phase space density are characteristic of local acceleration in the heart of the radiation belts and are inconsistent with a predominantly radial acceleration process.

  4. Electron linear accelerator system for natural rubber vulcanization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimjaem, S.; Kongmon, E.; Rhodes, M. W.; Saisut, J.; Thongbai, C.

    2017-09-01

    Development of an electron accelerator system, beam diagnostic instruments, an irradiation apparatus and electron beam processing methodology for natural rubber vulcanization is underway at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, Thailand. The project is carried out with the aims to improve the qualities of natural rubber products. The system consists of a DC thermionic electron gun, 5-cell standing-wave radio-frequency (RF) linear accelerator (linac) with side-coupling cavities and an electron beam irradiation apparatus. This system is used to produce electron beams with an adjustable energy between 0.5 and 4 MeV and a pulse current of 10-100 mA at a pulse repetition rate of 20-400 Hz. An average absorbed dose between 160 and 640 Gy is expected to be archived for 4 MeV electron beam when the accelerator is operated at 400 Hz. The research activities focus firstly on assembling of the accelerator system, study on accelerator properties and electron beam dynamic simulations. The resonant frequency of the RF linac in π/2 operating mode is 2996.82 MHz for the operating temperature of 35 °C. The beam dynamic simulations were conducted by using the code ASTRA. Simulation results suggest that electron beams with an average energy of 4.002 MeV can be obtained when the linac accelerating gradient is 41.7 MV/m. The rms transverse beam size and normalized rms transverse emittance at the linac exit are 0.91 mm and 10.48 π mm·mrad, respectively. This information can then be used as the input data for Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the electron beam penetration depth and dose distribution in the natural rubber latex. The study results from this research will be used to define optimal conditions for natural rubber vulcanization with different electron beam energies and doses. This is very useful for development of future practical industrial accelerator units.

  5. UNDULATOR-BASED LASER WAKEFIELD ACCELERATOR ELECTRON BEAM DIAGNOSTIC

    SciTech Connect

    Bakeman, M.S.; Fawley, W.M.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-05-04

    to couple the THUNDER undulator to the LOASIS Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA). Currently the LWFA has achieved quasi-monoenergetic electron beams with energies up to 1 GeV. These ultra-short, high-peak-current, electron beams are ideal for driving a compact XUV free electron laser (FEL). Understanding the electron beam properties such as the energy spread and emittance is critical for achieving high quality light sources with high brightness. By using an insertion device such as an undulator and observing changes in the spontaneous emission spectrum, the electron beam energy spread and emittance can be measured with high precision.more » The initial experiments will use spontaneous emission from 1.5 m of undulator. Later experiments will use up to 5 m of undulator with a goal of a high gain, XUV FEL.« less

  6. Trends for Electron Beam Accelerator Applications in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machi, Sueo

    2011-02-01

    Electron beam (EB) accelerators are major pieces of industrial equipment used for many commercial radiation processing applications. The industrial use of EB accelerators has a history of more than 50 years and is still growing in terms of both its economic scale and new applications. Major applications involve the modification of polymeric materials to create value-added products, such as heat-resistant wires, heat-shrinkable sheets, automobile tires, foamed plastics, battery separators and hydrogel wound dressing. The surface curing of coatings and printing inks is a growing application for low energy electron accelerators, resulting in an environmentally friendly and an energy-saving process. Recently there has been the acceptance of the use of EB accelerators in lieu of the radioactive isotope cobalt-60 as a source for sterilizing disposable medical products. Environmental protection by the use of EB accelerators is a new and important field of application. A commercial plant for the cleaning flue gases from a coal-burning power plant is in operation in Poland, employing high power EB accelerators. In Korea, a commercial plant uses EB to clean waste water from a dye factory.

  7. Radiobiological effectiveness of laser accelerated electrons in comparison to electron beams from a conventional linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Laschinsky, Lydia; Baumann, Michael; Beyreuther, Elke; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Kaluza, Malte; Karsch, Leonhard; Lessmann, Elisabeth; Naumburger, Doreen; Nicolai, Maria; Richter, Christian; Sauerbrey, Roland; Schlenvoigt, Hans-Peter; Pawelke, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The notable progress in laser particle acceleration technology promises potential medical application in cancer therapy through compact and cost effective laser devices that are suitable for already existing clinics. Previously, consequences on the radiobiological response by laser driven particle beams characterised by an ultra high peak dose rate have to be investigated. Therefore, tumour and non-malignant cells were irradiated with pulsed laser accelerated electrons at the JETI facility for the comparison with continuous electrons of a conventional therapy LINAC. Dose response curves were measured for the biological endpoints clonogenic survival and residual DNA double strand breaks. The overall results show no significant differences in radiobiological response for in vitro cell experiments between laser accelerated pulsed and clinical used electron beams. These first systematic in vitro cell response studies with precise dosimetry to laser driven electron beams represent a first step toward the long term aim of the application of laser accelerated particles in radiotherapy.

  8. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  9. Commissioning of a mobile electron accelerator for intraoperative radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mills, M D; Fajardo, L C; Wilson, D L; Daves, J L; Spanos, W J

    2001-01-01

    Radiation performance characteristics of a dedicated intraoperative accelerator were determined to prepare the unit for clinical use. The linear accelerator uses standing wave X-band technology (wavelength approximately 3 centimeters) in order to minimize the mass of the accelerator. The injector design, smaller accelerator components, and low electron beam currents minimize radiation leakage. The unit may be used in a standard operating room without additional shielding. The mass of the accelerator gantry is 1250 Kg (weight approximately 2750 lbs) and the unit is transportable between operating rooms. Nominal electron energies are 4, 6, 9, and 12 MeV, and operate at selectable dose rates of 2.5 or 10 Gray per minute. D(max) depths in water for a 10 cm applicator are 0.7, 1.3, 1.7, and 2.0 for these energies, respectively. The depths of 80% dose are 1.2, 2.1, 3.1, and 3.9 cm, respectively. Absolute calibration using the American Association of Physicists in Medicine TG-51 protocol was performed for all electron energies using the 10 cm applicator. Applicator sizes ranged from 3 to 10 cm diameter for flat applicators, and 3 to 6 cm diameter for 30 degrees beveled applicators. Output factors were determined for all energies relative to the 10 cm flat applicator. Central axis depth dose profiles and isodose plots were determined for every applicator and energy combination. A quality assurance protocol, performed each day before patient treatment, was developed for output and energy constancy.

  10. Discrete and broadband electron acceleration in Jupiter's powerful aurora.

    PubMed

    Mauk, B H; Haggerty, D K; Paranicas, C; Clark, G; Kollmann, P; Rymer, A M; Bolton, S J; Levin, S M; Adriani, A; Allegrini, F; Bagenal, F; Bonfond, B; Connerney, J E P; Gladstone, G R; Kurth, W S; McComas, D J; Valek, P

    2017-09-06

    The most intense auroral emissions from Earth's polar regions, called discrete for their sharply defined spatial configurations, are generated by a process involving coherent acceleration of electrons by slowly evolving, powerful electric fields directed along the magnetic field lines that connect Earth's space environment to its polar regions. In contrast, Earth's less intense auroras are generally caused by wave scattering of magnetically trapped populations of hot electrons (in the case of diffuse aurora) or by the turbulent or stochastic downward acceleration of electrons along magnetic field lines by waves during transitory periods (in the case of broadband or Alfvénic aurora). Jupiter's relatively steady main aurora has a power density that is so much larger than Earth's that it has been taken for granted that it must be generated primarily by the discrete auroral process. However, preliminary in situ measurements of Jupiter's auroral regions yielded no evidence of such a process. Here we report observations of distinct, high-energy, downward, discrete electron acceleration in Jupiter's auroral polar regions. We also infer upward magnetic-field-aligned electric potentials of up to 400 kiloelectronvolts, an order of magnitude larger than the largest potentials observed at Earth. Despite the magnitude of these upward electric potentials and the expectations from observations at Earth, the downward energy flux from discrete acceleration is less at Jupiter than that caused by broadband or stochastic processes, with broadband and stochastic characteristics that are substantially different from those at Earth.

  11. Small electron acceleration episodes in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Tomin; Subramanian, Prasad; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2017-10-01

    We study the energetics of non-thermal electrons produced in small acceleration episodes in the solar corona. We carried out an extensive survey spanning 2004-2015 and shortlisted six impulsive electron events detected at 1 au that were not associated with large solar flares (GOES soft X-ray class > C1) or with coronal mass ejections. Each of these events had weak, but detectable hard X-ray (HXR) emission near the west limb, and were associated with interplanetary type III bursts. In some respects, these events seem like weak counterparts of 'cold/tenuous' flares. The energy carried by the HXR producing electron population was ≈1023-1025 erg, while that in the corresponding population detected at 1 au was ≈1024-1025 erg. The number of electrons that escape the coronal acceleration site and reach 1 au constitute 6 per cent to 148 per cent of those that precipitate downwards to produce thick target HXR emission.

  12. ELECTRON ACCELERATION IN CONTRACTING MAGNETIC ISLANDS DURING SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Borovikov, D.; Tenishev, V.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2017-01-20

    Electron acceleration in solar flares is well known to be efficient at generating energetic particles that produce the observed bremsstrahlung X-ray spectra. One mechanism proposed to explain the observations is electron acceleration within contracting magnetic islands formed by magnetic reconnection in the flare current sheet. In a previous study, a numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulation of an eruptive solar flare was analyzed to estimate the associated electron acceleration due to island contraction. That analysis used a simple analytical model for the island structure and assumed conservation of the adiabatic invariants of particle motion. In this paper, we perform the first-ever rigorous integrationmore » of the guiding-center orbits of electrons in a modeled flare. An initially isotropic distribution of particles is seeded in a contracting island from the simulated eruption, and the subsequent evolution of these particles is followed using guiding-center theory. We find that the distribution function becomes increasingly anisotropic over time as the electrons’ energy increases by up to a factor of five, in general agreement with the previous study. In addition, we show that the energized particles are concentrated on the Sunward side of the island, adjacent to the reconnection X-point in the flare current sheet. Furthermore, our analysis demonstrates that the electron energy gain is dominated by betatron acceleration in the compressed, strengthened magnetic field of the contracting island. Fermi acceleration by the shortened field lines of the island also contributes to the energy gain, but it is less effective than the betatron process.« less

  13. Repetitive nanosecond electron accelerators type URT-1 for radiation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokovnin, S. Yu.; Balezin, M. E.

    2018-03-01

    The electron accelerator URT-1М-300 for mobile installation was created for radiation disinfecting to correct drawbacks that were found the URT-1M electron accelerator operation (the accelerating voltage up to 1 МV, repetition rate up to 300 pps, electron beam size 400 × 100 mm, the pulse width about 100 ns). Accelerator configuration was changed that allowed to reduce significantly by 20% tank volume with oil where is placed the system of formation high-voltage pulses, thus the average power of the accelerator is increased by 6 times at the expense of increase in pulses repetition rate. Was created the system of the computerized monitoring parameters (output parameters and thermal mode) and remote control of the accelerator (charge voltage, pulse repetition rate), its elements and auxiliary systems (heat of the thyratron, vacuum system), the remote control panel is connected to the installation by the fiber-optical channel, what lightens the work for service personnel. For generating an electron beam up to 400 mm wide there are used metal- ceramic] and metal-dielectric cold cathodes of several emission elements (plates) with a non-uniform distribution of the electron beam current density on the output foil ± 15%. It was found that emission drop of both type of cathodes, during the operation at the high repetition rate (100 pps) is substantial at the beginning of the process, and then proceeds rather slowly that allows for continuous operation up to 40 h. Experiments showed that linear dependence of the voltage and a signal from the pin-diode remains within the range of the charge voltage 45-65 kV. Thus, voltage increases from 690 to 950 kV, and the signal from the pin-diode - from (2,8-4,6)*104 Gy/s. It allows to select electron energy quite precisely with consideration of the radiation technology requirements.

  14. Electron acceleration behind a wavy dipolarization front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mingyu; Lu, Quanming; Volwerk, Martin; Nakamura, Rumi; Zhang, Tielong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, with the in-situ observations from the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms (THEMIS) probes we report a wavy dipolarization front (DF) event, where the DF has different magnetic structures and electron distributions at different y positions in the Geocentric Solar Magnetospheric (GSM) coordinates. At y ˜2.1RE (RE is the radius of Earth), the DF has a relatively simple structure, which is similar to that of a conventional DF. At y ˜3.0RE, the DF is revealed to have a multiple DF structure, where the plasma exhibits a vortex flow. Such a wavy DF could be the results of the interchange instability. The different structure of such a wavy DF at different sites has a great effect on electron acceleration. Fermi acceleration can occur at the site of the DF with a simple or multiple DF structure, while betatron acceleration as a local process has the contribution to energetic electrons only at the site of the DF with a simple structure.

  15. A novel electron accelerator for MRI-Linac radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, Brendan; Gierman, Stephen; Holloway, Lois; Schmerge, John; Keall, Paul; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: MRI guided radiotherapy is a rapidly growing field; however, current electron accelerators are not designed to operate in the magnetic fringe fields of MRI scanners. As such, current MRI-Linac systems require magnetic shielding, which can degrade MR image quality and limit system flexibility. The purpose of this work was to develop and test a novel medical electron accelerator concept which is inherently robust to operation within magnetic fields for in-line MRI-Linac systems. Methods: Computational simulations were utilized to model the accelerator, including the thermionic emission process, the electromagnetic fields within the accelerating structure, and resulting particle trajectories through these fields. The spatial and energy characteristics of the electron beam were quantified at the accelerator target and compared to published data for conventional accelerators. The model was then coupled to the fields from a simulated 1 T superconducting magnet and solved for cathode to isocenter distances between 1.0 and 2.4 m; the impact on the electron beam was quantified. Results: For the zero field solution, the average current at the target was 146.3 mA, with a median energy of 5.8 MeV (interquartile spread of 0.1 MeV), and a spot size diameter of 1.5 mm full-width-tenth-maximum. Such an electron beam is suitable for therapy, comparing favorably to published data for conventional systems. The simulated accelerator showed increased robustness to operation in in-line magnetic fields, with a maximum current loss of 3% compared to 85% for a conventional system in the same magnetic fields. Conclusions: Computational simulations suggest that replacing conventional DC electron sources with a RF based source could be used to develop medical electron accelerators which are robust to operation in in-line magnetic fields. This would enable the development of MRI-Linac systems with no magnetic shielding around the Linac and reduce the requirements for optimization of

  16. A novel electron accelerator for MRI-Linac radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Brendan; Gierman, Stephen; Holloway, Lois; Schmerge, John; Keall, Paul; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    MRI guided radiotherapy is a rapidly growing field; however, current electron accelerators are not designed to operate in the magnetic fringe fields of MRI scanners. As such, current MRI-Linac systems require magnetic shielding, which can degrade MR image quality and limit system flexibility. The purpose of this work was to develop and test a novel medical electron accelerator concept which is inherently robust to operation within magnetic fields for in-line MRI-Linac systems. Computational simulations were utilized to model the accelerator, including the thermionic emission process, the electromagnetic fields within the accelerating structure, and resulting particle trajectories through these fields. The spatial and energy characteristics of the electron beam were quantified at the accelerator target and compared to published data for conventional accelerators. The model was then coupled to the fields from a simulated 1 T superconducting magnet and solved for cathode to isocenter distances between 1.0 and 2.4 m; the impact on the electron beam was quantified. For the zero field solution, the average current at the target was 146.3 mA, with a median energy of 5.8 MeV (interquartile spread of 0.1 MeV), and a spot size diameter of 1.5 mm full-width-tenth-maximum. Such an electron beam is suitable for therapy, comparing favorably to published data for conventional systems. The simulated accelerator showed increased robustness to operation in in-line magnetic fields, with a maximum current loss of 3% compared to 85% for a conventional system in the same magnetic fields. Computational simulations suggest that replacing conventional DC electron sources with a RF based source could be used to develop medical electron accelerators which are robust to operation in in-line magnetic fields. This would enable the development of MRI-Linac systems with no magnetic shielding around the Linac and reduce the requirements for optimization of magnetic fringe field, simplify design of

  17. Contrasting electron acceleration processes during two substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Haoming; Ashour-Abdalla, Maha; Richard, Robert; Schriver, David; El-Alaoui, Mostafa; Walker, Raymond J.

    2014-07-01

    Although energetic particle injections during substorms have been observed near geosynchronous orbit since the late 1960s, how the injected particles are accelerated during a substorm is still not fully understood. Studies show that injections are associated with earthward propagating dipolarization fronts and suggest that particle acceleration can occur due to a combination of betatron acceleration during earthward convection and acceleration in the vicinity of magnetotail reconnection sites. Since observed energetic particle distributions vary from substorm to substorm, it is important to study acceleration mechanisms as a function of different substorm magnetotail configurations. In this paper, we discuss electron acceleration for two substorm events featuring different magnetotail configurations and particle acceleration processes. The study utilizes in situ observations, global MHD simulations, and large-scale-kinetic (LSK) simulations. The two substorms in question occurred on 15 February 2008 and 15 August 2001. The 15 February 2008 event was observed by the THEMIS spacecraft at xGSE ~ -10 RE, while the 15 August 2001 event was observed by Cluster spacecraft at xGSE ~ -20 RE. Earthward propagating dipolarization fronts are found in both the observations and the MHD simulations, which are driven by the solar wind conditions that existed during those events. The two simulations show that very different magnetotail configurations are formed for each event, with contrasting flows, magnetic reconnection configuration, and plasma sheet structure. We find that for the 15 February 2008 event reconnection is localized with a narrow region of high-speed flow. During this event, the electron velocity distribution functions f(v) are found to be anisotropic with f(v⊥) > f(v||), where || and ⊥ correspond to parallel and perpendicular to magnetic field. In contrast, for the 15 August 2001 event, there is a wide neutral line extending across the tail with low

  18. Generation of attosecond electron packets via conical surface plasmon electron acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Greig, S. R.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a method for the generation of high kinetic energy attosecond electron packets via magnetostatic and aperture filtering of conical surface plasmon (SP) accelerated electrons. The conical SP waves are excited by coupling an ultrafast radially polarized laser beam to a conical silica lens coated with an Ag film. Electromagnetic and particle tracking models are employed to characterize the ultrafast electron packets. PMID:26764129

  19. Observation of laser multiple filamentation process and multiple electron beams acceleration in a laser wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wentao; Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Wentao

    2013-11-15

    The multiple filaments formation process in the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) was observed by imaging the transmitted laser beam after propagating in the plasma of different density. During propagation, the laser first self-focused into a single filament. After that, it began to defocus with energy spreading in the transverse direction. Two filaments then formed from it and began to propagate independently, moving away from each other. We have also demonstrated that the laser multiple filamentation would lead to the multiple electron beams acceleration in the LWFA via ionization-induced injection scheme. Besides, its influences on the accelerated electron beams were alsomore » analyzed both in the single-stage LWFA and cascaded LWFA.« less

  20. Laser Acceleration of Electrons in Shock Wave Enhanced Gas Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganovich, Dmitri; Helle, Michael; Gordon, Daniel; Ting, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    Controlling the gas density gradient and profile is important for electron and proton acceleration. Using an optimized gas density profile, we have demonstrated 40 times higher electron energy compared to a Gaussian gas jet without lost of charge or stability. Propagation of a shock wave through a gas jet can modify the gas density profile and create sharp density gradients [1, 2]. Using different shock waves energies and shock originating positions, we were able to modify the plasma density profile of a ``typical'' Gaussian gas jet into a variety of profiles, from thin (foil-like) structure to elongated profiles with fast rise and slow fall. We used a plasma bubble Cherenkov diagnostic [3, 4] to optimize the acceleration process. Accelerated electron energy and charge were cross-correlated with the second harmonic diagnostic signal. The optimized gas density profile generated stable 0.5 nC of 40 MeV electrons using a 10 TW laser. The shock wave modified gas jet can be used as a stand alone electron source or as an injector coupled to additional acceleration structures. We demonstrated stable injection of electrons from the shock wave modified gas jet into a lower density plasma. The results are also being studied with numerical simulations. [4pt] [1] D. Kaganovich et al., Physics of Plasmas 18, 120701 (2011)[0pt] [2] D. Kaganovich et al., Applied Physics Letters 97, 191501 (2010)[0pt] [3] D. F. Gordon, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 045004 (2008)[0pt] [4] M. H. Helle et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 105001 (2010)

  1. Low Energy Accelerators for Cargo Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chuanxiang

    Cargo inspection by X-rays has become essential for seaports and airports. With the emphasis on homeland security issues, the identification of dangerous things, such as explosive items and nuclear materials, is the key feature of a cargo inspection system. And new technologies based on dual energy X-rays, neutrons and monoenergetic X-rays have been studied to achieve sufficiently good material identification. An interpretation of the principle of X-ray cargo inspection technology and the features of X-ray sources are presented in this article. As most of the X-ray sources are based on RF electron linear accelerators (linacs), we give a relatively detailed description of the principle and characteristics of linacs. Cargo inspection technologies based on neutron imaging, neutron analysis, nuclear resonance fluorescence and computer tomography are also mentioned here. The main vendors and their products are summarized at the end of the article.

  2. Stable multi-GeV electron accelerator driven by waveform-controlled PW laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Taek; Pathak, V B; Hong Pae, Ki; Lifschitz, A; Sylla, F; Shin, Jung Hun; Hojbota, C; Lee, Seong Ku; Sung, Jae Hee; Lee, Hwang Woon; Guillaume, E; Thaury, C; Nakajima, Kazuhisa; Vieira, J; Silva, L O; Malka, V; Nam, Chang Hee

    2017-08-31

    The achievable energy and the stability of accelerated electron beams have been the most critical issues in laser wakefield acceleration. As laser propagation, plasma wave formation and electron acceleration are highly nonlinear processes, the laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) is extremely sensitive to initial experimental conditions. We propose a simple and elegant waveform control method for the LWFA process to enhance the performance of a laser electron accelerator by applying a fully optical and programmable technique to control the chirp of PW laser pulses. We found sensitive dependence of energy and stability of electron beams on the spectral phase of laser pulses and obtained stable 2-GeV electron beams from a 1-cm gas cell of helium. The waveform control technique for LWFA would prompt practical applications of centimeter-scale GeV-electron accelerators to a compact radiation sources in the x-ray and γ-ray regions.

  3. Electron acceleration in Titan's ionosphere and Saturn's kilometric radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, V.; Shaposhnikov, V.; Rucker, H.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract Prior to Cassini flights the solar wind was considered as the only source of electrons responsible for Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR). Detected correlation of the SKR occurrence and Titan position at its orbit points out the energy source of SKR associated with Titan [1], [2]. The observed correlation is not the only indication of acceleration mechanism in the satellite ionosphere. Spacecrafts Voyager I and II discovered ultraviolet airglow from excited molecules in Titan's atmosphere. Estimations showed that the observed radiation intensity corresponded to energy input (3-5)x109W into Titan's atmosphere. It was also shown that solar photons and photo-electrons are not able to provide the necessary energy input, and energetic magnetosphere electrons can give not more than [3]. The presence of acceleration mechanism in Titan' ionosphere is also confirmed by the results of Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) experiments during Cassini flyby through Titan's atmosphere tail: energetic electrons and ions with parameters different from those for particles coming from Saturn's magnetosphere have been discovered there [4]. ~ 2×109 W In this contribution we consider electron acceleration mechanism in Titan's ionosphere which was successfully used for explanation of observed Io influence on decametric radio emission from Jupiter [5], [6]. According to suggested mechanism electron acceleration in the ionosphere occurs due to electric field of charge separation. This field is of the order of induced electric field, but has a field-aligned component. Under Titan's conditions the accelerated electron energy can reach 10 keV that is sufficient for SKR generation. Acceleration mechanism power is enough also for explanation of ultraviolet airglow from Titan. References [1] Farrell, W. M. Et al. (2005) Geophys. Res.Lett., 32, L18107, doi:10.1029/2005GL023449. [2] Menietti, J. D. et al. (2007) JGR, 112, A08211, doi:10.1029/2007JA012331. [3] Hunten, D. M.et al. (1984

  4. Electron acceleration in Titan's ionosphere and Saturn's kilometric radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, V.; Shaposhnikov, V.; Rucker, H.

    2008-09-01

    Prior to Cassini flights the solar wind was considered as the only source of electrons responsible for Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR). Detected correlation of the SKR occurrence and Titan position at its orbit points out the energy source of SKR associated with Titan [1], [2]. The observed correlation is not the only indication of acceleration mechanism in the satellite ionosphere. Spacecrafts Voyager I and II discovered ultraviolet airglow from excited molecules in Titan's atmosphere. Estimations showed that the observed radiation intensity corresponded to energy input (3-5)x109W into Titan's atmosphere. It was also shown that solar photons and photo-electrons are not able to provide the necessary energy input, and energetic magnetosphere electrons can give not more than [3]. The presence of acceleration mechanism in Titan' ionosphere is also confirmed by the results of Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RPWS) experiments during Cassini flyby through Titan's atmosphere tail: energetic electrons and ions with parameters different from those for particles coming from Saturn's magnetosphere have been discovered there [4]. ~ 2×109 W In this contribution we consider electron acceleration mechanism in Titan's ionosphere which was successfully used for explanation of observed Io influence on decametric radio emission from Jupiter [5], [6]. According to suggested mechanism electron acceleration in the ionosphere occurs due to electric field of charge separation. This field is of the order of induced electric field, but has a field-aligned component. Under Titan's conditions the accelerated electron energy can reach 10 keV that is sufficient for SKR generation. Acceleration mechanism power is enough also for explanation of ultraviolet airglow from Titan. References [1] Farrell, W. M. Et al. (2005) Geophys. Res.Lett., 32, L18107, doi:10.1029/2005GL023449. [2] Menietti, J. D. et al. (2007) JGR, 112, A08211, doi:10.1029/2007JA012331. [3] Hunten, D. M.et al. (1984) Titan, in

  5. Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts.

    PubMed

    Horne, Richard B; Thorne, Richard M; Shprits, Yuri Y; Meredith, Nigel P; Glauert, Sarah A; Smith, Andy J; Kanekal, Shrikanth G; Baker, Daniel N; Engebretson, Mark J; Posch, Jennifer L; Spasojevic, Maria; Inan, Umran S; Pickett, Jolene S; Decreau, Pierrette M E

    2005-09-08

    The Van Allen radiation belts are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer radiation belt was depleted and then re-formed closer to the Earth, that the long established theory of acceleration by radial diffusion is inadequate; the electrons are accelerated more effectively by electromagnetic waves at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Wave acceleration can increase the electron flux by more than three orders of magnitude over the observed timescale of one to two days, more than sufficient to explain the new radiation belt. Wave acceleration could also be important for Jupiter, Saturn and other astrophysical objects with magnetic fields.

  6. Ion acceleration to cosmic ray energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Martin A.

    1990-01-01

    The acceleration and transport environment of the outer heliosphere is described schematically. Acceleration occurs where the divergence of the solar-wind flow is negative, that is at shocks, and where second-order Fermi acceleration is possible in the solar-wind turbulence. Acceleration at the solar-wind termination shock is presented by reviewing the spherically-symmetric calculation of Webb et al. (1985). Reacceleration of galactic cosmic rays at the termination shock is not expected to be important in modifying the cosmic ray spectrum, but acceleration of ions injected at the shock up to energies not greater than 300 MeV/charge is expected to occur and to create the anomalous cosmic ray component. Acceleration of energetic particles by solar wind turbulence is expected to play almost no role in the outer heliosphere. The one exception is the energization of interstellar pickup ions beyond the threshold for acceleration at the quasi-perpendicular termination shock.

  7. A pulsed-power electron accelerator using laser-driven photoconductive switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamber, C.; Donaldson, W. R.; Lincke, E.; Melissinos, A. C.

    1992-07-01

    The operation of a radical transmission line (RTC) based electron accelerator has been demonstrated. Electrons have been accelerated up to an energy of 11 KeV in a gap of 0.25 mm. This represents on average accelerating gradient of 44 MeV/m. Typical electron yields of 100 lc of charge per lunch were generated photoelectrically from the gold cathode surface.

  8. Variable energy constant current accelerator structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, O.A.

    1988-07-13

    A variable energy, constant current ion beam accelerator structure is disclosed comprising an ion source capable of providing the desired ions, a pre-accelerator for establishing an initial energy level, a matching/pumping module having means for focusing means for maintaining the beam current, and at least one main accelerator module for continuing beam focus, with means capable of variably imparting acceleration to the beam so that a constant beam output current is maintained independent of the variable output energy. In a preferred embodiment, quadrupole electrodes are provided in both the matching/pumping module and the one or more accelerator modules, and are formed using four opposing cylinder electrodes which extend parallel to the beam axis and are spaced around the beam at 90/degree/ intervals with opposing electrodes maintained at the same potential. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Electron transport with re-acceleration and radiation in the jets of X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Fu; Li, Zhi-Ren; Xiang, Fu-Yuan; Lu, Ju-Fu

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the acceleration processes of background thermal electrons in X-ray binary jets via turbulent stochastic interactions and shock collisions. By considering turbulent magnetized jets mixed with fluctuating magnetic fields and an ordered large-scale magnetic field, and numerically solving the transport equation along the jet axis, we explore the influence on acceleration efficiency of magnetic turbulence, electron injection, the location of the acceleration region and various cooling mechanisms. The results show the following: (1) Dominant turbulent magnetic fields in the jets are necessary to accelerate background thermal electrons to relativistic energies. (2) The acceleration of electrons depends on the type of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and turbulence with a hard slope can accelerate electrons more effectively. (3) The effective acceleration region is located at a distance >103Rg away from the central black hole (Rg being the gravitational radius). As a result of acceleration mechanisms competing with various cooling mechanisms, background thermal electrons gain energy and their spectra are broadened beyond the initial distribution to form a thermal-like distribution. (4) The acceleration mechanisms explored in this work can reasonably provide the maximum electron energy required for interpreting high-energy γ-ray observations from microquasars; however, some extreme parameter values are needed for the possible very high-energy γ-ray signals.

  10. Coulomb Collisions and Electron Acceleration in Sub-Dreicer Electric Fields of the Corona and Chromosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsap, Yu. T.; Kopylova, Yu. G.

    2017-12-01

    Based on single-particle approximation, the peculiarities of electron acceleration by the sub-Dreicer electric field in solar atmosphere have been considered. The elastic and inelastic collisions of fast electrons with hydrogen atoms have been taken into account within the Born approximation. The rate of energy gain by accelerated electrons is inversely proportional to the mean free path of the thermal particles. Electron acceleration can be more effective in the transition region and chromosphere than in the corona. Chromospheric electrons can achieve several hundred keV energy at distances of a few tens of kilometers.

  11. The Maximum Energy of Accelerated Particles in Relativistic Collisionless Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, Lorenzo; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Arons, Jonathan

    2013-07-01

    The afterglow emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is usually interpreted as synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated at the GRB external shock that propagates with relativistic velocities into the magnetized interstellar medium. By means of multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the acceleration performance of weakly magnetized relativistic shocks, in the magnetization range 0 <~ σ <~ 10-1. The pre-shock magnetic field is orthogonal to the flow, as generically expected for relativistic shocks. We find that relativistic perpendicular shocks propagating in electron-positron plasmas are efficient particle accelerators if the magnetization is σ <~ 10-3. For electron-ion plasmas, the transition to efficient acceleration occurs for σ <~ 3 × 10-5. Here, the acceleration process proceeds similarly for the two species, since the electrons enter the shock nearly in equipartition with the ions, as a result of strong pre-heating in the self-generated upstream turbulence. In both electron-positron and electron-ion shocks, we find that the maximum energy of the accelerated particles scales in time as ɛmaxvpropt 1/2. This scaling is shallower than the so-called (and commonly assumed) Bohm limit ɛmaxvpropt, and it naturally results from the small-scale nature of the Weibel turbulence generated in the shock layer. In magnetized plasmas, the energy of the accelerated particles increases until it reaches a saturation value ɛsat/γ0 mic 2 ~ σ-1/4, where γ0 mic 2 is the mean energy per particle in the upstream bulk flow. Further energization is prevented by the fact that the self-generated turbulence is confined within a finite region of thickness vpropσ-1/2 around the shock. Our results can provide physically grounded inputs for models of non-thermal emission from a variety of astrophysical sources, with particular relevance to GRB afterglows.

  12. ELECTRON ACCELERATION BY CASCADING RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR CORONA. II. RESISTIVE ELECTRIC FIELD EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X.; Gan, W.; Liu, S.

    2016-08-20

    We investigate electron acceleration by electric fields induced by cascading reconnections in current sheets trailing coronal mass ejections via a test particle approach in the framework of the guiding-center approximation. Although the resistive electric field is much weaker than the inductive electric field, the electron acceleration is still dominated by the former. Anomalous resistivity η is switched on only in regions where the current carrier’s drift velocity is large enough. As a consequence, electron acceleration is very sensitive to the spatial distribution of the resistive electric fields, and electrons accelerated in different segments of the current sheet have different characteristics.more » Due to the geometry of the 2.5-dimensional electromagnetic fields and strong resistive electric field accelerations, accelerated high-energy electrons can be trapped in the corona, precipitating into the chromosphere or escaping into interplanetary space. The trapped and precipitating electrons can reach a few MeV within 1 s and have a very hard energy distribution. Spatial structure of the acceleration sites may also introduce breaks in the electron energy distribution. Most of the interplanetary electrons reach hundreds of keV with a softer distribution. To compare with observations of solar flares and electrons in solar energetic particle events, we derive hard X-ray spectra produced by the trapped and precipitating electrons, fluxes of the precipitating and interplanetary electrons, and electron spatial distributions.« less

  13. Collective acceleration of ions in picosecond pinched electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshnikov, V. I.; Paperny, V. L.; Shipayev, I. V.

    2017-10-01

    Сharacteristics of intense electron-ion beams emitted by a high-voltage (280 kV) electron accelerator with a pulse duration of 200 ps and current 5 kA are studied. The capture phenomena and the subsequent collective acceleration of multi charged ions of the cathode material by the electric field of the electron beam are observed. It is shown that the electron-ion beam diameter does not exceed 30 µm therein in the case of lighter ions, and the decay of the pinched beam occurs at a shorter distance from the cathode. It is established that the ions of the cathode material Tin+ captured by the electron beam are accelerated up to an energy of  ⩽10 MeV, and the ion fluence reaches 1017 ion cm-2 in the pulse. These ions are effectively embedded into the lattice sites of the irradiated substrate (sapphire crystal), forming the luminescent areas of the micron scale.

  14. Accelerated Electron-Beam Formation with a High Capture Coefficient in a Parallel Coupled Accelerating Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernousov, Yu. D.; Shebolaev, I. V.; Ikryanov, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    An electron beam with a high (close to 100%) coefficient of electron capture into the regime of acceleration has been obtained in a linear electron accelerator based on a parallel coupled slow-wave structure, electron gun with microwave-controlled injection current, and permanent-magnet beam-focusing system. The high capture coefficient was due to the properties of the accelerating structure, beam-focusing system, and electron-injection system. Main characteristics of the proposed systems are presented.

  15. Electron Accelerator Shielding Design of KIPT Neutron Source Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Zhaopeng; Gohar, Yousry

    2016-06-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory of the United States and the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology of the Ukraine have been collaborating on the design, development and construction of a neutron source facility at Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology utilizing an electron-accelerator-driven subcritical assembly. The electron beam power is 100 kW using 100-MeV electrons. The facility was designed to perform basic and applied nuclear research, produce medical isotopes, and train nuclear specialists. The biological shield of the accelerator building was designed to reduce the biological dose to less than 5.0e-03 mSv/h during operation. The main source of the biologicalmore » dose for the accelerator building is the photons and neutrons generated from different interactions of leaked electrons from the electron gun and the accelerator sections with the surrounding components and materials. The Monte Carlo N-particle extended code (MCNPX) was used for the shielding calculations because of its capability to perform electron-, photon-, and neutron-coupled transport simulations. The photon dose was tallied using the MCNPX calculation, starting with the leaked electrons. However, it is difficult to accurately tally the neutron dose directly from the leaked electrons. The neutron yield per electron from the interactions with the surrounding components is very small, similar to 0.01 neutron for 100-MeV electron and even smaller for lower-energy electrons. This causes difficulties for the Monte Carlo analyses and consumes tremendous computation resources for tallying the neutron dose outside the shield boundary with an acceptable accuracy. To avoid these difficulties, the SOURCE and TALLYX user subroutines of MCNPX were utilized for this study. The generated neutrons were banked, together with all related parameters, for a subsequent MCNPX calculation to obtain the neutron dose. The weight windows variance reduction technique was also utilized for both neutron

  16. Developing an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) based on electron accelerators and heavy water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feizi, H.; Ranjbar, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    An ADS based on electron accelerators has been developed specifically for energy generation and medical applications. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed using FLUKA code to design a hybrid electron target and the core components. The composition, geometry of conversion targets and the coolant system have been optimized for electron beam energies of 20 to 100 MeV . Furthermore, the photon and photoneutron energy spectra, distribution and energy deposition for various incoming electron beam powers have been studied. Light-heavy water of various mixtures have been used as heat removal for the targets, as γ-n converters and as neutron moderators. We have shown that an electron LINAC, as a neutron production driver for ADSs, is capable of producing a neutron output of > 3.5 × 1014 (n/s/mA). Accordingly, the feasibility of an electron-based ADS employing the designed features is promising for energy generation and high intense neutron production which have various applications such as medical therapies.

  17. The acceleration of electrons at a spherical coronal shock in a streamer-like coronal field

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Xiangliang, E-mail: kongx@sdu.edu.cn; Chen, Yao, E-mail: yaochen@sdu.edu.cn; Guo, Fan, E-mail: guofan.ustc@gmail.com

    2016-03-25

    We study the effect of large-scale coronal magnetic field on the electron acceleration at a spherical coronal shock using a test-particle method. The coronal field is approximated by an analytical solution with a streamer-like magnetic field featured by partially open magnetic field and a current sheet at the equator atop the closed region. It shows that the closed field plays the role of a trapping agency of shock-accelerated electrons, allowing for repetitive reflection and acceleration, therefore can greatly enhance the shock-electron acceleration efficiency. It is found that, with an ad hoc pitch-angle scattering, electron injected in the open field atmore » the shock flank can be accelerated to high energies as well. In addition, if the shock is faster or stronger, a relatively harder electron energy spectrum and a larger maximum energy can be achieved.« less

  18. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, W.K.; Stirling, W.L.

    1979-10-25

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employing crossed electric and magnetic fields, separates the electrons from the ions as they are extracted from the ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90/sup 0/ to each other, the electrons remain at approximately the electrical potential at which they were generated. The electromagnetic forces cause the ions to be accelerated to the full accelerating supply voltage energy while being deflected through an angle of less than 90/sup 0/. The electrons precess out of the accelerating field region into an electron recovery region where they are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply energy. It is possible, by this method, to collect > 90% of the electrons extracted along with the negative ions from a negative ion source beam at < 4% of full energy.

  19. The use of electron accelerators for radiation disinfestation of grain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimov, R. A.; Cherepkov, V. G.; Kuksanov, N. K.; Kuznetzov, S. A.

    2000-03-01

    One of the ways to fight the insect pest in grain is treatment by the beam of accelerated electrons. This method provides an immediate cessation of the reproduction of their lifetime and intensity of nutrition, as well as the elimination of the latent forms of grain infestation (eggs, larvae, etc.). The main advantages of the electron beam technology of grain disinfestation are the following: a possibility of grain disinfestation continuously at a rate corresponding to the high capacity of the process equipment of modern elevators with the full automation of the process and safety for personnel; it does not cause pollution of the environment and leaves no residual pollution in grain; the irradiated grain can be used immediately. At present, the powerful radiation disinfestation unit (Radiation Disinfestor, RD) on a base of ELV-4 40 kW power electron accelerator with 3 m length extraction device has been developed for a technological line of capacity of 400 t/h. In 1980 two RDs on a base of ELV-2 electron accelerator were put into operation at the Odessa port elevator of 200 t/h capacity each. RDs are installed between the elevator and the freight wharf of the port. The infested grain is delivered to the elevator for storage. The electron accelerators of the ELV-type used in this RD have an electron beam power of 20 kW at an energy of up to 1.5 MeV. The operation mode is continuous with a guaranteed operation time of no less than 5000 h per year.

  20. Extensive study of electron acceleration by relativistic surface plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantono, G.; Sgattoni, A.; Fedeli, L.; Garzella, D.; Réau, F.; Riconda, C.; Macchi, A.; Ceccotti, T.

    2018-03-01

    The excitation of surface plasmons with ultra-intense (I ˜ 5 × 1019 W/cm2), high contrast (˜1012) laser pulses on periodically modulated solid targets has been recently demonstrated to produce collimated bunches of energetic electrons along the target surface [Fedeli et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 015001 (2016)]. Here, we report an extensive experimental and numerical study aimed to a complete characterization of the acceleration mechanism, demonstrating its robustness and promising characteristics for an electron source. By comparing different grating structures, we identify the relevant parameters to optimize the acceleration and obtain bunches of ˜650 pC of charge at several MeV of energy with blazed gratings.

  1. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy at a superconducting electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, A.; Anwand, W.; Attallah, A. G.; Dornberg, G.; Elsayed, M.; Enke, D.; Hussein, A. E. M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Liedke, M. O.; Potzger, K.; Trinh, T. T.

    2017-01-01

    The Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf operates a superconducting linear accelerator for electrons with energies up to 35 MeV and average beam currents up to 1.6 mA. The electron beam is employed for production of several secondary beams including X-rays from bremsstrahlung production, neutrons, and positrons. The secondary positron beam after moderation feeds the Monoenergetic Positron Source (MePS) where positron annihilation lifetime (PALS) and positron annihilation Doppler-broadening experiments in materials science are performed in parallel. The adjustable repetition rate of the continuous-wave electron beams allows matching of the pulse separation to the positron lifetime in the sample under study. The energy of the positron beam can be set between 0.5 keV and 20 keV to perform depth resolved defect spectroscopy and porosity studies especially for thin films.

  2. Parallel Electric Field and Electron Acceleration: an Advanced Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kropotkin, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    A kinetic theory is necessary to explain the electron flows forming strong field-aligned currents in the auroral region. Its construction in this paper is based on the following propositions. (a) In the equatorial region, the arrival of electrons through the lateral surface of the magnetic flux tube is compensated for by their escape along the magnetic field. This is provided by action of the pitch-angle diffusion mechanism in the presence of plasma turbulence concentrated in this region. (b) Outside the equatorial region, the distribution functions of trapped and precipitating particles become "frozen." The distributions and particle concentrations are calculated there in a model with conservation of the total energy and the magnetic moment. (c) The quasi-neutrality condition yields a large-scale parallel electric field, which contributes to the conserved total energy. In this field, the electron acceleration occurs, causing strong field-aligned currents directed upward from the ionosphere.

  3. Undulator radiation from laser-plasma-accelerated electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, B.; van Tilborg, J.; Gonsalves, A.; Nakamura, K.; Sokollik, T.; Shiraishi, S.; Mittal, R.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.; Toth, C.; Leemans, W. P.

    2012-12-01

    Recent experiments coupled electron beams from the LOASIS TREX laser plasma accelerator (LPA) [1, 2, 3] to the Tapered Hybrid Undulator (THUNDER). Using the 1.5m, 66 period undulator, followed by an XUV spectrometer, spontaneous radiation was observed at photon energies extending to 100 eV. Previous experiments have reported visible [4] and soft-x-ray [5] radiation. The purpose of our experiments is to do highly precise, single shot diagnostics of the energy spread and emittance for each electron beam. We present recent results including measurements of electron beam transport through the undulator with and without the use of permanent magnetic quadrapoles, and measurements of XUV spectra up to 100 eV from LPA produced e-beams.

  4. Landscape of Future Accelerators at the Energy and Intensity Frontier

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M. J.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-11-21

    An overview is provided of the currently envisaged landscape of charged particle accelerators at the energy and intensity frontiers to explore particle physics beyond the standard model via 1-100 TeV-scale lepton and hadron colliders and multi-Megawatt proton accelerators for short- and long- baseline neutrino experiments. The particle beam physics, associated technological challenges and progress to date for these accelerator facilities (LHC, HL-LHC, future 100 TeV p-p colliders, Tev-scale linear and circular electron-positron colliders, high intensity proton accelerator complex PIP-II for DUNE and future upgrade to PIP-III) are outlined. Potential and prospects for advanced “nonlinear dynamic techniques” at the multi-MW levelmore » intensity frontier and advanced “plasma- wakefield-based techniques” at the TeV-scale energy frontier and are also described.« less

  5. Resonantly driven laser-plasma electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umstadter, D.; Kim, J.; Esarey, E.; Dodd, E.; Neubert, T.

    1995-06-01

    A method for generating large-amplitude nonlinear plasma waves, which utilizes an optimized train of independently adjustable, intense laser pulses, is analyzed in 1-D both theoretically and numerically (using both Maxwell-fluid and particle-in-cell codes). Optimal pulse widths and interpulse spacings are computed for pulses with either square or finite-risetime sine shapes. A resonant region of the plasma wave phase space is found where the plasma wave is driven by the laser most efficiently. The width of this region, and thus the optimal finite-risetime laser pulse width, was found to decrease with increasing plasma density and plasma wave amplitude, while the nonlinear plasma wavelength, and thus the optimal interpulse spacing, was found to increase. Also investigated are the resonance sensitivities to variations in the laser and plasma parameters. Non-linear Landau damping of the wave by trapped background electrons is found to be important. Resonant excitation by this method is shown to more advantageous for electron acceleration than either the single pulse wakefield or the plasma beatwave concepts, because comparable plasma wave amplitudes may be generated at lower plasma densities, thus reducing electron-phase detuning, or at lower laser intensities, thus reducing laser-plasma instabilities. Practical experimental methods for producing the required pulse trains are discussed.

