Sample records for accelerated seismic release

1. Seismic energy release of the moon

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Goins, N. R.; Dainty, A. M.; Toksoz, M. N.

1981-01-01

Lunar seismicity is investigated by calculating various source parameters for a number of shallow and deep-focus moonquakes. The seismic moment, seismic energy release, annual seismic energy release, stress drop, and body-wave magnitude are determined for the largest shallow moonquakes and for large deep-focus events. It is found that the shallow events dominate the lunar seismic energy release, that tidal dissipation may account for the energy release by the deep-focus events, and that the stress drops for the deep-focus events are comparable to or smaller than the calculated tidal stresses. A comparison of the results with terrestrial data indicates that the seismic characteristics of a planet are controlled more by tectonic style and state than by the relative magnitude of the driving forces.

2. Predicting earthquakes by analyzing accelerating precursory seismic activity

USGS Publications Warehouse

Varnes, D.J.

1989-01-01

During 11 sequences of earthquakes that in retrospect can be classed as foreshocks, the accelerating rate at which seismic moment is released follows, at least in part, a simple equation. This equation (1) is {Mathematical expression},where {Mathematical expression} is the cumulative sum until time, t, of the square roots of seismic moments of individual foreshocks computed from reported magnitudes;C and n are constants; and tfis a limiting time at which the rate of seismic moment accumulation becomes infinite. The possible time of a major foreshock or main shock, tf,is found by the best fit of equation (1), or its integral, to step-like plots of {Mathematical expression} versus time using successive estimates of tfin linearized regressions until the maximum coefficient of determination, r2,is obtained. Analyzed examples include sequences preceding earthquakes at Cremasta, Greece, 2/5/66; Haicheng, China 2/4/75; Oaxaca, Mexico, 11/29/78; Petatlan, Mexico, 3/14/79; and Central Chile, 3/3/85. In 29 estimates of main-shock time, made as the sequences developed, the errors in 20 were less than one-half and in 9 less than one tenth the time remaining between the time of the last data used and the main shock. Some precursory sequences, or parts of them, yield no solution. Two sequences appear to include in their first parts the aftershocks of a previous event; plots using the integral of equation (1) show that the sequences are easily separable into aftershock and foreshock segments. Synthetic seismic sequences of shocks at equal time intervals were constructed to follow equation (1), using four values of n. In each series the resulting distributions of magnitudes closely follow the linear Gutenberg-Richter relation log N=a-bM, and the product n times b for each series is the same constant. In various forms and for decades, equation (1) has been used successfully to predict failure times of stressed metals and ceramics, landslides in soil and rock slopes, and volcanic

3. Precursory Accelerating Moment Release: An Artifact of Data-Selection?

Michael, A. J.; Hardebeck, J. L.; Felzer, K. R.

2006-12-01

Accelerating Moment Release (AMR), a power-law increase in seismicity prior to a large earthquake, has been identified after-the-fact in many recent studies and is sometimes used to attempt to forecast future earthquakes. We ask whether the observations of AMR are real and potentially predictive, or if apparent AMR could be an artifact due to data-selection. The risk of discovering fictitious AMR exists because the time period, area, and in some cases magnitude range analyzed before each mainshock are often optimized to produce the strongest AMR signal. Searching a range of selection criteria could produce a large probability that some data set will be captured that, by pure chance, satisfies the AMR criteria. We test this hypothesis by using the procedure outlined in Bowman et al. (1998) to compare AMR found in actual seismicity with that found in simulated catalogs in which no underlying seismicity acceleration actually occurs. We generate three types of test catalogs using different approaches to simulating the seismicity of California and Nevada. These catalogs range from purely random earthquake times and locations to more complex catalogs based on an ETAS (epidemic-type aftershock sequence) model that includes both realistic spatial-temporal earthquake clustering and spatial distribution of seismicity based on the real fault network. For all of the simulated data sets, we observe apparent AMR before 91-93% (±7%) of mainshocks M≥6.0, despite the fact that no actual AMR is present in these catalogs. Using the same approach on the real California and Nevada catalog, we find apparent AMR before only 90% (±8%) of the M≥6.0 earthquakes. If at least 10 pre-mainshock events are required and mainshocks restricted to M≥6.5, the AMR model performs better for the data than for the simulations, but not significantly better at the 95% confidence level. These tests use a circular region around the mainshock. We demonstrate that using a region based on Coulomb stress

4. Accurate Measurement of Velocity and Acceleration of Seismic Vibrations near Nuclear Power Plants

In spite of all prerequisite geological study based precautions, the sites of nuclear power plants are also susceptible to seismic vibrations and their consequent effects. The effect of the ongoing nuclear tragedy in Japan caused by an earthquake and its consequent tsunami on March 11, 2011 is currently beyond contemplations. It has led to a rethinking on nuclear power stations by various governments around the world. Therefore, the prediction of location and time of large earthquakes has regained a great importance. The earth crust is made up of several wide, thin and rigid plates like blocks which are in constant motion with respect to each other. A series of vibrations on the earth surface are produced by the generation of elastic seismic waves due to sudden rupture within the plates during the release of accumulated strain energy. The range of frequency of seismic vibrations is from 0 to 10 Hz. However, there appears a large variation in magnitude, velocity and acceleration of these vibrations. The response of existing or conventional methods of measurement of seismic vibrations is very slow, which is of the order of tens of seconds. A systematic and high resolution measurement of velocity and acceleration of these vibrations are useful to interpret the pattern of waves and their anomalies more accurately, which are useful for the prediction of an earthquake. In the proposed work, a fast rotating magnetic field (RMF) is used to measure the velocity and acceleration of seismic vibrations in the millisecond range. The broad spectrum of pulses within one second range, measured by proposed method, gives all possible values of instantaneous velocity and instantaneous acceleration of the seismic vibrations. The spectrum of pulses in millisecond range becomes available which is useful to measure the pattern of fore shocks to predict the time and location of large earthquakes more accurately. Moreover, instead of average, the peak values of these quantities are helpful

5. Tsallis entropy and complexity theory in the understanding of physics of precursory accelerating seismicity.

Vallianatos, Filippos; Chatzopoulos, George

2014-05-01

Strong observational indications support the hypothesis that many large earthquakes are preceded by accelerating seismic release rates which described by a power law time to failure relation. In the present work, a unified theoretical framework is discussed based on the ideas of non-extensive statistical physics along with fundamental principles of physics such as the energy conservation in a faulted crustal volume undergoing stress loading. We derive the time-to-failure power-law of: a) cumulative number of earthquakes, b) cumulative Benioff strain and c) cumulative energy released in a fault system that obeys a hierarchical distribution law extracted from Tsallis entropy. Considering the analytic conditions near the time of failure, we derive from first principles the time-to-failure power-law and show that a common critical exponent m(q) exists, which is a function of the non-extensive entropic parameter q. We conclude that the cumulative precursory parameters are function of the energy supplied to the system and the size of the precursory volume. In addition the q-exponential distribution which describes the fault system is a crucial factor on the appearance of power-law acceleration in the seismicity. Our results based on Tsallis entropy and the energy conservation gives a new view on the empirical laws derived by other researchers. Examples and applications of this technique to observations of accelerating seismicity will also be presented and discussed. This work was implemented through the project IMPACT-ARC in the framework of action "ARCHIMEDES III-Support of Research Teams at TEI of Crete" (MIS380353) of the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds

6. Accelerated in vitro release testing methods for extended release parenteral dosage forms

PubMed Central

Shen, Jie; Burgess, Diane J.

2012-01-01

Objectives This review highlights current methods and strategies for accelerated in vitro drug release testing of extended release parenteral dosage forms such as polymeric microparticulate systems, lipid microparticulate systems, in situ depot-forming systems, and implants. Key findings Extended release parenteral dosage forms are typically designed to maintain the effective drug concentration over periods of weeks, months or even years. Consequently, “real-time” in vitro release tests for these dosage forms are often run over a long time period. Accelerated in vitro release methods can provide rapid evaluation and therefore are desirable for quality control purposes. To this end, different accelerated in vitro release methods using United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) apparatus have been developed. Different mechanisms of accelerating drug release from extended release parenteral dosage forms, along with the accelerated in vitro release testing methods currently employed are discussed. Conclusions Accelerated in vitro release testing methods with good discriminatory ability are critical for quality control of extended release parenteral products. Methods that can be used in the development of in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) are desirable, however for complex parenteral products this may not always be achievable. PMID:22686344

7. Evidence for a global seismic-moment release sequence

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bufe, C.G.; Perkins, D.M.

2005-01-01

Temporal clustering of the larger earthquakes (foreshock-mainshock-aftershock) followed by relative quiescence (stress shadow) are characteristic of seismic cycles along plate boundaries. A global seismic-moment release history, based on a little more than 100 years of instrumental earthquake data in an extended version of the catalog of Pacheco and Sykes (1992), illustrates similar behavior for Earth as a whole. Although the largest earthquakes have occurred in the circum-Pacific region, an analysis of moment release in the hemisphere antipodal to the Pacific plate shows a very similar pattern. Monte Carlo simulations confirm that the global temporal clustering of great shallow earthquakes during 1952-1964 at M ??? 9.0 is highly significant (4% random probability) as is the clustering of the events of M ??? 8.6 (0.2% random probability) during 1950-1965. We have extended the Pacheco and Sykes (1992) catalog from 1989 through 2001 using Harvard moment centroid data. Immediately after the 1950-1965 cluster, significant quiescence at and above M 8.4 begins and continues until 2001 (0.5% random probability). In alternative catalogs derived by correcting for possible random errors in magnitude estimates in the extended Pacheco-Sykes catalog, the clustering of M ??? 9 persists at a significant level. These observations indicate that, for great earthquakes, Earth behaves as a coherent seismotectonic system. A very-large-scale mechanism for global earthquake triggering and/or stress transfer is implied. There are several candidates, but so far only viscoelastic relaxation has been modeled on a global scale.

8. Energy Release, Acceleration, and Escape of Solar Energetic Ions

de Nolfo, G. A.; Ireland, J.; Ryan, J. M.; Young, C. A.

2013-12-01

Solar flares are prodigious producers of energetic particles, and thus a rich laboratory for studying particle acceleration. The acceleration occurs through the release of magnetic energy, a significant fraction of which can go into the acceleration of particles. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) certainly produce shocks that both accelerate particles and provide a mechanism for escape into the interplanetary medium (IP). What is less well understood is whether accelerated particles produced from the flare reconnection process escape, and if so, how these same particles are related to solar energetic particles (SEPs) detected in-situ. Energetic electron SEPs have been shown to be correlated with Type III radio bursts, hard X-ray emission, and EUV jets, making a very strong case for the connection between acceleration at the flare and escape along open magnetic field lines. Because there has not been a clear signature of ion escape, as is the case with the Type III radio emission for electrons, sorting out the avenues of escape for accelerated flare ions and the possible origin of the impulsive SEPs continues to be a major challenge. The key to building a clear picture of particle escape relies on the ability to map signatures of escape such as EUV jets at the Sun and to follow the progression of these escape signatures as they evolve in time. Furthermore, nuclear γ-ray emissions provide critical context relating ion acceleration to that of escape. With the advent observations from Fermi as well as RHESSI and the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the challenge of ion escape from the Sun can now be addressed. We present a preliminary study of the relationship of EUV jets with nuclear γ-ray emission and Type III radio observations and discuss the implications for possible magnetic topologies that allow for ion escape from deep inside the corona to the interplanetary medium.

9. Seismic-fragility tests of new and accelerated-aged Class 1E battery cells

SciTech Connect

Bonzon, L.L.; Janis, W.J.; Black, D.A.; Paulsen, G.A.

1987-01-01

The seismic-fragility response of naturally-aged nuclear station safety-related batteries is of interest for two reasons: (1) to determine actual failure modes and thresholds and (2) to determine the validity of using the electrical capacity of individual cells as an indicator of the potential survivability of a battery given a seismic event. Prior reports in this series discussed the seismic-fragility tests and results for three specific naturally-aged cell types: 12-year old NCX-2250, 10-year old LCU-13, and 10-year old FHC-19. This report focuses on the complementary approach, namely, the seismic-fragility response of accelerated-aged batteries. Of particular interest is the degree to which such approaches accurately reproduce the actual failure modes and thresholds. In these tests the significant aging effects observed, in terms of seismic survivability, were: embrittlement of cell cases, positive bus material and positive plate grids; and excessive sulphation of positive plate active material causing hardening and expansion of positive plates. The IEEE Standard 535 accelerated aging method successfully reproduced seismically significant aging effects in new cells but accelerated grid embrittlement an estimated five years beyond the conditional age of other components.

10. The development of seismic guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center

SciTech Connect

Huggins, R.

1996-08-01

This paper describes the development of Seismic Guidelines for the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). Although structures have always been built conservatively, SLAC management decided to review and update their seismic guidelines. SLAC is about mid-way between the epicenters of the 8.3 Richter magnitude 1906 San Francisco and the 7.2 Loma Prieta Earthquakes. The west end of the two mile long electron/positron particle accelerator lies a half mile from the large San Andreas Fault. Suggestions for seismic planning processes were solicited from local computer manufacturing firms, universities, and federal laboratories. A Committee of the various stakeholders in SLAC`s seismic planning retained an internationally known Seismic Planning Consultant and reviewed relevant standards and drafted Guidelines. A panel of seismic experts was convened to help define the hazard, site response spectra, probabilistic analysis of shaking, and near field effects. The Facility`s structures were assigned to seismic classes of importance, and an initial assessment of a sample of a dozen buildings conducted. This assessment resulted in emergency repairs to one structure, and provided a {open_quotes}reality basis{close_quotes} for establishing the final Guidelines and Administrative Procedures, and a program to evaluate remaining buildings, shielding walls, tunnels, and other special structures.

11. Forward and adjoint spectral-element simulations of seismic wave propagation using hardware accelerators

Peter, Daniel; Videau, Brice; Pouget, Kevin; Komatitsch, Dimitri

2015-04-01

Improving the resolution of tomographic images is crucial to answer important questions on the nature of Earth's subsurface structure and internal processes. Seismic tomography is the most prominent approach where seismic signals from ground-motion records are used to infer physical properties of internal structures such as compressional- and shear-wave speeds, anisotropy and attenuation. Recent advances in regional- and global-scale seismic inversions move towards full-waveform inversions which require accurate simulations of seismic wave propagation in complex 3D media, providing access to the full 3D seismic wavefields. However, these numerical simulations are computationally very expensive and need high-performance computing (HPC) facilities for further improving the current state of knowledge. During recent years, many-core architectures such as graphics processing units (GPUs) have been added to available large HPC systems. Such GPU-accelerated computing together with advances in multi-core central processing units (CPUs) can greatly accelerate scientific applications. There are mainly two possible choices of language support for GPU cards, the CUDA programming environment and OpenCL language standard. CUDA software development targets NVIDIA graphic cards while OpenCL was adopted mainly by AMD graphic cards. In order to employ such hardware accelerators for seismic wave propagation simulations, we incorporated a code generation tool BOAST into an existing spectral-element code package SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. This allows us to use meta-programming of computational kernels and generate optimized source code for both CUDA and OpenCL languages, running simulations on either CUDA or OpenCL hardware accelerators. We show here applications of forward and adjoint seismic wave propagation on CUDA/OpenCL GPUs, validating results and comparing performances for different simulations and hardware usages.

12. Statistics of Earthquake Influence on Buildings by means of Seismic Acceleration

Pentaris, Fragkiskos P.; Makris, John P.

2014-05-01

This work aims to investigate the statistics of earthquake influence on buildings by studying the correlation of earthquake parameters (magnitude, epicentral distance, azimuth, depth) with the observed seismic acceleration of different floors of a building, as well as of buildings of different age. Crete is on the Hellenic arc, a region with very high seismicity. The study exploits the significant and miscellaneous seismicity of the Southern Hellenic Arc (Greece). Structural Health Monitoring Systems (SHMs), composed by high sensitivity accelerometers, are installed in two different age neighboring buildings, each one consisting two floors, of the Technological Educational Institute of Crete (TEI) located in a suburb of the Chania city (Western Crete). Both SHMs are continuously operating more than a year having recorded a great amount of seismic acceleration data from low, medium and high magnitude earthquakes, featuring various epicentral distances and azimuths. A detailed statistical analysis is being performed in order to correlate the seismic responses of the two buildings, characterized by different vulnerability, with key-parameters of associated earthquakes. Furthermore, we examine the earthquake influence on the two buildings before and after a major nearby seismic event to investigate a possible change in the buildings vulnerability. Acknowledgements This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: ARCHIMEDES III. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

13. Background seismicity in Boso Peninsula, Japan: Long-term acceleration, and relationship with slow slip events

Reverso, T.; Marsan, D.; Helmstetter, A.; Enescu, B.

2016-06-01

Slow slip events (SSEs) in subduction zones can trigger earthquake swarms, especially at shallow depth. The monitoring of seismicity rates has therefore the potential to help detect and characterize SSEs, and transient changes in coupling. However, the relationship between seismicity rate and slow slip rate during a SSE is unknown and made complicated by aftershock triggering within the swarm. Here we propose to complement geodetic methods with an objective measure of the seismicity rate that is directly associated with changes in slip rate. We show that this measure, applied to known occurrences of SSEs in the Boso area, Japan, yields an estimate, albeit indirect, of their seismic moment, hence their slip rate. We finally prove that the background rate in Boso has been accelerating since 1990; this explains previous observations of the shortening of the recurrence time between SSEs in Boso, that clearly predate the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake.

14. Spectral-element Seismic Wave Propagation on CUDA/OpenCL Hardware Accelerators

Peter, D. B.; Videau, B.; Pouget, K.; Komatitsch, D.

2015-12-01

Seismic wave propagation codes are essential tools to investigate a variety of wave phenomena in the Earth. Furthermore, they can now be used for seismic full-waveform inversions in regional- and global-scale adjoint tomography. Although these seismic wave propagation solvers are crucial ingredients to improve the resolution of tomographic images to answer important questions about the nature of Earth's internal processes and subsurface structure, their practical application is often limited due to high computational costs. They thus need high-performance computing (HPC) facilities to improving the current state of knowledge. At present, numerous large HPC systems embed many-core architectures such as graphics processing units (GPUs) to enhance numerical performance. Such hardware accelerators can be programmed using either the CUDA programming environment or the OpenCL language standard. CUDA software development targets NVIDIA graphic cards while OpenCL was adopted by additional hardware accelerators, like e.g. AMD graphic cards, ARM-based processors as well as Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. For seismic wave propagation simulations using the open-source spectral-element code package SPECFEM3D_GLOBE, we incorporated an automatic source-to-source code generation tool (BOAST) which allows us to use meta-programming of all computational kernels for forward and adjoint runs. Using our BOAST kernels, we generate optimized source code for both CUDA and OpenCL languages within the source code package. Thus, seismic wave simulations are able now to fully utilize CUDA and OpenCL hardware accelerators. We show benchmarks of forward seismic wave propagation simulations using SPECFEM3D_GLOBE on CUDA/OpenCL GPUs, validating results and comparing performances for different simulations and hardware usages.

15. Stress-Release Seismic Source for Seismic Velocity Measurement in Mines

Swanson, P. L.; Clark, C.; Richardson, J.; Martin, L.; Zahl, E.; Etter, A.

2014-12-01

Accurate seismic event locations are needed to delineate roles of mine geometry, stress and geologic structures in developing rockburst conditions. Accurate absolute locations are challenging in mine environments with rapid changes in seismic velocity due to sharp contrasts between individual layers and large time-dependent velocity gradients attending excavations. Periodic use of controlled seismic sources can help constrain the velocity in this continually evolving propagation medium comprising the miners' workplace. With a view to constructing realistic velocity models in environments in which use of explosives is problematic, a seismic source was developed subject to the following design constraints: (i) suitable for use in highly disturbed zones surrounding mine openings, (ii) able to produce usable signals over km-scale distances in the frequency range of typical coal mine seismic events (~10-100 Hz), (iii) repeatable, (iv) portable, (v) non-disruptive to mining operations, and (vi) safe for use in potentially explosive gaseous environments. Designs of the compressed load column seismic source (CLCSS), which generates a stress, or load, drop normal to the surface of mine openings, and the fiber-optic based source-initiation timer are presented. Tests were conducted in a coal mine at a depth of 500 m (1700 ft) and signals were recorded on the surface with a 72-ch (14 Hz) exploration seismograph for load drops of 150-470 kN (16-48 tons). Signal-to-noise ratios of unfiltered signals ranged from ~200 immediately above the source (500 m (1700 ft)) to ~8 at the farthest extent of the array (slant distance of ~800 m (2600 ft)), suggesting the potential for use over longer range. Results are compared with signals produced by weight drop and sledge hammer sources, indicating the superior waveform quality for first-arrival measurements with the CLCSS seismic source.

16. The research on the photo-electronic integrated acceleration seismic detecting technology

Tong, Zhengrong; Wei, Jianxia; En, De; Chen, Caihe; Cui, Yuming; Li, Chao

2007-01-01

For high resolution application in seismic detection, the geophone should be smaller in size, more reliable and sensitive. So a kind of photo-electronic integrated acceleration seismic detecting technology, which is novel and precise based on waveguide M-Z interference, is presented. The principle of the photo-electronic integrated acceleration seismic geophone is introduced in this paper. The seismometer is composed of a waveguide M-Z interferometer, a sensing element, a modulation LD and signal processing system. The silicon crystal is adopted as the substrate. The core of the photoelectronic integrated acceleration is the silicon harmonic oscillator, which is supported by four silicon beams and integrated on the signal beam of the M-Z interferometer . The harmonic oscillator translates the acceleration information of the external vibrational signal into phase variation of optical signal in the sensing arm, which is converted into optical signal by M-Z interferometer, then PIN converts the optical signal into electric signal to process by the signal processing. The experimental curve of seismometer frequency response is achieved.

17. Investigating the feasibility of temperature-controlled accelerated drug release testing for an intravaginal ring.

PubMed

Externbrink, Anna; Clark, Meredith R; Friend, David R; Klein, Sandra

2013-11-01

The objective of the present study was to investigate if temperature can be utilized to accelerate drug release from Nuvaring®, a reservoir type intravaginal ring based on polyethylene vinyl acetate copolymer that releases a constant dose of contraceptive steroids over a duration of 3 weeks. The reciprocating holder apparatus (USP 7) was utilized to determine real-time and accelerated etonogestrel release from ring segments. It was demonstrated that drug release increased with increasing temperature which can be attributed to enhanced drug diffusion. An Arrhenius relationship of the zero-order release constants was established, indicating that temperature is a valid parameter to accelerate drug release from this dosage form and that the release mechanism is maintained under these accelerated test conditions. Accelerated release tests are particularly useful for routine quality control to assist during batch release of extended release formulations that typically release the active over several weeks, months or even years, since they can increase the product shelf life. The accelerated method should therefore be able to discriminate between formulations with different release characteristics that can result from normal manufacturing variance. In the case of Nuvaring®, it is well known that the process parameters during the extrusion process strongly influence the polymeric structure. These changes in the polymeric structure can affect the permeability which, in turn, is reflected in the release properties. Results from this study indicate that changes in the polymeric structure can lead to a different temperature dependence of the release rate, and as a consequence, the accelerated method can become less sensitive to detect changes in the release properties. When the accelerated method is utilized during batch release, it is therefore important to take this possible restriction into account and to evaluate the accelerated method with samples from non

18. Research and fabrication of harmonic oscillator with high quality in Si-based MOEMS acceleration seismic geophone

Tong, Zhengrong; Wang, Zhiyong; En, De; Chen, Caihe; Li, Xuejiao; Xie, Xiaofang

2008-03-01

A kind of photo-electronic integrated acceleration seismic detecting technology, which is novel and precise based on waveguide M-Z interference, is presented. It provieds modern geologic prospect with a novel detection technology. The principle of the photo-electronic integrated acceleration seismic geophone is introduced in this paper. The core of the photo-electronic integrated acceleration is the silicon harmonic oscillator, which is supported by four silicon beams and integrated on the signal beam of the M-Z interferometer. When the seismic mass is subjected to a normal acceleration a z, the acceleration a z, will result in an inertial force F z, causing the mass to move up or down like the piston, until the counter force of the beam suspension equals this inertial force. The principle of the harmonic oscillator is briefly introduced, the factors influencing the anisotropic etching quality of the harmonic oscillator are analyzed in detail. In experiment, the fabrication technology was studied and improved. The high quality harmonic oscillator has been successfully fabricated. It has been applied in the integrated optical chip of "the theory and experiment research of photoelectric integrated acceleration seismic geophone technology".

19. Accelerating Simulation of Seismic Wave Propagation by Multi-GPUs (Invited)

Okamoto, T.; Takenaka, H.; Nakamura, T.; Aoki, T.

2010-12-01

Simulation of seismic wave propagation is essential in modern seismology: the effects of irregular topography of the surface, internal discontinuities and heterogeneity on the seismic waveforms must be precisely modeled in order to probe the Earth's and other planets' interiors, to study the earthquake sources, and to evaluate the strong ground motions due to earthquakes. Devices with high computing performance are necessary because in large scale simulations more than one billion of grid points are required. GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) is a remarkable device for its many core architecture with more-than-one-hundred processing units, and its high memory bandwidth. Now GPU delivers extremely high computing performance (more than one tera-flops in single-precision arithmetic) at a reduced power and cost compared to conventional CPUs. The simulation of seismic wave propagation is a memory intensive problem which involves large amount of data transfer between the memory and the arithmetic units while the number of arithmetic calculations is relatively small. Therefore the simulation should benefit from the high memory bandwidth of the GPU. Thus several approaches to adopt GPU to the simulation of seismic wave propagation have been emerging (e.g., Komatitsch et al., 2009; Micikevicius, 2009; Michea and Komatitsch, 2010; Aoi et al., SSJ 2009, JPGU 2010; Okamoto et al., SSJ 2009, SACSIS 2010). In this paper we describe our approach to accelerate the simulation of seismic wave propagation based on the finite-difference method (FDM) by adopting multi-GPU computing. The finite-difference scheme we use is the three-dimensional, velocity-stress staggered grid scheme (e.g., Grave 1996; Moczo et al., 2007) for heterogeneous medium with perfect elasticity (incorporation of an-elasticity is underway). We use the GPUs (NVIDIA S1070, 1.44 GHz) installed in the TSUBAME grid cluster in the Global Scientific Information and Computing Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology and NVIDIA

20. Interfacial Fast Release Layer in Monodisperse Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) Microspheres Accelerates the Drug Release.

PubMed

Wu, Jun; Zhao, Xiaoli; Yeung, Kelvin W K; To, Michael K T

2016-01-01

Understanding microstructural evolutions of drug delivery devices during drug release process is essential for revealing the drug release mechanisms and controlling the drug release profiles. In this study, monodisperse poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres in different diameters were fabricated by microfluidics in order to find out the relationships between the microstructural evolutions and the drug release profiles. It was found that poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres underwent significant size expansion which took place from the periphery to the center, resulting in the formation of interfacial fast release layers. At the same time, inner pores were created and the diffusion rate was increased so that the early stage drug release was accelerated. Due to the different expansion rates, small poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres tendered to follow homogeneous drug release while large poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres tendered to follow heterogeneous drug release. This study suggests that the size expansion and the occurrence of interfacial fast release layer were important mechanisms for early stage drug release of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres.

1. Soft computing analysis of the possible correlation between temporal and energy release patterns in seismic activity

Konstantaras, Anthony; Katsifarakis, Emmanouil; Artzouxaltzis, Xristos; Makris, John; Vallianatos, Filippos; Varley, Martin

2010-05-01

This paper is a preliminary investigation of the possible correlation of temporal and energy release patterns of seismic activity involving the preparation processes of consecutive sizeable seismic events [1,2]. The background idea is that during periods of low-level seismic activity, stress processes in the crust accumulate energy at the seismogenic area whilst larger seismic events act as a decongesting mechanism releasing considerable energy [3,4]. A dynamic algorithm is being developed aiming to identify and cluster pre- and post- seismic events to the main earthquake following on research carried out by Zubkov [5] and Dobrovolsky [6,7]. This clustering technique along with energy release equations dependent on Richter's scale [8,9] allow for an estimate to be drawn regarding the amount of the energy being released by the seismic sequence. The above approach is being implemented as a monitoring tool to investigate the behaviour of the underlying energy management system by introducing this information to various neural [10,11] and soft computing models [1,12,13,14]. The incorporation of intelligent systems aims towards the detection and simulation of the possible relationship between energy release patterns and time-intervals among consecutive sizeable earthquakes [1,15]. Anticipated successful training of the imported intelligent systems may result in a real-time, on-line processing methodology [1,16] capable to dynamically approximate the time-interval between the latest and the next forthcoming sizeable seismic event by monitoring the energy release process in a specific seismogenic area. Indexing terms: pattern recognition, long-term earthquake precursors, neural networks, soft computing, earthquake occurrence intervals References [1] Konstantaras A., Vallianatos F., Varley M.R. and Makris J. P.: ‘Soft computing modelling of seismicity in the southern Hellenic arc', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 5 (3), pp. 323-327, 2008 [2] Eneva M. and

SciTech Connect

Marc D. Kurz; Edwin S. Olson

2006-07-31

Low-cost methods are needed to enhance various bioremediation technologies, from natural attenuation to heavily engineered remediation of subsurface hydrocarbon contamination. Many subsurface sites have insufficient quantities of nitrogen and phosphorus, resulting in poor bioactivity and increased remediation time and costs. The addition of conventional fertilizers can improve bioactivity, but often the nutrients dissolve quickly and migrate away from the contaminant zone before being utilized by the microbes. Through this project, conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center, polymers were developed that slowly release nitrogen and phosphorus into the subsurface. Conceptually, these polymers are designed to adhere to soil particles in the subsurface contamination zone where they slowly degrade and release nutrients over longer periods of time compared to conventional fertilizer applications. Tests conducted during this study indicate that some of the developed polymers have excellent potential to satisfy the microbial requirements for enhanced bioremediation.

3. A smoothed stochastic earthquake rate model considering seismicity and fault moment release for Europe

Hiemer, S.; Woessner, J.; Basili, R.; Danciu, L.; Giardini, D.; Wiemer, S.

2014-08-01

We present a time-independent gridded earthquake rate forecast for the European region including Turkey. The spatial component of our model is based on kernel density estimation techniques, which we applied to both past earthquake locations and fault moment release on mapped crustal faults and subduction zone interfaces with assigned slip rates. Our forecast relies on the assumption that the locations of past seismicity is a good guide to future seismicity, and that future large-magnitude events occur more likely in the vicinity of known faults. We show that the optimal weighted sum of the corresponding two spatial densities depends on the magnitude range considered. The kernel bandwidths and density weighting function are optimized using retrospective likelihood-based forecast experiments. We computed earthquake activity rates (a- and b-value) of the truncated Gutenberg-Richter distribution separately for crustal and subduction seismicity based on a maximum likelihood approach that considers the spatial and temporal completeness history of the catalogue. The final annual rate of our forecast is purely driven by the maximum likelihood fit of activity rates to the catalogue data, whereas its spatial component incorporates contributions from both earthquake and fault moment-rate densities. Our model constitutes one branch of the earthquake source model logic tree of the 2013 European seismic hazard model released by the EU-FP7 project `Seismic HAzard haRmonization in Europe' (SHARE) and contributes to the assessment of epistemic uncertainties in earthquake activity rates. We performed retrospective and pseudo-prospective likelihood consistency tests to underline the reliability of our model and SHARE's area source model (ASM) using the testing algorithms applied in the collaboratory for the study of earthquake predictability (CSEP). We comparatively tested our model's forecasting skill against the ASM and find a statistically significant better performance for

4. Increasing rock-avalanche frequency correlates with increasing seismic moment release in New Zealand's Southern Alps

McSaveney, Mauri; Cox, Simon; Hancox, Graham

2015-04-01

The occurrence rate of large, spontaneous rock avalanches in New Zealand's Southern Alps has increasing over the last 50 years. The rate has been about 20 events per decade for the last 10 years, whereas for the period 1976-1999, it was 4 per decade. Allen et al. 2011 and Allen and Huggel, 2013 link the increase to alpine permafrost decay due to anthropogenic global warming, similar to the increased occurrence rate in the European Alps which is attributed to this cause. We however suggest a different primary cause, linking the increase to tectonic strain, which has been shown to also affect valley-bottom hot springs in the region. The altitudes from which these landslides have fallen are coincident with the region's topographically protruding slopes which favour stress concentration and failure, and many, but not all, failures have been from already highly fractured rock masses, for which an explanation of the fracturing is called for. Also, the earliest documented spontaneous rock avalanche in the Southern Alps occurred in 1873 and fell from a similar altitude on the same face of the same mountain as the most recent event in 2014. Cox et al. (2014) shows that valley-bottom hot springs in the Southern Alps respond to distant strong earthquakes in a manner suggesting weak local ground deformation and increased bedrock permeability. We suggest that the surrounding slopes respond to the same stimuli. We find that the observed occurrence-rate increase has occurred simultaneously with a seismic-moment-release increase in New Zealand, which follows the trend of global seismic moment release. It may also be associated with the accumulating slope deformations since about 1717 AD, when a great earthquake triggered much slope collapse in the region. In support of this link, Barff (1873) which reports the 1873 landslide from Aoraki/Mount Cook, also reports a seemingly associated but unexplained shift of hot springs in the area. The timing of both coincides with a distant

5. A reproducible accelerated in vitro release testing method for PLGA microspheres.

PubMed

Shen, Jie; Lee, Kyulim; Choi, Stephanie; Qu, Wen; Wang, Yan; Burgess, Diane J

2016-02-10

The objective of the present study was to develop a discriminatory and reproducible accelerated in vitro release method for long-acting PLGA microspheres with inner structure/porosity differences. Risperidone was chosen as a model drug. Qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent PLGA microspheres with different inner structure/porosity were obtained using different manufacturing processes. Physicochemical properties as well as degradation profiles of the prepared microspheres were investigated. Furthermore, in vitro release testing of the prepared risperidone microspheres was performed using the most common in vitro release methods (i.e., sample-and-separate and flow through) for this type of product. The obtained compositionally equivalent risperidone microspheres had similar drug loading but different inner structure/porosity. When microsphere particle size appeared similar, porous risperidone microspheres showed faster microsphere degradation and drug release compared with less porous microspheres. Both in vitro release methods investigated were able to differentiate risperidone microsphere formulations with differences in porosity under real-time (37 °C) and accelerated (45 °C) testing conditions. Notably, only the accelerated USP apparatus 4 method showed good reproducibility for highly porous risperidone microspheres. These results indicated that the accelerated USP apparatus 4 method is an appropriate fast quality control tool for long-acting PLGA microspheres (even with porous structures).

6. Prediction of seismic moment release of aftershocks by a kinetic law

Daminelli, Rosastella; Marcellini, Alberto

2013-04-01

We modelled the temporal behaviour of the cumulative seismic moment releases of aftershock sequences by a kinetic approach of the fracture mechanism. This approach considers that the relation between applied stress and time-to-break is conditioned by two competing phenomena occurring in the fracture zone: the breakage of unbroken elements and the reformation of broken elements. With respect to the familiar log-linear relation between stress and fracture time of static fatigue, the present approach also considers the damage evolution of the material during the fracture process. From a math point of view it means a modification of the log-linear relation by the introduction in the equation of a new factor that represents the fraction of integrity of the materials: the result is a better fit of experimental data. The aftershock model we derived has been applied to seven aftershock sequences of Californian earthquakes selected from the SCEC database: the mainshocks range from M=5.45 to M=7.3. We considered a total time interval of 120 days following the mainshock, but for Whittier Narrows (110 days), with the same magnitude threshold (M=1.8) for all the sequences. The total number of events considered ranges from the 470 of Whittier Narrows (October 1, 1987) to the 12573 of Landers (June 28, 1992). To check the predictive validity of the model we analysed the forecast of the cumulative seismic moment release as a function of time: we defined ? as the elapsed time, since the mainshock, required to evaluate the costants of the equation sufficient to obtain predictions of the cumulative seismic moment with maximum error of 3 days for the whole remaining sequence. We obtained ? = 2.8 days for Whittier Narrows, ? = 3 days for Landers, ? = 15 hours for Northridge (January 17, 1994), ? = 9 days for North Palm Springs (July 8, 1986) and ? = 6 days for Hector Mine (October 16, 1999). Unfortunately two sequences, Ridgecrest (September 20, 1995) and Oceanside (July 13, 1986

7. The energy release in earthquakes, and subduction zone seismicity and stress in slabs. Ph.D. Thesis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vassiliou, M. S.

1983-01-01

Energy release in earthquakes is discussed. Dynamic energy from source time function, a simplified procedure for modeling deep focus events, static energy estimates, near source energy studies, and energy and magnitude are addressed. Subduction zone seismicity and stress in slabs are also discussed.

8. New RHESSI Results on Particle Acceleration and Energy Release in Solar Flares

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lin, R. P.

2003-01-01

The primary scientific objective of NASA RHESSI mission (launched February 2002) is to investigate the physics of particle acceleration and energy release in solar flares, through imaging and spectroscopy of X-ray gamma-ray continuum and gamma-ray lines emitted by accelerated electrons and ions, respectively. Here I summarize the new solar observations, including the first hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy, the first high resolution spectroscopy of solar gamma ray lines, the first imaging of solar gamma ray lines and continuum, and the highest sensitivity hard X-ray observations of microflares and type III solar radio bursts.

9. Statistical correlation of the soil incubation and the accelerated laboratory extraction methods to estimate nitrogen release rates of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

PubMed

Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry; Obreza, Thomas; Leary, Emily; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

2014-01-01

Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release patterns of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers (EEFs) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers and are product-specific based on the regulation and analysis of each EEF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize nutrient release of slow-release fertilizer (SRF) and controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) materials, no official method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased production and distribution of EEFs in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify nutrient claims and material performance. Nonlinear regression was used to establish a correlation between the data generated from a 180-day soil incubation-column leaching procedure and 74 h accelerated lab extraction method, and to develop a model that can predict the 180-day nitrogen (N) release curve for a specific SRF and CRF product based on the data from the accelerated laboratory extraction method. Based on the R2 > 0.90 obtained for most materials, results indicated that the data generated from the 74 h accelerated lab extraction method could be used to predict N release from the selected materials during 180 days, including those fertilizers that require biological activity for N release.

10. Toward a consistent model for strain accrual and release for the New Madrid Seismic Zone, central United States

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hough, S.E.; Page, M.

2011-01-01

At the heart of the conundrum of seismogenesis in the New Madrid Seismic Zone is the apparently substantial discrepancy between low strain rate and high recent seismic moment release. In this study we revisit the magnitudes of the four principal 1811–1812 earthquakes using intensity values determined from individual assessments from four experts. Using these values and the grid search method of Bakun and Wentworth (1997), we estimate magnitudes around 7.0 for all four events, values that are significantly lower than previously published magnitude estimates based on macroseismic intensities. We further show that the strain rate predicted from postglacial rebound is sufficient to produce a sequence with the moment release of one Mmax6.8 every 500 years, a rate that is much lower than previous estimates of late Holocene moment release. However, Mw6.8 is at the low end of the uncertainty range inferred from analysis of intensities for the largest 1811–1812 event. We show that Mw6.8 is also a reasonable value for the largest main shock given a plausible rupture scenario. One can also construct a range of consistent models that permit a somewhat higher Mmax, with a longer average recurrence rate. It is thus possible to reconcile predicted strain and seismic moment release rates with alternative models: one in which 1811–1812 sequences occur every 500 years, with the largest events being Mmax∼6.8, or one in which sequences occur, on average, less frequently, with Mmax of ∼7.0. Both models predict that the late Holocene rate of activity will continue for the next few to 10 thousand years.

11. Effective seismic acceleration measurements for low-cost Structural Health Monitoring

Pentaris, Fragkiskos; Makris, John P.

2015-04-01

There is increasing demand on cost effective Structural Health Monitoring systems for buildings as well as important and/or critical constructions. The front end for all these systems is the accelerometer. We present a comparative study of two low cost MEMS accelaration sensors against a very sensitive, high dynamic range strong motion accelerometer of force balance type but much more expensive. A real experiment was realized by deploying the three sesnors in a reinforced concrete building of the premises of TEI of Crete at Chania Crete, an earthquake prone region. The analysis of the collected accelararion data from many seismic events indicates that all sensors are able to efficiently reveal the seismic response of the construction in terms of PSD. Furthermore, it is shown that coherence diagrams between excitation and response of the building under study, depict structural characteristics but also the seismic energy distribution. This work is supported by the Archimedes III Program of the Ministry of Education of Greece, through the Operational Program "Educational and Lifelong Learning", in the framework of the project entitled "Interdisciplinary Multi-Scale Research of Earthquake Physics and Seismotectonics at the front of the Hellenic Arc (IMPACT-ARC)" and is co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national funds.

12. Characteristics of radiation and propagation of seismic waves in the Baikal Rift Zone estimated by simulations of acceleration time histories of the recorded earthquakes

Pavlenko, O. V.; Tubanov, Ts. A.

2017-01-01

The regularities in the radiation and propagation of seismic waves within the Baikal Rift Zone in Buryatia are studied to estimate the ground motion parameters from the probable future strong earthquakes. The regional parameters of seismic radiation and propagation are estimated by the stochastic simulation (which provides the closest agreement between the calculations and observations) of the acceleration time histories of the earthquakes recorded by the Ulan-Ude seismic station. The acceleration time histories of the strongest earthquakes ( M W 3.4-4.8) that occurred in 2006-2011 at the epicentral distances of 96-125 km and had source depths of 8-12 km have been modeled. The calculations are conducted with estimates of the Q-factor which were previously obtained for the region. The frequency-dependent attenuation and geometrical spreading are estimated from the data on the deep structure of the crust and upper mantle (velocity sections) in the Ulan-Ude region, and the parameters determining the wave forms and duration of acceleration time histories are found by fitting. These parameters fairly well describe all the considered earthquakes. The Ulan-Ude station can be considered as the reference bedrock station with minimum local effects. The obtained estimates for the parameters of seismic radiation and propagation can be used for forecasting the ground motion from the future strong earthquakes and for constructing the seismic zoning maps for Buryatia.

13. The Acceleration and Release of Near-relativistic Electrons by Coronal Mass Ejections

Simnett, G. M.; Roelof, E. C.; Haggerty, D. K.

2002-11-01

hardness of the electrons were positively correlated with the CME speed, a signature of shock acceleration. We therefore suggest that most of the near-relativistic electrons seen by ACE/EPAM are accelerated by the shock driven by the coronal transient and are released at a radial distance around 2-3 Rsolar.

14. F-actin and myosin II accelerate catecholamine release from chromaffin granules

PubMed Central

Berberian, Khajak; Torres, Alexis J; Fang, Qinghua; Kisler, Kassandra

2009-01-01

The roles of non-muscle myosin II and cortical actin filaments in chromaffin granule exocytosis were studied by confocal fluorescence microscopy, amperometry, and cell-attached capacitance measurements. Fluorescence imaging indicated decreased mobility of granules near the plasma membrane following inhibition of myosin II function with Blebbistatin. Slower fusion pore expansion rates and longer fusion pore lifetimes were observed after inhibition of actin polymerization using Cytochalasin-D. Amperometric recordings revealed increased amperometric spike half-widths without change in quantal size after either myosin II inhibition or actin disruption. These results suggest that actin and myosin II facilitate release from individual chromaffin granules by accelerating dissociation of catecholamines from the intragranular matrix possibly through generation of mechanical forces. PMID:19158310

15. An Accelerated Release Study to Evaluate Long-Acting Contraceptive Levonorgestrel-Containing in Situ Forming Depot Systems

PubMed Central

Janagam, Dileep R.; Wang, Lizhu; Ananthula, Suryatheja; Johnson, James R.; Lowe, Tao L.

2016-01-01

Biodegradable polymer-based injectable in situ forming depot (ISD) systems that solidify in the body to form a solid or semisolid reservoir are becoming increasingly attractive as an injectable dosage form for sustained (months to years) parenteral drug delivery. Evaluation of long-term drug release from the ISD systems during the formulation development is laborious and costly. An accelerated release method that can effectively correlate the months to years of long-term release in a short time such as days or weeks is economically needed. However, no such accelerated ISD system release method has been reported in the literature to date. The objective of the current study was to develop a short-term accelerated in vitro release method for contraceptive levonorgestrel (LNG)-containing ISD systems to screen formulations for more than 3-month contraception after a single subcutaneous injection. The LNG-containing ISD formulations were prepared by using biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and polylactic acid polymer and solvent mixtures containing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and benzyl benzoate or triethyl citrate. Drug release studies were performed under real-time (long-term) conditions (PBS, pH 7.4, 37 °C) and four accelerated (short-term) conditions: (A) PBS, pH 7.4, 50 °C; (B) 25% ethanol in PBS, pH 7.4, 50 °C; (C) 25% ethanol in PBS, 2% Tween 20, pH 7.4, 50 °C; and (D) 25% ethanol in PBS, 2% Tween 20, pH 9, 50 °C. The LNG release profile, including the release mechanism under the accelerated condition D within two weeks, correlated (r2 ≥ 0.98) well with that under real-time conditions at four months. PMID:27598191

16. An Accelerated Release Study to Evaluate Long-Acting Contraceptive Levonorgestrel-Containing in Situ Forming Depot Systems.

PubMed

Janagam, Dileep R; Wang, Lizhu; Ananthula, Suryatheja; Johnson, James R; Lowe, Tao L

2016-09-01

Biodegradable polymer-based injectable in situ forming depot (ISD) systems that solidify in the body to form a solid or semisolid reservoir are becoming increasingly attractive as an injectable dosage form for sustained (months to years) parenteral drug delivery. Evaluation of long-term drug release from the ISD systems during the formulation development is laborious and costly. An accelerated release method that can effectively correlate the months to years of long-term release in a short time such as days or weeks is economically needed. However, no such accelerated ISD system release method has been reported in the literature to date. The objective of the current study was to develop a short-term accelerated in vitro release method for contraceptive levonorgestrel (LNG)-containing ISD systems to screen formulations for more than 3-month contraception after a single subcutaneous injection. The LNG-containing ISD formulations were prepared by using biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and polylactic acid polymer and solvent mixtures containing N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone and benzyl benzoate or triethyl citrate. Drug release studies were performed under real-time (long-term) conditions (PBS, pH 7.4, 37 °C) and four accelerated (short-term) conditions: (A) PBS, pH 7.4, 50 °C; (B) 25% ethanol in PBS, pH 7.4, 50 °C; (C) 25% ethanol in PBS, 2% Tween 20, pH 7.4, 50 °C; and (D) 25% ethanol in PBS, 2% Tween 20, pH 9, 50 °C. The LNG release profile, including the release mechanism under the accelerated condition D within two weeks, correlated (r² ≥ 0.98) well with that under real-time conditions at four months.

