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Sample records for accelerated solvent extractor

  1. Compound Specific Extraction of Camptothecin from Nothapodytes nimmoniana and Piperine from Piper nigrum Using Accelerated Solvent Extractor.

    PubMed

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Pai, Sandeep R; Sharma, Ajay K; Hegde, Harsha V; Kholkute, Sanjiva D; Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Effects of varying temperatures with constant pressure of solvent on extraction efficiency of two chemically different alkaloids were studied. Camptothecin (CPT) from stem of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (Grah.) Mabb. and piperine from the fruits of Piper nigrum L. were extracted using Accelerated Solvent Extractor (ASE). Three cycles of extraction for a particular sample cell at a given temperature assured complete extraction. CPT and piperine were determined and quantified by using a simple and efficient UFLC-PDA (245 and 343 nm) method. Temperature increased efficiency of extraction to yield higher amount of CPT, whereas temperature had diminutive effect on yield of piperine. Maximum yield for CPT was achieved at 80°C and for piperine at 40°C. Thus, the study determines compound specific extraction of CPT from N. nimmoniana and piperine from P. nigrum using ASE method. The present study indicates the use of this method for simple, fast, and accurate extraction of the compound of interest. PMID:24527258

  2. The Development of a Microscale Continuous Hot Solvent Extractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesolowski, Steve S.; Mulcahy, Thomas; Zafoni, Christina M.; Wesolowski, Wayne E.

    1999-08-01

    The extraction of soluble materials from organic samples plays an important role in many industries. For example, extraction of oils and grease from soil samples using traditional Soxhlet extractors is an essential procedure in waste management laboratories. These extractors use from 25 to 1000 mL of solvent per sample and the waste solvent is typically distilled or simply disposed of upon completion of the extraction. To minimize the waste solvent produced, we have developed a microscale continuous hot solvent extractor that effectively extracts 100-500-mg samples using about 4 mL of solvent.

  3. [Determination of perfluorooctanoic acid and its salts in the coating layer of nonstick pan by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry coupled with accelerated solvent extractor].

    PubMed

    Bai, Hua; Hao, Nan; Cui, Yanni; Zhou, Xin; Cai, Tianpei; Zhang, Qing; Wang, Chao; Wang, Junbing

    2007-03-01

    A sensitive, accurate and reproducible analytical method was developed and validated to quantify perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and its salts in the coating layer of nonstick pan. Scraped samples of 0. 5 gram were directly extracted with acetonitrile using an accelerated solvent extractor at 175 degrees C, 10. 3 MPa for 20 min. After rotary evaporation concentration, the PFOA was derivatized with acetyl chloride and methanol at 65 degrees C for 60 min in an air-tight container. An HP-1 MS capillary column (30 m x 0. 25 mm, 0. 33 degrees m) was used for the separation of the analyte. The procedure for the analysis of PFOA was based on gas chromatography interfaced to negative chemical ion mass spectrometry, operated in selected ion monitoring mode. Selected ions of m/z 312, 350, 378, 408, 428 were chosen for quantitation. The assay was linear over the range of 0 - 1 000 microg/L, and the detection limit of PFOA was 5 microg/kg. The precision and recovery were assessed on four different concentrations (5, 20, 100, 500 micro/kg). The recoveries were in the range of 90. 9% - 96. 2% and the relative standard deviations were 1. 37% -6. 37%. The procedure was applied to monitoring PFOA in the coating layer of nonstick pan from supermarket and no positive result was found. PMID:17580704

  4. A permeable rotating-wheel solvent extractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, D. R.; Nady, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    Column-type device reported employs circular permeable structures of wire mesh screen for extracting solvents from systems with low density differences and low interfacial tensions. Rotating screen wheels of structure fasten to shaft; stationary screen structures are supported by circular bands connected by radial metal arms.