  6. Silicon buried gratings for dielectric laser electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Solgaard, Olav

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes design and simulations of dielectric laser electron accelerators that achieve Gigavolt-per-meter (GV/m) accelerating gradients and wide electron channels (>1 μm). The accelerator design is based on a silicon buried grating structure that enables flexible phase synchronization, large electron channel fields, and low standing-wave ratio in the material. This design increases the accelerating gradients to more than double those of reported quartz grating accelerators, thereby reducing the input laser fluence by 60% for the same accelerating gradient. With a 100 fs pulsed laser, our silicon buried gratings can achieve a maximum gradient of 1.1 GV/m, indicating that these accelerators have potential for numerous electron-accelerator applications.

  7. High power DC electron accelerators of the ELV type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimov, R. A.

    2001-10-01

    The parameters of powerful electron accelerators capable of continuous operation are given. The main systems of the accelerator and a wide set of supplementary devices extending its application range are described. Some directions of further development are noted.

  8. Variable energy constant current accelerator structure

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1990-01-01

    A variable energy, constant current ion beam accelerator structure is disclosed comprising an ion source capable of providing the desired ions, a pre-accelerator for establishing an initial energy level, a matching/pumping module having means for focusing means for maintaining the beam current, and at least one main accelerator module for continuing beam focus, with means capable of variably imparting acceleration to the beam so that a constant beam output current is maintained independent of the variable output energy. In a preferred embodiment, quadrupole electrodes are provided in both the matching/pumping module and the one or more accelerator modules, and are formed using four opposing cylinder electrodes which extend parallel to the beam axis and are spaced around the beam at 90.degree. intervals with opposing electrodes maintained at the same potential. Adjacent cylinder electrodes of the quadrupole structure are maintained at different potentials to thereby reshape the cross section of the charged particle beam to an ellipse in cross section at the mid point along each quadrupole electrode unit in the accelerator modules. The beam is maintained in focus by alternating the major axis of the ellipse along the x and y axis respectively at adjacent quadrupoles. In another embodiment, electrostatic ring electrodes may be utilized instead of the quadrupole electrodes.

  9. Accelerated Convergence in Self-Consistent Electronic Structure Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterne, P. A.; Pask, J. E.

    2004-03-01

    Accelerated convergence methods can greatly reduce the amount of computational effort required in self-consistent electronic structure calculations. A number of accelerated convergence schemes use information from previous iterations to develop an optimum guess for the next input charge density. Examples include the quasi-Newton Broyden method and the Pulay accelerated convergence method, which have been shown to be formally equivalent[V. Eyert, J. Comput. Phys. 124, 271 (1996); G. Kresse and J. Furthmuller, Computational Mat. Sci. 6, 15 (1996)]. Information from previous interations is not always helpful in reaching convergence. For example, early iterations in SCF cycles may take place far from convergence, and the information derived from these may actually limit the rate of convergence in subsequent iterations. Here we discuss approaches based on the Pulay accelerated convergence method that are designed to overcome this limitation while still making optimum use of the information from earlier iterations. The value of the method is illustrated with realistic electronic structure calculations. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-ENG-48.

  10. A method for free electron acceleration of particle beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, D. J.

    1993-08-01

    The large electric fields associated with sources of space charge have led to numerous proposals for possible collective (space-charge-based) accelerators. Traditionally, these schemes involve either magnetic fields or background ions (a plasma) to contain the space charge. This Letter proposes a new technique for particle acceleration that directly uses the large space charge fields of freely moving electron beams. Such free electron accelerators promise eventual accelerating gradients in excess of 10 GV/m.

  11. Characteristics of electron beam in laser wakefield accelerator using pure nitrogen gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Hwangbo, Yong Hun; Kim, Kyung Nam

    2018-03-01

    Pure nitrogen gas target and a 10 TW laser were used to accelerate electrons by a laser wakefield acceleration. A well collimated with stable pointing electron beam was generated. When the density was 9.4 × 1018 cm‑3, electron beams with divergences 5.2 ± 1.2 mrad in horizontal and 4.2 ± 0.8 mrad in the vertical directions were generated. The electron peak energy was 117 ± 12 MeV which is close to the expected value by the scaling formula. The tendency of the maximum energy and energy distribution changes with different density shows that electrons were accelerated to dephasing length with high density and acceleration distance was less than the dephasing length with low density. From this, it seems that the length of the plasma for deformation of the laser is required for the ionization injection, and the plasma length should be longer than the dephasing length.

  12. BOOK REVIEW: Electron acceleration in the aurora and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClements, K. G.

    1999-08-01

    Duncan Bryant is a retired space plasma physicist who spent most of his career at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory in Oxfordshire, England. For many years he has been challenging a widely accepted theory, that auroral electrons are accelerated by double layers, on the grounds that it contains a fundamental error (allegedly, an implicit assumption that charged particles can gain energy from conservative fields). It is, of course, right that models of particle acceleration in natural plasmas should be scrutinized carefully in terms of their consistency with basic physical principles, and I believe that Dr Bryant has performed a valuable service by highlighting this issue. He maintains that auroral electron acceleration by double layers is fundamentally untenable, and that acceleration takes place instead via resonant interactions with lower hybrid waves. In successive chapters, he asserts that essentially the same process can account for electron acceleration observed at the Earth's bow shock, in the neighbourhood of an `artificial comet' produced as part of the Active Magnetospheric Particle Explorers (AMPTE) space mission in 1984/85, in the solar wind, at the Earth's magnetopause, and in the Earth's magneto- sphere. The evidence for this is not always convincing: waves with frequencies of the order of the lower hybrid resonance are often observed in these plasma environments, but in general it is difficult to identify clearly which wave mode is being observed (whistlers, for example, have frequencies in approximately the same range as lower hybrid waves). Moreover, it is not at all clear that the waves which are observed, even if they were of the appropriate type, would have sufficient intensity to accelerate electrons to the extent observed. The author makes a persuasive case, however, that acceleration in the aurora, and in other plasma environments accessible to in situ measurements, involves some form of wave turbulence. In Chapter 2 it is pointed out that

  13. Electrons acceleration in a TE 113 cylindrical cavity affected by a static inhomogeneous magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E Vergara, V.; González, J. D.; Beltrán, J. R.; Orozco, E. A.

    2017-12-01

    The relativistic dynamics of an electron accelerated in a cylindrical cavity mode TE 113 in the presence of a static inhomogeneous magnetic field is studied. This type of acceleration is known as Spatial AutoResonance Acceleration (SARA). The magnetic field profile is such that it keeps the phase difference between the electric microwave field and the electron velocity vector within the acceleration phase band. We study the dynamic of the electron through simulations of the relativistic Newton-Lorentz equation. Numerical experiments with TE 113 cylindrical microwave fields of a frequency of 2.45GHz and an amplitude of the order of 7kV/cm show that it is possible accelerate the electrons up to energies of the order of 300keV. This energy is about of 30% higher than those obtained in previous studies by using the TE 112 mode.

  14. Nonthermally dominated electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection in a low- β plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xiaocan; Guo, Fan; Li, Hui; ...

    2015-09-24

    By means of fully kinetic simulations, we investigate electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection in a nonrelativistic proton–electron plasma with conditions similar to solar corona and flares. We demonstrate that reconnection leads to a nonthermally dominated electron acceleration with a power-law energy distribution in the nonrelativistic low-β regime but not in the high-β regime, where β is the ratio of the plasma thermal pressure and the magnetic pressure. The accelerated electrons contain most of the dissipated magnetic energy in the low-β regime. A guiding-center current description is used to reveal the role of electron drift motions during the bulk nonthermal energization.more » We find that the main acceleration mechanism is a Fermi-type acceleration accomplished by the particle curvature drift motion along the electric field induced by the reconnection outflows. Although the acceleration mechanism is similar for different plasma β, low-β reconnection drives fast acceleration on Alfvénic timescales and develops power laws out of thermal distribution. Thus, the nonthermally dominated acceleration resulting from magnetic reconnection in low-β plasma may have strong implications for the highly efficient electron acceleration in solar flares and other astrophysical systems.« less

  15. NONTHERMALLY DOMINATED ELECTRON ACCELERATION DURING MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN A LOW-β PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaocan; Li, Gang; Guo, Fan

    2015-10-01

    By means of fully kinetic simulations, we investigate electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection in a nonrelativistic proton–electron plasma with conditions similar to solar corona and flares. We demonstrate that reconnection leads to a nonthermally dominated electron acceleration with a power-law energy distribution in the nonrelativistic low-β regime but not in the high-β regime, where β is the ratio of the plasma thermal pressure and the magnetic pressure. The accelerated electrons contain most of the dissipated magnetic energy in the low-β regime. A guiding-center current description is used to reveal the role of electron drift motions during the bulk nonthermal energization.more » We find that the main acceleration mechanism is a Fermi-type acceleration accomplished by the particle curvature drift motion along the electric field induced by the reconnection outflows. Although the acceleration mechanism is similar for different plasma β, low-β reconnection drives fast acceleration on Alfvénic timescales and develops power laws out of thermal distribution. The nonthermally dominated acceleration resulting from magnetic reconnection in low-β plasma may have strong implications for the  highly efficient electron acceleration in solar flares and other astrophysical systems.« less

  16. High-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator using plasma-channel guiding.

    PubMed

    Geddes, C G R; Toth, C S; Van Tilborg, J; Esarey, E; Schroeder, C B; Bruhwiler, D; Nieter, C; Cary, J; Leemans, W P

    2004-09-30

    Laser-driven accelerators, in which particles are accelerated by the electric field of a plasma wave (the wakefield) driven by an intense laser, have demonstrated accelerating electric fields of hundreds of GV m(-1) (refs 1-3). These fields are thousands of times greater than those achievable in conventional radio-frequency accelerators, spurring interest in laser accelerators as compact next-generation sources of energetic electrons and radiation. To date, however, acceleration distances have been severely limited by the lack of a controllable method for extending the propagation distance of the focused laser pulse. The ensuing short acceleration distance results in low-energy beams with 100 per cent electron energy spread, which limits potential applications. Here we demonstrate a laser accelerator that produces electron beams with an energy spread of a few per cent, low emittance and increased energy (more than 10(9) electrons above 80 MeV). Our technique involves the use of a preformed plasma density channel to guide a relativistically intense laser, resulting in a longer propagation distance. The results open the way for compact and tunable high-brightness sources of electrons and radiation.

  17. Artificial aurora conjugate to a rocket-borne electron accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. N.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hess, W. N.; Trichel, M. C.; Maier, E. J. R.

    1980-01-01

    An accelerator intended to send electron beams upward along an L = 1.24 magnetic field line was flown from a rocket launched from Kauai, Hawaii, on October 15, 1972. Though the intent was to produce several hundred observable auroral streaks in the Southern Hemisphere, imaging instruments operated there aboard jet aircraft detected only a single aurora. Produced by a 0.155-A beam of energy 22.8 keV, the aurora was of expected brightness and had a diameter (210 + or - 50 m) somewhat larger than expected and an altitude (top 116 + or - 2 km; bottom 92 + or - 2 km) higher than expected.

  18. Electron acceleration by femtosecond laser interaction with micro-structured plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goers, Andy James

    Laser-driven accelerators are a promising and compact alternative to RF accelerator technology for generating relativistic electron bunches for medical, scientific, and security applications. This dissertation presents three experiments using structured plasmas designed to advance the state of the art in laser-based electron accelerators, with the goal of reducing the energy of the drive laser pulse and enabling higher repetition rate operation with current laser technology. First, electron acceleration by intense femtosecond laser pulses in He-like nitrogen plasma waveguides is demonstrated. Second, significant progress toward a proof of concept realization of quasi-phasematched direct acceleration (QPM-DLA) is presented. Finally, a laser wakefield accelerator at very high plasma density is studied, enabling relativistic electron beam generation with ˜10 mJ pulse energies. Major results from these experiments include: • Acceleration of electrons up to 120 MeV from an ionization injected wakefield accelerator driven in a 1.5 mm long He-like nitrogen plasma waveguide • Guiding of an intense, quasi-radially polarized femtosecond laser pulse in a 1 cm plasma waveguide. This pulse provides a strong drive field for the QPM-DLA concept. • Wakefield acceleration of electrons up to ˜10 MeV with sub-terawatt, ˜10 mJ pulses interacting with a thin (˜200 mum), high density (>1020 cm-3) plasma. • Observation of an intense, coherent, broadband wave breaking radiation flash from a high plasma density laser wakefield accelerator. The flash radiates > 1% of the drive laser pulse energy in a bandwidth consistent with half-cycle (˜1 fs) emission from violent unidirectional acceleration of electron bunches from rest. These results open the way to high repetition rate (>˜kHz) laser-driven generation of relativistic electron beams with existing laser technology.

  19. Green Peace: Can Biofuels Accelerate Energy Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-14

    the most widely used biofuel – ethanol – is produced from the fermentation and distillation of sugar or starch-based crops such as sugarcane or corn ...i AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY GREEN PEACE CAN BIOFUELS ACCELERATE ENERGY SECURITY? by John E. Gay, CDR, USN A Research...of Energy, Department of Agriculture, and the US Navy have made significant investments in developing and testing biofuels with the stated intent to

  20. Electron Beam Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen

    2011-06-27

    A comprehensive study of charge diagnostics is conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). First, a scintillating screen (Lanex) was extensively studied using subnanosecond electron beams from the Advanced Light Source booster synchrotron, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Lanex was cross calibrated with an integrating current transformer (ICT) for up to the electron energy of 1.5 GeV, and the linear response of the screen was confirmed for charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm{sup 2} and 0.4 pC/(ps mm{sup 2}), respectively. After the radio-frequency accelerator based cross calibration, amore » series of measurements was conducted using electron beams from an LPA. Cross calibrations were carried out using an activation-based measurement that is immune to electromagnetic pulse noise, ICT, and Lanex. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8%, showing that they all can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs.« less

  1. New Electron Source for Energy Recovery Linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazarov, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    Cornell University has built a photoemission electron source for a new class of particle accelerators based on Energy Recovery Linacs. Recent advances in beam production and quality now make this photoemission source the world's brightest high current source of relativistic electrons opening new scientific opportunities with high-power high-density beams. This talk will motivate the need for brighter beams and will review scientific and technological progress that has allowed Cornell photoinjector to achieve the unprecedented beam brightness.

  2. The formation of kappa-distribution accelerated electron populations in solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Bian, Nicolas H.; Stackhouse, Duncan J.; Kontar, Eduard P.

    2014-12-01

    Driven by recent RHESSI observations of confined loop-top hard X-ray sources in solar flares, we consider stochastic acceleration of electrons in the presence of Coulomb collisions. If electron escape from the acceleration region can be neglected, the electron distribution function is determined by a balance between diffusive acceleration and collisions. Such a scenario admits a stationary solution for the electron distribution function that takes the form of a kappa distribution. We show that the evolution toward this kappa distribution involves a 'wave front' propagating forward in velocity space, so that electrons of higher energy are accelerated later; the acceleration timescalesmore » with energy according to τ{sub acc} ∼ E {sup 3/2}. At sufficiently high energies escape from the finite-length acceleration region will eventually dominate. For such energies, the electron velocity distribution function is obtained by solving a time-dependent Fokker-Planck equation in the 'leaky-box' approximation. Solutions are obtained in the limit of a small escape rate from an acceleration region that can effectively be considered a thick target.« less

  3. Electron Accelerators for Radioactive Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Lia Merminga

    2007-10-10

    The summary of this paper is that to optimize the design of an electron drive, one must: (a) specify carefully the user requirements--beam energy, beam power, duty factor, and longitudinal and transverse emittance; (b) evaluate different machine options including capital cost, 10-year operating cost and delivery time. The author is convinced elegant solutions are available with existing technology. There are several design options and technology choices. Decisions will depend on system optimization, in-house infrastructure and expertise (e.g. cryogenics, SRF, lasers), synergy with other programs.

  4. The electron accelerator for the AWAKE experiment at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepitone, K.; Doebert, S.; Burt, G.; Chevallay, E.; Chritin, N.; Delory, C.; Fedosseev, V.; Hessler, Ch.; McMonagle, G.; Mete, O.; Verzilov, V.; Apsimon, R.

    2016-09-01

    The AWAKE collaboration prepares a proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment using the SPS beam at CERN. A long proton bunch extracted from the SPS interacts with a high power laser and a 10 m long rubidium vapour plasma cell to create strong wakefields allowing sustained electron acceleration. The electron bunch to probe these wakefields is supplied by a 20 MeV electron accelerator. The electron accelerator consists of an RF-gun and a short booster structure. This electron source should provide beams with intensities between 0.1 and 1 nC, bunch lengths between 0.3 and 3 ps and an emittance of the order of 2 mm mrad. The wide range of parameters should cope with the uncertainties and future prospects of the planned experiments. The layout of the electron accelerator, its instrumentation and beam dynamics simulations are presented.

  5. Dynamics of electron injection and acceleration driven by laser wakefield in tailored density profiles

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Patrick; Maynard, G.; Audet, T. L.; ...

    2016-11-16

    The dynamics of electron acceleration driven by laser wakefield is studied in detail using the particle-in-cell code WARP with the objective to generate high-quality electron bunches with narrow energy spread and small emittance, relevant for the electron injector of a multistage accelerator. Simulation results, using experimentally achievable parameters, show that electron bunches with an energy spread of ~11% can be obtained by using an ionization-induced injection mechanism in a mm-scale length plasma. By controlling the focusing of a moderate laser power and tailoring the longitudinal plasma density profile, the electron injection beginning and end positions can be adjusted, while themore » electron energy can be finely tuned in the last acceleration section.« less

  6. High Energy Electron Detection with ATIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Ahn, H.; Ampe, J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) balloon-borne ionization calorimeter is well suited to record and identify high energy cosmic ray electrons. The instrument was exposed to high-energy beams at CERN H2 bean-dine in September of 1999. We have simulated the performance of the instrument, and compare the simulations with actual high energy electron exposures at the CERN accelerator. Simulations and measurements do not compare exactly, in detail, but overall the simulations have predicted actual measured behavior quite well.

  7. Characteristics of nonthermal electrons accelerated during the flash phase of small solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    Observations of impulsive hard X-rays and other flash phase emissions from small solar flares are analyzed in order to determine the characteristics of energetic electrons accelerated during the flash phase. The electron spectrum and its time variation are deduced from a model of the X-ray source in which the electron injection is continuous, and the electron energy loss is primarily due to collisions with the ambient plasma and escape into the corona. The instantaneous electron spectrum in the X-ray source, as well as the acceleration spectrum, are found to be nonthermal. The observations are consistent with a flare model having the following properties: (1) the acceleration region is located in the lower corona where the ion density is less than 10 to the 9th power per cubic centimeter, (2) the total kinetic energy of the nonthermal electron is approximately 10 percent of the total flare energy, so that the efficiency of the acceleration process is very high, (3) the nonthermal electrons (and protons) provide energy for all flash phase emissions, (4) the acceleration is a continuous process with a time constant less than 1 second, or a continuous series of impulses each lasting less than 1 second and a total duration of approximately 100 seconds, (5) the electron spectrum continuously hardens during the increasing phase of the X-ray burst and softens during the decreasing phase and, (6) the more energetic flares to not necessarily produce a harder electron spectrum.

  8. Control system of injector for linear electron accelerator LINAC-800

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balalykin, N. I.; Minashkin, V. F.; Nozdrin, M. A.; Shirkov, G. D.

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes the control system of the injector for the LINAC-800 linear electron accelerator. The architecture of the control system, the equipment, and software are presented. This system is part of the first segment of the control system of the LINAC-800 electron accelerator.

  9. Radio-Frequency Electron Accelerators for Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleland, Marshall R.

    2011-02-01

    Two types of radio-frequency electron accelerators are described in this article. They operate in the frequency range of 100-200MHz and are energized with triode or tetrode tubes instead of klystrons. They can provide more powerful electron beams than typical microwave linear accelerators.

  10. An in situ Comparison of Electron Acceleration at Collisionless Shocks under Differing Upstream Magnetic Field Orientations

    SciTech Connect

    Masters, A.; Dougherty, M. K.; Sulaiman, A. H.

    2017-07-10

    A leading explanation for the origin of Galactic cosmic rays is acceleration at high-Mach number shock waves in the collisionless plasma surrounding young supernova remnants. Evidence for this is provided by multi-wavelength non-thermal emission thought to be associated with ultrarelativistic electrons at these shocks. However, the dependence of the electron acceleration process on the orientation of the upstream magnetic field with respect to the local normal to the shock front (quasi-parallel/quasi-perpendicular) is debated. Cassini spacecraft observations at Saturn’s bow shock have revealed examples of electron acceleration under quasi-perpendicular conditions, and the first in situ evidence of electron acceleration at amore » quasi-parallel shock. Here we use Cassini data to make the first comparison between energy spectra of locally accelerated electrons under these differing upstream magnetic field regimes. We present data taken during a quasi-perpendicular shock crossing on 2008 March 8 and during a quasi-parallel shock crossing on 2007 February 3, highlighting that both were associated with electron acceleration to at least MeV energies. The magnetic signature of the quasi-perpendicular crossing has a relatively sharp upstream–downstream transition, and energetic electrons were detected close to the transition and immediately downstream. The magnetic transition at the quasi-parallel crossing is less clear, energetic electrons were encountered upstream and downstream, and the electron energy spectrum is harder above ∼100 keV. We discuss whether the acceleration is consistent with diffusive shock acceleration theory in each case, and suggest that the quasi-parallel spectral break is due to an energy-dependent interaction between the electrons and short, large-amplitude magnetic structures.« less

  11. Free-electron laser using rf-coupled accelerating and decelerating structures

    SciTech Connect

    Brau, C.A.; Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.

    1981-06-19

    A free electron laser and free electron laser amplifier using beam transport devices for guiding an electron beam to a wiggler of a free electron laser and returning the electron beam to decelerating cavities disposed adjacent to the accelerating cavities of the free electron laser. Rf energy is extracted from the electron beam after it emerges from the wiggler by means of the decelerating cavities which are closely coupled to the accelerating cavities, or by means of a second bore within a single set of cavities. Rf energy extracted from the decelerated electron beam is used to supplement energy providedmore » by an external source, such as a klystron, to thereby enhance overall efficiency of the system.« less

  12. Electron Beam Transport in Advanced Plasma Wave Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ronald L

    2013-01-31

    The primary goal of this grant was to develop a diagnostic for relativistic plasma wave accelerators based on injecting a low energy electron beam (5-50keV) perpendicular to the plasma wave and observing the distortion of the electron beam's cross section due to the plasma wave's electrostatic fields. The amount of distortion would be proportional to the plasma wave amplitude, and is the basis for the diagnostic. The beat-wave scheme for producing plasma waves, using two CO2 laser beam, was modeled using a leap-frog integration scheme to solve the equations of motion. Single electron trajectories and corresponding phase space diagrams weremore » generated in order to study and understand the details of the interaction dynamics. The electron beam was simulated by combining thousands of single electrons, whose initial positions and momenta were selected by random number generators. The model was extended by including the interactions of the electrons with the CO2 laser fields of the beat wave, superimposed with the plasma wave fields. The results of the model were used to guide the design and construction of a small laboratory experiment that may be used to test the diagnostic idea.« less

  13. Energy Release, Acceleration, and Escape of Solar Energetic Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Nolfo, G. A.; Ireland, J.; Ryan, J. M.; Young, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Solar flares are prodigious producers of energetic particles, and thus a rich laboratory for studying particle acceleration. The acceleration occurs through the release of magnetic energy, a significant fraction of which can go into the acceleration of particles. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) certainly produce shocks that both accelerate particles and provide a mechanism for escape into the interplanetary medium (IP). What is less well understood is whether accelerated particles produced from the flare reconnection process escape, and if so, how these same particles are related to solar energetic particles (SEPs) detected in-situ. Energetic electron SEPs have been shown to be correlated with Type III radio bursts, hard X-ray emission, and EUV jets, making a very strong case for the connection between acceleration at the flare and escape along open magnetic field lines. Because there has not been a clear signature of ion escape, as is the case with the Type III radio emission for electrons, sorting out the avenues of escape for accelerated flare ions and the possible origin of the impulsive SEPs continues to be a major challenge. The key to building a clear picture of particle escape relies on the ability to map signatures of escape such as EUV jets at the Sun and to follow the progression of these escape signatures as they evolve in time. Furthermore, nuclear γ-ray emissions provide critical context relating ion acceleration to that of escape. With the advent observations from Fermi as well as RHESSI and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the challenge of ion escape from the Sun can now be addressed. We present a preliminary study of the relationship of EUV jets with nuclear γ-ray emission and Type III radio observations and discuss the implications for possible magnetic topologies that allow for ion escape from deep inside the corona to the interplanetary medium.

  14. Electron bunching in a Penning trap and accelerating process for CO2 gas mixture active medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xiu-Fang; Wu, Cong-Feng; Jia, Qi-Ka

    2015-12-01

    In PASER (particle acceleration by stimulated emission of radiation), in the presence of an active medium incorporated in a Penning trap, moving electrons can become bunched, and as they get enough energy, they escape the trap forming an optical injector. These bunched electrons can enter the next PASER section filled with the same active medium to be accelerated. In this paper, electron dynamics in the presence of a gas mixture active medium incorporated in a Penning trap is analyzed by developing an idealized 1D model. We evaluate the energy exchange occurring as the train of electrons traverses into the next PASER section. The results show that the oscillating electrons can be bunched at the resonant frequency of the active medium. The influence of the trapped time and population inversion are analyzed, showing that the longer the electrons are trapped, the more energy from the medium the accelerated electrons get, and with the increase of population inversion, the decelerated electrons are virtually unchanged but the accelerated electrons more than double their peak energy values. The simulation results show that the gas active medium needs a lower population inversion to bunch the electrons compared to a solid active medium, so the experimental conditions can easily be achieved. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (10675116) and Major State Basic Research Development Programme of China (2011CB808301)

  15. Power Supplies for High Energy Particle Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Pranab Kumar

    2016-06-01

    The on-going research and the development projects with Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland has generated enormous enthusiasm and interest amongst all to know about the ultimate findings on `God's Particle'. This paper has made an attempt to unfold the power supply requirements and the methodology adopted to provide the stringent demand of such high energy particle accelerators during the initial stages of the search for the ultimate particles. An attempt has also been made to highlight the present status on the requirement of power supplies in some high energy accelerators with a view that, precautionary measures can be drawn during design and development from earlier experience which will be of help for the proposed third generation synchrotron to be installed in India at a huge cost.

  16. A laser accelerator. [interaction of polarized light beam with electrons in magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, W. B.; Ride, S. K.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that a laser can efficiently accelerate charged particles if a magnetic field is introduced to improve the coupling between the particle and the wave. Solving the relativistic equations of motion for an electron in a uniform magnetic field and superposed, circularly polarized electromagnetic wave, it is found that in energy-position phase space an electron traces out a curtate cycloid: it alternately gains and loses energy. If, however, the parameters are chosen so that the electron's oscillations in the two fields are resonant, it will continually accelerate or decelerate depending on its initial position within a wavelength of light. A laboratory accelerator operating under these resonant conditions appears attractive: in a magnetic field of 10,000 gauss, and the fields of a 5 x 10 to the 12th W, 10 micron wavelength laser, an optimally positioned electron would accelerate to 700 MeV in only 10 m.

  17. Accelerator Driven Nuclear Energy: The Thorium Option

    ScienceCinema

    Raja, Rajendran

    2018-01-05

    Conventional nuclear reactors use enriched Uranium as fuel and produce nuclear waste which needs to be stored away for over 10,000 years.   At the current rate of use, existing sources of Uranium will last for 50-100 years.  We describe a solution to the problem that uses particle accelerators to produce fast neutrons that can be used to burn existing nuclear waste and produce energy.  Such systems, initially proposed by Carlo Rubbia and collaborators in the 1990's, are being seriously considered by many countries as a possible solution to the green energy problem.  Accelerator driven reactors operate in a sub-critical regime and, thus, are safer and can obtain energy from plentiful elements such as Thorium-232 and Uranium-238. What is missing is the high intensity (10MW) accelerator that produces 1 GeV protons. We will describe scenarios which if implemented will make such systems a reality.  

  18. Energy spread minimization in a cascaded laser wakefield accelerator via velocity bunching (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-05-01

    We report the observation of energy-spread compensation of electron bunches in a laser wakefield accelerator in experiment. The compensation was caused by the gradient wakefield in plasma wake, and the energy spectra of the bunches evolved during the acceleration so that we propose a new method to diagnose the longitudinal length of the ultrashort electron bunch. By analyzing the energy spectra of electron bunches with different acceleration length, the wakefield gradient difference and the wakefield slope of the bunch could be estimated by combining with the slippage between the plasma wave and the electron bunch, thus the electron bunches' longitudinal length could be estimated. By applying this new method, the longitudinal length of electron bunches with charge of about 40 pC generated from a laser wakefield accelerator was estimated to be (2.4 ± 2.2) μm in experiment, which was in good agreement with three-dimension particle-in-cell simulations.

  19. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Scisciò, M.; Antici, P., E-mail: patrizio.antici@polytechnique.edu; INRS-EMT, Université du Québec, 1650 Lionel Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X 1S2

    2016-03-07

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequencymore » (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.« less

  20. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scisciò, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Antici, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.

  1. Electron acceleration at nearly perpendicular collisionless shocks. 3: Downstream distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss-Varban, D.

    1994-01-01

    Spacecraft observations at the Earth's bow shock and at interplanetary shocks have established that the largest fluxes of accelerated suprathermal electrons occur in so-called shock spike events immediately downstream of the shock ramp. Previous theoretical efforts have mainly focused on explaining upstream energetic electron beams. Here we investigate the general motion and acceleration of energetic electrons in a curved, nearly perpendicular shock by numerically integrating the orbits of solar wind halo electrons in shock fields generated by a hybrid simulation (core electron fluid and kinetic ions). Close to the angle Theta(sub Bn) = 90 degs between the upstream magnetic field and shock normal, the calculations result in a (perpendicular) temperature increase proportional to the magnetic field ratio and give the highest phase space densities in the overshoot. For a steep distribution, the temperature change can correspond to an enhancement of the distribution by several orders of magnitude. These results are in agreement with predictions from adiabatic mapping. With smaller angles Theta(sub Bn), the overshoot and downstream densities fall off quickly, because the adiabatic energy gain is less and fewer electrons transmit. The shock curvature also leads to an accumulation of electrons close to 90 degs. Without pitch angle scattering, energization is only significant within a few (approximately 5 to 10 degs) degrees of the point of tangency. However, shock spike events appear to be observed more easily and farther away from 90 degs. Given that over a region of several degrees around 90 degs the theory gives enhancements of up to approximately 4 orders of magnitude, such electrons could in principle account for the typically observed enhancements of 1 to 2 orders of magnitude, if they were distributed over Theta(sub Bn). To test the idea that scattering could efficiently redistribute the energetic electrons, we have conducted test particle simulations in which

  2. Quasi-monoenergetic laser-plasma acceleration of electrons to 2 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Fazel, Neil; Li, Zhengyan; Yi, S. A.; Zhang, Xi; Henderson, Watson; Chang, Y.-Y.; Korzekwa, R.; Tsai, H.-E.; Pai, C.-H.; Quevedo, H.; Dyer, G.; Gaul, E.; Martinez, M.; Bernstein, A. C.; Borger, T.; Spinks, M.; Donovan, M.; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.; Ditmire, T.; Downer, M. C.

    2013-06-01

    Laser-plasma accelerators of only a centimetre’s length have produced nearly monoenergetic electron bunches with energy as high as 1 GeV. Scaling these compact accelerators to multi-gigaelectronvolt energy would open the prospect of building X-ray free-electron lasers and linear colliders hundreds of times smaller than conventional facilities, but the 1 GeV barrier has so far proven insurmountable. Here, by applying new petawatt laser technology, we produce electron bunches with a spectrum prominently peaked at 2 GeV with only a few per cent energy spread and unprecedented sub-milliradian divergence. Petawatt pulses inject ambient plasma electrons into the laser-driven accelerator at much lower density than was previously possible, thereby overcoming the principal physical barriers to multi-gigaelectronvolt acceleration: dephasing between laser-driven wake and accelerating electrons and laser pulse erosion. Simulations indicate that with improvements in the laser-pulse focus quality, acceleration to nearly 10 GeV should be possible with the available pulse energy.

  3. Quasi-monoenergetic laser-plasma acceleration of electrons to 2 GeV

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoming; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Fazel, Neil; Li, Zhengyan; Yi, S. A.; Zhang, Xi; Henderson, Watson; Chang, Y.-Y.; Korzekwa, R.; Tsai, H.-E.; Pai, C.-H.; Quevedo, H.; Dyer, G.; Gaul, E.; Martinez, M.; Bernstein, A. C.; Borger, T.; Spinks, M.; Donovan, M.; Khudik, V.; Shvets, G.; Ditmire, T.; Downer, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Laser-plasma accelerators of only a centimetre’s length have produced nearly monoenergetic electron bunches with energy as high as 1 GeV. Scaling these compact accelerators to multi-gigaelectronvolt energy would open the prospect of building X-ray free-electron lasers and linear colliders hundreds of times smaller than conventional facilities, but the 1 GeV barrier has so far proven insurmountable. Here, by applying new petawatt laser technology, we produce electron bunches with a spectrum prominently peaked at 2 GeV with only a few per cent energy spread and unprecedented sub-milliradian divergence. Petawatt pulses inject ambient plasma electrons into the laser-driven accelerator at much lower density than was previously possible, thereby overcoming the principal physical barriers to multi-gigaelectronvolt acceleration: dephasing between laser-driven wake and accelerating electrons and laser pulse erosion. Simulations indicate that with improvements in the laser-pulse focus quality, acceleration to nearly 10 GeV should be possible with the available pulse energy. PMID:23756359

  4. SU-E-T-472: Characterization of the Very High Energy Electrons, ISO - 250 MeV (VHEE) Beam Generated by ALPHA-X Laser Wakefield Accelerator Beam Line for Utilization in Monte Carlo Simulation for Biomedical Experiment Planning.

    PubMed

    Moskvin, V; Subiel, A; Desrosiers, C; Wiggins, M; Maryanski, M; Mendonca, M; Boyd, M; Sorensen, A; Cipiccia, S; Issac, R; Welsh, G; Brunetti, E; Aniculaesei, C; Jaroszynski, D A

    2012-06-01

    Progress in the development of compact high-energy pulsed laser- plasma wakefield accelerators is opening up the potential for using Very High Energy Electron (VHEEs) beams in the range of 150 - 250 MeV for biomedical studies. Initial experiments using VHEE for this purpose have been carried out using the ALPHA-X laser-plasma wakefield accelerator beam line at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK. The purpose of this investigation is to use Monte Carlo simulations to plan experiments and compare with characterization of the interaction of the VHEE beam using a dosimeter. An experiment using the VHEE beam to irradiate a muscle-equivalent BANG polymer gel dosimeter has been carried out. Simulations have been used to prepare for the experiments. These were undertaken using the expected average energy for a pulse set and an energy spread approximated by Gaussian distribution. The model was implemented in FLUKA Monte Carlo code with follow up modeling using the Geant4 toolkit. The results have been compared with 1mm̂3 voxel laser CT based measurements of the dose deposited in the BANG dosimeter and with measurement of the induced radioactivity. The results of the measured dose from induced radioactivity have been compared with data from the FLUKA simulations. The beam model based on an average energy of particles in irradiation gives an acceptable estimate of the induced radioactivity and the dose deposited in the BANG dosimeter. Comparison with the dosimeter scanned profiles shows that the structure of the spectra of VHEE beams in the experiment and secondary scattered particles in the beam line should be accounted for in any model. Such model description of the VHEE beam for the ALPHA-X beam line has been developed. Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code is an efficient way to plan a VHEE experiment and analyze data from measurements. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Beam Position Monitor and Energy Analysis at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, David Juarez

    2015-08-01

    Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology Facility has produced its first beam with an energy of 20 MeV. This energy is obtained by the acceleration at the Electron Gun and the Capture Cavity 2 (CC2). When fully completed, the accelerator will consist of a photoinjector, one International Liner Collider (ILC)-type cryomodule, multiple accelerator R&D beamlines, and a downstream beamline to inject 300 MeV electrons into the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA). We calculated the total energy of the beam and the corresponding energy to the Electron Gun and CC2. Subsequently, a Beam Position Monitors (BPM) error analysis was done, to calculatemore » the device actual resolution.« less

  6. Method and apparatus for varying accelerator beam output energy

    DOEpatents

    Young, Lloyd M.

    1998-01-01

    A coupled cavity accelerator (CCA) accelerates a charged particle beam with rf energy from a rf source. An input accelerating cavity receives the charged particle beam and an output accelerating cavity outputs the charged particle beam at an increased energy. Intermediate accelerating cavities connect the input and the output accelerating cavities to accelerate the charged particle beam. A plurality of tunable coupling cavities are arranged so that each one of the tunable coupling cavities respectively connect an adjacent pair of the input, output, and intermediate accelerating cavities to transfer the rf energy along the accelerating cavities. An output tunable coupling cavity can be detuned to variably change the phase of the rf energy reflected from the output coupling cavity so that regions of the accelerator can be selectively turned off when one of the intermediate tunable coupling cavities is also detuned.

  7. Modeling of a new electron-streamer acceleration mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihaddadene, K. M. A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Liu, N.; Celestin, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    Lightning stepped leaders and laboratory spark discharges in air are known to produce X-rays [e.g., Dwyer et al., Geophys. Res. lett., 32, L20809, 2005; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 45, 425202, 2012]. However, the processes behind the production of these X-rays are still not very well understood. During discharges, encounters between streamers of different polarities are very common. For example, during the formation of a new leader step, the negative streamer zone around the tip of a negative leader and the positive streamers initiated from the posiive part of a bidirectional space leader strongly interact. In laboratory experiments, when streamers are approaching a sharp electrode, streamers with the opposite polarity are initiated from the electrode and collide with the former streamers. Recently, the encounter between negative and positive streamers has been proposed as a plausible mechanism for the production of X-rays by spark discharges [Cooray et la., JASTP, 71, 1890, 2009; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 45, 425202, 2012], but modeling results have shown later that the increase of the electric field involved in this process, which is above the conventional breakdown threshold field, is accompanied by a strong increase of the electron density. The resulting increase in the conductivity, in turn, causes this electric field to collapse over a few tens of picoseconds, preventing the electrons reaching high energies and producing significant X-ray emissions [e.g., Ihaddadene and Celestin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 45, 5644, 2015]. In this work, we will present simulation results of a new electron acceleration mechanism for producing runaway electron energies above hundred keV. The mechanism couples multiple single streamers and streamer head-on collisions, similar to a laboratory discharge, and is suitable for explaining the high-energy X-rays produced by discharges in air and by lightning stepped leaders.

  8. Electron acceleration by megahertz waves during OEDIPUS C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. Y.; Burke, W. J.; Hardy, D. A.; Gough, M. P.; James, H. G.; Villalón, E.; Gentile, L. C.

    2001-02-01

    Observations of Electric Field Distributions in the Ionospheric Plasma-A Unique Strategy (OEDIPUS C) was a tethered mother-son experiment that was launched northward from the Poker Flat rocket range at 0638 UT on November 7, 1995, across a sequence of auroral structures. During the flight's upleg the magnetically aligned tether was deployed to a separation of ~1.2 km and then cut at both ends. The forward payload contained a 50-kHz to 8-MHz stepped-frequency transmitter. Receivers were carried on both forward and aft payloads. The transmitter swept through the frequency range every 0.5 s. During each of the 3-ms steps the transmitter emitted only for the first 0.3 ms. The scientific complement also included multiangular electrostatic analyzers on both payloads that were sensitive to fluxes of electrons with energies from 20 eV to 20 keV. The durations of sampling and frequency steps were matched. During the flight the electron gyrofrequency was approximately twice the plasma frequency. When the transmitter swept through the local gyrofrequency, the particle detectors on both payloads detected sounder-accelerated electrons (SAEs) independent of the energy steps being sampled. In addition, SAEs were detected at the aft payload out to separations of several hundred meters for wave emissions at harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency as well as in the upper hybrid and whistler bands. As the vehicle separation increased, significant time differences developed between the wave-emission pulses and the onsets/durations of SAE detections. The data indicate that electrons were heated through strong wave-particle interactions. However, a simple resonant-interaction explanation appears inadequate. We outline requirements for any models purporting to explain OEDIPUS C measurements.

  9. Two-beam detuned-cavity electron accelerator structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Progress has been made in the theory, development, cavity design and optimization, beam dynamics study, beam transport design, and hardware construction for studies of a detuned two-beam electron accelerator structure.

  10. Study on the parameters of the scanning system for the 300 keV electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, K. W.; Chulan, R. M.; Hashim, S. A.; Baijan, A. H.; Sabri, R. M.; Mohtar, M.; Glam, H.; Lojius, L.; Zahidee, M.; Azman, A.; Zaid, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the method to identify the magnetic coil parameters of the scanning system. This locally designed low energy electron accelerator with the present energy of 140 keV will be upgraded to 300 keV. In this accelerator, scanning system is required to deflect the energetic electron beam across a titanium foil in vertical and horizontal direction. The excitation current of the magnetic coil is determined by the energy of the electron beam. Therefore, the magnetic coil parameters must be identified to ensure the matching of the beam energy and excitation coil current. As the result, the essential parameters of the effective lengths for X-axis and Y-axis have been found as 0.1198 m and 0.1134 m and the required excitation coil currents which is dependenton the electron beam energies have be identified.

  11. Study on the parameters of the scanning system for the 300 keV electron accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, K. W.; Chulan, R. M., E-mail: leo@nm.gov.my; Hashim, S. A.

    2016-01-22

    This paper describes the method to identify the magnetic coil parameters of the scanning system. This locally designed low energy electron accelerator with the present energy of 140 keV will be upgraded to 300 keV. In this accelerator, scanning system is required to deflect the energetic electron beam across a titanium foil in vertical and horizontal direction. The excitation current of the magnetic coil is determined by the energy of the electron beam. Therefore, the magnetic coil parameters must be identified to ensure the matching of the beam energy and excitation coil current. As the result, the essential parameters ofmore » the effective lengths for X-axis and Y-axis have been found as 0.1198 m and 0.1134 m and the required excitation coil currents which is dependenton the electron beam energies have be identified.« less

  12. Cosmological Acceleration: Dark Energy or Modified Gravity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bludman, S.

    The recently observed accelerating cosmological expansion or "dark energy" may be either a negative pressure constituent in General Relativity (Dark Energy) or modified gravity (Dark Gravity) without any constituent Dark Energy. Low- or high-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity are distinguished by the spacetime (Ricci) curvature of their vacua. If constituent Dark Energy does not exist, so that our universe is now dominated by pressure-free matter, Einstein gravity must be modified at low- curvature, becoming asymptotically de Sitter. The dynamics of either kind of "dark energy" cannot be derived from the homogeneous expansion history alone, but requires also observing the growth of inhomogeneities. Present and projected observations are all consistent with a small fine-tuned cosmological constant, but also allow nearly static Dark Energy or gravity modified at cosmological scales. The growth of cosmological fluctuations will potentially distinguish between static and "dynamic "dark energy". But, cosmologically distinguishing dynamic Dark Energy from Dark Gravity will require a weak lensing shear survey more ambitious than any now projected. Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati low-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity may also be detected in refined observations in the solar system or in isolated galaxy clusters. We review local and cosmological tests of General Relativity and modified gravity. Dark Energy is epicyclic in character, requires fine-tuning to explain why its energy density is just now comparable to ordinary matter density, and cannot be detected in the laboratory or solar system. This, along with braneworld theories, now motivate searching for Dark Gravity on solar system, galaxy cluster and cosmological scales.

  13. Near-surface electron acceleration during intense laser-solid interaction in the grazing incidence regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serebryakov, D. A.; Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.

    2017-12-01

    When a relativistically intense p-polarized laser pulse is grazingly incident onto a planar solid-state target, a slightly superluminal field structure is formed near the target surface due to the incident and reflected waves superposition. This field structure can both extract the electrons from the target and accelerate them. It is theoretically shown that the acceleration is possible and stable for a wide range of electron initial conditions. Particle-in-cell simulations confirm that this mechanism can actually take place for realistic parameters. As a result, the electron bunches with a charge of tens of nC and GeV-level energy can be produced using a laser intensity 1021-1022 W/cm2. It is also shown that the presence of a preplasma can improve acceleration, which becomes possible because of more efficient electron injection into the accelerating field structure.

  14. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; ...