17. Acceleration of wound healing by growth hormone-releasing hormone and its agonists.

PubMed

Dioufa, Nikolina; Schally, Andrew V; Chatzistamou, Ioulia; Moustou, Evi; Block, Norman L; Owens, Gary K; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Kiaris, Hippokratis

2010-10-26

Despite the well-documented action of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) on the stimulation of production and release of growth hormone (GH), the effects of GHRH in peripheral tissues are incompletely explored. In this study, we show that GHRH plays a role in wound healing and tissue repair by acting primarily on wound-associated fibroblasts. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in culture and wound-associated fibroblasts in mice expressed a splice variant of the receptors for GHRH (SV1). Exposure of MEFs to 100 nM and 500 nM GHRH or the GHRH agonist JI-38 stimulated the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) based on immunoblot analyses as well as the expression of an αSMA-β-galactosidase reporter transgene in primary cultures of fibroblasts isolated from transgenic mice. Consistent with this induction of αSMA expression, results of transwell-based migration assays and in vitro wound healing (scratch) assays showed that both GHRH and GHRH agonist JI-38 stimulated the migration of MEFs in vitro. In vivo, local application of GHRH or JI-38 accelerated healing in skin wounds of mice. Histological evaluation of skin biopsies showed that wounds treated with GHRH and JI-38 were both characterized by increased abundance of fibroblasts during the early stages of wound healing and accelerated reformation of the covering epithelium at later stages. These results identify another function of GHRH in promoting skin tissue wound healing and repair. Our findings suggest that GHRH may have clinical utility for augmenting healing of skin wounds resulting from trauma, surgery, or disease.

18. Exploring inhibitor release pathways in histone deacetylases using random acceleration molecular dynamics simulations.

PubMed

Kalyaanamoorthy, Subha; Chen, Yi-Ping Phoebe

2012-02-27

Molecular channel exploration perseveres to be the prominent solution for eliciting structure and accessibility of active site and other internal spaces of macromolecules. The volume and silhouette characterization of these channels provides answers for the issues of substrate access and ligand swapping between the obscured active site and the exterior of the protein. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are metal-dependent enzymes that are involved in the cell growth, cell cycle regulation, and progression, and their deregulations have been linked with different types of cancers. Hence HDACs, especially the class I family, are widely recognized as the important cancer targets, and the characterizations of their structures and functions have been of special interest in cancer drug discovery. The class I HDACs are known to possess two different protein channels, an 11 Å and a 14 Å (named channels A and B1, respectively), of which the former is a ligand or substrate occupying tunnel that leads to the buried active site zinc ion and the latter is speculated to be involved in product release. In this work, we have carried out random acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) simulations coupled with the classical molecular dynamics to explore the release of the ligand, N-(2-aminophenyl) benzamide (LLX) from the active sites of the recently solved X-ray crystal structure of HDAC2 and the computationally modeled HDAC1 proteins. The RAMD simulations identified significant structural and dynamic features of the HDAC channels, especially the key 'gate-keeping' amino acid residues that control these channels and the ligand release events. Further, this study identified a novel and unique channel B2, a subchannel from channel B1, in the HDAC1 protein structure. The roles of water molecules in the LLX release from the HDAC1 and HDAC2 enzymes are also discussed. Such structural and dynamic properties of the HDAC protein channels that govern the ligand escape reactions will provide

19. Combined nitric oxide-releasing poly(vinyl alcohol) film/F127 hydrogel for accelerating wound healing.

PubMed

Schanuel, Fernanda Seabra; Raggio Santos, Karen Slis; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; de Oliveira, Marcelo G

2015-06-01

Nitric oxide (NO) releasing biomaterials represent a potential strategy for use as active wound dressings capable of accelerating wound healing. Topical NO-releasing poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films and Pluronic F127 hydrogels (F127) have already exhibited effective skin vasodilation and wound healing actions. In this study, we functionalized PVA films with SNO groups via esterification with a mixture of mercaptosucinic acid (MSA) and thiolactic acid (TLA) followed by S-nitrosation of the SH moieties. These films were combined with an underlying layer of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide), i.e., PEO-PPO-PEO (Pluronic F127) hydrogel and used for the topical treatment of skin lesions in an animal model. The mixed esterification of PVA with MSA and TLA led to chemically crosslinked PVA-SNO films with a high swelling capacity capable of spontaneously releasing NO. Real time NO-release measurements revealed that the hydrogel layer reduces the initial NO burst from the PVA-SNO films. We demonstrate that the combination of PVA-SNO films with F127 hydrogel accelerates wound contraction, decreases wound gap and cellular density and accelerates the inflammatory phase of the lesion. These results were reflected in an increase in myofibroblastic differentiation and collagen type III expression in the cicatricial tissue. Therefore, PVA-SNO films combined with F127 hydrogel may represent a new approach for active wound dressings capable of accelerating wound healing.

20. Optimization and validation of an accelerated laboratory extraction method to estimate nitrogen release patterns of slow- and controlled-release fertilizers.

PubMed

Medina, L Carolina; Sartain, Jerry B; Obreza, Thomas A; Hall, William L; Thiex, Nancy J

2014-01-01

Several technologies have been proposed to characterize the nutrient release and availability patterns of enhanced-efficiency fertilizers (EEFs), especially slow-release fertilizers (SRFs) and controlled-release fertilizers (CRFs) during the last few decades. These technologies have been developed mainly by manufacturers and are product-specific based on the regulation and analysis of each EEF product. Despite previous efforts to characterize EEF materials, no validated method exists to assess their nutrient release patterns. However, the increased use of EEFs in specialty and nonspecialty markets requires an appropriate method to verify nutrient claims and material performance. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of temperature, fertilizer test portion size, and extraction time on the performance of a 74 h accelerated laboratory extraction method to measure SRF and CRF nutrient release profiles. Temperature was the only factor that influenced nutrient release rate, with a highly marked effect for phosphorus and to a lesser extent for nitrogen (N) and potassium. Based on the results, the optimal extraction temperature set was: Extraction No. 1-2:00 h at 25 degrees C; Extraction No. 2-2:00 h at 50 degrees C; Extraction No. 3-20:00 h at 55 degrees C; and Extraction No. 4-50:00 h at 60 degrees C. Ruggedness of the method was tested by evaluating the effect of small changes in seven selected factors on method behavior using a fractional multifactorial design. Overall, the method showed ruggedness for measuring N release rates of coated CRFs.

1. A positive feedback strategy for enhanced chemotherapy based on ROS-triggered self-accelerating drug release nanosystem.

PubMed

Hu, Jing-Jing; Lei, Qi; Peng, Meng-Yun; Zheng, Di-Wei; Chen, Yi-Xuan; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

2017-06-01

Here, a positive feedback strategy was utilized to amplify the concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a ROS-triggered self-accelerating drug release nanosystem (defined as T/D@RSMSNs) was demonstrated for enhanced tumor chemotherapy. The mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) based nanocarriers were gated by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) through the ROS-cleavable thioketal (TK) linker to encapsulate the anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and ROS producing agent α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS), whose surface was further anchored with adamantane conjugated poly(ethylene glycol) chain (AD-PEG) via host-guest interaction. It was found that in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells, T/D@RSMSNs could not only release DOX and α-TOS initiatively, but also lead to increased concentration of intracellular ROS, which could be used as new trigger to cut away TK linkage and then in turn facilitate the further release of DOX for enhanced chemotherapy. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that T/D@RSMSNs exhibited more significant antitumor activity in the human breast cancer than the traditional single-DOX loaded ROS-responsive nanocarrier. This novel ROS-triggered self-accelerating drug release nanosystem with remarkably improved therapeutic effects could provide a general strategy to branch out the applications of existing ROS-responsive drug delivery systems (DDSs).

2. Release of Phosphorylated HSP27 (HSPB1) from Platelets Is Accompanied with the Acceleration of Aggregation in Diabetic Patients.

PubMed

Tokuda, Haruhiko; Kuroyanagi, Gen; Tsujimoto, Masanori; Enomoto, Yukiko; Matsushima-Nishiwaki, Rie; Onuma, Takashi; Kojima, Akiko; Doi, Tomoaki; Tanabe, Kumiko; Akamatsu, Shigeru; Iida, Hiroki; Ogura, Shinji; Otsuka, Takanobu; Iwama, Toru; Tanikawa, Takahisa; Ishikawa, Kei; Kojima, Kumi; Kozawa, Osamu

2015-01-01

We investigated the relationship between HSP27 phosphorylation and collagen-stimulated activation of platelets in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Platelet-rich plasma was prepared from blood of type 2 DM patients. The platelet aggregation was analyzed in size of aggregates by an aggregometer using a laser scattering method. The protein phosphorylation was analyzed by Western blotting. Phosphorylated-HSP27 and PDGF-AB released from platelets were measured by ELISA. The phosphorylated-HSP27 levels at Ser-78 and Ser-82 induced by collagen were directly proportional to the platelet aggregation. Total HSP27 levels in platelets were decreased concomitantly with the phosphorylation. The released HSP27 levels were significantly correlated with the phosphorylated levels of HSP27 in the platelets stimulated by 0.3 μg/ml collagen. The low dose collagen-stimulated release of HSP27 was detected but relatively small in healthy donors. The released levels of PDGF-AB were in parallel with the levels of released HSP27. Area under the curve (AUC) of small aggregation (9-25 μm) induced by 0.3 μg/ml collagen was inversely proportional to the levels of released HSP27. AUC of large aggregation (50-70 μm) was directly proportional to the levels of released HSP27. Exogenous recombinant phosphorylated- HSP27 hardly affected the aggregation or the released levels of PDGF-AB induced by collagen. These results strongly suggest that HSP27 is released from human platelets accompanied with its phosphorylation induced by collagen, which is correlated with the acceleration of platelet aggregation in type 2 DM patients.

3. Stress accumulation and release since 1882 in Ometepec, Guerrero, Mexico: Implications for failure mechanisms and risk assessments of a seismic gap

GonzáLez-Ruiz, Jaime R.; McNally, Karen C.

1988-06-01

We found evidence that four episodes of large shallow (h < 30 km) interplate earthquakes ruptured approximately the same segment of the Middle America subduction zone in Ometepec, Guerrero, Mexico, during the last century: in 1890 (M = 7.2), 1937 (MS = 7.5), 1950 (MS = 7.3), and 1982 (MS = 6.9 and 7.0). This segment is about 70 km long, which is near the limit of resolution to define seismic gap dimensions. We synthesized the spatial, temporal, and mechanistic patterns of regional relocated seismicity (mb ≥ 4.0) to investigate the mechanics of rupture within the same seismic gap for the relatively large number of times (four) offered by the Ometepec case history. Despite the similarities in source depths and geometries of the shallow main shocks, we found marked differences in their magnitudes, recurrence intervals, and rupture modes (e.g., degree of source complexity and event multiplicity). The episodic amounts of energy release do not appear to scale with the observed elapsed times between the shallow main shocks (47.1, 13.0, and 31.5 years in chronological order) according to time- or slip-predictable models of earthquake recurrence. We interpret these findings in the context of a variable rupture mode of the Ometepec region. This variable rupture mode suggests that probabilistic forecasts of future large earthquakes in the region, which are based solely on the historic record of main shocks, can be uncertain by at least ±57% of the average local repeat time of 30.5 years and 1/2 unit of magnitude. Specific predictions of future strong ground motions are obviated because earthquakes within the gap do not exhibit a "characteristic" behavior. We also found that all four episodes of interplate main shocks were preceded by large downdip normal fault earthquakes at intermediate depths (M ≥ 6.5, h > 60 km). The time intervals between extensional and subsequent compressional events range from 1.6 to 9.9 years with an average of 6.3±3.7 years. This apparent

4. Accelerated ketoprofen release from spray-dried polymeric particles: importance of phase transitions and excipient distribution.

PubMed

Gue, Emilie; Muschert, Susanne; Willart, Jean-Francois; Danede, Florence; Delcourt-Debruyne, Elisabeth; Descamps, Marc; Siepmann, Juergen

2015-05-01

HPMC-, PVPVA- and PVP-based microparticles loaded with 30% ketoprofen were prepared by spray drying suspensions or solutions in various water:ethanol blends. The inlet temperature, drying gas and feed flow rates were varied. The resulting differences in the ketoprofen release rates in 0.1 M HCl could be explained based on X-ray diffraction, mDSC, SEM and particle size analysis. Importantly, long term stable drug release could be provided, being much faster than: (i) drug release from a commercial reference product, (ii) the respective physical drug:polymer mixtures, as well as (iii) the dissolution of ketoprofen powder as received. In addition, highly supersaturated release media were obtained, which did not show any sign for re-crystallization during the observation period. Surprisingly, spraying suspensions resulted in larger microparticles exhibiting faster drug release compared to spraying solutions, which resulted in smaller particles exhibiting slower drug release. These effects could be explained based on the physico-chemical characteristics of the systems.

5. Natural ageing process accelerates the release of Ag from functional textile in various exposure scenarios

Ding, Dahu; Chen, Lulu; Dong, Shaowei; Cai, Hao; Chen, Jifei; Jiang, Canlan; Cai, Tianming

2016-11-01

Natural ageing process occurs throughout the life cycle of textile products, which may possess influences on the release behavior of additives such as silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). In this study, we assessed the releasability of Ag NPs from a Ag NPs functionalized textile in five different exposure scenarios (i.e. tap water (TW), pond water (PW), rain water (RW), artificial sweat (AS), and detergent solution (DS) along with deionized water (DW) as reference), which were very likely to occur throughout the life cycle of the textile. For the pristine textile, although the most remarkable release was found in DW (6–15 μg Ag/g textile), the highest release rate was found in RW (around 7 μg Ag/(g textile·h)). After ageing treatment, the total released Ag could be increased by 75.7~386.0% in DW, AS and DS. Morphological analysis clearly showed that the Ag NPs were isolated from the surface of the textile fibre due to the ageing treatment. This study provides useful information for risk assessment of nano-enhanced textile products.

6. Natural ageing process accelerates the release of Ag from functional textile in various exposure scenarios

PubMed Central

Ding, Dahu; Chen, Lulu; Dong, Shaowei; Cai, Hao; Chen, Jifei; Jiang, Canlan; Cai, Tianming

2016-01-01

Natural ageing process occurs throughout the life cycle of textile products, which may possess influences on the release behavior of additives such as silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). In this study, we assessed the releasability of Ag NPs from a Ag NPs functionalized textile in five different exposure scenarios (i.e. tap water (TW), pond water (PW), rain water (RW), artificial sweat (AS), and detergent solution (DS) along with deionized water (DW) as reference), which were very likely to occur throughout the life cycle of the textile. For the pristine textile, although the most remarkable release was found in DW (6–15 μg Ag/g textile), the highest release rate was found in RW (around 7 μg Ag/(g textile·h)). After ageing treatment, the total released Ag could be increased by 75.7~386.0% in DW, AS and DS. Morphological analysis clearly showed that the Ag NPs were isolated from the surface of the textile fibre due to the ageing treatment. This study provides useful information for risk assessment of nano-enhanced textile products. PMID:27869136

7. Natural ageing process accelerates the release of Ag from functional textile in various exposure scenarios.

PubMed

Ding, Dahu; Chen, Lulu; Dong, Shaowei; Cai, Hao; Chen, Jifei; Jiang, Canlan; Cai, Tianming

2016-11-21

Natural ageing process occurs throughout the life cycle of textile products, which may possess influences on the release behavior of additives such as silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). In this study, we assessed the releasability of Ag NPs from a Ag NPs functionalized textile in five different exposure scenarios (i.e. tap water (TW), pond water (PW), rain water (RW), artificial sweat (AS), and detergent solution (DS) along with deionized water (DW) as reference), which were very likely to occur throughout the life cycle of the textile. For the pristine textile, although the most remarkable release was found in DW (6-15 μg Ag/g textile), the highest release rate was found in RW (around 7 μg Ag/(g textile·h)). After ageing treatment, the total released Ag could be increased by 75.7~386.0% in DW, AS and DS. Morphological analysis clearly showed that the Ag NPs were isolated from the surface of the textile fibre due to the ageing treatment. This study provides useful information for risk assessment of nano-enhanced textile products.

8. Estimation of recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone based on seismic moment accumulation/release model.

PubMed

Ren, Junjie; Zhang, Shimin

2013-01-01

Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3) × 10¹⁷ N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region.

9. Estimation of Recurrence Interval of Large Earthquakes on the Central Longmen Shan Fault Zone Based on Seismic Moment Accumulation/Release Model

PubMed Central

Zhang, Shimin

2013-01-01

Recurrence interval of large earthquake on an active fault zone is an important parameter in assessing seismic hazard. The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred on the central Longmen Shan fault zone and ruptured the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF) and the Guanxian-Jiangyou fault (GJF). However, there is a considerable discrepancy among recurrence intervals of large earthquake in preseismic and postseismic estimates based on slip rate and paleoseismologic results. Post-seismic trenches showed that the central Longmen Shan fault zone probably undertakes an event similar to the 2008 quake, suggesting a characteristic earthquake model. In this paper, we use the published seismogenic model of the 2008 earthquake based on Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data and construct a characteristic seismic moment accumulation/release model to estimate recurrence interval of large earthquakes on the central Longmen Shan fault zone. Our results show that the seismogenic zone accommodates a moment rate of (2.7 ± 0.3) × 1017 N m/yr, and a recurrence interval of 3900 ± 400 yrs is necessary for accumulation of strain energy equivalent to the 2008 earthquake. This study provides a preferred interval estimation of large earthquakes for seismic hazard analysis in the Longmen Shan region. PMID:23878524

10. Accelerated ketoprofen release from polymeric matrices: importance of the homogeneity/heterogeneity of excipient distribution.

PubMed

Gue, E; Willart, J F; Muschert, S; Danede, F; Delcourt, E; Descamps, M; Siepmann, J

2013-11-30

Polymeric matrices loaded with 10-50% ketoprofen were prepared by hot-melt extrusion or spray-drying. Eudragit E, PVP, PVPVA and HPMC were studied as matrix formers. Binary "drug-Eudragit E" as well as ternary "drug-Eudragit E-PVP", "drug-Eudragit E-PVPVA" and "drug-Eudragit E-HPMC" combinations were investigated and characterized by optical macro/microscopy, SEM, particle size measurements, mDSC, X-ray diffraction and in vitro drug release studies in 0.1 M HCl. In all cases ketoprofen release was much faster compared to a commercially available product and the dissolution of the drug powder (as received). Super-saturated solutions were obtained, which were stable during at least 2 h. Importantly, not only the composition of the systems, but also their inner structure potentially significantly affected the resulting ketoprofen release kinetics: For instance, spray-drying ternary ketoprofen:Eudragit E:HPMC combinations led to a more homogenous HPMC distribution within the systems than hot-melt extrusion, as revealed by mDSC and X-ray diffraction. This more homogenous HPMC distribution resulted in more pronounced hindrance for water and drug diffusion and, thus, slower drug release from spray-dried powder compared to hot-melt extrudates of identical composition. This "homogeneity/heterogeneity effect" even overcompensated the "system size effect": the surface exposed to the release medium was much larger in the case of the spray-dried powder. All formulations were stable during storage at ambient conditions in open vials.

11. Bioactive peptides released from Saccharomyces cerevisiae under accelerated autolysis in a wine model system.

PubMed

Alcaide-Hidalgo, J M; Pueyo, E; Polo, M C; Martínez-Rodríguez, A J

2007-09-01

The ACE inhibitory activity (IACE) and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC-FL) values of yeast peptides isolated from a model wine during accelerated autolysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied. Samples were taken at 6, 24, 48, 121, and 144 h of autolysis. Peptide concentration increased throughout autolysis process. Peptides were fractionated into 2 fractions: F1, constituted by hydrophilic peptides, and F2, containing hydrophobic peptides. Both IACE activity and ORAC-FL values increased during 121 h of autolysis, then decreased afterward. Peptide fraction F2 was the main fraction involved in IACE activity and ORAC-FL.

12. [Determination of head scatter factors released from a scanning-type therapeutic accelerator].

PubMed

Sato, Tomoharu

2003-07-01

The MM50 is a racetrack microtron capable of taking out photon beams and electron beams with energies of up to 50 MeV. It flattens the beam by the beam-scanning method, while the microtron MM22 utilizes a flattening filter. The head-scatter factors (hereafter called S(h)), which are important for evaluating the output of the photon beam of the MM50 and MM22, were measured using a mini-phantom and build-up cap. S(h) measured with the build-up cap showed the influence of contaminated electrons, whereas S(h) measured with the mini-phantom showed less influence, even for 50 MV photon beams. Compared with the MM22, the MM50 showed less change in S(h) according to field size and energy. The reason for this seemed to be that the MM50 has a smaller extra-focal region than other accelerators equipped with flattening filters and, therefore, can essentially be considered a point source by using the beam-scanning method without a flattening filter. This study demonstrated that photons scattered by the flattening filter used for beam flattening in typical medical accelerators mainly contribute to S(h).

13. A Model for Tectonic Strain Release from Explosions in Complex Prestress Fields Applied to Anomalous Seismic Waves from NTS and Eastern Kazakh Explosions.

DTIC Science & Technology

1982-01-01

the material is deep in the earth , and then removing the external shear stress by, for example, a gradual rise of the material to the earth’s surface...tectonic release and the magnitude of the prestress necessary to cause significant changes to the explosion seismic waves. We have used earth models...of the earth . The structures useo are given in Tables 3.1 and 3.2. For the body waves, the source region is a PILEDRIVER climax stock model (after

14. Parahalogenated phenols accelerate the photochemical release of nitrogen oxides from frozen solutions containing nitrate.

PubMed

Abida, Otman; Osthoff, Hans D

2012-06-21

The photolysis of nitrate anion (NO(3)(-)) contained in surface ice and snow can be a regionally significant source of gas-phase nitrogen oxides and affect the composition of the planetary boundary layer. In this study, the photochemical release of nitrogen oxides from frozen solutions containing NO(3)(-) in the presence of organic compounds was investigated. Gas-phase nitrogen oxides were quantified primarily by NO-O(3) chemiluminescence detection of NO and NO(y) (=NO + NO(2) + HONO + HNO(3) + ∑PAN + ∑AN ...) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy of NO(2) and total alkyl nitrates (∑AN). The photochemical production of gas-phase NO(y) was suppressed by the presence of formate, methanesulfonate, toluene, or phenol. In contrast, para-halogenated phenols (in the order of Cl > Br > F) promoted the conversion of NO(3)(-) to gas-phase NO(y), rationalized by acidification of the ice surface.

15. Accelerating the discontinuous Galerkin method for seismic wave propagation simulations using the graphic processing unit (GPU)—single-GPU implementation

Mu, Dawei; Chen, Po; Wang, Liqiang

2013-02-01

We have successfully ported an arbitrary high-order discontinuous Galerkin (ADER-DG) method for solving the three-dimensional elastic seismic wave equation on unstructured tetrahedral meshes to an Nvidia Tesla C2075 GPU using the Nvidia CUDA programming model. On average our implementation obtained a speedup factor of about 24.3 for the single-precision version of our GPU code and a speedup factor of about 12.8 for the double-precision version of our GPU code when compared with the double precision serial CPU code running on one Intel Xeon W5880 core. When compared with the parallel CPU code running on two, four and eight cores, the speedup factor of our single-precision GPU code is around 12.9, 6.8 and 3.6, respectively. In this article, we give a brief summary of the ADER-DG method, a short introduction to the CUDA programming model and a description of our CUDA implementation and optimization of the ADER-DG method on the GPU. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores the potential of accelerating the ADER-DG method for seismic wave-propagation simulations using a GPU.

16. Inhibition of a solid phase reaction among excipients that accelerates drug release from a solid dispersion with aging.

PubMed

Mizuno, Masayasu; Hirakura, Yutaka; Yamane, Ikuro; Miyanishi, Hideo; Yokota, Shoji; Hattori, Munetaka; Kajiyama, Atsushi

2005-11-23

Hydrophobic drug substances can be formulated as a solid dispersion or solution using macromolecular matrices with high glass transition temperatures to attain satisfactory dissolution. However, very few marketed products have previously relied on solid dispersion technology due to physical and chemical instability problems, and processing difficulties. In the present study, a modified release product of a therapeutic drug for hypertension, Barnidipine hydrochloride, was developed. The drug product consisted of solid dispersion based on a matrix of carboxymethylethylcellulose (CMEC), which was produced using the spray-coating method. An enteric coat layer was sprayed on the surface of the solid dispersion to control drug release. Interestingly, the release rate accelerated as the drug product aged, while there were no indications of deceleration of the release rate which was due to crystallization of the drug substance. To prevent changes in the dissolution kinetics during storage periods, a variety of processing conditions were tried. It was found that not only use of non-aqueous solvents but also a reduction in coating temperatures consistently resulted in stable solid dispersions. The molecular bases of dissolution of the drug substance from those matrices were investigated. The molecular weight of CMEC was found to be a dominant factor that determined dissolution kinetics, which followed zero-order release, suggesting an involvement of an osmotic pumping mechanism. While dissolution was faster using a higher molecular weight CMEC, the molecular weight of CMEC in the drug product slowly increased with aging (solid phase reaction) depending on the processing conditions, causing the time-induced elevation of dissolution. While no crystalline components were found in the solid dispersion, the amorphous structure maintained a degree of non-equilibrium by nature. Plasticization by water in the coating solution relaxed the amorphous system and facilitated phase

17. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Iraq

SciTech Connect

Onur, Tuna; Gok, Rengin; Abdulnaby, Wathiq; Shakir, Ammar M.; Mahdi, Hanan; Numan, Nazar M.S.; Al-Shukri, Haydar; Chlaib, Hussein K.; Ameen, Taher H.; Abd, Najah A.

2016-05-06

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessments (PSHA) form the basis for most contemporary seismic provisions in building codes around the world. The current building code of Iraq was published in 1997. An update to this edition is in the process of being released. However, there are no national PSHA studies in Iraq for the new building code to refer to for seismic loading in terms of spectral accelerations. As an interim solution, the new draft building code was considering to refer to PSHA results produced in the late 1990s as part of the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program (GSHAP; Giardini et al., 1999). However these results are: a) more than 15 years outdated, b) PGA-based only, necessitating rough conversion factors to calculate spectral accelerations at 0.3s and 1.0s for seismic design, and c) at a probability level of 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years, not the 2% that the building code requires. Hence there is a pressing need for a new, updated PSHA for Iraq.

18. Seismic Studies

SciTech Connect

R. Quittmeyer

2006-09-25

This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at

19. Seismic velocities within the sedimentary succession of the Canada Basin and southern Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean: evidence for accelerated porosity reduction?

Shimeld, John; Li, Qingmou; Chian, Deping; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth; Mosher, David; Hutchinson, Deborah

2016-01-01

borehole data for Miocene turbidites in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The station-specific results also indicate that Quaternary sediments coarsen towards the Beaufort-Mackenzie and Banks Island margins in a manner that is consistent with the variable history of Laurentide Ice Sheet advance documented for these margins. Lithological factors do not fully account for the elevated velocity-depth trends that are associated with the southwestern Canada Basin and the Alpha-Mendeleev magnetic domain. Accelerated porosity reduction due to elevated palaeo-heat flow is inferred for these regions, which may be related to the underlying crustal types or possibly volcanic intrusion of the sedimentary succession. Beyond exploring the variation of an important physical property in the Arctic Ocean basin, this study provides comparative reference for global studies of seismic velocity, burial history, sedimentary compaction, seismic inversion and overpressure prediction, particularly in mudrock-dominated successions.

20. Seismic velocities within the sedimentary succession of the Canada Basin and southern Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, Arctic Ocean: evidence for accelerated porosity reduction?

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shimeld, John; Li, Qingmou; Chian, Deping; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth; Mosher, David; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

2016-01-01

favourably with borehole data for Miocene turbidites in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The station-specific results also indicate that Quaternary sediments coarsen towards the Beaufort-Mackenzie and Banks Island margins in a manner that is consistent with the variable history of Laurentide Ice Sheet advance documented for these margins. Lithological factors do not fully account for the elevated velocity–depth trends that are associated with the southwestern Canada Basin and the Alpha-Mendeleev magnetic domain. Accelerated porosity reduction due to elevated palaeo-heat flow is inferred for these regions, which may be related to the underlying crustal types or possibly volcanic intrusion of the sedimentary succession. Beyond exploring the variation of an important physical property in the Arctic Ocean basin, this study provides comparative reference for global studies of seismic velocity, burial history, sedimentary compaction, seismic inversion and overpressure prediction, particularly in mudrock-dominated successions.

1. A Slow Slip and Seismic Swarm Sequence in a Weakly Coupled Subduction Zone in Northern Peru

Villegas Lanza, J. C.; Nocquet, J. M.; Rolandone, F.; Vallee, M.; Tavera, H.; Bondoux, F.; Tran, T. D.; Martin, X.; Chlieh, M.

2015-12-01

Processes releasing the stress accumulated along subduction megathrusts show a great diversity in their seismic and aseismic signatures, and in the ratio between the two modes of slip. Deep (30-50km) Slow Slip Events (SSE) are often accompanied by tremors, accounting for less than 0.1% of the total moment release. Shallow (<20km) SSE show synchronous intense microseismicity, whose contribution is 0.1 to a few percent of the total moment release. At the other end of the spectrum, earthquake-afterslip sequences usually show an aseismic/seismic moment release ratio between 20 to 100%, with some unusual cases reaching 400%. Here we document a seismic/aseismic sequence along the weakly coupled northern Peru subduction zone that departs from previously observed categories. The sequence took place at shallow depth (<25km), lasted 7 months, and the synchronous seismicity accounts for ~25% of the total moment release equivalent to Mw 6.7. Unlike SSE which show a progressive acceleration of slip, rapid transient slip started immediately after two earthquakes, before slowing down at logarithmic decay, similarly to the afterslip following large earthquakes. The earthquake which triggered the largest acceleration and slip amount shares most characteristics of tsunami earthquakes and probably occurred in the conditionally stable part of the subduction interface. Taken separately, the moment released by the transient aseismic slip following this latter earthquake is >1000% of the co-seismic moment and the observed transient slip cannot be explained by classical models of afterslip. This sequence suggests that Seismic Swarms that are commonly observed at subduction megathrusts actually release much more stress than indicated by their cumulative seismic moment.

2. Accelerating the dissolution of enteric coatings in the upper small intestine: evolution of a novel pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer system to assess drug release.

PubMed

Varum, Felipe J O; Merchant, Hamid A; Goyanes, Alvaro; Assi, Pardis; Zboranová, Veronika; Basit, Abdul W

2014-07-01

Despite rapid dissolution in compendial phosphate buffers, gastro resistant (enteric coated) products can take up to 2 h to disintegrate in the human small intestine, which clearly highlights the inadequacy of the in vitro test method to predict in vivo behaviour of these formulations. The aim of this study was to establish the utility of a novel pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer, stabilized by an Auto pH™ System, as a better surrogate of the conditions of the proximal small intestine to investigate the dissolution behaviour of standard and accelerated release enteric double coating formulations. Prednisolone tablets were coated with 3 or 5 mg/cm(2) of partially neutralized EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55, HP-55 or HPMC adjusted to pH 6 or 8. An outer layer of EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 was applied at 5mg/cm(2). For comparison purposes, a standard single layer of EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 was applied to the tablets. Dissolution was carried out using USP II apparatus in 0.1 M HCl for 2 h, followed by pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer. EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 single-coated tablets showed a slow drug release with a lag time of 75 min in buffer, whereas release from the EUDRAGIT(®) L 30 D-55 double-coated tablets was accelerated. These in vitro lag times closely match the in vivo disintegration times for these coated tablets reported previously. Drug release was further accelerated from modified double coatings, particularly in the case of coatings with a thinner inner layer of HP-55 or HPMC (pH 8 and KH2PO4). This study confirms that the pH 5.6 bicarbonate buffer system offers significant advantages during the development of dosage forms designed to release the drug in the upper small intestine.

3. Ignition of the Pegasus rocket moments after release from the B-52 signaled acceleration of the X-43

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

2001-01-01

The first X-43A hypersonic research aircraft and its modified Pegasus booster rocket were carried aloft by NASA's NB-52B carrier aircraft from Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., on June 2, 2001 for the first of three high-speed free flight attempts. About an hour and 15 minutes later the Pegasus booster was released from the B-52 to accelerate the X-43A to its intended speed of Mach 7. Before this could be achieved, the combined Pegasus and X-43A 'stack' lost control about eight seconds after ignition of the Pegasus rocket motor. The mission was terminated and explosive charges ensured the Pegasus and X-43A fell into the Pacific Ocean in a cleared Navy range area. A NASA investigation board is being assembled to determine the cause of the incident. Work continues on two other X-43A vehicles, the first of which could fly by late 2001. Central to the X-43A program is its integration of an air-breathing 'scramjet' engine that could enable a variety of high-speed aerospace craft, and promote cost-effective access to space. The 12-foot, unpiloted research vehicle was developed and built for NASA by MicroCraft Inc., Tullahoma, Tenn. The booster was built by Orbital Sciences Corp. at Chandler, Ariz. The X-43A flights are the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by a scramjet engine capable of operating at hypersonic speeds (above Mach 5, or five times the speed of sound). Some 90 minutes after takeoff, the Pegasus will launch from a B-52, rocketing the X-43A to Mach 7 at 95,000 feet altitude, or Mach 10 at 105,000 feet altitude. The X-43A will be powered by its revolutionary air-breathing supersonic-combustion ramjet or 'scramjet' engine. The X-43A will then fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments as it descends until it splashes into the Pacific Ocean.

4. Field Installation and Real-Time Data Processing of the New Integrated SeismoGeodetic System with Real-Time Acceleration and Displacement Measurements for Earthquake Characterization Based on High-Rate Seismic and GPS Data

Zimakov, Leonid; Jackson, Michael; Passmore, Paul; Raczka, Jared; Alvarez, Marcos; Barrientos, Sergio

2015-04-01

We will discuss and show the results obtained from an integrated SeismoGeodetic System, model SG160-09, installed in the Chilean National Network. The SG160-09 provides the user high rate GNSS and accelerometer data, full epoch-by-epoch measurement integrity and, using the Trimble Pivot™ SeismoGeodetic App, the ability to create combined GNSS and accelerometer high-rate (200Hz) displacement time series in real-time. The SG160-09 combines seismic recording with GNSS geodetic measurement in a single compact, ruggedized package. The system includes a low-power, 220-channel GNSS receiver powered by the latest Trimble-precise Maxwell™6 technology and supports tracking GPS, GLONASS and Galileo signals. The receiver incorporates on-board GNSS point positioning using Real-Time Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technology with satellite clock and orbit corrections delivered over IP networks. The seismic recording element includes an ANSS Class A, force balance triaxial accelerometer with the latest, low power, 24-bit A/D converter, which produces high-resolution seismic data. The SG160-09 processor acquires and packetizes both seismic and geodetic data and transmits it to the central station using an advanced, error-correction protocol with back fill capability providing data integrity between the field and the processing center. The SG160-09 has been installed in the seismic station close to the area of the Iquique earthquake of April 1, 2014, in northern Chile, a seismically prone area at the current time. The hardware includes the SG160-09 system, external Zephyr Geodetic-2 GNSS antenna, and high-speed Internet communication media. Both acceleration and displacement data was transmitted in real-time to the National Seismological Center in Santiago for real-time data processing using Earthworm / Early Bird software. Command/Control of the field station and real-time GNSS position correction are provided via the Pivot software suite. Data from the SG160-09 system was

5. Seismicity trends and potential for large earthquakes in the Alaska-Aleutian region

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bufe, C.G.; Nishenko, S.P.; Varnes, D.J.

1994-01-01

The high likelihood of a gap-filling thrust earthquake in the Alaska subduction zone within this decade is indicated by two independent methods: analysis of historic earthquake recurrence data and time-to-failure analysis applied to recent decades of instrumental data. Recent (May 1993) earthquake activity in the Shumagin Islands gap is consistent with previous projections of increases in seismic release, indicating that this segment, along with the Alaska Peninsula segment, is approaching failure. Based on this pattern of accelerating seismic release, we project the occurrence of one or more M???7.3 earthquakes in the Shumagin-Alaska Peninsula region during 1994-1996. Different segments of the Alaska-Aleutian seismic zone behave differently in the decade or two preceding great earthquakes, some showing acceleration of seismic release (type "A" zones), while others show deceleration (type "D" zones). The largest Alaska-Aleutian earthquakes-in 1957, 1964, and 1965-originated in zones that exhibit type D behavior. Type A zones currently showing accelerating release are the Shumagin, Alaska Peninsula, Delarof, and Kommandorski segments. Time-to-failure analysis suggests that the large earthquakes could occur in these latter zones within the next few years. ?? 1994 Birkha??user Verlag.

6. Centrifugal acceleration to 3Gz is related to increased release of stress hormones and decreased mood in men and women.

PubMed

Schneider, Stefan; Guardiera, Simon; Kleinert, Jens; Steinbacher, Anja; Abel, Thomas; Carnahan, Heather; Strüder, Heiko K

2008-09-01

It has been suggested that the central and peripheral neural processes (CPNP) are affected by gravitational changes. Based on the previous experiments during parabolic flights, central and peripheral changes may not only be due to the changed gravitational forces but also due to neuroendocrine reactions related to the psycho-physiological consequences of gravitational changes. The present study focuses on the interaction of neuroendocrine changes and the physical and mental states after acceleration to three-time terrestrial gravity (3Gz). Eleven participants (29.4+/-5.1 [SD] years (male (n=8): 30+/-5.1 years; female (n=3): 27.7+/-2.1 years) underwent a 15 min acceleration to 3Gz in a human centrifuge. Before and after the acceleration to 3Gz circulating stress hormone concentrations (cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), prolactin, epinephrine, norepinephrine) and perceived physical and mental states were recorded. A second control group of 11 participants underwent the same testing procedure in a laboratory session. Serum cortisol concentration during exposure to the centrifugal acceleration increased by 70%, plasma concentration of ACTH increased threefold, prolactin twofold, epinephrine by 70% and norepinephrine by 45%, whereas the perceived physical well-being decreased. These findings demonstrate that psycho-physiological changes have to be regarded as a relevant factor for the changes in CPNP during phases of hypergravity exposure.

7. Price to be paid for two-metal catalysis: magnesium ions that accelerate chemistry unavoidably limit product release from a protein kinase.

PubMed

Jacobsen, Douglas M; Bao, Zhao-Qin; O'Brien, Patrick; Brooks, Charles L; Young, Matthew A

2012-09-19

Incorporation of divalent metal ions into an active site is a fundamental catalytic tool used by diverse enzymes. Divalent cations are used by protein kinases to both stabilize ATP binding and accelerate chemistry. Kinetic analysis establishes that Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) requires simultaneous binding of two Mg(2+) ions for catalysis of phosphoryl transfer. This tool, however, comes with a price: the rate-acceleration effects are opposed by an unavoidable rate-limiting consequence of the use of two Mg(2+) ions by CDK2. The essential metal ions stabilize ADP product binding and limit the overall rate of the reaction. We demonstrate that product release is rate limiting for activated CDK2 and evaluate the effects of the two catalytically essential Mg(2+) ions on the stability of the ADP product within the active site. We present two new crystal structures of CDK2 bound to ADP showing how the phosphate groups can be coordinated by either one or two Mg(2+) ions, with the occupancy of one site in a weaker equilibrium. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that ADP phosphate mobility is more restricted when ADP is coordinated by two Mg(2+) ions compared to one. The structural similarity between the rigid ADP·2Mg product and the cooperatively assembled transition state provides a mechanistic rational for the rate-limiting ADP release that is observed. We demonstrate that although the simultaneous binding of two Mg(2+) ions is essential for efficient phosphoryl transfer, the presence of both Mg(2+) ions in the active site also cooperatively increases ADP affinity and opposes its release. Evolution of protein kinases must have involved careful tuning of the affinity for the second Mg(2+) ion in order to balance the needs to stabilize the chemical transition state and allow timely product release. The link between Mg(2+) site affinity and activity presents a chemical handle that may be used by regulatory factors as well as explain some mutational effects.

8. Does cattle grazing of dual-purpose wheat accelerate the rate of stubble decomposition and nutrients released

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Decomposition and nutrient release of winter annual forages in integrated crop-livestock systems could be affected by the resultant alterations in structure and quality of residues caused by grazing, but little information is available to test this hypothesis. Information on residue dynamics is need...

9. Accelerated Approval of Cancer Drugs: Improved Access to Therapeutic Breakthroughs or Early Release of Unsafe and Ineffective Drugs?

PubMed Central

Richey, Elizabeth A.; Lyons, E. Alison; Nebeker, Jonathan R.; Shankaran, Veena; McKoy, June M.; Luu, Thanh Ha; Nonzee, Narissa; Trifilio, Steven; Sartor, Oliver; Benson, Al B.; Carson, Kenneth R.; Edwards, Beatrice J.; Gilchrist-Scott, Douglas; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Raisch, Dennis W.; Tallman, Martin S.; West, Dennis P.; Hirschfeld, Steven; Grillo-Lopez, Antonio J.; Bennett, Charles L.

2009-01-01

10. Litter mixture dominated by leaf litter of the invasive species, Flaveria bidentis, accelerates decomposition and favors nitrogen release.

PubMed

Li, Huiyan; Wei, Zishang; Huangfu, Chaohe; Chen, Xinwei; Yang, Dianlin

2017-01-01

In natural ecosystems, invasive plant litter is often mixed with that of native species, yet few studies have examined the decomposition dynamics of such mixtures, especially across different degrees of invasion. We conducted a 1-year litterbag experiment using leaf litters from the invasive species Flaveria bidentis (L.) and the dominant co-occurring native species, Setaria viridis (L.). Litters were allowed to decompose either separately or together at different ratios in a mothproof screen house. The mass loss of all litter mixtures was non-additive, and the direction and strength of effects varied with species ratio and decomposition stage. During the initial stages of decomposition, all mixtures had a neutral effect on the mass loss; however, at later stages of decomposition, mixtures containing more invasive litter had synergistic effects on mass loss. Importantly, an increase in F. bidentis litter with a lower C:N ratio in mixtures led to greater net release of N over time. These results highlight the importance of trait dissimilarity in determining the decomposition rates of litter mixtures and suggest that F. bidentis could further synchronize N release from litter as an invasion proceeds, potentially creating a positive feedback linked through invasion as the invader outcompetes the natives for nutrients. Our findings also demonstrate the importance of species composition as well as the identity of dominant species when considering how changes in plant community structure influence plant invasion.

11. The SCEC Petascale Cyberfacility for Physics-based Seismic Hazard Analysis (PetaSHA): Accelerating SCEC Research Using High Performance Computing

Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Kesselman, C.; Moore, R.; Minster, J. B.; SCEC Collaboration

2007-12-01

The SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) collaboration is extending SCEC's program of seismic hazard research using high performance computing with the NSF-funded Petascale Cyberfacility for Physics-based Seismic Hazard Analysis (PetaSHA) Project. The SCEC PetaSHA project is a collaboration of geoscientists and computer scientists that integrate geophysical numerical modeling codes with leading-edge cyberinfrastructure to perform seismic hazard research at large-scales and high-resolution using national academic supercomputing facilities. The PetaSHA computational capabilities are organized around the development of robust, re-usable, well-validated simulation systems we call computational platforms. Researchers on the PetaSHA Project are currently developing the DynaShake Platform (dynamic rupture simulations), the TeraShake Platform (wave propagation simulations), the CyberShake Platform (physics-based probabilistic seismic hazard analysis), the BroadBand Platform (deterministic and stochastic modeling of high frequency synthetic waveforms), the Full 3D Tomography (F3DT) Platform (improvements in structural representations), as well as using and extending the OpenSHA Platform (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis). We will describe several current PetaSHA research projects including the application of the DynaShake Platform to dynamic rupture modeling of the ShakeOut source, the use of the TeraShake Platform, including the URS- Graves, SDSU-Olsen and CMU-Hercules Anelastic Wave Propagation codes, to model 1Hz ShakeOut simulations, the use of the CyberShake Platform to investigate physics-based PSHA hazard curves, and the use of the F3DT Platform to produce an improved structural model for a large region in southern California.

12. Acceleration of bone regeneration by activating Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway via lithium released from lithium chloride/calcium phosphate cement in osteoporosis.

PubMed

Li, Li; Peng, Xiaozhong; Qin, Yongbao; Wang, Renchong; Tang, Jingli; Cui, Xu; Wang, Ting; Liu, Wenlong; Pan, Haobo; Li, Bing

2017-03-24

By virtue of its excellent bioactivity and osteoconductivity, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been applied extensively in bone engineering. Doping a trace element into CPC can change physical characteristics and enhance osteogenesis. The trace element lithium has been demonstrated to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. We investigated the fracture-healing effect of osteoporotic defects with lithium-doped calcium phosphate cement (Li/CPC) and the underlying mechanism. Li/CPC bodies immersed in simulated body fluid converted gradually to hydroxyapatite. Li/CPC extracts stimulated the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts upon release of lithium ions (Li(+)) at 25.35 ± 0.12 to 50.74 ± 0.13 mg/l through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in vitro. We also examined the effect of locally administered Li(+) on defects in rat tibia between CPC and Li/CPC in vivo. Micro-computed tomography and histological staining showed that Li/CPC had better osteogenesis by increasing bone mass and promoting repair in defects compared with CPC (P < 0.05). Li/CPC also showed better osteoconductivity and osseointegration. These findings suggest that local release of Li(+) from Li/CPC may accelerate bone regeneration from injury through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in osteoporosis.