  5. PREVENTION OF SCALE FORMATION IN URANIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Delaplaine, J.W.

    1957-11-01

    A method for preventing the formation of scale in uranium solvent extraction apparatus is presented. The scale, consisting chiefly of precipitated silica and the sulfates uf calcium and lead, may be prevented by a combination of measures, chiefly by prior heating and agitation to crystallize and remove silica, and by a maintenance of uranyl nitrate concentration in the feed and extractant above certain levels to increase the solubility of the calcium and lead sulfates.

  6. Natural Rubber Quantification in Sunflower Using an Automated Solvent Extractor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) produce a small amount of low molecular weight natural rubber (NR) and this species has potential as a rubber-producing crop plant. Quantifying NR in plant tissue has traditionally been accomplished using Soxhlet or gravimetric methodologies. Accelerated solve...

  7. Evaluation of accelerated aolvent extractor (ASE 350) on assay of fats from food products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extraction of analytes of interest from solid and semisolid samples using liquid solvents is a common practice for most assay procedures. A systematic evaluation of the newly developed accelerated solvent system (ASE 350) for the estimation of fat from different food products (salad dressing, mayonn...

  8. Microfabricated electrospray emitter arrays with integrated extractor and accelerator electrodes for the propulsion of small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dandavino, S.; Ataman, C.; Ryan, C. N.; Chakraborty, S.; Courtney, D.; Stark, J. P. W.; Shea, H.

    2014-07-01

    Microfabricated electrospray thrusters could revolutionize the spacecraft industry by providing efficient propulsion capabilities to micro and nano satellites (1-100 kg). We present the modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of a new generation of devices, for the first time integrating in the fabrication process individual accelerator electrodes capable of focusing and accelerating the emitted sprays. Integrating these electrodes is a key milestone in the development of this technology; in addition to increasing the critical performance metrics of thrust, specific impulse and propulsive efficiency, the accelerators enable a number of new system features such as power tuning and thrust vectoring and balancing. Through microfabrication, we produced high density arrays (213 emitters cm-2) of capillary emitters, assembling them at wafer-level with an extractor/accelerator electrode pair separated by micro-sandblasted glass. Through IV measurements, we could confirm that acceleration could be decoupled from the extraction of the spray—an important element towards the flexibility of this technology. We present the largest reported internally fed microfabricated arrays operation, with 127 emitters spraying in parallel, for a total beam of 10-30 µA composed by 95% of ions. Effective beam focusing was also demonstrated, with plume half-angles being reduced from approximately 30° to 15° with 2000 V acceleration. Based on these results, we predict, with 3000 V acceleration, thrust per emitter of 38.4 nN, specific impulse of 1103 s and a propulsive efficiency of 22% with <1 mW/emitter power consumption.

  9. Accelerated solvent extraction for natural products isolation.

    PubMed

    Mottaleb, Mohammad A; Sarker, Satyajit D

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE(®)), first introduced in 1995, is an automated rapid extraction technique that utilizes common solvents at elevated temperature and pressure, and thereby increases the efficiency of extraction of organic compounds from solid and semisolid matrices. ASE(®) allows extractions for sample sizes 1-100 g in minutes, reduces solvent uses dramatically, and can be applied to a wide range of matrices, including natural products. PMID:22367894

  10. Infusion Extractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  11. Infusion extractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction. A piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber. The method is applicable to operation in low or micro-gravity environments.

  12. Acceleration of Nucelophilic CH Activation by Strongly Basic Solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Hashiguchi, Brian G; Young, Kenneth J. H.; Yousufuddin, Muhammed; Goddard, William A; Periana, Roy A

    2010-09-15

    (IPI)Ru(II)(OH){sub n}(H{sub 2}O){sub m}, 2, where IPI is the NNN-pincer ligand, 2,6-diimidizoylpyridine, is shown to catalyze H/D exchange between hydrocarbons and strongly basic solvents at higher rates than in the case of the solvent alone. Significantly, catalysis by 2 is accelerated rather than inhibited by increasing solvent basicity. The evidence is consistent with the reaction proceeding by base modulated nucleophilic CH activation.