    2015-09-07

    In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for electron acceleration to >1 MeV energies in the heart of the outermore » radiation belt. We also evaluate chorus wave evolution using the superposed epoch analysis for the identified efficient and inefficient acceleration events and find that chorus wave intensity is much stronger and lasts longer during efficient electron acceleration events, supporting the scenario that chorus waves play a key role in MeV electron acceleration.« less

  15. Petawatt laser-driven acceleration of electrons to > 2 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazel, Neil; Wang, Xiaoming; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Henderson, Watson; Chang, Yen-Yu; Korzekwa, Richard; Pao, Chi-Hao; Tsai, Hai-En; Li, Zhengyan; Yi, Austin; Khudik, Vladimir; Quevedo, Hernan; Dyer, Gilliss; Gaul, Erhard; Bernstein, Aaron; Borger, Ted; Spinks, Michael; Martinez, Mikael; Donovan, Michael; Shvets, Gennady; Ditmire, Todd; Downer, Michael

    2012-10-01

    We report self-injected laser wakefield acceleration of electrons beyond 2 GeV in a uniform, 6 cm long undoped helium plasma of density 3-5E17 cm-3, driven by 150 fs laser pulses of up to 120 J from the Texas Petawatt Laser. The highest energy beams to date contain > 200 pC charge, with dN/dE peaking at as high as 2 GeV. At somewhat lower central energy (1.2 GeV), higher quality, dark-current-free beams with < 0.25 mrad FWHM divergence, ˜10 pC charge and ± 25% energy spread were obtained. Self-injected acceleration to > 1 GeV was observed at plasma density as low as 1.7E17 cm-3. Electrons were accompanied by X-rays from the betatron motion of the accelerating electrons. Analysis of shadows cast by tungsten wire fiducials positioned precisely in the paths of the magnetically dispersed electrons and of the betatron X-rays enabled electron energy at 2 GeV to be determined with ± 10% accuracy, without ambiguity due to electron launch angle variations. Simulations indicate that, with improvements in laser pulse focus quality, acceleration to 7 GeV is possible with the available pulse energy.

  16. Flat electron beam sources for DLA accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ody, A.; Musumeci, P.; Maxson, J.

    2016-10-26

    In this study we discuss the application of the flat beam transform to generate beams suitable for injection into slab-symmetric dielectric laser-driven accelerators (DLAs). A study of the focusing requirements to keep the particles within the tight apertures characterizing these accelerators shows the benefits of employing ultralow beam emittances. The slab geometry of the many dielectric accelerating structures strongly favors the use of flat beams with large ratio between vertical and horizontal emittances. We employ particle tracking simulations to study the application of the flat beam transform for two injector designs, a DC non relativistic photogun and a 1.6 cellmore » S-band RF photoinjector, obtaining in both cases emittance ratios between the horizontal and vertical plane in excess of 100 in agreement with simple analytical estimates. The 4 MeV RF photoinjector study-case can be directly applied to the UCLA Pegasus beamline and shows normalized emittances down to < 3 nm in the vertical dimension for beam charges up to 20 fC, enabling a two-stage DLA experiment.« less

  17. Controlling the phase-space volume of injected electrons in a laser-plasma accelerator.

    PubMed

    Rechatin, C; Faure, J; Ben-Ismail, A; Lim, J; Fitour, R; Specka, A; Videau, H; Tafzi, A; Burgy, F; Malka, V

    2009-04-24

    To take full advantage of a laser-plasma accelerator, stability and control of the electron beam parameters have to be achieved. The external injection scheme with two colliding laser pulses is a way to stabilize the injection of electrons into the plasma wave, and to easily tune the energy of the output beam by changing the longitudinal position of the injection. In this Letter, it is shown that by tuning the optical injection parameters, one is able to control the phase-space volume of the injected particles, and thus the charge and the energy spread of the beam. With this method, the production of a laser accelerated electron beam of 10 pC at the 200 MeV level with a 1% relative energy spread at full width half maximum (3.1% rms) is demonstrated. This unique tunability extends the capability of laser-plasma accelerators and their applications.

  18. A Variable Energy CW Compact Accelerator for Ion Cancer Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnstone, Carol J.; Taylor, J.; Edgecock, R.

    2016-03-10

    Cancer is the second-largest cause of death in the U.S. and approximately two-thirds of all cancer patients will receive radiation therapy with the majority of the radiation treatments performed using x-rays produced by electron linacs. Charged particle beam radiation therapy, both protons and light ions, however, offers advantageous physical-dose distributions over conventional photon radiotherapy, and, for particles heavier than protons, a significant biological advantage. Despite recognition of potential advantages, there is almost no research activity in this field in the U.S. due to the lack of clinical accelerator facilities offering light ion therapy in the States. In January, 2013, amore » joint DOE/NCI workshop was convened to address the challenges of light ion therapy [1], inviting more than 60 experts from diverse fields related to radiation therapy. This paper reports on the conclusions of the workshop, then translates the clinical requirements into accelerat or and beam-delivery technical specifications. A comparison of available or feasible accelerator technologies is compared, including a new concept for a compact, CW, and variable energy light ion accelerator currently under development. This new light ion accelerator is based on advances in nonscaling Fixed-Field Alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator design. The new design concepts combine isochronous orbits with long (up to 4m) straight sections in a compact racetrack format allowing inner circulating orbits to be energy selected for low-loss, CW extraction, effectively eliminating the high-loss energy degrader in conventional CW cyclotron designs.« less

  19. Laser-driven electron acceleration in a plasma channel with an additional electric field

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Li-Hong; Xue, Ju-Kui, E-mail: xuejk@nwnu.edu.cn; Liu, Jie, E-mail: liu-jie@iapcm.ac.cn

    2016-05-15

    We examine the electron acceleration in a two-dimensional plasma channel under the action of a laser field and an additional static electric field. We propose to design an appropriate additional electric field (its direction and location), in order to launch the electron onto an energetic trajectory. We find that the electron acceleration strongly depends on the coupled effects of the laser polarization, the direction, and location of the additional electric field. The additional electric field affects the electron dynamics by changing the dephasing rate. Particularly, a suitably designed additional electric field leads to a considerable energy gain from the lasermore » pulse after the interaction with the additional electric field. The electron energy gain from the laser with the additional electric field can be much higher than that without the additional electric field. This engineering provides a possible means for producing high energetic electrons.« less

  20. ION-STABILIZED ELECTRON INDUCTION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Finkelstein, D.

    1960-03-22

    A method and apparatus for establishing an ion-stabilized self-focusing relativistic electron beam from a plasma are reported. A plasma is introduced into a specially designed cavity by plasma guns, and a magnetic field satisfying betatron conditions is produced in the cavity by currents flowing in the highly conductive, non-magnetic surface of the cavity. This field forms the electron beam by induction from the plasma.

  1. Electron Beam Focusing in the Linear Accelerator (linac)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui, Luis

    2015-10-01

    To produce consistent data with an electron accelerator, it is critical to have a well-focused beam. To keep the beam focused, quadrupoles (quads) are employed. Quads are magnets, which focus the beam in one direction (x or y) and defocus in the other. When two or more quads are used in series, a net focusing effect is achieved in both vertical and horizontal directions. At start up there is a 5% calibration error in the linac at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. This means that the momentum of particles passing through the quads isn't always what is expected, which affects the focusing of the beam. The objective is to find exactly how sensitive the focusing in the linac is to this 5% error. A linac was simulated, which contained 290 RF Cavities with random electric fields (to simulate the 5% calibration error), and a total momentum kick of 1090 MeV. National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, Jefferson Lab, Old Dominion University.

  2. Numerical modeling of multi-GeV laser wakefield electron acceleration inside a dielectric capillary tube

    SciTech Connect

    Paradkar, B. S.; Cros, B.; Maynard, G.

    2013-08-15

    Numerical modeling of laser wakefield electron acceleration inside a gas filled dielectric capillary tube is presented. Guiding of a short pulse laser inside a dielectric capillary tube over a long distance (∼1 m) and acceleration of an externally injected electron bunch to ultra-relativistic energies (∼5-10 GeV) are demonstrated in the quasi-linear regime of laser wakefield acceleration. Two dimensional axisymmetric simulations were performed with the code WAKE-EP (Extended Performances), which allows computationally efficient simulations of such long scale plasma. The code is an upgrade of the quasi-static particle code, WAKE [P. Mora and T. M. Antonsen, Jr., Phys. Plasmas 4, 217more » (1997)], to simulate the acceleration of an externally injected electron bunch (including beam loading effect) and propagation of the laser beam inside a dielectric capillary. The influence of the transverse electric field of the plasma wake on the radial loss of the accelerated electrons to the dielectric wall is investigated. The stable acceleration of electrons to multi-GeV energy with a non-resonant laser pulse with a large spot-size is demonstrated.« less

  3. A laser-driven electron accelerator for radiobiology experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labate, L.

    2015-03-01

    A novel concept laser-driven electron accelerator is described, whose operation regime and setup was optimized for radiobiology experiments. A brief account is given first of the motivations of our work, aimed at allowing irradiation campaigns of in vitro biological samples; the ultimate goal is to check the biological effectiveness of laser-driven electron beams against conventionally accelerated ones. A description of the electron source is then given; finally, the main results of the activity aimed at characterizing the source from a dosimetric point of view are presented.

  4. Free-electron lasers driven by laser plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tilborg, J.; Barber, S. K.; Isono, F.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2017-03-01

    Laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) have the potential to drive compact free-electron lasers (FELs). Even with LPA energy spreads typically at the percent level, the e-beam brightness can be excellent, due to the low normalized emittance (<0.5 µm) and high peak current (multi-kA) resulting from the ultra-short e-beam duration (few fs). It is critical, however, that in order to mitigate the effect of percent-level energy spread, one has to actively manipulate the phase-space distribution of the e-beam. We provide an overview of the methods proposed by the various LPA FEL research groups. At the BELLA Center at LBNL, we are pursuing the use of a chicane for longitudinal e-beam decompression (therefore greatly reducing the slice energy spread), in combination with short-scale-length e-beam transportation with an active plasma lens and a strong-focusing 4-m-long undulator. We present ELEGANT & GENESIS simulations on the transport and FEL gain, showing strong enhancement in output power over the incoherent background, and present estimates of the 3D gain length for deviations from the expected e-beam properties (varying e-beam lengths and emittances). To highlight the role of collective effects, we also present ELEGANT & GENESIS simulation results.

  5. Enhanced Laser-Driven Ion Acceleration by Superponderomotive Electrons Generated from Near-Critical-Density Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin, J. H.; Yeung, M.; Gong, Z.; Wang, H. Y.; Kreuzer, C.; Zhou, M. L.; Streeter, M. J. V.; Foster, P. S.; Cousens, S.; Dromey, B.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Zepf, M.; Schreiber, J.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the experimental studies of laser driven ion acceleration from a double-layer target where a near-critical density target with a few-micron thickness is coated in front of a nanometer-thin diamondlike carbon foil. A significant enhancement of proton maximum energies from 12 to ˜30 MeV is observed when a relativistic laser pulse impinges on the double-layer target under linear polarization. We attributed the enhanced acceleration to superponderomotive electrons that were simultaneously measured in the experiments with energies far beyond the free-electron ponderomotive limit. Our interpretation is supported by two-dimensional simulation results.

  6. The use of linear superconducting electron accelerator for subcritical reactor driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guk, I. S.; Dovbnya, A. N.; Kononenko, S. G.; Peev, F. A.; Tarasenko, A. S.; van der Wiel, M.; Botman, J. I. M.

    2008-12-01

    At the National Science Centre, Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology (NSC KIPT) the possibility of creating an installation with a subcritical reactor driven by an electron accelerator is examined. To obtain the maximal stream of neutrons from a neutron-producing target at a minimal density of energy emission, the electron energy should be in the range of 100-200 MeV and the size of the target should be as large as possible. Other important requirements are beam continuity with time and long-term stability of the accelerator parameters. The variants of using the superconducting linear accelerator on the basis of a TESLA accelerating structure as of subcritical reactor driver are considered. The basic design parameters and characteristics of this installation are presented.

  7. Unlimited electron acceleration in laser-driven plasma waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J. M.

    1983-08-01

    The acceleration to which particles can be subjected in current linear accelerators is limited. The possibility is, therefore, investigated to use laser-plasma interactions to accelerate particles to high energies more rapidly. Tajima and Dawson (1979) have proposed the employment of a beat-wave accelerator to excite electrostatic plasma waves which can accelerate particles. The method makes it possible to generate extremely large electric fields (order 10 to the 9th V/cm). Dawson et al. (1983) have shown that classical particles trapped by a perpendicularly propagating electrostatic wave are accelerated until they detrap near the E x B velocity. The present investigation is concerned with the relativistic effects introduced when the E x B velocity is greater than the speed of light (i.e., E greater than B) and when the wave's phase velocity is not small compared to c.

  8. Electron Acceleration by Dipolarization Fronts and Magnetic Reconnection: A Quantitative Comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Fu, H. S.; Liu, C. M.; Wang, T. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Suprathermal electrons with energy from tens to hundreds of keV are frequently observed in the Earth's magnetotail. The generation of such electrons is typically attributed to magnetic reconnection, dipolarization fronts (DFs), or flux transport. However, which of these contributes more to this generation remains unclear. In this study, we quantitatively compare the electron acceleration by these processes, using the Cluster data. We analyze an event detected in the midtail and find that the suprathermal electrons there are first accelerated by magnetic reconnection and transported earthward, and then further accelerated locally at the DF. The acceleration process by reconnection and transport, resulting in an isotropic pitch angle distribution, contributes ∼70% to the total flux enhancement, while the acceleration process by the DF, resulting in a pancake distribution, contributes ∼30% to the flux enhancement. The electron acceleration at the DF is primarily attributed to a local betatron process that is successfully reproduced using an analytic model. In order to better understand this phenomenon, we examine an additional 16 similar events and find that the DFs and magnetic reconnection statistically contribute 11% ∼ 38% and 62% ∼ 89% to the total flux enhancement, respectively. This study greatly improves our understanding of the electron energization process in the magnetotail.

  9. Electron Acceleration in a Dynamically Evolved Current Sheet Under Solar Coronal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Du, A. M.; Feng, Xueshang; Cao, Xin; Lu, Quanming; Yang, Liping; Chen, Gengxiong; Zhang, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Electron acceleration in a drastically evolved current sheet under solar coronal conditions is investigated via the combined 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and test-particle approaches. Having a high magnetic Reynolds number (105), the long, thin current sheet is torn into a chain of magnetic islands, which grow in size and coalesce with each other. The acceleration of electrons is explored in three typical evolution phases: when several large magnetic islands are formed (phase 1), two of these islands are approaching each other (phase 2), and almost merging into a "monster" magnetic island (phase 3). The results show that for all three phases electrons with an initial Maxwell distribution evolve into a heavy-tailed distribution and more than 20 % of the electrons can be accelerated higher than 200 keV within 0.1 second and some of them can even be energized up to MeV ranges. The lower-energy electrons are located away from the magnetic separatrices and the higher-energy electrons are inside the magnetic islands. The most energetic electrons have a tendency to be around the outer regions of the magnetic islands or to appear in the small secondary magnetic islands. It is the trapping effect of the magnetic islands and the distributions of E p that determine the acceleration and spatial distributions of the energetic electrons.

  10. The Strongest 40 keV Electron Acceleration By ICME-driven Shocks At 1 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Wang, L.; Li, G.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; He, J.; Tu, C. Y.; Bale, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Here we present a comprehensive case study of the in situ electron acceleration at the two ICME-driven shocks observed by WIND/3DP on February 11, 2000 and July 22, 2004. For the 11 February 2000 shock (the 22 July 2004 shock), the shocked electrons in the downstream show significant flux enhancements over the ambient solar wind electrons at energies up to 40 keV (66 keV) with a 6.0 times (1.9 times) ehancment at 40 keV, the strongest among all the quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) ICME-driven shocks observed by the WIND spacecraft at 1 AU from 1995 through 2014. We find that in both shocks, the shocked electron fluxes at 0.5-40 keV fit well to a double power-law spectrum, J ˜ E-β, bending up at ˜2 keV. In the downstream, these shocked electrons show stronger fluxes in the anti-sunward direction, but their enhancement over the ambient fluxes peaks near 90° pitch angle (PA). For the 11 February 2000 shock, the electron spectral index, β, appears to not vary with the electron PA, while for the 22 July 2004 shock, β roughly decreases from the anti-sunward PA direction to the sunward PA direction. All of these spectral indexes are strongly larger than the theoretical prediction of diffusive shock acceleration. At energies above (below) 2 keV, however, the shocked electron β is similar to the solar wind superhalo (halo) electrons observed at quiet times. These results suggest that the electron acceleration at the ICME-driven shocks at 1 AU may favor the shock drift acceleration, and the superthermal electrons accelerated by the interplanetary shocks may contribute to the formation of the halo and superhalo electron populations in the solar wind.

  11. Development of a project and theoretical substantiations of a two-beam electron-ion accelerator based on Doppler effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, B. I.; Butenko, V. I.; Egorov, A. M.; Kodyakov, V. M.; Kholodnyi, N. I.; Ognivenko, V. V.; Onishchenko, I. N.; Prishchepov, V. P.; Sessler, A. M.

    1995-06-01

    Two-beam electron accelerators suggested and designed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (1,2) are mainly intended for research in high energy physics. This paper studies the ``two-beam concept'' in order to make high current ion accelerators. As is known, one basic setback hinders the current enhancement in existing linear accelerators. Indeed, if special measures are not taken the accelerating RF field is defocusing in the radial direction. In a two-beam ion accelerator it is possible for the driver electron beam to excite RF fields in an ion linear accelerator that are accelerating and focusing at the same time. A considerable gain may be obtained in the current of accelerated ions and in the acceleration rate.

  12. Charging and the cross-field discharge during electron accelerator operation on a rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, Paul J.; Monson, Steven J.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented from experiments to study the neutralization processes around an electron beam emitting rocket. The rocket, SCEX II, was flown on January 31, 1987 from Alaska, with a payload consisting of two independent electron accelerators and two arms with conducting elements to act as Langmuir probes and to measure floating potentials. It was expected that electrons in the strong electric fields around the charged rocket would gain sufficient energy to ionize neutrals, producing ions which would be hurled outward at energies up to the rocket potential. Three hemispherical retarding potential analyzers were ejected from the main payload to measure these ions. The measurements show that fields sufficient to accelerate electrons to ionizing energies were present around the rocket.

  13. On radiation protection at the LINAC-800 linear electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balalykin, N. I.; Minashkin, V. F.; Nozdrin, M. A.; Shirkov, G. D.; Schegolev, V. Yu.

    2012-07-01

    The Automatic System of Radiation Safety Control (ASRSC) of the LINAC-800 linear electron accelerator is designed to ensure radiation safety for accelerator personnel during regular operations and in emergency cases. The results of calculating the emission power used to develop the ARPS are given. Both hardware and software components of the radiation control system are described. This paper also presents a description of the interlock and signalization system.

  14. Effects of Spatial Gradients on Electron Runaway Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacNeice, Peter; Ljepojevic, N. N.

    1996-01-01

    The runaway process is known to accelerate electrons in many laboratory plasmas and has been suggested as an acceleration mechanism in some astrophysical plasmas, including solar flares. Current calculations of the electron velocity distributions resulting from the runaway process are greatly restricted because they impose spatial homogeneity on the distribution. We have computed runaway distributions which include consistent development of spatial gradients in the energetic tail. Our solution for the electron velocity distribution is presented as a function of distance along a finite length acceleration region, and is compared with the equivalent distribution for the infinitely long homogenous system (i.e., no spatial gradients), as considered in the existing literature. All these results are for the weak field regime. We also discuss the severe restrictiveness of this weak field assumption.

  15. Shielding assessment of a mobile electron accelerator for intraoperative radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Daves, J L; Mills, M D

    2001-01-01

    A new approach to intraoperative radiotherapy makes use of a mobile electron linear accelerator delivering therapeutic radiation doses in an operating room suite. This unconventional technology has raised questions concerning protection for personnel and the necessity of shielding the adjoining areas. In this study, the leakage and scatter radiation from the mobile electron accelerator is measured and characterized in a series of spherical projections. An analysis is performed to determine the need for shielding or, alternatively, patient-based load restrictions in the operating room. This investigation provides a resource to assess shielding and/or patient load restrictions for any facility performing intraoperative radiotherapy with a similar unit. The data presented indicates that the mobile electron accelerator may be operated in an area with little or no shielding under nominal patient load expectations.

  16. 77 FR 54777 - Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ...--Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency Executive Order 13625--Improving Access to Mental... Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency By the authority vested in me as President by the... helping to facilitate investments in energy efficiency at industrial facilities, it is hereby ordered as...

  17. Laser-driven electron beam acceleration and future application to compact light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafz, N.; Jeong, T. M.; Lee, S. K.; Pae, K. H.; Sung, J. H.; Choi, I. W.; Yu, T. J.; Jeong, Y. U.; Lee, J.

    2009-07-01

    Laser-driven plasma accelerators are gaining much attention by the advanced accelerator community due to the potential these accelerators hold in miniaturizing future high-energy and medium-energy machines. In the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA), the ponderomotive force of an ultrashort high intensity laser pulse excites a longitudinal plasma wave or bubble. Due to huge charge separation, electric fields created in the plasma bubble can be several orders of magnitude higher than those available in conventional microwave and RF-based accelerator facilities which are limited (up to ˜100 MV/m) by material breakdown. Therefore, if an electron bunch is injected into the bubble in phase with its field, it will gain relativistic energies within an extremely short distance. Here, in the LWFA we show the generation of high-quality and high-energy electron beams up to the GeV-class within a few millimeters of gas-jet plasmas irradiated by tens of terawatt ultrashort laser pulses. Thus we realize approximately four orders of magnitude acceleration gradients higher than available by conventional technology. As a practical application of the stable high-energy electron beam generation, we are planning on injecting the electron beams into a few-meters long conventional undulator in order to realize compact X-ray synchrotron (immediate) and FEL (future) light sources. Stable laser-driven electron beam and radiation devices will surely open a new era in science, medicine and technology and will benefit a larger number of users in those fields.

  18. The Effect of Large Scale Magnetic Turbulence on the Acceleration of Electrons by Perpendicular Collisionless Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, F.; Giacalone, J.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate electron acceleration at collisionless shocks propagating into an upstream plasma containing large-scale magnetic fluctuations in the direction normal to the mean field. We treat electrons as test particles, and integrate their trajectories numerically, in a time dependent electromagnetic field which is determined from a two-dimensional hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electron) simulation. We find the large-scale magnetic fluctuations effect the electrons in a number of ways leading to efficient and rapid energization at the shock front. Since the electrons move freely along the magnetic field lines, the large scale field line meandering allows the fast-moving electrons to cross the shock front multiple times, leading to efficient acceleration. Ripples in the shock front occurring at various scales will also contribute to the acceleration by mirroring electrons back and forth between them. The downstream spectrum is broadened, with a power-law like tail at high energies up to 200-300 times of the original energy. It is also shown that the spatial distribution of energetic electrons appears to be similar to in-situ observations (e.g. Bale 1999; Simnett 2005). The study may be important in understanding observations of energetic electrons in planetary bow shocks and interplanetary shocks, and explaining herringbone structures in type II solar radio bursts.

  19. Radiation belt electron acceleration during the 17 March 2015 geomagnetic storm: Observations and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.

    2016-06-10

    Various physical processes are known to cause acceleration, loss, and transport of energetic electrons in the Earth's radiation belts, but their quantitative roles in different time and space need further investigation. During the largest storm over the past decade (17 March 2015), relativistic electrons experienced fairly rapid acceleration up to ~7 MeV within 2 days after an initial substantial dropout, as observed by Van Allen Probes. In the present paper, we evaluate the relative roles of various physical processes during the recovery phase of this large storm using a 3-D diffusion simulation. By quantitatively comparing the observed and simulated electronmore » evolution, we found that chorus plays a critical role in accelerating electrons up to several MeV near the developing peak location and produces characteristic flat-top pitch angle distributions. By only including radial diffusion, the simulation underestimates the observed electron acceleration, while radial diffusion plays an important role in redistributing electrons and potentially accelerates them to even higher energies. Moreover, plasmaspheric hiss is found to provide efficient pitch angle scattering losses for hundreds of keV electrons, while its scattering effect on > 1 MeV electrons is relatively slow. Although an additional loss process is required to fully explain the overestimated electron fluxes at multi-MeV, the combined physical processes of radial diffusion and pitch angle and energy diffusion by chorus and hiss reproduce the observed electron dynamics remarkably well, suggesting that quasi-linear diffusion theory is reasonable to evaluate radiation belt electron dynamics during this big storm.« less

  20. Relativistic electron acceleration by whistler-mode chorus emissions associated with substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omura, Yoshiharu

    Whistler-mode chorus emissions are generated at the geomagnetic equator by injection of energetic electrons into the inner magnetosphere during geomagnetically disturbed periods of substorms[1]. We perform test particle simulations assuming whistler-mode chorus wave packets that are generated at the geomagnetic equator propagate away from the equator in both poleward directions. While electrons in the energy range 10 - 100 keV are primarily responsible for the generation of chorus waves through pitch angle diffusion into the loss cone, it has been found that a fraction of the higher-energy electrons from a few hundred keV to a few MeV are effectively accelerated by chorus due to special nonlinear trapping processes called relativistic turning acceleration (RTA)[2] and ultra-relativistic acceleration (URA)[3]. In the present study we confirm that the RTA and URA processes take place for a wave packet with variable frequency such as that occurring in a rising tone of chorus emissions. We study the efficiency of the RTA and URA processes for different particle energies. A Green's function method is used to describe the evolution of the particle energy distribution function. The RTA and URA processes due to chorus emissions create a high-energy tail in the electron energy distribution function[4]. The shape of the high-energy tail is determined by the distribution function of the seed electrons in the lower-energy range. The RTA and URA can accelerate electrons in a much shorter timescale than that estimated by quasi-linear diffusion theory, e.g., it typically takes tens of minutes to hours for a few keV seed electrons to be accelerated to energies of a few MeV by RTA and URA. References 1. Y. Omura, Y. Katoh, and D. Summers, Theory and simulation of the generation of whistlermode chorus, J. Geophys. Res., in press. 2. Y. Omura, N. Furuya, D. Summers, J Geophys. Res., Vol. 112, A06236, doi:10.1029/2006JA012243, 2007. 3. D. Summers and Y. Omura, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34

  1. [Dosimetric characteristics of the bremsstrahlung beam from the LUE-15M medical linear electron accelerator].

    PubMed

    Vatnitskiĭ, S M; Ermakov, I A; Puzanov, V P; Sinitsyn, R V; Cherviakov, A M

    1983-10-01

    The paper presents methods and results of a study of radiation-physical characteristics of inhibitory radiation beam with the Grenz energy of 15MeV generated by an electron linear accelerator LUE-15M. Special emphasis is laid on primary dosimetric information used for the planning of radiotherapy: depth doses, beam profiles, dose functions of a collimated beam. It has been shown that in general the accelerator meets the requirements of the International Electrotechnical Commission. General error in the focal absorbed dose at the expense of variable parameters of the accelerator was evaluated. It does not exceed +/- 3.5%.

  2. 2D electron density profile measurement in tokamak by laser-accelerated ion-beam probe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y H; Yang, X Y; Lin, C; Wang, L; Xu, M; Wang, X G; Xiao, C J

    2014-11-01

    A new concept of Heavy Ion Beam Probe (HIBP) diagnostic has been proposed, of which the key is to replace the electrostatic accelerator of traditional HIBP by a laser-driven ion accelerator. Due to the large energy spread of ions, the laser-accelerated HIBP can measure the two-dimensional (2D) electron density profile of tokamak plasma. In a preliminary simulation, a 2D density profile was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of about 2 cm, and with the error below 15% in the core region. Diagnostics of 2D density fluctuation is also discussed.

  3. ELECTRON CLOUD EFFECTS IN HIGH INTENSITY PROTON ACCELERATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    WEI,J.; MACEK,R.J.

    2002-04-14

    One of the primary concerns in the design and operation of high-intensity proton synchrotrons and accumulators is the electron cloud and associated beam loss and instabilities. Electron-cloud effects are observed at high-intensity proton machines like the Los Alamos National Laboratory's PSR and CERN's SPS, and investigated experimentally and theoretically. In the design of next-generation high-intensity proton accelerators like the Spallation Neutron Source ring, emphasis is made in minimizing electron production and in enhancing Landau damping. This paper reviews the present understanding of the electron-cloud effects and presents mitigation measures.

  4. Anderson acceleration and application to the three-temperature energy equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hengbin; Jia, Xiaowei; Walker, Homer F.

    2017-10-01

    The Anderson acceleration method is an algorithm for accelerating the convergence of fixed-point iterations, including the Picard method. Anderson acceleration was first proposed in 1965 and, for some years, has been used successfully to accelerate the convergence of self-consistent field iterations in electronic-structure computations. Recently, the method has attracted growing attention in other application areas and among numerical analysts. Compared with a Newton-like method, an advantage of Anderson acceleration is that there is no need to form the Jacobian matrix. Thus the method is easy to implement. In this paper, an Anderson-accelerated Picard method is employed to solve the three-temperature energy equations, which are a type of strong nonlinear radiation-diffusion equations. Two strategies are used to improve the robustness of the Anderson acceleration method. One strategy is to adjust the iterates when necessary to satisfy the physical constraint. Another strategy is to monitor and, if necessary, reduce the matrix condition number of the least-squares problem in the Anderson-acceleration implementation so that numerical stability can be guaranteed. Numerical results show that the Anderson-accelerated Picard method can solve the three-temperature energy equations efficiently. Compared with the Picard method without acceleration, Anderson acceleration can reduce the number of iterations by at least half. A comparison between a Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, the Picard method, and the Anderson-accelerated Picard method is conducted in this paper.

  5. Improved electron collimation system design for Elekta linear accelerators.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Garrett M; Hogstrom, Kenneth R; Carver, Robert L

    2017-09-01

    Prototype 10 × 10 and 20 × 20-cm 2 electron collimators were designed for the Elekta Infinity accelerator (MLCi2 treatment head), with the goal of reducing the trimmer weight of excessively heavy current applicators while maintaining acceptable beam flatness (±3% major axes, ±4% diagonals) and IEC leakage dose. Prototype applicators were designed initially using tungsten trimmers of constant thickness (1% electron transmission) and cross-sections with inner and outer edges positioned at 95% and 2% off-axis ratios (OARs), respectively, cast by the upstream collimating component. Despite redefining applicator size at isocenter (not 5 cm upstream) and reducing the energy range from 4-22 to 6-20 MeV, the designed 10 × 10 and 20 × 20-cm 2 applicator trimmers weighed 6.87 and 10.49 kg, respectively, exceeding that of the current applicators (5.52 and 8.36 kg, respectively). Subsequently, five design modifications using analytical and/or Monte Carlo (MC) calculations were applied, reducing trimmer weight while maintaining acceptable in-field flatness and mean leakage dose. Design Modification 1 beveled the outer trimmer edges, taking advantage of only low-energy beams scattering primary electrons sufficiently to reach the outer trimmer edge. Design Modification 2 optimized the upper and middle trimmer distances from isocenter for minimal trimmer weights. Design Modification 3 moved inner trimmer edges inward, reducing trimmer weight. Design Modification 4 determined optimal X-ray jaw positions for each energy. Design Modification 5 adjusted middle and lower trimmer shapes and reduced upper trimmer thickness by 50%. Design Modifications 1→5 reduced trimmer weights from 6.87→5.86→5.52→5.87→5.43→3.73 kg for the 10 × 10-cm 2 applicator and 10.49→9.04→8.62→7.73→7.35→5.09 kg for the 20 × 20-cm 2 applicator. MC simulations confirmed these final designs produced acceptable in-field flatness and met IEC-specified leakage dose at 7, 13, and 20 Me

  6. ILU industrial electron accelerators for medical-product sterilization and food treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezuglov, V. V.; Bryazgin, A. A.; Vlasov, A. Yu.; Voronin, L. A.; Panfilov, A. D.; Radchenko, V. M.; Tkachenko, V. O.; Shtarklev, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Pulse linear electron accelerators of the ILU type have been developed and produced by the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, for more than 30 years. Their distinctive features are simplicity of design, convenience in operation, and reliability during long work under conditions of industrial production. ILU accelerators have a range of energy of 0.7-10 MeV at a power of accelerated beam of up to 100 kW and they are optimally suitable for use as universal sterilizing complexes. The scientific novelty of these accelerators consists of their capability to work both in the electron-treatment mode of production and in the bremsstrahlung generation mode, which has high penetrating power.

  7. Tailored electron bunches with smooth current profiles for enhanced transformer ratios in beam-driven acceleration

    DOE PAGES

    Lemery, F.; Piot, P.

    2015-08-03

    Collinear high-gradient O(GV/m) beam-driven wakefield methods for charged-particle acceleration could be critical to the realization of compact, cost-efficient, accelerators, e.g., in support of TeV-scale lepton colliders or multiple-user free-electron laser facilities. To make these options viable, the high accelerating fields need to be complemented with large transformer ratios >2, a parameter characterizing the efficiency of the energy transfer between a wakefield-exciting “drive” bunch to an accelerated “witness” bunch. While several potential current distributions have been discussed, their practical realization appears challenging due to their often discontinuous nature. In this paper we propose several alternative continuously differentiable (smooth) current profiles whichmore » support enhanced transformer ratios. We especially demonstrate that one of the devised shapes can be implemented in a photo-emission electron source by properly shaping the photocathode-laser pulse. We finally discuss a possible superconducting linear-accelerator concept that could produce shaped drive bunches at high-repetition rates to drive a dielectric-wakefield accelerator with accelerating fields on the order of ~60 MV/m and a transformer ratio ~5 consistent with a recently proposed multiuser free-electron laser facility.« less

  8. Optimum point of acceleration of an electron inside the collisional plasma-filled elliptical waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadad, M.; Torkiha-Esfhani, M.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the effect of the electron collision frequency with background ions on TMmr mode field components, the trajectory and the electron energy gain is studied. The field components of the TMmr mode in the elliptical waveguides are calculated. The ohmic heating for three different value of collision frequency calculated and the power losses is obtained. The deflection angle and acceleration gradient of an electron in the fields associated with a transverse magnetic (TM) wave propagating inside a elliptical waveguide for TMmr mode is studied. The relativistic momentum and energy equations for an electron are solved, which was injected initially along the propagation direction of the microwave. The results for TMmr mode are graphically represented. Finally, the optimum point of acceleration for the even mode TM 11 is obtained and it is shown that in a cross section of elliptical waveguide optimum point is center of ellipse.

  9. Low Energy Electron Molecule Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, Stephen

    2007-06-01

    Low energy electron molecule collisions are important in many technological, environmental and biological processes. Electrons are known to be the `drivers' of technological processes based around gas discharges, from lights and lamps to surface processing plasmas. In such environments electrons are responsible for much of the vibrational and electronic excitation that results in photon emissions, for the formation of long-lived metastable species, and for the production of highly reactive free radicals through processes such as dissociative attachment. Electron collisions also play an important role in our atmosphere and those of all planets and stars. In recent years low energy electrons have also been shown to play a vital role in cell and tissue damage caused by ionizing radiation. One of the key goals for collision physics, both experiment and theory, is to provide accurate, absolute cross sections for such low energy charged particle collisions - elastic scattering, vibrational excitation, near-threshold electronic excitation. This talk will focus on some recent advances in these areas. This work is done in collaboration with James Sullivan, Violaine Vizcaino, Stan Newman, Julian Lower, Subhendu Mondal, Chris Colyer, Michael Brunger, Todd Maddern and Leigh Hargreaves.

  10. Investigation of the operation of the powerful electron accelerator in the thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chilingarian, A.

    2011-12-01

    Strong electrical field inside thunderclouds give rise to fluxes of high-energy electrons and, consequently, gamma rays and neutrons. Gamma rays and electrons are currently detected by the facilities of low orbiting satellites (Terrestrial gamma flashes - TGFs) and by networks of surface particle detectors, measuring in addition also neutron flux. During intensive particle fluxes, coinciding with thunderstorms, hundreds of Thunderstorm ground enhancements (TGEs) comprising of millions of additional particles were detected at Aragats Space Environmental Center (ASEC) on altitude of 3200 m. Observed large TGE events allows for the first time measure the energy spectra of electrons and gamma rays prolonging up to 100 MeV (including avalanche acceleration of electrons up to 40-50 MeV and acceleration of the cosmic ray electrons in the electrostatic fields up to 100 MeV) and estimate electron avalanche multiplication rate, thus unambiguously proving electron acceleration in thunderclouds. The gamma ray power spectra without any sign of the exponential cutoff challenge existing models of relativistic runaway electron avalanches. We introduce and discuss new model of TGF-TGE initiation based on simultaneous measurements of particle fluxes, electrical fields and lightning occurrences.

  11. Ultrashort laser pulse driven inverse free electron laser accelerator experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Moody, J. T.; Anderson, S. G.; Anderson, G.; ...

    2016-02-29

    In this paper we discuss the ultrashort pulse high gradient Inverse Free Electron laser accelerator experiment carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory which demonstrated gra- dients exceeding 200 MV/m using a 4 TW 100 fs long 800 nm Ti:Sa laser pulse. Due to the short laser and electron pulse lengths, synchronization was determined to be one of the main challenges in this experiment. This made necessary the implementation of a single-shot, non destructive, electro-optic sampling based diagnostics to enable time-stamping of each laser accelerator shot with < 100 fs accuracy. The results of this experiment are expected tomore » pave the way towards the development of future GeV-class IFEL accelerators.« less

  12. Method for generating a plasma wave to accelerate electrons

    DOEpatents

    Umstadter, D.; Esarey, E.; Kim, J.K.

    1997-06-10

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for generating large amplitude nonlinear plasma waves, driven by an optimized train of independently adjustable, intense laser pulses. In the method, optimal pulse widths, interpulse spacing, and intensity profiles of each pulse are determined for each pulse in a series of pulses. A resonant region of the plasma wave phase space is found where the plasma wave is driven most efficiently by the laser pulses. The accelerator system of the invention comprises several parts: the laser system, with its pulse-shaping subsystem; the electron gun system, also called beam source, which preferably comprises photo cathode electron source and RF-LINAC accelerator; electron photo-cathode triggering system; the electron diagnostics; and the feedback system between the electron diagnostics and the laser system. The system also includes plasma source including vacuum chamber, magnetic lens, and magnetic field means. The laser system produces a train of pulses that has been optimized to maximize the axial electric field amplitude of the plasma wave, and thus the electron acceleration, using the method of the invention. 21 figs.

  13. Method for generating a plasma wave to accelerate electrons

    DOEpatents

    Umstadter, Donald; Esarey, Eric; Kim, Joon K.

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for generating large amplitude nonlinear plasma waves, driven by an optimized train of independently adjustable, intense laser pulses. In the method, optimal pulse widths, interpulse spacing, and intensity profiles of each pulse are determined for each pulse in a series of pulses. A resonant region of the plasma wave phase space is found where the plasma wave is driven most efficiently by the laser pulses. The accelerator system of the invention comprises several parts: the laser system, with its pulse-shaping subsystem; the electron gun system, also called beam source, which preferably comprises photo cathode electron source and RF-LINAC accelerator; electron photo-cathode triggering system; the electron diagnostics; and the feedback system between the electron diagnostics and the laser system. The system also includes plasma source including vacuum chamber, magnetic lens, and magnetic field means. The laser system produces a train of pulses that has been optimized to maximize the axial electric field amplitude of the plasma wave, and thus the electron acceleration, using the method of the invention.

  14. Determination of the total bremsstrahlung photon flux from electron accelerators by simultaneous activation of two monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiep, Tran Duc; An, Truong Thi; Khai, Nguyen Tuan; Vinh, Nguyen The; Cuong, Phan Viet; Gangrski, Iu. P.; Belov, A. G.; Maslov, O. D.

    2012-12-01

    We have determined the total bremsstrahlung photon fluxes with end-point energies in the giant dipole resonance (GDR) region produced by electron accelerator Microtron MT—25 (the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reaction, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia) and that of 65 MeV bremsstrahlung produced by the linear electron accelerator (the Pohang Neutron Facility, Pohang, South Korea). The method that we used was the photon activation technique. To ensure the accuracy of the results, we carried out simultaneous photon activation of two monitors made of Cu and Au foils in the same irradiation conditions. The results are discussed in the paper.

  15. The use of electron beam accelerator for the treatment of drinking water and wastewater in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampa, M. H. O.; Borrely, S. I.; Silva, B. L.; Vieira, J. M.; Rela, P. R.; Calvo, W. A. P.; Nieto, R. C.; Duarte, C. L.; Perez, H. E. B.; Somessari, E. S.; Lugão, A. B.

    1995-09-01

    Brazil started a research program using high-energy electrons from accelerators for treating drinking water and wastewater in 1991. The objective is to study the potential use of this technique for disinfection of domestic wastewater, chemical degradation of dyes, phenols, oils and greases in industrial wastewater and reduction of trihalomethanes (THM's) concentration in drinking water. An Electron Beam Accelerator, 1.5MeV-25mA from Radiation Dynamics Inc., was used for all experiments. A pilot plant designed to treat up to 3m3/h was built.

  16. [Motion control system in BJ14 medical electron accelerator].

    PubMed

    Xu, Q; Dai, Z; Zhao, Z; Xue, Z

    1997-09-01

    A dual computer based control mode was used in 14 Mev medical electron accelerator. The special non-linear velocity transformation method makes the positioning operation very fast and convenient. The independent driving mode of four blades are suitable to clinical uses. A multi-interlock function provides a safe environment for user's operation.

  17. The 20 kilovolt rocket borne electron accelerator. [equipment specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, R.

    1973-01-01

    The accelerator system is a preprogrammed multi-voltage system capable of operating at a current level of 1/2 ampere at the 20 kilovolt level. The five major functional areas which comprise this system are: (1) Silver zinc battery packs; (2) the electron gun assembly; (3) gun control and opening circuits; (4) the telemetry conditioning section; and (5) the power conversion section.

  18. Acceleration of electrons during the flash phase of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kane, S. R.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the electron acceleration process operating during the flash phase of solar flares are deduced from the high time resolution observations of impulsive solar X rays greater than or equal to 10 keV and other flash phase emissions from small solar flares, and the implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources

    DOEpatents

    Dagenhart, William K.; Stirling, William L.

    1982-01-01

    An electron energy recovery system for negative ion sources is provided. The system, employs crossed electric and magnetic fields to separate the electrons from ions as they are extracted from a negative ion source plasma generator and before the ions are accelerated to their full kinetic energy. With the electric and magnetic fields oriented 90.degree. to each other, the electrons are separated from the plasma and remain at approximately the electrical potential of the generator in which they were generated. The electrons migrate from the ion beam path in a precessing motion out of the ion accelerating field region into an electron recovery region provided by a specially designed electron collector electrode. The electron collector electrode is uniformly spaced from a surface of the ion generator which is transverse to the direction of migration of the electrons and the two surfaces are contoured in a matching relationship which departs from a planar configuration to provide an electric field component in the recovery region which is parallel to the magnetic field thereby forcing the electrons to be directed into and collected by the electron collector electrode. The collector electrode is maintained at a potential slightly positive with respect to the ion generator so that the electrons are collected at a small fraction of the full accelerating supply voltage energy.

  20. Direct acceleration of electrons by a circular polarized laser pulse with phase modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Lun-Wu; Department of Science, Zhejiang University of Science and Technology, Hangzhou 310023; Sheng, Zheng-Mao

    2013-11-15

    Electron acceleration by transversely echelon phase-modulated (EPM) circularly polarized (CP) intense laser pulse is investigated. Solution of the relativistic electron equations of motion shows that the CP EPM light wave structure can disrupt the harmonic response of a trapped electron not only in the transverse direction but also in the direction of laser propagation. In each laser cycle, there can be a net gain in the electron's transverse momentum, which is promptly converted into the forward direction by the Lorentz force. As a result, the electron can be trapped and accelerated in the favorable phase of the laser for amore » rather long time. Its momentum gain then accumulates and can eventually reach high levels. It is also found that with the CP EPM laser, the net acceleration of the electron is not sensitive to its initial position and velocity relative to the phase of the laser fields, so that such a laser can also be useful for accelerating thermal electron bunches to high energies.« less

  1. A concept of multi-isotope production based on electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovbnya, A. N.; Nikiforov, V. I.; Uvarov, V. L.

    2012-07-01

    This article discusses the efficiency of isotope production at an electron accelerator. The efficiency criterion that is used is the coefficient of utilization bremsstrahlung photons with energy above the reaction threshold during the activation of the target. It has been demonstrated that the efficiency can be significantly increased when an accelerator output device consists of a set of consecutively located isotope targets with a specially selected composition. The first target is bremsstrahlung converter. An example is presented describing a device for the simultaneous production of 192Ir, 67Cu, 57Co, and 11C. A computer simulation based on PENELOPE-2008 software has been applied for an analysis of thermophysical and radiation conditions for each target in the electron energy range of 30-45 MeV. The data on the isotope yield are obtained for the use of the proposed device at the KUT-30 accelerator, Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology.

  2. [Activation of solid materials in a medical linear electron accelerator].