13. Acceleration of bone regeneration by activating Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway via lithium released from lithium chloride/calcium phosphate cement in osteoporosis

Li, Li; Peng, Xiaozhong; Qin, Yongbao; Wang, Renchong; Tang, Jingli; Cui, Xu; Wang, Ting; Liu, Wenlong; Pan, Haobo; Li, Bing

2017-03-01

By virtue of its excellent bioactivity and osteoconductivity, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been applied extensively in bone engineering. Doping a trace element into CPC can change physical characteristics and enhance osteogenesis. The trace element lithium has been demonstrated to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. We investigated the fracture-healing effect of osteoporotic defects with lithium-doped calcium phosphate cement (Li/CPC) and the underlying mechanism. Li/CPC bodies immersed in simulated body fluid converted gradually to hydroxyapatite. Li/CPC extracts stimulated the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts upon release of lithium ions (Li+) at 25.35 ± 0.12 to 50.74 ± 0.13 mg/l through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in vitro. We also examined the effect of locally administered Li+ on defects in rat tibia between CPC and Li/CPC in vivo. Micro-computed tomography and histological staining showed that Li/CPC had better osteogenesis by increasing bone mass and promoting repair in defects compared with CPC (P < 0.05). Li/CPC also showed better osteoconductivity and osseointegration. These findings suggest that local release of Li+ from Li/CPC may accelerate bone regeneration from injury through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in osteoporosis.

14. Acceleration of bone regeneration by activating Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway via lithium released from lithium chloride/calcium phosphate cement in osteoporosis

PubMed Central

Li, Li; Peng, Xiaozhong; Qin, Yongbao; Wang, Renchong; Tang, Jingli; Cui, Xu; Wang, Ting; Liu, Wenlong; Pan, Haobo; Li, Bing

2017-01-01

By virtue of its excellent bioactivity and osteoconductivity, calcium phosphate cement (CPC) has been applied extensively in bone engineering. Doping a trace element into CPC can change physical characteristics and enhance osteogenesis. The trace element lithium has been demonstrated to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts. We investigated the fracture-healing effect of osteoporotic defects with lithium-doped calcium phosphate cement (Li/CPC) and the underlying mechanism. Li/CPC bodies immersed in simulated body fluid converted gradually to hydroxyapatite. Li/CPC extracts stimulated the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts upon release of lithium ions (Li+) at 25.35 ± 0.12 to 50.74 ± 0.13 mg/l through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in vitro. We also examined the effect of locally administered Li+ on defects in rat tibia between CPC and Li/CPC in vivo. Micro-computed tomography and histological staining showed that Li/CPC had better osteogenesis by increasing bone mass and promoting repair in defects compared with CPC (P < 0.05). Li/CPC also showed better osteoconductivity and osseointegration. These findings suggest that local release of Li+ from Li/CPC may accelerate bone regeneration from injury through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in osteoporosis. PMID:28338064

15. Local release of pioglitazone (a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist) accelerates proliferation and remodeling phases of wound healing.

PubMed

Sakai, Shigeki; Sato, Keisuke; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Kishi, Kazuo

2016-01-01

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily known for its anti-inflammatory and macrophage differentiation effects, as well as its ability to promote fat cell differentiation and reduce insulin resistance. Pioglitazone (Pio) is a PPARγ agonist used clinically as an anti-diabetic agent for improving insulin sensitivity in patients with diabetes. The objective of this study was to develop a drug delivery system (DDS) for the local release of Pio to promote wound healing. Pio of low aqueous solubility was water-solubilized by micelles formed from gelatin grafted with L-lactic acid oligomers, and incorporated into a biodegradable gelatin hydrogel. An 8-mm punch biopsy tool was used to prepare two skin wounds on either side of the midline of 8-week-old mice. Wounds were treated by the hydrogels with (Pio-hydrogel group) or without (control group) Pio, and the wound area were observed 1, 4, 7, and 14 days after treatment. In addition, a protein assay and immunohistological stain were performed to determine the effects of the Pio-hydrogel on inflammation and macrophage differentiation. The Pio-hydrogels promote wound healing. Moreover, Western blotting analysis demonstrated that treatment with Pio-hydrogels resulted in decreased levels of the cytokines MIP-2 and TGF-β, and increased levels of glucose-regulating adiponectin. It is concluded that Pio-incorporated hydrogels promote the proliferation and remodeling phases of wound healing, and may prove to be effective as wound dressings.

16. Study of seismic signals generated by explosions triggering avalanches.

Surinach, Emma; Pérez-Guillén, Cristina; Tapia, Mar; Hiller, Martin; Dufour, François

2014-05-01

Our group is dedicated to the study of the seismic signals generated by avalanches. Through several years deploying seismic stations at the Vallée de la Sionne (VDLS) test site in Switzerland (operated by SLF) it has gathered a large amount of seismic signals forming a database. The database consists mainly on signals generated by snow avalanches descending the VDLS test site. However, signals corresponding to the explosions that triggered the avalanches and even earthquakes are also included in the database. Depending on the snowpack stability, some of the explosions, despite being of the same charge, are unable to trigger an avalanche. The explosion signals are recorded in 3-component seismometers placed at two or three sites separated a maximum distance of 2.5 km approx. from the release area of the avalanches. The seismic signals corresponding to the explosions recorded at different sites are analyzed and their characteristics compared. Amplitude and frequency content of the displacement, velocity and acceleration of the generated waves traveling into the ground and those of the blast (air) are calculated. These values are compared with those of the waves generated by avalanches and other seismic sources (earthquakes, helicopters, airplanes). These analyses allow us to quantify and evaluate parameters related to the possible triggering of secondary snow avalanches caused by the generated vibrations in air and ground. The results are related to the weather and snowpack conditions, when it is possible.

17. Martian seismicity

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phillips, Roger J.; Grimm, Robert E.

1991-01-01

The design and ultimate success of network seismology experiments on Mars depends on the present level of Martian seismicity. Volcanic and tectonic landforms observed from imaging experiments show that Mars must have been a seismically active planet in the past and there is no reason to discount the notion that Mars is seismically active today but at a lower level of activity. Models are explored for present day Mars seismicity. Depending on the sensitivity and geometry of a seismic network and the attenuation and scattering properties of the interior, it appears that a reasonable number of Martian seismic events would be detected over the period of a decade. The thermoelastic cooling mechanism as estimated is surely a lower bound, and a more refined estimate would take into account specifically the regional cooling of Tharsis and lead to a higher frequency of seismic events.

18. Position paper: Seismic design criteria

SciTech Connect

Farnworth, S.K.

1995-05-22

The purpose of this paper is to document the seismic design criteria to be used on the Title 11 design of the underground double-shell waste storage tanks and appurtenant facilities of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project, and to provide the history and methodologies for determining the recommended Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) anchors for site-specific seismic response spectra curves. Response spectra curves for use in design are provided in Appendix A.

19. Causality between expansion of seismic cloud and maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in geothermal field

Mukuhira, Yusuke; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Ito, Takatoshi; Häring, Markus

2016-04-01

Occurrence of induced seismicity with large magnitude is critical environmental issues associated with fluid injection for shale gas/oil extraction, waste water disposal, carbon capture and storage, and engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Studies for prediction of the hazardous seismicity and risk assessment of induced seismicity has been activated recently. Many of these studies are based on the seismological statistics and these models use the information of the occurrence time and event magnitude. We have originally developed physics based model named "possible seismic moment model" to evaluate seismic activity and assess seismic moment which can be ready to release. This model is totally based on microseismic information of occurrence time, hypocenter location and magnitude (seismic moment). This model assumes existence of representative parameter having physical meaning that release-able seismic moment per rock volume (seismic moment density) at given field. Seismic moment density is to be estimated from microseismic distribution and their seismic moment. In addition to this, stimulated rock volume is also inferred by progress of microseismic cloud at given time and this quantity can be interpreted as the rock volume which can release seismic energy due to weakening effect of normal stress by injected fluid. Product of these two parameters (equation (1)) provide possible seismic moment which can be released from current stimulated zone as a model output. Difference between output of this model and observed cumulative seismic moment corresponds the seismic moment which will be released in future, based on current stimulation conditions. This value can be translated into possible maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in future. As this way, possible seismic moment can be used to have feedback to hydraulic stimulation operation in real time as an index which can be interpreted easily and intuitively. Possible seismic moment is defined as equation (1), where D

20. Regional Seismic Travel Time Node Get and Set

SciTech Connect

Myers, S. C.

2012-10-24

RSTT_NOGS allows users to easily get and set seismic velocity vs. depth profiles at specified model tessellation nodes. RSTT_NOGS uses the Sandia Seismic Location Baseline Model code that was released under BSD license in 2009.

1. Unraveling Megathrust Seismicity

Funiciello, Francesca; Corbi, Fabio; van Dinther, Ylona; Heuret, Arnauld

2013-12-01

The majority of global seismicity originates at subduction zones, either within the converging plates or along the plate interface. In particular, events with Mw ≥ 8.0 usually occur at the subduction megathrust, which is the frictional interface between subducting and overriding plates. Consequently, seismicity at subduction megathrusts is responsible for most of the seismic energy globally released during the last century [Pacheco and Sykes, 1992]. What's more, during the last decade giant megathrust earthquakes occurred at an increased rate with respect to the last century [Ammon et al., 2010], often revealing unexpected characteristics and resulting in catastrophic effects. Determining the controlling factors of these events would have fundamental implications for earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment.

2. Seismic hazard estimation of northern Iran using smoothed seismicity

Khoshnevis, Naeem; Taborda, Ricardo; Azizzadeh-Roodpish, Shima; Cramer, Chris H.

2017-03-01

This article presents a seismic hazard assessment for northern Iran, where a smoothed seismicity approach has been used in combination with an updated seismic catalog and a ground motion prediction equation recently found to yield good fit with data. We evaluate the hazard over a geographical area including the seismic zones of Azerbaijan, the Alborz Mountain Range, and Kopeh-Dagh, as well as parts of other neighboring seismic zones that fall within our region of interest. In the chosen approach, seismic events are not assigned to specific faults but assumed to be potential seismogenic sources distributed within regular grid cells. After performing the corresponding magnitude conversions, we decluster both historical and instrumental seismicity catalogs to obtain earthquake rates based on the number of events within each cell, and smooth the results to account for the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of future earthquakes. Seismicity parameters are computed for each seismic zone separately, and for the entire region of interest as a single uniform seismotectonic region. In the analysis, we consider uncertainties in the ground motion prediction equation, the seismicity parameters, and combine the resulting models using a logic tree. The results are presented in terms of expected peak ground acceleration (PGA) maps and hazard curves at selected locations, considering exceedance probabilities of 2 and 10% in 50 years for rock site conditions. According to our results, the highest levels of hazard are observed west of the North Tabriz and east of the North Alborz faults, where expected PGA values are between about 0.5 and 1 g for 10 and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, respectively. We analyze our results in light of similar estimates available in the literature and offer our perspective on the differences observed. We find our results to be helpful in understanding seismic hazard for northern Iran, but recognize that additional efforts are necessary to

3. Procedures for computing site seismicity

Ferritto, John

1994-02-01

This report was prepared as part of the Navy's Seismic Hazard Mitigation Program. The Navy has numerous bases located in seismically active regions throughout the world. Safe effective design of waterfront structures requires determining expected earthquake ground motion. The Navy's problem is further complicated by the presence of soft saturated marginal soils that can significantly amplify the levels of seismic shaking as evidenced in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command's seismic design manual, NAVFAC P355.l, requires a probabilistic assessment of ground motion for design of essential structures. This report presents the basis for the Navy's Seismic Hazard Analysis procedure that was developed and is intended to be used with the Seismic Hazard Analysis computer program and user's manual. This report also presents data on geology and seismology to establish the background for the seismic hazard model developed. The procedure uses the historical epicenter data base and available geologic data, together with source models, recurrence models, and attenuation relationships to compute the probability distribution of site acceleration and an appropriate spectra. This report discusses the developed stochastic model for seismic hazard evaluation and the associated research.

4. Seismic Data Gathering and Validation

SciTech Connect

Coleman, Justin

2015-02-01

Three recent earthquakes in the last seven years have exceeded their design basis earthquake values (so it is implied that damage to SSC’s should have occurred). These seismic events were recorded at North Anna (August 2011, detailed information provided in [Virginia Electric and Power Company Memo]), Fukushima Daichii and Daini (March 2011 [TEPCO 1]), and Kaswazaki-Kariwa (2007, [TEPCO 2]). However, seismic walk downs at some of these plants indicate that very little damage occurred to safety class systems and components due to the seismic motion. This report presents seismic data gathered for two of the three events mentioned above and recommends a path for using that data for two purposes. One purpose is to determine what margins exist in current industry standard seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) tools. The second purpose is the use the data to validated seismic site response tools and SSI tools. The gathered data represents free field soil and in-structure acceleration time histories data. Gathered data also includes elastic and dynamic soil properties and structural drawings. Gathering data and comparing with existing models has potential to identify areas of uncertainty that should be removed from current seismic analysis and SPRA approaches. Removing uncertainty (to the extent possible) from SPRA’s will allow NPP owners to make decisions on where to reduce risk. Once a realistic understanding of seismic response is established for a nuclear power plant (NPP) then decisions on needed protective measures, such as SI, can be made.

5. Exploration of the antagonist CP-376395 escape pathway for the corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 by random acceleration molecular dynamics simulations.

PubMed

Bai, Qifeng; Shi, Danfeng; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun

2014-07-01

Corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 (CRF1R), a member of class B G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), plays an important role in the treatment of osteoporosis, diabetes, depression, migraine and anxiety. To explore the escape pathway of the antagonist CP-376395 in the binding pocket of CRF1R, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, dynamical network analysis, random acceleration molecular dynamics (RAMD) simulations and adaptive biasing force (ABF) calculations were performed on the crystal structure of CRF1R in complex with CP-376395. The results of dynamical network analysis show that TM7 of CRF1R has the strongest edges during MD simulation. The bent part of TM7 forms a V-shape pocket with Gly356(7.50). Asn283(5.50) has high hydrogen bond occupancy during 100 ns MD simulations and is the key interaction residue with the antagonist in the binding pocket of CRF1R. RAMD simulation has identified three possible pathways (PW1, PW2 and PW3) for CP-376395 to escape from the binding pocket of CRF1R. The PW3 pathway was proved to be the most likely escape pathway for CP-376395. The free energy along the PW3 pathway was calculated by using ABF simulations. Two energy barriers were found along the reaction coordinates. Residues Leu323(6.49), Asn283(5.50) and Met206(3.47) contribute to the steric hindrance for the first energy barrier. Residues His199(3.40) and Gln355(7.49) contribute to the second energy barrier through the hydrogen bonding interaction between CP-376395 and CRF1R. The results of our study can not only provide useful information to understand the interaction mechanism between CP-376395 and CRF1R, but also provide the details about the possible escape pathway and the free energy profile of CP-376395 in the pocket of CRF1R.

6. Seismic evaluation of municipal solid waste landfill

SciTech Connect

Hovind, C.; Slyh, R.

1995-12-31

With the promulgation of the Resource Conservation and Recovery (RCRA) Subtitle D, landfills situated within seismic impact zones must be evaluated for seismic hazards to demonstrate that the containment structures of the landfill can resist the maximum horizontal acceleration in lithified earth materials (bedrock) for the site. If a landfill is sited on saturated soils, it must also be evaluated for liquefaction and lateral spreading. In 1994, EMCON evaluated the seismic hazard for a landfill located along the Columbia River in southwestern Washington. The landfill was founded on dredge fill over natural alluvial deposits. Laboratory testing and state-of-the-art engineering analyses indicated that the sand unit below the landfill had a high potential for liquefaction. The seismic hazard evaluation for the site included a site-specific seismic response analysis, a liquefaction potential analysis, and seismic stability and deformation analysis. The seismic response analysis was conducted for nonliquefied, partially liquefied, and fully liquefied foundation soil conditions. Results are described.

7. Annotated bibliography, seismicity of and near the island of Hawaii and seismic hazard analysis of the East Rift of Kilauea

SciTech Connect

Klein, F.W.

1994-03-28

This bibliography is divided into the following four sections: Seismicity of Hawaii and Kilauea Volcano; Occurrence, locations and accelerations from large historical Hawaiian earthquakes; Seismic hazards of Hawaii; and Methods of seismic hazard analysis. It contains 62 references, most of which are accompanied by short abstracts.

8. The seismic traffic footprint: Tracking trains, aircraft, and cars seismically

Riahi, Nima; Gerstoft, Peter

2015-04-01

Although naturally occurring vibrations have proven useful to probe the subsurface, the vibrations caused by traffic have not been explored much. Such data, however, are less sensitive to weather and low visibility compared to some common out-of-road traffic sensing systems. We study traffic-generated seismic noise measured by an array of 5200 geophones that covered a 7 × 10 km area in Long Beach (California, USA) with a receiver spacing of 100 m. This allows us to look into urban vibrations below the resolution of a typical city block. The spatiotemporal structure of the anthropogenic seismic noise intensity reveals the Blue Line Metro train activity, departing and landing aircraft in Long Beach Airport and their acceleration, and gives clues about traffic movement along the I-405 highway at night. As low-cost, stand-alone seismic sensors are becoming more common, these findings indicate that seismic data may be useful for traffic monitoring.

9. WE-G-BRE-09: Targeted Radiotherapy Enhancement During Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation (ABPI) Using Controlled Release of Gold Nanoparticles (GNPs)

SciTech Connect

Cifter, G; Ngwa, W; Chin, J; Cifter, F; Sajo, E; Sinha, N; Bellon, J

2014-06-15

Purpose: Several studies have demonstrated low rates of local recurrence with brachytherapy-based accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). However, long-term outcomes on toxicity (e.g. telangiectasia), and cosmesis remain a major concern. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dosimetric feasibility of using targeted non-toxic radiosensitizing gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for localized dose enhancement to the planning target volume (PTV) during APBI while reducing dose to normal tissue. Methods: Two approaches for administering the GNPs were considered. In one approach, GNPs are assumed to be incorporated in a micrometer-thick polymer film on the surface of routinely used mammosite balloon applicators, for sustained controlled in-situ release, and subsequent treatment using 50-kVp Xoft devices. In case two, GNPs are administered directly into the lumpectomy cavity e.g. via injection or using fiducials coated with the GNP-loaded polymer film. Recent studies have validated the use of fiducials for reducing the PTV margin during APBI with 6 MV beams. An experimentally determined diffusion coefficient was used to determine space-time customizable distribution of GNPs for feasible in-vivo concentrations of 43 mg/g. An analytic calculational approach from previously published work was employed to estimate the dose enhancement due to GNPs (2 and 10 nm) as a function of distance up to 1 cm from lumpectomy cavity. Results: Dose enhancement due to GNP was found to be about 130% for 50-kVp x-rays, and 110% for 6-MV external beam radiotherapy, 1 cm away from the lumpectomy cavity wall. Higher customizable dose enhancement could be achieved at other distances as a function of nanoparticle size. Conclusion: Our preliminary results suggest that significant dose enhancement can be achieved to residual tumor cells targeted with GNPs during APBI with electronic brachytherapy or external beam therapy. The findings provide a useful basis for developing nanoparticle

10. Seismic hazard assessment for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Luco, Nicholas; Petersen, Mark D.; Frankel, Arthur D.

2012-01-01

We present the results of a new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. The Mariana island arc has formed in response to northwestward subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the Philippine Sea plate, and this process controls seismic activity in the region. Historical seismicity, the Mariana megathrust, and two crustal faults on Guam were modeled as seismic sources, and ground motions were estimated by using published relations for a firm-rock site condition. Maps of peak ground acceleration, 0.2-second spectral acceleration for 5 percent critical damping, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration for 5 percent critical damping were computed for exceedance probabilities of 2 percent and 10 percent in 50 years. For 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, probabilistic peak ground acceleration is 0.94 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.57 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, 0.2-second spectral acceleration is 2.86 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 1.75 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration is 0.61 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.37 gravitational acceleration at Saipan. For 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, probabilistic peak ground acceleration is 0.49 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.29 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, 0.2-second spectral acceleration is 1.43 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.83 gravitational acceleration at Saipan, and 1.0-second spectral acceleration is 0.30 gravitational acceleration at Guam and 0.18 gravitational acceleration at Saipan. The dominant hazard source at the islands is upper Benioff-zone seismicity (depth 40–160 kilometers). The large probabilistic ground motions reflect the strong concentrations of this activity below the arc, especially near Guam.

11. Seismic Discrimination

DTIC Science & Technology

1981-03-31

for second-order Sturm - Liouville boundary-value problems, such a count of eigenvalues may be established in terms of the number of zero crossings of...will be operational during the next six months. Section 11 describes a series of activities in the development and imple- mentation of the seismic...element of seismic research. with emphasis on those areas directly related to tho operations of the SDC. Substantial progress has been made in the

12. Seismic seiches

USGS Publications Warehouse

McGarr, Arthur; Gupta, Harsh K.

2011-01-01

Seismic seiche is a term first used by Kvale (1955) to discuss oscillations of lake levels in Norway and England caused by the Assam earthquake of August 15, 1950. This definition has since been generalized to apply to standing waves set up in closed, or partially closed, bodies of water including rivers, shipping channels, lakes, swimming pools and tanks due to the passage of seismic waves from an earthquake.

13. Evaluation of particles released from single-wall carbon nanotube/polymer composites with or without thermal aging by an accelerated abrasion test.

PubMed

Jiang, Lin; Kondo, Akira; Shigeta, Masahiro; Endoh, Shigehisa; Uejima, Mitsugu; Ogura, Isamu; Naito, Makio

2014-01-01

To provide data required for assessing the environmental health and safety risks of nanocomposites, abrasion-induced particle release from single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/polymer composites with or without thermal aging were evaluated by a shot blast system. First, overall composite weight loss (i.e., overall particle release) as a result of shot blasting was measured. Incorporating 5 wt% SWCNTs in polystyrene (PS) matrix was observed to reduce overall particle release by approximately 30% compared with pure PS. Heat treatment of the 5 wt% SWCNT/PS composites at 100°C for 10 days induced very slight change in overall particle release due to shot blasting. However, heat treatment at 350°C for 1 hr greatly deteriorated the abrasion resistance of the composites, enhancing overall particle release. Second, to verify the existence and form of SWCNTs released from the composites, released particles were observed by electron microscopy. Micron-sized particles with protruding SWCNTs and submicron-sized SWCNT clusters were observed in the particles released from the composites. Heat treatment of the composites at 350°C for 1 hr enhanced SWCNT release, which mainly formed clusters or rope-like bundles.

14. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

2013-05-01

The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

15. Aseismic transient during the 2010-2014 seismic swarm: evidence for longer recurrence of M ≥ 6.5 earthquakes in the Pollino gap (Southern Italy)?

PubMed

Cheloni, Daniele; D'Agostino, Nicola; Selvaggi, Giulio; Avallone, Antonio; Fornaro, Gianfranco; Giuliani, Roberta; Reale, Diego; Sansosti, Eugenio; Tizzani, Pietro

2017-04-12

In actively deforming regions, crustal deformation is accommodated by earthquakes and through a variety of transient aseismic phenomena. Here, we study the 2010-2014 Pollino (Southern Italy) swarm sequence (main shock M W 5.1) located within the Pollino seismic gap, by analysing the surface deformation derived from Global Positioning System and Synthetic Aperture Radar data. Inversions of geodetic time series show that a transient slip, with the same mechanism of the main shock, started about 3-4 months before the main shock and lasted almost one year, evolving through time with acceleration phases that correlate with the rate of seismicity. The moment released by the transient slip is equivalent to M W 5.5, significantly larger than the seismic moment release revealing therefore that a significant fraction of the overall deformation is released aseismically. Our findings suggest that crustal deformation in the Pollino gap is accommodated by infrequent "large" earthquakes (M W  ≥ 6.5) and by aseismic episodes releasing a significant fraction of the accrued strain. Lower strain rates, relative to the adjacent Southern Apennines, and a mixed seismic/aseismic strain release are in favour of a longer recurrence for large magnitude earthquakes in the Pollino gap.

16. Nationwide Assessment of Seismic Hazard for Georgia

Tsereteli, N. S.; Varazanashvili, O.; Mumladze, T.

2014-12-01

The work presents a framework for assessment of seismic hazards on national level for the Georgia. Based on a historical review of the compilation of seismic hazard zoning maps for the Georgia became evident that there were gaps in seismic hazard assessment and the present normative seismic hazard map needed a careful recalculation. The methodology for the probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard used here includes the following steps: produce comprehensive catalogue of historical earthquakes (up to 1900) and the period of instrumental observations with uniform scale of magnitudes; produce models of seismic source zones (SSZ) and their parameterization; develop appropriate ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) models; develop seismic hazard curves for spectral amplitudes at each period and maps in digital format. Firstly, the new seismic catalog of Georgia was created, with 1700 eqs from ancient times on 2012, Mw³4.0. Secondly, were allocated seismic source zones (SSZ). The identification of area SSZ was obtained on the bases of structural geology, parameters of seismicity and seismotectonics. In constructing the SSZ, the slope of the appropriate active fault plane, the width of the dynamic influence of the fault, power of seismoactive layer are taken into account. Finally each SSZ was defined with the parameters: the geometry, the percentage of focal mechanism, predominant azimuth and dip angle values, activity rates, maximum magnitude, hypocenter depth distribution, lower and upper seismogenic depth values. Thirdly, seismic hazard maps were calculated based on modern approach of selecting and ranking global and regional ground motion prediction equation for region. Finally, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in terms of ground acceleration were calculated for the territory of Georgia. On the basis of obtained area seismic sources probabilistic seismic hazard maps were calculated showing peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral accelerations (SA) at

17. High Voltage Seismic Generator

Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

2015-04-01

This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

18. Seismic hazard assessment in Central Asia using smoothed seismicity approaches

Ullah, Shahid; Bindi, Dino; Zuccolo, Elisa; Mikhailova, Natalia; Danciu, Laurentiu; Parolai, Stefano

2014-05-01

Central Asia has a long history of large to moderate frequent seismicity and is therefore considered one of the most seismically active regions with a high hazard level in the world. In the hazard map produced at global scale by GSHAP project in 1999( Giardini, 1999), Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations with return period of 475 years as high as 4.8 m/s2. Therefore Central Asia was selected as a target area for EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia), a regional project of GEM (Global Earthquake Model) for this area. In the framework of EMCA, a new generation of seismic hazard maps are foreseen in terms of macro-seismic intensity, in turn to be used to obtain seismic risk maps for the region. Therefore Intensity Prediction Equation (IPE) had been developed for the region based on the distribution of intensity data for different earthquakes occurred in Central Asia since the end of 19th century (Bindi et al. 2011). The same observed intensity distribution had been used to assess the seismic hazard following the site approach (Bindi et al. 2012). In this study, we present the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Central Asia in terms of MSK-64 based on two kernel estimation methods. We consider the smoothed seismicity approaches of Frankel (1995), modified for considering the adaptive kernel proposed by Stock and Smith (2002), and of Woo (1996), modified for considering a grid of sites and estimating a separate bandwidth for each site. The activity rate maps are shown from Frankel approach showing the effects of fixed and adaptive kernel. The hazard is estimated for rock site condition based on 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Maximum intensity of about 9 is observed in the Hindukush region.

19. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

SciTech Connect

E.N. Lindner

2004-12-03

The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly

20. Evidence that His349 acts as a pH-inducible switch to accelerate receptor-mediated iron release from the C-lobe of human transferrin

PubMed Central

Steere, Ashley N.; Byrne, Shaina L.; Chasteen, N. Dennis; Smith, Valerie C.; MacGillivray, Ross T. A.

2015-01-01

His349 in human transferrin (hTF) is a residue critical to transferrin receptor (TFR)-stimulated iron release from the C-lobe. To evaluate the importance of His349 on the TFR interaction, it was replaced by alanine, aspartate, lysine, leucine, tryptophan, and tyrosine in a monoferric C-lobe hTF construct (FeChTF). Using a stop-ped-flow spectrofluorimeter, we determined rate processes assigned to iron release and conformational events (in the presence and in the absence of the TFR). Significantly, all mutant/TFR complexes feature dampened iron release rates. The critical contribution of His349 is most convincingly revealed by analysis of the kinetics as a function of pH (5.6–6.2). The FeChTF/TFR complex titrates with a pKa of approximately 5.9. By contrast, the H349A mutant/TFR complex releases iron at higher pH with a profile that is almost the inverse of that of the control complex. At the putative endosomal pH of 5.6 (in the presence of salt and chelator), iron is released from the H349W mutant/TFR and H349Y mutant/TFR complexes with a single rate constant similar to the iron release rate constant for the control; this suggests that these substitutions bypass the required pH-induced conformational change allowing the C-lobe to directly interact with the TFR to release iron. The H349K mutant proves that although the positive charge is crucial to complete iron release, the geometry at this position is also critical. The H349D mutant shows that a negative charge precludes complete iron release at pH 5.6 both in the presence and in the absence of the TFR. Thus, histidine uniquely drives the pH-induced conformational change in the C-lobe required for TFR interaction, which in turn promotes iron release. PMID:20711621

1. Seismic Isolation Working Meeting Gap Analysis Report

SciTech Connect

Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

2014-09-01

The ultimate goal in nuclear facility and nuclear power plant operations is operating safety during normal operations and maintaining core cooling capabilities during off-normal events including external hazards. Understanding the impact external hazards, such as flooding and earthquakes, have on nuclear facilities and NPPs is critical to deciding how to manage these hazards to expectable levels of risk. From a seismic risk perspective the goal is to manage seismic risk. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components (SSCs)). There are large uncertainties associated with evolving nature of the seismic hazard curves. Additionally there are requirements within DOE and potential requirements within NRC to reconsider updated seismic hazard curves every 10 years. Therefore opportunity exists for engineered solutions to manage this seismic uncertainty. One engineered solution is seismic isolation. Current seismic isolation (SI) designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed, in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 4 standard, to be released in 2014, for Light Water Reactors (LWR) facilities using commercially available technology. However, there is a lack of industry application to the nuclear industry and uncertainty with implementing the procedures outlined in ASCE-4. Opportunity exists to determine barriers associated with implementation of current ASCE-4 standard language.

2. Particle acceleration in flares

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Benz, Arnold O.; Kosugi, Takeo; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Benka, Steve G.; Chupp, Edward L.; Enome, Shinzo; Garcia, Howard; Holman, Gordon D.; Kurt, Victoria G.; Sakao, Taro

1994-01-01

Particle acceleration is intrinsic to the primary energy release in the impulsive phase of solar flares, and we cannot understand flares without understanding acceleration. New observations in soft and hard X-rays, gamma-rays and coherent radio emissions are presented, suggesting flare fragmentation in time and space. X-ray and radio measurements exhibit at least five different time scales in flares. In addition, some new observations of delayed acceleration signatures are also presented. The theory of acceleration by parallel electric fields is used to model the spectral shape and evolution of hard X-rays. The possibility of the appearance of double layers is further investigated.

3. Processed seismic motion records from earthquakes (1982--1993): Recorded at Scotty`s Castle, California

SciTech Connect

Lum, P K; Honda, K K

1993-10-01

The 8mm data tape contains the processed seismic data of earthquakes recorded at Scotty`s Castle, California. The seismic data were recorded by seismographs maintained by the DOE/NV in Southern Nevada. Four files were generated from each seismic recorder. They are ``Uncorrected acceleration time histories, 2. corrected acceleration, velocity and displacement time histories, 3. original recording, and 4. Fourier amplitude spectra of acceleration.

4. Linear Accelerators

Sidorin, Anatoly

2010-01-01

In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

5. Seismic Discrimination

DTIC Science & Technology

1975-12-31

dyn-cm. It can be seen that there is a wide range of the potential con- tribution of different seismic zones to excitation of the Chandler wobble ...Correction to the Excitation of the Chandler Wobble by Earthquakes," Geophys. J. R. Astron. Soc. 32, 203-217 (1973). 22. S. C. Solomon, N. H. Sleep

6. Seismic Tomography.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anderson, Don L.; Dziewonski, Adam M.

1984-01-01

Describes how seismic tomography is used to analyze the waves produced by earthquakes. The information obtained from the procedure can then be used to map the earth's mantle in three dimensions. The resulting maps are then studied to determine such information as the convective flow that propels the crustal plates. (JN)

7. Seismic Symphonies

Strinna, Elisa; Ferrari, Graziano

2015-04-01

The project started in 2008 as a sound installation, a collaboration between an artist, a barrel organ builder and a seismologist. The work differs from other attempts of sound transposition of seismic records. In this case seismic frequencies are not converted automatically into the "sound of the earthquake." However, it has been studied a musical translation system that, based on the organ tonal scale, generates a totally unexpected sequence of sounds which is intended to evoke the emotions aroused by the earthquake. The symphonies proposed in the project have somewhat peculiar origins: they in fact come to life from the translation of graphic tracks into a sound track. The graphic tracks in question are made up by copies of seismograms recorded during some earthquakes that have taken place around the world. Seismograms are translated into music by a sculpture-instrument, half a seismograph and half a barrel organ. The organ plays through holes practiced on paper. Adapting the documents to the instrument score, holes have been drilled on the waves' peaks. The organ covers about three tonal scales, starting from heavy and deep sounds it reaches up to high and jarring notes. The translation of the seismic records is based on a criterion that does match the highest sounds to larger amplitudes with lower ones to minors. Translating the seismogram in the organ score, the larger the amplitude of recorded waves, the more the seismogram covers the full tonal scale played by the barrel organ and the notes arouse an intense emotional response in the listener. Elisa Strinna's Seismic Symphonies installation becomes an unprecedented tool for emotional involvement, through which can be revived the memory of the greatest disasters of over a century of seismic history of the Earth. A bridge between art and science. Seismic Symphonies is also a symbolic inversion: the instrument of the organ is most commonly used in churches, and its sounds are derived from the heavens and

8. TSG-6 released from intradermally injected mesenchymal stem cells accelerates wound healing and reduces tissue fibrosis in murine full-thickness skin wounds.

PubMed

Qi, Yu; Jiang, Dongsheng; Sindrilaru, Anca; Stegemann, Agatha; Schatz, Susanne; Treiber, Nicolai; Rojewski, Markus; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Vander Beken, Seppe; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Böhm, Markus; Seitz, Andreas; Scholz, Natalie; Dürselen, Lutz; Brinckmann, Jürgen; Ignatius, Anita; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

2014-02-01

Proper activation of macrophages (Mφ) in the inflammatory phase of acute wound healing is essential for physiological tissue repair. However, there is a strong indication that robust Mφ inflammatory responses may be causal for the fibrotic response always accompanying adult wound healing. Using a complementary approach of in vitro and in vivo studies, we here addressed the question of whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)-due to their anti-inflammatory properties-would control Mφ activation and tissue fibrosis in a murine model of full-thickness skin wounds. We have shown that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated protein 6 (TSG-6) released from MSCs in co-culture with activated Mφ or following injection into wound margins suppressed the release of TNF-α from activated Mφ and concomitantly induced a switch from a high to an anti-fibrotic low transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)/TGF-β3 ratio. This study provides insight into what we believe to be a previously undescribed multifaceted role of MSC-released TSG-6 in wound healing. MSC-released TSG-6 was identified to improve wound healing by limiting Mφ activation, inflammation, and fibrosis. TSG-6 and MSC-based therapies may thus qualify as promising strategies to enhance tissue repair and to prevent excessive tissue fibrosis.

9. Seismic Discrimination

DTIC Science & Technology

1977-03-31

Determining Phase and Group Velocities of Surface Seismic Waves 21 B. Group-Velocity Measurements Across Eurasia from Mashad SRO 22 C. Group-Velocity...Albuquerque), MAIO ( Mashad ), GUMO (Guam), NWAO (Australia), SNZO (New Zealand), and TATO (Taiwan). Fairly extensive data are now a|ailable for the...include a new rapid algorithm for the determination of group and phase velocity, a series of observations of Rayleigh-wave dispersion at the Mashad

10. Seismic testing

SciTech Connect

Knott, S.

1981-10-01

Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) research programs in seismic testing to improve earthquake design guidelines lowers the safety-design costs of nuclear power plants. Explosive tests that simulate earthquakes help to determine how structures respond to ground motion and how these are related to soil and geologic conditions at a specific site. Explosive tests develop data for simulation using several computer codes. Photographs illustrate testing techniques. 6 references. (DCK)

11. Development of a Combination Approach for Seismic Hazard Evaluation

Yu, Huai-zhong; Zhou, Fa-ren; Zhu, Qing-yong; Zhang, Xiao-tao; Zhang, Yong-xian

2016-01-01

We developed a synth esis approach to augment current techniques for seismic hazard evaluation by combining four previously unrelated subjects: the pattern informatics (PI), load/unload response ratio (LURR), state vector (SV), and accelerating moment release (AMR) methods. Since the PI is proposed in the premise that the change in the seismicity rate is a proxy for the change in the tectonic stress, this method is used to quantify localized changes surrounding the epicenters of large earthquakes to objectively quantify the anomalous areas (hot spots) of the upcoming events. On the short-to-intermediate-term estimation, we apply the LURR, SV, and AMR methods to examine the hazard regions derived from the PI hot spots. A predictive study of the 2014 earthquake tendency in Chinese mainland, using the seismic data from 1970-01-01 to 2014-10-01, shows that, during Jan 01 to Oct 31, 2014, most of the M > 5.0 earthquakes, especially the Feb 12 M7.3 Yutian, May 30 M6.1 Yingjiang, Aug. 03 M6.5 Ludian, and Oct 07 M6.6 earthquakes, occurred in the seismic hazard regions predicted. Comparing the predictions produced by the PI and combination approaches, it is clear that, by using the combination approach, we can screen out the false-alarm regions from the PI estimation, without reducing the hit rate, and therefore effectively augment the predictive power of current techniques. This provided evidence that the multi-method combination approach may be a useful tool to detect precursory information of future large earthquakes.

12. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

2009-03-01

The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

13. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

DOEpatents

Teng, L.C.

1960-01-19

ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

14. Seismic Hazard Assessment in Stable Continental Regions of Northen Eurasia

Levshenko, V.; Yunga, S.

2009-04-01

Assessment of the seismic potential and related risk level of stable continental regions (SCR) is a highly complex problem, as the applicability of techniques developed for seismically active areas to the areas that have no or limited seismic records is still under discussion. The seismotectonic data of the SCR are very poor because of low seismic activity and an insufficient seismological monitoring system. On the other hand, the geological knowledge is rather good owing to extensive geological and geophysical surveys held during the past decades. Digital data base is compiled from all collected data. Procedure of its interpretation use current internationally recognized methods and criteria and include several stages. 1) Microearthquake detection on the base of seismograms which used polarization analysis, artificial intellect method, wavelet analysis. 2) Paleoearthquakes, prehistorical, historical and instrumentally recorded earthquakes are investigated. 3) The faults capability are analyzed and appropriate seismotectonic model is created. 4) Amplitudes of neotectonic vertical movements, basement and Moho boundaries are interpreted numerically in terms of deformation of earth crust in the investigated region through curvatures calculations. 5) Seismotectonic deformation rate (seismic strain release) are estimated analytically and thus it dependence from maximum earthquake magnitude (Mmax) and the seismic activity parameters are derived. 6) Maximum earthquake potential Mmax of capable faults is evaluated on the base of comparison of geological and seismic deformation. Magnitude of design basis earthquake is estimated using recurrence plot. 7) Engineering Seismology Studies included estimation of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and duration of strong shaking. The PGA is derived from the regional attenuation lows for ground motion versus distance. We apply the above approach to the several critical facilities which have been investigated during last years. The

15. A seismic hazard uncertainty analysis for the New Madrid seismic zone

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cramer, C.H.

2001-01-01

A review of the scientific issues relevant to characterizing earthquake sources in the New Madrid seismic zone has led to the development of a logic tree of possible alternative parameters. A variability analysis, using Monte Carlo sampling of this consensus logic tree, is presented and discussed. The analysis shows that for 2%-exceedence-in-50-year hazard, the best-estimate seismic hazard map is similar to previously published seismic hazard maps for the area. For peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration at 0.2 and 1.0 s (0.2 and 1.0 s Sa), the coefficient of variation (COV) representing the knowledge-based uncertainty in seismic hazard can exceed 0.6 over the New Madrid seismic zone and diminishes to about 0.1 away from areas of seismic activity. Sensitivity analyses show that the largest contributor to PGA, 0.2 and 1.0 s Sa seismic hazard variability is the uncertainty in the location of future 1811-1812 New Madrid sized earthquakes. This is followed by the variability due to the choice of ground motion attenuation relation, the magnitude for the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes, and the recurrence interval for M>6.5 events. Seismic hazard is not very sensitive to the variability in seismogenic width and length. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

16. Seismic assessment of buried pipelines

SciTech Connect

Al-Chaar, G.; Brady, P.; Fernandez, G.

1995-12-31

A structure and its lifelines are closely linked because the disruption of lifeline systems will obstruct emergency service functions that are vitally needed after an earthquake. As an example of the criticality of these systems, the Association of Bay Area Government (ABAG) recorded thousands of leaks in pipelines that resulted in more than twenty million gallons of hazardous materials being released in several recorded earthquakes. The cost of cleaning the spills from these materials was very high. This information supports the development of seismic protection of lifeline systems. The US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (USACERL) has, among its missions, the responsibility to develop seismic vulnerability assessment procedures for military installations. Within this mission, a preliminary research program to assess the seismic vulnerability of buried pipeline systems on military installations was initiated. Phase 1 of this research project resulted in two major studies. In the first, evaluating current procedures to seismically design or evaluate existing lifeline systems, the authors found several significant aspects that deserve special consideration and need to be addressed in future research. The second was focused on identifying parameters related to buried pipeline system vulnerability and developing a generalized analytical method to relate these parameters to the seismic vulnerability assessment of existing pipeline systems.

17. Reductive off-odors in wines: Formation and release of H₂S and methanethiol during the accelerated anoxic storage of wines.

PubMed

Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Ferreira, Vicente

2016-05-15

In order to better understand the processes involved in the development of H2S and methanethiol (MeSH) along anoxic storage of wines, 24 wines were stored in strict anoxia at 50°C for 3weeks. Free and total forms of H2S and MeSH were measured at different times. Results showed that: (1) all wines contain relevant proportions of bonded forms of H2S and MeSH (93% and 47% on average); (2) such % decreases with age; (3) levels of total forms are related to wine metal composition; (4) anoxic storage brings about an increase of free forms, a strong decrease in the percentage of bonded forms, and except for H2S in red wines, an increase in total forms. Both de novo formation and release contribute to reductive off-odors. Release is predominant for reds and H2S, while at 50°C, de novo formation dominates for whites and rosés and MeSH.

18. A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State

Sitharam, T. G.; James, Naveen; Vipin, K. S.; Raj, K. Ganesha

2012-04-01

This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate. Due to the convergent movement of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, movements are occurring along major intraplate faults resulting in seismic activity of the region and hence the hazard assessment of this region is very important. Apart from referring to seismotectonic atlas for identifying faults and fractures, major lineaments in the study area were also mapped using satellite data. The earthquake events reported by various national and international agencies were collected until 2009. Declustering of earthquake events was done to remove foreshocks and aftershocks. Seismic hazard analysis was done for the state of Karnataka using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches incorporating logic tree methodology. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at rock level was evaluated for the entire state considering a grid size of 0.05° × 0.05°. The attenuation relations proposed for stable continental shield region were used in evaluating the seismic hazard with appropriate weightage factors. Response spectra at rock level for important Tier II cities and Bangalore were evaluated. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values at bedrock are presented in this work.

19. 2008 United States National Seismic Hazard Maps

USGS Publications Warehouse

Petersen, M.D.; ,

2008-01-01

The U.S. Geological Survey recently updated the National Seismic Hazard Maps by incorporating new seismic, geologic, and geodetic information on earthquake rates and associated ground shaking. The 2008 versions supersede those released in 1996 and 2002. These maps are the basis for seismic design provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, earthquake loss studies, retrofit priorities, and land-use planning. Their use in design of buildings, bridges, highways, and critical infrastructure allows structures to better withstand earthquake shaking, saving lives and reducing disruption to critical activities following a damaging event. The maps also help engineers avoid costs from over-design for unlikely levels of ground motion.

20. Micromachined silicon seismic transducers

SciTech Connect

Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Armour, D.L.; Fleming, R.P.

1995-08-01

Batch-fabricated silicon seismic transducers could revolutionize the discipline of CTBT monitoring by providing inexpensive, easily depolyable sensor arrays. Although our goal is to fabricate seismic sensors that provide the same performance level as the current state-of-the-art ``macro`` systems, if necessary one could deploy a larger number of these small sensors at closer proximity to the location being monitored in order to compensate for lower performance. We have chosen a modified pendulum design and are manufacturing prototypes in two different silicon micromachining fabrication technologies. The first set of prototypes, fabricated in our advanced surface- micromachining technology, are currently being packaged for testing in servo circuits -- we anticipate that these devices, which have masses in the 1--10 {mu}g range, will resolve sub-mG signals. Concurrently, we are developing a novel ``mold`` micromachining technology that promises to make proof masses in the 1--10 mg range possible -- our calculations indicate that devices made in this new technology will resolve down to at least sub-{mu}G signals, and may even approach to 10{sup {minus}10} G/{radical}Hz acceleration levels found in the low-earth-noise model.

1. Sensitivity of the long period seismic waves generated by a landslide on its characteristics and flow history

Moretti, L.; Mangeney, A.; Capdeville, Y.; Stutzmann, E.; Bouchut, F.