  13. Sequential accelerated solvent extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with different solvents: performance and implication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong; Gong, Jian; Chen, Diyun

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extracted by Soxhlet extraction (S-PAHs) with dichloromethane and routine accelerated solvent extraction (A-PAHs) with 1:1 toluene/methanol, respectively, were investigated in 24 soil samples from two cities in the center of the Pearl River Delta, South China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, methylphenanthrene and perylene, in two soils, two sediments, and an immature oil shale were also sequentially extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. The A-PAHs' concentrations are 2.41 times the S-PAHs' concentrations. For sequential three ASEs, PAHs in the first extract account for 56 to 67% of their total concentrations in the sequential three extractions and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four solvents. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs in Soxhlet extraction, routine ASE, and sequential ASE with each solvent for a given sample are very similar, suggesting their identical petrogenic and pyrogenic sources in the soils and sediments. But the PAH ratios for the shale have an obvious petrogenic origin. The perylene/5-ring PAH ratios indicate a diagenetic source, especially in the shale and sediments. The correlation analysis shows that A-PAHs/S-PAHs is better associated with the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) than those of black carbon (BC). The above results indicate the significant petrogenic origin of PAHs and the important effect of organic matter on their extraction and distribution in the investigated field soils/sediments. PMID:21284305

  14. Comparison between continuous stirred tank reactor extractor and soxhlet extractor for extraction of El-Lajjun oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Anabtawi, M.Z.

    1996-02-01

    Extraction on El-Lajjun oil shale in a continuous stirred tank reactor extractor (CSTRE) and a Soxhlet extractor was carried out using toluene and chloroform as solvents. Solvents were recovered using two distillation stages, a simple distillation followed by a fractional distillation. Gas chromotography was used to test for the existence of trapped solvent in the yield. It was found that extraction using a CSTRE gave a 12% increase in yield on average compared with the Soxhlet extractor, and an optimum shale size of 1.0mm offered a better yield and solvent recovery for both techniques. It was also found that an optimum ratio of solvent to oil shale of 2:1 gave the best oil yield. The Soxhlet extractor was found to offer an extraction rate of 1 hour to complete extraction compared with 4 hours in a CSTRE. The yield in a CSTRE was found to increase on increase of stirring. When extraction was carried out at the boiling point of the solvents in a CSTRE, the yield was found to increase by 30% on average compared to that of extraction when the solvent was at room temperature. When toluene was used for extraction, the average amount of bitumen extracted was 0.032 g/g of oil shale and 76.4% of the solvent recovered, compared with 0.037 g/g of oil shale and 84.1% of the solvent recovered using a Soxhlet extractor.

  15. Portable Aerosol Contaminant Extractor

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Cable-Dunlap, Paula

    2005-11-15

    A compact, portable, aerosol contaminant extractor having ionization and collection sections through which ambient air may be drawn at a nominal rate so that aerosol particles ionized in the ionization section may be collected on charged plate in the collection section, the charged plate being readily removed for analyses of the particles collected thereon.

  16. Dielectric-Based Wakefield Power Extractor

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, C.; Antipov, S.; Gao, F.; Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; Gai, W.; Conde, M.; Liu, W.; Power, J. G.; Konecny, R.; Yusof, Z.

    2010-11-04

    In the Two Beam Accelerator (TBA), wakefield power extractors which extract high power RF from a high current beam are used to power high gradient accelerating structures. A dielectric-based Wakefield Power Extractor (DWPE) is one option in addition to the metallic structures considered previously, like the CLIC PETS (Power Extraction and Transfer Structure). 7.8 GHz and 26 GHz DWPE prototypes have been successfully built and tested at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility. We are currently designing an X-band version for a potential application with the CLIC beam. In this article, we report on test results of the 26 GHz DWPE and the preliminary design of the X-band structure. Future plan and possible difficulties in the development of DWPEs are also discussed.

  17. MODFLOW data extractor program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zinn, Brendan A.; Konikow, Leonard F.