    PubMed

    Ewen, K; Lauber-Altmann, I

    1987-06-01

    Using the medical linear electron accelerator SL 75/20 supplied by Philips and employing a radiation time of 15 minutes with the 16 MeV high-energy photon stage, we measured the radioactivities induced by photons and neutrons, at the output elements (target, compensator body, wedge filter, diaphragms), at the positioning table of the patient and at a barium oxide concrete wall, via Ge(Li) spectrometry. The resulting local dose rates were determined. The radioactivity that is mainly caused by the nuclides W 187, Sb 120, Cu 64, Cu 62, Ni 57, Mn 56, Al 28, Mg 27 and Al 26 m results (with the exception of the target) in a local gamma-Dose rate of the order of 10 mu Sv/h, respectively. beta radiation, however, is expected to markedly increase these values. The total dose rate of 15 mSv/h in the target region, which retains this indeed rather high level even 7 minutes after radiation has been discontinued, makes it imperative to control the local dose rate and if necessary--depending on the irradiation conditions--to introduce waiting times of several hours if manipulations in this area have to be performed.

  3. STUDIES OF A FREE ELECTRON LASER DRIVEN BY A LASER-PLASMA ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, A.; Schroeder, C.; Fawley, W.

    2008-01-01

    A free electron laser (FEL) uses an undulator, a set of alternating magnets producing a periodic magnetic fi eld, to stimulate emission of coherent radiation from a relativistic electron beam. The Lasers, Optical Accelerator Systems Integrated Studies (LOASIS) group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) will use an innovative laserplasma wakefi eld accelerator to produce an electron beam to drive a proposed FEL. In order to optimize the FEL performance, the dependence on electron beam and undulator parameters must be understood. Numerical modeling of the FEL using the simulation code GINGER predicts the experimental results for given input parameters. Amongmore » the parameters studied were electron beam energy spread, emittance, and mismatch with the undulator focusing. Vacuum-chamber wakefi elds were also simulated to study their effect on FEL performance. Energy spread was found to be the most infl uential factor, with output FEL radiation power sharply decreasing for relative energy spreads greater than 0.33%. Vacuum chamber wakefi elds and beam mismatch had little effect on the simulated LOASIS FEL at the currents considered. This study concludes that continued improvement of the laser-plasma wakefi eld accelerator electron beam will allow the LOASIS FEL to operate in an optimal regime, producing high-quality XUV and x-ray pulses.« less

  4. Enhancing laser-driven proton acceleration by using micro-pillar arrays at high drive energy.

    PubMed

    Khaghani, Dimitri; Lobet, Mathieu; Borm, Björn; Burr, Loïc; Gärtner, Felix; Gremillet, Laurent; Movsesyan, Liana; Rosmej, Olga; Toimil-Molares, Maria Eugenia; Wagner, Florian; Neumayer, Paul

    2017-09-12

    The interaction of micro- and nano-structured target surfaces with high-power laser pulses is being widely investigated for its unprecedented absorption efficiency. We have developed vertically aligned metallic micro-pillar arrays for laser-driven proton acceleration experiments. We demonstrate that such targets help strengthen interaction mechanisms when irradiated with high-energy-class laser pulses of intensities ~10 17-18 W/cm 2 . In comparison with standard planar targets, we witness strongly enhanced hot-electron production and proton acceleration both in terms of maximum energies and particle numbers. Supporting our experimental results, two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show an increase in laser energy conversion into hot electrons, leading to stronger acceleration fields. This opens a window of opportunity for further improvements of laser-driven ion acceleration systems.

  5. Acceleration of electrons and ions by strong lower-hybrid turbulence in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spicer, D. S.; Bingham, R.; Su, J. J.; Shapiro, V. D.; Shevchenko, V.; Ma, S.; Dawson, J. M.; Mcclements, K. G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in solar flare theory is how to explain the 10-20 keV and greater hard x-ray emissions by a thick target bremsstrahlung model. The model requires the acceleration mechanism to accelerate approximately 10(exp 35) electrons sec(exp -l) with comparable energies, without producing a large return current which persists for long time scales after the beam ceases to exist due to Lenz's law, thereby, producing a self-magnetic field of order a few mega-Gauss. In this paper, we investigate particle acceleration resulting from the relaxation of unstable ion ring distributions, producing strong wave activity at the lower hybrid frequency. It is shown that strong lower hybrid wave turbulence collapses in configuration space producing density cavities containing intense electrostatic lower hybrid wave activity. The collapse of these intense nonlinear wave packets saturate by particle acceleration producing energetic electron and ion tails. There are several mechanisms whereby unstable ion distributions could be formed in the solar atmosphere, including reflection at perpendicular shocks, tearing modes, and loss cone depletion. Numerical simulations of ion ring relaxation processes, obtained using a 2 1/2-D fully electromagnetic, relativistic particle in cell code are discussed. We apply the results to the problem of explaining energetic particle production in solar flares. The results show the simultaneous acceleration of both electrons and ions to very high energies: electrons are accelerated to energies in the range 10-500 keV, while ions are accelerated to energies of the order of MeVs, giving rise to x-ray emission and gamma-ray emission respectively. Our simulations also show wave generation at the electron cyclotron frequency. We suggest that these waves are the solar millisecond radio spikes. The strong turbulence collapse process leads to a highly filamented plasma producing many localized regions for particle acceleration and resulting in

  6. Finite element analyses of a linear-accelerator electron gun.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M; Wasy, A; Islam, G U; Zhou, Z

    2014-02-01

    Thermo-structural analyses of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII) linear-accelerator, electron gun, were performed for the gun operating with the cathode at 1000 °C. The gun was modeled in computer aided three-dimensional interactive application for finite element analyses through ANSYS workbench. This was followed by simulations using the SLAC electron beam trajectory program EGUN for beam optics analyses. The simulations were compared with experimental results of the assembly to verify its beam parameters under the same boundary conditions. Simulation and test results were found to be in good agreement and hence confirmed the design parameters under the defined operating temperature. The gun is operating continuously since commissioning without any thermal induced failures for the BEPCII linear accelerator.

  7. Finite element analyses of a linear-accelerator electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, M., E-mail: muniqbal.chep@pu.edu.pk, E-mail: muniqbal@ihep.ac.cn; Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049; Wasy, A.

    2014-02-15

    Thermo-structural analyses of the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider (BEPCII) linear-accelerator, electron gun, were performed for the gun operating with the cathode at 1000 °C. The gun was modeled in computer aided three-dimensional interactive application for finite element analyses through ANSYS workbench. This was followed by simulations using the SLAC electron beam trajectory program EGUN for beam optics analyses. The simulations were compared with experimental results of the assembly to verify its beam parameters under the same boundary conditions. Simulation and test results were found to be in good agreement and hence confirmed the design parameters under the defined operating temperature. The gunmore » is operating continuously since commissioning without any thermal induced failures for the BEPCII linear accelerator.« less

  8. Acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons during small geomagnetic storms

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, B. R.; Millan, R. M.; Reeves, G. D.; ...

    2015-12-02

    We report that past studies of radiation belt relativistic electrons have favored active storm time periods, while the effects of small geomagnetic storms (Dst >₋50 nT) have not been statistically characterized. In this timely study, given the current weak solar cycle, we identify 342 small storms from 1989 through 2000 and quantify the corresponding change in relativistic electron flux at geosynchronous orbit. Surprisingly, small storms can be equally as effective as large storms at enhancing and depleting fluxes. Slight differences exist, as small storms are 10% less likely to result in flux enhancement and 10% more likely to result inmore » flux depletion than large storms. Nevertheless, it is clear that neither acceleration nor loss mechanisms scale with storm drivers as would be expected. Small geomagnetic storms play a significant role in radiation belt relativistic electron dynamics and provide opportunities to gain new insights into the complex balance of acceleration and loss processes.« less

  9. Free-electron lasers driven by linear induction accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzechowski, T. J.

    1992-03-01

    Over the past fifteen years free-electron lasers have demonstrated their ability to operate over a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum using a variety of electron accelerators. This paper reviews the performance of two FEL amplifiers which were driven by Linear Induction Accelerators (LIAs). The characteristics of the LIA are compatible with high peak power, single-pass FEL amplifiers. The first experiment which is discussed here operated in the microwave regime and demonstrated high gain and high extraction efficiency using a tapered wiggler field. In this experiment, we studied many of the basic properties of FELs such as harmonic generation, phase shift and spatial mode excitation. The second experiment operated in the infrared regime and demonstrated gain guiding of the optical signal and verified a novel method of electron beam transport through the wiggler.

  10. A new electron accelerator facility for commercial and educational uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, R. M.; Vargas-Aburto, C.

    2001-07-01

    A 5 MeV 150 kW electron accelerator facility (NEO Beam Alliance Inc.) has recently initiated operations in Ohio. NEO Beam is the result of a "partnership" between Kent State University (KSU) and a local plastics company (Mercury Plastics, Inc.). The accelerator will be used for electron beam processing, and for educational activities. KSU has created a university-wide Program on Electron Beam Technology (EBT) to address both instructional (including workforce training and development) and research opportunities. In this work, a description is made of the facility and its genesis. Present curricular initiatives are described. Preliminary dosimetry measurements performed with radiochromic (RC) dye films, calorimeters, and alanine pellets are presented and discussed.

  11. Electron acceleration in the turbulent reconnecting current sheets in solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G. P.; Huang, G. L.

    2009-07-01

    Context: We investigate the nonlinear evolution of the electron distribution in the presence of the strong inductive electric field in the reconnecting current sheets (RCS) of solar flares. Aims: We aim to study the characteristics of nonthermal electron-beam plasma instability and its influence on electron acceleration in RCS. Methods: Including the external inductive field, the one-dimensional Vlasov simulation is performed with a realistic mass ratio for the first time. Results: Our principal findings are as follows: 1) the Buneman instability can be quickly excited on the timescale of 10-7 s for the typical parameters of solar flares. After saturation, the beam-plasma instabilities are excited due to the non-Maxwellian electron distribution; 2) the final velocity of the electrons trapped by these waves is of the same order as the phase speed of the waves, while the untrapped electrons continue to be accelerated; 3) the inferred anomalous resistance of the current sheet and the energy conversion rate are basically of the same order as those previously estimated, e.g., “the analysis of Martens”. Conclusions: The Buneman instability is excited on the timescale of 10-7 s and the wave-particle resonant interaction limits the low-energy electrons to be further accelerated in RCS.

  12. Ultra High Energy Electrons Powered by Pulsar Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Osmanov, Zaza; Chkheidze, Nino

    2013-02-01

    A new mechanism of particle acceleration, driven by the rotational slow down of the Crab pulsar, is explored. The rotation, through the time dependent centrifugal force, can efficiently excite unstable Langmuir waves in the electron-positron (hereafter e+/-) plasma of the star magnetosphere. These waves, then, Landau damp on electrons accelerating them in the process. The net transfer of energy is optimal when the wave growth and the Landau damping times are comparable and are both very short compared to the star rotation time. We show, by detailed calculations, that these are precisely the conditions for the parameters of the Crab pulsar. This highly efficient route for energy transfer allows the electrons in the primary beam to be catapulted to multiple TeV (~ 100 TeV) and even PeV energy domain. It is expected that the proposed mechanism may, unravel the puzzle of the origin of ultra high energy cosmic ray electrons.

  13. Ultra High Energy Electrons Powered by Pulsar Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Swadesh; Machabeli, George; Osmanov, Zaza; Chkheidze, Nino

    2013-01-01

    A new mechanism of particle acceleration, driven by the rotational slow down of the Crab pulsar, is explored. The rotation, through the time dependent centrifugal force, can efficiently excite unstable Langmuir waves in the electron-positron (hereafter e±) plasma of the star magnetosphere. These waves, then, Landau damp on electrons accelerating them in the process. The net transfer of energy is optimal when the wave growth and the Landau damping times are comparable and are both very short compared to the star rotation time. We show, by detailed calculations, that these are precisely the conditions for the parameters of the Crab pulsar. This highly efficient route for energy transfer allows the electrons in the primary beam to be catapulted to multiple TeV (~ 100 TeV) and even PeV energy domain. It is expected that the proposed mechanism may, unravel the puzzle of the origin of ultra high energy cosmic ray electrons. PMID:23405276

  14. Leakage neutron radiation in a medical electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, Lydia; Balcazar, Miguel; Genis, Roberto; Ortiz, Raúl

    2001-10-01

    A simple method was used for the calculation of neutron yield produced by main components of medical electron accelerator head, using a simplified geometric model with spherical-shell for the head shielding made of different materials. The leakage neutron radiation on the patient plane and outside the patient plane at one meter from the x-ray target for a Varian accelerator model Clinac 2100C was evaluated experimentally, using Panasonic UD-802 and UD-809 thermoluminescent dosimeters and CR-39 nuclear track dosimeters. The measured values of leakage neutron radiation were lower than the limits specified in the NCRP-102 and IEC 60601-2-1-Ed.2.0 reports.

  15. Properties of the electron cloud in a high-energy positron and electron storage ring

    DOE PAGES

    Harkay, K. C.; Rosenberg, R. A.

    2003-03-20

    Low-energy, background electrons are ubiquitous in high-energy particle accelerators. Under certain conditions, interactions between this electron cloud and the high-energy beam can give rise to numerous effects that can seriously degrade the accelerator performance. These effects range from vacuum degradation to collective beam instabilities and emittance blowup. Although electron-cloud effects were first observed two decades ago in a few proton storage rings, they have in recent years been widely observed and intensely studied in positron and proton rings. Electron-cloud diagnostics developed at the Advanced Photon Source enabled for the first time detailed, direct characterization of the electron-cloud properties in amore » positron and electron storage ring. From in situ measurements of the electron flux and energy distribution at the vacuum chamber wall, electron-cloud production mechanisms and details of the beam-cloud interaction can be inferred. A significant longitudinal variation of the electron cloud is also observed, due primarily to geometrical details of the vacuum chamber. Furthermore, such experimental data can be used to provide realistic limits on key input parameters in modeling efforts, leading ultimately to greater confidence in predicting electron-cloud effects in future accelerators.« less

  16. Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons in Solid Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, Drew Pitney

    2013-01-01

    The cone-guided fast ignition approach to Inertial Con nement Fusion requires laser-accelerated relativistic electrons to deposit kilojoules of energy within an imploded fuel core to initiate fusion burn. One obstacle to coupling electron energy into the core is the ablation of material, known as preplasma, by laser energy proceeding nanoseconds prior to the main pulse. This causes the laser-absorption surface to be pushed back hundreds of microns from the initial target surface; thus increasing the distance that electrons must travel to reach the imploded core. Previous experiments have shown an order of magnitude decrease in coupling into surrogate targets whenmore » intentionally increasing the amount of preplasma. Additionally, for electrons to deposit energy within the core, they should have kinetic energies on the order of a few MeV, as less energetic electrons will be stopped prior to the core and more energetic electrons will pass through the core without depositing much energy. Thus a quantitative understanding of the electron energy spectrum and how it responds to varied laser parameters is paramount for fast ignition. For the rst time, this dissertation quantitatively investigates the acceleration of electrons using an ultra-high-contrast laser. Ultra-high-contrast lasers reduce the laser energy that reaches the target prior to the main pulse; drastically reducing the amount of preplasma. Experiments were performed in a cone-wire geometry relevant to fast ignition. These experiments irradiated the inner-tip of a Au cone with the laser and observed electrons that passed through a Cu wire attached to the outer-tip of the cone. The total emission of K x-rays is used as a diagnostic to infer the electron energy coupled into the wire. Imaging the x-ray emission allowed an e ective path-length of electrons within the wire to be determined, which constrained the electron energy spectrum. Experiments were carried out on the ultra-high-contrast Trident laser at

  17. Construction of a 1 MeV Electron Accelerator for High Precision Beta Decay Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longfellow, Brenden

    2014-09-01

    Beta decay energy calibration for detectors is typically established using conversion sources. However, the calibration points from conversion sources are not evenly distributed over the beta energy spectrum and the foil backing of the conversion sources produces perturbations in the calibration spectrum. To improve this, an external, tunable electron beam coupled by a magnetic field can be used to calibrate the detector. The 1 MeV electron accelerator in development at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) utilizes a pelletron charging system. The electron gun shoots 104 electrons per second with an energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV and is pulsed at a 10 kHz rate with a few ns width. The magnetic field in the spectrometer is 1 T and guiding fields of 0.01 to 0.05 T for the electron gun are used to produce a range of pitch angles. This accelerator can be used to calibrate detectors evenly over its energy range and determine the detector response over a range of pitch angles. Beta decay energy calibration for detectors is typically established using conversion sources. However, the calibration points from conversion sources are not evenly distributed over the beta energy spectrum and the foil backing of the conversion sources produces perturbations in the calibration spectrum. To improve this, an external, tunable electron beam coupled by a magnetic field can be used to calibrate the detector. The 1 MeV electron accelerator in development at Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) utilizes a pelletron charging system. The electron gun shoots 104 electrons per second with an energy range of 50 keV to 1 MeV and is pulsed at a 10 kHz rate with a few ns width. The magnetic field in the spectrometer is 1 T and guiding fields of 0.01 to 0.05 T for the electron gun are used to produce a range of pitch angles. This accelerator can be used to calibrate detectors evenly over its energy range and determine the detector response over a range of pitch angles

  18. Non-thermal electron acceleration in low Mach number collisionless shocks. II. Firehose-mediated Fermi acceleration and its dependence on pre-shock conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2014-12-10

    Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies is known to occur in low Mach number (M{sub s} ≲ 5) shocks in galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulations, we showed in Paper I that electrons are efficiently accelerated in low Mach number (M{sub s} = 3) quasi-perpendicular shocks via a Fermi-like process. The electrons bounce between the upstream region and the shock front, with each reflection at the shock resulting in energy gain via shock drift acceleration. The upstream scattering is provided by oblique magnetic waves that are self-generatedmore » by the electrons escaping ahead of the shock. In the present work, we employ additional 2D PIC simulations to address the nature of the upstream oblique waves. We find that the waves are generated by the shock-reflected electrons via the firehose instability, which is driven by an anisotropy in the electron velocity distribution. We systematically explore how the efficiency of wave generation and of electron acceleration depend on the magnetic field obliquity, the flow magnetization (or equivalently, the plasma beta), and the upstream electron temperature. We find that the mechanism works for shocks with high plasma beta (≳ 20) at nearly all magnetic field obliquities, and for electron temperatures in the range relevant for galaxy clusters. Our findings offer a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.« less

  19. Non-thermal particle acceleration in collisionless relativistic electron-proton reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Begelman, M. C.; Cerutti, B.; Nalewajko, K.

    2018-02-01

    Magnetic reconnection in relativistic collisionless plasmas can accelerate particles and power high-energy emission in various astrophysical systems. Whereas most previous studies focused on relativistic reconnection in pair plasmas, less attention has been paid to electron-ion plasma reconnection, expected in black hole accretion flows and relativistic jets. We report a comprehensive particle-in-cell numerical investigation of reconnection in an electron-ion plasma, spanning a wide range of ambient ion magnetizations σi, from the semirelativistic regime (ultrarelativistic electrons but non-relativistic ions, 10-3 ≪ σi ≪ 1) to the fully relativistic regime (both species are ultrarelativistic, σi ≫ 1). We investigate how the reconnection rate, electron and ion plasma flows, electric and magnetic field structures, electron/ion energy partitioning, and non-thermal particle acceleration depend on σi. Our key findings are: (1) the reconnection rate is about 0.1 of the Alfvénic rate across all regimes; (2) electrons can form concentrated moderately relativistic outflows even in the semirelativistic, small-σi regime; (3) while the released magnetic energy is partitioned equally between electrons and ions in the ultrarelativistic limit, the electron energy fraction declines gradually with decreased σi and asymptotes to about 0.25 in the semirelativistic regime; and (4) reconnection leads to efficient non-thermal electron acceleration with a σi-dependent power-law index, p(σ _i)˜eq const+0.7σ _i^{-1/2}. These findings are important for understanding black hole systems and lend support to semirelativistic reconnection models for powering non-thermal emission in blazar jets, offering a natural explanation for the spectral indices observed in these systems.

  20. Accelerating Quinoline Biodegradation and Oxidation with Endogenous Electron Donors.

    PubMed

    Bai, Qi; Yang, Lihui; Li, Rongjie; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Yongming; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2015-10-06

    Quinoline, a recalcitrant heterocyclic compound, is biodegraded by a series of reactions that begin with mono-oxygenations, which require an intracellular electron donor. Photolysis of quinoline can generate readily biodegradable products, such as oxalate, whose bio-oxidation can generate endogenous electron donors that ought to accelerate quinoline biodegradation and, ultimately, mineralization. To test this hypothesis, we compared three protocols for the biodegradation of quinoline: direct biodegradation (B), biodegradation after photolysis of 1 h (P1h+B) or 2 h (P2h+B), and biodegradation by adding oxalate commensurate to the amount generated from photolysis of 1 h (O1+B) or 2 h (O2+B). The experimental results show that P1h+B and P2h+B accelerated quinoline biodegradation by 19% and 50%, respectively, compared to B. Protocols O1+B and O2+B also gave 19% and 50% increases, respectively. During quinoline biodegradation, its first intermediate, 2-hydroxyquinoline, accumulated gradually in parallel to quinoline loss but declined once quinoline was depleted. Mono-oxygenation of 2-hydroxyquinoline competed with mono-oxygenation of quinoline, but the inhibition was relieved when extra electrons donors were added from oxalate, whether formed by UV photolysis or added exogenously. Rapid oxalate oxidation stimulated both mono-oxygenations, which accelerated the overall quinoline oxidation that provided the bulk of the electron donor.

  1. Energetic electron acceleration and injection during dipolarization events in Mercury's magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, R. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; Baker, D. N.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    MESSENGER frequently observed bursts of energetic electrons (>10 keV to 300 keV) within Mercury's miniature terrestrial-like magnetosphere. These bursts are observed most often in the post-midnight sector near the magnetic equator, suggestive of the acceleration and injection of electrons from the magnetotail and their eastward drift about the planet. We use the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer's high-time resolution (10 ms) energetic electron measurements to examine the relationship between energetic electron injections and magnetospheric dynamics in Mercury's magnetotail. We find that these electron injections were observed most frequently in association with magnetic field dipolarization. Between March 2013 and April 2015, we identified 2976 magnetotail electron events of which 538 were coincident with the leading edge of a dipolarization event. These dipolarization fronts were detected on the basis of their rapid ( 2 s) increase in the northward component of the tail magnetic field (ΔBz 30 nT), which typically persists for 10 s. We find electrons experience brief, yet intense, betatron and Fermi acceleration during these dipolarization events, reaching energies 160 keV and contributing to nightside precipitation. Dipolarization events, and subsequently, the electron acceleration associated with them, display a strong dawn-dusk asymmetry, suggestive of a post-midnight maximum in magnetotail reconnection.

  2. Electron Acceleration by Beating of Two Intense Cross-Focused Hollow Gaussian Laser Beams in Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Saleh T.; Gauniyal, Rakhi; Ahmad, Nafis; Rawat, Priyanka; Purohit, Gunjan

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents propagation of two cross-focused intense hollow Gaussian laser beams (HGBs) in collisionless plasma and its effect on the generation of electron plasma wave (EPW) and electron acceleration process, when relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities are simultaneously operative. Nonlinear differential equations have been set up for beamwidth of laser beams, power of generated EPW, and energy gain by electrons using WKB and paraxial approximations. Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the effect of typical laser-plasma parameters on the focusing of laser beams in plasmas and further its effect on power of excited EPW and acceleration of electrons. It is observed that focusing of two laser beams in plasma increases for higher order of hollow Gaussian beams, which significantly enhanced the power of generated EPW and energy gain. The amplitude of EPW and energy gain by electrons is found to enhance with an increase in the intensity of laser beams and plasma density. This study will be useful to plasma beat wave accelerator and in other applications requiring multiple laser beams. Supported by United Arab Emirates University for Financial under Grant No. UPAR (2014)-31S164

  3. Electron beam accelerator: A new tool for environmental preservation in Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Siti Aiasah; Bakar, Khomsaton Abu; Othman, Mohd Nahar

    2012-09-26

    Electron beam accelerators are widely used for industrial applications such as surface curing, crosslinking of wires and cables and sterilization/ decontamination of pharmaceutical products. The energy of the electron beam determines the type of applications. This is due to the penetration power of the electron that is limited by the energy. In the last decade, more work has been carried out to utilize the energetic electron for remediation of environmental pollution. For this purposes, 1 MeV electron beam accelerator is sufficient to treat wastewater from textile industry and flue gases from fossil fuel combustions. In Nuclear Malaysia, a variable energymore » Cockroft Walton type accelerator has been utilized to initiate investigations in these two areas. An electron beam flue gas treatment test rig was built to treat emission from diesel combustion, where it was found that using EB parameters of 1MeV and 12mA can successfully remove at least 80% of nitric oxide in the emission. Wastewater from textile industries was treated using combination of biological treatment and EB. The initial findings indicated that the quality of water had improved based on the COD{sub Cr}, BOD{sub 5} indicators.« less

  4. Ion and relativistic electron acceleration by Alfven and whistler turbulence in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James A.; Ramaty, Reuven

    1987-01-01

    A model is proposed in which turbulent Alfven and whistler waves simultaneously produce the proton and electron spectra implied by the gamma-ray observations noted during the impulsive phase of the June 3, 1982 flare. The results demonstrate that protons can be accelerated to several GeV in less than about 10 sec by Alfven turbulence whose energy density is greater than a few erg/cu cm. It is also found that electrons may be accelerated to tens of MeV on similar time scales by whistler and Alfven turbulence. A lower limit on the energy density of the Alfven turbulence is obtained which is small compared to the total magnetic energy density.

  5. Low-energy electron potentiometry.

    PubMed

    Jobst, Johannes; Kautz, Jaap; Mytiliniou, Maria; Tromp, Rudolf M; van der Molen, Sense Jan

    2017-10-01

    In a lot of systems, charge transport is governed by local features rather than being a global property as suggested by extracting a single resistance value. Consequently, techniques that resolve local structure in the electronic potential are crucial for a detailed understanding of electronic transport in realistic devices. Recently, we have introduced a new potentiometry method based on low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) that utilizes characteristic features in the reflectivity spectra of layered materials [1]. Performing potentiometry experiments in LEEM has the advantage of being fast, offering a large field of view and the option to zoom in and out easily, and of being non-invasive compared to scanning-probe methods. However, not all materials show clear features in their reflectivity spectra. Here we, therefore, focus on a different version of low-energy electron potentiometry (LEEP) that uses the mirror mode transition, i.e. the drop in electron reflectivity around zero electron landing energy when they start to interact with the sample rather than being reflected in front of it. This transition is universal and sensitive to the local electrostatic surface potential (either workfunction or applied potential). It can consequently be used to perform LEEP experiments on a broader range of material compared to the method described in Ref[1]. We provide a detailed description of the experimental setup and demonstrate LEEP on workfunction-related intrinsic potential variations on the Si(111) surface and for a metal-semiconductor-metal junction with external bias applied. In the latter, we visualize the Schottky effect at the metal-semiconductor interface. Finally, we compare how robust the two LEEP techniques discussed above are against image distortions due to sample inhomogeneities or contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A New Low Energy Accelerator Facility at TUNL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerfeldt, Chris R.

    A new accelerator facility is being constructed which will house two small accelerators. These accelerators include a 200 keV microwave ion source for proton beams of several milliamperes, and a model JN van de Graaff for proton beams up to 1 MeV at intensities of up to 100 microamperes. This facility will study low energy cross sections relevant to Nuclear Astrophysics.

  7. A comparative study of plasma channels for a 100 GeV electron accelerator using a multi-petawatt laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradkar, B. S.; Andreev, N. E.; Cros, B.; Baranov, V. E.; Mora, P.; Maynard, G.

    2014-08-01

    Acceleration of electrons to the 100 GeV range in laser wakefield accelerators using multi-petawatt lasers is numerically modelled. It is demonstrated that an externally injected electron bunch with an initial energy of 50 MeV can achieve an energy gain of 100 GeV in the weakly non-linear regime of laser wakefield acceleration. The guiding of the laser is achieved by a plasma channel having a parabolic radial density profile. A comparative study of plasma channels (matched and unmatched) is performed to investigate the sensitivity of electron acceleration to the matching condition in this regime. It is found that unmatched channels restrict energy gain to ˜60 GeV and lead to radial loss of injected charge due to the oscillation of the spot size of the laser inside the channels.

  8. Accidental beta radiation burns from an electron accelerator.

    PubMed

    Burguieres, T H; Stair, T; Rolnick, M A; Mossman, K L

    1980-07-01

    A 61-year-old man presented to the emergency department after accidental exposure to beta radiation and low dose x radiation from an industrial linear electron accelerator. Over 40 days he developed burns on the extremities, abdomen, and face which eventually healed with topical silver sulfadiazine treatment, but suffered no acute x or gamma radiation symptoms. Beta burns and other radiation effects are discussed.

  9. Electron acceleration by parametrically excited Langmuir waves. [in ionospheric modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejer, J. A.; Graham, K. N.

    1974-01-01

    Simple physical arguments are used to estimate the downward-going energetic electron flux due to parametrically excited Langmuir waves in ionospheric modification experiments. The acceleration mechanism is a single velocity reversal as seen in the frame of the Langmuir wave. The flux is sufficient to produce the observed ionospheric airglow if focusing-type instabilities are invoked to produce moderate local enhancements of the pump field.

  10. Separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.

    2015-09-01

    A separated-orbit bisected energy-recovered linear accelerator apparatus and method. The accelerator includes a first linac, a second linac, and a plurality of arcs of differing path lengths, including a plurality of up arcs, a plurality of downgoing arcs, and a full energy arc providing a path independent of the up arcs and downgoing arcs. The up arcs have a path length that is substantially a multiple of the RF wavelength and the full energy arc includes a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer multiple of the RF wavelength. Operation of the accelerator includes accelerating the beam utilizing the linacs and up arcs until the beam is at full energy, at full energy executing a full recirculation to the second linac using a path length that is substantially an odd half-integer of the RF wavelength, and then decelerating the beam using the linacs and downgoing arcs.

  11. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Hyojae, E-mail: lkcom@ibs.re.kr; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-15

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, developmentmore » of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.« less

  12. Cosmic Rays and Runaway Electrons: Evidence for Acceleration of Electrons during Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidvansky, A. S.; Khaerdinov, N. S.; Petkov, V. B.

    2003-12-01

    We present the data on correlations of the intensity of the soft component (10 -30 MeV) of cosmic rays with the local electric field of the near-earth atmosphere during thunderstorm periods at the Baksan Valley (North Caucasus, 1700 m a. s. l.). The large-area array for studying the extensive air showers of cosmic rays is used as a particle detector. An electric field meter of the `electric mill' type is mounted on the roof of the building in the center of this array. The data were obtained in the summer seasons of 2000--2002. We have observed strong enhancements of the soft component intensity before some lightning strokes [1]. The largest enhancement detected in the first season demonstrated an exponential growth of intensity before lightning and was interpreted as a confirmation of runaway electron breakdown mechanism [2]. However, this event is apparently very rare (a single event for three seasons of observation). The enhancements of a different pattern (slow events several minutes long) turned out to be much more numerous. Recently, a special experiment was made to estimate the minimum distance to lightning events [3], and the distances were found to be fairly large (2-5 km). At the same time, the analysis of the regression curve `intensity versus field' [4] discovers a bump at the field sign that is opposite to the field sign corresponding to acceleration of electrons (see Fig. 1). It is interpreted as a precipitation of runaway electrons from the region of the strong field (with the opposite sign) overhead. If this interpretation is true, one can conclude from these data that (i) Wilson's runaway electrons do exist, (ii) their energy can be pretty high (more than ten MeV), and (iii) they are not necessarily directly related to lightning events. Fig. 1. Deviation of the soft component intensity from its mean value versus the near-earth electric field during thunderstorms. The left-hand side of the plot corresponds to acceleration of electrons near the ground

  13. Observation of 690 MV m -1 Electron Accelerating Gradient with a Laser-Driven Dielectric Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Wootton, K. P.; Wu, Z.; Cowan, B. M.

    2016-06-27

    Acceleration of electrons using laser-driven dielectric microstructures is a promising technology for the miniaturization of particle accelerators. In this work, experimental results are presented of relativistic electron acceleration with 690±100 MVm -1 gradient. This is a record-high accelerating gradient for a dielectric microstructure accelerator, nearly doubling the previous record gradient. To reach higher acceleration gradients the present experiment employs 90 fs duration laser pulses.

  14. 50 MeV Run of the IOTA / FAST Electron Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Edstrom Jr., D.; et al.

    2017-02-02

    The low-energy section of the photoinjector-based electron linear accelerator at the Fermilab Accelerator Science & Technology (FAST) facility was recently commissioned to an energy of 50 MeV. This linear accelerator relies primarily upon pulsed SRF acceleration and an optional bunch compressor to produce a stable beam within a large operational regime in terms of bunch charge, total average charge, bunch length, and beam energy. Various instrumentation was used to characterize fundamental properties of the electron beam including the intensity, stability, emittance, and bunch length. While much of this instrumentation was commissioned in a 20 MeV running period prior, some (includingmore » a new Martin- Puplett interferometer) was in development or pending installation at that time. All instrumentation has since been recommissioned over the wide operational range of beam energies up to 50 MeV, intensities up to 4 nC/pulse, and bunch structures from ~1 ps to more than 50 ps in length.« less

  15. Note: Numerical simulation and experimental validation of accelerating voltage formation for a pulsed electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorov, I.

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a computation model of a pulsed voltage generator for a repetitive electron accelerator. The model is based on a principle circuit of the generator, supplemented with the parasitics elements of the construction. Verification of the principle model was achieved by comparison of simulation with experimental results, where reasonable agreement was demonstrated for a wide range of generator load resistance.

  16. Note: Numerical simulation and experimental validation of accelerating voltage formation for a pulsed electron accelerator.

    PubMed

    Egorov, I

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the development of a computation model of a pulsed voltage generator for a repetitive electron accelerator. The model is based on a principle circuit of the generator, supplemented with the parasitics elements of the construction. Verification of the principle model was achieved by comparison of simulation with experimental results, where reasonable agreement was demonstrated for a wide range of generator load resistance.

  17. Variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.; Potter, J.M.; Stovall, J.E.

    A linear accelerator system includes a plurality of post-coupled drift-tubes wherein each post coupler is bistably positionable to either of two positions which result in different field distributions. With binary control over a plurality of post couplers, a significant accumlative effect in the resulting field distribution is achieved yielding a variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator.

  18. Variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.; Potter, James M.; Stovall, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A linear accelerator system includes a plurality of post-coupled drift-tubes wherein each post coupler is bistably positionable to either of two positions which result in different field distributions. With binary control over a plurality of post couplers, a significant accumlative effect in the resulting field distribution is achieved yielding a variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator.

  19. Pulsars as cosmic ray particle accelerators: Dynamics of electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thielheim, K. O.

    1985-01-01

    The Lorentz-Dirac-equation with Landau approximation has been solved numerically for electrons in the electromagnetic field of a magnetic dipole rotating with the angular velocity omega perpendicular to its magnetic moment mu. Results are discussed with respect to electron orbits and energy development.

  20. Thermo electronic laser energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, L. K.; Rasor, N. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermo electronic laser energy converter (TELEC) is described and compared to the Waymouth converter and the conventional thermionic converter. The electrical output characteristics and efficiency of TELEC operation are calculated for a variety of design variables. Calculations and results are briefly outlined. It is shown that the TELEC concept can potentially convert 25 to 50 percent of incident laser radiation into electric power at high power densities and high waste heat rejection temperatures.

  1. Recent refurbishment of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, Klaus H; Bigelow, Tim S; Ausmus, Clint

    2008-01-01

    For almost 40 years the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been operational and has provided high-resolution neutron cross-section data for many isotopes in the energy range from thermal up to 60 MeV. ORELA is a four-section radiofrequency electron linear accelerator with a water-cooled tantalum neutron production target. Short (2-30 ns) electron burst widths together with available long flight paths lead to excellent time-of-flight resolution. The electron beam energy can range up to 180 MeV and at 50 kW of beam power yields a neutron production rate 10{sup 14} n/s. We report onmore » recent refurbishment activities that included improvements to the accelerator vacuum and electron gun design and other upgrades. The current ORELA program is focused on high-resolution neutron cross-section measurements for the Nuclear Criticality Safety Program for nuclides for which deficiencies in existing data have been identified. Additionally neutron cross-section measurements for nuclear astrophysics are performed to support studies of heavy element synthesis in Asymptotic Giant Branch stars. Detection and data analysis capabilities have been developed for making highly accurate measurements of neutron capture, neutron total, and (n,{alpha}) cross sections simultaneously on different beam lines.« less

  2. Transition from coherent to incoherent acceleration of nonthermal relativistic electron induced by an intense light pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. L.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Moritaka, T.; Chen, S. H.

    2017-03-01

    Nonthermal acceleration of relativistic electrons due to the wakefield induced by an intense light pulse is investigated. The spectra of the cosmic rays are well represented by power-law. Wakefield acceleration has been considered as a candidate for the origins of cosmic rays. The wakefield can be excited by an intense laser pulse as large-amplitude precursor waves in collisionless shocks in the universe. National Central University (NCU) 100-TW laser facility in Taiwan is able to provide high-repetition rate and short intense laser. To experimentally study the wakefield acceleration for the spectrum of the cosmic rays, particle-in-cell simulations are performed to calculate the energy distribution functions of electrons in fixed laser conditions with various plasma densities. The transitions of wakefields from coherent to inherent are observed as the plasma density increases. The distribution functions indicate that the smooth nonthermal power-law spectra with an index of -2 appear when the incoherent wakefields are excited. In contrast, the mono-peak appear in the spectra when the coherent wakefields are excited. The incoherent wakefields yielding the power-law spectra imply the stochastic accelerating of electrons. To explain the universal nonthermal power-law spectra with an index of -2, we described and extended the stochastic acceleration model based on Fokker-Planck equation by assuming the transition rate as an exponential function.

  3. Study of Auroral Electron Acceleration in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, J. W. R.; Skiff, F.; Howes, G. G.; Kletzing, C. A.; Carter, T. A.; Dorfman, S.

    2013-10-01

    Particle interactions with Alfvén waves have been proposed as a possible means for accelerating electrons and generating aurorae. Auroral theory states that electron acceleration by inertial Alfvén waves varies with the perpendicular wavenumber and Alfvén wave amplitude. Traditional diagnostics are not sensitive to the predicted small fluctuations of populations in the tail of the distribution function. A novel approach accurately measures this region of the distribution function using the absorption of a small-amplitude high frequency whistler wave. Inertial Alfvén waves (vth /vA ~ 0 . 2) with δB / B ~10-5 are launched in an overdense plasma at the Large Plasma Device (LaPD) with B = 1800 G. Under these conditions, only the whistler mode propagates parallel to the background field at frequencies just below the electron cyclotron frequency. Initial results show the dielectric perturbation of the distribution function by an Alfvén wave. We present further analysis of measurements of the electron distribution function under plasma conditions relevant to the auroral magnetosphere using a range of Alfvén wave parameters and compare results to theoretical predictions. Supported by NSF grants ATM 03-17310 and PHY-10033446, DOE grant DE-FG02-06ER54890, NSF CAREER Award AGS-1054061, NASA grant NNX10AC91G, and the Basic Plasma Science Science Facility at UCLA.

  4. Study of photon emission by electron capture during solar nuclei acceleration. 2: Delimitation of conditions for charge transfert establishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    The conditions for establishment of charge transfer during acceleration of nuclei up to Fe, for typical conditions of solar flare regions T = 5 x 10 to the 3rd power to 2.5 x 10 to the 8th power degrees K were explored. Results show that such conditions are widely assorted, depending on the acceleration mechanism, the kind of projections and their velocity, the target elements, the source temperature and consequently on the degree of ionization of matter and the local charge state of the accelerated ions. Nevertheless, in spite of that assorted behavior, there are some general tendencies that can be summarized as follows. In atomic H electron capture is systematically established from thermal energies up to high energies, whatever the element and for both acceleration process. For a given element and fixed temperature (T), the probability and energy domain of electron capture and loss with Fermi are higher than with Betatron acceleration. For a given acceleration process the heavier the ion the higher the probability and the wider the energy range for electron capture and loss. For given acceleration mechanism and fixed element the importance and energy domain of capture and loss increase with T: for those reasons, the energy range of charge equilibrium (illustrated with solid lines on the next figs.) is wider with Fermi and increases with temperature and atomic number of projectiles. For the same reasons, electron loss is smaller while the lighter the element, the lower the temperature and the Betatron process, such that there are conditions for which electron loss is not allowed at low energies, but only electron capture is established.

  5. Holographic dark energy and late cosmic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón, Diego

    2007-06-01

    It has been persuasively argued that the number of effective degrees of freedom of a macroscopic system is proportional to its area rather than to its volume. This entails interesting consequences for cosmology. Here we present a model based on this 'holographic principle' that accounts for the present stage of accelerated expansion of the Universe and significantly alleviates the coincidence problem also for non-spatially flat cosmologies. Likewise, we comment on a recently proposed late transition to a fresh decelerated phase.

  6. The international atomic energy agency's programme on utilization of accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dytlewski, Nikolai; Mank, Günter; Rosengard, Ulf; Bamford, Samuel; Markowicz, Andrzej; Wegrzynek, Dariusz

    2006-06-01

    Low-energy accelerators have in the past produced a major part of our current knowledge of nuclear physics. Today they are mainly used for applied research and industrial applications. In view of this, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has during recent years initiated several Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs) concerning Ion Beam Analysis of Materials, Accelerator Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Microprobe Techniques. The CRPs involve laboratories from developing as well as developed Member States, networking on a common topic coordinated by the IAEA. In order to facilitate networking, the IAEA has recently published the "World Survey of Accelerator Based Analytical Techniques" available on the Internet and as a CD-ROM. The IAEA maintains also a beamline at a 6 MV Van de Graaff accelerator in the Ru đjer Bo\\vsković Institute, Zagreb, Croatia. Small and medium power accelerator driven spallation neutron sources will become more important as many small neutron producing research reactors are approaching the end of their useful working life. The IAEA has, within its Department for Nuclear Sciences and Applications, a programme on the Effective Utilization of Accelerators. This programme helps Member States, in particular developing Member States, in finding new areas of applications for their low and medium energy accelerators through increased participation in activities such as Coordinated Research Projects, Technical Meetings and Conferences. This paper describes the IAEA's current programme on accelerator utilization and proposed future activities.

  7. A high average power beam dump for an electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianghong; Bazarov, Ivan; Dunham, Bruce M.; Kostroun, Vaclav O.; Li, Yulin; Smolenski, Karl W.

    2013-05-01

    The electron beam dump for Cornell University's Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype injector was designed and manufactured to absorb 600 kW of electron beam power at beam energies between 5 and 15 MeV. It is constructed from an aluminum alloy using a cylindrical/conical geometry, with water cooling channels between an inner vacuum chamber and an outer jacket. The electron beam is defocused and its centroid is rastered around the axis of the dump to dilute the power density. A flexible joint connects the inner body and the outer jacket to minimize thermal stress. A quadrant detector at the entrance to the dump monitors the electron beam position and rastering. Electron scattering calculations, thermal and thermomechanical stress analysis, and radiation calculations are presented.

  8. Economics of food irradiation: Comparison between electron accelerators and cobalt-60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, R. M.

    The Codex Alimentarius Commission's proposed international standard permits three types of ionizing radiation to be used on foods: gamma rays from radioactive cobalt-60 or cesium-137, high energy electrons, and x-rays. The latter two types of radiation are produced by electron accelerators powered by electricity. Unlike gamma rays and x-rays which can penetrate pallet loads of foods, electrons of the allowed energy levels only penetrate 1 to 3 inches when irradiated from one side. Thus, electrons are limited to treating the surface of foods or foods in thin packages or a shallow stream of grains, powders, or liquids. Average costs per kilogram (kg) of irradiating selected foods are similar for the electron accelerator and cobalt-60 irradiators analyzed in this study, but initial investment costs generally vary by U.S. $1 million. Irradiation treatment costs range from 1 to 15 U.S. cents per kg for the foods and annual volumes examined with larger volumes having lower treatment costs. Cobalt-60 is less expensive than electrons when annual volumes are below 23 million kgs. For radiation source requirements above the equivalent of about 1 million curies of cobalt-60, electrons become more economical. The largest differences in costs occur with the papaya irradiators where using x-rays to penetrate the fruit is more expensive than using cobalt-60.

  9. A novel approach to electron data background treatment in an online wide-angle spectrometer for laser-accelerated ion and electron bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, F. H.; Bin, J. H.; Englbrecht, F.; Haffa, D.; Bolton, P. R.; Gao, Y.; Hartmann, J.; Hilz, P.; Kreuzer, C.; Ostermayr, T. M.; Rösch, T. F.; Speicher, M.; Parodi, K.; Thirolf, P. G.; Schreiber, J.

    2018-01-01

    Laser-based ion acceleration is driven by electrical fields emerging when target electrons absorb laser energy and consecutively leave the target material. A direct correlation between these electrons and the accelerated ions is thus to be expected and predicted by theoretical models. We report on a modified wide-angle spectrometer, allowing the simultaneous characterization of angularly resolved energy distributions of both ions and electrons. Equipped with online pixel detectors, the RadEye1 detectors, the investigation of this correlation gets attainable on a single shot basis. In addition to first insights, we present a novel approach for reliably extracting the primary electron energy distribution from the interfering secondary radiation background. This proves vitally important for quantitative extraction of average electron energies (temperatures) and emitted total charge.