2012-12-01

Gravitational instabilities, such as landslides, avalanches or debris flows play a key role in erosion processes and represent one of the major natural hazards in mountainous, coastal or volcanic regions. Despite the great amount of field, experimental and numerical work devoted to this problem, the understanding of the physical processes at work in gravitational flow is still an open issue, in particular due to the lack of observations relevant to the flow dynamics. In this context, the seismic signal generated by landslides is a unique tool to get information on their dynamics. Indeed, when the landslide accelerates and decelerates on the complex topography, the spatio-temporal stress field that it applies on the ground generates seismic waves. These waves carry the memory of the flow history. As shown recently by Favreau et al., (2010), simulation of the seismic signal generated by landslides makes it possible to discriminate different flow scenarios and estimate the rheological parameters during the flow. Because global and regional seismic networks continuously record gravitational instabilities, this new method will help gathering new data on landslide behavior. The purpose here is to identify scaling laws making it possible to extract landslide characteristics such as its volume, mass, geometry and location, from seismic observations (amplitude, duration, energy…). To address this issue, we performed a series of simulations of the landslide and generated seismic waves by varying the characteristics of the landslide such as the volume, topography, friction angle, or initial shape of the released mass and of the earth model such as seismic waves velocity, number of layers, etc. For 2D and 3D simple configurations and for real landslides, we systematically investigate how these parameters affect the generated long period seismic waves and the force at their origin, obtained by inversion of the recorded seismic signal. This study shows that the initial volume

2. Seismic Analysis of Intake Towers

DTIC Science & Technology

1982-10-01

AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Structures Laboratory Structural Engineering P. 0. Box 631, Vicksburg, Miss. 39180 Research Work Unit 31588 It. CONTROLLING ...AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(if ditffrsnt frost Controlling Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) Unclassified I4a. DECL ASSIFI CATION/DOWN GRADI NO...needed for a controlled release of the reservoir to repair any seismic damage in the damming structure. The high cost associated with these criteria for a

3. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

2000-01-01

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

4. Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings

SciTech Connect

2008-07-08

Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements.

5. Simplified seismic performance assessment and implications for seismic design

Sullivan, Timothy J.; Welch, David P.; Calvi, Gian Michele

2014-08-01

The last decade or so has seen the development of refined performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) approaches that now provide a framework for estimation of a range of important decision variables, such as repair costs, repair time and number of casualties. This paper reviews current tools for PBEE, including the PACT software, and examines the possibility of extending the innovative displacement-based assessment approach as a simplified structural analysis option for performance assessment. Details of the displacement-based s+eismic assessment method are reviewed and a simple means of quickly assessing multiple hazard levels is proposed. Furthermore, proposals for a simple definition of collapse fragility and relations between equivalent single-degree-of-freedom characteristics and multi-degree-of-freedom story drift and floor acceleration demands are discussed, highlighting needs for future research. To illustrate the potential of the methodology, performance measures obtained from the simplified method are compared with those computed using the results of incremental dynamic analyses within the PEER performance-based earthquake engineering framework, applied to a benchmark building. The comparison illustrates that the simplified method could be a very effective conceptual seismic design tool. The advantages and disadvantages of the simplified approach are discussed and potential implications of advanced seismic performance assessments for conceptual seismic design are highlighted through examination of different case study scenarios including different structural configurations.

6. Processed seismic motion records from Landers, California earthquake of June 28, 1992, recorded at seismograph stations in southern Nevada

SciTech Connect

Lum, P.K.; Honda, K.K.

1993-04-01

The 8mm data tape contains the processed seismic data of the Landers, California earthquake of June 28, 1992. The seismic, data were recorded by 19 seismographs maintained by the DOE/NV in Southern Nevada. Four files were generated from each seismic recorder. They are ``Uncorrected acceleration time histories, 2. Corrected acceleration, velocity and displacement time histories, 3. Pseudo response velocity spectra, and 4. Fourier amplitude spectra of acceleration.``

7. Processed seismic motion records from Big Bear, California earthquake of June 28, 1992, recorded at seismograph stations in southern Nevada

SciTech Connect

Lum, P.K.; Honda, K.K.

1993-04-01

The 8mm data-tape contains the processed seismic data of the Big Bear, California earthquake of June 28, 1992. The seismic data were recorded by 15 seismographs maintained by the DOE/NV in Southern Nevada. Four files were generated from each seismic recorder. They are ``Uncorrected acceleration time histories, 2. Corrected acceleration, velocity and displacement time histories, 3. Pseudo response velocity spectra, and 4. Fourier amplitude spectra of acceleration.``

8. Seismic hazard studies at the Department of Energy owned Paducah and Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion plants

SciTech Connect

Beavers, J.E.; Brock, W.R.; Hunt, R.J. )

1991-01-01

Seismic hazard levels for free-field rock motion are defined and presented in this paper as annual exceedance probabilities versus peak acceleration and as uniform hazard response spectra. The conclusions of an independent review are also summarized. Based on the seismic hazard studies, peak horizontal acceleration values and uniform hazard response spectra for rock conditions are recommended. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

9. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Deaggregation for Selected Egyptian Cities

Sawires, Rashad; Peláez, José A.; Fat-Helbary, Raafat E.; Panzera, Francesco; Ibrahim, Hamza A.; Hamdache, Mohamed

2017-02-01

A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis in terms of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration (SA) values has been performed for the Egyptian territory. Eighty-eight potential seismic sources (for shallow- and intermediate-depth seismicity) in and around Egypt were identified and characterized based on an updated and unified earthquake catalog spanning the time period from 2200 B.C. until 2013 A.D. A logic-tree approach was followed, after a sensitivity analysis, to consider the epistemic uncertainty in the different input parameters, including the selected ground-motion attenuation models to predict the ground motion for the different tectonic environments. Then the seismic hazard deaggregation results, in terms of distance and magnitude, for the most important cities in Egypt have been computed to help understanding the relative contributions of the different seismic sources. Seismic hazard deaggregation, in particular, was computed for PGA and SA at periods of 0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 s for rock-site conditions, and for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. In general, the results at most of the cities indicate that the distance to the seismic sources which mostly contribute to the seismic hazard is mainly controlled by the nearby seismic sources (especially for PGA). However, distant events contribute more to the hazard for larger spectral periods (for 1.0 and 2.0 s). A significant result of this type of work is that seismic hazard deaggregation provides useful data on the distance and magnitude of the contributing seismic sources to the hazard in a certain place, which can be applied to generate scenario earthquakes and select acceleration records for seismic design.

10. 2015 USGS Seismic Hazard Model for Induced Seismicity

Petersen, M. D.; Mueller, C. S.; Moschetti, M. P.; Hoover, S. M.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Llenos, A. L.; Michael, A. J.

2015-12-01

Over the past several years, the seismicity rate has increased markedly in multiple areas of the central U.S. Studies have tied the majority of this increased activity to wastewater injection in deep wells and hydrocarbon production. These earthquakes are induced by human activities that change rapidly based on economic and policy decisions, making them difficult to forecast. Our 2014 USGS National Seismic Hazard Model and previous models are intended to provide the long-term hazard (2% probability of exceedance in 50 years) and are based on seismicity rates and patterns observed mostly from tectonic earthquakes. However, potentially induced earthquakes were identified in 14 regions that were not included in the earthquake catalog used for constructing the 2014 model. We recognized the importance of considering these induced earthquakes in a separate hazard analysis, and as a result in April 2015 we released preliminary models that explored the impact of this induced seismicity on the hazard. Several factors are important in determining the hazard from induced seismicity: period of the catalog that optimally forecasts the next year's activity, earthquake magnitude-rate distribution, earthquake location statistics, maximum magnitude, ground motion models, and industrial drivers such as injection rates. The industrial drivers are not currently available in a form that we can implement in a 1-year model. Hazard model inputs have been evaluated by a broad group of scientists and engineers to assess the range of acceptable models. Results indicate that next year's hazard is significantly higher by more than a factor of three in Oklahoma, Texas, and Colorado compared to the long-term 2014 hazard model. These results have raised concern about the impacts of induced earthquakes on the built environment and have led to many engineering and policy discussions about how to mitigate these effects for the more than 7 million people that live near areas of induced seismicity.

11. Introduction about Seismic array Laboratory, IGGCAS

Ai, Y.; Xu, W.

2007-12-01

Seismic Array Laboratory (SAL, IGGCAS) was built up in 2000, whose initiative was to study the earth structures through portable seismic observation and it has been operating for about 7 years till now. Totally, the lab have 272 sets of seismographs, including 152 CMG-3ESP seismometers, 18 CMG-3T seismometers, 2 STS-2 seismometers, 100 domestic seismometers, 172 Reftek recording system and 100 domestic recording system, respectively. The seismographs in IGGCAS are only used for temporary seismic observations and are open to users who aim at seismic observation based research and, in principle, are able to afford instrument rental. For the past seven years, more than 10 scientific research groups have used these seismographs and set up more than 470 portable stations in Chinese mainland. Up to now, IGGCAS has carried out 15 temporary seismic station arrays which are mainly distributed in North and Southwest China. The data collected at these seismic stations are currently managed by the SAL of IGGCAS and some regulations have been set down for data usage. Users who implement seismic observations with the seismographs in IGGCAS have three years priority to use the corresponding seismic data after field operation. Then, those data should be released by the SAL of IGGCAS. Now, parts of the data have been open to public through the website http://www.seislab.cn/data, and currently, only some event data in SAC format are released due to the lack of high-level technicians dealing with data pre- processing and quality control. In the near future, the lab will release more data in multiple formats to facilitate researchers in relative area via internet connection.

12. Seismic sources

DOEpatents

Green, M.A.; Cook, N.G.W.; McEvilly, T.V.; Majer, E.L.; Witherspoon, P.A.

1987-04-20

Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Longitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements for more than about one minute. 9 figs.

13. Applications of the seismic hazard model of Italy: from a new building code to the L'Aquila trial against seismologists

Meletti, C.

2013-05-01

In 2003, a large national project fur updating the seismic hazard map and the seismic zoning in Italy started, according to the rules fixed by an Ordinance by Italian Prime Minister. New input elements for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment were compiled: the earthquake catalogue, the seismogenic zonation, the catalogue completeness, a set of new attenuation relationships. The map of expected PGA on rock soil condition with 10% probability of exceedance is the new reference seismic hazard map for Italy (http://zonesismiche.mi.ingv.it). In the following, further 9 probabilities of exceedance and the uniform hazard spectra up to 2 seconds together with the disaggregation of the PGA was also released. A comprehensive seismic hazard model that fully describes the seismic hazard in Italy was then available, accessible by a webGis application (http://esse1-gis.mi.ingv.it/en.php). The detailed information make possible to change the approach for evaluating the proper seismic action for designing: from a zone-dependent approach (in Italy there were 4 seismic zones, each one with a single design spectrum) to a site-dependent approach: the design spectrum is now defined at each site of a grid of about 11000 points covering the whole national territory. The new building code becomes mandatory only after the 6 April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, the first strong event in Italy after the release of the seismic hazard map. The large number of recordings and the values of the experienced accelerations suggested the comparisons between the recorded spectra and spectra defined in the seismic codes Even if such comparisons could be robust only after several consecutive 50-year periods of observation and in a probabilistic approach it is not a single observation that can validate or not the hazard estimate, some of the comparisons that can be undertaken between the observed ground motions and the hazard model used for the seismic code have been performed and have shown that the

14. Seismotectonics and seismic Hazard map of Tunisia

2016-04-01

One natural hazard in Tunisia is caused by earthquakes and one way to measure the shaking risk is the probabilistic seismic-hazard map. The study of seismic hazard and risk assessment in Tunisia started in 1990 within the framework of the National Program for Assessment of Earthquake Risk. Because earthquakes are random events characterized by specific uncertainties, we used a probabilistic method to build the seismic hazard map of Tunisia. Probabilities were derived from the available seismic data and from results of neotectonic, geophysical and geological studies on the main active domains of Tunisia. This map displays earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across Tunisia and it is used in seismic provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessment and other public management activities. The product is a seismotectonic map of Tunisia summarizing the available datasets (e.g., active fault, focal mechanism, instrumental and historical seismicity, peak ground acceleration). In addition, we elaborate some thematic seismic hazard maps that represent an important tool for the social and economic development.

15. Seismic Wave Attenuation Estimated from Tectonic Tremor and Radiated Energy in Tremor for Various Subduction Zones

Yabe, S.; Baltay, A.; Ide, S.; Beroza, G. C.

2013-12-01

Ground motion prediction is an essential component of earthquake hazard assessment. Seismic wave attenuation with distance is an important, yet difficult to constrain, factor for such estimation. Using the empirical method of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), seismic wave attenuation with distance, which includes both the effect of anelastic attenuation and scattering, can be estimated from the distance decay of peak ground velocity (PGV) or peak ground acceleration (PGA) of ordinary earthquakes; however, in some regions where plate-boundary earthquakes are infrequent, such as Cascadia and Nankai, there are fewer data with which to constrain the empirical parameters. In both of those subduction zones, tectonic tremor occurs often. In this study, we use tectonic tremor to estimate the seismic wave attenuation with distance, and in turn use the attenuation results to estimate the radiated seismic energy of tremor. Our primary interest is in the variations among subduction zones. Ground motion attenuation and the distribution of released seismic energy from tremors are two important subduction zone characteristics. Therefore, it is very interesting to see whether there are variations of these parameters in different subduction zones, or regionally within the same subduction zone. It is also useful to estimate how much energy is released by tectonic tremor from accumulated energy to help understand subduction dynamics and the difference between ordinary earthquakes and tremor. We use the tectonic tremor catalog of Ide (2012) in Nankai, Cascadia, Mexico and southern Chile. We measured PGV and PGA of individual tremor bursts at each station. We assume a simple GMPE relationship and estimate seismic attenuation and relative site amplification factors from the data. In the Nankai subduction zone, there are almost no earthquakes on the plate interface, but intra-slab earthquakes occur frequently. Both the seismic wave attenuation with distance and the site

16. Evaluation of Horizontal Seismic Hazard of Shahrekord, Iran

SciTech Connect

Amiri, G. Ghodrati; Dehkordi, M. Raeisi; Amrei, S. A. Razavian; Kamali, M. Koohi

2008-07-08

This paper presents probabilistic horizontal seismic hazard assessment of Shahrekord, Iran. It displays the probabilistic estimate of Peak Ground Horizontal Acceleration (PGHA) for the return period of 75, 225, 475 and 2475 years. The output of the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is based on peak ground acceleration (PGA), which is the most common criterion in designing of buildings. A catalogue of seismic events that includes both historical and instrumental events was developed and covers the period from 840 to 2007. The seismic sources that affect the hazard in Shahrekord were identified within the radius of 150 km and the recurrence relationships of these sources were generated. Finally four maps have been prepared to indicate the earthquake hazard of Shahrekord in the form of iso-acceleration contour lines for different hazard levels by using SEISRISK III software.

17. Generalized seismic analysis

Butler, Thomas G.

1993-09-01

There is a constant need to be able to solve for enforced motion of structures. Spacecraft need to be qualified for acceleration inputs. Truck cargoes need to be safeguarded from road mishaps. Office buildings need to withstand earthquake shocks. Marine machinery needs to be able to withstand hull shocks. All of these kinds of enforced motions are being grouped together under the heading of seismic inputs. Attempts have been made to cope with this problem over the years and they usually have ended up with some limiting or compromise conditions. The crudest approach was to limit the problem to acceleration occurring only at a base of a structure, constrained to be rigid. The analyst would assign arbitrarily outsized masses to base points. He would then calculate the magnitude of force to apply to the base mass (or masses) in order to produce the specified acceleration. He would of necessity have to sacrifice the determination of stresses in the vicinity of the base, because of the artificial nature of the input forces. The author followed the lead of John M. Biggs by using relative coordinates for a rigid base in a 1975 paper, and again in a 1981 paper . This method of relative coordinates was extended and made operational as DMAP ALTER packets to rigid formats 9, 10, 11, and 12 under contract N60921-82-C-0128. This method was presented at the twelfth NASTRAN Colloquium. Another analyst in the field developed a method that computed the forces from enforced motion then applied them as a forcing to the remaining unknowns after the knowns were partitioned off. The method was translated into DMAP ALTER's but was never made operational. All of this activity jelled into the current effort. Much thought was invested in working out ways to unshakle the analysis of enforced motions from the limitations that persisted.

18. Generalized seismic analysis

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Butler, Thomas G.

1993-01-01

There is a constant need to be able to solve for enforced motion of structures. Spacecraft need to be qualified for acceleration inputs. Truck cargoes need to be safeguarded from road mishaps. Office buildings need to withstand earthquake shocks. Marine machinery needs to be able to withstand hull shocks. All of these kinds of enforced motions are being grouped together under the heading of seismic inputs. Attempts have been made to cope with this problem over the years and they usually have ended up with some limiting or compromise conditions. The crudest approach was to limit the problem to acceleration occurring only at a base of a structure, constrained to be rigid. The analyst would assign arbitrarily outsized masses to base points. He would then calculate the magnitude of force to apply to the base mass (or masses) in order to produce the specified acceleration. He would of necessity have to sacrifice the determination of stresses in the vicinity of the base, because of the artificial nature of the input forces. The author followed the lead of John M. Biggs by using relative coordinates for a rigid base in a 1975 paper, and again in a 1981 paper . This method of relative coordinates was extended and made operational as DMAP ALTER packets to rigid formats 9, 10, 11, and 12 under contract N60921-82-C-0128. This method was presented at the twelfth NASTRAN Colloquium. Another analyst in the field developed a method that computed the forces from enforced motion then applied them as a forcing to the remaining unknowns after the knowns were partitioned off. The method was translated into DMAP ALTER's but was never made operational. All of this activity jelled into the current effort. Much thought was invested in working out ways to unshakle the analysis of enforced motions from the limitations that persisted.

19. Future accelerators (?)

SciTech Connect

John Womersley

2003-08-21

I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

20. Seismic studies for Fermilab future collider projects

SciTech Connect

Lauh, J.; Shiltsev, V.

1997-11-01

Ground motion can cause significant beam emittance growth and orbit oscillations in large hadron colliders due to a vibration of numerous focusing magnets. Larger accelerator ring circumference leads to smaller revolution frequency and, e.g. for the Fermilab Very Large Hadron Collider(VLHC) 50-150 Hz vibrations are of particular interest as they are resonant with the beam betatron frequency. Seismic measurements at an existing large accelerator under operation can help to estimate the vibrations generated by the technical systems in future machines. Comparison of noisy and quiet microseismic conditions might be useful for proper choice of technical solutions for future colliders. This article presents results of wide-band seismic measurements at the Fermilab site, namely, in the tunnel of the Tevatron and on the surface nearby, and in two deep tunnels in the Illinois dolomite which is though to be a possible geological environment of the future accelerators.

1. Seismic sources

DOEpatents

Green, Michael A.; Cook, Neville G. W.; McEvilly, Thomas V.; Majer, Ernest L.; Witherspoon, Paul A.

1992-01-01

Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Logitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole relative to a stator that is clamped to the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements at a power level that causes heating to over 150.degree. C. within one minute of operation, but energizing the elements for no more than about one minute.

2. Seismic hazard map of the western hemisphere

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shedlock, K.M.; Tanner, J.G.

1999-01-01

Vulnerability to natural disasters increases with urbanization and development of associated support systems (reservoirs, power plants, etc.). Catastrophic earthquakes account for 60% of worldwide casualties associated with natural disasters. Economic damage from earthquakes is increasing, even in technologically advanced countries with some level of seismic zonation, as shown by the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA (\$6 billion), 1994 Northridge, CA (\$ 25 billion), and 1995 Kobe, Japan (> \$ 100 billion) earthquakes. The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures, due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. National, state, and local governments, decision makers, engineers, planners, emergency response organizations, builders, universities, and the general public require seismic hazard estimates for land use planning, improved building design and construction (including adoption of building construction codes), emergency response preparedness plans, economic forecasts, housing and employment decisions, and many more types of risk mitigation. The seismic hazard map of the Americas is the concatenation of various national and regional maps, involving a suite of approaches. The combined maps and documentation provide a useful global seismic hazard framework and serve as a resource for any national or regional agency for further detailed studies applicable to their needs. This seismic hazard map depicts Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for the western hemisphere. PGA, a short-period ground motion parameter that is proportional to force, is the most commonly mapped ground motion parameter because current building codes that include seismic provisions specify the

3. Active seismic experiment

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

1972-01-01

The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

4. Development of seismic tomography software for hybrid supercomputers

Nikitin, Alexandr; Serdyukov, Alexandr; Duchkov, Anton

2015-04-01

Seismic tomography is a technique used for computing velocity model of geologic structure from first arrival travel times of seismic waves. The technique is used in processing of regional and global seismic data, in seismic exploration for prospecting and exploration of mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, and in seismic engineering for monitoring the condition of engineering structures and the surrounding host medium. As a consequence of development of seismic monitoring systems and increasing volume of seismic data, there is a growing need for new, more effective computational algorithms for use in seismic tomography applications with improved performance, accuracy and resolution. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to use modern high performance computing systems, such as supercomputers with hybrid architecture that use not only CPUs, but also accelerators and co-processors for computation. The goal of this research is the development of parallel seismic tomography algorithms and software package for such systems, to be used in processing of large volumes of seismic data (hundreds of gigabytes and more). These algorithms and software package will be optimized for the most common computing devices used in modern hybrid supercomputers, such as Intel Xeon CPUs, NVIDIA Tesla accelerators and Intel Xeon Phi co-processors. In this work, the following general scheme of seismic tomography is utilized. Using the eikonal equation solver, arrival times of seismic waves are computed based on assumed velocity model of geologic structure being analyzed. In order to solve the linearized inverse problem, tomographic matrix is computed that connects model adjustments with travel time residuals, and the resulting system of linear equations is regularized and solved to adjust the model. The effectiveness of parallel implementations of existing algorithms on target architectures is considered. During the first stage of this work, algorithms were developed for execution on

5. Comparison of seismic and infrasonic avalanche detection systems: first results from the Dischma valley above Davos, Switzerland

van Herwijnen, Alec; Schweizer, Jürg; Marchetti, Emanuele; Ripepe, Maurizio

2016-04-01

The reliable detection of snow avalanches is of crucial importance to better understand triggering mechanisms, identify possible precursors, or improve avalanche forecasting. An avalanche flowing down a mountain is a moving source well coupled with the ground and the atmosphere, which generates seismic and infrasonic waves. Seismic signals are produced by the impact of the dense flowing snow mass on the ground or on obstacles. Infrasonic signals are generated by rapidly accelerating snow particles in the turbulent snow-air flow (powder cloud) of the avalanche. Seismic and infrasound are therefore used as monitoring systems for the remote detection of snow avalanches. However, while it is well known that large avalanches can be detected by both systems over considerable distances, for smaller avalanches the threshold in terms of detection resolution is still unclear. During the winter of 2015-2016 we therefore installed a seismic and an infrasound array in the Dischma valley above Davos, Switzerland. Both arrays were deployed within a distance of 500 m to each other. Several automatic cameras were also installed to provide additional information on the location, type (dry or wet) and size of the avalanches released. The overall goal is to assess the limits of both monitoring systems in terms of avalanche type and size and to assess their resolution to locate avalanches in real-time. We present preliminary results that allow us to define detection capabilities of both methods depending on source-receiver distance as well as the type of the avalanche.

6. Seismic Risk Studies in the United States.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Algermissen, S.T.

A new seismic risk map of the United States is presented, along with strain release and maximum Modified Mercalli intesity maps of the country. Frequency of occurrence of damaging earthquakes was not considered in zone ratings, but included frequency studies may aid interpretation. Discussion of methods is included with review of calculations. (MH)

7. Rapid Acceleration Leads to Rapid Weakening in Earthquake-Like Laboratory Experiments

Chang, J. C.; Lockner, D. A.; Reches, Z.

2012-10-01

After nucleation, a large earthquake propagates as an expanding rupture front along a fault. This front activates countless fault patches that slip by consuming energy stored in Earth’s crust. We simulated the slip of a fault patch by rapidly loading an experimental fault with energy stored in a spinning flywheel. The spontaneous evolution of strength, acceleration, and velocity indicates that our experiments are proxies of fault-patch behavior during earthquakes of moment magnitude (Mw) = 4 to 8. We show that seismically determined earthquake parameters (e.g., displacement, velocity, magnitude, or fracture energy) can be used to estimate the intensity of the energy release during an earthquake. Our experiments further indicate that high acceleration imposed by the earthquake’s rupture front quickens dynamic weakening by intense wear of the fault zone.

8. Rapid acceleration leads to rapid weakening in earthquake-like laboratory experiments.

PubMed

Chang, J C; Lockner, D A; Reches, Z

2012-10-05

After nucleation, a large earthquake propagates as an expanding rupture front along a fault. This front activates countless fault patches that slip by consuming energy stored in Earth's crust. We simulated the slip of a fault patch by rapidly loading an experimental fault with energy stored in a spinning flywheel. The spontaneous evolution of strength, acceleration, and velocity indicates that our experiments are proxies of fault-patch behavior during earthquakes of moment magnitude (M(w)) = 4 to 8. We show that seismically determined earthquake parameters (e.g., displacement, velocity, magnitude, or fracture energy) can be used to estimate the intensity of the energy release during an earthquake. Our experiments further indicate that high acceleration imposed by the earthquake's rupture front quickens dynamic weakening by intense wear of the fault zone.

9. Rapid acceleration leads to rapid weakening in earthquake-like laboratory experiments

USGS Publications Warehouse

Chang, Jefferson C.; Lockner, David A.; Reches, Z.

2012-01-01

After nucleation, a large earthquake propagates as an expanding rupture front along a fault. This front activates countless fault patches that slip by consuming energy stored in Earth’s crust. We simulated the slip of a fault patch by rapidly loading an experimental fault with energy stored in a spinning flywheel. The spontaneous evolution of strength, acceleration, and velocity indicates that our experiments are proxies of fault-patch behavior during earthquakes of moment magnitude (Mw) = 4 to 8. We show that seismically determined earthquake parameters (e.g., displacement, velocity, magnitude, or fracture energy) can be used to estimate the intensity of the energy release during an earthquake. Our experiments further indicate that high acceleration imposed by the earthquake’s rupture front quickens dynamic weakening by intense wear of the fault zone.

10. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

2011-01-01

We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

11. Seismic intrusion detector system

DOEpatents

Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

1976-01-01

A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

12. Synthesis of artificial spectrum-compatible seismic accelerograms

Vrochidou, E.; Alvanitopoulos, P. F.; Andreadis, I.; Elenas, A.; Mallousi, K.

2014-08-01

The Hilbert-Huang transform is used to generate artificial seismic signals compatible with the acceleration spectra of natural seismic records. Artificial spectrum-compatible accelerograms are utilized instead of natural earthquake records for the dynamic response analysis of many critical structures such as hospitals, bridges, and power plants. The realistic estimation of the seismic response of structures involves nonlinear dynamic analysis. Moreover, it requires seismic accelerograms representative of the actual ground acceleration time histories expected at the site of interest. Unfortunately, not many actual records of different seismic intensities are available for many regions. In addition, a large number of seismic accelerograms are required to perform a series of nonlinear dynamic analyses for a reliable statistical investigation of the structural behavior under earthquake excitation. These are the main motivations for generating artificial spectrum-compatible seismic accelerograms and could be useful in earthquake engineering for dynamic analysis and design of buildings. According to the proposed method, a single natural earthquake record is deconstructed into amplitude and frequency components using the Hilbert-Huang transform. The proposed method is illustrated by studying 20 natural seismic records with different characteristics such as different frequency content, amplitude, and duration. Experimental results reveal the efficiency of the proposed method in comparison with well-established and industrial methods in the literature.

13. Seismic-hazard maps for Hawaii

USGS Publications Warehouse

Klein, Fred W.; Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Wesson, R.L.; Okubo, P.G.

2000-01-01

Probabilistic seismic hazard maps were prepared for Hawaii portraying peak horizontal ground acceleration and horizontal spectral response acceleration for 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 second periods with probabilities of exceedance of 10% in 50 years and 2% in 50 years. This particular data set is for horizontal spectral response acceleration for 1.0 second period with a 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. All of the maps were prepared by combining hazard derived from spatially- smoothed historic seismicity with hazard from fault-specific sources. The acceleration values contoured are the random horizontal component. The reference site condition is firm rock, defined as having an average shear-wave velocity of 760 m/sec in the top 30 meters corresponding to the boundary between NEHRP site classes B and C. This data set represents the results of calculations of hazard curves for a grid of points with a spacing of 0.02 degrees in latitude and longitude. The grid of points were contoured to produce the final representation of the seismic-hazard.

14. Source Characterization and Seismic Hazard Considerations for Hydraulic Fracture Induced Seismicity

Bosman, K.; Viegas, G. F.; Baig, A. M.; Urbancic, T.

2015-12-01

Large microseismic events (M>0) have been shown to be generated during hydraulic fracture treatments relatively frequently. These events are a concern both from public safety and engineering viewpoints. Recent microseismic monitoring projects in the Horn River Basin have utilized both downhole and surface sensors to record events associated with hydraulic fracturing. The resulting hybrid monitoring system has produced a large dataset with two distinct groups of events: large events recorded by the surface network (0seismic efficiency, implying slip weakening and possibly the presence of fluids in the source region. Reservoir events have shear-tensile source mechanisms ranging between tensile opening and tensile closing, and fracture orientations dominated by the rock fabric which are not always optimally oriented to the regional stress field. The observed source characteristics are expected for events driven by increased pore pressure and reduced friction due to lubrication. On average, deep events show higher stress drop, apparent stress, and rupture velocity than reservoir events. This reflects higher confining stresses with depth, and possibly the release of stored energy in the existing zone of weakness. Deep events are dominated by shear failures, but source characteristics are smaller than for naturally occurring tectonic earthquakes of similar magnitude. Most importantly from a seismic hazard perspective, large earthquakes associated with hydrofracing have lower stress drops than tectonic earthquakes, and thus produce smaller peak ground acceleration and less damage on

15. Seismic Sources Identification and Characterization for Myanmar: Towards Updating the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Maps (2012)

Thant, M.; Kawase, H.

2015-12-01

Myanmar, lying in the Alpide earthquake belt, is quite earthquake-prone. There have been at least 16 major earthquakes (M 7.0 - 7.9) and a great earthquake (M 8.0, 1912) in the past 175 years, some of which were quite destructive, for example, 1839 Ava (Innwa) earthquake. With an objective of reducing earthquake risk in Myanmar, seismic zone maps have been constructed since 1959. The first-generation maps were mainly the intensity zoning maps using Modified Mercalli Intensity (MMI) Scales (Gorshkov, 1959; Maung Thein, 1985; Maung Thein, 2001). The second-generation maps were partly historical, and partly deterministic (Maung Thein et al., 2003; Maung Thein et al., 2005). In 2012, the third-generation maps, the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) maps were constructed for the whole country. Seismic hazards in these maps are represented by means of peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV), and spectral acceleration (SA) in the periods of 0.2 s, 0.3 s and 1.0 s. The seismic hazards are calculated in 0.1° x 0.1° interval, assuming the firm rock site condition and all of the PSHA were carried out for 2% and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Now, the seismic hazard maps of Myanmar,2012 are planned to update by remodeling the seismic sources. As the first step in updating the previous probabilistic seismic hazard maps developed in 2012 we re-identify the seismogenic sources for Indo-Burma Arc, Eastern Himalaya Arc and Andaman Rift Zone as the areal seismic sources. The major active faults which are seismically very hazardous for Myanmar: Sagaing fault, Kyaukkyan fault, Nan Pon fault, Kabaw fault, Myauk-U fault, Dawei fault, Gwegyo Thrust, major thrusts in north-west Myanmar, and the left-lateral strike-slip faults in the Eastern Highland are identified as the fault sources. The seismic source parameters for each source; the b-value, maximum earthquake potential, and annual rate of exceedance for the specific magnitude earthquake

16. Seismic activity of the San Francisco Bay region

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bakun, W.H.

1999-01-01

Moment magnitude M with objective confidence-level uncertainties are estimated for felt San Francisco Bay region earthquakes using Bakun and Wentworth's (1997) analysis strategy for seismic intensity observations. The frequency-magnitude distribution is well described for M ???5.5 events since 1850 by a Gutenberg-Richter relation with a b-value of 0.90. The seismic moment rate ??M0/yr since 1836 is 2.68 X 1018 N-m/yr (95% confidence range = 1.29 X 1018 N-m/yr to 4.07 X 1018 N-m/yr); the seismic moment rate since 1850 is nearly the same. ??M0/yr in the 56 years before 1906 is about 10 times that in the 70 years after 1906. In contrast, ??M0/yr since 1977 is about equal that in the 56 years before 1906. 80% (1?? = 14%) of the plate-motion moment accumulation rate is available for release in earthquakes. The historical ??M0/yr and the portion of the plate-motion moment accumulation rate available for release in earthquakes are used in a seismic cycle model to estimate the rate of seismic activity in the twenty-first century. High and low rates of future seismic activity are both permissible given the range of possible seismic-cycle recurrence times T and the uncertainties in the historical ??M0 and in the percentage of plate motion available for release in earthquakes. If the historical seismic moment rate is not greater than the estimated 2.68 X 1018 N-m/yr and the percentage of the plate-motion moment accumulation available for release in earthquakes is not less than the estimated 80%, then for all T, the rate of seismic moment release from now until the next 1906-sized shock will be comparable to the rate from 1836 to 1905 when M 6 1/2 shocks occurred every 15 to 20 years.

17. Documentation for the 2014 update of the United States national seismic hazard maps

USGS Publications Warehouse

Petersen, Mark D.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Powers, Peter M.; Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Zeng, Yuehua; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Field, Ned; Chen, Rui; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Luco, Nico; Wheeler, Russell L.; Williams, Robert A.; Olsen, Anna H.

2014-01-01

The national seismic hazard maps for the conterminous United States have been updated to account for new methods, models, and data that have been obtained since the 2008 maps were released (Petersen and others, 2008). The input models are improved from those implemented in 2008 by using new ground motion models that have incorporated about twice as many earthquake strong ground shaking data and by incorporating many additional scientific studies that indicate broader ranges of earthquake source and ground motion models. These time-independent maps are shown for 2-percent and 10-percent probability of exceedance in 50 years for peak horizontal ground acceleration as well as 5-hertz and 1-hertz spectral accelerations with 5-percent damping on a uniform firm rock site condition (760 meters per second shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m, VS30). In this report, the 2014 updated maps are compared with the 2008 version of the maps and indicate changes of plus or minus 20 percent over wide areas, with larger changes locally, caused by the modifications to the seismic source and ground motion inputs.

18. Seismic slip deficit along Nepal Himalayas: implications for seismic hazard

Bollinger, Laurent; Tapponnier, Paul; Nath Sapkota, Soma; Klinger, Yann

2016-04-01

In 1255, 1344 and 1408 AD, then again in 1833, 1934 and 2015, large earthquakes, devastated Kathmandu. The 1255 and 1934 surface ruptures have been identified east of the city, along comparable segments of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). Whether the other two pairs of events were similar, is unclear. Taking into account charcoal's "Inbuilt-ages", we revisit the timing of terrace offsets at key sites, to compare them with the seismic record since 1200 AD. The location, extent, and seismic moment of the 1833 and 2015 events imply that they released only a small part of the regional slip deficit, on a deep thrust segment that stopped north of the Siwaliks. By contrast, the 1344 or 1408 AD earthquake may have ruptured the MFT up to the surface in central Nepal between Kathmandu and Pokhara, East of the surface trace of the great 1505 AD earthquake which affected Western Nepal. If so, the whole megathrust system in Nepal ruptured during a sequence of earthquakes that lasted less than three centuries and propagated the rupture up to the surface from East to West. Today's situation in the himalayan seismic sequence might be close to that of the 14th century.

19. Spatial Distributed Seismicity Model of Seismic Hazard Mapping in the North-China Region: A Comparison with the GSHAP

Zhong, Q.; Shi, B.; Meng, L.

2010-12-01

The North China is one of the most seismically active regions in the mainland China. The moderate to large earthquakes have occurred here throughout history, resulting in huge losses of human life and properties. With the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) approach, we investigate the influence of different seismic environments, incorporating both near surface soil properties and distributed historical and modern seismicity. A simplified seismic source model, derived with the consideration of regional active fault distributions, is presented for the North China region. The spatial distributed seismicity model of PSHA is used to calculate the level of ground motion likely to be exceeded in a given time period. Following Frankel (1995) approach of circular Gaussian smoothing procedure, in the PSHA’s calculation, we proposed the fault-rupture-oriented elliptical Gaussian smoothing with the assumptions that earthquakes occur on faults or fault zones of past earthquakes to delineate the potential seismic zones (Lapajine et al., 2003). This is combined with regional active fault strike directions and the seismicity distribution patterns. Next Generation Attenuation model ((NGA), Boore et al., 2007) is used in generating hazard map for PGA with 2%, 5%, and 10 % probability of being exceeded in 50 years, and the resultant hazard map is compared with the result given by Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP). There is general agreement for PGA distribution patterns between the results of this study and the GSHAP map that used the same seismic source zones. However, peak ground accelerations predicted in this study are typically 10-20% less than those of the GSHAP, and the seismic source models, such as fault distributions and regional seismicity used in the GSHAP seem to be oversimplified. We believe this study represents an improvement on prior seismic hazard evaluations for the region. In addition to the updated input data, we believe that, by

20. Patterns of seismic activity preceding large earthquakes

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shaw, Bruce E.; Carlson, J. M.; Langer, J. S.

1992-01-01

A mechanical model of seismic faults is employed to investigate the seismic activities that occur prior to major events. The block-and-spring model dynamically generates a statistical distribution of smaller slipping events that precede large events, and the results satisfy the Gutenberg-Richter law. The scaling behavior during a loading cycle suggests small but systematic variations in space and time with maximum activity acceleration near the future epicenter. Activity patterns inferred from data on seismicity in California demonstrate a regional aspect; increased activity in certain areas are found to precede major earthquake events. One example is given regarding the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 which is located near a fault section associated with increased activity levels.

1. Incorporating induced seismicity in the 2014 United States National Seismic Hazard Model: results of the 2014 workshop and sensitivity studies

USGS Publications Warehouse

Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hoover, Susan M.; Rubinstein, Justin L.; Llenos, Andrea L.; Michael, Andrew J.; Ellsworth, William L.; McGarr, Arthur F.; Holland, Austin A.; Anderson, John G.

2015-01-01

The U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Model for the conterminous United States was updated in 2014 to account for new methods, input models, and data necessary for assessing the seismic ground shaking hazard from natural (tectonic) earthquakes. The U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Model project uses probabilistic seismic hazard analysis to quantify the rate of exceedance for earthquake ground shaking (ground motion). For the 2014 National Seismic Hazard Model assessment, the seismic hazard from potentially induced earthquakes was intentionally not considered because we had not determined how to properly treat these earthquakes for the seismic hazard analysis. The phrases “potentially induced” and “induced” are used interchangeably in this report, however it is acknowledged that this classification is based on circumstantial evidence and scientific judgment. For the 2014 National Seismic Hazard Model update, the potentially induced earthquakes were removed from the NSHM’s earthquake catalog, and the documentation states that we would consider alternative models for including induced seismicity in a future version of the National Seismic Hazard Model. As part of the process of incorporating induced seismicity into the seismic hazard model, we evaluate the sensitivity of the seismic hazard from induced seismicity to five parts of the hazard model: (1) the earthquake catalog, (2) earthquake rates, (3) earthquake locations, (4) earthquake Mmax (maximum magnitude), and (5) earthquake ground motions. We describe alternative input models for each of the five parts that represent differences in scientific opinions on induced seismicity characteristics. In this report, however, we do not weight these input models to come up with a preferred final model. Instead, we present a sensitivity study showing uniform seismic hazard maps obtained by applying the alternative input models for induced seismicity. The final model will be released after

2. Ischia Island: Historical Seismicity and Dynamics

Carlino, S.; Cubellis, E.; Iannuzzi, R.; Luongo, G.; Obrizzo, F.

2003-04-01

The seismic energy release in volcanic areas is a complex process and the island of Ischia provides a significant scenario of historical seismicity. This is characterized by the occurence of earthquakes with low energy and high intensity. Information on the seismicity of the island spans about eight centuries, starting from 1228. With regard to effects, the most recent earthquake of 1883 is extensively documented both in the literature and unpublished sources. The earthquake caused 2333 deaths and the destruction of the historical and environmental heritage of some areas of the island. The most severe damage occurred in Casamicciola. This event, which was the first great catastrophe after the unification of Italy in the 1860s (Imax = XI degree MCS), represents an important date in the prevention of natural disasters, in that it was after this earthquake that the first Seismic Safety Act in Italy was passed by which lower risk zones were identified for new settlements. Thanks to such detailed analysis, reliable modelling of the seismic source was also obtained. The historical data onwards makes it possible to identify the area of the epicenter of all known earthquakes as the northern slope of Monte Epomeo, while analysis of the effects of earthquakes and the geological structures allows us to evaluate the stress fields that generate the earthquakes. In a volcanic area, interpretation of the mechanisms of release and propagation of seismic energy is made even more complex as the stress field that acts at a regional level is compounded by that generated from migration of magmatic masses towards the surface, as well as the rheologic properties of the rocks dependent on the high geothermic gradient. Such structural and dynamic conditions make the island of Ischia a seismic area of considerable interest. It would appear necessary to evaluate the expected damage caused by a new event linked to the renewal of dynamics of the island, where high population density and the

3. Seismic design parameters - A user guide

USGS Publications Warehouse

Leyendecker, E.V.; Frankel, A.D.; Rukstales, K.S.

2001-01-01

The 1997 NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings (1997 NEHRP Provisions) introduced seismic design procedure that is based on the explicit use of spectral response acceleration rather than the traditional peak ground acceleration and/or peak ground velocity or zone factors. The spectral response accelerations are obtained from spectral response acceleration maps accompanying the report. Maps are available for the United States and a number of U.S. territories. Since 1997 additional codes and standards have also adopted seismic design approaches based on the same procedure used in the NEHRP Provisions and the accompanying maps. The design documents using the 1997 NEHRP Provisions procedure may be divided into three categories -(1) Design of New Construction, (2) Design and Evaluation of Existing Construction, and (3) Design of Residential Construction. A CD-ROM has been prepared for use in conjunction with the design documents in each of these three categories. The spectral accelerations obtained using the software on the CD are the same as those that would be obtained by using the maps accompanying the design documents. The software has been prepared to operate on a personal computer using a Windows (Microsoft Corporation) operating environment and a point and click type of interface. The user can obtain the spectral acceleration values that would be obtained by use of the maps accompanying the design documents, include site factors appropriate for the Site Class provided by the user, calculate a response spectrum that includes the site factor, and plot a response spectrum. Sites may be located by providing the latitude-longitude or zip code for all areas covered by the maps. All of the maps used in the various documents are also included on the CDROM

4. Stochastic seismic analysis in the Messina strait area

SciTech Connect

Cacciola, P.; Maugeri, N.; Muscolino, G.

2008-07-08

After 1908 Messina earthquake significant progresses have been carried out in the field of earthquake engineering. Usually seismic action is represented via the so called elastic response spectrum or alternatively by time histories of ground motion acceleration. Due the random nature of the seismic action, alternative representations assume the seismic action as zero-mean Gaussian process fully defined by the so-called Power Spectral Density function. Aim of this paper is the comparative study of the response of linear behaving structures adopting the above representation of the seismic action using recorded earthquakes in the Messina strait area. In this regard, a handy method for determining the power spectral density function of recorded earthquakes is proposed. Numerical examples conducted on the existing space truss located in Torre Faro (Messina) will show the effectiveness of stochastic approach for coping with the seismic analysis of structures.

5. Stochastic seismic analysis in the Messina strait area

Cacciola, P.; Maugeri, N.; Muscolino, G.

2008-07-01

After 1908 Messina earthquake significant progresses have been carried out in the field of earthquake engineering. Usually seismic action is represented via the so called elastic response spectrum or alternatively by time histories of ground motion acceleration. Due the random nature of the seismic action, alternative representations assume the seismic action as zero-mean Gaussian process fully defined by the so-called Power Spectral Density function. Aim of this paper is the comparative study of the response of linear behaving structures adopting the above representation of the seismic action using recorded earthquakes in the Messina strait area. In this regard, a handy method for determining the power spectral density function of recorded earthquakes is proposed. Numerical examples conducted on the existing space truss located in Torre Faro (Messina) will show the effectiveness of stochastic approach for coping with the seismic analysis of structures.

6. Seismic hazard mapping of California considering site effects

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kalkan, E.; Wills, C.J.; Branum, D.M.

2010-01-01

In this paper, we have combined the U.S. Geological Survey's National Seismic Hazard Maps model with the California geologic map showing 17 generalized geologic units that can be defined by their VS30. We regrouped these units into seven VS30 values and calculated a probabilistic seismic hazard map for the entire state for each VS30 value. By merging seismic hazard maps based on the seven different V S30 values, a suite of seismic hazard maps was computed for 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral ordinates at 2% probability of exceedance (PE) in 50 years. The improved hazards maps explicitly incorporate the site effects and their spatial variability on ground motion estimates. The spectral acceleration (SA) at 1.0 s map of seismic shaking potential for California has now been published as California Geological Survey Map Sheet 48.

7. Probabilistic seismic hazard estimation of Manipur, India

Pallav, Kumar; Raghukanth, S. T. G.; Darunkumar Singh, Konjengbam

2012-10-01

This paper deals with the estimation of spectral acceleration for Manipur based on probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). The 500 km region surrounding Manipur is divided into seven tectonic zones and major faults located in these zones are used to estimate seismic hazard. The earthquake recurrence relations for the seven zones have been estimated from past seismicity data. Ground motion prediction equations proposed by Boore and Atkinson (2008 Earthq. Spectra 24 99-138) for shallow active regions and Atkinson and Boore (2003 Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 93 1703-29) for the Indo-Burma subduction zone are used for estimating ground motion. The uniform hazard response spectra for all the nine constituent districts of Manipur (Senapati, Tamenglong, Churachandpur, Chandel, Imphal east, Imphal west, Ukhrul, Thoubal and Bishnupur) at 100-, 500- and 2500-year return periods have been computed from PSHA. A contour map of peak ground acceleration over Manipur is also presented for 100-, 500-, and 2500-year return periods with variations of 0.075-0.225, 0.18-0.63 and 0.3-0.1.15 g, respectively, throughout the state. These results may be of use to planners and engineers for site selection, designing earthquake resistant structures and, further, may help the state administration in seismic hazard mitigation.