    2005-01-01

    EXTRACTOR is a program that extracts data from formatted and labeled MODFLOW head or drawdown files or from MODFLOW-GWT concentration or velocity files. The user specifies the number of rows, columns, and layers in the target data file, the desired time step or move number, and the range of rows, columns, and layers for which data should be extracted and written to a new text file. The new text file can then be imported into other data-analysis programs.

  18. Design of a 26 GHZ wakefield power extractor.

    SciTech Connect

    Konecny, R.; Gai, W.; Gao, F.; Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Kazakov, S.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs, LLC; KEK

    2008-01-01

    High frequency, high output power, and high efficiency RF sources have compelling applications in accelerators for high energy physics. The 26 GHz RF power extractor proposed in this paper provides a practical approach for generating high power RF in this particular frequency range. The extractor is designed to couple out RF power generated from the high charge electron bunch train at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility traversing a dielectric loaded waveguide. Designs are presented including parameter optimization, electromagnetic modeling of structures and RF couplers, and analysis of beam dynamics.

  19. [Extraction characteristics of sequential accelerated solvent extraction for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental mediums].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-xuan; Ran, Yong

    2009-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in two soils, two sediments and an shale from the Pearl River Delta were extracted by sequential accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. PAHs in the first extract accounts for more than half of their total contents, and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four employed solvents. For a given sample the source diagnostic ratios of PAHs in sequential ASE with each solvent are very similar, suggesting the validity of those ratios in source judgement by different extraction methods. PMID:20187409

  20. Disposable remote zero headspace extractor

    DOEpatents

    Hand, Julie J.; Roberts, Mark P.

    2006-03-21

    The remote zero headspace extractor uses a sampling container inside a stainless steel vessel to perform toxicity characteristics leaching procedure to analyze volatile organic compounds. The system uses an in line filter for ease of replacement. This eliminates cleaning and disassembly of the extractor. All connections are made with quick connect fittings which can be easily replaced. After use, the bag can be removed and disposed of, and a new sampling container is inserted for the next extraction.

  1. SOLVENT-FREE ACCELERATED ORGANIC SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: A solvent-free approach for organic synthesis is described which involves microwave (MW) exposure of neat reactants (undiluted) either in presence of a catalyst or catalyzed by the surfaces of inexpensive and recyclable mineral supports such as alumina, silica, clay, or...

  2. Solvent-free cleaning using a centrifugal cryogenic pellet accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, J.R.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.

    1995-06-01

    An advanced centrifuge that accelerates frozen CO{sub 2} pellets to high speeds for surface cleaning and paint removal is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The centrifuge-based accelerator was designed, fabricated, and tested under a program sponsored by the Warner Robins Air Logistics Center, Robins Air Force Base, Georgia. In comparison to the more conventional compressed air ``sandblast`` pellet accelerators, the centrifugal accelerator system can achieve higher pellet speeds, has precise speed control, and is more than ten times as energy efficient. Furthermore, the use of frozen CO{sub 2} pellets instead of conventional metal, plastic, sand, or other abrasive materials that remain solid at room temperature, minimizes the waste stream. This apparatus has been used to demonstrate cleaning of various surfaces, including removal of paint, oxide coatings, metal coatings, organic coatings, and oil and grease coatings from a variety of surfaces. The design and operation of the apparatus is discussed.

  3. EXTRACTION AND DETECTION OF ARSENICALS IN SEAWEED VIA ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH ION CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND ICP-MS DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) device was evaluated as a semi-automated means of extracting arsenicals from ribbon kelp. Objective was to investigate effect of experimentally controllable ASE parameters (pressure, temperature, static time and solvent composition) on extr...

  4. A performance comparison of ultrasonically aided electric propulsion extractor configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, L.; Song, W.; Kang, X. M.; Zhao, W. S.