  10. Photodetector performance enhancement using an electron accelerator controlled by light.

    PubMed

    Srithanachai, Itsara; Dilla Zainol, Farrah; Ueamanapong, Surada; Niemcharoen, Surasak; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha P

    2012-07-20

    A new method of photodetector performance enhancement using an embedded optical accelerator circuit within the photodetector is proposed. The principle of optical tweezer generation using a light pulse within a PANDA ring is also reviewed. By using a modified add-drop optical filter known as a PANDA microring resonator, which is embedded within the photodetector circuit, the device performance can be improved by using an electron injection technique, in which electrons can be trapped by optical tweezers generated by a PANDA ring resonator. Finally, electrons can move faster within the device via the optical waveguide without trapping center in the silicon bulk to the contact, in which the increase in photodetector current is seen. Simulation results obtained have shown that the device's light currents are increased by the order of four, and the switching time is increased by the order of five. This technique can be used for better photodetector performance and other semiconductor applications in the future.

  11. MHD Simulation of the Excitation of Compressional Mode ULF Waves and the Implied Magnetospheric Relativistic Electron Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, X.; Tan, L. C.; Fung, S. F.; Vassiliadis, D.; Sharma, A. S.

    2011-12-01

    Recent work of Tan et al. [2011] found evidence of relativistic electron acceleration by the compressional-mode ULF waves during a storm sudden commencement event on September 25, 2001 from the observations by four Cluster spacecraft measuring ULF waves and low-energy electron flux, and five LANL spacecraft measuring energetic electron fluxes over a wide energy range. We perform global MHD simulation through NASA/CCMC to investigate the excitation and distribution of compressional ULF waves during the event. Comparison with satellite and ground observations are given. In this event, the energetic electron flux measured by LANL shows modulation of low-energy electrons and acceleration of high-energy electrons by the compressional poloidal-mode electric field oscillations within 2-3 hours. Implication of simulated ULF wave distribution for relativistic electron acceleration will be discussed. Tan, L. C., X. Shao, A. S. Sharma, and S. F. Fung (2011), Relativistic electron acceleration by compressional-mode ULF waves: Evidence from correlated Cluster, Los Alamos National Laboratory spacecraft, and ground-based magnetometer measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 116, A07226, doi:10.1029/2010JA016226.

  12. Diverse Electron and Ion Acceleration Characteristics Observed Over Jupiter's Main Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B. H.; Haggerty, D. K.; Paranicas, C.; Clark, G.; Kollmann, P.; Rymer, A. M.; Peachey, J. M.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S. M.; Adriani, A.; Allegrini, F.; Bagenal, F.; Bonfond, B.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Ebert, R. W.; Gladstone, G. R.; Kurth, W. S.; McComas, D. J.; Ranquist, D.; Valek, P.

    2018-02-01

    Two new Juno-observed particle features of Jupiter's main aurora demonstrate substantial diversity of processes generating Jupiter's mysterious auroral emissions. It was previously speculated that sometimes-observed potential-driven aurora (up to 400 kV) can turn into broadband stochastic acceleration (dominating at Jupiter) by means of instability. Here direct evidence for such a process is revealed with a "mono-energetic" electron inverted-V rising in energy to 200 keV, transforming into a region of broadband acceleration with downward energy fluxes tripling to 3,000 mW/m2, and then transforming back into a mono-energetic structure ramping down from 200 keV. But a second feature of interest observed nearby is unlikely to have operated in the same way. Here a downward accelerated proton inverted-V, with inferred potentials to 300-400 kV, occurred simultaneously with downward accelerated broadband electrons with downward energy fluxes as high as any observed ( 3,000 mW/m2). This latter feature has no known precedent with Earth auroral observations.

  13. Recent developments in the application of electron accelerators for polymer processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Al-Sheikhly, M.; Berejka, A. J.; Cleland, M. R.; Antoniak, M.

    2014-01-01

    There are now over 1700 high current, electron beam (EB) accelerators being used world-wide in industrial applications, most of which involve polymer processing. In contrast to the use of heat, which transfers only about 5-10% of input energy into energy useful for materials modification, radiation processing is very energy efficient, with 60% or more of the input energy to an accelerator being available for affecting materials. Historic markets, such as the crosslinking of wire and cable jacketing, of heat shrinkable tubings and films, of partial crosslinking of tire components and of low-energy EB to cure or dry inks and coatings remain strong. Accelerator manufacturers have made equipment more affordable by down-sizing units while maintaining high beam currents. Very powerful accelerators with 700 kW output have made X-ray conversion a practical alternative to the historic use of radioisotopes, mainly cobalt-60, for applications as medical device sterilization. New EB end-uses are emerging, such as the development of nano-composites and nano-gels and the use of EB processing to facilitate biofuel production. These present opportunities for future research and development.

  14. Energy deposition in parallel-plate plasma accelerators. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicapua, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    To appraise the ratio of energy deposition into kinetic and thermal modes in plasma accelerators, a parallel-plate plasma accelerator has been operated in the quasi-steady mode with current pulses in the range of 10 to 100 kilo-amperes (kA), durations of the order of one millisecond, and argon mass flows up to 100 grams/sec. From photographic observations, spectroscopic measurements of velocity and electron density, and pressure measurements with a fast-rise piezoelectric transducer it is found that, for currents between 50 and 90 kA, the accelerated argon plasma is supersonic with ion velocities of 5 to 6 kilometers/sec.

  15. a New Mobile Electron Accelerator for Intra Operative Electron Radiation Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adrich, P.; Baczewski, A.; Baran, M.; Drabik, W.; Gryn, K.; Hanke, R.; Jakubowska, E.; Jankowski, E.; Kędzierski, G.; Kielar, N.; Kujawiński, Ł.; Kopeć, J.; Kosiński, K.; Kozioł, R.; Kraszewski, P.; Krawczyk, P.; Kulczycka, E.; Lalik, P.; Marczenko, M.; Masternak, A.; Misiarz, A.; Olszewski, J.; Ozon, K.; Pławski, E.; Polak, A.; Psonka, W.; Rutkowska, M.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Sienkiewicz, Z.; Staszczak, M.; Swat, K.; Syntfeld-Każuch, A.; Terka, M.; Wasilewski, A.; Wilczek, J.; Wojciechowski, M.; Wójtowicz, M.; Wronka, S.; Wysocka-Rabin, A.; Zalewski, K.

    2014-02-01

    A demonstrator of a new, highly mobile, robotized linear electron accelerator for Intra Operative Electron Radiation Therapy (IOERT) is under construction at National Centre for Nuclear Studies. In an IOERT treatment, a high dose of electron radiation is delivered in a single fraction directly to an exposed location after tumor ablation during oncological surgery. Due to the fact that the tumor can be located anywhere in the body, a high maneuverability of the accelerator and its adaptability to anatomical conditions are required. Moreover, since the treatment is usually executed in an unshielded operation room, the radiation protection issues are of principal importance. To assure safety of the patient and medical personnel, the therapeutic head is designed to constrain the radiation to the volume of the tumor lodge while minimizing leakage and stray radiation. For these reasons, construction of accelerators for IOERT differs considerably from the construction of linear electron accelerators for external beam radiation therapy. This paper presents some challenges and solutions in construction of the accelerator and in particular its therapeutic head with beam forming system.

  16. Cyclotron Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons through Landau Resonance with Obliquely Propagating Whistler Mode Chorus Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omura, Y.; Hsieh, Y. K.; Foster, J. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Kletzing, C.; Baker, D. N.

    2017-12-01

    A recent test particle simulation of obliquely propagating whistler mode wave-particle interaction [Hsieh and Omura, 2017] shows that the perpendicular wave electric field can play a significant role in trapping and accelerating relativistic electrons through Landau resonance. A further theoretical and numerical investigation verifies that there occurs nonlinear wave trapping of relativistic electrons by the nonlinear Lorentz force of the perpendicular wave magnetic field. An electron moving with a parallel velocity equal to the parallel phase velocity of an obliquely propagating wave basically see a stationary wave phase. Since the electron position is displaced from its gyrocenter by a distance ρ*sin(φ), where ρ is the gyroradius and φ is the gyrophase, the wave phase is modulated with the gyromotion, and the stationary wave fields as seen by the electron are expanded as series of Bessel functions Jn with phase variations n*φ. The J1 components of the wave electric and magnetic fields rotate in the right-hand direction with the gyrofrequency, and they can be in resonance with the electron undergoing the gyromotion, resulting in effective electron acceleration and pitch angle scattering. We have performed a subpacket analysis of chorus waveforms observed by the Van Allen Probes [Foster et al., 2017], and calculated the energy gain by the cyclotron acceleration through Landau resonance. We compare the efficiencies of accelerations by cyclotron and Landau resonances in typical events of rapid electron acceleration observed by the Van Allen Probes.References:[1] Hsieh, Y.-K., and Y. Omura (2017), Nonlinear dynamics of electrons interacting with oblique whistler mode chorus in the magnetosphere, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 122, 675-694, doi:10.1002/2016JA023255.[2] Foster, J. C., P. J. Erickson, Y. Omura, D. N. Baker, C. A. Kletzing, and S. G. Claudepierre (2017), Van Allen Probes observations of prompt MeV radiation belt electron acceleration in nonlinear

  17. THz cavities and injectors for compact electron acceleration using laser-driven THz sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhari, Moein; Fallahi, Arya; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2017-04-01

    We present a design methodology for developing ultrasmall electron injectors and accelerators based on cascaded cavities excited by short multicycle THz pulses obtained from laser-driven THz generation schemes. Based on the developed concept for optimal coupling of the THz pulse, a THz electron injector and two accelerating stages are designed. The designed electron gun consists of a four cell cavity operating at 300 GHz and a door-knob waveguide to coaxial coupler. Moreover, special designs are proposed to mitigate the problem of thermal heat flow and induced mechanical stress to achieve a stable device. We demonstrated a gun based on cascaded cavities that is powered by only 1.1 mJ of THz energy in 300 cycles to accelerate electron bunches up to 250 keV. An additional two linac sections can be added with five and four cell cavities both operating at 300 GHz boosting the bunch energy up to 1.2 MeV using a 4-mJ THz pulse.

  18. [Leakage radiations in a medical electron accelerator facility--X-rays and capture gamma-rays].

    PubMed

    Morikawa, K; Ishimatsu, K

    1990-03-01

    Absorbed dose rates of photons are measured in the maze of a medical electron accelerator facility. Radiations in the maze include high energy recoiled electrons other than low energy reflected X-rays. An ionization chamber for low energy X-rays is used for measurement, and is put in a build-up cap thick enough to obstruct the recoiled electrons of which contribution to the chamber output comes sometimes equal to that of X-rays. Dose rates of capture gamma-rays in the maze are estimated applying the calculation of neutron dose equivalent rates reported in the preceding paper. It is proved that capture gamma-rays are dominant in the dose rates measured in the maze at 14 MV X-ray generation. The estimated absorbed dose rates of total photons including capture gamma-rays and reflected X-rays agree with the measured ones in the range from +10% to -27%.

  19. Developing field emission electron sources based on ultrananocrystalline diamond for accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshev, Sergey V.; Jing, Chunguang; Qiu, Jiaqi

    2016-08-25

    Radiofrequency (RF) electron guns work by establishing an RF electromagnetic field inside a cavity having conducting walls. Electrons from a cathode are generated in the injector and immediately become accelerated by the RF electric field, and exit the gun as a series of electron bunches. Finding simple solutions for electron injection is a long standing problem. While energies of 30-50 MeV are achievable in linear accelerators (linacs), finding an electron source able to survive under MW electric loads and provide an average current of 1-10 mA is important. Meeting these requirements would open various linac applications for industry. The naturalmore » way to simplify and integrate RF injector architectures with the electron source would be to place the source directly into the RF cavity with no need for additional heaters/lasers. Euclid TechLabs in collaboration with Argonne National Lab are prototyping a family of highly effective field emission electron sources based on a nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond ((N)UNCD) platform. Determined metrics suggest that our emitters are emissive enough to meet requirements for magnetized cooling at electron-ion colliders, linac-based radioisotope production and X-ray sterilization, and others.« less

  20. Energetic Electron Acceleration and Injection During Dipolarization Events in Mercury's Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, Ryan M.; Slavin, James A.; Raines, Jim M.; Baker, Daniel N.; Lawrence, David J.

    2017-12-01

    Energetic particle bursts associated with dipolarization events within Mercury's magnetosphere were first observed by Mariner 10. The events appear analogous to particle injections accompanying dipolarization events at Earth. The Energetic Particle Spectrometer (3 s resolution) aboard MESSENGER determined the particle bursts are composed entirely of electrons with energies ≳ 300 keV. Here we use the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer high-time-resolution (10 ms) energetic electron measurements to examine the relationship between energetic electron injections and magnetic field dipolarization in Mercury's magnetotail. Between March 2013 and April 2015, we identify 2,976 electron burst events within Mercury's magnetotail, 538 of which are closely associated with dipolarization events. These dipolarizations are detected on the basis of their rapid ( 2 s) increase in the northward component of the tail magnetic field (ΔBz 30 nT), which typically persists for 10 s. Similar to those at Earth, we find that these dipolarizations appear to be low-entropy, depleted flux tubes convecting planetward following the collapse of the inner magnetotail. We find that electrons experience brief, yet intense, betatron and Fermi acceleration during these dipolarizations, reaching energies 130 keV and contributing to nightside precipitation. Thermal protons experience only modest betatron acceleration. While only 25% of energetic electron events in Mercury's magnetotail are directly associated with dipolarization, the remaining events are consistent with the Near-Mercury Neutral Line model of magnetotail injection and eastward drift about Mercury, finding that electrons may participate in Shabansky-like closed drifts about the planet. Magnetotail dipolarization may be the dominant source of energetic electron acceleration in Mercury's magnetosphere.

  1. Formation of Ultrarelativistic Electron Rings from a Laser-Wakefield Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Pollock, B B; Tsung, F S; Albert, F; Shaw, J L; Clayton, C E; Davidson, A; Lemos, N; Marsh, K A; Pak, A; Ralph, J E; Mori, W B; Joshi, C

    2015-07-31

    Ultrarelativistic-energy electron ring structures have been observed from laser-wakefield acceleration experiments in the blowout regime. These electron rings had 170-280 MeV energies with 5%-25% energy spread and ∼10  pC of charge and were observed over a range of plasma densities and compositions. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that laser intensity enhancement in the wake leads to sheath splitting and the formation of a hollow toroidal pocket in the electron density around the wake behind the first wake period. If the laser propagates over a distance greater than the ideal dephasing length, some of the dephasing electrons in the second period can become trapped within the pocket and form an ultrarelativistic electron ring that propagates in free space over a meter-scale distance upon exiting the plasma. Such a structure acts as a relativistic potential well, which has applications for accelerating positively charged particles such as positrons.

  2. WE-G-BRD-09: Novel MRI Compatible Electron Accelerator for MRI-Linac Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, B; Keall, P; Gierman, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: MRI guided radiotherapy is a rapidly growing field; however current linacs are not designed to operate in MRI fringe fields. As such, current MRI- Linac systems require magnetic shielding, impairing MR image quality and system flexibility. Here, we present a bespoke electron accelerator concept with robust operation in in-line magnetic fields. Methods: For in-line MRI-Linac systems, electron gun performance is the major constraint on accelerator performance. To overcome this, we propose placing a cathode directly within the first accelerating cavity. Such a configuration is used extensively in high energy particle physics, but not previously for radiotherapy. Benchmarked computational modellingmore » (CST, Darmstadt, Germany) was employed to design and assess a 5.5 cell side coupled accelerator with a temperature limited thermionic cathode in the first accelerating cell. This simulation was coupled to magnetic fields from a 1T MRI model to assess robustness in magnetic fields for Source to Isocenter Distance between 1 and 2 meters. Performance was compared to a conventional electron gun based system in the same magnetic field. Results: A temperature limited cathode (work function 1.8eV, temperature 1245K, emission constant 60A/K/cm{sup 2}) will emit a mean current density of 24mA/mm{sup 2} (Richardson’s Law). We modeled a circular cathode with radius 2mm and mean current 300mA. Capture efficiency of the device was 43%, resulting in target current of 130 mA. The electron beam had a FWHM of 0.2mm, and mean energy of 5.9MeV (interquartile spread of 0.1MeV). Such an electron beam is suitable for radiotherapy, comparing favourably to conventional systems. This model was robust to operation the MRI fringe field, with a maximum current loss of 6% compared to 85% for the conventional system. Conclusion: The bespoke electron accelerator is robust to operation in in-line magnetic fields. This will enable MRI-Linacs with no accelerator magnetic shielding, and

  3. Implications of X-Ray Observations for Electron Acceleration and Propagation in Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, G. D.; Aschwanden, M. J.; Aurass, H.; Battaglia, M.; Grigis, P. C.; Kontar, E. P.; Liu, W.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    High-energy X-rays and gamma-rays from solar flares were discovered just over fifty years ago. Since that time, the standard for the interpretation of spatially integrated flare X-ray spectra at energies above several tens of keV has been the collisional thick-target model. After the launch of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) in early 2002, X-ray spectra and images have been of sufficient quality to allow a greater focus on the energetic electrons responsible for the X-ray emission, including their origin and their interactions with the flare plasma and magnetic field. The result has been new insights into the flaring process, as well as more quantitative models for both electron acceleration and propagation, and for the flare environment with which the electrons interact. In this article we review our current understanding of electron acceleration, energy loss, and propagation in flares. Implications of these new results for the collisional thick-target model, for general flare models, and for future flare studies are discussed.

  4. Study on the window cooling system of 300 keV Electron Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, K. W.; Chulan, R. M.; Hashim, S. A.; Azhar, M.; Dalim, Y.; Mokhtar, M.; Baijan, A. H.; Sabri, R. M.; Faiz, M.; Azaman, A.; Rosli, R. C.

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes the method used to identify the parameters required for the window cooling system. This locally designed low energy electron accelerator with the present energy of 140 keV will be upgraded to 300 keV. The heat will be increased due to the increment of the beam energy; therefore an appropriate cooling system is required to prevent the breaking of the few µmm titanium window. The broken window will disrupt the beam transportation inside the vacuum environment of the accelerating tube and also the high voltage will be breakdown if the vacuum environment couldn’t be sustained. Therefore, a desired air cooling system to cool down the 9 kwatt (30 mA, 300 keV) beam power has been designed. As the result, the window cooling system with the required pressure based on the beam powers have been calculated and identified.

  5. Proposed method for internal electron therapy based on high-intensity laser acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepper, Michal; Barkai, Uri; Gannot, Israel

    2015-05-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main methods to treat cancer. However, due to the propagation pattern of high-energy photons in tissue and their inability to discriminate between healthy and malignant tissues, healthy tissues may also be damaged, causing undesired side effects. A possible method for internal electron therapy, based on laser acceleration of electrons inside the patient's body, is suggested. In this method, an optical waveguide, optimized for high intensities, is used to transmit the laser radiation and accelerate electrons toward the tumor. The radiation profile can be manipulated in order to create a patient-specific radiation treatment profile by changing the laser characteristics. The propagation pattern of electrons in tissues minimizes the side effects caused to healthy tissues. A simulation was developed to demonstrate the use of this method, calculating the trajectories of the accelerated electron as a function of laser properties. The simulation was validated by comparison to theory, showing a good fit for laser intensities of up to 2×1020 (W/cm2), and was then used to calculate suggested treatment profiles for two tumor test cases (with and without penetration to the tumor). The results show that treatment profiles can be designed to cover tumor area with minimal damage to adjacent tissues.

  6. Novel production techniques of radioisotopes using electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Daniel Robert

    Non-traditional radioisotope production techniques using a compact, high power linear electron accelerator have been demonstrated and characterized for the production of 18F, 47Sc, 147 Pm, and 99mTc from a variety of target candidates. These isotopes are used extensively in the medical field as diagnostic and therapy radioisotopes, as well as the space industry as RTG's. Primary focus was placed on 99mTc as it constitutes approximately 80% of all diagnostic procedures in the medical community that use radioactive tracers. It was also the prime focus due to recent events at the Chalk River nuclear reactor, which caused global shortages of this isotope a few years ago. A Varian K15 LINAC was first used to show proof of principle in Las Vegas. Various samples were then taken to the Idaho Accelerator Center where they were activated using an electron LINAC capable of electron energies from 4 to 25 MeV at a beam power of approximately 1 kW. Production rates, cross sections, and viability studies were then performed and conducted to assess the effectiveness of the candidate target and the maximum production rate for each radioisotope. Production rates for 18F from lithium fluoride salts were shown to be ideal at 21MeV, namely 1.7 Ci per kg of LiF salt, per kW of beam current, per 10 hour irradiation time. As the typical hospital consumption of 18F is around 500 mCi per day, it is clear that a large amount of 18F can be made from a small (300 gram) sample of LiF salt. However, since there is no current separation process for 18F from 19F, the viability of this technique is limited until a separations technique is developed. Furthermore, the calculated cross section for this reaction is in good agreement with literature, which supports the techniques for the isotopes mentioned below. Production rates for 47Sc from vanadium oxide targets were shown to be a maximum at 25 MeV with a production rate of 2 mCi per day, assuming a 2 kW beam and a 10 kg target. While this

  7. Laser-plasma mirrors: from electron acceleration to harmonics generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thévenet, Maxence; Bocoum, Maïmouna; Faure, Jérôme; Leblanc, Adrien; Vincenti, Henri; Quéré, Fabien

    2016-10-01

    Accelerating electrons in the > 10 TV/m fields inside an ultrashort ultraintense laser pulse has been a long-standing goal in experimental physics, motivated by promising theoretical predictions. The biggest hurdle was to have electrons injected in the center of the laser pulse. Recent experimental and numerical results showed that this problem could be solved using a plasma mirror, i.e. an overdense plasma with a sharp (electron beam. Using particle-in-cell simulations, the ejection process was identified as a push-pull mechanism occuring at each laser period, resulting in a train of attosecond electron bunches injected in the reflected field. We present a study and a model of this process, and show the gradient characteristic length is the crucial parameter for this phenomenon. Finally, the electron ejection process was put into perspective with respect to the high harmonic generation mechanisms on plasma mirrors, giving new insights into the motion of the plasma mirror surface. funded by the European Research Council, Contract No. 306708, ERC Starting Grant FEMTOELEC.

  8. Exponential energy growth in a Fermi accelerator.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kushal; Turaev, Dmitry; Rom-Kedar, Vered

    2010-05-01

    An unbounded energy growth of particles bouncing off two-dimensional (2D) smoothly oscillating polygons is observed. Notably, such billiards have zero Lyapunov exponents in the static case. For a special 2D polygon geometry--a rectangle with a vertically oscillating horizontal bar--we show that this energy growth is not only unbounded but also exponential in time. For the energy averaged over an ensemble of initial conditions, we derive an a priori expression for the rate of the exponential growth as a function of the geometry and the ensemble type. We demonstrate numerically that the ensemble averaged energy indeed grows exponentially, at a close to the analytically predicted rate-namely, the process is controllable.

  9. High Energy Electron and Gamma - Ray Detection with ATIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, J.; Schmidt, W. K. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon borne ionization calorimeter is well suited to record and identify high energy cosmic ray electrons, and at very high energies gamma-ray photons as well. We have simulated the performance of the instrument, and compare the simulations with actual high energy electron exposures at the CERN accelerator. Simulations and measurements do not compare exactly, in detail, but overall the simulations have predicted actual measured behavior quite well. ATIC has had its first 16 day balloon flight at the turn of the year over Antarctica, and first results obtained using the analysis methods derived from simulations and calibrations will be reported.

  10. Energy-Dependent Ionization States of Shock-Accelerated Particles in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.; Ng, C. K.; Tylka, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the range of possible energy dependence of the ionization states of ions that are shock-accelerated from the ambient plasma of the solar corona. If acceleration begins in a region of moderate density, sufficiently low in the corona, ions above about 0.1 MeV/amu approach an equilibrium charge state that depends primarily upon their speed and only weakly on the plasma temperature. We suggest that the large variations of the charge states with energy for ions such as Si and Fe observed in the 1997 November 6 event are consistent with stripping in moderately dense coronal. plasma during shock acceleration. In the large solar-particle events studied previously, acceleration occurs sufficiently high in the corona that even Fe ions up to 600 MeV/amu are not stripped of electrons.

  11. Investigation of 123I production using electron accelerator.

    PubMed

    Avetisyan, Albert; Avagyan, Robert; Dallakyan, Ruben; Avdalyan, Gohar; Dobrovolsky, Nikolay; Gavalyan, Vasak; Kerobyan, Ivetta; Harutyunyan, Gevorg

    2017-04-01

    The possibility of 123 I isotope production with the help of the high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons produced by the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator at the A.I. Alikhanyan National Science Laboratory (Yerevan Physics Institute [YerPhI]) is considered. The production method has been established and shown to be successful. The 124 Xe(γ,n) 123 Xe→ 123 I nuclear reaction has been investigated and the cross-section was calculated by nuclear codes TALYS 1.6 and EMPIRE 3.2. The optimum parameter of the thickness of the target was determined by GEANT4 code. For the normalized yield of 123 I, the value of 143Bq/(mg·μA·h) has been achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Energetic electron acceleration observed by MMS in the vicinity of an X-line crossing

    DOE PAGES

    Jaynes, A. N.; Turner, D. L.; Wilder, F. D.; ...

    2016-07-25

    During the first months of observations, the Magnetospheric Multiscale Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer instrument has observed several instances of electron acceleration up to >100 keV while in the vicinity of the dayside reconnection region. While particle acceleration associated with magnetic reconnection has been seen to occur up to these energies in the tail region, it had not yet been reported at the magnetopause. This study reports on observations of electron acceleration up to hundreds of keV that were recorded on 19 September 2015 around 1000 UT, in the midst of an X-line crossing. In the region surrounding the X-line,more » whistler-mode and broadband electrostatic waves were observed simultaneously with the appearance of highly energetic electrons which exhibited significant energization in the perpendicular direction. The mechanisms by which particles may be accelerated via reconnection-related processes are intrinsic to understanding particle dynamics among a wide range of spatial scales and plasma environments.« less

  13. Energetic Electron Acceleration Observed by MMS in the Vicinity of an X-Line Crossing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, A. N.; Turner, D. L.; Wilder, F. D.; Osmane, A.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.; Cohen, I. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Reeves, G. D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    During the first months of observations, the Magnetospheric Multiscale Fly's Eye Energetic Particle Spectrometer instrument has observed several instances of electron acceleration up to greater than 100 keV while in the vicinity of the dayside reconnection region. While particle acceleration associated with magnetic reconnection has been seen to occur up to these energies in the tail region, it had not yet been reported at the magnetopause. This study reports on observations of electron acceleration up to hundreds of keV that were recorded on 19 September 2015 around 1000 UT, in the midst of an X-line crossing. In the region surrounding the X-line, whistler-mode and broadband electrostatic waves were observed simultaneously with the appearance of highly energetic electrons which exhibited significant energization in the perpendicular direction. The mechanisms by which particles may be accelerated via reconnection-related processes are intrinsic to understanding particle dynamics among a wide range of spatial scales and plasma environments.

  14. Symposium on electron linear accelerators in honor of Richard B. Neal's 80th birthday: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1998-07-01

    The papers presented at the conference are: (1) the construction of SLAC and the role of R.B. Neal; (2) symposium speech; (3) lessons learned from the SLC; (4) alternate approaches to future electron-positron linear colliders; (5) the NLC technical program; (6) advanced electron linacs; (7) medical uses of linear accelerators; (8) linac-based, intense, coherent X-ray source using self-amplified spontaneous emission. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. [The first linear electron accelerator Therac 15-Saturne in clinical service. 2. Measurement of electron radiation].

    PubMed

    Strauch, B

    1985-09-01

    Therac 15-Saturne is a linear accelerator for photon and electron radiation with a double scattering screen system. It has proved its worth during more than three years of clinical use. The dosimetric data of both kinds of radiation correspond to the international requirements for modern therapy units. The trimmer system for electron radiation is equipped with a continuous field size adjustment device for the whole range of field sizes. Thus a fast and precise adjustment is possible without any changing of tubes.

  16. 9 GeV energy gain in a beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Litos, M.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; ...

    2016-02-15

    An electron beam has gained a maximum energy of 9 GeV per particle in a 1.3 m-long electron beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator. The amount of charge accelerated in the spectral peak was 28.3 pC, and the root-mean-square energy spread was 5.0%. The mean accelerated charge and energy gain per particle of the 215 shot data set was 115 pC and 5.3 GeV, respectively, corresponding to an acceleration gradient of 4.0 GeV m -1 at the spectral peak. Moreover, the mean energy spread of the data set was 5.1%. Our results are consistent with the extrapolation of the previously reported energymore » gain results using a shorter, 36 cm-long plasma source to within 10%, evincing a non-evolving wake structure that can propagate distances of over a meter in length. Wake-loading effects were evident in the data through strong dependencies observed between various spectral properties and the amount of accelerated charge.« less

  17. Demonstration of acceleration of relativistic electrons at a dielectric microstructure using femtosecond laser pulses

    DOE PAGES

    Wootton, Kent P.; Wu, Ziran; Cowan, Benjamin M.; ...

    2016-06-02

    Acceleration of electrons using laser-driven dielectric microstructures is a promising technology for the miniaturization of particle accelerators. Achieving the desired GV m –1 accelerating gradients is possible only with laser pulse durations shorter than ~1 ps. In this Letter, we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first demonstration of acceleration of relativistic electrons at a dielectric microstructure driven by femtosecond duration laser pulses. Furthermore, using this technique, an electron accelerating gradient of 690±100 MV m –1 was measured—a record for dielectric laser accelerators.

  18. Demonstration of electron acceleration in a laser-driven dielectric microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta, E. A.; Soong, K.; England, R. J.; Colby, E. R.; Wu, Z.; Montazeri, B.; McGuinness, C.; McNeur, J.; Leedle, K. J.; Walz, D.; Sozer, E. B.; Cowan, B.; Schwartz, B.; Travish, G.; Byer, R. L.

    2013-11-01

    The enormous size and cost of current state-of-the-art accelerators based on conventional radio-frequency technology has spawned great interest in the development of new acceleration concepts that are more compact and economical. Micro-fabricated dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs) are an attractive approach, because such dielectric microstructures can support accelerating fields one to two orders of magnitude higher than can radio-frequency cavity-based accelerators. DLAs use commercial lasers as a power source, which are smaller and less expensive than the radio-frequency klystrons that power today's accelerators. In addition, DLAs are fabricated via low-cost, lithographic techniques that can be used for mass production. However, despite several DLA structures having been proposed recently, no successful demonstration of acceleration in these structures has so far been shown. Here we report high-gradient (beyond 250MeVm-1) acceleration of electrons in a DLA. Relativistic (60-MeV) electrons are energy-modulated over 563+/-104 optical periods of a fused silica grating structure, powered by a 800-nm-wavelength mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. The observed results are in agreement with analytical models and electrodynamic simulations. By comparison, conventional modern linear accelerators operate at gradients of 10-30MeVm-1, and the first linear radio-frequency cavity accelerator was ten radio-frequency periods (one metre) long with a gradient of approximately 1.6MeVm-1 (ref. 5). Our results set the stage for the development of future multi-staged DLA devices composed of integrated on-chip systems. This would enable compact table-top accelerators on the MeV-GeV (106-109eV) scale for security scanners and medical therapy, university-scale X-ray light sources for biological and materials research, and portable medical imaging devices, and would substantially reduce the size and cost of a future collider on the multi-TeV (1012eV) scale.

  19. The application of a linear electron accelerator in radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiying, Zhou; Binglin, Wang; Wenxiu, Chen; Yongbao, Gu; Yinfen, Zhang; Simin, Qian; Andong, Liu; Peide, Wang

    A 3-5 MeV electron beam generated by a BF-5 type linear electron accelerator has been used in some radiation processing works, such as, (1) The cross-linking technology by radiation for the polyethylene foaming processing --- the correlation between the cross-linkage and the absorbed dose, the relation between the elongation of foaming polyethylene and the dose, the relation between the size of the cavities and the gelatin rate and the optimum range of dosage for foaming have been found. (2) The research work on the fast switch thyristor irradiated by electron beam --- The relation between the absorbed dose and the life-time of minority carriers has been studied and the optimum condition for radiation processing was determined. This process is much better than the conventional gold diffusion in raising the quality and end-product rate of these devices. Besides, we have made some testing works on the hereditary mutation of plant seeds and microorganism mutation induced by electron radiation and radiation sterilization for some medical instruments and foods.

  20. Simulated Prompt Acceleration of Multi-MeV Electrons by the 17 March 2015 Interplanetary Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Mary; Jaynes, Allison; Kress, Brian; Li, Zhao; Patel, Maulik; Shen, Xiao-Chen; Thaller, Scott; Wiltberger, Michael; Wygant, John

    2017-10-01

    Prompt enhancement of relativistic electron flux at L = 3-5 has been reported from Van Allen Probes Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) measurements associated with the 17 March 2015 interplanetary shock compression of the dayside magnetosphere. Acceleration by ˜1 MeV is inferred on less than a drift timescale as seen in prior shock compression events, which launch a magnetosonic azimuthal electric field impulse tailward. This impulse propagates from the dayside around the flanks accelerating electrons in drift resonance at the dusk flank. Such longitudinally localized acceleration events produce a drift echo signature which was seen at >1 MeV energy on both Van Allen Probe spacecraft, with sustained observations by Probe B outbound at L = 5 at 2100 MLT at the time of impulse arrival, measured by the Electric Fields and Waves instrument. MHD test particle simulations are presented which reproduce drift echo features observed in the REPT measurements at Probe B, including the energy and pitch angle dependence of drift echoes observed. While the flux enhancement was short lived for this event due to subsequent inward motion of the magnetopause, stronger events with larger electric field impulses, as observed in March 1991 and the Halloween 2003 storm, produce enhancements which can be quantified by the inward radial transport and energization determined by the induction electric field resulting from dayside compression.

  1. Housing Electrons: Relating Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels, and Electron Configurations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofalo, Anthony

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that combines the concepts of quantum numbers and probability locations, energy levels, and electron configurations in a concrete, hands-on way. Uses model houses constructed out of foam board and colored beads to represent electrons. (JRH)

  2. Influence of plasma density on the generation of 100's MeV electrons via Direct Laser Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Amina; Batson, T.; Arefiev, A. V.; Chen, H.; Craxton, R. S.; Davies, A.; Froula, D. H.; Haberberger, D.; Jansen, O.; Krushelnick, K.; Nilson, P. M.; Theobald, W.; Wang, T.; Williams, G. J.; Willingale, L.

    2017-10-01

    The role of plasma density and quasi-static fields in the acceleration of electrons to many times the ponderomotive energies (exceeding 400 MeV) by high-energy, picosecond duration laser pulses via Direct Laser Acceleration (DLA) from underdense CH plasma was investigated. Experiments using the OMEGA EP laser facility and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations using the EPOCH code were performed. The existence of an optimal plasma density for the generation of high-energy, low-divergence electron beams is demonstrated. The role of quasi-static channel fields on electron energy enhancement, beam pointing and divergence elucidate the mechanisms and action of DLA at different plasma densities. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-FOA-0001109.

  3. High Energy Ion Acceleration by Extreme Laser Radiation Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-14

    divergence and favourable energy scaling with laser intensity [16,17]. This RPA mechanism is sensitive to the formation of transverse instabilities, which...relativistic transparency can be detrimental to the RPA mechanism , additional energy can be coupled into a localised region of the proton beam via a...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0015 High energy ion acceleration by extreme laser radiation pressure Paul McKenna UNIVERSITY OF STRATHCLYDE VIZ ROYAL COLLEGE

  4. Measurements of Neutron Induced Cross Sections at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, K.H.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.

    1999-09-20

    We have used the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) to measure neutron total and the fission cross sections of 233U in the energy range from 0.36 eV to ~700 keV. We report average fission and total cross sections. Also, we measured the neutron total cross sections of 27Al and Natural chlorine as well as the capture cross section of Al over an energy range from 100 eV up to about 400 keV.

  5. A neutron track etch detector for electron linear accelerators in radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Branko; Faj, Dario; Poje, Marina; Varga, Maja; Radolic, Vanja; Miklavcic, Igor; Ivkovic, Ana; Planinic, Josip

    2010-03-01

    Electron linear accelerators in medical radiotherapy have replaced cobalt and caesium sources of radiation. However, medical accelerators with photon energies over 10 MeV generate undesired fast neutron contamination in a therapeutic X-ray photon beam. Photons with energies above 10 MeV can interact with the atomic nucleus of a high-Z material, of which the target and the head of an accelerator consist, and lead to the neutron ejection. Our neutron dosimeter, composed of the LR-115 track etch detector and boron foil BN-1 converter, was calibrated on thermal neutrons generated in the nuclear reactor of the Josef Stefan Institute (Slovenia), and applied to dosimetry of undesirable neutrons in photon radiotherapy by the linear accelerator 15 MV Siemens Mevatron. Having considered a high dependence of a cross-section between neutron and boron on neutron energy, and broad neutron spectrum in a photon beam, as well as outside the entrance door to maze of the Mevatron, we developed a method for determining the effective neutron detector response. A neutron dose rate in the photon beam was measured to be 1.96 Sv/h. Outside the Mevatron room the neutron dose rate was 0.62 μSv/h. PACS: 87.52. Ga; 87.53.St; 29.40.Wk.

  6. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, S. P.; Brown, G.; Centurion, M.

    2015-07-01

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition ratemore » with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability.« less

  7. Mega-electron-volt ultrafast electron diffraction at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Weathersby, S. P.; Brown, G.; Chase, T. F.

    2015-07-15

    Ultrafast electron probes are powerful tools, complementary to x-ray free-electron lasers, used to study structural dynamics in material, chemical, and biological sciences. High brightness, relativistic electron beams with femtosecond pulse duration can resolve details of the dynamic processes on atomic time and length scales. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory recently launched the Ultrafast Electron Diffraction (UED) and microscopy Initiative aiming at developing the next generation ultrafast electron scattering instruments. As the first stage of the Initiative, a mega-electron-volt (MeV) UED system has been constructed and commissioned to serve ultrafast science experiments and instrumentation development. The system operates at 120-Hz repetition ratemore » with outstanding performance. In this paper, we report on the SLAC MeV UED system and its performance, including the reciprocal space resolution, temporal resolution, and machine stability.« less

  8. Resonantly Enhanced Betatron Hard X-rays from Ionization Injected Electrons in a Laser Plasma Accelerator

    PubMed Central

    Huang, K.; Li, Y. F.; Li, D. Z.; Chen, L. M.; Tao, M. Z.; Ma, Y.; Zhao, J. R.; Li, M. H.; Chen, M.; Mirzaie, M.; Hafz, N.; Sokollik, T.; Sheng, Z. M.; Zhang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafast betatron x-ray emission from electron oscillations in laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) has been widely investigated as a promising source. Betatron x-rays are usually produced via self-injected electron beams, which are not controllable and are not optimized for x-ray yields. Here, we present a new method for bright hard x-ray emission via ionization injection from the K-shell electrons of nitrogen into the accelerating bucket. A total photon yield of 8 × 108/shot and 108 photons with energy greater than 110 keV is obtained. The yield is 10 times higher than that achieved with self-injection mode in helium under similar laser parameters. The simulation suggests that ionization-injected electrons are quickly accelerated to the driving laser region and are subsequently driven into betatron resonance. The present scheme enables the single-stage betatron radiation from LWFA to be extended to bright γ-ray radiation, which is beyond the capability of 3rd generation synchrotrons. PMID:27273170

  9. Proceedings of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, M.E.

    2006-02-27

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) organized a workshop at ORNL July 14-15, 2005, to highlight the unique measurement capabilities of the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) facility and to emphasize the important role of ORELA for performing differential cross-section measurements in the low-energy resonance region that is important for nuclear applications such as nuclear criticality safety, nuclear reactor and fuel cycle analysis, stockpile stewardship, weapons research, medical diagnosis, and nuclear astrophysics. The ORELA workshop (hereafter referred to as the Workshop) provided the opportunity to exchange ideas and information pertaining to nuclear cross-section measurements and their importance for nuclearmore » applications from a variety of perspectives throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Approximately 50 people, representing DOE, universities, and seven U.S. national laboratories, attended the Workshop. The objective of the Workshop was to emphasize the technical community endorsement for ORELA in meeting nuclear data challenges in the years to come. The Workshop further emphasized the need for a better understanding of the gaps in basic differential nuclear measurements and identified the efforts needed to return ORELA to a reliable functional measurement facility. To accomplish the Workshop objective, nuclear data experts from national laboratories and universities were invited to provide talks emphasizing the unique and vital role of the ORELA facility for addressing nuclear data needs. ORELA is operated on a full cost-recovery basis with no single sponsor providing complete base funding for the facility. Consequently, different programmatic sponsors benefit by receiving accurate cross-section data measurements at a reduced cost to their respective programs; however, leveraging support for a complex facility such as ORELA has a distinct disadvantage in that the programmatic funds are only used to support program

  10. ELECTRON ACCELERATION IN PULSAR-WIND TERMINATION SHOCKS: AN APPLICATION TO THE CRAB NEBULA GAMMA-RAY FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Kroon, John J.; Becker, Peter A.; Dermer, Charles D.

    2016-12-20

    The γ -ray flares from the Crab Nebula observed by AGILE and Fermi -LAT reaching GeV energies and lasting several days challenge the standard models for particle acceleration in pulsar-wind nebulae because the radiating electrons have energies exceeding the classical radiation-reaction limit for synchrotron. Previous modeling has suggested that the synchrotron limit can be exceeded if the electrons experience electrostatic acceleration, but the resulting spectra do not agree very well with the data. As a result, there are still some important unanswered questions about the detailed particle acceleration and emission processes occurring during the flares. We revisit the problem usingmore » a new analytical approach based on an electron transport equation that includes terms describing electrostatic acceleration, stochastic wave-particle acceleration, shock acceleration, synchrotron losses, and particle escape. An exact solution is obtained for the electron distribution, which is used to compute the associated γ -ray synchrotron spectrum. We find that in our model the γ -ray flares are mainly powered by electrostatic acceleration, but the contributions from stochastic and shock acceleration play an important role in producing the observed spectral shapes. Our model can reproduce the spectra of all the Fermi -LAT and AGILE flares from the Crab Nebula, using magnetic field strengths in agreement with the multi-wavelength observational constraints. We also compute the spectrum and duration of the synchrotron afterglow created by the accelerated electrons, after they escape into the region on the downstream side of the pulsar-wind termination shock. The afterglow is expected to fade over a maximum period of about three weeks after the γ -ray flare.« less

  11. The Effect of Background Pressure on Electron Acceleration from Ultra-Intense Laser-Matter Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Manh; Ngirmang, Gregory; Orban, Chris; Morrison, John; Chowdhury, Enam; Roquemore, William

    2017-10-01

    We present two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations that investigate the role of background pressure on the acceleration of electrons from ultra intense laser interaction at normal incidence with liquid density ethylene glycol targets. The interaction was simulated at ten different pressures varying from 7.8 mTorr to 26 Torr. We calculated conversion efficiencies from the simulation results and plotted the efficiencies with respect to the background pressure. The results revealed that the laser to > 100 keV electron conversion efficiency remained flat around 0.35% from 7.8 mTorr to 1.2 Torr and increased exponentially from 1.2 Torr onward to about 1.47% at 26 Torr. Increasing the background pressure clearly has a dramatic effect on the acceleration of electrons from the target. We explain how electrostatic effects, in particular the neutralization of the target by the background plasma, allows electrons to escape more easily and that this effect is strengthened with higher densities. This work could facilitate the design of future experiments in increasing laser to electron conversion efficiency and generating substantial bursts of electrons with relativistic energies. This research is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under LRIR Project 17RQCOR504 under the management of Dr. Riq Parra and Dr. Jean-Luc Cambier. Support was also provided by the DOD HPCMP Internship Program.

  12. libKEDF: An accelerated library of kinetic energy density functionals.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Johannes M; Witt, William C; Carter, Emily A

    2017-06-30

    Kinetic energy density functionals (KEDFs) approximate the kinetic energy of a system of electrons directly from its electron density. They are used in electronic structure methods that lack direct access to orbitals, for example, orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) and certain embedding schemes. In this contribution, we introduce libKEDF, an accelerated library of modern KEDF implementations that emphasizes nonlocal KEDFs. We discuss implementation details and assess the performance of the KEDF implementations for large numbers of atoms. We show that using libKEDF, a single computing node or (GPU) accelerator can provide easy computational access to mesoscale chemical and materials science phenomena using OFDFT algorithms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Atomic Resolution Imaging at an Ultralow Accelerating Voltage by a Monochromatic Transmission Electron Microscope.

    PubMed

    Morishita, Shigeyuki; Mukai, Masaki; Suenaga, Kazu; Sawada, Hidetaka

    2016-10-07

    Transmission electron microscopy using low-energy electrons would be very useful for atomic resolution imaging of specimens that would be damaged at higher energies. However, the resolution at low voltages is degraded because of geometrical and chromatic aberrations. In the present study, we diminish the effect of these aberrations by using a delta-type corrector and a monochromator. The dominant residual aberration in a delta-type corrector, which is the sixth-order three-lobe aberration, is counterbalanced by other threefold aberrations. Defocus spread caused by chromatic aberration is reduced by using a monochromated beam with an energy spread of 0.05 eV. We obtain images of graphene and demonstrate atomic resolution at an ultralow accelerating voltage of 15 kV.