8. Third Quater Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2007

SciTech Connect

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2007-09-19

The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The Hanford Seismic Assessment Team locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 41 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. For the Hanford Seismic Network, 16 local earthquakes were recorded during the third quarter of fiscal year 2007. The largest event (magnitude 2.0) occurred on April 16, 2007 and was located 4 km southwest of the 400 Area in the Columbia River basalts at a depth of approximately 3 km. Stratigraphically, 7 earthquakes occurred in the Columbia River basalts (approximately 0-5 km depth), 1 earthquake in the pre-basalt sediments (approximately 5-10 km depth), and 8 earthquakes in the crystalline basement (approximately 10-25 km depth). Geographically, 8 earthquakes occurred in swarm areas, and 8 earthquakes were classified as random events. The Hanford SMA network was triggered on the 300 Area and the 400 Area SMA by the 2.0 Mc seismic event that occurred on April 16, 2007. The maximum vertical acceleration was 0.07 % g and the maximum horizontal acceleration was 0.05% g at the 300 Area SMA, 13.5 km from the event. At the 400 Area SMA, only 5.2 km from the event, the maximum vertical acceleration was 0.25 % g and the maximum horizontal

9. Seismic hazards studies for Minuteman missile wings

Battis, J. C.

1980-09-01

The wings are located at Malstrom, Ellsworth, Minot, Whiteman, F.E. Warren, and Grand Forks Air Force Bases. For each site, estimates of the site intensity, acceleration, velocity, and displacement annual risk curves were made based on the historical seismicity within 1000 km of each site. Based on these curves, composite design response spectra for 10-, 100-, and 1000-year return period motions were calculated. Plots of the reported earthquake epicenters near each site were also generated. A method for regional modification of peak acceleration attenuation functions was developed and is presented.

10. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

DOEpatents

Colgate, S.A.

1958-05-27

An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

11. Angola Seismicity MAP

Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

2014-12-01

The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

12. The Pollino Seismic Sequence: Activated Graben Structures in a Seismic Gap

Rößler, Dirk; Passarelli, Luigi; Govoni, Aladino; Bindi, Dino; Cesca, Simone; Hainzl, Sebatian; Maccaferri, Francesco; Rivalta, Eleonora; Woith, Heiko; Dahm, Torsten

2015-04-01

mapped for the area. Consistent with mapped faults, the seismicity interested both eastwards and westwards dipping normal faults that define the geometry of seismically active graben-like structures. At least one cluster shows an additional spatio-temporal migration with spreading hypocentres similar to other swarm areas with fluid-triggering mechanisms. The static Coulomb stress change transferred by the largest shock onto the swarm area and on the CF cannot explain the observed high seismicity rate. We study the evolution of the frequency-size distribution of the events and the seismicity rate changes. We find that the majority of the earthquakes cannot be justified as aftershocks (directly related to the tectonics or to earthquake-earthquake interaction) and are best explained by an additional forcing active over the entire sequence. Our findings are consistent with the action of fluids (e.g. pore-pressure diffusion) triggering seismicity on pre-loaded faults. Additional aseismic release of tectonic strain by transient, slow slip is also consistent with our analysis. Analysis of deformation time series may clarify this point in future studies.

13. Exploring uncertainties in probabilistic seismic hazard estimates for Quito

Beauval, Celine; Yepes, Hugo; Audin, Laurence; Alvarado, Alexandra; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu

2016-04-01

In the present study, probabilistic seismic hazard estimates at 475 years return period for Quito, capital city of Ecuador, show that the crustal host zone is the only source zone that determines the city's hazard levels for such return period. Therefore, the emphasis is put on identifying the uncertainties characterizing the host zone, i.e. uncertainties in the recurrence of earthquakes expected in the zone and uncertainties on the ground motions that these earthquakes may produce. As the number of local strong-ground motions is still scant, ground-motion prediction equations are imported from other regions. Exploring recurrence models for the host zone based on different observations and assumptions, and including three GMPE candidates (Akkar and Bommer 2010, Zhao et al. 2006, Boore and Atkinson 2008), we obtain a significant variability on the estimated acceleration at 475 years (site coordinates: -78.51 in longitude and -0.2 in latitude, VS30 760 m/s): 1) Considering historical earthquake catalogs, and relying on frequency-magnitude distributions where rates for magnitudes 6-7 are extrapolated from statistics of magnitudes 4.5-6.0 mostly in the 20th century, the acceleration at the PGA varies between 0.28g and 0.55g with a mean value around 0.4g. The results show that both the uncertainties in the GMPE choice and in the seismicity model are responsible for this variability. 2) Considering slip rates inferred form geodetic measurements across the Quito fault system, and assuming that most of the deformation occurs seismically (conservative hypothesis), leads to a much greater range of accelerations, 0.43 to 0.73g for the PGA (with a mean of 0.55g). 3) Considering slip rates inferred from geodetic measurements, and assuming that 50% only of the deformation is released in earthquakes (partially locked fault, model based on 15 years of GPS data), leads to a range of accelerations 0.32g to 0.58g for the PGA, with a mean of 0.42g. These accelerations are in agreement

14. Acceleration switch

DOEpatents

Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

1982-08-17

The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

15. Acceleration switch

DOEpatents

Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

1979-08-29

The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

16. ION ACCELERATOR

DOEpatents

Bell, J.S.

1959-09-15

An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.

17. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

DOEpatents

Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

1959-02-17

Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

DTIC Science & Technology

2007-11-02

NEW MADRID SEISMIC ZONE BY COLONEL J.DAVID NORWOOD United States Army DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A...mCTBB l USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT New Madrid Seismic Zone by J. David Norwood, COL, USA Michael A. Pearson, COL, USA Project Advisor The...ABSTRACT AUTHOR: J. David Norwood, Colonel, U.S. Army TITLE: New Madrid Seismic Zone FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 22 April 1998 . PAGES:

19. Seismic Waveguide of Metamaterials

Kim, Sang-Hoon; Das, Mukunda P.

We developed a new method of an earthquake-resistant design to support conventional aseismic system using acoustic metamaterials. The device is an attenuator of a seismic wave that reduces the amplitude of the wave exponentially. Constructing a cylindrical shell-type waveguide composed of many Helmholtz resonators that creates a stop-band for the seismic frequency range, we convert the seismic wave into an attenuated one without touching the building that we want to protect. It is a mechanical way to convert the seismic energy into sound and heat.

20. Seismic Imaging and Monitoring

SciTech Connect

Huang, Lianjie

2012-07-09

I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

1. Study of seismic design bases and site conditions for nuclear power plants

SciTech Connect

Not Available

1980-04-01

This report presents the results of an investigation of four topics pertinent to the seismic design of nuclear power plants: Design accelerations by regions of the continental United States; review and compilation of design-basis seismic levels and soil conditions for existing nuclear power plants; regional distribution of shear wave velocity of foundation materials at nuclear power plant sites; and technical review of surface-founded seismic analysis versus embedded approaches.

2. Seismic Reflection Project Near the Southern Terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi Faults, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

SciTech Connect

S. M. Jackson; G. S. Carpenter; R. P. Smith; J. L. Casper

2006-10-01

Thirteen seismic reflection lines were processed and interpreted to determine the southern terminations of the Lost River and Lemhi faults along the northwest boundary of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP). The southernmost terminations of the Arco and Howe segments were determined to support characterization of the Lost River and Lemhi fault sources, respectively, for the INL probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Keywords:Keywords are required forExternal Release Review*Keywords  Keywords *Contacts (Type and Name are required for each row) Type ofContactContact Name  POC Editor RecordFour commercial seismic reflection lines (Arco lines 81-1 and 81-2; Howe lines 81-3 and 82-2) were obtained from the Montana Power Company. The seismic data were collected in the early 1980’s using a Vibroseis source with station and shot point locations that resulted in 12-fold data. Arco lines 81?1 and 81?2 and Howe lines 81?3 and 82?2 are located within the basins adjacent to the Arco and Howe segments, respectively. Seven seismic lines (Arco lines A1, A2, A3, and A4 and Howe lines H1, H2, and H3) were acquired by EG&G Idaho, Inc. Geosciences for this study using multiple impacts with an accelerated weight drop source. Station and shot point locations yielded 12-fold data. The seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. Two seismic lines (Arco line S2 and Howe line S4) were obtained from Sierra Geophysics. In 1984, they acquired seismic reflection data using an accelerated weight drop source with station and shot point locations that yielded 6-fold data. The two seismic reflection lines are oriented perpendicular to and at locations along the projected extensions of the Arco and Howe fault segments within the ESRP. In 1992 for this study, Geotrace Technologies Inc. processed all of the seismic reflection data using industry standard processing techniques. The

3. Seismic hazard assessment of Syria using seismicity, DEM, slope, active tectonic and GIS

2016-07-01

In the present work, we discuss the use of an integrated remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques for evaluation of seismic hazard areas in Syria. The present study is the first time effort to create seismic hazard map with the help of GIS. In the proposed approach, we have used Aster satellite data, digital elevation data (30 m resolution), earthquake data, and active tectonic maps. Many important factors for evaluation of seismic hazard were identified and corresponding thematic data layers (past earthquake epicenters, active faults, digital elevation model, and slope) were generated. A numerical rating scheme has been developed for spatial data analysis using GIS to identify ranking of parameters to be included in the evaluation of seismic hazard. The resulting earthquake potential map delineates the area into different relative susceptibility classes: high, moderate, low and very low. The potential earthquake map was validated by correlating the obtained different classes with the local probability that produced using conventional analysis of observed earthquakes. Using earthquake data of Syria and the peak ground acceleration (PGA) data is introduced to the model to develop final seismic hazard map based on Gutenberg-Richter (a and b values) parameters and using the concepts of local probability and recurrence time. The application of the proposed technique in Syrian region indicates that this method provides good estimate of seismic hazard map compared to those developed from traditional techniques (Deterministic (DSHA) and probabilistic seismic hazard (PSHA). For the first time we have used numerous parameters using remote sensing and GIS in preparation of seismic hazard map which is found to be very realistic.

4. Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti

Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.

2013-05-01

The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together

5. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program. Phase I, final report - overview

SciTech Connect

Smith, P. D.; Dong, R. G.; Bernreuter, D. L.; Bohn, M. P.; Chuang, T. Y.; Cummings, G. E.; Johnson, J. J.; Mensing, R. W.; Wells, J. E.

1981-03-06

The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is a multiyear, multiphase program whose overall objective is to develop improved methods for seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants, using a probabilistic computational procedure. The program is being carried out at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Phase I of the SSMRP was successfully completed in January 1981: A probabilistic computational procedure for the seismic risk assessment of nuclear power plants has been developed and demonstrated. The methodology is implemented by three computer programs: HAZARD, which assesses the seismic hazard at a given site, SMACS, which computes in-structure and subsystem seismic responses, and SEISIM, which calculates system failure probabilities and radioactive release probabilities, given (1) the response results of SMACS, (2) a set of event trees, (3) a family of fault trees, (4) a set of structural and component fragility descriptions, and (5) a curve describing the local seismic hazard. The practicality of this methodology was demonstrated by computing preliminary release probabilities for Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant north of Chicago, Illinois. Studies have begun aimed at quantifying the sources of uncertainty in these computations. Numerous side studies were undertaken to examine modeling alternatives, sources of error, and available analysis techniques. Extensive sets of data were amassed and evaluated as part of projects to establish seismic input parameters and to produce the fragility curves. 66 refs., 29 figs., 10 tabs.

6. Acceleration Studies

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rogers, Melissa J. B.

1993-01-01

Work to support the NASA MSFC Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) was performed. Four tasks (analysis development, analysis research, analysis documentation, and acceleration analysis) were addressed by parallel projects. Work concentrated on preparation for and implementation of near real-time SAMS data analysis during the USMP-1 mission. User support documents and case specific software documentation and tutorials were developed. Information and results were presented to microgravity users. ACAP computer facilities need to be fully implemented and networked, data resources must be cataloged and accessible, future microgravity missions must be coordinated, and continued Orbiter characterization is necessary.

7. The Norwegian Seismic Array (NORSAR). Phase 3

DTIC Science & Technology

1978-10-31

Seismic Array (NOFSAR). Phase 3 . •■I11 111 s . ,„-,, , ■ , s m^ib^^ ^Ciiv .TlW VJ 7 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE. DISTRIBUTION UNUMfflEO...N-2007 Kjeller, Norway 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Norsar Phase 3 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12...NORSAR) Phase 3 \$520,000 ^: The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as

8. Seismic hazard assessment in Grecce: Revisited

Makropoulos, Kostas; Chousianitis, Kostas; Kaviris, George; Kassaras, Ioannis

2013-04-01

Greece is the most earthquake prone country in the eastern Mediterranean territory and one of the most active areas globally. Seismic Hazard Assessment (SHA) is a useful procedure to estimate the expected earthquake magnitude and strong ground-motion parameters which are necessary for earthquake resistant design. Several studies on the SHA of Greece are available, constituting the basis of the National Seismic Code. However, the recently available more complete, accurate and homogenous seismological data (the new earthquake catalogue of Makropoulos et al., 2012), the revised seismic zones determined within the framework of the SHARE project (2012), new empirical attenuation formulas extracted for several regions in Greece, as well as new algorithms of SHA, are innovations that motivated the present study. Herewith, the expected earthquake magnitude for Greece is evaluated by applying the zone-free, upper bounded Gumbel's third asymptotic distribution of extreme values method. The peak ground acceleration (PGA), velocity (PGV) and displacement (PGD) are calculated at the seismic bedrock using two methods: (a) the Gumbel's first asymptotic distribution of extreme values, since it is valid for initial open-end distributions and (b) the Cornell-McGuire approach, using the CRISIS2007 (Ordaz et. al., 2007) software. The latter takes into account seismic source zones for which seismicity parameters are assigned following a Poisson recurrence model. Thus, each source is characterized by a series of seismic parameters, such as the magnitude recurrence and the recurrence rate for threshold magnitude, while different predictive equations can be assigned to different seismic source zones. Recent available attenuation parameters were considered. Moreover, new attenuation parameters for the very seismically active Corinth Gulf deduced during this study, from recordings of the RASMON accelerometric array, were used. The hazard parameters such as the most probable annual maximum

9. SOAR Telescope seismic performance II: seismic mitigation

Elias, Jonathan H.; Muñoz, Freddy; Warner, Michael; Rivera, Rossano; Martínez, Manuel

2016-07-01

We describe design modifications to the SOAR telescope intended to reduce the impact of future major earthquakes, based on the facility's experience during recent events, most notably the September 2015 Illapel earthquake. Specific modifications include a redesign of the encoder systems for both azimuth and elevation, seismic trigger for the emergency stop system, and additional protections for the telescope secondary mirror system. The secondary mirror protection may combine measures to reduce amplification of seismic vibration and "fail-safe" components within the assembly. The status of these upgrades is presented.

10. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Disaggregation Analysis for the South of Portugal

Rodrigues, I.; Sousa, M.; Teves-Costa, P.

2010-12-01

Probabilistic seismic hazard disaggregation analysis was performed and seismic scenarios were identified for Southern Mainland Portugal. This region’s seismicity is characterized by small and moderate magnitude events and by the sporadic occurrence of large earthquakes (e.g. the 1755 Lisbon earthquake). Thus, the Portuguese Civil Protection Agency (ANPC) sponsored a collaborative research project for the study of the seismic and tsunami risks in the Algarve (project ERSTA). In the framework of this project, a series of new developments were obtained, namely the revision of the seismic catalogue (IM, 2008), the delineation of new seismogenic zones affecting the Algarve region, which reflects the growing knowledge of this region's seismotectonic context, the derivation of new spectral attenuation laws (Carvalho and Campos Costa, 2008) and the revision of the probabilistic seismic hazard (Sousa et al. 2008). Seismic hazard was disaggregated considering different spaces of random variables, namely, bivariate conditional hazard distributions of X-Y (seismic source latitude and longitude) and multivariate 4D conditional hazard distributions of M-(X-Y)-ɛ (ɛ - deviation of ground motion to the median value predicted by an attenuation model). These procedures were performed for the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and for the 5% damped 1.0 and 2.5 Hz spectral acceleration levels of three return periods: 95, 475 and 975 years. The seismic scenarios controlling the hazard of a given ground motion level, were identified as the modal values of the 4D disaggregation analysis for each of the 84 parishes of the Algarve region. Those scenarios, based on a probabilistic analysis, are meant to be used in the emergency planning as a complement to the historical scenarios that severely affected this region. Seismic scenarios share a few number of geographical locations for all return periods. Moreover, seismic hazard of most Algarve’s parishes is dominated by the seismicity located

11. Development of Towed Marine Seismic Vibrator as an Alternative Seismic Source

Ozasa, H.; Mikada, H.; Murakami, F.; Jamali Hondori, E.; Takekawa, J.; Asakawa, E.; Sato, F.

2015-12-01

The principal issue with respect to marine impulsive sources to acquire seismic data is if the emission of acoustic energy inflicts harm on marine mammals or not, since the volume of the source signal being released into the marine environment could be so large compared to the sound range of the mammals. We propose a marine seismic vibrator as an alternative to the impulsive sources to mitigate a risk of the impact to the marine environment while satisfying the necessary conditions of seismic surveys. These conditions include the repeatability and the controllability of source signals both in amplitude and phase for high-quality measurements. We, therefore, designed a towed marine seismic vibrator (MSV) as a new type marine vibratory seismic source that employed the hydraulic servo system for the controllability condition in phase and in amplitude that assures the repeatability as well. After fabricating a downsized MSV that requires the power of 30 kVA at a depth of about 250 m in water, several sea trials were conducted to test the source characteristics of the downsized MSV in terms of amplitude, frequency, horizontal and vertical directivities of the generated field. The maximum sound level satisfied the designed specification in the frequencies ranging from 3 to 300 Hz almost omnidirectionally. After checking the source characteristics, we then conducted a trial seismic survey, using both the downsized MSV and an airgun of 480 cubic-inches for comparison, with a streamer cable of 2,000m long right above a cabled earthquake observatory in the Japan Sea. The result showed that the penetration of seismic signals generated by the downsized MSV was comparable to that by the airgun, although there was a slight difference in the signal-to-noise ratio. The MSV could become a versatile source that will not harm living marine mammals as an alternative to the existing impulsive seismic sources such as airgun.

12. Probabilistic seismic vulnerability and risk assessment of stone masonry structures

Earthquakes represent major natural hazards that regularly impact the built environment in seismic prone areas worldwide and cause considerable social and economic losses. The high losses incurred following the past destructive earthquakes promoted the need for assessment of the seismic vulnerability and risk of the existing buildings. Many historic buildings in the old urban centers in Eastern Canada such as Old Quebec City are built of stone masonry and represent un-measurable architectural and cultural heritage. These buildings were built to resist gravity loads only and generally offer poor resistance to lateral seismic loads. Seismic vulnerability assessment of stone masonry buildings is therefore the first necessary step in developing seismic retrofitting and pre-disaster mitigation plans. The objective of this study is to develop a set of probability-based analytical tools for efficient seismic vulnerability and uncertainty analysis of stone masonry buildings. A simplified probabilistic analytical methodology for vulnerability modelling of stone masonry building with systematic treatment of uncertainties throughout the modelling process is developed in the first part of this study. Building capacity curves are developed using a simplified mechanical model. A displacement based procedure is used to develop damage state fragility functions in terms of spectral displacement response based on drift thresholds of stone masonry walls. A simplified probabilistic seismic demand analysis is proposed to capture the combined uncertainty in capacity and demand on fragility functions. In the second part, a robust analytical procedure for the development of seismic hazard compatible fragility and vulnerability functions is proposed. The results are given by sets of seismic hazard compatible vulnerability functions in terms of structure-independent intensity measure (e.g. spectral acceleration) that can be used for seismic risk analysis. The procedure is very efficient for

13. Community Seismic Network (CSN)

Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Cheng, M.; Guy, R.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.; Bunn, J.; Olson, M.; Faulkner, M.

2011-12-01

The CSN is a network of low-cost accelerometers deployed in the Pasadena, CA region. It is a prototype network with the goal of demonstrating the importance of dense measurements in determining the rapid lateral variations in ground motion due to earthquakes. The main product of the CSN is a map of peak ground produced within seconds of significant local earthquakes that can be used as a proxy for damage. Examples of this are shown using data from a temporary network in Long Beach, CA. Dense measurements in buildings are also being used to determine the state of health of structures. In addition to fixed sensors, portable sensors such as smart phones are also used in the network. The CSN has necessitated several changes in the standard design of a seismic network. The first is that the data collection and processing is done in the "cloud" (Google cloud in this case) for robustness and the ability to handle large impulsive loads (earthquakes). Second, the database is highly de-normalized (i.e. station locations are part of waveform and event-detection meta data) because of the mobile nature of the sensors. Third, since the sensors are hosted and/or owned by individuals, the privacy of the data is very important. The location of fixed sensors is displayed on maps as sensor counts in block-wide cells, and mobile sensors are shown in a similar way, with the additional requirement to inhibit tracking that at least two must be present in a particular cell before any are shown. The raw waveform data are only released to users outside of the network after a felt earthquake.

14. Particle acceleration

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

1986-01-01

Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

15. Plasma accelerator

DOEpatents

Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

2002-01-01

There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

16. Accelerated Achievement

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ford, William J.

2010-01-01

This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a \$2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a \$270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

17. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

DOEpatents

Pope, K.E.

1958-01-01

This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

18. Landslide size distribution in seismic areas

Valagussa, Andrea; Frattini, Paolo; Crosta, Giovanni B.

2015-04-01

In seismic areas, the analysis of the landslides size distribution with the distance from the seismic source is very important for hazard zoning and land planning. From numerical modelling (Bourdeau et al., 2004), it has been observed that the area of the sliding mass tends to increase with the ground-motion amplitude up to a certain threshold input acceleration. This has been also observed empirically for the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (Keefer and Manson, 1998) and 1999 Chi Chi earthquake (Khazai and Sitar, 2003). Based on this, it possible to assume that the landslide size decreases with the increase of the distance from the seismic source. In this research, we analysed six earthquakes-induced landslides inventories (Papua New Guinea Earthquake, 1993; Northridge Earthquake, 1994; Niigata-Chuetsu Earthquake 2004; Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake, 2008; Wenchuan Earthquake, 2008; Tohoku Earthquake, 2011) with a magnitude ranging between 6.6 and 9.0 Mw. For each earthquake, we first analysed the size of landslides as a function of different factors such as the lithology, the PGA, the relief, the distance from the seismic sources (both fault and epicentre). Then, we analysed the magnitude frequency curves for different distances from the source area and for each lithology. We found that a clear relationship between the size distribution and the distance from the seismic source is not evident, probably due to the combined effect of the different influencing factors and to the non-linear relationship between the ground-motion intensity and the distance from the seismic source.

19. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

SciTech Connect

Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

2014-12-01

Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.

20. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

DOE PAGES

Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

2014-12-01

Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefitmore » of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.« less

1. Space Experiments with Particle Accelerators (SEPAC)

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roberts, W. T.

1985-01-01

The space experiments with particle accelerators (SEPAC) instruments consist of an electron accelerator, a plasma accelerator, a neutral gas (N2) release device, particle and field diagnostic instruments, and a low light level television system. These instruments are used to accomplish multiple experiments: to study beam particle interactions and other plasma processes; as probes to investigate magnetospheric processes; and as perturbation devices to study energy coupling mechanisms in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere.

2. Particle Accelerators in China

Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Shouxian

As the special machines that can accelerate charged particle beams to high energy by using electromagnetic fields, particle accelerators have been widely applied in scientific research and various areas of society. The development of particle accelerators in China started in the early 1950s. After a brief review of the history of accelerators, this article describes in the following sections: particle colliders, heavy-ion accelerators, high-intensity proton accelerators, accelerator-based light sources, pulsed power accelerators, small scale accelerators, accelerators for applications, accelerator technology development and advanced accelerator concepts. The prospects of particle accelerators in China are also presented.

3. Compact accelerator

DOEpatents

Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

2007-02-06

A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

4. Laser acceleration

Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

2017-02-01

The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

5. BICEP's acceleration

SciTech Connect

Contaldi, Carlo R.

2014-10-01

The recent Bicep2 [1] detection of, what is claimed to be primordial B-modes, opens up the possibility of constraining not only the energy scale of inflation but also the detailed acceleration history that occurred during inflation. In turn this can be used to determine the shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) for the first time — if a single, scalar inflaton is assumed to be driving the acceleration. We carry out a Monte Carlo exploration of inflationary trajectories given the current data. Using this method we obtain a posterior distribution of possible acceleration profiles ε(N) as a function of e-fold N and derived posterior distributions of the primordial power spectrum P(k) and potential V(φ). We find that the Bicep2 result, in combination with Planck measurements of total intensity Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, induces a significant feature in the scalar primordial spectrum at scales k∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc {sup -1}. This is in agreement with a previous detection of a suppression in the scalar power [2].

6. MyShake: Initial observations from a global smartphone seismic network

Kong, Qingkai; Allen, Richard M.; Schreier, Louis

2016-09-01

MyShake is a global smartphone seismic network that harnesses the power of crowdsourcing. In the first 6 months since the release of the MyShake app, there were almost 200,000 downloads. On a typical day about 8000 phones provide acceleration waveform data to the MyShake archive. The on-phone app can detect and trigger on P waves and is capable of recording magnitude 2.5 and larger events. More than 200 seismic events have been recorded so far, including events in Chile, Argentina, Mexico, Morocco, Nepal, New Zealand, Taiwan, Japan, and across North America. The largest number of waveforms from a single earthquake to date comes from the M5.2 Borrego Springs earthquake in Southern California, for which MyShake collected 103 useful three-component waveforms. The network continues to grow with new downloads from the Google Play store everyday and expands rapidly when public interest in earthquakes peaks such as during an earthquake sequence.

7. Seismic analysis for translational failure of landfills with retaining walls.

PubMed

Feng, Shi-Jin; Gao, Li-Ya

2010-11-01

In the seismic impact zone, seismic force can be a major triggering mechanism for translational failures of landfills. The scope of this paper is to develop a three-part wedge method for seismic analysis of translational failures of landfills with retaining walls. The approximate solution of the factor of safety can be calculated. Unlike previous conventional limit equilibrium methods, the new method is capable of revealing the effects of both the solid waste shear strength and the retaining wall on the translational failures of landfills during earthquake. Parameter studies of the developed method show that the factor of safety decreases with the increase of the seismic coefficient, while it increases quickly with the increase of the minimum friction angle beneath waste mass for various horizontal seismic coefficients. Increasing the minimum friction angle beneath the waste mass appears to be more effective than any other parameters for increasing the factor of safety under the considered condition. Thus, selecting liner materials with higher friction angle will considerably reduce the potential for translational failures of landfills during earthquake. The factor of safety gradually increases with the increase of the height of retaining wall for various horizontal seismic coefficients. A higher retaining wall is beneficial to the seismic stability of the landfill. Simply ignoring the retaining wall will lead to serious underestimation of the factor of safety. Besides, the approximate solution of the yield acceleration coefficient of the landfill is also presented based on the calculated method.

8. Seismic Hazard analysis of Adjaria Region in Georgia

Jorjiashvili, Nato; Elashvili, Mikheil

2014-05-01

The most commonly used approach to determining seismic-design loads for engineering projects is probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis (PSHA). The primary output from a PSHA is a hazard curve showing the variation of a selected ground-motion parameter, such as peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA), against the annual frequency of exceedance (or its reciprocal, return period). The design value is the ground-motion level that corresponds to a preselected design return period. For many engineering projects, such as standard buildings and typical bridges, the seismic loading is taken from the appropriate seismic-design code, the basis of which is usually a PSHA. For more important engineering projects— where the consequences of failure are more serious, such as dams and chemical plants—it is more usual to obtain the seismic-design loads from a site-specific PSHA, in general, using much longer return periods than those governing code based design. Calculation of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard was performed using Software CRISIS2007 by Ordaz, M., Aguilar, A., and Arboleda, J., Instituto de Ingeniería, UNAM, Mexico. CRISIS implements a classical probabilistic seismic hazard methodology where seismic sources can be modelled as points, lines and areas. In the case of area sources, the software offers an integration procedure that takes advantage of a triangulation algorithm used for seismic source discretization. This solution improves calculation efficiency while maintaining a reliable description of source geometry and seismicity. Additionally, supplementary filters (e.g. fix a sitesource distance that excludes from calculation sources at great distance) allow the program to balance precision and efficiency during hazard calculation. Earthquake temporal occurrence is assumed to follow a Poisson process, and the code facilitates two types of MFDs: a truncated exponential Gutenberg-Richter [1944] magnitude distribution and a characteristic magnitude

9. Method of migrating seismic records

DOEpatents

Ober, Curtis C.; Romero, Louis A.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.

2000-01-01

The present invention provides a method of migrating seismic records that retains the information in the seismic records and allows migration with significant reductions in computing cost. The present invention comprises phase encoding seismic records and combining the encoded seismic records before migration. Phase encoding can minimize the effect of unwanted cross terms while still allowing significant reductions in the cost to migrate a number of seismic records.

10. New seismic hazard maps for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mueller, C.; Frankel, A.; Petersen, M.; Leyendecker, E.

2010-01-01

The probabilistic methodology developed by the U.S. Geological Survey is applied to a new seismic hazard assessment for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Modeled seismic sources include gridded historical seismicity, subduction-interface and strike-slip faults with known slip rates, and two broad zones of crustal extension with seismicity rates constrained by GPS geodesy. We use attenuation relations from western North American and worldwide data, as well as a Caribbean-specific relation. Results are presented as maps of peak ground acceleration and 0.2- and 1.0-second spectral response acceleration for 2% and 10% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years (return periods of about 2,500 and 500 years, respectively). This paper describes the hazard model and maps that were balloted by the Building Seismic Safety Council and recommended for the 2003 NEHRP Provisions and the 2006 International Building Code. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

11. Adjustment of minimum seismic shear coefficient considering site effects for long-period structures

Guan, Minsheng; Du, Hongbiao; Cui, Jie; Zeng, Qingli; Jiang, Haibo

2016-06-01

Minimum seismic base shear is a key factor employed in the seismic design of long-period structures, which is specified in some of the major national seismic building codes viz. ASCE7-10, NZS1170.5 and GB50011-2010. In current Chinese seismic design code GB50011-2010, however, effects of soil types on the minimum seismic shear coefficient are not considered, which causes problems for long-period structures sited in hard or rock soil to meet the minimum base shear requirement. This paper aims to modify the current minimum seismic shear coefficient by taking into account site effects. For this purpose, effective peak acceleration (EPA) is used as a representation for the ordinate value of the design response spectrum at the plateau. A large amount of earthquake records, for which EPAs are calculated, are examined through the statistical analysis by considering soil conditions as well as the seismic fortification intensities. The study indicates that soil types have a significant effect on the spectral ordinates at the plateau as well as the minimum seismic shear coefficient. Modified factors related to the current minimum seismic shear coefficient are preliminarily suggested for each site class. It is shown that the modified seismic shear coefficients are more effective to the determination of minimum seismic base shear of long-period structures.

12. Community Seismic Network (CSN)

Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Cheng, M.; Guy, R.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.; Bunn, J.; Olson, M.; Faulkner, M.; Liu, A.; Strand, L.

2012-12-01

We report on developments in sensor connectivity, architecture, and data fusion algorithms executed in Cloud computing systems in the Community Seismic Network (CSN), a network of low-cost sensors housed in homes and offices by volunteers in the Pasadena, CA area. The network has over 200 sensors continuously reporting anomalies in local acceleration through the Internet to a Cloud computing service (the Google App Engine) that continually fuses sensor data to rapidly detect shaking from earthquakes. The Cloud computing system consists of data centers geographically distributed across the continent and is likely to be resilient even during earthquakes and other local disasters. The region of Southern California is partitioned in a multi-grid style into sets of telescoping cells called geocells. Data streams from sensors within a geocell are fused to detect anomalous shaking across the geocell. Temporal spatial patterns across geocells are used to detect anomalies across regions. The challenge is to detect earthquakes rapidly with an extremely low false positive rate. We report on two data fusion algorithms, one that tessellates the surface so as to fuse data from a large region around Pasadena and the other, which uses a standard tessellation of equal-sized cells. Since September 2011, the network has successfully detected earthquakes of magnitude 2.5 or higher within 40 Km of Pasadena. In addition to the standard USB device, which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or wifi. This bypasses security concerns that some companies have with the USB-connected devices, and allows for 24/7 monitoring at sites that would otherwise shut down their computers after working hours. In buildings we use the sensors to model the behavior of the structures during weak events in order to understand how they will perform during strong events. Visualization models of instrumented buildings ranging

13. Evaluation of seismic energy evolution

2013-04-01

The program analyzes seismicity on a defined area with the use of bulletins (event information) provided by ANTELOPE software. These include earthquake localization (moment, latitude, longitude, magnitude, depth, P and S for each station and other parameters). The evolution of the calculated energy from the Richter magnitude is characterized by steps which can be linearly interpolated. In this way tendencies of energy accumulation / release through tectonic movement can be estimated. Also, it will be calculated and displayed the 'b' coefficient from the Gutenberg - Richter law. The results will be saved as a HTML list which allows global and individual visualization of the seismic forecasts accompanied by the epicenter position on the map. The ANTELOPE users are the first beneficiaries but the program could be modified for other formats of data which include the same information related to the earthquakes localization. The software allows to select the analysis area in which the epicenters are located. In this respect, we are using the free Google Static Maps service (in this case an internet connection is necessary) as well as there is an offline option. In a configuration file the coordinates of the epicenter area has to be defined, the zoom level and the map type if Google Maps is used. The user may redefine the investigation area in online mode. Furthermore, the program allows the selection of the time interval during which the analysis is performed, the configuration of the magnitude and depth intervals, the folders in which the ANTELOPE bulletins are located and where the results will be saved in HTML format. In a separate panel the time intervals between 2 seismic events, the resulted energy from the magnitude conversion (Ml or Md) and magnitudes - depths evolution at which the earthquakes took place can be visualized. During the analysis of the seismic bulletins generated by ANTELOPE, the epicenters are displayed dynamically in the original selected area

14. Seismic attenuation in Florida

SciTech Connect

Bellini, J.J.; Bartolini, T.J.; Lord, K.M.; Smith, D.L. . Dept. of Geology)

1993-03-01

Seismic signals recorded by the expanded distribution of earthquake seismograph stations throughout Florida and data from a comprehensive review of record archives from stations GAI contribute to an initial seismic attenuation model for the Florida Plateau. Based on calculations of surface particle velocity, a pattern of attenuation exists that appears to deviate from that established for the remainder of the southeastern US. Most values suggest greater seismic attenuation within the Florida Plateau. However, a separate pattern may exist for those signals arising from the Gulf of Mexico. These results have important implications for seismic hazard assessments in Florida and may be indicative of the unique lithospheric identity of the Florida basement as an exotic terrane.

15. The seismic design handbook

SciTech Connect

Naeim, F. )

1989-01-01

This book contains papers on the planning, analysis, and design of earthquake resistant building structures. Theories and concepts of earthquake resistant design and their implementation in seismic design practice are presented.

16. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

SciTech Connect

Halle, J.

2015-06-15

The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

17. Deepwater seismic acquisition technology

SciTech Connect

Caldwell, J.

1996-09-01

Although truly new technology is not required for successful acquisition of seismic data in deep Gulf of Mexico waters, it is helpful to review some basic aspects of these seismic surveys. Additionally, such surveys are likely to see early use of some emerging new technology which can improve data quality. Because such items as depth imaging, borehole seismic, 4-D and marine 3-component recording were mentioned in the May 1996 issue of World Oil, they are not discussed again here. However, these technologies will also play some role in the deepwater seismic activities. What is covered in this paper are some new considerations for: (1) longer data records needed in deeper water, (2) some pros and cons of very long steamer use, and (3) two new commercial systems for quantifying data quality.

SciTech Connect

Keefe, D.

1986-07-01

Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

19. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

SciTech Connect

Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

2008-06-01

In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

20. Seismic offset balancing

SciTech Connect

Ross, C.P.; Beale, P.L.

1994-01-01

The ability to successfully predict lithology and fluid content from reflection seismic records using AVO techniques is contingent upon accurate pre-analysis conditioning of the seismic data. However, all too often, residual amplitude effects remain after the many offset-dependent processing steps are completed. Residual amplitude effects often represent a significant error when compared to the amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response that the authors are attempting to quantify. They propose a model-based, offset-dependent amplitude balancing method that attempts to correct for these residuals and other errors due to sub-optimal processing. Seismic offset balancing attempts to quantify the relationship between the offset response of back-ground seismic reflections and corresponding theoretical predictions for average lithologic interfaces thought to cause these background reflections. It is assumed that any deviation from the theoretical response is a result of residual processing phenomenon and/or suboptimal processing, and a simple offset-dependent scaling function is designed to correct for these differences. This function can then be applied to seismic data over both prospective and nonprospective zones within an area where the theoretical values are appropriate and the seismic characteristics are consistent. A conservative application of the above procedure results in an AVO response over both gas sands and wet sands that is much closer to theoretically expected values. A case history from the Gulf of Mexico Flexure Trend is presented as an example to demonstrate the offset balancing technique.

1. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

SciTech Connect

M. Gross

2004-10-25

The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

2. Probabilistic seismic hazard study based on active fault and finite element geodynamic models

Kastelic, Vanja; Carafa, Michele M. C.; Visini, Francesco

2016-04-01

We present a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) that is exclusively based on active faults and geodynamic finite element input models whereas seismic catalogues were used only in a posterior comparison. We applied the developed model in the External Dinarides, a slow deforming thrust-and-fold belt at the contact between Adria and Eurasia.. is the Our method consists of establishing s two earthquake rupture forecast models: (i) a geological active fault input (GEO) model and, (ii) a finite element (FEM) model. The GEO model is based on active fault database that provides information on fault location and its geometric and kinematic parameters together with estimations on its slip rate. By default in this model all deformation is set to be released along the active faults. The FEM model is based on a numerical geodynamic model developed for the region of study. In this model the deformation is, besides along the active faults, released also in the volumetric continuum elements. From both models we calculated their corresponding activity rates, its earthquake rates and their final expected peak ground accelerations. We investigated both the source model and the earthquake model uncertainties by varying the main active fault and earthquake rate calculation parameters through constructing corresponding branches of the seismic hazard logic tree. Hazard maps and UHS curves have been produced for horizontal ground motion on bedrock conditions VS 30 ≥ 800 m/s), thereby not considering local site amplification effects. The hazard was computed over a 0.2° spaced grid considering 648 branches of the logic tree and the mean value of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years hazard level, while the 5th and 95th percentiles were also computed to investigate the model limits. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to control which of the input parameters influence the final hazard results in which measure. The results of such comparison evidence the deformation model and

3. Impact accelerations

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vongierke, H. E.; Brinkley, J. W.

1975-01-01

The degree to which impact acceleration is an important factor in space flight environments depends primarily upon the technology of capsule landing deceleration and the weight permissible for the associated hardware: parachutes or deceleration rockets, inflatable air bags, or other impact attenuation systems. The problem most specific to space medicine is the potential change of impact tolerance due to reduced bone mass and muscle strength caused by prolonged weightlessness and physical inactivity. Impact hazards, tolerance limits, and human impact tolerance related to space missions are described.

4. An enhancement of NASTRAN for the seismic analysis of structures. [nuclear power plants

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Burroughs, J. W.

1980-01-01

New modules, bulk data cards and DMAP sequence were added to NASTRAN to aid in the seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures. These allow input consisting of acceleration time histories and result in the generation of acceleration floor response spectra. The resulting system contains numerous user convenience features, as well as being reasonably efficient.

5. Seismic Safety Study

SciTech Connect

Tokarz, F J; Coats, D W

2006-05-16

During the past three decades, the Laboratory has been proactive in providing a seismically safe working environment for its employees and the general public. Completed seismic upgrades during this period have exceeded \$30M with over 24 buildings structurally upgraded. Nevertheless, seismic questions still frequently arise regarding the safety of existing buildings. To address these issues, a comprehensive study was undertaken to develop an improved understanding of the seismic integrity of the Laboratory's entire building inventory at the Livermore Main Site and Site 300. The completed study of February 2005 extended the results from the 1998 seismic safety study per Presidential Executive Order 12941, which required each federal agency to develop an inventory of its buildings and to estimate the cost of mitigating unacceptable seismic risks. Degenkolb Engineers, who performed the first study, was recontracted to perform structural evaluations, rank order the buildings based on their level of seismic deficiencies, and to develop conceptual rehabilitation schemes for the most seriously deficient buildings. Their evaluation is based on screening procedures and guidelines as established by the Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction (ICSSC). Currently, there is an inventory of 635 buildings in the Laboratory's Facility Information Management System's (FIMS's) database, out of which 58 buildings were identified by Degenkolb Engineers that require seismic rehabilitation. The remaining 577 buildings were judged to be adequate from a seismic safety viewpoint. The basis for these evaluations followed the seismic safety performance objectives of DOE standard (DOE STD 1020) Performance Category 1 (PC1). The 58 buildings were ranked according to three risk-based priority classifications (A, B, and C) as shown in Figure 1-1 (all 58 buildings have structural deficiencies). Table 1-1 provides a brief description of their expected performance and damage state

6. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment for Northeast India Region

Das, Ranjit; Sharma, M. L.; Wason, H. R.

2016-08-01

Northeast India bounded by latitudes 20°-30°N and longitudes 87°-98°E is one of the most seismically active areas in the world. This region has experienced several moderate-to-large-sized earthquakes, including the 12 June, 1897 Shillong earthquake ( M w 8.1) and the 15 August, 1950 Assam earthquake ( M w 8.7) which caused loss of human lives and significant damages to buildings highlighting the importance of seismic hazard assessment for the region. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the region has been carried out using a unified moment magnitude catalog prepared by an improved General Orthogonal Regression methodology (Geophys J Int, 190:1091-1096, 2012; Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Northeast India region, Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, 2013) with events compiled from various databases (ISC, NEIC,GCMT, IMD) and other available catalogs. The study area has been subdivided into nine seismogenic source zones to account for local variation in tectonics and seismicity characteristics. The seismicity parameters are estimated for each of these source zones, which are input variables into seismic hazard estimation of a region. The seismic hazard analysis of the study region has been performed by dividing the area into grids of size 0.1° × 0.1°. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration ( S a) values (for periods of 0.2 and 1 s) have been evaluated at bedrock level corresponding to probability of exceedance (PE) of 50, 20, 10, 2 and 0.5 % in 50 years. These exceedance values correspond to return periods of 100, 225, 475, 2475, and 10,000 years, respectively. The seismic hazard maps have been prepared at the bedrock level, and it is observed that the seismic hazard estimates show a significant local variation in contrast to the uniform hazard value suggested by the Indian standard seismic code [Indian standard, criteria for earthquake-resistant design of structures, fifth edition, Part

7. A comparison of active seismic source data to seismic excitations from the 2012 Tongariro volcanic eruptions, New Zealand

Jolly, Arthur; Kennedy, Ben; Keys, Harry; Lokmer, Ivan; Proctor, Jon; Lyons, John; Jolly, Gillian

2014-05-01

The 6 August 2012 eruption from Tongariro volcano's Te Maari vent comprised a complex sequence of events including at least 4 eruption jets, a large chasm collapse, and a debris avalanche (volume of ~7x105 m3) that propagated ~2 km beyond the eruptive vent. The eruption was poorly observed, being obscured by night time darkness, and the eruption chronology must be unravelled instead from a complex seismic record that includes discrete volcanic earthquakes, a sequence of low to moderate level spasmodic tremor and an intense burst of seismic and infrasound activity starting at 11:52:18 UTC that marked the eruption onset. We have discriminated the timing of the complex surface activity by comparing active seismic source data to the eruptive sequence. We dropped 11 high impact masses from helicopter to generate a range of active seismic sources in the vicinity of the eruption vent, chasm, and debris avalanche areas. We obtained 8 successful drops having an impact energy ranging from 3 to 9x106 joules producing seismic signals to a distance of 5 to 10 km and having good signal to noise characteristics in the 3-12 Hz range. For the 8 drops, we picked first-P arrival times and calculated amplitude spectra for a uniform set of four 3-component stations. From these, we obtained a distribution of amplitudes across the network for each drop position which varied systematically from the eruption vent and avalanche scar to the debris avalanche toe. We then compared these proxy source excitations to the natural eruption and pre-eruption data using a moving window cross-correlation approach. From the correlation processing, we found evidence for the debris avalanche a few minutes prior to the eruption in both the broad spectrum and narrow frequency (5-10 Hz) analysis. The total seismic energy release calculated from the new method is ~8x1011 joules, similar to an independently estimated calculation based on the radiated seismic energy. The inferred seismic energy release for the

8. Probabilistic seismic hazard zonation for the Cuban building code update

Garcia, J.; Llanes-Buron, C.

2013-05-01

A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment has been performed in response to a revision and update of the Cuban building code (NC-46-99) for earthquake-resistant building construction. The hazard assessment have been done according to the standard probabilistic approach (Cornell, 1968) and importing the procedures adopted by other nations dealing with the problem of revising and updating theirs national building codes. Problems of earthquake catalogue treatment, attenuation of peak and spectral ground acceleration, as well as seismic source definition have been rigorously analyzed and a logic-tree approach was used to represent the inevitable uncertainties encountered through the whole seismic hazard estimation process. The seismic zonation proposed here, is formed by a map where it is reflected the behaviour of the spectral acceleration values for short (0.2 seconds) and large (1.0 seconds) periods on rock conditions with a 1642 -year return period, which being considered as maximum credible earthquake (ASCE 07-05). In addition, other three design levels are proposed (severe earthquake: with a 808 -year return period, ordinary earthquake: with a 475 -year return period and minimum earthquake: with a 225 -year return period). The seismic zonation proposed here fulfils the international standards (IBC-ICC) as well as the world tendencies in this thematic.