    2012-08-01

    As a novel propulsion technology, ultrasonically aided electric propulsion (UAEP) offers a high specific impulse and a high thrust density. In this paper, the effects of extractor grid configuration on performance of a UAEP thruster have been investigated by both experimental studies and numerical simulation. Relationships between spray current and operation parameters, including applied voltage, propellant flow rate, and vibration power and frequency, are explored for different extractor mesh sizes and shapes. Numerical simulation is also carried out for a better understanding of the formation of capillary standing waves as well as the electric field distribution in the acceleration zone. Experimental results show that compared with a circular shaped extractor, a reticular shaped extractor is able to produce a higher spray current. The current density increases with a denser mesh, which agrees well with the numerical simulation results. This phenomenon indicates that optimizing extractors with appropriate shapes and sizes can be an effective way to improve the performance of a UAEP system. A performance evaluation based on hydrodynamic and electrostatic calculations indicates that the present UAEP system can produce a thrust competitive to that of the colloid thruster with an emitter array.

  5. Extraction of organochlorine pesticides in sediments using soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Yinhai; Cao, Zhengmei; Nie, Xinhua

    2005-04-01

    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, o, p‧-DDT, p, p‧-DDT and p, p‧-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 µgg-1 to 0.004 µgg-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (>80.7%). With a mass selective detector, better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1:1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  6. Plutonium purification cycle in centrifugal extractors: from flowsheet design to industrial operation

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, P.; Dinh, B.; Duhamet, J.; Drain, F.; Meze, F.; Lavenu, A.

    2008-07-01

    The extension of the UP2 plant at La Hague includes a new plutonium purification cycle using multistage centrifugal extractors to replace the previous cycle that used mixer/settler banks. This type of extractor is suitable for the treatment of fuel containing a high proportion of plutonium-238, as its short residence time limits solvent degradation. This paper deals with the research done to devise its flowsheet, the centrifugal extractors in which it is operated, as well as the feedback of six years of industrial operation.

  7. Extraction of fatty acids from dried freshwater algae using accelerated solvent extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high temperature/pressure extraction method (accelerated solvent extraction)(ASE) and a manual extraction method (modified Folch extraction) were compared with regard to their ability to extract total fat from three samples of air-dried filamentous algae and determine the fatty acid (FA) profile o...

  8. Development of 26GHz dielectric-based wakefield power extractor.

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, C.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Gao, F.; Kazakov, S.; Kustov, A.; High Energy Physics; Euclid Techlabs; KEK; Dynamics Software

    2009-01-01

    High frequency, high power rf sources are needed for many applications in particle accelerators, communications, radar, etc. In this article we present a design of a 26 GHz high power rf source based on the extraction of wakefields from a relativistic electron beam. The extractor is designed to couple out rf power generated from a high charge electron bunch train traversing a dielectric loaded waveguide. Using a 20 nC bunch train (bunch length of 1.5 mm) at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility, we can obtain a steady 26 GHz output power of 148 MW. The extractor has been fabricated and bench tested, with the first high power beam experiments to be performed in the coming year.

  9. Development of 26 GHz Dielectric-Based Wakefield Power Extractor

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, C.; Kanareykin, A.; Schoessow, P.; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Power, J. G.; Conde, M.; Gao, F.; Kazakov, S.; Kustov, A.

    2009-01-22

    High frequency, high power rf sources are needed for many applications in particle accelerators, communications, radar, etc. In this article we present a design of a 26 GHz high power rf source based on the extraction of wakefields from a relativistic electron beam. The extractor is designed to couple out rf power generated from a high charge electron bunch train traversing a dielectric loaded waveguide. Using a 20 nC bunch train (bunch length of 1.5 mm) at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility, we can obtain a steady 26 GHz output power of 148 MW. The extractor has been fabricated and bench tested, with the first high power beam experiments to be performed in the coming year.