  14. Ultra-High-Contrast Laser Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons in Solid Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higginson, Drew Pitney

    The cone-guided fast ignition approach to Inertial Confinement Fusion requires laser-accelerated relativistic electrons to deposit kilojoules of energy within an imploded fuel core to initiate fusion burn. One obstacle to coupling electron energy into the core is the ablation of material, known as preplasma, by laser energy proceeding nanoseconds prior to the main pulse. This causes the laser-absorption surface to be pushed back hundreds of microns from the initial target surface; thus increasing the distance that electrons must travel to reach the imploded core. Previous experiments have shown an order of magnitude decrease in coupling into surrogate targets when intentionally increasing the amount of preplasma. Additionally, for electrons to deposit energy within the core, they should have kinetic energies on the order of a few MeV, as less energetic electrons will be stopped prior to the core and more energetic electrons will pass through the core without depositing much energy. Thus a quantitative understanding of the electron energy spectrum and how it responds to varied laser parameters is paramount for fast ignition. For the first time, this dissertation quantitatively investigates the acceleration of electrons using an ultra-high-contrast laser. Ultra-high-contrast lasers reduce the laser energy that reaches the target prior to the main pulse; drastically reducing the amount of preplasma. Experiments were performed in a cone-wire geometry relevant to fast ignition. These experiments irradiated the inner-tip of a Au cone with the laser and observed electrons that passed through a Cu wire attached to the outer-tip of the cone. The total emission of Kalpha x-rays is used as a diagnostic to infer the electron energy coupled into the wire. Imaging the x-ray emission allowed an effective path-length of electrons within the wire to be determined, which constrained the electron energy spectrum. Experiments were carried out on the ultra-high-contrast Trident laser

  15. Gravitational vacuum energy in our recently accelerating universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bludman, Sidney

    2009-04-01

    We review current observations of the homogeneous cosmological expansion which, because they measure only kinematic variables, cannot determine the dynamics driving the recent accelerated expansion. The minimal fit to the data, the flat ACDM model, consisting of cold dark matter and a cosmological constant, interprets 4? geometrically as a classical spacetime curvature constant of nature, avoiding any reference to quantum vacuum energy. (The observed Uehling and Casimir effects measure forces due to QED vacuum polarization, but not any quantum material vacuum energies.) An Extended Anthropic Principle, that Dark Energy and Dark Gravity be indistinguishable, selects out flat ACDM. Prospective cosmic shear and galaxy clustering observations of the growth of fluctuations are intended to test whether the 'dark energy' driving the recent cosmological acceleration is static or moderately dynamic. Even if dynamic, observational differences between an additional negative-pressure material component within general relativity (Dark Energy) and low-curvature modifications of general relativity (Dark Gravity) will be extremely small.

  16. Energy compensation of slow extracted beams with RF acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Souda, Hikaru; Torikoshi, Masami; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yamada, Satoru; Noda, Koji

    2016-03-01

    In a conventional carbon-ion radiotherapy facility, a carbon-ion beam is typically accelerated up to an optimum energy, slowly extracted from a synchrotron ring by a resonant slow extraction method, and ultimately delivered to a patient through a beam-delivery system. At Japan's Gunma University, a method employing slow-beam extraction along with beam-acceleration has been adopted. This method slightly alters the extracted-beam's energy owing to the acceleration component of the process, which subsequently results in a residual-range variation of approximately 2 mm in water-equivalent length. However, this range variation does not disturb a distal dose distribution with broad-beam methods such as the single beam-wobbling method. With the pencil-beam 3D scanning method, however, such a range variation disturbs a distal dose distribution because the variation is comparable to slice thickness. Therefore, for pencil-beam 3D scanning, an energy compensation method for a slow extracted beam is proposed in this paper. This method can compensate for the aforementioned energy variances by controlling net energy losses through a rotatable energy absorber set fixed between the synchrotron exit channel and the isocenter. Experimental results demonstrate that beam energies can be maintained constant, as originally hypothesized. Moreover, energy-absorber positions were found to be significantly enhanced by optimizing beam optics for reducing beam-size growth by implementation of the multiple-scattering effect option.

  17. Kinetic Alfven Wave Electron Acceleration on Auroral Field Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kletzing, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Major results of the S3-3 Langmuir sweep study are published. Studies show statistics and average density and temperature variation on auroral field lines up to 8000 km altitude. Alfven wave papers were published. Our model of Alfven wave propagation on auroral field lines was successfully extended to handle varying density and magnetic field for the inertial mode. The study showed that Alfven wave can create time-dispersed electron signatures. A study was undertaken to extend Langmuir sweep I-V curves to handle the case of an kappa electron distribution as well as Maxwellian. The manuscript is in preparation. Participated in International Space Science Institute study of Alfvenic structures which resulted in a group review paper. The proposed work was to develop an extended model of Alfven wave propagation along auroral field lines to study electron acceleration. As part of this work, a major task was to characterize density and temperature along auroral field lines by using spacecraft Langmuir sweep data. The work that was completed under this funding was successful at both tasks. Three papers have been published as part of this work and a fourth manuscript is in preparation.

  18. Acceleration and guiding of fast electrons by a nanobrush target

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Zongqing; Cao Leifeng; Huang Wenzhong

    2010-12-15

    Laser interaction with a nanobrush target plasma is investigated at the SILEX-I laser facility [X. F. Wei et al., J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112, 032010 (2008)] with a laser of intensity 7.9x10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}. Highly collimated fast electron beams with yields of more than three times higher than that from the planar target can be produced. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation confirms that a layered surface structure can increase the efficiency of laser energy absorption, and the resulting fast electrons are tightly collimated and guided by the plasma layers to a cross section of about the laser spot size.

  19. APPARATUS FOR CONTROL OF HIGH-ENERGY ACCELERATORS

    DOEpatents

    Heard, H.G.

    1961-10-24

    A particle beam positioning control for a synchrotron or the like is described. The control includes means for selectively impressing a sinusoidal perturbation upon the rising voltage utilized to sweep the frequency of the f-m oscillator which is conventionally coupled to the accelerating electrode of a synchrotron. The perturbation produces a variation in the normal rate of change of frequency of the accelerating voltage applied to the accelerating electrode, resulting in an expansion or contraction of the particle beam orbit diameter during the perturbation. The beam may thus be controlled such that a portion strikes a target positioned close to the expanded or contracted orbit diameter and returns to the original orbit for further acceleration to the final energy. (AEC)

  20. Thermomechanical design of a static gas target for electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brajuskovic, B.; O'Connor, T.; Holt, R. J.; Reneker, J.; Meekins, D.; Solvignon, P.

    2013-11-01

    Gas targets are often used at accelerator facilities. A design of high-pressure gas cells that are suitable for hydrogen and helium isotopes at relatively high electron beam currents is presented. In particular, we consider rare gas targets, 3H2 and 3He. In the design, heat transfer and mechanical integrity of the target cell are emphasized. ANSYS 12 was used for the thermo-mechanical studies of the target cell. Since the ultimate goal in this study was to design a gas target for use at the Jefferson Laboratory (JLab), particular attention is given to the typical operating conditions found there. It is demonstrated that an aluminum alloy cell can meet the required design goals.

  1. Vaccine Biotechnology by Accelerated Electron Beam and Microwave Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciun, Gabriela D.; Togoe, Iulian I.; Tudor, Laurentiu M.; Martin, Diana I.; Manaila, Elena N.; Ighigeanu, Daniel I.; Iacob, Nicusor I.; Oproiu, Constantin V.

    2007-04-01

    A new biotechnology for obtaining a commercial vaccine that contains either Fusobacterium necrophorum (F.n.) exotoxins inactivated by accelerated electron beam (EB) and microwave (MW) irradiation, or exotoxins isolated from F.n. cultures irradiated with EB+MW, is presented. This vaccine is designed for prophylaxis of ruminant infectious pododermatitis (IP) produced by F.n. Also, the research results concerning the effects of combined chemical adjuvant and EB+MW irradiation on F.n. immune capacity are discussed. The vaccine's efficacy will be tested in ruminant farms in which IP evolves. It is expected that this new vaccine to offer a better protection, more than 60%, which is the best presently obtained result in ruminant farms.

  2. Accelerating electron tomography reconstruction algorithm ICON with GPU.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Zihao; Zhang, Jingrong; Li, Lun; Wan, Xiaohua; Sun, Fei; Zhang, Fa

    2017-01-01

    Electron tomography (ET) plays an important role in studying in situ cell ultrastructure in three-dimensional space. Due to limited tilt angles, ET reconstruction always suffers from the "missing wedge" problem. With a validation procedure, iterative compressed-sensing optimized NUFFT reconstruction (ICON) demonstrates its power in the restoration of validated missing information for low SNR biological ET dataset. However, the huge computational demand has become a major problem for the application of ICON. In this work, we analyzed the framework of ICON and classified the operations of major steps of ICON reconstruction into three types. Accordingly, we designed parallel strategies and implemented them on graphics processing units (GPU) to generate a parallel program ICON-GPU. With high accuracy, ICON-GPU has a great acceleration compared to its CPU version, up to 83.7×, greatly relieving ICON's dependence on computing resource.

  3. Thermal electron acceleration by electric field spikes in the outer radiation belt: generation of field-aligned pitch angle distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasko, I.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.; Artemyev, A.

    2015-12-01

    Van Allen Probes observations in the outer radiation belt have demonstrated an abundance non-linear electrostatic stucture called Time Domain Structures (TDS). One of the type of TDS is electrostatic electron-acoustic double layers (DL). Observed DLs are frequently accompanied by field-aligned (bi-directional) pitch angle distributions (PAD) of electrons with energies from hundred eVs up to several keV (rarely up to tens of keV). We perform numerical simulations of the DL interaction with thermal electrons making use of the test particle approach. DL parameters assumed in the simulations are adopted from observations. We show that DLs accelerate thermal electrons parallel to the magnetic field via the electrostatic Fermi mechanism, i.e. due to reflections from DL potential humps. Due to this interaction some fraction of electrons is scattered into the loss cone. The electron energy gain is larger for larger DL scalar potential amplitudes and higher propagation velocities. In addition to the Fermi mechanism electrons can be trapped by DLs in their generation region and accelerated due to transport to higher latitudes. Both mechanisms result in formation of field-aligned PADs for electrons with energies comparable to those found in observations. The Fermi mechanism provides field-aligned PADs for <1 keV electrons, while the trapping mechanism extends field-aligned PADs to higher energy electrons.

  4. Spatial Control of Laser Wakefield Accelerated Electron Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimchuk, A.; Behm, K.; Zhao, T.; Joglekar, A. S.; Hussein, A.; Nees, J.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Elle, J.; Lucero, A.; Samarin, G. M.; Sarry, G.; Warwick, J.

    2017-10-01

    The laser wakefield experiments to study and control spatial properties of electron beams were performed using HERCULES laser at the University of Michigan at power of 100 TW. In the first experiment multi-electron beam generation was demonstrated using co-propagating, parallel laser beams with a π-phase shift mirror and showing that interaction between the wakefields can cause injection to occur for plasma and laser parameters in which a single wakefield displays no significant injection. In the second experiment a magnetic triplet quadrupole system was used to refocus and stabilize electron beams at the distance of 60 cm from the interaction region. This produced a 10-fold increase in remote gamma-ray activation of 63Cu using a lead converter. In the third experiment measurements of un-trapped electrons with high transverse momentum produce a 500 mrad (FWHM) ring. This ring is formed by electrons that receive a forward momentum boost by traversing behind the bubble and its size is inversely proportional to the plasma density. The characterization of divergence and charge of this electron ring may reveal information about the wakefield structure and trapping potential. Supported by U.S. Department of Energy and the National Nuclear Security Administration and Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  5. Dose properties of a laser accelerated electron beam and prospects for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Kainz, K K; Hogstrom, K R; Antolak, J A; Almond, P R; Bloch, C D; Chiu, C; Fomytskyi, M; Raischel, F; Downer, M; Tajima, T

    2004-07-01

    Laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) technology has evolved to where it should be evaluated for its potential as a future competitor to existing technology that produces electron and x-ray beams. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the dosimetric properties of an electron beam that should be achievable using existing LWFA technology, and to document the necessary improvements to make radiotherapy application for LWFA viable. This paper first qualitatively reviews the fundamental principles of LWFA and describes a potential design for a 30 cm accelerator chamber containing a gas target. Electron beam energy spectra, upon which our dose calculations are based, were obtained from a uniform energy distribution and from two-dimensional particle-in-cell (2D PIC) simulations. The 2D PIC simulation parameters are consistent with those reported by a previous LWFA experiment. According to the 2D PIC simulations, only approximately 0.3% of the LWFA electrons are emitted with an energy greater than 1 MeV. We studied only the high-energy electrons to determine their potential for clinical electron beams of central energy from 9 to 21 MeV. Each electron beam was broadened and flattened by designing a dual scattering foil system to produce a uniform beam (103%>off-axis ratio>95%) over a 25 x 25 cm2 field. An energy window (deltaE) ranging from 0.5 to 6.5 MeV was selected to study central-axis depth dose, beam flatness, and dose rate. Dose was calculated in water at a 100 cm source-to-surface distance using the EGS/BEAM Monte Carlo algorithm. Calculations showed that the beam flatness was fairly insensitive to deltaE. However, since the falloff of the depth-dose curve (R10-R90) and the dose rate both increase with deltaE, a tradeoff between minimizing (R10-R90) and maximizing dose rate is implied. If deltaE is constrained so that R10-R90 is within 0.5 cm of its value for a monoenergetic beam, the maximum practical dose rate based on 2D PIC is approximately 0.1 Gy min

  6. Design of an electron-accelerator-driven compact neutron source for non-destructive assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, A.; Ikeda, S.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2017-09-01

    The threat of nuclear and radiological terrorism remains one of the greatest challenges to international security, and the threat is constantly evolving. In order to prevent nuclear terrorism, it is important to avoid unlawful import of nuclear materials, such as uranium and plutonium. Development of technologies for non-destructive measurement, detection and recognition of nuclear materials is essential for control at national borders. At Tokyo Institute of Technology, a compact neutron source system driven by an electron-accelerator has been designed for non-destructive assay (NDA). This system is composed of a combination of an S-band (2.856 GHz) RF-gun, a tungsten target to produce photons by bremsstrahlung, a beryllium target, which is suitable for use in generating neutrons because of the low threshold energy of photonuclear reactions, and a moderator to thermalize the fast neutrons. The advantage of this system can accelerate a short pulse beam with a pulse width less than 1 μs which is difficult to produce by neutron generators. The amounts of photons and neutron produced by electron beams were simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation code PHITS 2.82. When the RF-gun is operated with an average electron beam current of 0.1 mA, it is expected that the neutron intensities are 1.19 × 109 n/s and 9.94 × 109 n/s for incident electron beam energies of 5 MeV and 10 MeV, respectively.

  7. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Boytsov, A. Yu.; Donets, D. E.; Donets, E. D.

    2015-08-15

    The type of the Electron String Ion Sources (ESIS) is considered to be the appropriate one to produce pulsed C{sup 4+} and C{sup 6+} ion beams for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact, the new test ESIS Krion-6T already now provides more than 10{sup 10} C{sup 4+} ions per pulse and about 5 × 10{sup 9} C{sup 6+} ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable to apply at synchrotrons. It has also been found that Krion-6T can provide more than 10{sup 11} C{sup 6+} ions per second at the 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can bemore » increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. ESIS can be also a suitable type of ion source to produce the {sup 11}C radioactive ion beams. A specialized cryogenic cell was experimentally tested at the Krion-2M ESIS for pulse injection of gaseous species into the electron string. It has been shown in experiments with stable methane that the total conversion efficiency of methane molecules to C{sup 4+} ions reached 5%÷10%. For cancer therapy with simultaneous irradiation and precise dose control (positron emission tomography) by means of {sup 11}C, transporting to the tumor with the primary accelerated {sup 11}C{sup 4+} beam, this efficiency is preliminarily considered to be large enough to produce the {sup 11}C{sup 4+} beam from radioactive methane and to inject this beam into synchrotrons.« less

  8. Compact beam transport system for free-electron lasers driven by a laser plasma accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Dong; ...

    2017-02-01

    Utilizing laser-driven plasma accelerators (LPAs) as a high-quality electron beam source is a promising approach to significantly downsize the x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) facility. A multi-GeV LPA beam can be generated in several-centimeter acceleration distance, with a high peak current and a low transverse emittance, which will considerably benefit a compact FEL design. However, the large initial angular divergence and energy spread make it challenging to transport the beam and realize FEL radiation. In this paper, a novel design of beam transport system is proposed to maintain the superior features of the LPA beam and a transverse gradient undulator (TGU)more » is also adopted as an effective energy spread compensator to generate high-brilliance FEL radiation. As a result, theoretical analysis and numerical simulations are presented based on a demonstration experiment with an electron energy of 380 MeV and a radiation wavelength of 30 nm.« less

  9. Reinventing the Accelerator for the High Energy Frontier

    ScienceCinema

    Rosenzweig, James [UCLA, Los Angeles, California, United States

    2017-12-09

    The history of discovery in high-energy physics has been intimately connected with progress in methods of accelerating particles for the past 75 years. This remains true today, as the post-LHC era in particle physics will require significant innovation and investment in a superconducting linear collider. The choice of the linear collider as the next-generation discovery machine, and the selection of superconducting technology has rather suddenly thrown promising competing techniques -- such as very large hadron colliders, muon colliders, and high-field, high frequency linear colliders -- into the background. We discuss the state of such conventional options, and the likelihood of their eventual success. We then follow with a much longer view: a survey of a new, burgeoning frontier in high energy accelerators, where intense lasers, charged particle beams, and plasmas are all combined in a cross-disciplinary effort to reinvent the accelerator from its fundamental principles on up.

  10. Energy spread minimization in a cascaded laser wakefield accelerator via velocity bunching

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhijun; Li, Wentao; Wang, Wentao

    2016-05-15

    We propose a scheme to minimize the energy spread of an electron beam (e-beam) in a cascaded laser wakefield accelerator to the one-thousandth-level by inserting a stage to compress its longitudinal spatial distribution. In this scheme, three-segment plasma stages are designed for electron injection, e-beam length compression, and e-beam acceleration, respectively. The trapped e-beam in the injection stage is transferred to the zero-phase region at the center of one wakefield period in the compression stage where the length of the e-beam can be greatly shortened owing to the velocity bunching. After being seeded into the third stage for acceleration, themore » e-beam can be accelerated to a much higher energy before its energy chirp is compensated owing to the shortened e-beam length. A one-dimensional theory and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations have demonstrated this scheme and an e-beam with 0.2% rms energy spread and low transverse emittance could be generated without loss of charge.« less

  11. The solutions and thermodynamic dark energy in the accelerating universe

    SciTech Connect

    Demirel, E. C. Günay

    2016-03-25

    Recently, Tachyonic matter expressed in terms of scalar field is suggested to be the reason of acceleration of the universe as dark energy [1]-[3]. In this study, dynamic solutions and thermodynamic properties of matters such as Tachyonic matters were investigated.

  12. Acceleration and energy loss in N = 4 SYM

    SciTech Connect

    Chernicoff, Mariano; Gueijosa, Alberto

    2009-04-20

    This contribution is based on two talks given at the XIII Mexican School of Particles and Fields. We revisit some of the results presented in [19], concerning the rate of energy loss of an accelerating quark in strongly-coupled N = 4 super-Yang-Mills.

  13. On the longitudinal distribution of electric field in the acceleration zones of plasma accelerators and thrusters with closed electron drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, V. P.

    2017-04-01

    The long-term experience in controlling the electric field distribution in the discharge gaps of plasma accelerators and thrusters with closed electron drift and the key ideas determining the concepts of these devices and tendencies of their development are analyzed. It is shown that an electrostatic mechanism of ion acceleration in plasma by an uncompensated space charge of the cloud of magnetized electrons "kept" to the magnetic field takes place in the acceleration zones and that the electric field distribution can be controlled by varying the magnetic field in the discharge gap. The role played by the space charge makes the mechanism of ion acceleration in this type of thrusters is fundamentally different from the acceleration mechanism operating in purely electrostatic thrusters.

  14. ELECTRON AND PROTON ACCELERATION DURING THE FIRST GROUND LEVEL ENHANCEMENT EVENT OF SOLAR CYCLE 24

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.; Sun, L. P.; Firoz, Kazi A.

    2013-06-10

    High-energy particles were recorded by near-Earth spacecraft and ground-based neutron monitors (NMs) on 2012 May 17. This event was the first ground level enhancement (GLE) of solar cycle 24. In this study, we try to identify the acceleration source(s) of solar energetic particles by combining in situ particle measurements from the WIND/3DP, GOES 13, and solar cosmic rays registered by several NMs, as well as remote-sensing solar observations from SDO/AIA, SOHO/LASCO, and RHESSI. We derive the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) path length (1.25 {+-} 0.05 AU) and solar particle release time (01:29 {+-} 00:01 UT) of the first arriving electronsmore » by using their velocity dispersion and taking into account contamination effects. We found that the electron impulsive injection phase, indicated by the dramatic change in the spectral index, is consistent with flare non-thermal emission and type III radio bursts. Based on the potential field source surface concept, modeling of the open-field lines rooted in the active region has been performed to provide escape channels for flare-accelerated electrons. Meanwhile, relativistic protons are found to be released {approx}10 minutes later than the electrons, assuming their scatter-free travel along the same IMF path length. Combining multi-wavelength imaging data of the prominence eruption and coronal mass ejection (CME), we obtain evidence that GLE protons, with an estimated kinetic energy of {approx}1.12 GeV, are probably accelerated by the CME-driven shock when it travels to {approx}3.07 solar radii. The time-of-maximum spectrum of protons is typical for shock wave acceleration.« less

  15. 1 MeV, 10 kW DC electron accelerator for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, B.; Acharya, S.; Bhattacharjee, D.; Bakhtsingh, R. I.; Rajan, R.; Sharma, D. K.; Dewangan, S.; Sharma, V.; Patel, R.; Tiwari, R.; Benarjee, S.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2016-03-01

    Several modern applications of radiation processing like medical sterilization, rubber vulcanization, polymerization, cross-linking and pollution control from thermal power stations etc. require D.C. electron accelerators of energy ranging from a few hundred keVs to few MeVs and power from a few kilowatts to hundreds of kilowatts. To match these requirements, a 3 MeV, 30 kW DC electron linac has been developed at BARC, Mumbai and current operational experience of 1 MeV, 10 kW beam power will be described in this paper. The LINAC composed mainly of Electron Gun, Accelerating Tubes, Magnets, High Voltage source and provides 10 kW beam power at the Ti beam window stably after the scanning section. The control of the LINAC is fully automated. Here Beam Optics study is carried out to reach the preferential parameters of Accelerating as well as optical elements. Beam trials have been conducted to find out the suitable operation parameters of the system.

  16. Development of a dual-pulse RF driver for an S-band (= 2856 MHz) RF electron linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Sungsu; Kim, Yujong; Lee, Byeong-No; Lee, Byung Cheol; Cha, Hyungki; Ha, Jang Ho; Park, Hyung Dal; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hui Su; Buaphad, Pikad

    2016-04-01

    The radiation equipment research division of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has developed a Container Inspection System (CIS) using a Radio Frequency (RF) electron linear accelerator for port security. The primary purpose of the CIS is to detect nuclear materials and explosives, as well country-specific prohibited substances, e.g., smuggled. The CIS consists of a 9/6 MeV dualenergy electron linear accelerator for distinguishing between organic and inorganic materials. The accelerator consists of an electron gun, an RF accelerating structure, an RF driver, a modulator, electromagnets, a cooling system, a X-ray generating target, X-ray collimator, a detector, and a container moving system. The RF driver is an important part of the configuration because it is the RF power source: it supplies the RF power to the accelerating structure. A unique aspect of the RF driver is that it generates dual RF power to generate dual energy (9/6 MeV). The advantage of this RF driver is that it can allow the pulse width to vary and can be used to obtain a wide range of energy output, and pulse repetition rates up to 300 Hz. For this reason, 140 W (5 MW - 9 MeV) and 37 W (3.4 MW - 6 MeV) power outputs are available independently. A high power test for 20 minutes demonstrate that stable dual output powers can be generated. Moreover, the dual power can be applied to the accelerator which has stable accelerator operation. In this paper, the design, fabrication and high power test of the RF driver for the RF electron linear accelerator (linac) are presented.

  17. Optically controlled laser-plasma electron accelerator for compact gamma-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmykov, S. Y.; Davoine, X.; Ghebregziabher, I.; Shadwick, B. A.

    2018-02-01

    Generating quasi-monochromatic, femtosecond γ-ray pulses via Thomson scattering (TS) demands exceptional electron beam (e-beam) quality, such as percent-scale energy spread and five-dimensional brightness over 1016 A m-2. We show that near-GeV e-beams with these metrics can be accelerated in a cavity of electron density, driven with an incoherent stack of Joule-scale laser pulses through a mm-size, dense plasma (n 0 ˜ 1019 cm-3). Changing the time delay, frequency difference, and energy ratio of the stack components controls the e-beam phase space on the femtosecond scale, while the modest energy of the optical driver helps afford kHz-scale repetition rate at manageable average power. Blue-shifting one stack component by a considerable fraction of the carrier frequency makes the stack immune to self-compression. This, in turn, minimizes uncontrolled variation in the cavity shape, suppressing continuous injection of ambient plasma electrons, preserving a single, ultra-bright electron bunch. In addition, weak focusing of the trailing component of the stack induces periodic injection, generating, in a single shot, a train of bunches with controllable energy spacing and femtosecond synchronization. These designer e-beams, inaccessible to conventional acceleration methods, generate, via TS, gigawatt γ-ray pulses (or multi-color pulse trains) with the mean energy in the range of interest for nuclear photonics (4-16 MeV), containing over 106 photons within a microsteradian-scale observation cone.

  18. Temporal characterization of ultrashort linearly chirped electron bunches generated from a laser wakefield accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, C. J.; Hua, J. F.; Wan, Y.; ...

    2016-06-17

    A new method for diagnosing the temporal characteristics of ultrashort electron bunches with linear energy chirp generated from a laser wakefield accelerator is described. When the ionization-injected bunch interacts with the back of the drive laser, it is deflected and stretched along the direction of the electric field of the laser. Upon exiting the plasma, if the bunch goes through a narrow slit in front of the dipole magnet that disperses the electrons in the plane of the laser polarization, it can form a series of bunchlets that have different energies but are separated by half a laser wavelength. Sincemore » only the electrons that are undeflected by the laser go through the slit, the energy spectrum of the bunch is modulated. By analyzing the modulated energy spectrum, the shots where the bunch has a linear energy chirp can be recognized. Consequently, the energy chirp and beam current profile of those bunches can be reconstructed. Lastly, this method is demonstrated through particle-in-cell simulations and experiment.« less

  19. Ultralow-emittance measurement of high-quality electron beams from a laser wakefield accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Zhiyong; Yu, Changhai; Wang, Wentao; Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Wentao; Qi, Rong; Zhang, Zhijun; Liu, Jiaqi; Fang, Ming; Feng, Ke; Wu, Ying; Ke, Lintong; Chen, Yu; Xu, Yi; Leng, Yuxin; Wang, Cheng; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2018-02-01

    By designing a cascaded laser wakefield accelerator, high-quality monoenergetic electron beams (e beams) with peak energies of 340-360 MeV and rms divergence of <0.3 mrad were produced. Based on this accelerator, the e-beam betatron radiation spectra were measured exactly via the single-photon counting technique to diagnose the e-beam transverse emittance in a single shot. The e-beam transverse size in the wakefield was estimated to be ˜0.35 μm by comparing the measured X-ray spectra with the analytical model of synchrotron-like radiation. By combining the measured e-beam energy and divergence, the normalized transverse emittance was estimated to be as low as 56 μm mrad and consistent with particle-in-cell simulations. These high-energy ultralow-emittance e beams hold great potential applications in developing free electron lasers and high-energy X-ray and gamma ray sources.

  20. Soft electron (low energy electron) processing of foods for microbial control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Kikuchi, Olivia Kimiko; Nakaoka, Motoko; Miike, Mika; Hayashi, Toru

    2002-03-01

    "Soft-electron" is a new term we have created referring to electrons with energies of 300 kV or lower. Homogenous irradiation of surfaces with soft electrons can decontaminate dry food ingredients such as gains, pulses, spices, dehydrated vegetables and tealeaves without detrimental effects. Treatment of soybeans with electrons of acceleration voltages at 170 kV reduced their microbial count to an undetectable level. Pre-treatment of soybeans with soft electrons enabled the extension of soymilk without sterilization process at a high temperature (120°C). The gelatinized property of soymilk from soft electron-treated beans was better than that of high-temperature sterilized soymilks. These results indicate that soft-electron sterilization improved the quality of soybeans for the processing of soymilk and Tofu(soymilk curd).

  1. An introduction to the physics of high energy accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.A.; Syphers, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This book is an outgrowth of a course given by the authors at various universities and particle accelerator schools. It starts from the basic physics principles governing particle motion inside an accelerator, and leads to a full description of the complicated phenomena and analytical tools encountered in the design and operation of a working accelerator. The book covers acceleration and longitudinal beam dynamics, transverse motion and nonlinear perturbations, intensity dependent effects, emittance preservation methods and synchrotron radiation. These subjects encompass the core concerns of a high energy synchrotron. The authors apparently do not assume the reader has much previous knowledgemore » about accelerator physics. Hence, they take great care to introduce the physical phenomena encountered and the concepts used to describe them. The mathematical formulae and derivations are deliberately kept at a level suitable for beginners. After mastering this course, any interested reader will not find it difficult to follow subjects of more current interests. Useful homework problems are provided at the end of each chapter. Many of the problems are based on actual activities associated with the design and operation of existing accelerators.« less

  2. RADIO DIAGNOSTICS OF ELECTRON ACCELERATION SITES DURING THE ERUPTION OF A FLUX ROPE IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Carley, Eoin P.; Gallagher, Peter T.; Vilmer, Nicole, E-mail: eoin.carley@obspm.fr

    2016-12-10

    Electron acceleration in the solar corona is often associated with flares and the eruption of twisted magnetic structures known as flux ropes. However, the locations and mechanisms of such particle acceleration during the flare and eruption are still subject to much investigation. Observing the exact sites of particle acceleration can help confirm how the flare and eruption are initiated and how they evolve. Here we use the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly to analyze a flare and erupting flux rope on 2014 April 18, while observations from the Nançay Radio Astronomy Facility allow us to diagnose the sites of electron acceleration duringmore » the eruption. Our analysis shows evidence of a pre-formed flux rope that slowly rises and becomes destabilized at the time of a C-class flare, plasma jet, and the escape of ≳75 keV electrons from the rope center into the corona. As the eruption proceeds, continued acceleration of electrons with energies of ∼5 keV occurs above the flux rope for a period over 5 minutes. At the flare peak, one site of electron acceleration is located close to the flare site, while another is driven by the erupting flux rope into the corona at speeds of up to 400 km s{sup −1}. Energetic electrons then fill the erupting volume, eventually allowing the flux rope legs to be clearly imaged from radio sources at 150–445 MHz. Following the analysis of Joshi et al. (2015), we conclude that the sites of energetic electrons are consistent with flux rope eruption via a tether cutting or flux cancellation scenario inside a magnetic fan-spine structure. In total, our radio observations allow us to better understand the evolution of a flux rope eruption and its associated electron acceleration sites, from eruption initiation to propagation into the corona.« less

  3. Electron beam directed energy device and methods of using same

    DOEpatents

    Retsky, Michael W.

    2007-10-16

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for an electron beam directed energy device. The device consists of an electron gun with one or more electron beams. The device includes one or more accelerating plates with holes aligned for beam passage. The plates may be flat or preferably shaped to direct each electron beam to exit the electron gun at a predetermined orientation. In one preferred application, the device is located in outer space with individual beams that are directed to focus at a distant target to be used to impact and destroy missiles. The aimings of the separate beams are designed to overcome Coulomb repulsion. A method is also presented for directing the beams to a target considering the variable terrestrial magnetic field. In another preferred application, the electron beam is directed into the ground to produce a subsurface x-ray source to locate and/or destroy buried or otherwise hidden objects including explosive devices.

  4. Study on the insulation gas system of the 300 keV electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, K. W.; Dalim, Y.; Naim, B.; Chulan, R. M.; Hashim, S. A.; Azhar, M.; Mohtar, M.; Baijan, A. H.; Sabri, R. M.; Faiz, M.; Azraf, A.; Zaid, M.; Azaman, A.; Rosli, R. C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the method used to identify the parameters required for the insulation gas system. This locally designed low energy electron accelerator with the present energy of 140 keV will be upgraded to 300 keV. The corona discharge will occur with the increment of beam energy; therefore insulation gas system is required to prevent this phenomenon. The corona discharge will disrupt the beam energy and harmful to the nearby devices due to the sparkling current. Therefore, a pressure vessel comprises of the few ten bar insulation gas has been designed to avoid the corona effect. As a result, the insulation species gas of nitrogen with the required pressure has been selected and identified based on its flexibility and toxicity

  5. Free electron lasers for transmission of energy in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segall, S. B.; Hiddleston, H. R.; Catella, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    A one-dimensional resonant-particle model of a free electron laser (FEL) is used to calculate laser gain and conversion efficiency of electron energy to photon energy. The optical beam profile for a resonant optical cavity is included in the model as an axial variation of laser intensity. The electron beam profile is matched to the optical beam profile and modeled as an axial variation of current density. Effective energy spread due to beam emittance is included. Accelerators appropriate for a space-based FEL oscillator are reviewed. Constraints on the concentric optical resonator and on systems required for space operation are described. An example is given of a space-based FEL that would produce 1.7 MW of average output power at 0.5 micrometer wavelength with over 50% conversion efficiency of electrical energy to laser energy. It would utilize a 10 m-long amplifier centered in a 200 m-long optical cavity. A 3-amp, 65 meV electrostatic accelerator would provide the electron beam and recover the beam after it passes through the amplifier. Three to five shuttle flights would be needed to place the laser in orbit.

  6. The Strongest Acceleration of >40 keV Electrons by ICME-driven Shocks at 1 au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Wang, Linghua; Li, Gang; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Tian, Hui; Bale, Stuart D.

    2018-01-01

    We present two case studies of the in-situ electron acceleration during the 2000 February 11 shock and the 2004 July 22 shock, with the strongest electron flux enhancement at 40 keV across the shock, among all the quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel ICME-driven shocks observed by the WIND 3DP instrument from 1995 through 2014 at 1 au. We find that for this quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shock on 2000 February 11 (2004 July 22), the shocked electron differential fluxes at ∼0.4–50 keV in the downstream generally fit well to a double-power-law spectrum, J ∼ E ‑β , with an index of β ∼ 3.15 (4.0) at energies below a break at ∼3 keV (∼1 keV) and β ∼ 2.65 (2.6) at energies above. For both shock events, the downstream electron spectral indices appear to be similar for all pitch angles, which are significantly larger than the index prediction by diffusive shock acceleration. In addition, the downstream electron pitch-angle distributions show the anisotropic beams in the anti-sunward-traveling direction, while the ratio of the downstream over ambient fluxes appears to peak near 90° pitch angles, at all energies of ∼0.4–50 keV. These results suggest that in both shocks, shock drift acceleration likely plays an important role in accelerating electrons in situ at 1 au. Such ICME-driven shocks could contribute to the formation of solar wind halo electrons at energies ≲2 keV, as well as the production of solar wind superhalo electrons at energies ≳2 keV in interplanetary space.

  7. A proposed dielectric-based laser-driven electron accelerator using crossed cylindrical laser focusing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. C.; Byer, R. L.

    1997-03-01

    We propose a dielectric-based, crossed-laser-beam electron linear accelerator structure operating in a vacuum that is capable of providing 1 TeV electrons in approximately one kilometer. The accelerator structure employs cylindrical laser focusing that allows for simplifying the fabrication process, accelerating more electrons, reducing the electron phase slip, and spreading the structural thermal loading. We present a ˜0.7 GeV/m average-gradient accelerator structure, repeated every 390 μm, subject to the laser damage fluence 2 J/cm2 on the optical components for 100 fsec laser pulses.

  8. FLARE VERSUS SHOCK ACCELERATION OF HIGH-ENERGY PROTONS IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Cliver, E. W.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have presented evidence for a significant to dominant role for a flare-resident acceleration process for high-energy protons in large (“gradual”) solar energetic particle (SEP) events, contrary to the more generally held view that such protons are primarily accelerated at shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The new support for this flare-centric view is provided by correlations between the sizes of X-ray and/or microwave bursts and associated SEP events. For one such study that considered >100 MeV proton events, we present evidence based on CME speeds and widths, shock associations, and electron-to-proton ratios that indicates that eventsmore » omitted from that investigation’s analysis should have been included. Inclusion of these outlying events reverses the study’s qualitative result and supports shock acceleration of >100 MeV protons. Examination of the ratios of 0.5 MeV electron intensities to >100 MeV proton intensities for the Grechnev et al. event sample provides additional support for shock acceleration of high-energy protons. Simply scaling up a classic “impulsive” SEP event to produce a large >100 MeV proton event implies the existence of prompt 0.5 MeV electron events that are approximately two orders of magnitude larger than are observed. While classic “impulsive” SEP events attributed to flares have high electron-to-proton ratios (≳5 × 10{sup 5}) due to a near absence of >100 MeV protons, large poorly connected (≥W120) gradual SEP events, attributed to widespread shock acceleration, have electron-to-proton ratios of ∼2 × 10{sup 3}, similar to those of comparably sized well-connected (W20–W90) SEP events.« less

  9. Electron energy distributions measured during electron beam/plasma interactions. [in E region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jost, R. J.; Anderson, H. R.; Mcgarity, J. O.

    1980-01-01

    In the large vacuum facility at the NASA-Johnson Space Center an electron beam was projected 20 m parallel to B from a gun with variable accelerating potential (1.0 to 2.5 kV) to an aluminum target. The ionospheric neutral pressure and field were approximated. Beam electron energy distributions were measured directly using an electrostatic deflection analyzer and indirectly with a detector that responded to the X-rays produced by electron impact on the target. At low currents the distribution is sharply peaked at the acceleration potential. At high currents a beam plasma discharge occurs and electrons are redistributed in energy so that the former energy peak broadens to 10-15 percent FWHM with a strongly enhanced low energy tail. At the 10% of maximum point the energy spectrum ranges from less than 1/2 to 1.2 times the gun energy. The effect is qualitatively the same at all pitch angles and locations sampled.

  10. Yang-Mills Theories at High Energy Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterman, George

    I will begin with a brief review of the triumph of Yang-Mills theory at particle accelerators, a development that began some years after their historic paper. This story reached a culmination, or at least local extremum, with the discovery at the Large Hadron Collider of a Higgs-like scalar boson in 2012. The talk then proceeds to a slightly more technical level, discussing how we derive predictions from the gauge field theories of the Standard Model and its extensions for use at high energy accelerators.

  11. Yang-Mills theories at high energy accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterman, George

    2016-03-01

    I will begin with a brief review of the triumph of Yang-Mills theory at particle accelerators, a development that began some years after their historic paper. This story reached a culmination, or at least local extremum, with the discovery at the Large Hadron Collider of a Higgs-like scalar boson in 2012. The talk then proceeds to a slightly more technical level, discussing how we derive predictions from the gauge field theories of the Standard Model and its extensions for use at high energy accelerators.

  12. Electron energy diffusion and advection due to non-linear electron-chorus wave interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qiuhua; Zheng, Yihua; Fok, Mei-Ching; Lui, Anthony T. Y.

    2012-05-01

    Non-linear plasma waves effects such as phase bunching and phase trapping can cause drastic changes (tens keVs) in the energies of electrons in the magnetosphere at the timescale of a few seconds. Previous studies of non-linear wave effects mainly focused on the energy changes of an electron passing through a plasma wave region, thus covering only a fraction of the electron's single-trip trajectory between its two mirror points. In this study, we use a test-particle method to study the cumulative non-linear wave effects over multiple electron bounce periods. From our simulation results and analyses, we find that non-linear wave-particle interactions are rather common with the presence of chorus waves. The non-linear wave effects take the form of energy advection, which can accelerate electrons rather efficiently. However, energy advection is often accompanied by electron pitch angle advection, causing electron pitch angles to decrease and constraining electron energy advection. The test particle approach we present here can be used to estimate nonlinear transport coefficients, which need to be incorporated into global radiation belt models.

  13. High voltage high brightness electron accelerator with MITL voltage adder coupled to foilless diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazarakis, Michael G.; Poukey, J. W.; Rovang, D.; Cordova, S.; Pankuch, P.; Wavrik, R.; Smith, D. L.; Maenchen, J. E.; Bennett, L.; Shimp, K.; Law, K.

    1996-06-01

    The design and analysis of a high brightness electron beam experiment under construction at Sandia National Laboratory is presented. The beam energy is 12 MeV, the current 35-40 kA, the rms radius 0.5 mm, and the pulse duration FWHM 40 ns. The accelerator is SABRE [J. Corley, J. A. Alexander, P. J. Pankuch, C. E. Heath, D. L. Johnson, J. J. Ramirez, and G. J. Denison, in Proceedings of the Eighth International IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, San Diego, California, 1991 (IEEE, New York, 1991), p. 920], a pulsed inductive voltage adder, and the electron source is a magnetically immersed foilless diode. This experiment has as its goal to stretch the technology to the edge and produce the highest possible electron current in a submillimiter radius beam.

  14. Establishment of technical prerequisites for cell irradiation experiments with laser-accelerated electrons.

    PubMed

    Beyreuther, E; Enghardt, W; Kaluza, M; Karsch, L; Laschinsky, L; Lessmann, E; Nicolai, M; Pawelke, J; Richter, C; Sauerbrey, R; Schlenvoigt, H P; Baumann, M

    2010-04-01

    , along with the optimized setup, to a beam diameter of 35 mm, sufficient for the irradiation of common cell culture vessels. The corresponding maximum dose inhomogeneity over the beam spot was less than 10% for all irradiated samples. At cell position, the electrons posses a mean kinetic energy of 13.6 MeV, a bunch length of about 5 ps (FWHM), and a mean pulse dose of 1.6 mGy/bunch. Cross correlations show clear linear dependencies for the online recorded accumulated bunch charges, pulse doses, and pulse numbers on absolute doses determined with EBT-1 films. Hence, the established monitoring system is suitable for beam control and a dedicated dose delivery. Additionally, reasonable day-to-day stable and reproducible properties of the electron beam were achieved. Basic technical prerequisites for future cell irradiation experiments with ultrashort pulsed laser-accelerated electrons were established at the JETI laser system. The implemented online control system is suitable to compensate beam intensity fluctuations and the achieved accuracy of dose delivery to the cells is sufficient for radiobiological cell experiments. Hence, systematic in vitro cell irradiation experiments can be performed, being the first step toward clinical application of laser-accelerated particles. Further steps, including the transfer of the established methods to experiments on higher biological systems or to other laser-based particle accelerators, will be prepared.

  15. The conversion of CESR to operate as the Test Accelerator, CesrTA. Part 3: Electron cloud diagnostics

    DOE PAGES

    Billing, M. G.; Conway, J. V.; Crittenden, J. A.; ...

    2016-04-28

    Cornell's electron/positron storage ring (CESR) was modified over a series of accelerator shutdowns beginning in May 2008, which substantially improves its capability for research and development for particle accelerators. CESR's energy span from 1.8 to 5.6 GeV with both electrons and positrons makes it ideal for the study of a wide spectrum of accelerator physics issues and instrumentation related to present light sources and future lepton damping rings. Additionally a number of these are also relevant for the beam physics of proton accelerators. This paper is the third in a series of four describing the conversion of CESR to themore » test accelerator, CESRTA. The first two papers discuss the overall plan for the conversion of the storage ring to an instrument capable of studying advanced accelerator physics issues [1] and the details of the vacuum system upgrades [2]. This paper focuses on the necessary development of new instrumentation, situated in four dedicated experimental regions, capable of studying such phenomena as electron clouds (ECs) and methods to mitigate EC effects. The fourth paper in this series describes the vacuum system modifications of the superconducting wigglers to accommodate the diagnostic instrumentation for the study of EC behavior within wigglers. Lastly, while the initial studies of CESRTA focused on questions related to the International Linear Collider damping ring design, CESRTA is a very versatile storage ring, capable of studying a wide range of accelerator physics and instrumentation questions.« less

  16. Decomposition of PCBs in transformer oil using an electron beam accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, In-Ha; Lee, Myun-Joo; Mah, Yoon-Jung

    2012-07-01

    Decomposition of PCBs in commercially used transformer oil used for more than 30 years has been carried out at normal temperature and pressure without any additives using an electron beam accelerator. The experiments were carried out in two ways: batch and continuous pilot plant with 1.5 MeV of energy, a 50 mA current, and 75 kW of power in a commercial scale accelerator. The electron beam irradiation seemed to transform large molecular weight compounds into lower ones, but the impact was considered too small on the physical properties of oil. Residual concentrations of PCBs after irradiation depend on the absorption dose of the electron beam energy, but aliphatic chloride compounds were produced at higher doses of irradiation. As the results from FT-NMR, chloride ions decomposed from the PCBs are likely to react with aliphatic hydro carbon compounds rather than existing as free radical ions in the transformer oil. Since this is a dry process, treated oil can be used as cutting oil or machine oil for heavy equipment without any additional treatments.