9. Seismic hazard assessment of the cultural heritage sites: A case study in Cappadocia (Turkey)

Seyrek, Evren; Orhan, Ahmet; Dinçer, İsmail

2014-05-01

Turkey is one of the most seismically active regions in the world. Major earthquakes with the potential of threatening life and property occur frequently here. In the last decade, over 50,000 residents lost their lives, commonly as a result of building failures in seismic events. The Cappadocia region is one of the most important touristic sites in Turkey. At the same time, the region has been included to the Word Heritage List by UNESCO at 1985 due to its natural, historical and cultural values. The region is undesirably affected by several environmental conditions, which are subjected in many previous studies. But, there are limited studies about the seismic evaluation of the region. Some of the important historical and cultural heritage sites are: Goreme Open Air Museum, Uchisar Castle, Ortahisar Castle, Derinkuyu Underground City and Ihlara Valley. According to seismic hazard zonation map published by the Ministry of Reconstruction and Settlement these heritage sites fall in Zone III, Zone IV and Zone V. This map show peak ground acceleration or 10 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years for bedrock. In this connection, seismic hazard assessment of these heritage sites has to be evaluated. In this study, seismic hazard calculations are performed both deterministic and probabilistic approaches with local site conditions. A catalog of historical and instrumental earthquakes is prepared and used in this study. The seismic sources have been identified for seismic hazard assessment based on geological, seismological and geophysical information. Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) at bed rock level is calculated for different seismic sources using available attenuation relationship formula applicable to Turkey. The result of the present study reveals that the seismic hazard at these sites is closely matching with the Seismic Zonation map published by the Ministry of Reconstruction and Settlement. Keywords: Seismic Hazard Assessment, Probabilistic Approach

10. Seismicity and coupled deformation modeling at the Coso Geothermal Field

Kaven, J. O.; Hickman, S. H.; Davatzes, N. C.

2015-12-01

Micro-seismicity in geothermal reservoirs, in particular in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS), is a beneficial byproduct of injection and production, as it can indicate the generation of high-permeability pathways on either pre-existing or newly generated faults and fractures. The hazard of inducing an earthquake large enough to be felt at the surface, however, is not easily avoided and has led to termination of some EGS projects. To explore the physical processes leading to permeability creation and maintenance in geothermal systems and the physics of induced earthquakes , we investigated the evolution of seismicity and the factors controlling the migration, moment release rate, and timing of seismicity in the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF). We report on seismicity in the CGF that has been relocated with high precision double-difference relocation techniques and simultaneous velocity inversions to understand hydrologic reservoir compartmentalization and the nature of subsurface boundaries to fluid flow. We find that two distinct compartments are present within the CGF, which are divided by an aseismic gap showing a relatively low Vp/Vs ratio, likely indicating lower temperatures or lower pore pressures within the gap than in the adjacent reservoir compartments. Well-located events with Mw> 3.5 tend to map onto reactivated fault structures that were revealed when imaged by the relocated micro-seismicity. We relate the temporal and spatial migration of moment release rate to the injection and production histories in the reservoir by employing a thermo-poro-elastic finite element model that takes into account the compartment boundaries defined by the seismicity. We find that pore pressure effects alone are not responsible for the migration of seismicity and that poro-elastic and thermo-elastic stress changes are needed in addition to fluid pressure effects to account for the observed moment release rates.

11. Seismic-hazard maps for the conterminous United States

USGS Publications Warehouse

Frankel, Arthur D.; Petersen, Mark D.; Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Wheeler, Russell L.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, Robert L.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Cramer, Chris H.; Perkins, David M.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

2005-01-01

This publication consists of six map sheets (titles and text included in this document, below), geospatial datasets, and metadata. The geospatial datasets consist of ArcInfo export files for the seismic-hazard point and polygon data shown on the sheets. Probabilistic seismic-hazard maps were prepared for the conterminous United States portraying peak horizontal acceleration and horizontal spectral response acceleration for 0.2- and 1.0-second periods with probabilities of exceedance of 10 percent in 50 years and 2 percent in 50 years. All of the maps were prepared by combining the hazard derived from spatially smoothed historic seismicity with the hazard from fault-specific sources. The acceleration values contoured are the random horizontal component. The reference site condition is firm rock, defined as having an average shear-wave velocity of 760 m/sec in the top 30 meters corresponding to the boundary between NEHRP (National Earthquake Hazards Reduction program) site classes B and C. This data set represents the results of calculations of hazard curves for a grid of points with a spacing of 0.05 degrees in latitude and longitude. The points were contoured to produce the final representation of the seismic hazard.

12. Landslide seismic magnitude

Lin, C. H.; Jan, J. C.; Pu, H. C.; Tu, Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wu, Y. M.

2015-11-01

Landslides have become one of the most deadly natural disasters on earth, not only due to a significant increase in extreme climate change caused by global warming, but also rapid economic development in topographic relief areas. How to detect landslides using a real-time system has become an important question for reducing possible landslide impacts on human society. However, traditional detection of landslides, either through direct surveys in the field or remote sensing images obtained via aircraft or satellites, is highly time consuming. Here we analyze very long period seismic signals (20-50 s) generated by large landslides such as Typhoon Morakot, which passed though Taiwan in August 2009. In addition to successfully locating 109 large landslides, we define landslide seismic magnitude based on an empirical formula: Lm = log ⁡ (A) + 0.55 log ⁡ (Δ) + 2.44, where A is the maximum displacement (μm) recorded at one seismic station and Δ is its distance (km) from the landslide. We conclude that both the location and seismic magnitude of large landslides can be rapidly estimated from broadband seismic networks for both academic and applied purposes, similar to earthquake monitoring. We suggest a real-time algorithm be set up for routine monitoring of landslides in places where they pose a frequent threat.

13. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

14. Critical behaviour of the seismic precursors of a cliff collapse

Grasso, J.; Amitrano, D.; Senfaute, G.

2004-12-01

We analyse the statistical pattern of seismicity before a 1-2 103 m3 chalk cliff collapse on the Normandie ocean shore, Western France. About 500 seismic events, in both 40 Hz-1.5 kHz and 2 Hz-10kHz frequency range, have been recorded during the six months before the collapse, and more than 200 during the two hours preceding the collapse. The collapse occurred within a seismic network of five microseismic stations, in such a manner that the central station was located at few meters of the failure surface. This allows us to investigate the properties of the seismicity emitted by the damage process leading to the cliff collapse. The study focused on the statistical properties of the seismic events. The event size distribution displays a power law distribution (N(E)∝ E-b) on more than 3 magnitude orders with an exponent of 0.55. Such a distribution can be compared to the Gutenberg-Richter law observed for crustal earthquakes. During the last hour before the collapse, we observed a continuous decrease of b-value until the collapse occurred, indicating that the proportion of large events increases toward the time to failure. We show that, contemporary to this exponent decrease, a power law acceleration of seismicity rate and energy is defined on 3 order of magnitude, within 2 hours from the collapse time. We discuss these results, in the context of brittle failure and tertiary creep models. Our analysis of this first seismic monitoring data of a cliff collapse suggests that the thermodynamic phase transition models for brittle rupture may apply for this cliff collapse. We suggest that the case study presented here is one of the first (even the first) case showing a power law acceleration before a cliff collapse. It open new routes both to monitor and to understand the physics rock slope and landslide instabilities.

15. Comprehensive seismic hazard assessment of Tripura and Mizoram states

Sitharam, T. G.; Sil, Arjun

2014-06-01

Northeast India is one of the most highly seismically active regions in the world with more than seven earthquakes on an average per year of magnitude 5.0 and above. Reliable seismic hazard assessment could provide the necessary design inputs for earthquake resistant design of structures in this region. In this study, deterministic as well as probabilistic methods have been attempted for seismic hazard assessment of Tripura and Mizoram states at bedrock level condition. An updated earthquake catalogue was collected from various national and international seismological agencies for the period from 1731 to 2011. The homogenization, declustering and data completeness analysis of events have been carried out before hazard evaluation. Seismicity parameters have been estimated using G-R relationship for each source zone. Based on the seismicity, tectonic features and fault rupture mechanism, this region was divided into six major subzones. Region specific correlations were used for magnitude conversion for homogenization of earthquake size. Ground motion equations (Atkinson and Boore 2003; Gupta 2010) were validated with the observed PGA (peak ground acceleration) values before use in the hazard evaluation. In this study, the hazard is estimated using linear sources, identified in and around the study area. Results are presented in the form of PGA using both DSHA (deterministic seismic hazard analysis) and PSHA (probabilistic seismic hazard analysis) with 2 and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, and spectral acceleration (T = 0. 2 s, 1.0 s) for both the states (2% probability of exceedance in 50 years). The results are important to provide inputs for planning risk reduction strategies, for developing risk acceptance criteria and financial analysis for possible damages in the study area with a comprehensive analysis and higher resolution hazard mapping.

16. Some Signals of Seismic Origin Received at Pacific Sofar Stations.

DTIC Science & Technology

1953-03-03

none have ever approached this one in duration. dough compi~tation.indicate that the sound energy in the 20—500 cpa frequency bane released to the water...the sour cesof theni are still undcterr~iined since it has not been possible to correlate them ~4th any reported seismic or explosive disturbances. It

17. An extended stochastic method for seismic hazard estimation

Abd el-aal, A. K.; El-Eraki, M. A.; Mostafa, S. I.

2015-12-01

In this contribution, we developed an extended stochastic technique for seismic hazard assessment purposes. This technique depends on the hypothesis of stochastic technique of Boore (2003) "Simulation of ground motion using the stochastic method. Appl. Geophy. 160:635-676". The essential characteristics of extended stochastic technique are to obtain and simulate ground motion in order to minimize future earthquake consequences. The first step of this technique is defining the seismic sources which mostly affect the study area. Then, the maximum expected magnitude is defined for each of these seismic sources. It is followed by estimating the ground motion using an empirical attenuation relationship. Finally, the site amplification is implemented in calculating the peak ground acceleration (PGA) at each site of interest. We tested and applied this developed technique at Cairo, Suez, Port Said, Ismailia, Zagazig and Damietta cities to predict the ground motion. Also, it is applied at Cairo, Zagazig and Damietta cities to estimate the maximum peak ground acceleration at actual soil conditions. In addition, 0.5, 1, 5, 10 and 20 % damping median response spectra are estimated using the extended stochastic simulation technique. The calculated highest acceleration values at bedrock conditions are found at Suez city with a value of 44 cm s-2. However, these acceleration values decrease towards the north of the study area to reach 14.1 cm s-2 at Damietta city. This comes in agreement with the results of previous studies of seismic hazards in northern Egypt and is found to be comparable. This work can be used for seismic risk mitigation and earthquake engineering purposes.

18. Characterization of Vertical Impact Device Acceleration Pulses Using Parametric Assessment: Phase II Accelerated Free-Fall

DTIC Science & Technology

2016-04-30

ACCELERATED FREE -FALL Mr. Chris Perry Mr. Chris Burneka Warfighter Interface Division Ms. Rachael Christopher ORISE Mr. Chris Albery Infoscitex...of Vertical Impact Device Acceleration Pulses Using Parametric Assessment: Phase II Accelerated Free -Fall 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14-D-6500...bungee cord system interfaced between the VID free -fall carriage and the reaction mass to provide an initial velocity at carriage release. The approach

19. Seismic Response Analysis and Design of Structure with Base Isolation

SciTech Connect

Rosko, Peter

2010-05-21

The paper reports the study on seismic response and energy distribution of a multi-story civil structure. The nonlinear analysis used the 2003 Bam earthquake acceleration record as the excitation input to the structural model. The displacement response was analyzed in time domain and in frequency domain. The displacement and its derivatives result energy components. The energy distribution in each story provides useful information for the structural upgrade with help of added devices. The objective is the structural displacement response minimization. The application of the structural seismic response research is presented in base-isolation example.

20. Seismicity and Geometry Properties of the Hellenic Subduction Zone

Papadimitriou, E. E.; Karakostas, V. G.; Vallianatos, F.; Makropoulos, C.; Drakatos, G.

2014-12-01

Recent seismicity and fault plane solutions of earthquakes that occurred along the Hellenic Arc-Trench system are engaged for approximating the geometry of the subducted oceanic plate. Seismicity and focal mechanisms confirm the gentle subduction (~15o-20o) of the oceanic crust reaching a depth of 20 km at a distance of 100 km from the trench. The slab is then bending at larger angles, and in particular at ~45o up to the depth of 80 km and at ~65o up to the depth of 180 km, when seismicity ceased. This geometry of the slab is shown in a bunch of cross sections normal to the convergence strike, up to ~25o (east Crete Island). To the east the sparse inslab seismicity reveals an almost vertical dipping of the lower part (from 80 km downdip) of the descending slab. The slab interface that accommodates hazardous earthquakes is clearly nonplanar with the main seismic moment release taking place on its up-dip side. The fore-arc, upper plate seismicity, is remarkably low in comparison with both subduction and back arc seismicity, and confined inside a seismogenic layer having a width not exceeding the 20km. Offshore seismicity is spatially variable forming distinctive streaks thus revealing that parts of the oceanic crust are probably slipped aseismically. This observation along with the fact that coupling in the Hellenic arc is only about a tenth of the plate motion, imply the presence of areas of lower and higher coupling across the subduction interface. Areas of high coupling imply areas of the slab interface subjected to high normal forces and correlate with earthquake asperities. Although asperity distributions vary substantially through time, identification of such characteristics in the seismogenesis can have a significant impact in the seismic hazard assessment. This research has been co-funded by the European Union (European Social Fund) and Greek national resources under the framework of the "THALES Program: SEISMO FEAR HELLARC" project.

1. Acquisition parameters for shallow seismic data in West Virginia

SciTech Connect

Taylor, S.T.

1988-08-01

Tests of the Bison Instruments' Elastic Wave Generator (EWG) and Bison Instruments' Geopro 12-channel seismograph have been conducted in northern Lewis County, West Virginia. The seismic source used in these tests was an accelerated weight-drop mechanism (elastic wave generator) mounted on a light-weight trailer. The series of tests conducted near Weston, West Virginia, includes several types of walkaway noise tests as well as the acquisition of several common offset seismic profiles. The seismic data gathered in the study area have been analyzed for frequency content and other waveform attributes. The bandwidth of data gathered in the study area depends on the type of geophones used, as well as the analog filters that can be invoked in the seismograph. In general, frequency content ranges from 10 to 110 Hz, although the use of geophone arrays and different types of geophones modifies the amplitude of various frequencies. Forward modeling of a complete subsurface stratigraphic cross section, using program AIMS, has been compared with the seismic data. The match of the actual seismic data and the synthetic seismograms from the forward modeling procedure is good for strata of the Pennsylvanian System. However, portions of the seismic trace resulting from reflections in the Greenbrier Limestone are considered to be anomalous due to the somewhat atypical transition of facies in the overlying Little Lime.

2. Predicting Modes and Displacements of Seismic Rock Slope Failures

Gibson, M. D.; Wartman, J.; Keefer, D. K.; Maclaughlin, M.; Arnold, L.; Applegate, K. N.; Smith, S.; Adams, S.

2013-12-01

Seismically induced rock slope failures have resulted in billions of dollars of economic damage and enormous loss of life throughout the world. Accurate prediction of the triggering and run out of these failures is elusive for a variety of reasons, including knowledge of the physical modes of failure. Our research explores the potential failure modes of an idealized rigid rock block and expands the modes typically considered to include not only sliding but also toppling (pure forward rotation) and slumping (combined backward rotation and translation). The yield acceleration (or minimum inertial acceleration to cause block movement) for slumping, similar to toppling, is found to be lower than for pure translational sliding. These yield accelerations indicate the initial modes of rock block failure; however, they do not always predict the ultimate failure mode. To predict the final failure modes, the results of discrete element numerical analyses were compared to pseudo static yield acceleration to develop a seismic failure mode decision-making chart based on block geometry and interface friction. With regard to seismic displacement predictions, current simplified models predicting ultimate displacement of a mass under seismic conditions are limited to purely translating, sliding blocks (i.e. Newmark's sliding block method). Our modeling introduces additional simplified analyses to predict ultimate displacement in toppling and slumping modes as well. Important findings from these new methods are that the magnitude of seismically-induced displacement is dependent on the size of the block (or failure mass) and that as the yield acceleration decreases the seismically induced displacements increase. We plan to map these tools into analyses that evaluate rock slope systems with complex geology and geotechnical characteristics. It is envisioned that the decision chart, which predicts the initial and ultimate modes of failure based on block geometry and interface friction

SciTech Connect

Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lapointe, S.P.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Adams, J.; Cajka, M.G.; McNeil, W.; Drysdale, J.A. )

1992-05-01

This is a progress report of work carried out under the terms of a research agreement entitled the Canadian Seismic Agreement'' between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the Canadian Commercial Corporation and the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1989 to June 30, 1990. The Canadian Seismic Agreement'' supports generally the operation of various seismograph stations in eastern Canada and the collection and analysis of earthquake data for the purpose of mitigating seismic hazards in eastern Canada and the northeastern US. The specific activities carried out in this one-year period are summarized below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong-motion network developments and earthquake activity. During this period the first surface fault unequivocably determined to have accompanied a historic earthquake in eastern North America, occurred in northern Quebec.

4. Induced seismicity. Final report

SciTech Connect

Segall, P.

1997-09-18

The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of seismicity associated with energy production. Earthquakes are known to be associated with oil, gas, and geothermal energy production. The intent is to develop physical models that predict when seismicity is likely to occur, and to determine to what extent these earthquakes can be used to infer conditions within energy reservoirs. Early work focused on earthquakes induced by oil and gas extraction. Just completed research has addressed earthquakes within geothermal fields, such as The Geysers in northern California, as well as the interactions of dilatancy, friction, and shear heating, on the generation of earthquakes. The former has involved modeling thermo- and poro-elastic effects of geothermal production and water injection. Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are used to measure deformation associated with geothermal activity, and these measurements along with seismic data are used to test and constrain thermo-mechanical models.

5. 3-D Seismic Interpretation

Moore, Gregory F.

2009-05-01

This volume is a brief introduction aimed at those who wish to gain a basic and relatively quick understanding of the interpretation of three-dimensional (3-D) seismic reflection data. The book is well written, clearly illustrated, and easy to follow. Enough elementary mathematics are presented for a basic understanding of seismic methods, but more complex mathematical derivations are avoided. References are listed for readers interested in more advanced explanations. After a brief introduction, the book logically begins with a succinct chapter on modern 3-D seismic data acquisition and processing. Standard 3-D acquisition methods are presented, and an appendix expands on more recent acquisition techniques, such as multiple-azimuth and wide-azimuth acquisition. Although this chapter covers the basics of standard time processing quite well, there is only a single sentence about prestack depth imaging, and anisotropic processing is not mentioned at all, even though both techniques are now becoming standard.

6. Controllable seismic source

SciTech Connect

Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrell, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

2015-09-29

An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

7. Controllable seismic source

SciTech Connect

Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrel, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

2014-08-19

An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

8. Seismic ruggedness of relays

SciTech Connect

Merz, K.L. )

1991-08-01

This report complements EPRI report NP-5223 Revision 1, February 1991, and presents additional information and analyses concerning generic seismic ruggedness of power plant relays. Existing and new test data have been used to construct Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectra (GERS) which can be used in identifying rugged relays during seismic re-evaluation of nuclear power plants. This document is an EPRI tier 1 report. The results of relay fragility tests for both old and new relays are included in an EPRI tier 2 report with the same title. In addition to the presentation of relay GERS, the tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to relays of older vintage, discusses the important identifying nomenclature for each relay type, and examines relay adjustment effects on seismic ruggedness. 9 refs., 3 figs, 1 tab.

9. Interpolation of aliased seismic traces

SciTech Connect

Monk, D.J.; McBeath, R.G.; Wason, C.B.

1993-08-10

A method is described of interpolating seismic traces comprising the steps of: (a) processing seismic data to produce input seismic traces; (b) transforming the input seismic traces from the x, y, and time domain into the x-slope, y-slope and time domain (domains) by using a two dimensional power diversity slant stack; and (c) transforming the product of step (b) back into the x, y, and time domain using an inverse slant stack.

10. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

2014-12-01

There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

11. Earthquake dynamics. Mapping pressurized volcanic fluids from induced crustal seismic velocity drops.

PubMed

Brenguier, F; Campillo, M; Takeda, T; Aoki, Y; Shapiro, N M; Briand, X; Emoto, K; Miyake, H

2014-07-04

Volcanic eruptions are caused by the release of pressure that has accumulated due to hot volcanic fluids at depth. Here, we show that the extent of the regions affected by pressurized fluids can be imaged through the measurement of their response to transient stress perturbations. We used records of seismic noise from the Japanese Hi-net seismic network to measure the crustal seismic velocity changes below volcanic regions caused by the 2011 moment magnitude (M(w)) 9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. We interpret coseismic crustal seismic velocity reductions as related to the mechanical weakening of the pressurized crust by the dynamic stress associated with the seismic waves. We suggest, therefore, that mapping seismic velocity susceptibility to dynamic stress perturbations can be used for the imaging and characterization of volcanic systems.

12. Energetic analysis of the white light emission associated to seismically active flares in solar cycle 24

Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Martinez Oliveros, Juan Carlos; Glesener, Lindsay; Krucker, Sam

2014-06-01

Solar flares are explosive phenomena, thought to be driven by magnetic free energy accumulated in the solar corona. Some flares release seismic transients, "sunquakes", into the Sun's interior. Different mechanisms are being considered to explain how sunquakes are generated. We are conducting an analysis of white-light emission associated with those seismically active solar flares that have been reported by different authors within the current solar cycle. Seismic diagnostics are based upon standard time-distance techniques, including seismic holography, applied to Dopplergrams obtained by SDO/HMI and GONG. The relation between white-light emissions and seismic activity may provide important information on impulsive chromospheric heating during flares, a prospective contributor to seismic transient emission, at least in some instances. We develop a method to get an estimation of Energy associated whit white-light emission and compare those results whit values of energy needed to generate a sunquake according with holographic helioseismology techniques.

13. A detailed seismic zonation model for shallow earthquakes in the broader Aegean area

Vamvakaris, D. A.; Papazachos, C. B.; Papaioannou, Ch. A.; Scordilis, E. M.; Karakaisis, G. F.

2016-01-01

In the present work we propose a new seismic zonation model of area type sources for the broader Aegean area, which can be readily used for seismic hazard assessment. The definition of this model is based not only on seismicity information but incorporates all available seismotectonic and neotectonic information for the study area, in an attempt to define zones which show not only a rather homogeneous seismicity release but also exhibit similar active faulting characteristics. For this reason, all available seismological information such as fault plane solutions and the corresponding kinematic axes have been incorporated in the analysis, as well as information about active tectonics, such as seismic and active faults. Moreover, various morphotectonic features (e.g. relief, coastline) were also considered. Finally, a revised seismic catalogue is employed and earthquake epicentres since historical times (550 BC-2008) are employed, in order to define areas of common seismotectonic characteristics, that could constitute a discrete seismic zone. A new revised model of 113 earthquake seismic zones of shallow earthquakes for the broader Aegean area is finally proposed. Using the proposed zonation model, a detailed study is performed for the catalogue completeness for the recent instrumental period.Using the defined completeness information, seismicity parameters (such as G-R values) for the 113 new seismic zones have been calculated, and their spatial distribution was also examined. The spatial variation of the obtained b values shows an excellent correlation with the geotectonic setting in the area, in good agreement with previous studies. Moreover, a quantitative estimation of seismicity is performed in terms of the mean return period, Tm, of large (M ≥ 6.0) earthquakes, as well as the most frequent maximum magnitude, Mt, for a typical time period (T = 50 yr), revealing significant spatial variations of seismicity levels within the study area. The new proposed

14. NSR&D Program Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 Call for Proposals Mitigation of Seismic Risk at Nuclear Facilities using Seismic Isolation

SciTech Connect

Coleman, Justin

2015-02-01

Seismic isolation (SI) has the potential to drastically reduce seismic response of structures, systems, or components (SSCs) and therefore the risk associated with large seismic events (large seismic event could be defined as the design basis earthquake (DBE) and/or the beyond design basis earthquake (BDBE) depending on the site location). This would correspond to a potential increase in nuclear safety by minimizing the structural response and thus minimizing the risk of material release during large seismic events that have uncertainty associated with their magnitude and frequency. The national consensus standard America Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Standard 4, Seismic Analysis of Safety Related Nuclear Structures recently incorporated language and commentary for seismically isolating a large light water reactor or similar large nuclear structure. Some potential benefits of SI are: 1) substantially decoupling the SSC from the earthquake hazard thus decreasing risk of material release during large earthquakes, 2) cost savings for the facility and/or equipment, and 3) applicability to both nuclear (current and next generation) and high hazard non-nuclear facilities. Issue: To date no one has evaluated how the benefit of seismic risk reduction reduces cost to construct a nuclear facility. Objective: Use seismic probabilistic risk assessment (SPRA) to evaluate the reduction in seismic risk and estimate potential cost savings of seismic isolation of a generic nuclear facility. This project would leverage ongoing Idaho National Laboratory (INL) activities that are developing advanced (SPRA) methods using Nonlinear Soil-Structure Interaction (NLSSI) analysis. Technical Approach: The proposed study is intended to obtain an estimate on the reduction in seismic risk and construction cost that might be achieved by seismically isolating a nuclear facility. The nuclear facility is a representative pressurized water reactor building nuclear power plant (NPP) structure

15. Acceleration modules in linear induction accelerators

Wang, Shao-Heng; Deng, Jian-Jun

2014-05-01

The Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) is a unique type of accelerator that is capable of accelerating kilo-Ampere charged particle current to tens of MeV energy. The present development of LIA in MHz bursting mode and the successful application into a synchrotron have broadened LIA's usage scope. Although the transformer model is widely used to explain the acceleration mechanism of LIAs, it is not appropriate to consider the induction electric field as the field which accelerates charged particles for many modern LIAs. We have examined the transition of the magnetic cores' functions during the LIA acceleration modules' evolution, distinguished transformer type and transmission line type LIA acceleration modules, and re-considered several related issues based on transmission line type LIA acceleration module. This clarified understanding should help in the further development and design of LIA acceleration modules.

16. Understanding projectile acceleration.

PubMed

Hecht, H; Bertamini, M

2000-04-01

Throwing and catching balls or other objects is a generally highly practiced skill; however, conceptual as well as perceptual understanding of the mechanics that underlie this skill is surprisingly poor. In 5 experiments, we investigated conceptual and perceptual understanding of simple ballistic motion. Paper-and-pencil tests revealed that up to half of all participants mistakenly believed that a ball would continue to accelerate after it left the thrower's hand. Observers also showed a remarkable tolerance for anomalous trajectory shapes. Perceptual judgments based on graphics animations replicated these erroneous beliefs for shallow release angles. Observers' tolerance for anomalies tended to decrease with their distance from the actor. The findings are at odds with claims of the naive physics literature that liken intuitive understanding to Aristotelian or medieval physics theories. Instead, observers seem to project their intentions to the ball itself (externalization) or even feel that they have power over the ball when it is still close.

17. Deformation and failure of single- and multi-phase silicate liquids: seismic precursors and mechanical work

Vasseur, Jeremie; Lavallée, Yan; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Wassermann, Joachim; Dingwell, Donald B.

2013-04-01

Along with many others, volcanic unrest is regarded as a catastrophic material failure phenomenon and is often preceded by diverse precursory signals. Although a volcanic system intrinsically behave in a non-linear and stochastic way, these precursors display systematic evolutionary trends to upcoming eruptions. Seismic signals in particular are in general dramatically increasing prior to an eruption and have been extensively reported to show accelerating rates through time, as well as in the laboratory before failure of rock samples. At the lab-scale, acoustic emissions (AE) are high frequency transient stress waves used to track fracture initiation and propagation inside a rock sample. Synthesized glass samples featuring a range of porosities (0 - 30%) and natural rock samples from volcán de Colima, Mexico, have been failed under high temperature uniaxial compression experiments at constant stresses and strain rates. Using the monitored AEs and the generated mechanical work during deformation, we investigated the evolutionary trends of energy patterns associated to different degrees of heterogeneity. We observed that the failure of dense, poorly porous glasses is achieved by exceeding elevated strength and thus requires a significant accumulation of strain, meaning only pervasive small-scale cracking is occurring. More porous glasses as well as volcanic samples need much lower applied stress and deformation to fail, as fractures are nucleating, propagating and coalescing into localized large-scale cracks, taking the advantage of the existence of numerous defects (voids for glasses, voids and crystals for volcanic rocks). These observations demonstrate that the mechanical work generated through cracking is efficiently distributed inside denser and more homogeneous samples, as underlined by the overall lower AE energy released during experiments. In contrast, the quicker and larger AE energy released during the loading of heterogeneous samples shows that the

18. The seismic analyzer: interpreting and illustrating 2D seismic data.

PubMed

Patel, Daniel; Giertsen, Christopher; Thurmond, John; Gjelberg, John; Gröller, M Eduard

2008-01-01

We present a toolbox for quickly interpreting and illustrating 2D slices of seismic volumetric reflection data. Searching for oil and gas involves creating a structural overview of seismic reflection data to identify hydrocarbon reservoirs. We improve the search of seismic structures by precalculating the horizon structures of the seismic data prior to interpretation. We improve the annotation of seismic structures by applying novel illustrative rendering algorithms tailored to seismic data, such as deformed texturing and line and texture transfer functions. The illustrative rendering results in multi-attribute and scale invariant visualizations where features are represented clearly in both highly zoomed in and zoomed out views. Thumbnail views in combination with interactive appearance control allows for a quick overview of the data before detailed interpretation takes place. These techniques help reduce the work of seismic illustrators and interpreters.

19. Mobile seismic exploration

Dräbenstedt, A.; Cao, X.; Polom, U.; Pätzold, F.; Zeller, T.; Hecker, P.; Seyfried, V.; Rembe, C.

2016-06-01

Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry (LDV) is an established technique to measure vibrations in technical systems with picometer vibration-amplitude resolution. Especially good sensitivity and resolution can be achieved at an infrared wavelength of 1550 nm. High-resolution vibration measurements are possible over more than 100 m distance. This advancement of the LDV technique enables new applications. The detection of seismic waves is an application which has not been investigated so far because seismic waves outside laboratory scales are usually analyzed at low frequencies between approximately 1 Hz and 250 Hz and require velocity resolutions in the range below 1 nm/s/√Hz. Thermal displacements and air turbulence have critical influences to LDV measurements at this low-frequency range leading to noise levels of several 100 nm/√Hz. Commonly seismic waves are measured with highly sensitive inertial sensors (geophones or Micro Electro-Mechanical Sensors (MEMS)). Approaching a laser geophone based on LDV technique is the topic of this paper. We have assembled an actively vibration-isolated optical table in a minivan which provides a hole in its underbody. The laser-beam of an infrared LDV assembled on the optical table impinges the ground below the car through the hole. A reference geophone has detected remaining vibrations on the table. We present the results from the first successful experimental demonstration of contactless detection of seismic waves from a movable vehicle with a LDV as laser geophone.

20. Hanford Seismic Network

SciTech Connect

Reidel, S.P.; Hartshorn, D.C.

1997-05-01

This report describes the Hanford Seismic Network. The network consists of two instrument arrays: seismometers and strong motion accelerometers. The seismometers determine the location and magnitude of earthquakes, and the strong motion accelerometers determine ground motion. Together these instruments arrays comply with the intent of DOE Order 5480.20, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation.

1. Nonstructural seismic restraint guidelines

SciTech Connect

Butler, D.M.; Czapinski, R.H.; Firneno, M.J.; Feemster, H.C.; Fornaciari, N.R.; Hillaire, R.G.; Kinzel, R.L.; Kirk, D.; McMahon, T.T.

1993-08-01

The Nonstructural Seismic Restraint Guidelines provide general information about how to secure or restrain items (such as material, equipment, furniture, and tools) in order to prevent injury and property, environmental, or programmatic damage during or following an earthquake. All SNL sites may experience earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 or higher on the Richter scale. Therefore, these guidelines are written for all SNL sites.

2. Progress on plasma accelerators

SciTech Connect

Chen, P.

1986-05-01

Several plasma accelerator concepts are reviewed, with emphasis on the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator (PWFA). Various accelerator physics issues regarding these schemes are discussed, and numerical examples on laboratory scale experiments are given. The efficiency of plasma accelerators is then revealed with suggestions on improvements. Sources that cause emittance growth are discussed briefly.

3. Syndactyly Release.

PubMed

Braun, Tara L; Trost, Jeffrey G; Pederson, William C

2016-11-01

Syndactyly is one of the most common congenital hand anomalies treated by pediatric plastic surgeons. Established principles of syndactyly separation dictate the timing and order of syndactyly release, with the goals of surgery being the creation of an anatomically normal webspace, tension-free closure of soft tissue, and return of function to the fingers. Numerous surgical methods have been described, many of which involve the use of local flaps to reconstruct the commissure and full-thickness skin grafts for coverage of raw areas. Recently, reconstructive techniques without the use of skin grafts have been devised, which work well for certain indications. Special considerations are described for complete, complex, and syndromic syndactylies. Outcomes for simple syndactyly release are typically good when surgical principles are followed, whereas complex syndactyly release tends to have less-favorable outcomes and more complications.

4. Characterization of granular flows from the generated seismic signal

Farin, Maxime; Mangeney, Anne; Toussaint, Renaud; De Rosny, Julien; Trinh, Phuong-Thu

2016-04-01

Landslides, rock avalanche and debris flows represent a major natural hazard in steep landscapes. Recent studies showed that the seismic signal generated by these events can provide quantitative information on their location and amplitude. However, owing to the lack of visual observations, the dynamics of gravitational events is still not well understood. A burning challenge is to establish relations between the characteristics of the landslide (volume, speed, runout distance,...) and that of the emitted seismic signal (maximum amplitude, seismic energy, frequencies,...). We present here laboratory experiments of granular columns collapse on an inclined plane. The seismic signal generated by the collapse is recorded by piezoelectric accelerometers sensitive in a wide frequency range (1 Hz - 56 kHz). The granular column is made of steel beads of the same diameter, between 1 mm and 3 mm that are initially contained in a cylinder. The column collapses when the cylinder is removed. A layer of steel beads is glued on the surface of the plane to provide basal roughness. For horizontal granular flows, we show that it is possible to distinguish the phases of acceleration and deceleration of the flow in the emitted seismic signal. Indeed, the signal envelope is symmetrical with respect to its maximum, separating the acceleration from the deceleration. When the slope angle increases, we observe that the signal envelope looses its symmetry: it stays unchanged during the acceleration but it is significantly extended during the deceleration. In addition, we propose a semi-empirical scaling law to describe the increase of the elastic energy radiated by a granular flow when the slope angle increases. The fit of this law with the seismic data allows us to retrieve the friction angle of the granular material, which is a crucial rheological parameter. Finally, we show that the ratio of the radiated elastic energy over the potential energy lost of granular flows, i.e. their seismic

5. Influence of Seismic Loading on Segment Opening of a Shield Tunnel

PubMed Central

Chun-shan, Yang; Hai-hong, Mo; Jun-sheng, Chen; Yi-zhao, Wang

2014-01-01

6. Influence of seismic loading on segment opening of a shield tunnel.

PubMed

Chun-shan, Yang; Hai-hong, Mo; Jun-sheng, Chen; Yi-zhao, Wang

2014-01-01

7. Third Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008

SciTech Connect

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-09-01

. The May 18 event, not reported as being felt on the Hanford site or causing any damage, was communicated to the PNNL Operations Center per HSAP communications procedures. The event is not considered to be significant with regard to site safety and not unprecedented given the site’s seismic history. The Hanford strong motion accelerometer (SMA) stations at the 200 East Area, 300 Area, and the 400 Area were triggered by the May 18 event. The reportable action level of 2% g for Hanford facilities is approximately 12 times larger than the peak acceleration (0.17%) observed at the 300 Area SMA station and no action was required.

8. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program: a concluding look

SciTech Connect

Cummings, G.E.

1984-01-01

The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) was started in 1978 with the goal of developing tools and data bases to compute the probability of earthquake - caused radioactive release from commercial nuclear power plants. These tools and data bases were to help NRC to assess seismic safety at nuclear plants. The methodology to be used was finalized in 1982 and applied to the Zion Nuclear Power Station. The SSMRP will be completed this year with the development of a more simplified method of analysis and a demonstration of its use on Zion. This simplified method is also being applied to a boiling-water-reactor, LaSalle.

9. Space experiments with particle accelerators: SEPAC

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Roberts, B.

1986-01-01

The SEPAC instruments consist of an electron accelerator, a plasma accelerator, a neutral gas (N2) release device, particle and field diagnostic instruments, and a low light level television system. These instruments are used to accomplish multiple experiments: to study beam-particle interactions and other plasma processes; as probes to investigate magnetospheric processes; and as perturbation devices to study energy coupling mechanisms in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, and upper atmosphere.

10. Toggle release

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Graves, Thomas J. (Inventor); Yang, Robert A. (Inventor); Brown, Christopher W. (Inventor)

1989-01-01

A pyrotechnic actuated structural release device 10 which is mechanically two fault tolerant for release. The device 10 comprises a fastener plate 11 and fastener body 12, each attachable to a different one of a pair of structures to be joined. The fastener plate 11 and body 12 are fastenable by a toggle 13 supported at one end on the fastener plate and mounted for universal pivotal movement thereon. At its other end which is received in a central opening in the fastener body 12 and adapted for limited pivotal movement therein the toggle 13 is restrained by three retractable latching pins 61 symmetrically disposed in equiangular spacing about the axis of the toggle 13 and positionable in latching engagement with an end fitting on the toggle. Each pin 61 is individually retractable by combustion of a pyrotechnic charge 77, the expanding gases of which are applied to a pressure receiving face 67 on the latch pin 61 to effect its retraction from the toggle. While retraction of all three pins 62 releases the toggle, the fastener is mechanically two fault tolerant since the failure of any single one or pair of the latch pins to retract results in an asymmetrical loading on the toggle and its pivotal movement to effect a release. An annular bolt 18 is mounted on the fastener plate 11 as a support for the socket mounting 30, 37 of the toggle whereby its selective axial movement provides a means for preloading the toggle.

11. Seismic Hazard Assessment for the Baku City and Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan

SciTech Connect

Babayev, Gulam R.

2006-03-23

This paper deals with the seismic hazard assessment for Baku and the Absheron peninsula. The assessment is based on the information on the features of earthquake ground motion excitation, seismic wave propagation (attenuation), and site effect. I analyze active faults, seismicity, soil and rock properties, geological cross-sections, the borehole data of measured shear-wave velocity, lithology, amplification factor of each geological unit, geomorphology, topography, and basic rock and surface ground motions. To estimate peak ground acceleration (PGA) at the surface, PGA at the basic rock is multiplied by the amplification parameter of each surface layers. Quaternary soft deposits, representing a high risk due to increasing PGA values at surface, are studied in detail. For a near-zone target earthquake PGA values are compared to intensity at MSK-64 scale for the Absheron peninsula. The amplification factor for the Baku city is assessed and provides estimations for a level of a seismic motion and seismic intensity of the studied area.

12. Mechanical behavior of a suite of elastomers used for seismic base isolation

SciTech Connect

Kulak, R.F.; Hughes, T.H.

1995-07-01

Several practical systems have been developed to protect structures and their contents from the potential devastating consequences of earthquakes. The use of seismic isolation has recently proven to be an effective means to mitigate earthquake damage. With seismic isolation, the structures are decoupled from the strong horizontal ground accelerations. The use of high damping elastomer, steel lamiriated seismic isolation bearings has been proven to be an effective method for seismic base isolation. This paper describes recent research conducted at Argonne National Laboratory to find the mechanical response characteristics of a suite of elastomers compounded for use in elastomeric seismic isolation bearings. The response characteristics were obtained by testing small coupons of each elastomer in a high precision dynamic testing machine. Specifically, the paper reports on tests performed to find the variations in stiffness and energy dissipation with strain level, loading rate, and cycle number. The paper also reports on the effects that strain level has on stiffness recovery.

13. Characterizing and comparing seismicity at Cascade Range (USA) volcanoes

Moran, S. C.; Thelen, W. A.

2010-12-01

The Cascade Range includes 13 volcanic systems across Washington, Oregon, and northern California that are considered to have the potential to erupt at any time, including two that have erupted in the last 100 years (Mount St. Helens (MSH) and Lassen Peak). We investigated how seismicity compares among these volcanoes, and whether the character of seismicity (rate, type, style of occurrence over time, etc.) is related to eruptive activity at the surface. Seismicity at Cascade volcanoes has been monitored by seismic networks of variable apertures, station densities, and lengths of operation, which makes a direct comparison of seismicity among volcanoes somewhat problematic. Here we present results of two non-network-dependent approaches to making such seismicity comparisons. In the first, we used network geometry and a grid-search method to compute the minimum magnitude required for a network to locate an earthquake (“theoretical location threshold”, defined as an event recorded on at least 4 stations with gap of <135o) for each volcano out to 7 km. We then selected earthquakes with magnitudes greater than the highest theoretical location threshold determined for any Cascade volcano. To account for improving network densities with time, we used M 2.1 (location threshold for the Three Sisters 1980s-90s network) for 1987-1999 and M 1.6 (threshold for the Crater Lake 2000s network) for 2000-2010. In order to include only background seismicity, we excluded earthquakes occurring at any volcano during the 2004-2008 MSH eruption. We found that Mount Hood, Lassen Peak, and MSH had the three highest seismicity rates over that period, with Mount Hood, Medicine Lake volcano, and MSH having the three highest cumulative seismic energy releases. The Medicine Lake energy release is dominated by a single swarm in September 1988; if that swarm is removed, then Lassen would have the third-highest cumulative seismic energy release. For the second comparison, we determined the

14. Modelling induced seismicity due to fluid injection

Murphy, S.; O'Brien, G. S.; Bean, C. J.; McCloskey, J.; Nalbant, S. S.

2011-12-01

Injection of fluid into the subsurface alters the stress in the crust and can induce earthquakes. The science of assessing the risk of induced seismicity from such ventures is still in its infancy despite public concern. We plan to use a fault network model in which stress perturbations due to fluid injection induce earthquakes. We will use this model to investigate the role different operational and geological factors play in increasing seismicity in a fault system due to fluid injection. The model is based on a quasi-dynamic relationship between stress and slip coupled with a rate and state fiction law. This allows us to model slip on fault interfaces over long periods of time (i.e. years to 100's years). With the use of the rate and state friction law the nature of stress release during slipping can be altered through variation of the frictional parameters. Both seismic and aseismic slip can therefore be simulated. In order to add heterogeneity along the fault plane a fractal variation in the frictional parameters is used. Fluid injection is simulated using the lattice Boltzmann method whereby pore pressure diffuses throughout a permeable layer from the point of injection. The stress perturbation this causes on the surrounding fault system is calculated using a quasi-static solution for slip dislocation in an elastic half space. From this model we can generate slip histories and seismicity catalogues covering 100's of years for predefined fault networks near fluid injection sites. Given that rupture is a highly non-linear process, comparison between models with different input parameters (e.g. fault network statistics and injection rates) will be based on system wide features (such as the Gutenberg-Richter b-values), rather than specific seismic events. Our ultimate aim is that our model produces seismic catalogues similar to those observed over real injection sites. Such validation would pave the way to probabilistic estimation of reactivation risk for

15. Tyrosine - Effects on catecholamine release

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acworth, Ian N.; During, Matthew J.; Wurtman, Richard J.

1988-01-01

Tyrosine administration elevates striatal levels of dopamine metabolites in animals given treatments that accelerate nigrostriatal firing, but not in untreated rats. We examined the possibility that the amino acid might actually enhance dopamine release in untreated animals, but that the technique of measuring striatal dopamine metabolism was too insensitive to demonstrate such an effect. Dopamine release was assessed directly, using brain microdialysis of striatal extracellular fluid. Tyrosine administration (50-200 mg/kg IP) did indeed cause a dose related increase in extracellular fluid dopamine levels with minor elevations in levels of DOPAC and HVA, its major metabolites, which were not dose-related. The rise in dopamine was short-lived, suggesting that receptor-mediated feedback mechanisms responded to the increased dopamine release by diminishing neuronal firing or sensitivity to tyrosine. These observations indicate that measurement of changes in striatal DOPAC and HVA, if negative, need not rule out increases in nigrostriatal dopamine release.

16. Including Faults Detected By Near-Surface Seismic Methods in the USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps - Some Restrictions Apply

Williams, R. A.; Haller, K. M.

2014-12-01

Every 6 years, the USGS updates the National Seismic Hazard Maps (new version released July 2014) that are intended to help society reduce risk from earthquakes. These maps affect hundreds of billions of dollars in construction costs each year as they are used to develop seismic-design criteria of buildings, bridges, highways, railroads, and provide data for risk assessment that help determine insurance rates. Seismic source characterization, an essential component of hazard model development, ranges from detailed trench excavations across faults at the ground surface to less detailed analysis of broad regions defined mainly on the basis of historical seismicity. Though it is a priority for the USGS to discover new Quaternary fault sources, the discovered faults only become a part of the hazard model if there are corresponding constraints on their geometry (length and depth extent) and slip-rate (or recurrence interval). When combined with fault geometry and slip-rate constraints, near-surface seismic studies that detect young (Quaternary) faults have become important parts of the hazard source model. Examples of seismic imaging studies with significant hazard impact include the Southern Whidbey Island fault, Washington; Santa Monica fault, San Andreas fault, and Palos Verdes fault zone, California; and Commerce fault, Missouri. There are many more faults in the hazard model in the western U.S. than in the expansive region east of the Rocky Mountains due to the higher rate of tectonic deformation, frequent surface-rupturing earthquakes and, in some cases, lower erosion rates. However, the recent increase in earthquakes in the central U.S. has revealed previously unknown faults for which we need additional constraints before we can include them in the seismic hazard maps. Some of these new faults may be opportunities for seismic imaging studies to provide basic data on location, dip, style of faulting, and recurrence.

17. Seismic Hazards at Kilauea and Mauna LOA Volcanoes, Hawaii

SciTech Connect

Klein, Fred W.

1994-04-22

A significant seismic hazard exists in south Hawaii from large tectonic earthquakes that can reach magnitude 8 and intensity XII. This paper quantifies the hazard by estimating the horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) in south Hawaii which occurs with a 90% probability of not being exceeded during exposure times from 10 to 250 years. The largest earthquakes occur beneath active, unbuttressed and mobile flanks of volcanoes in their shield building stage.