  10. Ultrasound-accelerated enzymatic synthesis of sugar esters in nonaqueous solvents.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yong-mei; Wu, Qi; Cai, Ying; Lin, Xian-fu

    2005-09-26

    Comparative studies of enzymatic synthesis of glucose esters under ultrasound and shaking were carried out in nonaqueous media. The influence of solvents, enzymes, chain length of the acyl donors, the power of the ultrasound bath, and intermittent ultrasound on the enzymatic synthesis was investigated. Among the eight solvents selected, pyridine was the most appropriate with alkaline protease from Bacillus subtilis whether under ultrasound or shaking. The acceleration effect of ultrasound with Novozym 435 and the alkaline protease from B. subtilis-catalyzed transesterification increased with the chain length of acyl donors, decreasing from C(10) to C(4). We also investigated the influence of the power (50, 100, and 120 W) of the ultrasound irradiation and the manner of operation (continuous ultrasound, 10 min ultrasound/20 min shaking without ultrasound) on the transesterification. The results showed that higher power and continual operational gave the better acceleration. Ultrasound did not change the character and selectivity of the enzyme in the transesterification. PMID:16040020

  11. Accelerated solvent extraction of alkylresorcinols in food products containing uncooked and cooked wheat.

    PubMed

    Holt, Monte D; Moreau, Robert A; DerMarderosian, Ara; McKeown, Nicola; Jacques, Paul F

    2012-05-16

    This research focuses on the overall extraction process of alkylresorcinols (ARs) from uncooked grains and baked products that have been processed with wheat, corn, rice, and white flour. Previously established extraction methods developed by Ross and colleagues, as well as a semiautomated method involving accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), were applied to extract ARs within freshly ground samples. For extraction of alkylresorcinols, nonpolar solvents such as ethyl acetate have been recommended for the extraction of uncooked foods, and polar solvents such as 1-propanol:water (3:1 v/v) have been recommended for the extraction of baked foods that contain rye, wheat, or other starch-rich grains. A comparison of AR extraction methods has been investigated with the application of gas chromatography and a flame ionization detector (GC-FID) to quantify the AR content. The goal of this research was to compare the rapid accelerated solvent extraction of the alkylresorcinols (ASE-AR) method to the previous manual AR extraction methods. Results for this study as well as the investigation of the overall efficiency of ASE-AR extraction with the use of a spiking study indicated that it can be comparable to current extraction methods but with less time required. Furthermore, the extraction time for ASE (approximately 40 min) is much more convenient and less tedious and time-consuming than previously established methods, which range from 5 h for processed foods to 24 h for raw grains. PMID:22530555

  12. Colorimetric Solid-Phase Extractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The heart of a colorimetric solid phase extractor (CSPE) test kit quickly measures the concentration of the biocides silver or iodine in astronauts' drinking water to determine whether concentrations are safe. When 10 milliliters (ml) of water is drawn through the disk, the disk will turn color (yellow in this picture for iodine) indicating the presence of the biocides. The device could someday be used to test water safety at reservoirs and water treatment plants on Earth. (photo credit: Microanalytical Instrumentation Center, Iowa State University).

  13. Hydraulic Extractor For Electronic Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Larry D.

    1994-01-01

    Tool separates multipin electrical connectors in electronic equipment. Based on use of hydraulic pressure to apply balanced forces to connector and gently pull it free without damage. Easily assembled from readily available parts. Includes actuator syringe, two extractor syringes of disposable plastic 5-mL type, several pieces of flexible plastic tubing, and adjustable mounting components that brace tool in desired spacing configuration to suit connector extracted. Tubes and syringes filled with suitable fluid. Designed specifically for use on "D"-type connectors, also adapted for use wherever linear extraction motion used.

  14. Simultaneous determination of 50 residual pesticides in Flos Chrysanthemi using accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Xinghui; Lu, Xiaotong; Tian, Huaiping; Xu, Ajing; Liu, Yan; Jian, Zhang

    2014-09-15

    A gas chromatographic method for simultaneous determination of 50 organochlorine (OCP) and pyrethroid (PP) pesticides in Flos Chrysanthemi was established. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) technique was used to extract the target compounds, cleaned with alumina neutral-florisil column, and eluted by mixed solvents of ethyl acetate and hexane (15:85, v/v). Selected pesticides were identified using HP-5 and DB1701 capillary dual column and detected by electron-capture detector. Quantitative analysis was performed using an external standard by HP-5 capillary column. Results showed that recoveries were 73.4-120.1%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 1.6-12.4%. The limits of detection of the method were 0.0021-0.0069 mg/kg, and the limits of quantity were 0.0064-0.0210 mg/kg. PMID:25062509