  17. HF-enhanced 4278-Å airglow: evidence of accelerated ionosphere electrons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallen, C. T.; Watkins, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    aurora maintained by HF-accelerated (non-thermal) electrons. The numerical results presented here do not necessarily rule out the presence of HF-accelerated electrons with energies exceeding 18 eV. However, vertical or field-aligned airglow intensity measurements made during twilight conditions do not provide definitive evidence of energetic HF-accelerated electrons. Consequently, artificial blue-line airglow measurements should not be used to estimate N2+ ionization rates without also accounting for temperature-dependent chemistry and diffusion. Future experiments that make simultaneous measurements of N2+ ion airglow emissions from both the first negative bands and the Meinel bands can potentially resolve the relative contributions of accelerated electron and resonant scattering mechanisms. Airglow emission rates from these bands are expected to be in strict proportion when the emissions result from electron impact ionization of N2 molecules. Side-view altitude-resolved 4278-Å airglow measurements may also indicate the presence of energetic HF-accelerated electrons if the blue-line emissions are determined to occur below the shadow height.

  18. Interaction of an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train with a W-band accelerating structure: High power and high gradient

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, D.; Antipov, S.; Jing, C.; ...

    2016-02-05

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to themore » interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. As a result, measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method.« less

  19. Interaction of an Ultrarelativistic Electron Bunch Train with a W-Band Accelerating Structure: High Power and High Gradient.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Antipov, S; Jing, C; Power, J G; Conde, M; Wisniewski, E; Liu, W; Qiu, J; Ha, G; Dolgashev, V; Tang, C; Gai, W

    2016-02-05

    Electron beam interaction with high frequency structures (beyond microwave regime) has a great impact on future high energy frontier machines. We report on the generation of multimegawatt pulsed rf power at 91 GHz in a planar metallic accelerating structure driven by an ultrarelativistic electron bunch train. This slow-wave wakefield device can also be used for high gradient acceleration of electrons with a stable rf phase and amplitude which are controlled by manipulation of the bunch train. To achieve precise control of the rf pulse properties, a two-beam wakefield interferometry method was developed in which the rf pulse, due to the interference of the wakefields from the two bunches, was measured as a function of bunch separation. Measurements of the energy change of a trailing electron bunch as a function of the bunch separation confirmed the interferometry method.

  20. Control of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams from laser-plasma accelerators with adjustable shock density profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Hai-En; Swanson, Kelly K.; Barber, Sam K.; Lehe, Remi; Mao, Hann-Shin; Mittelberger, Daniel E.; Steinke, Sven; Nakamura, Kei; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron G. R.; Leemans, Wim

    2018-04-01

    The injection physics in a shock-induced density down-ramp injector was characterized, demonstrating precise control of a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA). Using a jet-blade assembly, experiments systematically varied the shock injector profile, including shock angle, shock position, up-ramp width, and acceleration length. Our work demonstrates that beam energy, energy spread, and pointing can be controlled by adjusting these parameters. As a result, an electron beam that was highly tunable from 25 to 300 MeV with 8% energy spread (ΔEFWHM/E), 1.5 mrad divergence, and 0.35 mrad pointing fluctuation was produced. Particle-in-cell simulation characterized how variation in the shock angle and up-ramp width impacted the injection process. This highly controllable LPA represents a suitable, compact electron beam source for LPA applications such as Thomson sources and free-electron lasers.

  1. High-current pulsed electron accelerator “Gamma-1” with output power up to 1.5 TW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalov, N. V.; Gordeev, V. S.; Punin, V. T.; Grishin, A. V.; Myskov, G. A.; Nazarenko, S. T.; Mikhailov, E. S.; Kalashnikov, D. A.; Kozachek, A. V.; Pavlov, V. S.; Strabykin, K. V.; Glushkov, S. L.; Puchagin, S. Yu.; Mayornikova, V. L.; Mayorov, R. A.; Moiseevskikh, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    A multi-module multi-terawatt electrophysical facility “Gamma” is being developed at RFNCVNIIEF, Sarov, Russia. The facility will be used for conducting experiments in different fields of radiation physics. The first module of the facility - a high-current electron accelerator “Gamma-1” has been created. The output electric parameters of the module are as follows: electron energy ≤2.0 MeV, diode current 0.75 MA, maximal electric power 1.5 TW. Description of accelerator design and principles of its operation are presented. Results of experiments as well as further prospects on building a full-scale facility are given.

  2. Regional warming of hot extremes accelerated by surface energy fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donat, M. G.; Pitman, A. J.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-07-01

    Strong regional differences exist in how hot temperature extremes increase under global warming. Using an ensemble of coupled climate models, we examine the regional warming rates of hot extremes relative to annual average warming rates in the same regions. We identify hot spots of accelerated warming of model-simulated hot extremes in Europe, North America, South America, and Southeast China. These hot spots indicate where the warm tail of a distribution of temperatures increases faster than the average and are robust across most Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models. Exploring the conditions on the specific day when the hot extreme occurs demonstrates that the hot spots are explained by changes in the surface energy fluxes consistent with drying soils. However, the model-simulated accelerated warming of hot extremes appears inconsistent with observations, except over Europe. The simulated acceleration of hot extremes may therefore be unreliable, a result that necessitates a reevaluation of how climate models resolve the relevant terrestrial processes.

  3. Acceleration of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays in starburst superwinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchordoqui, Luis Alfredo

    2018-03-01

    The sources of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) have been stubbornly elusive. However, the latest report of the Pierre Auger Observatory provides a compelling indication for a possible correlation between the arrival directions of UHECRs and nearby starburst galaxies. We argue that if starbursts are sources of UHECRs, then particle acceleration in the large-scale terminal shock of the superwind that flows from the starburst engine represents the best known concept model in the market. We investigate new constraints on the model and readjust free parameters accordingly. We show that UHECR acceleration above about 1 011 GeV remains consistent with observation. We also show that the model could accommodate hard source spectra as required by Auger data. We demonstrate how neutrino emission can be used as a discriminator among acceleration models.

  4. Acceleration and Propagation of Anomalous Cosmic Rays and Near-Relativistic Electrons in the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelof, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Voyager 1/2 LECP observations at the termination shock (TS) crossings established that energetic ions (40keV-1MeV) appeared to be locally accelerated "termination shock particles", and since then have exhibited remarkably steady and similar intensities at both spacecraft throughout the heliosheath (HS). On the other hand, the anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs, 4-80 MeV total energy H, He, and O ions) increased more or less steadily across the shock and then gradually peaked years later. All the time in the HS, the ACRs at each spacecraft exhibited a striking "common spectrum", i.e., closely similar intensity histories when ordered by total energy. Near-relativistic electrons (30 keV-1 MeV) exhibited seemingly mutually inconsistent behavior while the two Voyagers transited the shock and HS, with the VGR2 electrons peaking at the shock, but later disappearing for a year (in 2010) and then slowly recovering, as opposed to the less variable VGR1 electrons whose remarkably smooth time history (2008-2012) was very similar to the VGR1 ACRs. Consequently, shock acceleration seems to be operating locally at the TS along with another spatially distributed acceleration/transport mechanism within the HS. The "reservoir" equation (Roelof, AIP Conf. Proc., 1500, 174-179 and 180-184, 2012) offers quantitative explanations for many of these apparently disparate observations. Meso-scale gradients and curvatures in the magnetic field produce transverse transport of energetic particles and (in direct consequence) "transverse compressive" acceleration that relates the fractional rate of momentum d(lnp)/dt=-(1/3)div(Vperp) to the divergence of the component of the plasma velocity transverse to the magnetic field. However, this acceleration rate must compete with the extinction rate of singly-charged ions due to charge exchange with the cold interstellar neutral H-atoms that permeate the HS. The agreement of the Voyager 1/2 LECP observations with the acceleration/extinction processes has

  5. Parametric emittance measurements of electron beams produced by a laser plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, S. K.; van Tilborg, J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Lehe, R.; Tsai, H.-E.; Swanson, K. K.; Steinke, S.; Nakamura, K.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2018-05-01

    Laser plasma accelerators (LPA) offer an exciting possibility to deliver high energy, high brightness electrons beams in drastically smaller distance scales than is typical for conventional accelerators. As such, LPAs draw considerable attention as potential drivers for next generation light sources and for a compact linear collider. In order to asses the viability of an LPA source for a particular application, the brightness of the source should be properly characterized. In this paper, we present charge dependent transverse emittance measurements of LPA sources using both ionization injection and shock induced density down ramp injection, with the latter delivering smaller transverse emittances by a factor of two when controlling for charge density. The single shot emittance method is described in detail with a discussion on limitations related to second order transport effects. The direct role of space charge is explored through a series of simulations and found to be consistent with experimental observations.

  6. LILI, a 0. 5 to 1. 5. mu. s, 600 kV electron beam accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.S.; Prestwich, K.R.

    1976-01-01

    A 600 kV, 5 to 14 kJ, 0.5 to 1.5 ..mu..s electron beam accelerator was developed for gas laser excitation studies. The 1.2 MV Marx generator charges a 2 nF, solid dielectric peaking capacitor to 2.3 MV in 0.6 ..mu..s. The pulse duration is controlled by a crowbar switch. Cathode geometries were varied to generate a uniform current density beam and maximize the beam energy density that could be passed through thin foils. A 7.6 cm diameter cylindrical beam is guided through the laser chamber by a 1 to 3 kG axial magnetic field. The design and development of themore » accelerator, including experimental results of diode studies, are discussed.« less

  7. Extremely intense laser-based electron acceleration in a plasma channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vranic, Marija; Fonseca, Ricardo A.; Silva, Luis O.

    2018-03-01

    Laser pulses of extreme intensities (I> {10}22 {{W}} {{cm}}-2) are about to become available in the laboratory. The prepulse of such a laser can induce a plasma expansion that generates a low-density channel in near-critical gas jets. We present a study of channel formation and subsequent direct laser acceleration of electrons within the pre-formed channel. Radiation reaction affects the acceleration in several ways. It first interferes with the motion of the return current on the channel walls. In addition, it reduces the radial expelling efficiency of the transverse ponderomotive force, leading to the radiative trapping of particles near the channel axis. These particles then interact with the peak laser intensity and can attain multi-GeV energies.

  8. Low energy electron catalyst: the electronic origin of catalytic strategies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Daly; Sajeev, Y

    2016-10-12

    Using a low energy electron (LEE) as a catalyst, the electronic origin of the catalytic strategies corresponding to substrate selectivity, reaction specificity and reaction rate enhancement is investigated for a reversible unimolecular elementary reaction. An electronic energy complementarity between the catalyst and the substrate molecule is the origin of substrate selectivity and reaction specificity. The electronic energy complementarity is induced by tuning the electronic energy of the catalyst. The energy complementarity maximizes the binding forces between the catalyst and the molecule. Consequently, a new electronically metastable high-energy reactant state and a corresponding new low barrier reaction path are resonantly created for a specific reaction of the substrate through the formation of a catalyst-substrate transient adduct. The LEE catalysis also reveals a fundamental structure-energy correspondence in the formation of the catalyst-substrate transient adduct. Since the energy complementarities corresponding to the substrate molecules of the forward and the backward steps of the reversible reactions are not the same due to their structural differences, the LEE catalyst exhibits a unique one-way catalytic strategy, i.e., the LEE catalyst favors the reversible reaction more effectively in one direction. A characteristic stronger binding of the catalyst to the transition state of the reaction than in the initial reactant state and the final product state is the molecular origin of barrier lowering.

  9. A direct current rectification scheme for microwave space power conversion using traveling wave electron acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    The formation of the Vision-21 conference held three years ago allowed the present author to reflect and speculate on the problem of converting electromagnetic energy to a direct current by essentially reversing the process used in traveling wave tubes that converts energy in the form of a direct current to electromagnetic energy. The idea was to use the electric field of the electromagnetic wave to produce electrons through the field emission process and accelerate these electrons by the same field to produce an electric current across a large potential difference. The acceleration process was that of cyclotron auto-resonance. Since that time, this rather speculative ideas has been developed into a method that shows great promise and for which a patent is pending and a prototype design will be demonstrated in a potential laser power beaming application. From the point of view of the author, a forum such as Vision-21 is becoming an essential component in the rather conservative climate in which our initiatives for space exploration are presently formed. Exchanges such as Vision-21 not only allows us to deviate from the 'by-the-book' approach and rediscover the ability and power in imagination, but provides for the discussion of ideas hitherto considered 'crazy' so that they may be given the change to transcend from the level of eccentricity to applicability.

  10. Acceleration and deceleration of convoy electrons in grazing-ion-surface collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gravielle, M.S.; Miraglia, J.E.; Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires

    2003-04-01

    Convoy-electron emission produced by grazing-ion-surface scattering is studied in the framework of the distorted-wave theory. We develop a model, here named field distorted-wave (FDW) approximation, to describe the effect of the surface interaction on the electronic transition. In the model, the action of the surface field on the ejected electron is seen as an additional momentum transfer that depends on the projectile position. We apply the FDW approximation to analyze electron distributions for 100 keV protons impinging on LiF(100) and Al(111) surfaces, which are insulator and metal materials, respectively. In the case of metals, the dynamic screening of the projectilemore » is included in the Jost function corresponding to the final state. As experimentally observed, energy spectra of forward-ejected electrons display a prominent structure associated with the convoy-electron emission. We find that the maximum of the convoy-electron distribution is decelerated for LiF and accelerated for Al, with respect to its position in ion-atom collisions, in quantitative agreement with the experimental data.« less

  11. Femtosecond MeV Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R. K.; Wang, X. J.

    2017-11-01

    Pump-probe electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) with femtosecond temporal resolution will be a transformative research tool for studying nonequilibrium chemistry and electronic dynamics of matter. In this paper, we propose a concept of femtosecond EELS utilizing mega-electron-volt electron beams from a radio-frequency (rf) photocathode source. The high acceleration gradient and high beam energy of the rf gun are critical to the generation of 10-fs electron beams, which enables an improvement of the temporal resolution by more than 1 order of magnitude beyond the state of the art. In our proposal, the "reference-beam technique" relaxes the energy stability requirement of the rf power source by roughly 2 orders of magnitude. The requirements for the electron-beam quality, photocathode, spectrometer, and detector are also discussed. Supported by particle-tracking simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of achieving sub-electron-volt energy resolution and approximately 10-fs temporal resolution with existing or near-future hardware performance.

  12. Effects of High Energy Electron Irradiation on a Yttrium Barium(2) Copper(3) Oxygen(7-delta) High Temperature Superconductor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    and 9 = relativistic velocity ratio (v/c) [Ref. 15]. This expression describes the specific energy losses of low energy electrons and is nearly the...available. Unlike the more massive proton,when electrons are accelerated to high energies and their velocities become relativistic ; the electrons are more...consists of three ten foot sub-accelerators, each powered by a klystron amplifier which delivers up to 22 megawatts peak power. The RF pulse length is

  13. Kerr black holes as particle accelerators to arbitrarily high energy.

    PubMed

    Bañados, Máximo; Silk, Joseph; West, Stephen M

    2009-09-11

    We show that intermediate mass black holes conjectured to be the early precursors of supermassive black holes and surrounded by relic cold dark matter density spikes can act as particle accelerators with collisions, in principle, at arbitrarily high center-of-mass energies in the case of Kerr black holes. While the ejecta from such interactions will be highly redshifted, we may anticipate the possibility of a unique probe of Planck-scale physics.

  14. Free electron lasers driven by linear induction accelerators: High power radiation sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orzechowski, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    The technology of Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and linear induction accelerators (LIAs) is addressed by outlining the following topics: fundamentals of FELs; basic concepts of linear induction accelerators; the Electron Laser Facility (a microwave FEL); PALADIN (an infrared FEL); magnetic switching; IMP; and future directions (relativistic klystrons). This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  15. Stochastic gyroresonant electron acceleration on a low-beta plasma. II - Implications of thermal effects in a solar flare plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, James A.; Steinacker, Juergen

    1992-01-01

    We consider the thermal damping of R and L waves under typical solar flare conditions. We find that the thermal particles cause rapid dissipation of the cyclotron waves, but do not affect whistlers and Alfven waves. The dissipation of electron cyclotron waves in particular leads to a threshold energy for acceleration which is about 10 times the thermal energy. Therefore, in the absence of an instability that excites these HF waves, a second mechanism is required in order to inject a sufficient number of electrons above the threshold energy and account for solar flare gamma-ray bremsstrahlung emission. We also find that the comoving gyroresonance, which occurs when the electron is in gyroresonance with an R wave whose group velocity equals the parallel electron velocity, can be realized by relativistic electrons if the plasma temperature is less than or approximately equal to 5,000,000 K.

  16. Energy spectra variations of high energy electrons in magnetic storms observed by ARASE and HIMAWARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, T.; Higashio, N.; Mitani, T.; Nagatsuma, T.; Yoshizumi, M.

    2017-12-01

    The ARASE spacecraft was launched in December 20, 2016 to investigate mechanisms for acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons in the radiation belts during space storms. The six particle instruments with wide energy range (a few eV to 10MeV) are onboard the ARASE spacecraft. Especially, two particle instruments, HEP and XEP observe high energy electron with energy range from 70keV to over 10Mev. Those instruments observed several geomagnetic storms caused by coronal hole high speed streams or coronal mass ejections from March in 2017. The relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt were disappeared/increased and their energy spectra were changed dynamically in some storms observed by XEP/HEP onboard the ARASE spacecraft. In the same time, SEDA-e with energy range 200keV-4.5MeV for electron on board the HIMAWARI-8, Japanese weather satellite on GEO, observed increase of relativistic electron in different local time. We will report on energy spectra variations of high energy electrons including calibrations of differential flux between XEP and HEP and discuss comparisons with energy spectra between ARAE and HIMAWARI that observed each storm in different local time.

  17. Energy loss corrections for MeV ions in tandem accelerator stripping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrale, A. M.; Matteson, S.; McDaniel, F. D.; Duggan, J. L.

    1991-05-01

    Ion energy losses occur during passage of an ion through the stripping gas or foil in the terminal of a tandem accelerator. The energy loss is frequently ignored. For accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) [J.M. Anthony et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B50 (1990) 262], the energy loss, if not properly accounted for, may result in significant reductions in ion transmission. We have obtained an approximate expression for the energy loss of 1-4 MeV ions in nitrogen gas and carbon foils for all ions. By using the scaling theory of Lindhard, Scharff, and Schiott (LSS) [K. Dan Vidensk. Selsk. Mat. Fys. Medd. 33 (1963) no. 14] a semi-empirical formula is found for the energy loss as a function of the reduced energy ɛ. Calculated energy losses of all ions as a function of atomic mass are plotted for each energy, and the result is compared to experimental data measured in an AMS system. Other effects such as kinematic energy loss during electron stripping and relativistic corrections to the energy are also evaluated and discussed.

  18. Radiation pressure acceleration: The factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy

    DOE PAGES

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; ...

    2016-04-15

    Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case,more » finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it transparent for radiation and effectively terminating the acceleration. The off-normal incidence of the laser on the target, due either to the experimental setup, or to the deformation of the target, will also lead to establishing a limit on maximum ion energy.« less

  19. Electron energy deposition in CO2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawada, T.; Strickland, D. J.; Green, A. E. S.

    1972-01-01

    Semiempirical cross sections of Strickland and Green (1969) are compared with and supplemented by more recent data. The composite set is used in the energy degradation calculation of electrons with emphasis on energies below 100 ev. Good agreements are obtained with accepted values of the loss function and the average electron volts per ion pair at high energies. Efficiencies associated with various loss channels are obtained. The relationship with the recent Mariner UV data is discussed.

  20. MeV electron acceleration at 1kHz with <10 mJ laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Fatholah; Goers, Andy; Hine, George; Feder, Linus; Kuk, Donghoon; Kim, Ki-Yong; Milchberg, Howard

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate laser driven acceleration of electrons at 1 kHz repetition rate with pC charge above 1MeV per shot using < 10 mJ pulse energies focused on a near-critical density He or H2 gas jet. Using the H2 gas jet, electron acceleration to 0.5 MeV in 10 fC bunches was observed with laser pulse energy as low as 1.3mJ . Using a near-critical density gas jet sets the critical power required for relativistic self-focusing low enough for mJ scale laser pulses to self- focus and drive strong wakefields. Experiments and particle-in-cell simulations show that optimal drive pulse duration and chirp for maximum electron bunch charge and energy depends on the target gas species. High repetition rate, high charge, and short duration electron bunches driven by very modest pulse energies constitutes an ideal portable electron source for applications such as ultrafast electron diffraction experiments and high rep. rate γ-ray production. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  1. Acceleration of energetic electrons by waves in inhomogeneous solar wind plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.

    2017-04-01

    The paper studies the influence of the background plasma density fluctuations on the dynamics of the Langmuir turbulence generated by electron beams, for parameters typical for solar type III beams and plasmas near 1 AU. A self-consistent Hamiltonian model based on the Zakharov and the Newton equations is used, which presents several advantages compared to the Vlasov approach. Beams generating Langmuir turbulence can be accelerated as a result of wave transformation effects or/and decay cascade processes; in both cases, the beam-driven Langmuir waves transfer part of their energy to waves of smaller wavenumbers, which can be reabsorbed later on by beam particles of higher velocities. As a consequence, beams can conserve a large part of their initial kinetic energy while propagating and radiating wave turbulence over long distances in inhomogeneous plasmas. Beam particles can also be accelerated in quasi-homogeneous plasmas due to the second cascade of wave decay, the wave transformation processes being very weak in this case. The net gains and losses of energy of a beam and the wave turbulence it radiates are calculated as a function of the average level of plasma density fluctuations and the beam parameters. The results obtained provide relevant information on the mechanism of energy reabsorption by beams radiating Langmuir turbulence in solar wind plasmas.

  2. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    ScienceCinema

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2018-01-16

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  3. Femtosecond MeV Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Li, R. K.; Wang, X. J.

    2017-11-09

    Pump-probe electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) with femtosecond temporal resolution will be a transformative research tool for studying nonequilibrium chemistry and electronic dynamics of matter. Here in this article, we propose a concept of femtosecond EELS utilizing mega-electron-volt electron beams from a radio-frequency (rf) photocathode source. The high acceleration gradient and high beam energy of the rf gun are critical to the generation of 10-fs electron beams, which enables an improvement of the temporal resolution by more than 1 order of magnitude beyond the state of the art. In our proposal, the “referencebeam technique” relaxes the energy stability requirement of themore » rf power source by roughly 2 orders of magnitude. The requirements for the electron-beam quality, photocathode, spectrometer, and detector are also discussed. Supported by particle-tracking simulations, we demonstrate the feasibility of achieving subelectron- volt energy resolution and approximately 10-fs temporal resolution with existing or near-future hardware performance.« less

  4. Electron acceleration at a coronal shock propagating through a large-scale streamer-like magnetic field

    DOE PAGES

    Kong, Xiangliang; Chen, Yao; Guo, Fan; ...

    2016-04-05

    With a test-particle simulation, we investigate the effect of large-scale coronal magnetic fields on electron acceleration at an outward-propagating coronal shock with a circular front. The coronal field is approximated by an analytical solution with a streamer-like magnetic field featured by partially open magnetic field and a current sheet at the equator atop the closed region. We show that the large-scale shock-field configuration, especially the relative curvature of the shock and the magnetic field line across which the shock is sweeping, plays an important role in the efficiency of electron acceleration. At low shock altitudes, when the shock curvature ismore » larger than that of magnetic field lines, the electrons are mainly accelerated at the shock flanks; at higher altitudes, when the shock curvature is smaller, the electrons are mainly accelerated at the shock nose around the top of closed field lines. The above process reveals the shift of efficient electron acceleration region along the shock front during its propagation. We also found that in general the electron acceleration at the shock flank is not so efficient as that at the top of closed field since at the top a collapsing magnetic trap can be formed. In addition, we find that the energy spectra of electrons is power-law like, first hardening then softening with the spectral index varying in a range of -3 to -6. In conclusion, physical interpretations of the results and implications on the study of solar radio bursts are discussed.« less

  5. ELECTRON ACCELERATION AT A CORONAL SHOCK PROPAGATING THROUGH A LARGE-SCALE STREAMER-LIKE MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Xiangliang; Chen, Yao; Feng, Shiwei

    2016-04-10

    Using a test-particle simulation, we investigate the effect of large-scale coronal magnetic fields on electron acceleration at an outward-propagating coronal shock with a circular front. The coronal field is approximated by an analytical solution with a streamer-like magnetic field featuring a partially open magnetic field and a current sheet at the equator atop the closed region. We show that the large-scale shock-field configuration, especially the relative curvature of the shock and the magnetic field line across which the shock is sweeping, plays an important role in the efficiency of electron acceleration. At low shock altitudes, when the shock curvature ismore » larger than that of the magnetic field lines, the electrons are mainly accelerated at the shock flanks; at higher altitudes, when the shock curvature is smaller, the electrons are mainly accelerated at the shock nose around the top of closed field lines. The above process reveals the shift of the efficient electron acceleration region along the shock front during its propagation. We also find that, in general, the electron acceleration at the shock flank is not as efficient as that at the top of the closed field because a collapsing magnetic trap can be formed at the top. In addition, we find that the energy spectra of electrons are power-law-like, first hardening then softening with the spectral index varying in a range of −3 to −6. Physical interpretations of the results and implications for the study of solar radio bursts are discussed.« less

  6. Electron Acceleration around the Supermassive Black Hole at the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Petrosian, V.; Melia, F.

    2004-05-01

    The recent detection of variable infrared emission from Sagittarius A*, combined with its previously observed flare activity in X-rays, provides compelling evidence that at least a portion of this object's emission is produced by nonthermal electrons. We show here that acceleration of electrons by plasma wave turbulence in hot gases near the black hole's event horizon can not only account for Sgr A*'s emission in the quiescent state at mm and shorter wavelengths, but it can also produce infrared and X-ray flares, induced either via an enhancement of the mass accretion rate onto the black hole or by a reorganization of the magnetic field coupled to the accreting gas. These processes produce distinct spectra that may be compared with future coordinated multi-wavelength observations to test the model. We further suggest that the diffusion of high energy electrons away from the acceleration site toward larger radii might be able to account for the observed characteristics of Sgr A*'s emission at cm and longer wavelengths. This research was partially supported by NSF grant ATM-0312344, NASA grants NAG5-12111, and NAG5 11918-1 (at Stanford), and NASA grants NAG5-8239, NAG5-9205, and NAG5-8277 (at Arizona).

  7. Initial Observations of Micropulse Elongation of Electron Beams in a SCRF Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A. H.; Thurman-Keup, R.; Edstrom Jr., D.

    2016-10-09

    Commissioning at the SCRF accelerator at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) Facility has included the implementation of a versatile bunch-length monitor located after the 4-dipole chicane bunch compressor for electron beam energies of 20-50 MeV and integrated charges in excess of 10 nC. The team has initially used a Hamamatsu C5680 synchroscan streak camera to assess the effects of space charge on the electron beam bunch lengths. An Al-coated Si screen was used to generate optical transition radiation (OTR) resulting from the beam’s interaction with the screen. The chicane bypass beamline allowed the measurements of the bunch lengthmore » without the compression stage at the downstream beamline location using OTR and the streak camera. We have observed electron beam bunch lengths from 5 to 16 ps (sigma) for micropulse charges of 60 pC to 800 pC, respectively. We also report a compressed sub-ps micropulse case.« less

  8. Ultrafast Electron Dynamics in Solar Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Ponseca, Carlito S; Chábera, Pavel; Uhlig, Jens; Persson, Petter; Sundström, Villy

    2017-08-23

    Electrons are the workhorses of solar energy conversion. Conversion of the energy of light to electricity in photovoltaics, or to energy-rich molecules (solar fuel) through photocatalytic processes, invariably starts with photoinduced generation of energy-rich electrons. The harvesting of these electrons in practical devices rests on a series of electron transfer processes whose dynamics and efficiencies determine the function of materials and devices. To capture the energy of a photogenerated electron-hole pair in a solar cell material, charges of opposite sign have to be separated against electrostatic attractions, prevented from recombining and being transported through the active material to electrodes where they can be extracted. In photocatalytic solar fuel production, these electron processes are coupled to chemical reactions leading to storage of the energy of light in chemical bonds. With the focus on the ultrafast time scale, we here discuss the light-induced electron processes underlying the function of several molecular and hybrid materials currently under development for solar energy applications in dye or quantum dot-sensitized solar cells, polymer-fullerene polymer solar cells, organometal halide perovskite solar cells, and finally some photocatalytic systems.

  9. String black holes as particle accelerators to arbitrarily high energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2014-07-01

    We show that an extremal Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black hole may act as a particle accelerator with arbitrarily high energy when two uncharged particles falling freely from rest to infinity on the near horizon. We show that the center of mass energy of collision is independent of the extreme fine tuning of the angular momentum of the colliding particles. We further show that the center of mass energy of collisions of particles at the ISCO ( r ISCO ) or at the photon orbit ( r ph ) or at the marginally bound circular orbit ( r mb ) i.e. at r≡ r ISCO = r ph = r mb =2 M could be arbitrarily large for the aforementioned space-time, which is quite different from the Schwarzschild and the Reissner-Nordstrøm space-time. For non-extremal GMGHS space-time the CM energy is finite and depends upon the asymptotic value of the dilation field ( ϕ 0).

  10. Radiation recall reaction with docetaxel administration after accelerated partial breast irradiation with electronic brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sea S; Strauss, Jonathan B; Shah, Anand P; Rao, Ruta D; Bernard, Damien A; Griem, Katherine L

    2009-01-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) offers several advantages over whole breast irradiation. Electronic brachytherapy may further reduce barriers to breast conserving therapy by making APBI more available. However, its toxicity profile is not well characterized. A 60-year-old woman was treated with APBI using Axxent (Xoft, Sunnyvale, CA) electronic brachytherapy. One month after APBI, a cycle of docetaxel and cyclophosphamide was given. Within 3 weeks, the patient developed an ulcerative radiation recall reaction in the skin overlying the lumpectomy cavity. To investigate this toxicity, the skin dose from electronic brachytherapy was compared with the dose that would have been delivered by an iridium-192 ((192)Ir) source. Additionally, a dose equivalent was estimated by adjusting for the increased relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of low energy photons generated by the electronic source. Using electronic brachytherapy, the skin dose was 537cGy per fraction compared with 470cGy for an (192)Ir source. Given an RBE for a 40kV source of 1.28 compared with (192)Ir, the equivalent dose at the skin for an electronic source was 687cGy-equivalents, a 46% increase. We present a case of an ulcerative radiation recall reaction in a patient receiving APBI with electronic brachytherapy followed by chemotherapy. Our analysis shows that the use of electronic brachytherapy resulted in the deposition of significantly higher equivalent dose at the skin compared with (192)Ir. These findings suggest that standard guidelines (e.g., surface-to-skin distance) that apply to (192)Ir-based balloon brachytherapy may not be applicable to electronic brachytherapy.

  11. Waves and electron acceleration in the separatrix regions of magnetic reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Keizo

    dominant in the inflow side of the separatrices. The waves are generated mainly due to the electron beams that constitute the Hall current. The relatively weak beams before strong acceleration trigger the Buneman instability which results in the waves with a frequency of the lower hybrid range. The strong acceleration occurs along the field line due to a localized potential hump and causes the density cavity. The intense electron beams excite the electron two-stream instability and the beam driven whistler instability. The former mode gives the Langmuir waves and the flat-top electron distributions in the parallel direction, both of which have been observed frequently in the Earth's magnetotail. The latter mode, on the other hand, scatters the electrons in the perpendicular direction, forming isotropic distribution with non-thermal high-energy tail. Both the Buneman and electron two-stream instabilities evolve the ESWs in the nonlinear phases. In this paper, we present the generation mechanisms of the waves around the separatrices and their roles in magnetic reconnection. The mechanism of the intense electron acceleration along the field line will be discussed.

  12. Trajectories of electrons with large longitudinal momenta in the phase plane during surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtichyan, G. S., E-mail: hay-13@mail.ru

    2015-07-15

    The trajectories of electrons with large longitudinal momenta in the phase plane in the course of their surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave propagating in space plasma across the external magnetic field are analyzed. Electrons with large longitudinal momenta are trapped immediately if the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory is positive. For negative values of Ψ(0), no electrons trapping by the wave is observed over the available computational times. According to numerical calculations, the trajectories of trapped particles in the phase plane have a singular point of the stable focus type and the behavior of the trajectorymore » corresponds to the motion in a complex nonstationary effective potential well. For some initial phases, electrons are confined in the region of the accelerating electric field for relatively short time, the energy gain being about 50–130% and more.« less

  13. A new path for the electron bulk energization in solar flares: Fermi acceleration by magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in reconnection outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larosa, T. N.; Moore, R. L.; Shore, S. N.

    1994-01-01

    We recently proposed that a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulent cascade produces the bulk energization of electrons to approximately 25 keV in the impulsive phase of solar flares (LaRosa & Moore 1993). In that scenario, (1) the cascading MHD turbulence is fed by shear-unstable Alfvenic outflows from sites of strongly driven reconnection in the low corona, and (2) the electrons are energized by absorbing the energy that flows down through the cascade. We did not specify the physical mechanism by which the cascading energy is ultimately transferred to the electrons. Here we propose that Fermi acceleration is this mechanism, the process by which the electrons are energized and by which the cascading MHD turbulence is dissipated. We point out that in the expected cascade MHD fluctuations of scale 1 km can Fermi-accelerate electrons from 0.1 keV to approximately 25 keV on the subsecond timescales observed in impulsive flares, provided there is sufficient trapping and scattering of electrons in the MHD turbulence. We show that these same fluctuations provide the required trapping; they confine the electrons within the turbulent region until the turbulence eis dissipated. This results in the energization of all of the lectrons in each large-scale (5 x 10(exp 7)cm) turbulent eddy to 25 keV. The Fermi process also requires efficient scattering so that the pitch-angle distribution of the accelerating electrons remains isotropic. We propose that the electrons undergo resonant scattering by high-frequency plasma R-waves that, as suggested by others (Hamilton & Petrosian 1992), are generated by the reconnection. Ions are not scattered by R-waves. Provided that there is negligible generation of ion-scattering plasma turbulence (e.g., L-waves) by the reconnection or the MHD turbulence, the ions will not Fermi-accelerate and the cascading energy is transferred only to the electrons. We conclude that, given this situation, electron Fermi acceleration can plausibly account for the

  14. Measurement of astrophysical S-factors and electron screening potentials for d(d,n)He3 reaction in ZrD2, TiD2 and TaD0.5 targets in the ultralow energy region using plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystritsky, V. M.; Bystritskii, Vit. M.; Dudkin, G. N.; Filipowicz, M.; Gazi, S.; Huran, J.; Kobzev, A. P.; Mesyats, G. A.; Nechaev, B. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Parzhitskii, S. S.; Pen'kov, F. M.; Philippov, A. V.; Kaminskii, V. L.; Tuleushev, Yu. Zh.; Wozniak, J.

    2012-09-01

    The present paper is devoted to the study of the electron screening effect influence on the rate of d(d,n)He3 reaction in the ultralow deuteron collision energy range in the deuterated metals (ZrD2, TiD2 and TaD0.5). The ZrD2, TiD2 and TaD0.5 targets were fabricated via magnetron sputtering of titanium, zirconium and tantalum in gas (deuterium) environment. The experiments have been carried out using the high-current pulsed Hall plasma accelerator (NSR TPU, Russia). The detection of neutrons with energy of 2.5 MeV from the dd reaction was done with plastic scintillation spectrometers. As a result of the experiments, the energy dependences of the astrophysical S-factor for the dd reaction in the deuteron collision energy range of 2-7 keV and the values of the electron screening potential Ue of the interacting deuterons have been measured for the above targets: Ue(ZrD)=(205±35) eV; Ue(TiD)=(125±34) eV; Ue(TaD)=(313±58) eV. Our results are compared with the other published experimental and calculated data.

  15. Possible production of high-energy gamma rays from proton acceleration in the extragalactic radio source markarian 501

    PubMed

    Mannheim

    1998-01-30

    The active galaxy Markarian 501 was discovered with air-Cerenkov telescopes at photon energies of 10 tera-electron volts. Such high energies may indicate that the gamma rays from Markarian 501 are due to the acceleration of protons rather than electrons. Furthermore, the observed absence of gamma ray attenuation due to electron-positron pair production in collisions with cosmic infrared photons implies a limit of 2 to 4 nanowatts per square meter per steradian for the energy flux of an extragalactic infrared radiation background at a wavelength of 25 micrometers. This limit provides important clues about the epoch of galaxy formation.

  16. Detection of Actinides With an Electron Accelerator by Active Photoneutron Interrogation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Adrien; Carrel, Frédérick; Gmar, Mehdi; Laine, Frédéric; Lyoussi, Abdallah; Normand, Stéphane

    2012-06-01

    The solution for management of a nuclear waste package is chosen according to its radiological characteristics. One of the most important of these features is the -activity which is due to actinides ( U, U, Pu, etc.) If non-destructive passive methods are not sufficient to quantify the latter, non-destructive active methods based on the fission process represent a solution of interest. First, these methods consist in irradiating a package in order to induce fission reactions on the actinides, and then, to detect the prompt and delayed particles which are emitted following these reactions. Our aim is to conduct neutron interrogation measurements on nuclear waste packages using an electron accelerator as a photoneutron generator. One of the main interests of this approach is that the intensity of the neutron flux can be one or two orders of magnitude higher than the one delivered by a deuterium-tritium generator. With the objective of improving nuclear waste characterization, the development of this method could enable the integration of three complementary techniques on a single measurement cell (active neutron interrogation, active photon interrogation, and high-energy imaging). In this paper, simulation and experimental results are presented. A simulation study using MCNPX has been conducted in order to determine the characteristics of the photoneutron flux emitted by the electron accelerator of the SAPHIR facility owned by CEA LIST. Energy spectra, angular distribution and intensity of the photoneutron flux have been obtained. A photoneutron interrogation measurement cell based on this accelerator has been built and assessed by carrying out measurements on uranium samples. Delayed gamma-ray spectra have been acquired and enabled to confirm the experimental feasibility of our method.

  17. Acceleration of the GAMESS-UK electronic structure package on graphical processing units.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Karl A; Sherwood, Paul; Guest, Martyn F; Naidoo, Kevin J

    2011-07-30

    The approach used to calculate the two-electron integral by many electronic structure packages including generalized atomic and molecular electronic structure system-UK has been designed for CPU-based compute units. We redesigned the two-electron compute algorithm for acceleration on a graphical processing unit (GPU). We report the acceleration strategy and illustrate it on the (ss|ss) type integrals. This strategy is general for Fortran-based codes and uses the Accelerator compiler from Portland Group International and GPU-based accelerators from Nvidia. The evaluation of (ss|ss) type integrals within calculations using Hartree Fock ab initio methods and density functional theory are accelerated by single and quad GPU hardware systems by factors of 43 and 153, respectively. The overall speedup for a single self consistent field cycle is at least a factor of eight times faster on a single GPU compared with that of a single CPU. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Acceleration of deuterons with suppression of electronic conductance in a vacuum diode with a laser target on the anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikanov, A. E.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Kozlovskii, K. I.; Shatokhin, V. L.

    2016-12-01

    We report new experimental results on the acceleration of deuterons in a compact coaxial diode with the suppression of electronic conductance by a constant longitudinal magnetic field. Plasma containing deuterons is created on a laser TiD target located on the anode. The pulse of accelerating voltage is formed by means of the Arkad'ev-Marx generator. The cathode symmetrically surrounds the anode and comprises a hollow permanent ring magnet with an inner radius of no more than 0.02 m and an on-axis induction of up to 0.4 T, which provides the magnetic insulation of the accelerating gap. The experiments demonstrate the possibility of obtaining accelerated deuterons with energy of up to 300 keV and a current of up to 0.5 kA with a pulse duration of 0.2 μs.

  19. Housing Electrons: Relating Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels, and Electron Configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, Anthony

    1997-06-01

    In the quantum mechanical model of the atom, quantum numbers are associated with individual electrons in an atom so that each electron in its ground state is assigned a set of four quantum numbers. Quantum mechanics deals only with the probability of finding an electron within a given region of space outside of the nucleus. The arrangement of electrons among the various probability locations of an atom is called the electron configuration of the atom. Students learn that these probability locations are also related to the energy level of each electron. Confusion is often generated as students attempt to relate quantum numbers to these probability locations, electron configurations, and energy levels. This paper attempts to combine these three concepts in a concrete, hands-on way for students. Four model houses are constructed and divided into levels and rooms within those levels. Each house represents the primary quantum number (n), each floor represents the second quantum number (l) or sublevel, and each room represents the third quantum number (ml) or orbital. Different colored beads are used to represent the electrons with opposite spins, thus introducing the forth quantum number (ms). Key to the analogy is the mounting of the four houses on a section of pegboard with each house placed at a different level on the "energy level hillside" so that the levels of the floors correspond to the energy levels of the sublevels presented by the energy level diagrams typical of most texts discussing this topic. When the levels are properly arranged, the rooms of the houses, which correspond to orbitals, should align as do the boxes on an Aufbau diagram. A hillside painted on the pegboard enhances the analogy. Students relate the model analogy very well.

  20. Applications in Energy, Optics and Electronics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Robert; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the applications of thin films in energy, optics and electronics. The use of thin-film technologies for heat mirrors, anti-reflection coatings, interference filters, solar cells, and metal contacts is included. (HM)

  1. Diffraction of electrons at intermediate energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascolani, H.; Barrachina, R. O.; Guraya, M. M.; Zampieri, G.

    1992-08-01

    We present a theory of the elastic scattering of electrons from crystalline surfaces that contains both low-energy-electron-diffraction (LEED) effects at low energies and x-ray-photoelectron- and Auger-electron-diffraction (XPD/AED) effects at intermediate energies. The theory is based on a cluster-type approach to the scattering problem and includes temperature effects. The transition from one regime to the other may be explained as follows: At low energies all the scattered waves add coherently, and the intensity is dominated by LEED effects. At intermediate energies the thermal vibration of the atoms destroys the long-range coherency responsible for the LEED peaks, but affects little the interference of those waves that share parts of their paths inside the solid. Thus, the interference of these waves comes to dominate the intensity, giving rise to structures similar to those observed in XPD/AED experiments. We perform a calculation of the elastic reflection of electrons from Cu(001) that is in good agreement with the experiment in the range 200-1500 eV. At low energies the intensity is dominated by LEED peaks; at 400 eV LEED peaks and XPD/AED structures coexist; and above this energy the intensity is dominated by the latter. We analyze the contributions to the intensity at intermediate energies of the interferences in the incoming and outgoing parts of the electron path.

  2. Electron reflection in thermionic energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ian T.; Lambert, Scott A.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Schwede, Jared W.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the impact of electron reflection on space charge in thermionic energy converters. Using the particle-in-cell code Warp3D, we simulate electron reflection and discover that specular and diffuse reflection produce fundamentally distinct behavior. Our simulations suggest that the effects of reflection may have been misidentified in experiments as anomalously large gap sizes. As a result, electron reflection may significantly alter the analysis and optimization of real-world converters.

  3. Study of photon emission by electron capture during solar nuclei acceleration. 3: Photon production evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    Lower limits of photon fluxes were evaluated from electron capture during acceleration in solar flares, because the arbitrary q sub c asterisk assumed in this work evolves very slow with velocity, probably much more slowly than the physical actual situation: in fact, more emission is expected toward the IR region. Nevertheless the authors claim to show that the factibility of sounding acceleration processes, charge evolution processes and physical parameters of the source itself, by the observational analysis of this kind of emissions. For instance, it would be interesting to search observationally, for the predicted flux and energy drift of F sub e ions interacting with the atomic 0 and F sub e of the source matter, or, even more feasible for the X-ray lines at 4.2 keV and 2.624 + 0.003 KeV from Fe and S ions in ionized Fe at T = 10 to the 7th power K respectively, the 418 + or - 2 eV and 20 + or - 4 eV lines of Fe and S in ionized Fe at 5 x 10 to the 6th power K, which are predicted from Fermi acceleration.

  4. Electron linac for medical isotope production with improved energy efficiency and isotope recovery

    DOEpatents

    Noonan, John; Walters, Dean; Virgo, Matt; Lewellen, John

    2015-09-08

    A method and isotope linac system are provided for producing radio-isotopes and for recovering isotopes. The isotope linac is an energy recovery linac (ERL) with an electron beam being transmitted through an isotope-producing target. The electron beam energy is recollected and re-injected into an accelerating structure. The ERL provides improved efficiency with reduced power requirements and provides improved thermal management of an isotope target and an electron-to-x-ray converter.

  5. Microdosimetry of low-energy electrons.

    PubMed

    Liamsuwan, Thiansin; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris; Uehara, Shuzo; Nikjoo, Hooshang

    2012-12-01

    To investigate differences in energy depositions and microdosimetric parameters of low-energy electrons in liquid and gaseous water using Monte Carlo track structure simulations. KURBUC-liq (Kyushu University and Radiobiology Unit Code for liquid water) was used for simulating electron tracks in liquid water. The inelastic scattering cross sections of liquid water were obtained from the dielectric response model of Emfietzoglou et al. (Radiation Research 2005;164:202-211). Frequencies of energy deposited in nanometre-size cylindrical targets per unit absorbed dose and associated lineal energies were calculated for 100-5000 eV monoenergetic electrons and the electron spectrum of carbon K edge X-rays. The results for liquid water were compared with those for water vapour. Regardless of electron energy, there is a limit how much energy electron tracks can deposit in a target. Phase effects on the frequencies of energy depositions are largely visible for the targets with diameters and heights smaller than 30 nm. For the target of 2.3 nm by 2.3 nm (similar to dimension of DNA segments), the calculated frequency- and dose-mean lineal energies for liquid water are up to 40% smaller than those for water vapour. The corresponding difference is less than 12% for the targets with diameters ≥ 30 nm. Condensed-phase effects are non-negligible for microdosimetry of low-energy electrons for targets with sizes smaller than a few tens of nanometres, similar to dimensions of DNA molecular structures and nucleosomes.