18. Handbook of nuclear power plant seismic fragilities, Seismic Safety Margins Research Program

SciTech Connect

Cover, L.E.; Bohn, M.P.; Campbell, R.D.; Wesley, D.A.

1983-12-01

The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has a gola to develop a complete fully coupled analysis procedure (including methods and computer codes) for estimating the risk of an earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant. As part of this program, calculations of the seismic risk from a typical commercial nuclear reactor were made. These calculations required a knowledge of the probability of failure (fragility) of safety-related components in the reactor system which actively participate in the hypothesized accident scenarios. This report describes the development of the required fragility relations and the data sources and data reduction techniques upon which they are based. Both building and component fragilities are covered. The building fragilities are for the Zion Unit 1 reactor which was the specific plant used for development of methodology in the program. Some of the component fragilities are site-specific also, but most would be usable for other sites as well.

19. Standardization of Seismic Microzonification and Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Study Considering Site Effect for Metropolitan Areas in the State of Veracruz

Torres Morales, G. F.; Leonardo Suárez, M.; Dávalos Sotelo, R.; Castillo Aguilar, S.; Mora González, I.

2014-12-01

Preliminary results obtained from the project "Seismic Hazard in the State of Veracruz and Xalapa Conurbation" and "Microzonation of geological and hydrometeorological hazards for conurbations of Orizaba, Veracruz, and major sites located in the lower sub-basins: The Antigua and Jamapa" are presented. These projects were sponsored respectively by the PROMEP program and the Joint Funds CONACyT-Veracruz state government. The study consists of evaluating the probabilistic seismic hazard considering the site effect (SE) in the urban zones of cities of Xalapa and Orizaba; the site effects in this preliminary stage were incorporated through a standard format proposed in studies of microzonation and application in computer systems, which allows to optimize and condense microzonation studies of a city. This study stems from the need to know the seismic hazard (SH) in the State of Veracruz and its major cities, defining SH as the probabilistic description of exceedance of a given level of ground motion intensity (generally designated by the acceleration soil or maximum ordinate in the response spectrum of pseudo-acceleration, PGA and Sa, respectively) as a result of the action of an earthquake in the area of influence for a specified period of time. The evaluation results are presented through maps of seismic hazard exceedance rate curves and uniform hazard spectra (UHS) for different spectral ordinates and return periods, respectively.

20. Seismic hazard maps of Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tanner, J.G.; Shedlock, K.M.

2004-01-01

The growth of megacities in seismically active regions around the world often includes the construction of seismically unsafe buildings and infrastructures due to an insufficient knowledge of existing seismic hazard and/or economic constraints. Minimization of the loss of life, property damage, and social and economic disruption due to earthquakes depends on reliable estimates of seismic hazard. We have produced a suite of seismic hazard estimates for Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America. One of the preliminary maps in this suite served as the basis for the Caribbean and Central and South America portion of the Global Seismic Hazard Map (GSHM) published in 1999, which depicted peak ground acceleration (pga) with a 10% chance of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. Herein we present maps depicting pga and 0.2 and 1.0 s spectral accelerations (SA) with 50%, 10%, and 2% chances of exceedance in 50 years for rock sites. The seismicity catalog used in the generation of these maps adds 3 more years of data to those used to calculate the GSH Map. Different attenuation functions (consistent with those used to calculate the U.S. and Canadian maps) were used as well. These nine maps are designed to assist in global risk mitigation by providing a general seismic hazard framework and serving as a resource for any national or regional agency to help focus further detailed studies required for regional/local needs. The largest seismic hazard values in Mexico, the Caribbean, and Central and South America generally occur in areas that have been, or are likely to be, the sites of the largest plate boundary earthquakes. High hazard values occur in areas where shallow-to-intermediate seismicity occurs frequently. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tatom, F. B.

1993-01-01

Tornadoes represent the most violent of all forms of atmospheric storms, each year resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in property damage and approximately one hundred fatalities. In recent years, considerable success has been achieved in detecting tornadic storms by means of Doppler radar. However, radar systems cannot determine when a tornado is actually in contact with the ground, expect possibly at extremely close range. At the present time, human observation is the only truly reliable way of knowing that a tornado is actually on the ground. However, considerable evidence exists indicating that a tornado in contact with the ground produces a significant seismic signal. If such signals are generated, the seismic detection and warning of an imminent tornado can become a distinct possibility.

SciTech Connect

Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Plouffe, M.; Adams, J.; Drysdale, J.A. . Geophysics Div.)

1990-04-01

During the period of this report, the contract resources were spent on operation and maintenance of the Eastern Canada Telemetred Network (ECTN), development of special purpose local network systems, servicing and maintenance of the strong-motion seismograph network in eastern Canada, operation of the Ottawa data lab and earthquake monitoring and reporting. Of special note in this period was the final completion of the Sudbury (SLTN) and Charlevoix (CLTN) local networks and the integration of their data processing and analysis requirements in the regular analysis stream for ECTN data. These networks now acquire high quality digital data for detailed analysis of seismic activity and source properties from these two areas, thus effectively doubling the amount of seismic data being received by the Ottawa data lab. 37 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

3. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

USGS Publications Warehouse

Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

1977-01-01

The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

4. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

SciTech Connect

Thomas, B.

1993-03-01

The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the {open_quotes}sources{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}targets{close_quotes} requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources.

5. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

SciTech Connect

Thomas, B.

1993-03-01

The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the [open quotes]sources[close quotes] and [open quotes]targets[close quotes] requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources.

6. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

SciTech Connect

Kennedy, R.P.

1997-01-01

In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented.

7. Seismic basement in Poland

2016-06-01

The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

8. Multiband array detection and location of seismic sources recorded by dense seismic networks

Poiata, Natalia; Satriano, Claudio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Bernard, Pascal; Obara, Kazushige

2016-06-01

We present a new methodology for detection and space-time location of seismic sources based on multiscale, frequency-selective coherence of the wave field recorded by dense large-scale seismic networks and local antennas. The method is designed to enhance coherence of the signal statistical features across the array of sensors and consists of three steps: signal processing, space-time imaging, and detection and location. The first step provides, for each station, a simplified representation of seismic signal by extracting multiscale non-stationary statistical characteristics, through multiband higher-order statistics or envelopes. This signal processing scheme is designed to account for a priori unknown transients, potentially associated with a variety of sources (e.g. earthquakes, tremors), and to prepare data for a better performance in posterior steps. Following space-time imaging is carried through 3-D spatial mapping and summation of station-pair time-delay estimate functions. This step produces time-series of 3-D spatial images representing the likelihood that each pixel makes part of a source. Detection and location is performed in the final step by extracting the local maxima from the 3-D spatial images. We demonstrate the efficiency of the method in detecting and locating seismic sources associated with low signal-to-noise ratio on an example of the aftershock earthquake records from local stations of International Maule Aftershock Deployment in Central Chile. The performance and potential of the method to detect, locate and characterize the energy release associated with possibly mixed seismic radiation from earthquakes and low-frequency tectonic tremors is further tested on continuous data from southwestern Japan.

9. Using In-Situ Seismic Measurements to Model the Velocity Structure of Subsurface Aquifers in Southeast Greenland

Montgomery, L.; Schmerr, N. C.; Koenig, L.; Legchenko, A.; Miller, O. L.; Solomon, D. K.; Forster, R. R.

2015-12-01

In 2011, a perennial storage of water in the firn was observed in southeastern Greenland. An aquifer is created by surface melt water percolating down through the firn and saturating the pore space above the firn-ice transition. The mean depth to the top of the aquifer is 15 m and where it has been measured is 25 m thick. This water remains in the liquid state throughout the entire year and is stored within the aquifer. The firn aquifer contribution to sea level rise remains unclear. The aquifer could supply water to the glacier bed, accelerating glacial flow in the region. The aquifer could also store water until a saturation point is reached, and if the water is released at once, it could supply large amounts of fresh water to the ocean. To quantify the amount of liquid water stored in the firn, we used refraction seismic profiles to probe the base of the aquifer in 3 separate locations on the southeastern Greenland ice sheet. Finding the total thickness of the aquifer allows us to calculate the volume of water stored in the firn over these 100-500 meter long refraction lines. Our refraction seismic approach is sensitive to the thickness of the firn aquifer and total water content stored in the pore space of the firn. We combine our seismic measurements with densities and porosity data taken from firn cores extracted in the same area, as well as magnetic resonance soundings, and ground penetrating radar profiles to further constrain the structure of the aquifer. Elucidating the volume of water stored within these recently discovered aquifers is vital for determining the hydrological structure and stability of the southeastern Greenland ice sheet.

10. Seismic upgrades of healthcare facilities.

PubMed

Yusuf, A

1997-06-01

Before 1989 seismic upgrading of hospital structures was not a primary consideration among hospital owners. However, after extensive earthquake damage to hospital buildings at Loma Prieta in Northern California in 1989 and then at Northridge in Southern California in 1994, hospital owners, legislators, and design teams become concerned about the need for seismic upgrading of existing facilities. Because the damage hospital structures sustained in the earthquakes was so severe and far-reaching, California has enacted laws that mandate seismic upgrading for existing facilities. Now hospital owners will have to upgrade buildings that do not conform to statewide seismic adequacy laws. By 2030, California expects all of its hospital structures to be sufficiently seismic-resistant. Slowly, regions in the Midwest and on the East Coast are following their example. This article outlines reasons and ways for seismic upgrading of existing facilities.

11. The mechanics of the South Iceland Seismic Zone

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hackman, M. Christine; Bilham, Roger; King, Geoffrey C. P.

1990-01-01

The mechanics of the South Iceland Seismic Zone is examined by means of boundary element modeling. The differences between the observed geometry of the major tectonically active features and that of a geometrically orthogonal ridge-transform system (which assumes that the upper part of the earth's crust is an elastic plate containing vertical cuts) are examined. It is suggested that north-south faults can accommodate transform deformation only if the faults are longer or more numerous than those observed so far. This is considered reasonable because earthquake surface rupture lengths are commonly less than the inferred fault length at depth. The South Iceland Seismic Zone is subject to sequences of large earthquake every 45-112 years. In comparing the seismic moment release derived from earthquake magnitudes with that predicted by the models, it is confirmed that the system of north-south faults can act as a transform fault.

12. Annual Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2008

SciTech Connect

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2008-12-29

119 degrees and 120 degrees west longitude). The event was not reported as being felt on the Hanford Site or causing any damage and was communicated to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Operations Center per HSAP communi¬cations procedures. The event is not considered to be significant with regard to site safety and not unprecedented given the site’s seismic history. The Hanford strong motion accelerometer (SMA) stations at the 200 East Area, 300 Area, and 400 Area were triggered by the May 18 event. The maximum acceleration recorded at the SMA stations (0.17% at the 300 Area) was 12 times smaller than the reportable action level (2% g) for Hanford Site facilities.

13. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Leprince, Sebastien; Michel, Remi

2012-01-01

A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

14. Future accelerator technology

SciTech Connect

Sessler, A.M.

1986-05-01

A general discussion is presented of the acceleration of particles. Upon this foundation is built a categorization scheme into which all accelerators can be placed. Special attention is devoted to accelerators which employ a wake-field mechanism and a restricting theorem is examined. It is shown how the theorem may be circumvented. Comments are made on various acceleration schemes.

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GIBSON, ARTHUR R.; STEPHANS, THOMAS M.

ACCELERATION OF PUPILS AND SUBJECTS IS CONSIDERED A MEANS OF EDUCATING THE ACADEMICALLY GIFTED STUDENT. FIVE INTRODUCTORY ARTICLES PROVIDE A FRAMEWORK FOR THINKING ABOUT ACCELERATION. FIVE PROJECT REPORTS OF ACCELERATED PROGRAMS IN OHIO ARE INCLUDED. ACCELERATION IS NOW BEING REGARDED MORE FAVORABLY THAN FORMERLY, BECAUSE METHODS HAVE BEEN…

16. Laser driven ion accelerator

DOEpatents

Tajima, Toshiki

2005-06-14

A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

17. Laser driven ion accelerator

DOEpatents

Tajima, Toshiki

2006-04-18

A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

18. Seismic Characterization of Coal-Mining Seismicity in Utah for CTBT Monitoring

SciTech Connect

Arabasz, W J; Pechmann, J C

2001-03-01

Underground coal mining (down to {approx}0.75 km depth) in the contiguous Wasatch Plateau (WP) and Book Cliffs (BC) mining districts of east-central Utah induces abundant seismicity that is monitored by the University of Utah regional seismic network. This report presents the results of a systematic characterization of mining seismicity (magnitude {le} 4.2) in the WP-BC region from January 1978 to June 2000-together with an evaluation of three seismic events (magnitude {le} 4.3) associated with underground trona mining in southwestern Wyoming during January-August 2000. (Unless specified otherwise, magnitude implies Richter local magnitude, M{sub L}.) The University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) undertook this cooperative project to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in research and development relating to monitoring the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The project, which formally began February 28, 1998, and ended September 1, 2000, had three basic objectives: (1) Strategically install a three-component broadband digital seismic station in the WP-BC region to ensure the continuous recording of high-quality waveform data to meet the long-term needs of LLNL, UUSS, and other interested parties, including the international CTBT community. (2) Determine source mechanisms--to the extent that available source data and resources allowed--for comparative seismic characterization of stress release in mines versus earthquakes in the WP-BC study region. (3) Gather and report to LLNL local information on mine operations and associated seismicity, including ''ground truth'' for significant events. Following guidance from LLNL's Technical Representative, the focus of Objective 2 was changed slightly to place emphasis on three mining-related events that occurred in and near the study area after the original work plan had been made, thus posing new targets of opportunity. These included: a magnitude 3.8 shock that occurred

19. Modelling of NW Himalayan Seismicity

Bansal, A. R.; Dimri, V. P.

2014-12-01

The northwest Himalaya is seismicity active region due to the collision of Indian and Eurasian plates and experienced many large earthquakes in past. A systematic analysis of seismicity is useful for seismic hazard estimation of the region. We analyzed the seismicity of northwestern Himalaya since 1980. The magnitude of completeness of the catalogue is carried out using different methods and found as 3.0. A large difference in magnitude of completeness is found using different methods and a reliable value is obtained after testing the distribution of magnitudes with time. The region is prone to large earthquake and many studied have shown that seismic activation or quiescence takes place before large earthquakes. We studied such behavior of seismicity based on Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model and found that a stationary ETAS model is more suitable for modelling the seismicity of this region. The earthquake catalogue is de-clustered using stochasting approach to study behavior of background and triggered seismicity. The triggered seismicity is found to have shallower depths as compared to the background events.

20. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

SciTech Connect

Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

2003-04-01

In this report we will show results of seismic and well log derived attenuation attributes from a deep water Gulf of Mexico data set. This data was contributed by Burlington Resources and Seitel Inc. The data consists of ten square kilometers of 3D seismic data and three well penetrations. We have computed anomalous seismic absorption attributes on the seismic data and have computed Q from the well log curves. The results show a good correlation between the anomalous absorption (attenuation) attributes and the presence of gas as indicated by well logs.

1. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the historical peninsula of Istanbul

Ince, G. Ç.

2012-11-01

In order to design buildings that are resistant to earthquakes, first it is necessary to determine the parameters of ground motion. In this study, the earthquake seismic hazard analysis of the Old City Districts of Istanbul (Fatih and Eminonu) was probabilistically defined. For the analysis, the study zone was divided into 307 cells of 250 × 250 m using geographical information systems, and these cells were used in the mapping of all the data obtained. Then, for a building lifetime of 50 yr, the acceleration parameters of earthquake ground motions, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity, and spectral acceleration values of 0.2 s and 1 s were obtained at the bedrock level according to 10% and 40% exceedances. Additionally, in order to produce the artificial acceleration-time records of the ground movement in accordance with the NEHRP acceleration spectrum, the TARSCHTS computer simulation program was utilized. The results of the analysis showed that for the 10% probability of exceedance, the peak bedrock acceleration values ranged from 0.30 g to 0.40 g, and for the 40% exceedance probability the acceleration values ranged from 0.22 g to 0.17 g. The Ss 10% exceedance probability, calculated according to the spectral acceleration parameter, ranged from 0.67 g to 0.85 g and the spectral acceleration parameter S1 varied between 0.22 g-0.28 g. The Ss 40% exceedance probability, calculated according to the spectral acceleration parameter, ranged from 0.46 g to 0.38 g and the spectral acceleration parameter S1 varied from 0.12 g to 0.14 g.

2. Metropolitan Seismic Observation Network (MeSO-net) in Japan

Nakagawa, S.; Kasahara, K.; Sakai, S.; Tsuruoka, H.; Urabe, T.; Takano, K.; Sasaki, S.; Kato, A.; Sekine, S.; Obara, K.; Tanada, T.; Hirata, N.

2007-12-01

Beneath the metropolitan Tokyo area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes damaged mega- thrust earthquakes. The Dai-Dai-Toku Project revealed the geometry of the upper surface of PSP, and estimated a rupture process and a ground motion of the 1923 Kanto earthquake. However, these results are not sufficient for the assessment of the entire picture of the seismic hazards beneath the metropolitan Tokyo area including those due to an intra-slab M7+ earthquake. So, we have started a new project, the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Metropolitan Tokyo area. Proving the more detailed geometry and physical properties (e.g. velocities, densities, attenuation) of PSP is very important to attain this issue. The core item of this project is the dense seismic array observation in metropolitan area, which is called the MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network). The MeSO-net consists of 400 stations including those in Hakone, a Data Center at ERI (Earthquake Research Institute, the University of Tokyo), and a Sub-Center at NIED (National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention), at which the data are backuped and integrated with the Hi-net data. In order to obtain the high resolution images of a velocity and Q structure, it is requested to construct a seismic network with a spacing of 2-5 km. The total number of seismic stations of the MeSO-net will be about 400. The MeSO-net is to be deployed in 4 years and will provide useful datasets. Since the metropolitan area is surrounded with cultural noises, seismographs are installed at the bottom of the 20-m-deep borehole. Seismographs, data of which are digitized at the bottom of observation well, are three- component acceleration type with the maximum measurable acceleration of ±2G (dynamic range of 135 dB or more). The seismic data with a sampling rate of 200 Hz are telemetered to the Data Center using UDP/IP protocol. We adopt an autonomous cooperative seismic

3. Validating induced seismicity forecast models—Induced Seismicity Test Bench

Király-Proag, Eszter; Zechar, J. Douglas; Gischig, Valentin; Wiemer, Stefan; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Doetsch, Joseph

2016-08-01

Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. In this study, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models; this test bench can be used for model development, model selection, and ensemble model building. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models: Shapiro and Smoothed Seismicity (SaSS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). These models incorporate a different mix of physics-based elements and stochastic representation of the induced sequences. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. Generally, HySei forecasts the seismicity rate better after shut-in but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distribution. On the other hand, SaSS forecasts the spatial distribution better and gives better seismicity rate estimates before shut-in. The shut-in phase is a difficult moment for both models in both reservoirs: the models tend to underpredict the seismicity rate around, and shortly after, shut-in.

4. Dependence of seismic coupling on normal fault style along the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Olive, Jean-Arthur; Escartín, Javier

2016-10-01

While normal faults are essential in shaping the seafloor formed at slow spreading mid-ocean ridges, information on their behavior on short (seismic cycle) time scales is limited. Here we combine catalogs of hydro-acoustically and teleseismically recorded earthquakes to characterize the state of seismic coupling along the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) between 12°N and 35°N. Along this portion of the MAR axis, tectonic extension is either taken up by steep conjugate faults that outline well-defined ridge-parallel abyssal hills, or dominantly by a large-offset detachment fault on one side of the axis. We investigate variations in seismicity and seismic moment release rates across 30 ridge sections that can be clearly characterized either as abyssal hill or detachment bearing. We find that detachment-bearing sections are associated with significantly greater seismicity and moment release rates than abyssal hill-bearing sections but show variability that may reflect the along-axis extent of individual detachment faults. Overall, the measured seismic moment release rates fail to account for the long-term fault slip rates. This apparent seismic deficit could indicate a mixed-mode of fault slip where earthquakes only account for ˜10-30% of offset buildup at abyssal hill faults, while the rest is accommodated by some form of transient aseismic creep. We find this seismic coupling fraction to be significantly greater (˜40-60%) at individual detachment systems, which is somewhat at odds with the common inference that detachment faults can sustain long-lived localized strain because they are weak. We therefore propose alternative interpretations for seismic coupling based on dynamic friction theory.

5. Seismic monitoring of Poland - temporary seismic project - first results

Trojanowski, J.; Plesiewicz, B.; Wiszniowski, J.; Suchcicki, J.; Tokarz, A.

2012-04-01

The aim of the project is to develop national database of seismic activity for seismic hazard assessment. Poland is known as a region of very low seismicity, however some earthquakes occur from time to time. The historical catalogue consists of less than one hundred earthquakes in the time span of almost one thousand years. Due to such a low occurrence rate, the study has been focussing on events at magnitudes lower than 2 which are more likely to occur during a few-year-long project. There are 24 mobile seismic stations involved in the project which are deployed in temporary locations close to humans neighbourhood. It causes a high level of noise and disturbances in recorded seismic signal. Moreover, the majority of Polish territory is covered by a thick sediments. It causes the problem of a reliable detection method for small seismic events in noisy data. The majority of algorithms is based on the concept of STA/LTA ratio and is designed for strong teleseismic events registered on many stations. Unfortunately they fail on the problem of weak events in the signal with noise and disturbances. It has been decided to apply Real Time Recurrent Neural Network (RTRN) to detect small natural seismic events from Poland. This method is able to assess relations of seismic signal in frequency domains as well as in time of seismic phases. The RTRN was taught by wide range of seismic signals - regional, teleseismic as well as blasts. The method is routinely used to analyse data from the project. In the firs two years of the project the seismic network was set in southern Poland, where relatively large seismicity in known. Since the mid-2010 the stations have been working in several regions of central and northern Poland where some minor historical earthquakes occurred. Over one hundred seismic events in magnitude range from 0.5 to 2.3 confirms the activity of Podhale region (Tatra Mountains, Carpathians), where an earthquake of magnitude 4.3 occurred in 2004. Initially three

6. Accessing seismic data through geological interpretation: Challenges and solutions

Butler, R. W.; Clayton, S.; McCaffrey, B.

2008-12-01

Between them, the world's research programs, national institutions and corporations, especially oil and gas companies, have acquired substantial volumes of seismic reflection data. Although the vast majority are proprietary and confidential, significant data are released and available for research, including those in public data libraries. The challenge now is to maximise use of these data, by providing routes to seismic not simply on the basis of acquisition or processing attributes but via the geology they image. The Virtual Seismic Atlas (VSA: www.seismicatlas.org) meets this challenge by providing an independent, free-to-use community based internet resource that captures and shares the geological interpretation of seismic data globally. Images and associated documents are explicitly indexed by extensive metadata trees, using not only existing survey and geographical data but also the geology they portray. The solution uses a Documentum database interrogated through Endeca Guided Navigation, to search, discover and retrieve images. The VSA allows users to compare contrasting interpretations of clean data thereby exploring the ranges of uncertainty in the geometric interpretation of subsurface structure. The metadata structures can be used to link reports and published research together with other data types such as wells. And the VSA can link to existing data libraries. Searches can take different paths, revealing arrays of geological analogues, new datasets while providing entirely novel insights and genuine surprises. This can then drive new creative opportunities for research and training, and expose the contents of seismic data libraries to the world.

7. Calving seismicity from iceberg-sea surface interactions

USGS Publications Warehouse

Bartholomaus, T.C.; Larsen, C.F.; O'Neel, S.; West, M.E.

2012-01-01

Iceberg calving is known to release substantial seismic energy, but little is known about the specific mechanisms that produce calving icequakes. At Yahtse Glacier, a tidewater glacier on the Gulf of Alaska, we draw upon a local network of seismometers and focus on 80 hours of concurrent, direct observation of the terminus to show that calving is the dominant source of seismicity. To elucidate seismogenic mechanisms, we synchronized video and seismograms to reveal that the majority of seismic energy is produced during iceberg interactions with the sea surface. Icequake peak amplitudes coincide with the emergence of high velocity jets of water and ice from the fjord after the complete submergence of falling icebergs below sea level. These icequakes have dominant frequencies between 1 and 3 Hz. Detachment of an iceberg from the terminus produces comparatively weak seismic waves at frequencies between 5 and 20 Hz. Our observations allow us to suggest that the most powerful sources of calving icequakes at Yahtse Glacier include iceberg-sea surface impact, deceleration under the influence of drag and buoyancy, and cavitation. Numerical simulations of seismogenesis during iceberg-sea surface interactions support our observational evidence. Our new understanding of iceberg-sea surface interactions allows us to reattribute the sources of calving seismicity identified in earlier studies and offer guidance for the future use of seismology in monitoring iceberg calving.

8. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

SciTech Connect

Steeples, Don W.

2004-12-09

This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could

9. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2010

SciTech Connect

Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

2010-03-29

The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. The Hanford Seismic Network recorded 81 local earthquakes during the first quarter of FY 2010. Sixty-five of these earthquakes were detected in the vicinity of Wooded Island, located about eight miles north of Richland just west of the Columbia River. The Wooded Island events recorded this quarter is a continuation of the swarm events observed during fiscal year 2009 and reported in previous quarterly and annual reports (Rohay et al; 2009a, 2009b, 2009c, and 2009d). Most of the events were considered minor (coda-length magnitude [Mc] less than 1.0) with only 1 event in the 2.0-3.0 range; the maximum magnitude event (2.5 Mc) occurred on December 22 at depth 2.1 km. The average depth of the Wooded Island events during the quarter was 1.4 km with a maximum depth estimated at 3.1 km. This placed the Wooded Island events within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG). The low magnitude of the Wooded Island events has made them undetectable to all but local area residents. The Hanford SMA network was triggered several times by these events and the SMA recordings are discussed in section 6.0. During the last year some Hanford employees working within a few miles of the swarm area and individuals living directly across the Columbia River from the swarm center have reported feeling many of the larger magnitude events. Strong motion accelerometer (SMA) units installed directly above the swarm area at ground surface measured peak ground accelerations approaching 15% g, the largest values recorded at Hanford. This corresponds to strong shaking of the ground, consistent with what people in the local area have reported. However, the duration and magnitude of these swarm events should not result in any structural damage to facilities. The USGS performed a geophysical survey using satellite

10. Elastic-Wavefield Seismic Stratigraphy: A New Seismic Imaging Technology

SciTech Connect

Bob A. Hardage; Milo M. Backus; Michael V. DeAngelo; Sergey Fomel; Khaled Fouad; Robert J. Graebner; Paul E. Murray; Randy Remington; Diana Sava

2006-07-31

The purpose of our research has been to develop and demonstrate a seismic technology that will provide the oil and gas industry a better methodology for understanding reservoir and seal architectures and for improving interpretations of hydrocarbon systems. Our research goal was to expand the valuable science of seismic stratigraphy beyond the constraints of compressional (P-P) seismic data by using all modes (P-P, P-SV, SH-SH, SV-SV, SV-P) of a seismic elastic wavefield to define depositional sequences and facies. Our objective was to demonstrate that one or more modes of an elastic wavefield may image stratal surfaces across some stratigraphic intervals that are not seen by companion wave modes and thus provide different, but equally valid, information regarding depositional sequences and sedimentary facies within that interval. We use the term elastic wavefield stratigraphy to describe the methodology we use to integrate seismic sequences and seismic facies from all modes of an elastic wavefield into a seismic interpretation. We interpreted both onshore and marine multicomponent seismic surveys to select the data examples that we use to document the principles of elastic wavefield stratigraphy. We have also used examples from published papers that illustrate some concepts better than did the multicomponent seismic data that were available for our analysis. In each interpretation study, we used rock physics modeling to explain how and why certain geological conditions caused differences in P and S reflectivities that resulted in P-wave seismic sequences and facies being different from depth-equivalent S-wave sequences and facies across the targets we studied.

11. Seismic risk perception test

Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

2013-04-01

The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

12. COAST: Cascadia Open-Access Seismic Transects

Holbrook, W.; Johnson, H. P.; Kent, G.; Keranen, K. M.; Tobin, H. J.; Trehu, A. M.

2012-12-01

The Cascadia margin is the site of active subduction, where the Juan de Fuca plate subducts under the North American plate at a rate of ~35 mm/yr. This system is of great scientific and societal interest, as it is capable of very large (Mw~9) earthquakes, creates volcanic hazards in the Cascades, and hosts periodic episodic tremor and slip (ETS) episodes. Despite evidence that the system has generated large megathrust earthquakes, limited seismicity creates large uncertainties in the position, structure, and physical state of the plate boundary. The COAST (Cascadia Open-Access Seismic Transects) project conducted an open-access, open-participation 2D seismic survey of the Cascadia subduction margin off Grays Harbor, WA, that will provide benchmark seismic images to address key scientific issues regarding the location, physical state, fluid budget, and associated methane systems of the subducting plate boundary and overlying crust. We collected seismic reflection, multibeam bathymetric, sidescan sonar, gravity, and magnetic data on the Cascadia subduction margin from the R/V Langseth in July 2012 in a high-priority GeoPRISMS corridor off Grays Harbor, Washington. The cruise was open-participation, with an organized shipboard education and training program, and the data are open-access, with immediate, full release to the community of all geophysical data. Project goals include (1) determining the location of the offshore plate boundary, (2) constraining sediment subduction and plate boundary roughness, (3) estimating pore fluid pathways, (4) determining controls on methane distribution, and (5) imaging compressional and extensional structures that may pose geohazards on the Cascadia margin. Initial observations include the following: (1) The Pleistocene accretionary wedge is well imaged and shows landward-vergent thrust faulting throughout our survey area. An outboard series of ramp-and-thrust structures gives way to a region characterized by folds that separate

13. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (Phase I). Project IV. Structural building response; Structural Building Response Review

SciTech Connect

Healey, J.J.; Wu, S.T.; Murga, M.

1980-02-01

As part of the Phase I effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) being performed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the basic objective of Subtask IV.1 (Structural Building Response Review) is to review and summarize current methods and data pertaining to seismic response calculations particularly as they relate to the objectives of the SSMRP. This material forms one component in the development of the overall computational methodology involving state of the art computations including explicit consideration of uncertainty and aimed at ultimately deriving estimates of the probability of radioactive releases due to seismic effects on nuclear power plant facilities.

14. Weak localization of seismic waves.

PubMed

Larose, E; Margerin, L; Van Tiggelen, B A; Campillo, M

2004-07-23

We report the observation of weak localization of seismic waves in a natural environment. It emerges as a doubling of the seismic energy around the source within a spot of the width of a wavelength, which is several tens of meters in our case. The characteristic time for its onset is the scattering mean-free time that quantifies the internal heterogeneity.

15. Seismic signals from Dust Devils on Mars

Kenda, Balthasar; Lognonné, Philippe; Spiga, Aymeric; Kawamura, Taichi; Kedar, Sharon; Banerdt, Bruce; Lorenz, Ralph

2016-10-01

We modeled the long-period seismic signals generated by Dust Devils and convective vortices on Mars. To characterize the source term, we used Large-Eddy Simulations with a spatial resolution of 50 m that resolve large turbulent and convective structures of the Martian atmosphere. The corresponding surface pressure fluctuations induce a quasi-static ground displacement and thus a tilt of the surface, which over weak soils can be detected by sensitive seismometers, as shown in terrestrial field experiments. Typical convective vortices on Mars have core-pressure drops of 2-5 Pa and generate tilt accelerations of 10-20 nm/s2 over a regolith halfspace, and of a few nm/s2 in the presence of a layer of harder rock at shallow depth. This signals are strong enough to be detected by the Very-Broad Band seismometer of the InSight/SEIS experiment up to a distance of several tens of meters from the vortex. The results of numerical simulations are compared to meteorological data from previous mission to Mars, and they give estimates of the encounter frequencies, showing how convective vortices will be routinely detected during the central hours of the day. A joint analysis of meteorological and seismic data will permit to distinguish atmospheric episodes from internal seimic sources and to investigate the structure and the elastic properties of the near surface at the InSight landing site.

16. Developments in seismic monitoring for risk reduction

USGS Publications Warehouse

Celebi, M.

2007-01-01

This paper presents recent state-of-the-art developments to obtain displacements and drift ratios for seismic monitoring and damage assessment of buildings. In most cases, decisions on safety of buildings following seismic events are based on visual inspections of the structures. Real-time instrumental measurements using GPS or double integration of accelerations, however, offer a viable alternative. Relevant parameters, such as the type of connections and structural characteristics (including storey geometry), can be estimated to compute drifts corresponding to several pre-selected threshold stages of damage. Drift ratios determined from real-time monitoring can then be compared to these thresholds in order to estimate damage conditions drift ratios. This approach is demonstrated in three steel frame buildings in San Francisco, California. Recently recorded data of strong shaking from these buildings indicate that the monitoring system can be a useful tool in rapid assessment of buildings and other structures following an earthquake. Such systems can also be used for risk monitoring, as a method to assess performance-based design and analysis procedures, for long-term assessment of structural characteristics of a building, and as a possible long-term damage detection tool.

17. Seismic hazard of American Samoa and neighboring South Pacific Islands--methods, data, parameters, and results

USGS Publications Warehouse

Petersen, Mark D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.; Mueller, Charles S.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Luco, Nicolas; Walling, Melanie

2012-01-01

American Samoa and the neighboring islands of the South Pacific lie near active tectonic-plate boundaries that host many large earthquakes which can result in strong earthquake shaking and tsunamis. To mitigate earthquake risks from future ground shaking, the Federal Emergency Management Agency requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare seismic hazard maps that can be applied in building-design criteria. This Open-File Report describes the data, methods, and parameters used to calculate the seismic shaking hazard as well as the output hazard maps, curves, and deaggregation (disaggregation) information needed for building design. Spectral acceleration hazard for 1 Hertz having a 2-percent probability of exceedance on a firm rock site condition (Vs30=760 meters per second) is 0.12 acceleration of gravity (1 second, 1 Hertz) and 0.32 acceleration of gravity (0.2 seconds, 5 Hertz) on American Samoa, 0.72 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.54 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Tonga, 0.15 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 0.55 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on Fiji, and 0.89 acceleration of gravity (1 Hertz) and 2.77 acceleration of gravity (5 Hertz) on the Vanuatu Islands.

18. Active seismic sources as a proxy for seismic surface processes: An example from the 2012 Tongariro volcanic eruptions, New Zealand

Jolly, A. D.; Lokmer, I.; Kennedy, B.; Keys, H. J. R.; Proctor, J.; Lyons, J. J.; Jolly, G. E.

2014-10-01

The 6 August 2012 eruption from Tongariro volcano's Te Maari vent comprised a complex sequence of events including at least 4 eruption pulses, a large chasm collapse, and a debris avalanche (volume of ~ 7 × 105 m3) that propagated ~ 2 km beyond the eruptive vent. The eruption was poorly observed, being obscured by night time darkness, and the eruption timing must be unravelled instead from a complex seismic record that includes discrete volcanic earthquakes, a sequence of low to moderate level spasmodic tremor and an intense burst of seismic and infrasound activity that marked the eruption onset. We have discriminated the evolution of the complex surface activity by comparing active seismic source data to the seismic sequence in a new cross correlation source location approach. We dropped 11 high impact masses from helicopter to generate a range of active seismic sources in the vicinity of the eruption vent, chasm, and debris avalanche areas. We obtained 8 successful drops having an impact energy ranging from 3 to 9 × 106 Nm producing observable seismic signals to a distance of 5 to 10 km and having good signal to noise characteristics in the 3-12 Hz range. For the 8 drops, we picked first-P arrival times and calculated amplitude spectra for a uniform set of four stations. We then compared these proxy source excitations to the natural eruption and pre-eruption data using a moving window cross correlation approach. From the correlation processing, we obtain a best matched source position in the near vent region for the eruption period and significant down channel excitations during both the pre and post eruption periods. The total seismic energy release calculated from the new method is ~ 8 × 1011 Nm, similar to an independently estimated calculation based on the radiated seismic energy. The new energy estimate may be more robust than those calculated from standard seismic radiation equations, which may include uncertainties about the path and site effects. The

19. Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

SciTech Connect

Pierson, Robert; Laughlin, Darren; Brune, Robert

2016-10-19

Rotational motion is increasingly understood to be a significant part of seismic wave motion. Rotations can be important in earthquake strong motion and in Induced Seismicity Monitoring. Rotational seismic data can also enable shear selectivity and improve wavefield sampling for vertical geophones in 3D surveys, among other applications. However, sensor technology has been a limiting factor to date. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding a multi-year project that is now entering Phase 2 to develop and deploy a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. Initial focus is on induced seismicity monitoring, particularly for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with fracturing. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, improved noise floors, robustness, and repeatability. This paper presents a summary of Phase 1 results and Phase 2 status.

20. Accelerated nucleation of the 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.2 Earthquake

PubMed Central

Kato, Aitaro; Fukuda, Jun’ichi; Kumazawa, Takao; Nakagawa, Shigeki

2016-01-01

The earthquake nucleation process has been vigorously investigated based on geophysical observations, laboratory experiments, and theoretical studies; however, a general consensus has yet to be achieved. Here, we studied nucleation process for the 2014 Iquique, Chile Mw 8.2 megathrust earthquake located within the current North Chile seismic gap, by analyzing a long-term earthquake catalog constructed from a cross-correlation detector using continuous seismic data. Accelerations in seismicity, the amount of aseismic slip inferred from repeating earthquakes, and the background seismicity, accompanied by an increasing frequency of earthquake migrations, started around 270 days before the mainshock at locations up-dip of the largest coseismic slip patch. These signals indicate that repetitive sequences of fast and slow slip took place on the plate interface at a transition zone between fully locked and creeping portions. We interpret that these different sliding modes interacted with each other and promoted accelerated unlocking of the plate interface during the nucleation phase. PMID:27109362

1. Caffeine accelerates recovery from general anesthesia.

PubMed

Wang, Qiang; Fong, Robert; Mason, Peggy; Fox, Aaron P; Xie, Zheng

2014-03-01

General anesthetics inhibit neurotransmitter release from both neurons and secretory cells. If inhibition of neurotransmitter release is part of an anesthetic mechanism of action, then drugs that facilitate neurotransmitter release may aid in reversing general anesthesia. Drugs that elevate intracellular cAMP levels are known to facilitate neurotransmitter release. Three cAMP elevating drugs (forskolin, theophylline, and caffeine) were tested; all three drugs reversed the inhibition of neurotransmitter release produced by isoflurane in PC12 cells in vitro. The drugs were tested in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Animals were injected with either saline or saline containing drug. All three drugs dramatically accelerated recovery from isoflurane anesthesia, but caffeine was most effective. None of the drugs, at the concentrations tested, had significant effects on breathing rates, O2 saturation, heart rate, or blood pressure in anesthetized animals. Caffeine alone was tested on propofol-anesthetized rats where it dramatically accelerated recovery from anesthesia. The ability of caffeine to accelerate recovery from anesthesia for different chemical classes of anesthetics, isoflurane and propofol, opens the possibility that it will do so for all commonly used general anesthetics, although additional studies will be required to determine whether this is in fact the case. Because anesthesia in rodents is thought to be similar to that in humans, these results suggest that caffeine might allow for rapid and uniform emergence from general anesthesia in human patients.

2. Community Seismic Network (CSN)

Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.

2010-12-01

In collaboration with computer science and earthquake engineering, we are developing a dense network of low-cost accelerometers that send their data via the Internet to a cloud-based center. The goal is to make block-by-block measurements of ground shaking in urban areas, which will provide emergency response information in the case of large earthquakes, and an unprecedented high-frequency seismic array to study structure and the earthquake process with moderate shaking. When deployed in high-rise buildings they can be used to monitor the state of health of the structure. The sensors are capable of a resolution of approximately 80 micro-g, connect via USB ports to desktop computers, and cost about \$100 each. The network will adapt to its environment by using network-wide machine learning to adjust the picking sensitivity. We are also looking into using other motion sensing devices such as cell phones. For a pilot project, we plan to deploy more than 1000 sensors in the greater Pasadena area. The system is easily adaptable to other seismically vulnerable urban areas.

3. Seismic event classification system

DOEpatents

Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

1994-01-01

In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

4. Seismic moulin tremor

Roeoesli, Claudia; Walter, Fabian; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Kissling, Edi

2016-08-01

Through glacial moulins, meltwater is routed from the glacier surface to its base. Moulins are a main feature feeding subglacial drainage systems and thus influencing basal motion and ice dynamics, but their geometry remains poorly known. Here we show that analysis of the seismic wavefield generated by water falling into a moulin can help constrain its geometry. We present modeling results of hour-long seimic tremors emitted from a vertical moulin shaft, observed with a seismometer array installed at the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet. The tremor was triggered when the moulin water level exceeded a certain height, which we associate with the threshold for the waterfall to hit directly the surface of the moulin water column. The amplitude of the tremor signal changed over each tremor episode, in close relation to the amount of inflowing water. The tremor spectrum features multiple prominent peaks, whose characteristic frequencies are distributed like the resonant modes of a semiopen organ pipe and were found to depend on the moulin water level, consistent with a source composed of resonant tube waves (water pressure waves coupled to elastic deformation of the moulin walls) along the water-filled moulin pipe. Analysis of surface particle motions lends further support to this interpretation. The seismic wavefield was modeled as a superposition of sustained wave radiation by pressure sources on the side walls and at the bottom of the moulin. The former was found to dominate the wave field at close distance and the latter at large distance to the moulin.

5. Seismic event classification system

DOEpatents

Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

1994-12-13

In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

6. Evidence of post-seismic creep type deformations derived by tilt and acoustic emission monitoring of mining induced seismic events

Milev, Alexander; Share, Pieter-Ewald; Naoi, Makoto; Durrheim, Raymond; Yabe, Yasuo; Ogasawara, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Masao

2015-04-01

In this study we try to understand pre- and post-failure rock behavior associated with mining induced seismic events. This involves underground installation of various high precision instruments, including geophones, acoustic emission sensors, tilt- and strain-meters at a number of sites in deep level South African gold mines. The rate of tilt, strain and the seismic ground motion were analysed in order to understand the coseismic and aseismic deformation of the rocks. A good correspondence between the coseismic and the aseismic deformations was found. The rate of coseismic and aseismic tilt, as well as seismicity recorded by the mine seismic network, are approximately constant until the daily blasting time, which takes place from about 19:30 until shortly before 21:00. During the blasting time and the subsequent seismic events, the coseismic tilt and strain shows a rapid increase. Much of the aseismic deformation, however, occurs independently of the seismic events and blasting. In an attempt to distinguish between the different mechanisms of tilting two types of events were recognized. The "fast" seismic events characterized with sharp increase of the tilt during the seismic rupture and "slow" seismic events characterized by creep type post seismic deformations. Tilt behaviour before and after a seismic event was also analysed. The fact that no recognizable aftertilt was observed for more of the "fast" seismic events means that there is no gradual release of stress and an associated continuous strain rate change afterwards. It can therefore be concluded that a large seismic event causes a rapid change in the state of stress rather than a gradual change in the strain rate During the monitoring period a seismic event with MW 2.2 occurred in the vicinity of the instrumented site. This event was recorded by both the CSIR integrated monitoring system and JAGUARS acoustic emission network. More than 21,000 AE aftershocks were located in the first 150 hours after the

7. Deformation and seismicity of Taiwan.

PubMed

Vita-Finzi, C

2000-10-10

14C-dated Holocene coastal uplift, conventional and satellite geodetic measurements, and coseismic and aseismic fault slip reveal the pattern of distributed deformation at Taiwan resulting from convergence between the Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia; as in other subduction orogenic settings, the locus of strain release and accumulation is strongly influenced by changes in fault geometry across strike. Uplift evidence from the islands of Lutao and Lanhsu is consistent with progressive oblique collision between the Luzon arc and the Chinese continental margin. In the Coastal Range, geodetic and seismic records show that shortening is taken up serially by discontinuous slip on imbricate faults. The geodetic data point to net extension across the Central Range, but deformed Holocene shorelines in the Hengchun Peninsula at its southern extremity suggest that the extension is a superficial effect partly caused by blind reverse faulting. The fastest shortening rates indicated by geodesy are recorded on the Longitudinal Valley fault and across the Chukou fault within the fold-and-thrust belt. In the former, the strain is dissipated mainly as aseismic reverse and strike-slip displacement. In contrast, the fold-and-thrust belt has witnessed five earthquakes with magnitudes of 6.5 or above in the 20th century, including the 1999.9.21 Chi-Chi earthquake (magnitude approximately 7.6) on a branch of the Chukou fault. The neotectonic and geodetic data for Taiwan as a whole suggest that the fold-and-thrust belt will continue to host the majority of great earthquakes on the island.

8. Seismic Gradiometry using Ambient Seismic Noise in an Anisotropic Earth

de Ridder, S. A. L.; Curtis, A.

2017-02-01

We introduce a wavefield gradiometry technique to estimate both isotropic and anisotropic local medium characteristics from short recordings of seismic signals by inverting a wave equation. The method exploits the information in the spatial gradients of a seismic wavefield that are calculated using dense deployments of seismic arrays. The application of the method uses the surface wave energy in the ambient seismic field. To estimate isotropic and anisotropic medium properties we invert an elliptically anisotropic wave equation. The spatial derivatives of the recorded wavefield are evaluated by calculating finite differences over nearby recordings, which introduces a systematic anisotropic error. A two step approach corrects this error: finite difference stencils are first calibrated, then the output of the wave-equation inversion is corrected using the linearized impulse response to the inverted velocity anomaly. We test the procedure on ambient seismic noise recorded in a large and dense ocean bottom cable array installed over Ekofisk field. The estimated azimuthal anisotropy forms a circular geometry around the production-induced subsidence bowl. This conforms with results from studies employing controlled sources, and with interferometry correlating long records of seismic noise. Yet in this example, the results where obtained using only a few minutes of ambient seismic noise.