  6. THE MECHANISMS OF ELECTRON ACCELERATION DURING MULTIPLE X LINE MAGNETIC RECONNECTION WITH A GUIDE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can

    2016-04-20

    The interactions between magnetic islands are considered to play an important role in electron acceleration during magnetic reconnection. In this paper, two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are performed to study electron acceleration during multiple X line reconnection with a guide field. Because the electrons remain almost magnetized, we can analyze the contributions of the parallel electric field, Fermi, and betatron mechanisms to electron acceleration during the evolution of magnetic reconnection through comparison with a guide-center theory. The results show that with the magnetic reconnection proceeding, two magnetic islands are formed in the simulation domain. Next, the electrons are accelerated by both themore » parallel electric field in the vicinity of the X lines and the Fermi mechanism due to the contraction of the two magnetic islands. Then, the two magnetic islands begin to merge into one, and, in such a process, the electrons can be accelerated by both the parallel electric field and betatron mechanisms. During the betatron acceleration, the electrons are locally accelerated in the regions where the magnetic field is piled up by the high-speed flow from the X line. At last, when the coalescence of the two islands into one big island finishes, the electrons can be further accelerated by the Fermi mechanism because of the contraction of the big island. With the increase of the guide field, the contributions of the Fermi and betatron mechanisms to electron acceleration become less and less important. When the guide field is sufficiently large, the contributions of the Fermi and betatron mechanisms are almost negligible.« less

  7. Favorable target positions for intense laser acceleration of electrons in hydrogen-like, highly-charged ions

    SciTech Connect

    Pi, Liang-Wen; Starace, Anthony F.; Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-4030

    2015-09-15

    Classical relativistic Monte Carlo simulations of petawatt laser acceleration of electrons bound initially in hydrogen-like, highly-charged ions show that both the angles and energies of the laser-accelerated electrons depend on the initial ion positions with respect to the laser focus. Electrons bound in ions located after the laser focus generally acquire higher (≈GeV) energies and are ejected at smaller angles with respect to the laser beam. Our simulations assume a tightly-focused linearly-polarized laser pulse with intensity approaching 10{sup 22 }W/cm{sup 2}. Up to fifth order corrections to the paraxial approximation of the laser field in the focal region are taken intomore » account. In addition to the laser intensity, the Rayleigh length in the focal region is shown to play a significant role in maximizing the final energy of the accelerated electrons. Results are presented for both Ne{sup 9+} and Ar{sup 17+} target ions.« less

  8. Shielding calculations for industrial 5/7.5MeV electron accelerators using the MCNP Monte Carlo Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peri, Eyal; Orion, Itzhak

    2017-09-01

    High energy X-rays from accelerators are used to irradiate food ingredients to prevent growth and development of unwanted biological organisms in food, and by that extend the shelf life of the products. The production of X-rays is done by accelerating 5 MeV electrons and bombarding them into a heavy target (high Z). Since 2004, the FDA has approved using 7.5 MeV energy, providing higher production rates with lower treatments costs. In this study we calculated all the essential data needed for a straightforward concrete shielding design of typical food accelerator rooms. The following evaluation is done using the MCNP Monte Carlo code system: (1) Angular dependence (0-180°) of photon dose rate for 5 MeV and 7.5 MeV electron beams bombarding iron, aluminum, gold, tantalum, and tungsten targets. (2) Angular dependence (0-180°) spectral distribution simulations of bremsstrahlung for gold, tantalum, and tungsten bombarded by 5 MeV and 7.5 MeV electron beams. (3) Concrete attenuation calculations in several photon emission angles for the 5 MeV and 7.5 MeV electron beams bombarding a tantalum target. Based on the simulation, we calculated the expected increase in dose rate for facilities intending to increase the energy from 5 MeV to 7.5 MeV, and the concrete width needed to be added in order to keep the existing dose rate unchanged.

  9. A 400KV multi-functional electron and ion radiation accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youyi, Zhou; Xurong, Wang; Gulin, Deng

    1993-07-01

    In this paper we describe a 400kV multi-functional electron and positive ion irradiation accelerator based upon a 400kV Cockcroft-Walton, which was successfully used to accelerate electrons and positive ions with electron beam current of more than 5 mA. It has a scanning window of 1200mm in width, a scanning frame of 4500×1400mm. The transmitting speed of the scanning frame is between 0.1-5m backward and forward, continuously adjustable. The conversion time from accelerating positive ions to electrons is less than twenty minutes, and vice versa. It is proved that this accelerator can meet more requirements in the fields of nuclear physics and electron irradiation applications.

  10. Rapid acceleration of outer radiation belt electrons associated with solar wind pressure pulse: A coupling simulation of GEMSIS-RB and GEMSIS-GM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, M.; Miyoshi, Y.; Saito, S.; Matsumoto, Y.; Keika, K.; Hori, T.; Amano, T.; Seki, K.; Machida, S.

    2016-12-01

    Relativistic electron fluxes of the outer radiation belt dynamically change in response to solar wind variations. There are several time scales for the particle acceleration in MeV energy range. One of the shortest processes is caused by wave-particle interactions between drifting electrons and fast-mode waves induced by compression of the dayside magnetosphere due to interplanetary shocks (e.g., Li et al., 1993). In this study, we perform a coupling simulation of the GEMSIS-RB test particle simulation (Saito et al., 2010) and the GEMSIS-GM global MHD magnetosphere simulation (Matsumoto et al., 2010). We investigate how relativistic electrons are accelerated by fast-mode waves induced by solar wind pressure pulses. The electric field is induced by a dynamic pressure pulse of 5 nPa for 100 seconds and propagates from dayside to nightside in magnetosphere. The initial electric field ( negative EΦ : | EΦ | 10 mV/m) directs westward and extends to the entire dayside magnetosphere (0600-1800 MLT). We simulated electron motions with different initial conditions (energy, L value and pitch angle). As a result of this simulation, some of electrons are accelerated by negative EΦ. Especially, electrons whose initial energy is higher than a critical energy are accelerated efficiently. We find that the critical energy depends on both electron energy and the MLT where electrons observe the fast mode waves. We also derive theoretically the critical energy for the possible acceleration due to the earthward propagation of the fast mode waves, and confirm this acceleration condition in the simulation.

  11. Some advances in medical applications of low energy accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valković, V.; Moschini, G.

    1991-05-01

    Medical applications of low energy accelerators include: the use of nuclear analytical methods and procedures for laboratory studies and routine measurements; material productions and modifications to meet special requirements; radioisotope productions and their applications in radiopharmaceuticals as well as in positron emission tomography; and radiotherapy with ions, based on improved understanding of the interaction of charged particles with living tissue. Some of the recent advances in these fields are critically summarized. The plan for an improved charged particle facility in a hospital environment dedicated to applications in biology and medicine is presented.

  12. Progress Towards a Laboratory Test of Alfvénic Electron Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, J. W. R.; Skiff, F.; Howes, G. G.; Kletzing, C. A.; Carter, T. A.; Vincena, S.; Dorfman, S.

    2016-10-01

    Alfvén waves are thought to be a key mechanism for accelerating auroral electrons. Due to inherent limitations of single point measurements, in situ data has been unable to demonstrate a causal relationship between Alfvén waves and accelerated electrons. Electron acceleration occurs in the inner magnetosphere where the Alfvén speed is greater than the electron thermal speed. In these conditions, Alfvén waves can have an electric field aligned with the background magnetic field B0 if the scale of wave structure across B0 is comparable to the electron skin depth. In the Large Plasma Device (LaPD), Alfvén waves are launched in conditions relevant to the inner magnetosphere. The reduced parallel electron distribution function is measured using a whistler-mode wave absorption diagnostic. The linear electron response has been measured as oscillations of the electron distribution function at the Alfvén wave frequency. These measurements agree with linear theory. Current efforts focus on measuring the nonlinear acceleration of electrons that is relevant to auroral generation. We report on recent progress including experiments with a new higher-power Alfvén wave antenna with the goal of measuring nonlinear electron acceleration. This work was supported by the NSF GRFP and by Grants from NSF, DOE, and NASA. Experiments were performed at the Basic Plasma Science Facility which is funded by DOE and NSF.

  13. Accelerated weight histogram method for exploring free energy landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindahl, V.; Lidmar, J.; Hess, B.

    2014-07-01

    Calculating free energies is an important and notoriously difficult task for molecular simulations. The rapid increase in computational power has made it possible to probe increasingly complex systems, yet extracting accurate free energies from these simulations remains a major challenge. Fully exploring the free energy landscape of, say, a biological macromolecule typically requires sampling large conformational changes and slow transitions. Often, the only feasible way to study such a system is to simulate it using an enhanced sampling method. The accelerated weight histogram (AWH) method is a new, efficient extended ensemble sampling technique which adaptively biases the simulation to promote exploration of the free energy landscape. The AWH method uses a probability weight histogram which allows for efficient free energy updates and results in an easy discretization procedure. A major advantage of the method is its general formulation, making it a powerful platform for developing further extensions and analyzing its relation to already existing methods. Here, we demonstrate its efficiency and general applicability by calculating the potential of mean force along a reaction coordinate for both a single dimension and multiple dimensions. We make use of a non-uniform, free energy dependent target distribution in reaction coordinate space so that computational efforts are not wasted on physically irrelevant regions. We present numerical results for molecular dynamics simulations of lithium acetate in solution and chignolin, a 10-residue long peptide that folds into a β-hairpin. We further present practical guidelines for setting up and running an AWH simulation.

  14. Origins of plateau formation in ion energy spectra under target normal sheath acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DuBois, Timothy C.; Siminos, Evangelos; Ferri, Julien; Gremillet, Laurent; Fülöp, Tünde

    2017-12-01

    Target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) is a method employed in laser-matter interaction experiments to accelerate light ions (usually protons). Laser setups with durations of a few 10 fs and relatively low intensity contrasts observe plateau regions in their ion energy spectra when shooting on thin foil targets with thicknesses of the order of 10 μm. In this paper, we identify a mechanism which explains this phenomenon using one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Fast electrons generated from the laser interaction recirculate back and forth through the target, giving rise to time-oscillating charge and current densities at the target backside. Periodic decreases in the electron density lead to transient disruptions of the TNSA sheath field: peaks in the ion spectra form as a result, which are then spread in energy from a modified potential driven by further electron recirculation. The ratio between the laser pulse duration and the recirculation period (dependent on the target thickness, including the portion of the pre-plasma which is denser than the critical density) determines if a plateau forms in the energy spectra.

  15. Electronic Devices and Systems. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technical Education Research Centre-Southwest, Waco, TX.

    This course in electronic devices and systems is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  16. First electrons from the new 220 TW Frascati Laser for Acceleration and Multidisciplinary Experiments (FLAME) at Frascati National Laboratories (LNF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levato, T.; Calvetti, M.; Anelli, F.; Batani, D.; Benocci, R.; Cacciotti, L.; Cecchetti, C. A.; Cerafogli, O.; Chimenti, P.; Clozza, A.; Drenska, N.; Esposito, A.; Faccini, R.; Fioravanti, S.; Gamucci, A.; Gatti, C.; Giulietti, A.; Giulietti, D.; Labate, L.; Lollo, V.; Martellotti, S.; Monteduro, M.; Pace, E.; Pathak, N. C.; Pellegrino, L.; Piastra, F.; Pistoni, M.; Di Pirro, G.; Di Raddo, R.; Rotundo, U.; Ricci, R.; Richetta, M.; Vaccarezza, C.; Valente, P.; Gizzi, L. A.

    2013-08-01

    A new era of laser based plasma accelerators is emerging following the commissioning of many high power laser facilities around the world. Extremely short (tens of fs) laser pulses with energy of multi-joules level are available at these newly built facilities. Here we describe the new 220 TW FLAME facility. In particular we discuss the laser system general layout, the main measurements on the laser pulse parameters, the underground target area. Finally we give an overview of the first results of the Self-Injection Test Experiment (SITE), obtained at a low laser energy. This initial low laser energy experimental campaign was necessary for the validation of the radio-protection shielding (Esposito, 2011 [1]) we discuss here. With respect to our preliminary configuration, with a pulse duration of 30 fs and a focusing optic of F/15, we discuss here the minimum laser energy requirements for electron acceleration and the forward transmitted optical radiation.

  17. Characteristic of Energy Deposition to Electrons and Energy Partitioning in a Proto-typical Reconnection Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, M.; Yoo, J.; Ji, H.

    2016-12-01

    Features of energy deposition to electrons around the electron diffusion region and the energy partitioning in the proto-typical reconnection layer of the MRX laboratory plasma [1] are discussed and compared with the recent MMS results [2]. The close collaboration magnetic reconnection between the laboratory and space physics communities has reached a point where we can directly compare the measured properties of the reconnection layer. In the magnetic reconnection layer without guide field, both MRX and MMS have verified that energy deposition to electrons in the electron diffusion region is dominated by the scalar product of the electric field and electron current perpendicular to the local magnetic field; (je⊥•E⊥) [1, 2]. Furthermore, a quantitative inventory of magnetic energy conversion in a proto-typical reconnection layer has been studied on MRX and it is concluded that about one half of the inflowing magnetic energy is converted to particle energy, while more energy is partitioned to ions. It was also found that features of energy conversion and partitioning do not strongly depend on the size of the analysis region. This study has been extended to the asymmetric reconnection layer relevant to the magnetopause condition [2], and our recent results will also be discussed. A question arises, whether there is a fundamental principle in the energy partitioning in a proto-typical reconnection layer. This talk presents our physics analysis of the energy conversion processes in the magnetic reconnection layer in the two-fluid physics regime. The flow of electrons in the reconnection layer lead to formation of a strong electrostatic field in the reconnection plane causing ion acceleration and resultant ion heating. Based on the two-fluid features, a quantitative analytical model of energy partitioning will be presented. [1] M. Yamada et al, Nature Communications. 5, 4774 (2014) [2] J. L. Burch et al., Science 10.1126/science.aaf2939 (2016)

  18. Low-Energy Electron Collisions with Biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstead, Carl

    2009-05-01

    Ionizing radiation generates copious quantities of secondary electrons as it penetrates condensed matter, and it has long been known that radiation damage in living tissue is largely caused by such secondary electrons. Those electrons with energies on the order of 10 to 100 eV can obviously cause damage through excitation and ionization channels. However, recent experimental work has demonstrated the surprising result that even electrons with insufficient energy to ionize or electronically excite biomolecules can cause significant damage, including DNA strand breaks and disruption of sulfur bridges in peptides. These low-energy damage mechanisms involve the temporary trapping of the incident electrons by resonances, and the nature of the resonant states involved is thus a key issue. Computational approaches have the potential to provide highly useful insights; however, obtaining accurate results for the large, asymmetric molecular targets relevant to biological applications is a challenge. In this talk I describe recent results from electron-molecule collision calculations on molecular systems relevant to the nucleic acids and to proteins, with emphasis on the characterization of low-energy resonances that may play a role in dissociative attachment and/or dissociative excitation.

  19. Laser Gate: multi-MeV electron acceleration and zeptosecond e-bunching.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, A E; Pokrovsky, A L

    2009-04-13

    Relativistically-intense laser beam with large field gradient ("laser gate") enables strong inelastic scattering of electrons crossing the beam. This process allows for multi-MeV electron net acceleration per pass within the wavelength space. Inelastic scattering even in low-gradient laser field may also induce extremely tight temporal focusing and electron bunch formation down to quantum, zeptosecond limit.

  20. Electron beam energy QA — a note on measurement tolerances

    PubMed Central

    Nyflot, Matthew J.; Smith, Wade P.; Wootton, Landon S.; Young, Lori; Yang, Fei; Kim, Minsun; Hendrickson, Kristi R. G.; Ford, Eric; Kalet, Alan M.; Cao, Ning; Dempsey, Claire; Sandison, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Monthly QA is recommended to verify the constancy of high‐energy electron beams generated for clinical use by linear accelerators. The tolerances are defined as 2%/2 mm in beam penetration according to AAPM task group report 142. The practical implementation is typically achieved by measuring the ratio of readings at two different depths, preferably near the depth of maximum dose and at the depth corresponding to half the dose maximum. Based on beam commissioning data, we show that the relationship between the ranges of energy ratios for different electron energies is highly nonlinear. We provide a formalism that translates measurement deviations in the reference ratios into change in beam penetration for electron energies for six Elekta (6‐18 MeV) and eight Varian (6‐22 MeV) electron beams. Experimental checks were conducted for each Elekta energy to compare calculated values with measurements, and it was shown that they are in agreement. For example, for a 6 MeV beam a deviation in the measured ionization ratio of ±15% might still be acceptable (i.e., be within ±2 mm), whereas for an 18 MeV beam the corresponding tolerance might be ±6%. These values strongly depend on the initial ratio chosen. In summary, the relationship between differences of the ionization ratio and the corresponding beam energy are derived. The findings can be translated into acceptable tolerance values for monthly QA of electron beam energies. PACS number(s): 87.55, 87.56 PMID:27074488

  1. Photoneutron radiation field of ducts in barrier of 15 MV medical electron accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Chen, Yi-shui; Tu, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Shielding body of the high-energy medical electron accelerators is always penetrated by ducts, which would influence the shielding capability of local barrier. In order to quantitatively analyze the duct's impact on shielding of the photoneutron from 15 MV accelerators, the ambient dose equivalent rate and energy spectrum at the center of a typical duct and the external mouth of duct were calculated based on MCNP program for the first time. The results demonstrate that leakage neutrons at the external mouth of duct are mainly thermal neutron, and its dose rate is decreased with the increase of the intersection angle between duct and wall as well as the reduction of duct diameter. When a duct in a diameter no more than 30 cm penetrates the wall unidirectionally and the inclined Angle (θ) is 60°, neutron dose rate at the external mouth of duct could meet the requirements of protection. At last, according to the calculation results, some suggestions are proposed for the shielding design of ducts in walls.

  2. Fluence Uniformity Measurements in an Electron Accelerator Used for Irradiation of Extended Area Solar Cells and Electronic Circuits for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uribe, Roberto M.; Filppi, Ed; Zhang, Shubo

    2007-01-01

    It is common to have liquid crystal displays and electronic circuit boards with area sizes of the order of 20x20 sq cm on board of satellites and space vehicles. Usually irradiating them at different fluence values assesses the radiation damage in these types of devices. As a result, there is a need for a radiation source with large spatial fluence uniformity for the study of the damage by radiation from space in those devices. Kent State University s Program on Electron Beam Technology has access to an electron accelerator used for both research and industrial applications. The electron accelerator produces electrons with energies in the interval from 1 to 5 MeV and a maximum beam power of 150 kW. At such high power levels, the electron beam is continuously scanned back and forth in one dimension in order to provide uniform irradiation and to prevent damage to the sample. This allows for the uniform irradiation of samples with an area of up to 1.32 sq m. This accelerator has been used in the past for the study of radiation damage in solar cells (1). However in order to irradiate extended area solar cells there was a need to measure the uniformity of the irradiation zone in terms of fluence. In this paper the methodology to measure the fluence uniformity on a sample handling system (linear motion system), used for the irradiation of research samples, along the irradiation zone of the above-mentioned facility is described and the results presented. We also illustrate the use of the electron accelerator for the irradiation of large area solar cells (of the order of 156 sq cm) and include in this paper the electrical characterization of these types of solar cells irradiated with 5 MeV electrons to a total fluence of 2.6 x 10(exp 15) e/sq cm.

  3. High Energy Ion Acceleration in Interaction of Short Laser Pulse with Dense Plasma Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentoku, Y.

    2002-11-01

    The generation of multi-MeV ion beams in high intensity interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with foil targets is a rapidly growing research area. The mechanisms and characteristics of these fast ions are of current interest because of their importance to realize various applications. Since the discovery of these high energy protons, there have been conflicting interpretations on the origin of them. One suggesting that protons are accelerated from the front and the other the rear of the target. The annular angular ring pattern of proton emission has been interpreted as supporting acceleration from both the front of the target in Clark et al.[1] and from the rear in Murakami et al. [2]. Recent work by Mackinnon et al.[3] reported the influence of target thickness on energetic proton production by ultraintense laser interaction with thin aluminum foils. These experiments were the first to identify the electron recirculation inside the conductive foil and its effect on the proton acceleration. Our theoretical model sustain the rearside sheath acceleration as the origin of the observed MeV protons. However, there is a large quantity of energetic ions accelerated at the front of the target, too [4]. In this paper, the ion accelerations at both front and rear side of the target are studied by the particle-in-cell simulations and they are characterized using various parameters: the laser intensity, the pulse length, the preplasma effect [5]. The results will be good information to find the optimum parameters to accelerate ions effectively. [1] E. L. Clark et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 670 (2000). [2] Y. Murakami, Y. Kitagawa, Y. Sentoku, et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 4138 (2001). [3] A. J. Mackinon, Y. Sentoku, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 215006 (2002). [4] N. Izumi, Y. Sentoku, et al., Phys. Rev. E 65, 036413 (2002). [5] Y. Sentoku, V. Yu. Bychenkov, K. Flippo, et al. , Appl. Phys. B 74, 207 (2002).

  4. Accelerating Clean Energy Commercialization. A Strategic Partnership Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Richard; Pless, Jacquelyn; Arent, Douglas J.

    2016-04-01

    Technology development in the clean energy and broader clean tech space has proven to be challenging. Long-standing methods for advancing clean energy technologies from science to commercialization are best known for relatively slow, linear progression through research and development, demonstration, and deployment (RDD&D); and characterized by well-known valleys of death for financing. Investment returns expected by traditional venture capital investors have been difficult to achieve, particularly for hardware-centric innovations, and companies that are subject to project finance risks. Commercialization support from incubators and accelerators has helped address these challenges by offering more support services to start-ups; however, more effort ismore » needed to fulfill the desired clean energy future. The emergence of new strategic investors and partners in recent years has opened up innovative opportunities for clean tech entrepreneurs, and novel commercialization models are emerging that involve new alliances among clean energy companies, RDD&D, support systems, and strategic customers. For instance, Wells Fargo and Company (WFC) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have launched a new technology incubator that supports faster commercialization through a focus on technology development. The incubator combines strategic financing, technology and technical assistance, strategic customer site validation, and ongoing financial support.« less

  5. Effect of high electronic energy deposition in semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesch, W.; Kamarou, A.; Wendler, E.

    2004-08-01

    Track formation due to high electronic energy deposition during swift heavy ion irradiation is well known in insulating materials as well as in some intermetallic compounds and metals. In semiconductors the physical situation was much less clear, and only during the last few years several experimental results on the effect of high electronic energy deposition were published, which are summarised and discussed in the present paper. Like in insulators, swift heavy ion irradiation may cause amorphous tracks in some semiconductors, such as InP, InSb, InAs, GaSb and Ge, if a certain value of the electronic energy deposition ɛe per ion and unit length characteristic for the material and the ion is exceeded. The critical values of ɛe are much higher than in the other materials, and the corresponding ion energies are close to the maximum ion energies available with the existing high energy accelerators. On the other hand, with cluster ions, as e.g. C60, tracks are easily formed in Si, Ge and GaAs with ion energies of several tens of MeV. Beside damage and track formation, annealing of damage was observed in the semiconductors, and it can be concluded that the effect of high electronic energy deposition represents itself as a competition between damage formation and annealing. Which of the two processes dominates is mainly determined by the electronic energy deposition. Qualitatively the observed behaviour can be explained in the framework of the thermal spike model. However, a quantitative description of all data available is not successful in the framework of this concept. This is obviously due to the fact that the effects are influenced not only by the electronic energy deposition, but also by a variety of other parameters, such as the ion velocity, the ion mass, the charge state of the impinging ions and the radial distribution of the electronic energy around the ions' path. All these parameters have to be taken into account within a theoretical description. However

  6. Resource Letter AFHEP-1: Accelerators for the Future of High-Energy Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, William A.

    2012-02-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to literature concerning the development of accelerators for the future of high-energy physics. Research articles, books, and Internet resources are cited for the following topics: motivation for future accelerators, present accelerators for high-energy physics, possible future machine, and laboratory and collaboration websites.

  7. Stable electron beams from laser wakefield acceleration with few-terawatt driver using a supersonic air jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boháček, K.; Kozlová, M.; Nejdl, J.; Chaulagain, U.; Horný, V.; Krůs, M.; Ta Phuoc, K.

    2018-03-01

    The generation of stable electron beams produced by the laser wakefield acceleration mechanism with a few-terawatt laser system (600 mJ, 50 fs) in a supersonic synthetic air jet is reported and the requirements necessary to build such a stable electron source are experimentally investigated in conditions near the bubble regime threshold. The resulting electron beams have stable energies of (17.4 ± 1.1) MeV and an energy spread of (13.5 ± 1.5) MeV (FWHM), which has been achieved by optimizing the properties of the supersonic gas jet target for the given laser system. Due to the availability of few-terawatt laser systems in many laboratories around the world these stable electron beams open possibilities for applications of this type of particle source.

  8. High fidelity 3-dimensional models of beam-electron cloud interactions in circular accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiz Zarrin Ghalam, Ali

    Electron cloud is a low-density electron profile created inside the vacuum chamber of circular machines with positively charged beams. Electron cloud limits the peak current of the beam and degrades the beams' quality through luminosity degradation, emittance growth and head to tail or bunch to bunch instability. The adverse effects of electron cloud on long-term beam dynamics becomes more and more important as the beams go to higher and higher energies. This problem has become a major concern in many future circular machines design like the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) under construction at European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN). Due to the importance of the problem several simulation models have been developed to model long-term beam-electron cloud interaction. These models are based on "single kick approximation" where the electron cloud is assumed to be concentrated at one thin slab around the ring. While this model is efficient in terms of computational costs, it does not reflect the real physical situation as the forces from electron cloud to the beam are non-linear contrary to this model's assumption. To address the existing codes limitation, in this thesis a new model is developed to continuously model the beam-electron cloud interaction. The code is derived from a 3-D parallel Particle-In-Cell (PIC) model (QuickPIC) originally used for plasma wakefield acceleration research. To make the original model fit into circular machines environment, betatron and synchrotron equations of motions have been added to the code, also the effect of chromaticity, lattice structure have been included. QuickPIC is then benchmarked against one of the codes developed based on single kick approximation (HEAD-TAIL) for the transverse spot size of the beam in CERN-LHC. The growth predicted by QuickPIC is less than the one predicted by HEAD-TAIL. The code is then used to investigate the effect of electron cloud image charges on the long-term beam dynamics, particularly on the

  9. Establishment of a small animal tumour model for in vivo studies with low energy laser accelerated particles.

    PubMed

    Brüchner, Kerstin; Beyreuther, Elke; Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Oppelt, Melanie; Pawelke, Jörg

    2014-02-18

    The long-term aim of developing a laser based acceleration of protons and ions towards clinical application requires not only substantial technological progress, but also the radiobiological characterization of the resulting ultra-short pulsed particle beams. Recent in vitro data showed similar effects of laser-accelerated versus "conventional" protons on clonogenic cell survival. As the proton energies currently achieved by laser driven acceleration are too low to penetrate standard tumour models on mouse legs, the aim of the present work was to establish a tumour model allowing for the penetration of low energy protons (~ 20 MeV) to further verify their effects in vivo. KHT mouse sarcoma cells were injected subcutaneously in the right ear of NMRI (nu/nu) mice and the growing tumours were characterized with respect to growth parameters, histology and radiation response. In parallel, the laser system JETI was prepared for animal experimentation, i.e. a new irradiation setup was implemented and the laser parameters were carefully adjusted. Finally, a proof-of-principle experiment with laser accelerated electrons was performed to validate the tumour model under realistic conditions, i.e. altered environment and horizontal beam delivery. KHT sarcoma on mice ears showed a high take rate and continuous tumour growth after reaching a volume of ~ 5 mm(3). The first irradiation experiment using laser accelerated electrons versus 200 kV X-rays was successfully performed and tumour growth delay was evaluated. Comparable tumour growth delay was found between X-ray and laser accelerated electron irradiation. Moreover, experimental influences, like anaesthesia and positioning at JETI, were found to be negligible. A small animal tumour model suitable for the irradiation with low energy particles was established and validated at a laser based particle accelerator. Thus, the translation from in vitro to in vivo experimentation was for the first time realized allowing a broader

  10. A study of 192Ir production conditions at an electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovbnya, A. N.; Rogov, Yu. V.; Shevchenko, V. A.; Shramenko, B. I.; Tenishev, A. Eh.; Torgovkin, A. V.; Uvarov, V. L.

    2014-09-01

    This communication deals with the conditions of 192Ir isotope production under a nonreactor technology via the 193Ir(γ, n)192Ir reaction. It can be carried out by irradiation of a target from natural iridium with the high-energy X-ray of an electron accelerator. The possibility of increasing the photonuclear yield of the target isotope by addition of the 191Ir( n, γ)192Ir reaction induced by moderated photoneutrons has been shown. For this, an X-ray converter and a target were placed inside a neutron moderator. Data on the 192Ir and admixture yields for the techniques using the moderator and without it have been obtained by computer simulation and experimentally.

  11. [Leakage radiations in a medical electron accelerator facility--calculation of neutron doses in the facility].

    PubMed

    Ishimatsu, K; Morikawa, K

    1990-02-01

    Neutron doses often come dominant in mazes of electron accelerator facilities in which X-rays of energies more than 10 MV are produced. A simple analytical method to calculate neutron doses in such a facility is developed. In the calculation procedure, it is assumed that the irradiation room is spherical in shape and the maze is cylindrical. Multiple reflection of neutrons is also considered using the albedo concept in the calculation. The procedure allows to exist a hanging wall over the entrance of the irradiation room and also multiple legs in the maze. All the parameters used in the calculation are given definitely in the procedure, and any experiment is unnecessary to determine value of the parameters. Comparison of the calculated results with experimental ones will be described in the following report.

  12. Image simulation for electron energy loss spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Oxley, Mark P.; Pennycook, Stephen J.

    2007-10-22

    In this paper, aberration correction of the probe forming optics of the scanning transmission electron microscope has allowed the probe-forming aperture to be increased in size, resulting in probes of the order of 1 Å in diameter. The next generation of correctors promise even smaller probes. Improved spectrometer optics also offers the possibility of larger electron energy loss spectrometry detectors. The localization of images based on core-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy is examined as function of both probe-forming aperture and detector size. The effective ionization is nonlocal in nature, and two common local approximations are compared to full nonlocal calculations.more » Finally, the affect of the channelling of the electron probe within the sample is also discussed.« less

  13. Polytropic dark matter flows illuminate dark energy and accelerated expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleidis, K.; Spyrou, N. K.

    2015-04-01

    Currently, a large amount of data implies that the matter constituents of the cosmological dark sector might be collisional. An attractive feature of such a possibility is that, it can reconcile dark matter (DM) and dark energy (DE) in terms of a single component, accommodated in the context of a polytropic-DM fluid. In fact, polytropic processes in a DM fluid have been most successfully used in modeling dark galactic haloes, thus significantly improving the velocity dispersion profiles of galaxies. Motivated by such results, we explore the time evolution and the dynamical characteristics of a spatially-flat cosmological model, in which, in principle, there is no DE at all. Instead, in this model, the DM itself possesses some sort of fluidlike properties, i.e., the fundamental units of the Universe matter-energy content are the volume elements of a DM fluid, performing polytropic flows. In this case, together with all the other physical characteristics, we also take the energy of this fluid's internal motions into account as a source of the universal gravitational field. This form of energy can compensate for the extra energy, needed to compromise spatial flatness, namely, to justify that, today, the total energy density parameter is exactly unity. The polytropic cosmological model, depends on only one free parameter, the corresponding (polytropic) exponent, Γ. We find this model particularly interesting, because for Γ ≤ 0.541, without the need for either any exotic DE or the cosmological constant, the conventional pressure becomes negative enough so that the Universe accelerates its expansion at cosmological redshifts below a transition value. In fact, several physical reasons, e.g., the cosmological requirement for cold DM (CDM) and a positive velocity-of-sound square, impose further constraints on the value of Γ, which is eventually settled down to the range -0.089 < Γ ≤ 0. This cosmological model does not suffer either from the age problem or from the

  14. Energy and electron transfers in photosensitive chitosan.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuizhu; Zeng, Fang; Zhu, Hongping; Tong, Zhen

    2005-02-23

    Novel photosensitive chitosan was synthesized. The modified chitosan contains photoactive anthracene chromophore moieties. Because of the presence of anthracene chromophores, the polymer absorbs light in the UV-vis spectral region. Electronically excited polymeric chromophores could participate in energy and electron transfer processes to the suitable acceptor molecules. The photosensitive chitosan developed herein could could act as an efficient photosensitizer and lead to the application of the environmentally friendly photocatalytic system for an efficient degradation of a wide range of pollutants.

  15. Metal interfaces - Adhesive energies and electronic barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    We report a fully self-consistent calculation of the electron number density, barrier height and adhesive energy as a function of separation in an aluminum-aluminum (100) contact. The local density approximation is used for exchange and correlation. The electron number density and barrier heights are strong functions of the separation. The range of strong chemical bonding is about 0.2 nm.

  16. Accelerated weight histogram method for exploring free energy landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Lindahl, V.; Lidmar, J.; Hess, B.

    2014-07-28

    Calculating free energies is an important and notoriously difficult task for molecular simulations. The rapid increase in computational power has made it possible to probe increasingly complex systems, yet extracting accurate free energies from these simulations remains a major challenge. Fully exploring the free energy landscape of, say, a biological macromolecule typically requires sampling large conformational changes and slow transitions. Often, the only feasible way to study such a system is to simulate it using an enhanced sampling method. The accelerated weight histogram (AWH) method is a new, efficient extended ensemble sampling technique which adaptively biases the simulation to promotemore » exploration of the free energy landscape. The AWH method uses a probability weight histogram which allows for efficient free energy updates and results in an easy discretization procedure. A major advantage of the method is its general formulation, making it a powerful platform for developing further extensions and analyzing its relation to already existing methods. Here, we demonstrate its efficiency and general applicability by calculating the potential of mean force along a reaction coordinate for both a single dimension and multiple dimensions. We make use of a non-uniform, free energy dependent target distribution in reaction coordinate space so that computational efforts are not wasted on physically irrelevant regions. We present numerical results for molecular dynamics simulations of lithium acetate in solution and chignolin, a 10-residue long peptide that folds into a β-hairpin. We further present practical guidelines for setting up and running an AWH simulation.« less

  17. Electron acceleration in the Solar corona - 3D PiC code simulations of guide field reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alejandro Munoz Sepulveda, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    The efficient electron acceleration in the solar corona detected by means of hard X-ray emission is still not well understood. Magnetic reconnection through current sheets is one of the proposed production mechanisms of non-thermal electrons in solar flares. Previous works in this direction were based mostly on test particle calculations or 2D fully-kinetic PiC simulations. We have now studied the consequences of self-generated current-aligned instabilities on the electron acceleration mechanisms by 3D magnetic reconnection. For this sake, we carried out 3D Particle-in-Cell (PiC) code numerical simulations of force free reconnecting current sheets, appropriate for the description of the solar coronal plasmas. We find an efficient electron energization, evidenced by the formation of a non-thermal power-law tail with a hard spectral index smaller than -2 in the electron energy distribution function. We discuss and compare the influence of the parallel electric field versus the curvature and gradient drifts in the guiding-center approximation on the overall acceleration, and their dependence on different plasma parameters.

  18. Load management strategy for Particle-In-Cell simulations in high energy particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, A.; Frederiksen, J. T.; Dérouillat, J.

    2016-09-01

    In the wake of the intense effort made for the experimental CILEX project, numerical simulation campaigns have been carried out in order to finalize the design of the facility and to identify optimal laser and plasma parameters. These simulations bring, of course, important insight into the fundamental physics at play. As a by-product, they also characterize the quality of our theoretical and numerical models. In this paper, we compare the results given by different codes and point out algorithmic limitations both in terms of physical accuracy and computational performances. These limitations are illustrated in the context of electron laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). The main limitation we identify in state-of-the-art Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes is computational load imbalance. We propose an innovative algorithm to deal with this specific issue as well as milestones towards a modern, accurate high-performance PIC code for high energy particle acceleration.

  19. Thermionic gun control system for the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) injector

    SciTech Connect

    Pico, R.; Diamond, B.; Fugitt, J.

    1989-01-01

    The injector for the CEBAF accelerator must produce a high-quality electron beam to meet the overall accelerator specifications. A Hermosa electron gun with a 2 mm-diameter cathode and a control aperture has been chosen as the electron source. This must be controlled over a wide range of operating conditions to meet the beam specifications and to provide flexibility for accelerator commissioning. The gun is controlled using Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC IEEE-583) technology. The system employs the CAMAC-based control architecture developed at CEBAF. The control system has been tested, and early operating data on the electron gun and themore » injector beam transport system has been obtained. This system also allows gun parameters to be stored at the operator location, without paralyzing operation. This paper describes the use of this computer system in the control of the CEBAF electron gun. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.« less

  20. Accelerating biodegradation of a monoazo dye Acid Orange 7 by using its endogenous electron donors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weihua; Zhang, Chengji; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Bingbing; Zhang, Hongzhuan; Zhang, Yongming; Chen, Lujun

    2017-02-15

    Biodegradation of a monoazo dye - Acid Orange 7 (AO7) was investigated by using an internal circulation baffled biofilm reactor. For accelerating AO7 biodegradation, endogenous electron donors produced from AO7 by UV photolysis were added into the reactor. The result shows that AO7 removal rate can be accelerated by using its endogenous electron donors, such as sulfanilic and aniline. When initial AO7 concentration was 13.6mg/L, electron donors generated by 8h UV photolysis were added into the same system. The biodegradation rate 0.4mg 0.05 h -1 was enhanced 60% than that without adding electron donor. Furthermore, sulfanilic and aniline were found to be the main endogenous electron carriers, which could accelerate the steps of the azo dye biodegradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy broadening due to space-charge oscillations in high current electron beams. [SEPAC payload experiment on Spacelab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, I.; Jongeward, G. A.; Parks, D. E.; Reasoner, D. L.; Purvis, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    During electron beam accelerator operation on Spacelab I, substantial fluxes of electrons were observed with energies greater than the initial beam energy. Numerical calculations are performed for the emission of an unneutralized, one-dimensional electron beam. These calculations show clearly that space charge oscillations, which are associated with the charge buildup on the emitter, strongly modify the beam and cause the returning beam particles to have a distribution of kinetic energies ranging from half to over twice the initial energy.

  2. Electron energy loss spectrometry of interstellar diamonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Gibbons, Patrick C.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1990-01-01

    The results are reported of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) measurements on diamond residues from carbonaceous meteorites designed to elucidate the structure and composition of interstellar diamonds. Dynamic effective medium theory is used to model the dielectric properties of the diamonds and in particular to synthesize the observed spectra as mixtures of diamond and various pi-bonded carbons. The results are shown to be quantitatively consistent with the idea that diamonds and their surfaces are the only contributors to the electron energy loss spectra of the diamond residues and that these peculiar spectra are the result of the exceptionally small grain size and large specific surface area of the interstellar diamonds.

  3. On Puthoff's Semiclassical Electron and Vacuum Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, N. R.

    2016-12-01

    A possible connection between a point electron and vacuum energy was recently claimed by Puthoff (Int. J. Theor. Phys. 46, 3005 (2007)). He envisions a point electron as an ideally conducting spherical shell with a distributed charge on the surface, in equilibrium with the radiation pressure from electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations on the outside, and claims that his analysis demonstrates the reality of high-energy-density vacuum fluctuation fields. The present paper finds, instead, that the analysis is meaningless without specific knowledge on the cutoff frequency that is a free parameter in the model.

  4. High-gradient two-beam electron accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2014-11-04

    The main goal for this project was to design, build, and evaluate a detuned-cavity, collinear, two-beam accelerator structure. Testing was to be at the Yale University Beam Physics Laboratory, under terms of a sub-grant from Omega-P to Yale. Facilities available at Yale for this project include a 6-MeV S-band RF gun and associated beam line for forming and transporting a ~1 A drive beam , a 300 kV beam source for use as a test beam, and a full panoply of laboratory infrastructure and test equipment. During the first year of this project, availability and functionality of the 6-MeV drivemore » beam and 300 kV test beam were confirmed, and the beam line was restored to a layout to be used with the two-beam accelerator project. Major efforts during the first year were also focused on computational design and simulation of the accelerator structure itself, on beam dynamics, and on beam transport. Effort during the second year was focussed on building and preparing to test the structure, including extensive cold testing. Detailed results from work under this project have been published in twelve archival journal articles, listed in Section IV of the technical report.« less

  5. MeV electron acceleration at 1 kHz with <10 mJ laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Fatholah; Goers, Andy; Hine, George; Feder, Linus; Kuk, Donghoon; Miao, Bo; Woodbury, Daniel; Kim, Ki-Yong; Milchberg, Howard

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate laser driven acceleration of electrons to MeV-scale energies at 1 kHz repetition rate using <10 mJ pulses focused on near-critical density He and H2 gas jets. Using the H2 gas jet, electron acceleration to 0.5 MeV in 10 fC bunches was observed with laser pulse energy as low as 1.3 mJ. Increasing the pulse energy to 10 mJ, we measure 1pC charge bunches with >1 MeV energy for both He and H gas jets. Such a high repetition rate, high flux ultrafast source has immediate application to time resolved probing of matter for scientific, medical, or security applications, either using the electrons directly or using a high-Z foil converter to generate ultrafast γ-rays. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  6. Cosmic acceleration without dark energy: background tests and thermodynamic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, J.A.S.; Graef, L.L.; Pavón, D.

    2014-10-01

    A cosmic scenario with gravitationally induced particle creation is proposed. In this model the Universe evolves from an early to a late time de Sitter era, with the recent accelerating phase driven only by the negative creation pressure associated with the cold dark matter component. The model can be interpreted as an attempt to reduce the so-called cosmic sector (dark matter plus dark energy) and relate the two cosmic accelerating phases (early and late time de Sitter expansions). A detailed thermodynamic analysis including possible quantum corrections is also carried out. For a very wide range of the free parameters, itmore » is found that the model presents the expected behavior of an ordinary macroscopic system in the sense that it approaches thermodynamic equilibrium in the long run (i.e., as it nears the second de Sitter phase). Moreover, an upper bound is found for the Gibbons–Hawking temperature of the primordial de Sitter phase. Finally, when confronted with the recent observational data, the current 'quasi'-de Sitter era, as predicted by the model, is seen to pass very comfortably the cosmic background tests.« less

  7. Cosmic acceleration without dark energy: background tests and thermodynamic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, J. A. S.; Graef, L. L.; Pavón, D.; Basilakos, Spyros

    2014-10-01

    A cosmic scenario with gravitationally induced particle creation is proposed. In this model the Universe evolves from an early to a late time de Sitter era, with the recent accelerating phase driven only by the negative creation pressure associated with the cold dark matter component. The model can be interpreted as an attempt to reduce the so-called cosmic sector (dark matter plus dark energy) and relate the two cosmic accelerating phases (early and late time de Sitter expansions). A detailed thermodynamic analysis including possible quantum corrections is also carried out. For a very wide range of the free parameters, it is found that the model presents the expected behavior of an ordinary macroscopic system in the sense that it approaches thermodynamic equilibrium in the long run (i.e., as it nears the second de Sitter phase). Moreover, an upper bound is found for the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the primordial de Sitter phase. Finally, when confronted with the recent observational data, the current `quasi'-de Sitter era, as predicted by the model, is seen to pass very comfortably the cosmic background tests.

  8. Relativistic Electron Acceleration by Surface Plasma Waves in the High Intensity Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Cerchez, Mirela; Swantusch, Marco; Aurand, Bastian; Prasad, Rajendra; Andreev, Alexander; Willi, Oswald

    2017-10-01

    High field plasmonics is one of the new research fields which has synergetically benefited from the advances in laser technology. The availability of radiation fields of intensities exceeding 1018 W/cm2 brought plasmonics into a new regime where relativistic and nonlinear effects start to dominate the dynamics of the surface plasma waves (SPWs). Moreover, surface plasma waves are a very efficient route to transfer the laser energy to the secondary sources including laser driven particle and radiation beams and to control and optimize the physical properties of these sources. We present here experimental evidence of a novel regime of the SPWs excitation by ultra-high intensity laser field (I>1020 W/cm2) on grating targets and its effect on high energy surface electron acceleration. The peak of the electron emission was detected at a laser incidence angle of 45°. The results indicate new conditions for resonant excitation of SPWs since in the limit of the linear regime (moderate intensities of 1019 W/cm2 and step preplasma profile), the resonance angle is predicted at 30°. 2D PIC simulations and a novel analytical model confirm the experimental data and reveal that, at laser intensities above 1020W/cm2, nonlinearities induced by the preplasma condition and relativistic effects change the SPWs resonance.

  9. Performance characteristics and typical industrial ap