9. Development of Simplified Probabilistic Risk Assessment Model for Seismic Initiating Event

SciTech Connect

S. Khericha; R. Buell; S. Sancaktar; M. Gonzalez; F. Ferrante

2012-06-01

ABSTRACT This paper discusses a simplified method to evaluate seismic risk using a methodology built on dividing the seismic intensity spectrum into multiple discrete bins. The seismic probabilistic risk assessment model uses Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) full power Standardized Plant Analysis Risk (SPAR) model as the starting point for development. The seismic PRA models are integrated with their respective internal events at-power SPAR model. This is accomplished by combining the modified system fault trees from the full power SPAR model with seismic event tree logic. The peak ground acceleration is divided into five bins. The g-value for each bin is estimated using the geometric mean of lower and upper values of that particular bin and the associated frequency for each bin is estimated by taking the difference between upper and lower values of that bin. The component’s fragilities are calculated for each bin using the plant data, if available, or generic values of median peak ground acceleration and uncertainty values for the components. For human reliability analysis (HRA), the SPAR HRA (SPAR-H) method is used which requires the analysts to complete relatively straight forward worksheets that include the performance shaping factors (PSFs). The results are then used to estimate human error probabilities (HEPs) of interest. This work is expected to improve the NRC’s ability to include seismic hazards in risk assessments for operational events in support of the reactor oversight program (e.g., significance determination process).

10. Long-Term Seismicity Behavior of the Zagros Region in Iran

2016-08-01

To achieve a comprehensive attitude about seismicity, it is necessary to consider spatial and magnitude distributions of earthquakes. Earthquake distributions in space and magnitude can be quantified by means of spatial fractal dimension D( s) and Gutenberg-Richter b value. In this paper, b value and D( s) are used to evaluate seismicity of the Zagros zone (Iran) in time interval 1964 to 2012. Seismic catalog of the Zagros zone is extracted from unified seismic catalog of the Iranian Plateau. The b value and D( s) are estimated using frequency-magnitude distribution, Kijko-Sellevoll (Bull Seism Soc Am 79(3):645-654, 1989) and correlation integral methods. Correlations between spatial variations in b value and D( s) along individual profiles across the North Zagros and the Central Zagros indicate different stress release regimes for North and Central parts of the Zagros zone. Evaluation of b value with respect to depth along the profiles indicates larger b values at shallower depths. Temporal variations in b value and D( s) are also obtained from background seismicity to evaluate seismicity behavior of the Zagros zone. Our results indicate high b values and moderate D( s) for seismicity of the North Zagros, while seismicity of the Central Zagros has low b values and high D( s) during time interval 1964-2012. Asperities of the Main Zagros Thrust are also located by investigating ratio D( s)/ b along the Main Zagros Thrust.

11. Seismicity distribution and locking depth along the Main Marmara Fault, Turkey

Schmittbuhl, J.; Karabulut, H.; Lengliné, O.; Bouchon, M.

2016-03-01

The seismicity along the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) below the Marmara Sea is analyzed during the 2007-2012 period to provide insights on the recent evolution of this important regional seismic gap. High precision locations show that seismicity is strongly varying along strike and depth providing fine details of the fault behavior that are inaccessible from geodetic observations. The activity strongly clusters at the regions of transition between basins. The Central basin shows significant seismicity located below the shallow locking depth inferred from GPS measurements. Its b-value is low and the average seismic slip is high. All observations are consistent with a deep creep of this segment. On the contrary, the Kumburgaz basin at the center of the fault shows sparse seismicity with the hallmarks of a locked segment. In the eastern Marmara Sea, the seismicity distribution along the Princes Island segment in the Cinarcik basin, is consistent with the geodetic locking depth of 10 km and a low contribution to the regional seismic energy release. The assessment of the locked segment areas provide an estimate of the magnitude of the main forthcoming event to be about 7.3 assuming that the rupture will not enter significantly within creeping domains.

12. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

ScienceCinema

Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

2016-07-12

Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

13. Peak acceleration limiter

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chapman, C. P.

1972-01-01

Device is described that limits accelerations by shutting off shaker table power very rapidly in acceleration tests. Absolute value of accelerometer signal is used to trigger electronic switch which terminates test and sounds alarm.

14. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

MedlinePlus

... equipment? How is safety ensured? What is this equipment used for? A linear accelerator (LINAC) is the ... Therapy (SBRT) . top of page How does the equipment work? The linear accelerator uses microwave technology (similar ...

15. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

SciTech Connect

Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

2014-11-05

Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

16. Improved plasma accelerator

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cheng, D. Y.

1971-01-01

Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

17. Accelerator Technology Division

1992-04-01

In fiscal year (FY) 1991, the Accelerator Technology (AT) division continued fulfilling its mission to pursue accelerator science and technology and to develop new accelerator concepts for application to research, defense, energy, industry, and other areas of national interest. This report discusses the following programs: The Ground Test Accelerator Program; APLE Free-Electron Laser Program; Accelerator Transmutation of Waste; JAERI, OMEGA Project, and Intense Neutron Source for Materials Testing; Advanced Free-Electron Laser Initiative; Superconducting Super Collider; The High-Power Microwave Program; (Phi) Factory Collaboration; Neutral Particle Beam Power System Highlights; Accelerator Physics and Special Projects; Magnetic Optics and Beam Diagnostics; Accelerator Design and Engineering; Radio-Frequency Technology; Free-Electron Laser Technology; Accelerator Controls and Automation; Very High-Power Microwave Sources and Effects; and GTA Installation, Commissioning, and Operations.

18. Testing probabilistic seismic hazard estimations against observations, application to France

Tasan, H. O.; Beauval, C.; Helmstetter, A.; Gueguen, P.

2012-12-01

Probabilistic seismic hazard calculations rely on different models and assumptions (characterization of seismic sources, recurrence laws of magnitudes, ground-motion prediction equations, …). In many countries, studies performed by different teams often led to considerably different outputs. The aim of the present study is to understand if, by using observations, it is possible to discriminate between the different hazard estimates. The work focuses on estimates obtained for the French territory (SIGMA project, seismic hazard in France). Three past studies are considered: MEDD 2002, AFPS 2006 and SIGMA 2012. Two types of observations are taken into account: the French accelerometric database (RAP), and the French macroseismic database (SisFrance). The methods were initially applied in New Zealand, Italy, and the US (Albarello and D'Amico 2008; Stirling and Gerstenberger 2010). Testing of predictions against observations is led in an extensive way, looking at different acceleration threshold levels, different return periods and different spatial windows. The GMPEs best fitting the low-acceleration dataset are first identified. In the course of the testing, we check that the main assumptions underlying the tests are fulfilled (independence of sites, no impact of aftershocks, completeness of records). The results of the testing, relying on the short accelerometric record, show that the models are overestimating the observed hazard for small accelerations (<30 cm/s2) and short return periods (< 20 years). For higher accelerations and longer return periods, models are consistent with the observed hazard. Next, tests will be led using observations on much longer time windows by using the macroseismic database.

19. Reassessment of probabilistic seismic hazard in the Marmara region

USGS Publications Warehouse

Kalkan, E.; Gulkan, Polat; Yilmaz, N.; Celebi, M.

2009-01-01

In 1999, the eastern coastline of the Marmara region (Turkey) witnessed increased seismic activity on the North Anatolian fault (NAF) system with two damaging earthquakes (M 7.4 Kocaeli and M 7.2 D??zce) that occurred almost three months apart. These events have reduced stress on the western segment of the NAF where it continues under the Marmara Sea. The undersea fault segments have been recently explored using bathymetric and reflection surveys. These recent findings helped scientists to understand the seismotectonic environment of the Marmara basin, which has remained a perplexing tectonic domain. On the basis of collected new data, seismic hazard of the Marmara region is reassessed using a probabilistic approach. Two different earthquake source models: (1) the smoothed-gridded seismicity model and (2) fault model and alternate magnitude-frequency relations, Gutenberg-Richter and characteristic, were used with local and imported ground-motion-prediction equations. Regional exposure is computed and quantified on a set of hazard maps that provide peak horizontal ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration at 0.2 and 1.0 sec on uniform firm-rock site condition (760 m=sec average shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m). These acceleration levels were computed for ground motions having 2% and 10% probabilities of exceedance in 50 yr, corresponding to return periods of about 2475 and 475 yr, respectively. The maximum PGA computed (at rock site) is 1.5g along the fault segments of the NAF zone extending into the Marmara Sea. The new maps generally show 10% to 15% increase for PGA, 0.2 and 1.0 sec spectral acceleration values across much of Marmara compared to previous regional hazard maps. Hazard curves and smooth design spectra for three site conditions: rock, soil, and soft-soil are provided for the Istanbul metropolitan area as possible tools in future risk estimates.

20. Seismic Hazard Maps for the Maltese Archipelago: Preliminary Results

D'Amico, S.; Panzera, F.; Galea, P. M.

2013-12-01

The Maltese islands form an archipelago of three major islands lying in the Sicily channel at about 140 km south of Sicily and 300 km north of Libya. So far very few investigations have been carried out on seismicity around the Maltese islands and no maps of seismic hazard for the archipelago are available. Assessing the seismic hazard for the region is currently of prime interest for the near-future development of industrial and touristic facilities as well as for urban expansion. A culture of seismic risk awareness has never really been developed in the country, and the public perception is that the islands are relatively safe, and that any earthquake phenomena are mild and infrequent. However, the Archipelago has been struck by several moderate/large events. Although recent constructions of a certain structural and strategic importance have been built according to high engineering standards, the same probably cannot be said for all residential buildings, many higher than 3 storeys, which have mushroomed rapidly in recent years. Such buildings are mostly of unreinforced masonry, with heavy concrete floor slabs, which are known to be highly vulnerable to even moderate ground shaking. We can surely state that in this context planning and design should be based on available national hazard maps. Unfortunately, these kinds of maps are not available for the Maltese islands. In this paper we attempt to compute a first and preliminary probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of the Maltese islands in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and Spectral Acceleration (SA) at different periods. Seismic hazard has been computed using the Esteva-Cornell (1968) approach which is the most widely utilized probabilistic method. It is a zone-dependent approach: seismotectonic and geological data are used coupled with earthquake catalogues to identify seismogenic zones within which earthquakes occur at certain rates. Therefore the earthquake catalogues can be reduced to the

1. Long Term Seismic Observation in Mariana by OBSs : Double Seismic Zone and Upper Mantle Structure

Shiobara, H.; Sugioka, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Oki, S.; Kanazawa, T.; Fukao, Y.; Suyehiro, K.

2005-12-01

In order to obtain the deep arc structural image of Mariana, a large-scale seismic observation by using 58 long-term ocean bottom seismometers (LTOBS) had been performed from June 2003 until April 2004, which is a part of the MARGINS program funded by the NSF. Prior to this observation, a pilot long-term seismic array observation was conducted in the same area by using 10 LTOBSs from Oct. 2001 until Feb. 2003. At that time, 8 LTOBSs were recovered but one had no data. Recently, 2 LTOBSs, had troubles in the releasing, were recovered by the manned submersible (Shinkai 6500, Jamstec) for the research of the malfunction in July 2005. By using all 9 LTOBS's data, those are about 11 months long, hypocenter determination was performed and more than 3000 local events were found. Even with the 1D velocity structure based on the iasp91 model, double seismic zones and a systematic shift of epicenters between the PDE and this study were observed. To investigate the detail of hypocenter distribution and the 3D velocity structure, the DD inversion (tomoDD: Zhang and Thurber, 2003) was applied for this data set with the 1D structure initial model except for the crust, which has been surveyed by using a dense airgun-OBS system (Takahashi et al., 2003). The result of relocated hypocenters shows clear double seismic zones until about 200 km depth, a high activity area around the fore-arc serpentine sea-mount, the Big Blue, and a lined focuses along the current ridge axis in the back-arc basin, and the result of the tomography shows a image of subducting slab and a low-Vs region below the same sea-mount mentioned. The wedge mantle structure was not clearly resolved due to the inadequate source-receiver coverage, which will be done in the recent experiment.

2. Accelerators, Colliders, and Snakes

Courant, Ernest D.

2003-12-01

The author traces his involvement in the evolution of particle accelerators over the past 50 years. He participated in building the first billion-volt accelerator, the Brookhaven Cosmotron, which led to the introduction of the "strong-focusing" method that has in turn led to the very large accelerators and colliders of the present day. The problems of acceleration of spin-polarized protons are also addressed, with discussions of depolarizing resonances and "Siberian snakes" as a technique for mitigating these resonances.

3. Communication during an evolving seismic sequence

Mucciarelli, M.; Camassi, R.

2012-04-01

Since October 2011 a seismic swarm is affecting the Pollino mountain range, southern Italy. At the abstract submission date the sequence is still ongoing, with more than 500 events with M>1, at least 40 well perceived by the population and a maximum magnitude at 3.6. The area was hit by a magnitude 5.7 event in 1998 that caused one dead, some injured and widespread damage in at least six municipalities. The population main fear is that a large event could follow the seismic swarm as it occurred at L'Aquila in 2009. Among the initiatives taken by Civil Protection at national and regional level, it was decided to try to implement at local scale two communication projects that were thought for "peace time" and not for dissemination during a seismic crisis: the "Terremoto-Io non rischio" project for general public and the "EDURISK" project for school children. The main lesson learned during the first months of the activity are: 1) it is possible to take advantage of the increased awareness and risk perception from the population to attract more citizen toward topics that could go unnoticed otherwise; 2) the Civil Protection volunteers could be a very effective mean to reach a large amount of the population, provided they are carefully trained especially when children are involved; 3) the expectations about earthquake prediction raised from media without any scientific support proved to be the most difficult to be tackled: to overcome this bias risk education in "peace time" is absolutely essential; 4) door-to-door communication is perceived much better than official press release on newspapers; 5) training of volunteers must be limited to a few basic information, with special attention to the local context.

4. Acceleration: It's Elementary

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Willis, Mariam

2012-01-01

Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

5. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kaufman, Richard D.

2012-01-01

Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

6. Accelerated test design

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mcdermott, P. P.

1980-01-01

The design of an accelerated life test program for electric batteries is discussed. A number of observations and suggestions on the procedures and objectives for conducting an accelerated life test program are presented. Equations based on nonlinear regression analysis for predicting the accelerated life test parameters are discussed.

7. Dynamics of the Bingham Canyon Mine landslides from seismic signal analysis

Hibert, Clément; Ekström, Göran; Stark, Colin P.

2014-07-01

Joint interpretation of long- and short-period seismic signals generated by landslides sheds light on the dynamics of slope failure, providing constraints on landslide initiation and termination and on the main phases of acceleration and deceleration. We carry out a combined analysis of the seismic signals generated by two massive landslides that struck the Bingham Canyon Mine pit on 10 April 2013. Inversion of the long-period waveforms yields time series for the bulk landslide forces and momenta, from which we deduce runout trajectories consistent with the deposit morphology. Comparing these time series with the short-period seismic data, we are able to infer when and where major changes take place in landslide momentum along the runout path. This combined analysis points to a progressive fracturing of the masses during acceleration indicates that deceleration starts the moment they reach the pit floor and suggests that the bulk movement is stopped by a topographic barrier.

8. Seismic signature of crustal magma and fluid from deep seismic sounding data across Tengchong volcanic area

Bai, Z. M.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Wang, C. Y.; Klemperer, S. L.

2012-04-01

The weakened lithosphere around eastern syntax of Tibet plateau has been revealed by the Average Pn and Sn velocities, the 3D upper mantle velocity variations of P wave and S wave, and the iimaging results of magnetotelluric data. Tengchong volcanic area is neighboring to core of eastern syntax and famous for its springs, volcanic-geothermal activities and remarkable seismicity in mainland China. To probe the deep environment for the Tengchong volcanic-geothermal activity a deep seismic sounding (DSS) project was carried out across the this area in 1999. In this paper the seismic signature of crustal magma and fluid is explored from the DSS data with the seismic attribute fusion (SAF) technique, hence four possible positions for magma generation together with some locations for porous and fractured fluid beneath the Tengchong volcanic area were disclosed from the final fusion image of multi seismic attributes. The adopted attributes include the Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs results derived from a new inversion method based on the No-Ray-Tomography technique, and the migrated instantaneous attributes of central frequency, bandwidth and high frequency energy of pressure wave. Moreover, the back-projected ones which are mainly consisted by the attenuation factor Qp , the delay-time of shear wave splitting, and the amplitude ratio between S wave and P wave + S wave were also considered in this fusion process. Our fusion image indicates such a mechanism for the surface springs: a large amount of heat and the fluid released by the crystallization of magma were transmitted upward into the fluid-filled rock, and the fluid upwells along some pipeline since the high pressure in deep, thus the widespread springs of Tengchong volcanic area were developed. Moreover, the fusion image, regional volcanic and geothermal activities, and the seismicity suggest that the main risk of volcanic eruption was concentrated to the south of Tengchong city, especially around the shot point (SP) Tuantian

9. Seismic hazard assessment: Issues and alternatives

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wang, Z.

2011-01-01

Seismic hazard and risk are two very important concepts in engineering design and other policy considerations. Although seismic hazard and risk have often been used inter-changeably, they are fundamentally different. Furthermore, seismic risk is more important in engineering design and other policy considerations. Seismic hazard assessment is an effort by earth scientists to quantify seismic hazard and its associated uncertainty in time and space and to provide seismic hazard estimates for seismic risk assessment and other applications. Although seismic hazard assessment is more a scientific issue, it deserves special attention because of its significant implication to society. Two approaches, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) and deterministic seismic hazard analysis (DSHA), are commonly used for seismic hazard assessment. Although PSHA has been pro-claimed as the best approach for seismic hazard assessment, it is scientifically flawed (i.e., the physics and mathematics that PSHA is based on are not valid). Use of PSHA could lead to either unsafe or overly conservative engineering design or public policy, each of which has dire consequences to society. On the other hand, DSHA is a viable approach for seismic hazard assessment even though it has been labeled as unreliable. The biggest drawback of DSHA is that the temporal characteristics (i.e., earthquake frequency of occurrence and the associated uncertainty) are often neglected. An alternative, seismic hazard analysis (SHA), utilizes earthquake science and statistics directly and provides a seismic hazard estimate that can be readily used for seismic risk assessment and other applications. ?? 2010 Springer Basel AG.

10. Local seismic site amplification: effects of obliquely incident antiplane motions

Cherid, D.; Hammoutene, M.; Tiliouine, B.; Berrah, M. K.

2016-11-01

Seismic site amplification studies are generally used to assess the effects of local geology and soil conditions on ground motion characteristics. Although extensive reviews on site amplification phenomena associated with stratigraphic effects can be found in the specialized literature, it should be pointed out that most of the practical applications have been limited to the study of vertically propagating shear horizontal (SH) waves, i.e., to the 1-D soil amplification problem. Furthermore, little attention, if any, has been devoted to the study of the effects of non-vertically incident SH waves on surface accelerograms and on the earthquake response of structures. In the present work, the study is extended to an investigation of 2-D site amplification of non-vertically propagating seismic shear waves in multilayered viscoelastic soil deposits. Sensitivity analyses of the effects of non-vertical incidence on site amplification functions are performed based on site geotechnical data collected from post-seismic investigations of the 1980 El-Asnam earthquake. Analytical results are discussed in terms of seismic site transfer functions, spectral ratios, surface acceleration time histories, and structural response spectra for different values of wave incidence angle. Both bedrock and rock outcropping cases are examined.

11. Probabilistic seismic demand analysis using advanced ground motion intensity measures

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tothong, P.; Luco, N.

2007-01-01

One of the objectives in performance-based earthquake engineering is to quantify the seismic reliability of a structure at a site. For that purpose, probabilistic seismic demand analysis (PSDA) is used as a tool to estimate the mean annual frequency of exceeding a specified value of a structural demand parameter (e.g. interstorey drift). This paper compares and contrasts the use, in PSDA, of certain advanced scalar versus vector and conventional scalar ground motion intensity measures (IMs). One of the benefits of using a well-chosen IM is that more accurate evaluations of seismic performance are achieved without the need to perform detailed ground motion record selection for the nonlinear dynamic structural analyses involved in PSDA (e.g. record selection with respect to seismic parameters such as earthquake magnitude, source-to-site distance, and ground motion epsilon). For structural demands that are dominated by a first mode of vibration, using inelastic spectral displacement (Sdi) can be advantageous relative to the conventionally used elastic spectral acceleration (Sa) and the vector IM consisting of Sa and epsilon (??). This paper demonstrates that this is true for ordinary and for near-source pulse-like earthquake records. The latter ground motions cannot be adequately characterized by either Sa alone or the vector of Sa and ??. For structural demands with significant higher-mode contributions (under either of the two types of ground motions), even Sdi (alone) is not sufficient, so an advanced scalar IM that additionally incorporates higher modes is used.

12. Optimization of seismic isolation systems via harmony search

Melih Nigdeli, Sinan; Bekdaş, Gebrail; Alhan, Cenk

2014-11-01

In this article, the optimization of isolation system parameters via the harmony search (HS) optimization method is proposed for seismically isolated buildings subjected to both near-fault and far-fault earthquakes. To obtain optimum values of isolation system parameters, an optimization program was developed in Matlab/Simulink employing the HS algorithm. The objective was to obtain a set of isolation system parameters within a defined range that minimizes the acceleration response of a seismically isolated structure subjected to various earthquakes without exceeding a peak isolation system displacement limit. Several cases were investigated for different isolation system damping ratios and peak displacement limitations of seismic isolation devices. Time history analyses were repeated for the neighbouring parameters of optimum values and the results proved that the parameters determined via HS were true optima. The performance of the optimum isolation system was tested under a second set of earthquakes that was different from the first set used in the optimization process. The proposed optimization approach is applicable to linear isolation systems. Isolation systems composed of isolation elements that are inherently nonlinear are the subject of a future study. Investigation of the optimum isolation system parameters has been considered in parametric studies. However, obtaining the best performance of a seismic isolation system requires a true optimization by taking the possibility of both near-fault and far-fault earthquakes into account. HS optimization is proposed here as a viable solution to this problem.

13. Detection of weak seismic waves in sea-ground interface by fiber-optic interferometric seismometer

Kamenev, O. T.; Petrov, Yu S.; Khiznyak, R. V.; Romashko, R. V.

2016-08-01

The possibility of detection of weak seismic waves in sea-ground interface by fiberoptic interferometric seismometer is experimentally demonstrated. High sensitivity of the seismometer to acceleration 10-7 m/s2 is provided by application of original multiturn fiber- optical sensing element. Long term stability of the seismometer operation is provided by feedback control of the interferometer working point.

14. Are seismic hazard assessment errors and earthquake surprises unavoidable?

2013-04-01

Why earthquake occurrences bring us so many surprises? The answer seems evident if we review the relationships that are commonly used to assess seismic hazard. The time-span of physically reliable Seismic History is yet a small portion of a rupture recurrence cycle at an earthquake-prone site, which makes premature any kind of reliable probabilistic statements about narrowly localized seismic hazard. Moreover, seismic evidences accumulated to-date demonstrate clearly that most of the empirical relations commonly accepted in the early history of instrumental seismology can be proved erroneous when testing statistical significance is applied. Seismic events, including mega-earthquakes, cluster displaying behaviors that are far from independent or periodic. Their distribution in space is possibly fractal, definitely, far from uniform even in a single segment of a fault zone. Such a situation contradicts generally accepted assumptions used for analytically tractable or computer simulations and complicates design of reliable methodologies for realistic earthquake hazard assessment, as well as search and definition of precursory behaviors to be used for forecast/prediction purposes. As a result, the conclusions drawn from such simulations and analyses can MISLEAD TO SCIENTIFICALLY GROUNDLESS APPLICATION, which is unwise and extremely dangerous in assessing expected societal risks and losses. For example, a systematic comparison of the GSHAP peak ground acceleration estimates with those related to actual strong earthquakes, unfortunately, discloses gross inadequacy of this "probabilistic" product, which appears UNACCEPTABLE FOR ANY KIND OF RESPONSIBLE SEISMIC RISK EVALUATION AND KNOWLEDGEABLE DISASTER PREVENTION. The self-evident shortcomings and failures of GSHAP appeals to all earthquake scientists and engineers for an urgent revision of the global seismic hazard maps from the first principles including background methodologies involved, such that there becomes: (a) a

15. Seismic precursory patterns before a cliff collapse and critical point phenomena

Amitrano, D.; Grasso, J. R.; Senfaute, G.

2005-04-01

We analyse the statistical pattern of seismicity before a 1-2 103 m3 chalk cliff collapse on the Normandie ocean shore, Western France. We show that a power law acceleration of seismicity rate and energy in both 40 Hz-1.5 kHz and 2 Hz-10kHz frequency range, is defined on 3 orders of magnitude, within 2 hours from the collapse time. Simultaneously, the average size of the seismic events increases toward the time to failure. These in situ results are derived from the only station located within one rupture length distance from the rock fall rupture plane. They mimic the ``critical point'' like behavior recovered from physical and numerical experiments before brittle failures and tertiary creep failures. Our analysis of this first seismic monitoring data of a cliff collapse suggests that the thermodynamic phase transition models for failure may apply for cliff collapse.

16. Probabilistic estimates of the seismic ground-motion hazard in western Saudi Arabia

SciTech Connect

Thenhaus, P.C.; Algermissen, S.T.; Perkins, D.M.; Hanson, S.L.; Diment, W.H.

1989-01-01

Estimates of seismic horizontal ground acceleration and velocity having a 90 percent probability of nonexceedance in 100 yr in western Saudi Arabia indicate the highest relative levels of ground motion are expected in regions neighboring the Gulf of Aqaba and North Yemen. Estimated ground motions within the Arabia Shield are relatively low; whereas the central and northern coastal plan regions are characterized by intermediate-level ground-motion values that are governed by far-field effects of earthquakes in the central Red Sea Rift. The seismic hazard estimates were derived from regional seismic source zones that are based on interpretation relating potential seismic activity to the Precambrian through Tertiary structural framework of the region.

17. Seismic precursory patterns before a cliff collapse and critical point phenomena

USGS Publications Warehouse

Amitrano, D.; Grasso, J.-R.; Senfaute, G.

2005-01-01

We analyse the statistical pattern of seismicity before a 1-2 103 m3 chalk cliff collapse on the Normandie ocean shore, Western France. We show that a power law acceleration of seismicity rate and energy in both 40 Hz-1.5 kHz and 2 Hz-10kHz frequency range, is defined on 3 orders of magnitude, within 2 hours from the collapse time. Simultaneously, the average size of the seismic events increases toward the time to failure. These in situ results are derived from the only station located within one rupture length distance from the rock fall rupture plane. They mimic the "critical point" like behavior recovered from physical and numerical experiments before brittle failures and tertiary creep failures. Our analysis of this first seismic monitoring data of a cliff collapse suggests that the thermodynamic phase transition models for failure may apply for cliff collapse. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

18. Seismic instrumentation of buildings

USGS Publications Warehouse

Çelebi, Mehmet

2000-01-01

The purpose of this report is to provide information on how and why we deploy seismic instruments in and around building structures. The recorded response data from buildings and other instrumented structures can be and are being primarily used to facilitate necessary studies to improve building codes and therefore reduce losses of life and property during damaging earthquakes. Other uses of such data can be in emergency response situations in large urban environments. The report discusses typical instrumentation schemes, existing instrumentation programs, the steps generally followed in instrumenting a structure, selection and type of instruments, installation and maintenance requirements and data retrieval and processing issues. In addition, a summary section on how recorded response data have been utilized is included. The benefits from instrumentation of structural systems are discussed.

19. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

DOEpatents

Gregory, Danny L.; Hardee, Harry C.; Smallwood, David O.

1992-01-01

A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

20. Seismic signal processing on heterogeneous supercomputers

Gokhberg, Alexey; Ermert, Laura; Fichtner, Andreas

2015-04-01

The processing of seismic signals - including the correlation of massive ambient noise data sets - represents an important part of a wide range of seismological applications. It is characterized by large data volumes as well as high computational input/output intensity. Development of efficient approaches towards seismic signal processing on emerging high performance computing systems is therefore essential. Heterogeneous supercomputing systems introduced in the recent years provide numerous computing nodes interconnected via high throughput networks, every node containing a mix of processing elements of different architectures, like several sequential processor cores and one or a few graphical processing units (GPU) serving as accelerators. A typical representative of such computing systems is "Piz Daint", a supercomputer of the Cray XC 30 family operated by the Swiss National Supercomputing Center (CSCS), which we used in this research. Heterogeneous supercomputers provide an opportunity for manifold application performance increase and are more energy-efficient, however they have much higher hardware complexity and are therefore much more difficult to program. The programming effort may be substantially reduced by the introduction of modular libraries of software components that can be reused for a wide class of seismology applications. The ultimate goal of this research is design of a prototype for such library suitable for implementing various seismic signal processing applications on heterogeneous systems. As a representative use case we have chosen an ambient noise correlation application. Ambient noise interferometry has developed into one of the most powerful tools to image and monitor the Earth's interior. Future applications will require the extraction of increasingly small details from noise recordings. To meet this demand, more advanced correlation techniques combined with very large data volumes are needed. This poses new computational problems that

1. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment including site effects for Evansville, Indiana, and the surrounding region

USGS Publications Warehouse

Haase, Jennifer S.; Bowling, Tim; Nowack, Robert L.; Choi, Yoon S.; Cramer, Chris H.; Boyd, Oliver S.; Bauer, Robert A.

2011-01-01

We provide a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for the Evansville, Indiana region incorporating information from new surficial geologic mapping efforts on the part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Kentucky and Indiana State Geological Surveys, as well as information on the thickness and properties of near surface soils and their associated uncertainties. The subsurface information has been compiled to determine bedrock elevation and reference depth-dependent shear-wave velocity models for the different soil types. The probabilistic seismic hazard calculation applied here follows the method used for the 2008 U.S. Geological Survey National Seismic Hazard Maps, with modifications to incorporate estimates of local site conditions and their uncertainties, in a completely probabilistic manner. The resulting analysis shows strong local variations of acceleration with 2 percent probability of exceedance in 50 years, particularly for 0.2-second (s) period spectral acceleration (SA), that are clearly correlated with variations in the thickness of unconsolidated soils above bedrock. These values are much greater than the USGS national seismic hazard map values, which assume B/C site conditions. When compared to the national maps with an assumed uniform site D class amplification factor applied, the high-resolution seismic hazard maps have higher amplitudes for peak ground acceleration and 0.2-s SA for most of the map region. However, deamplification relative to the D class national seismic hazard maps appears to play an important role within the limits of the ancient bedrock valley underlying Evansville where soils are thickest. For 1.0-s SA, the new high-resolution seismic hazard maps show levels consistent with D class site response within the limits of this ancient bedrock valley, but levels consistent with B/C site conditions outside.

2. SEISMIC-REFLECTOR DATABASE SOFTWARE.

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wright, Evelyn L.; Hosom, John-Paul; ,

1986-01-01

The seismic data analysis (SDA) software system facilitates generation of marine seismic reflector databases composed of reflector depths, travel times, root-mean-square and interval velocities, geographic coordinates, and identifying information. System processes include digitizing of seismic profiles and velocity semblance curves, merging of velocity and navigation data with profile travel-time data, calculation of reflector depths in meters, profile and map graphic displays, data editing and smoothing, and entry of finalized data into a comprehensive database. An overview of concepts, file structures, and programs is presented.

3. Seismic Hazard and Public Safety

Marzocchi, Warner

2013-07-01

The recent destructive earthquakes in Wenchuan (China), L'Aquila (Italy), Port-au-Prince (Haiti), Christchurch (New Zealand), and Tohoku (Japan) have reignited the discussion over seismic safety. Several scientists [e.g., Stein et al., 2012; Wyss et al., 2012] have questioned the reliability of some seismic hazard maps based on the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA)—a widely used probabilistic approach that estimates the likelihood of various levels of ground shaking occurring at a given location in a given future time period—raising an intense discussion on this specific point [Hanks et al., 2012; Frankel, 2013; Stein et al., 2013].

4. Fractal features of seismic noise

Caserta, A.; Consolini, G.; Michelis, P. De

2003-04-01

We present experimental observations and data analysis concerning the fractal features of seismic noise in the frequency range from 1 Hz to 40 Hz. In detail, we investigate the 3D average squared soil displacement and the distribution function of its fluctuations for different near-surface geological structures. We found that the seismic noise is consistent with a persistent fractal brownian motion characterized by a Hurst exponent grather than 1/2. Moreover, a clear dependence of the fractal nature of the seismic noise on the near-surface local geology has been found.

5. Seismic hazard in the South Carolina coastal plain: 2002 update of the USGS national seismic hazard maps

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cramer, C.H.; Mays, T.W.; ,

2005-01-01

The damaging 1886 moment magnitude ???7 Charleston, South Carolina earthquake is indicative of the moderately likely earthquake activity along this portion of the Atlantic Coast. A recurrence of such an earthquake today would have serious consequences for the nation. The national seismic hazard maps produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provide a picture of the levels of seismic hazard across the nation based on the best and most current scientific information. The USGS national maps were updated in 2002 and will become part of the International Codes in 2006. In the past decade, improvements have occurred in the scientific understanding of the nature and character of earthquake activity and expected ground motions in the central and eastern U.S. The paper summarizes the new knowledge of expected earthquake locations, magnitudes, recurrence, and ground-motion decay with distance. New estimates of peak ground acceleration and 0.2 s and 1.0 s spectral acceleration are compared with those displayed in the 1996 national maps. The 2002 maps show increased seismic hazard in much of the coastal plain of South Carolina, but a decrease in long period (1 s and greater) hazard by up to 20% at distances of over 50 km from the Charleston earthquake zone. Although the national maps do not account for the effects of local or regional sediments, deep coastal-plain sediments can significally alter expected ground shaking, particularly at long period motions where it can be 100% higher than the national maps.

6. A Fracture-Mechanical Model of Crack Growth and Interaction: Application to Pre-eruptive Seismicity

Matthews, C.; Sammonds, P.; Kilburn, C.

2007-12-01

A greater understanding of the physical processes occurring within a volcano is a key aspect in the success of eruption forecasting. By considering the role of fracture growth, interaction and coalescence in the formation of dykes and conduits as well as the source mechanism for observed seismicity we can create a more general, more applicable model for precursory seismicity. The frequency of volcano-tectonic earthquakes, created by fracturing of volcanic rock, often shows a short-term increase prior to eruption. Using fracture mechanics, the model presented here aims to determine the conditions necessary for the acceleration in fracture events which produces the observed pre-eruptive seismicity. By focusing on the cause of seismic events rather than simply the acceleration patterns observed, the model also highlights the distinction between an accelerating seismic sequence ending with an eruption and a short-term increase which returns to background levels with no activity occurring, an event also observed in the field and an important capability if false alarms are to be avoided. This 1-D model explores the effects of a surrounding stress field and the distribution of multi-scale cracks on the interaction and coalescence of these cracks to form an open pathway for magma ascent. Similarly to seismic observations in the field, and acoustic emissions data from the laboratory, exponential and hyperbolic accelerations in fracturing events are recorded. Crack distribution and inter-crack distance appears to be a significant controlling factor on the evolution of the fracture network, dominating over the effects of a remote stress field. The generality of the model and its basis on fundamental fracture mechanics results makes it applicable to studies of fracture networks in numerous situations. For example looking at the differences between high temperature fracture processes and purely brittle failure the model can be similarly applied to fracture dynamics in the

7. Tritium glovebox stripper system seismic design evaluation

SciTech Connect

Grinnell, J. J.; Klein, J. E.

2015-09-01

The use of glovebox confinement at US Department of Energy (DOE) tritium facilities has been discussed in numerous publications. Glovebox confinement protects the workers from radioactive material (especially tritium oxide), provides an inert atmosphere for prevention of flammable gas mixtures and deflagrations, and allows recovery of tritium released from the process into the glovebox when a glovebox stripper system (GBSS) is part of the design. Tritium recovery from the glovebox atmosphere reduces emissions from the facility and the radiological dose to the public. Location of US DOE defense programs facilities away from public boundaries also aids in reducing radiological doses to the public. This is a study based upon design concepts to identify issues and considerations for design of a Seismic GBSS. Safety requirements and analysis should be considered preliminary. Safety requirements for design of GBSS should be developed and finalized as a part of the final design process.

8. Characterization and performance evaluation of a vertical seismic isolator using link and crank mechanism

Tsujiuchi, N.; Ito, A.; Sekiya, Y.; Nan, C.; Yasuda, M.

2016-09-01

In recent years, various seismic isolators have been developed to prevent earthquake damage to valuable art and other rare objects. Many seismic isolators only defend against horizontal motions, which are the usual cause of falling objects. However, the development of a seismic isolator designed for vertical vibration is necessary since such great vertical vibration earthquakes as the 2004 Niigata Prefecture Chuetsu Earthquake have occurred, and their increased height characteristics are undesirable. In this study, we developed a vertical seismic isolator that can be installed at a lower height and can support loads using a horizontal spring without requiring a vertical spring. It has a mechanism that combines links and cranks. The dynamic model was proposed and the frequency characteristics were simulated when the sine waves were the input. Shaking tests were also performed. The experimental value of the natural frequency was 0.57 Hz, and the theoretical values of the frequency characteristics were close to the experimental values. In addition, we verified this vertical seismic isolator's performance through shaking tests and simulation for typical seismic waves in Japan. We verified the seismic isolation's performance from the experimental result because the average reduction rate of the acceleration was 0.21.

9. Fabrication of a nickel seismic mass microaccelerometer

Chaowicharat, Ekalak; Kwok, Chee Yee

2005-02-01

In this paper, we present work on a surface micromachined opto-mechanical microaccelerometer employing Ni seimic mass. The device uses optical detection to sense motion. The microaccelerometer consists of a 500 um x 500 um electrodeposited nickel suspended by a folded beam spring on each corner over 10 pairs of 30 um x 400 um rectangular photodiodes. The seismic mass also has an array of rectangular holes parallel to the photodiodes. Each hole partially exposes a pair of adjacent photodiodes to to be illuminated by an LED. Once the mass experiences acceleration, it will act as a mechanical shutter and alters the amount of exposed area of photodiodes. For each pair of the photodiodes, as the shutter moves, it will increase the exposed area of one diode and at the same time will at the same time reduce the exposed area of the other diode by the same amount. Fully differential current signals can then be taken by appropriately biasing the photodiodes. By using differential sensing arrangement, the effects of noise and dark current can be reduced significantly. The microaccelerometer is tested on a rotating disc. The frequency response of the accelerometer is relatively flat up to 1500 Hz, then, it rise sharply at resonant frequency of approximately 1700 Hz. An open loop sensitivity of 9.2mV/g in the direction of acceleration is obtained. Cross axial sensitivity was below the noise level.

10. Fiber Accelerating Structures

SciTech Connect

Hammond, Andrew P.; /Reed Coll. /SLAC

2010-08-25

One of the options for future particle accelerators are photonic band gap (PBG) fiber accelerators. PBG fibers are specially designed optical fibers that use lasers to excite an electric field that is used to accelerate electrons. To improve PBG accelerators, the basic parameters of the fiber were tested to maximize defect size and acceleration. Using the program CUDOS, several accelerating modes were found that maximized these parameters for several wavelengths. The design of multiple defects, similar to having closely bound fibers, was studied to find possible coupling or the change of modes. The amount of coupling was found to be dependent on distance separated. For certain distances accelerating coupled modes were found and examined. In addition, several non-periodic fiber structures were examined using CUDOS. The non-periodic fibers produced several interesting results and promised more modes given time to study them in more detail.

11. High brightness electron accelerator

DOEpatents

Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

1994-01-01

A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

12. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

2014-12-01

Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

13. Impact of ground motion characterization on conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates

SciTech Connect

Sewell, R.T.; Toro, G.R.; McGuire, R.K.

1996-07-01

This study evaluates the impact, on estimates of seismic risk and its uncertainty, of alternative methods in treatment and characterization of earthquake ground motions. The objective of this study is to delineate specific procedures and characterizations that may lead to less biased and more precise seismic risk results. This report focuses on sources of conservatism and variability in risk that may be introduced through the analytical processes and ground-motion descriptions which are commonly implemented at the interface of seismic hazard and fragility assessments. In particular, implication of the common practice of using a single, composite spectral shape to characterize motions of different magnitudes is investigated. Also, the impact of parameterization of ground motion on fragility and hazard assessments is shown. Examination of these results demonstrates the following. (1) There exists significant conservatism in the review spectra (usually, spectra characteristic of western U.S. earthquakes) that have been used in conducting past seismic risk assessments and seismic margin assessments for eastern U.S. nuclear power plants. (2) There is a strong dependence of seismic fragility on earthquake magnitude when PGA is used as the ground-motion characterization. When, however, magnitude-dependent spectra are anchored to a common measure of elastic spectral acceleration averaged over the appropriate frequency range, seismic fragility shows no important nor consistent dependence on either magnitude or strong-motion duration. Use of inelastic spectral acceleration (at the proper frequency) as the ground spectrum anchor demonstrates a very similar result. This study concludes that a single, composite-magnitude spectrum can generally be used to characterize ground motion for fragility assessment without introducing significant bias or uncertainty in seismic risk estimates.

14. Seismic characteristics of outer-rise earthquakes in the different seismic coupling subduction zones

Lee, Hsin-Hua; Lin, Jing-Yi

2013-04-01

Characterizing the seismogenic zone of major subduction plate boundaries provides us a possible to reduce large earthquakes hazard. In the past several decades, many scientists have analyzed various geophysical methods and datasets, such as seismic and geodetic ground motion data, historical tsunami deposits, aftershock distributions, and seafloor bathymetry, trying to understand the mechanisms behind great devastating earthquakes, and to estimate the probability of a major earthquake occurrence in the future. In this study, by using the global earthquake catalog (GCMT) from January 1, 1976 to December 31, 2011. We firstly re-examines the outer-rise earthquake model proposed by the Christensen (1988) at the subduction zones suggested to have different coupling levels. The compressive stress cumulated during the subducting processes are often reflected by the occurrence of compressional outer-rise earthquakes. Thus, in the region where the compressional outer-rise earthquakes take place without any corresponding large underthrusting earthquakes, the seismic potential is usually considered to be high. We re-examined the high seismic potential areas determined by this criteria in Christensen (1988) and confirm that the large underthrusting earthquakes did really occur in the 30 years following the appearance of compressional outer-rise events, such as in Tonga region in the vicinity of 20S, a Mw 8.3 large earthquake occurred in 2006. This result represents that the outer-rise earthquake model could be an indicator for the generation of large earthquakes along subduction zones. In addition, to have a more accurate estimation for the seismic potential, we discuss the relationship between the generation of earthquakes and the change of cumulative gravitational potential energy caused by earthquakes (ΔGPE) over time. Our result shows an acceleration of ΔGPE before large earthquakes. Our result also shows that the extensional outer-rise events for strong seismic coupling

15. Acceleration in astrophysics

SciTech Connect

Colgate, S.A.

1993-12-31

The origin of cosmic rays and applicable laboratory experiments are discussed. Some of the problems of shock acceleration for the production of cosmic rays are discussed in the context of astrophysical conditions. These are: The presumed unique explanation of the power law spectrum is shown instead to be a universal property of all lossy accelerators; the extraordinary isotropy of cosmic rays and the limited diffusion distances implied by supernova induced shock acceleration requires a more frequent and space-filling source than supernovae; the near perfect adiabaticity of strong hydromagnetic turbulence necessary for reflecting the accelerated particles each doubling in energy roughly 10{sup 5} to {sup 6} scatterings with negligible energy loss seems most unlikely; the evidence for acceleration due to quasi-parallel heliosphere shocks is weak. There is small evidence for the expected strong hydromagnetic turbulence, and instead, only a small number of particles accelerate after only a few shock traversals; the acceleration of electrons in the same collisionless shock that accelerates ions is difficult to reconcile with the theoretical picture of strong hydromagnetic turbulence that reflects the ions. The hydromagnetic turbulence will appear adiabatic to the electrons at their much higher Larmor frequency and so the electrons should not be scattered incoherently as they must be for acceleration. Therefore the electrons must be accelerated by a different mechanism. This is unsatisfactory, because wherever electrons are accelerated these sites, observed in radio emission, may accelerate ions more favorably. The acceleration is coherent provided the reconnection is coherent, in which case the total flux, as for example of collimated radio sources, predicts single charge accelerated energies much greater than observed.

SciTech Connect

Comina, Cesare; Foti, Sebastiano; Lancellotta, Renato; Leuzzi, Francesco; Pettiti, Alberto; Corigliano, Mirko; Lai, Carlo G.; Nicosia, Giovanni Li Destri; Psarropoulos, Prodromos N.; Paolucci, Roberto; Zanoli, Omar

2008-07-08

The design of flexible earth retaining structures under seismic loading is a challenging geotechnical problem, the dynamic soil-structure interaction being of paramount importance for this kind of structures. Pseudo-static approaches are often adopted but do not allow a realistic assessment of the performance of the structure subjected to the seismic motions. The present paper illustrates a numerical parametric study aimed at estimating the influence of the dynamic soil-structure interaction in the design. A series of flexible earth retaining walls have been preliminary designed according to the requirements of Eurocode 7 and Eurocode 8--Part 5; their dynamic behaviour has been then evaluated by means of dynamic numerical simulations in terms of bending moments, accelerations and stress state. The results obtained from dynamic analyses have then been compared with those determined using the pseudo-static approach.

17. Probabilistic estimates of maximum acceleration and velocity in rock in the contiguous United States

USGS Publications Warehouse

Algermissen, Sylvester Theodore; Perkins, D.M.; Thenhaus, P.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Bender, B.L.

1982-01-01

Maximum horizontal accelerations and velocities caused by earthquakes are mapped for exposure times of 10, 50 and 250 years at the 90-percent probability level of nonexceedance for the contiguous United States. In many areas these new maps differ significantly from the 1976 probabilistic acceleration map by Algermlssen and Perkins because of the increase in detail, resulting from greater emphasis on the geologic basis for seismic source zones. This new emphasis is possible because of extensive data recently acquired on Holocene and Quaternary faulting in the western United States and new interpretations of geologic structures controlling the seismicity pattern in the central and eastern United States.

18. Assessing the seismic coupling of shallow continental faults and its impact on seismic hazard estimates: a case-study from Italy

Carafa, Michele M. C.; Valensise, Gianluca; Bird, Peter

2017-01-01