  15. Optimization by response surface methodology of lutein recovery from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Suna; Moon, BoKyung

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we used response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the extraction conditions for recovering lutein from paprika leaves using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The lutein content was quantitatively analyzed using a UPLC equipped with a BEH C18 column. A central composite design (CCD) was employed for experimental design to obtain the optimized combination of extraction temperature (°C), static time (min), and solvent (EtOH, %). The experimental data obtained from a twenty sample set were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R(2)) for the lutein extraction model was 0.9518, and the probability value (p=0.0000) demonstrated a high significance for the regression model. The optimum extraction conditions for lutein were temperature: 93.26°C, static time: 5 min, and solvent: 79.63% EtOH. Under these conditions, the predicted extraction yield of lutein was 232.60 μg/g. PMID:27006224

  16. Evaluation of micro-colorimetric lipid determination method with samples prepared using sonication and accelerated solvent extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Billa, Nanditha; Hubin-Barrows, Dylan; Lahren, Tylor; Burkhard, Lawrence P

    2014-02-01

    Two common laboratory extraction techniques were evaluated for routine use with the micro-colorimetric lipid determination method developed by Van Handel (1985) [2] and recently validated for small samples by Inouye and Lotufo (2006) [1]. With the accelerated solvent extraction method using chloroform:methanol solvent and the colorimetric lipid determination method, 28 of 30 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%, determined using standard additions) and 1 of 30 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%, determined using Youden Blank measurements). With sonic extraction, 0 of 6 samples had significant proportional bias (α=1%) and 1 of 6 samples had significant constant bias (α=1%). These demonstrate that the accelerated solvent extraction method with chloroform:methanol solvent system creates an interference with the colorimetric assay method, and without accounting for the bias in the analysis, inaccurate measurements would be obtained. PMID:24401464

  17. Continuous CO2 extractor and methods

    SciTech Connect

    None listed

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this CRADA was to assist in technology transfer from Russia to the US and assist in development of the technology improvements and applications for use in the U.S. and worldwide. Over the period of this work, ORNL has facilitated design, development and demonstration of a low-pressure liquid extractor and development of initial design for high-pressure supercritical CO2 fluid extractor.

  18. Conventional, ultrasound-assisted, and accelerated-solvent extractions of anthocyanins from purple sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhan; Qu, Ziqian; Lan, Yu; Zhao, Shujuan; Ma, Xiaohua; Wan, Qiang; Jing, Pu; Li, Pingfan

    2016-04-15

    Purple sweet potatoes (PSPs) are rich in anthocyanins. In this study, we investigated the extraction efficiency of anthocyanins from PSPs using conventional extraction (CE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), and accelerated-solvent extraction (ASE). Additionally, the effects of these extraction methods on antioxidant activity and anthocyanin composition of PSP extracts were evaluated. In order of decreasing extraction efficiency, the extraction methods were ASE>UAE>CE for anthocyanins (218-244 mg/100 g DW) and CE>UAE>ASE for total phenolics (631-955 mg/100 g DW) and flavonoids (28-40 mg/100 g DW). Antioxidant activities of PSP extracts were CE≈UAE>ASE for ORAC (766-1091 mg TE/100 g DW) and ASE>CE≈UAE for FRAP (1299-1705 mg TE/100 g DW). Twelve anthocyanins were identified. ASE extracts contained more diacyl anthocyanins and less nonacyl and monoacyl anthocyanins than CE and ASE extracts (P<0.05). PMID:26616949

  19. Aqueous accelerated solvent extraction of native polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from carbonaceous river floodplain soils.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Hofmann, Thilo

    2009-10-01

    In this study, three river floodplain soils with different compositions of carbonaceous materials and a reference coal sample were extracted with water using the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method. The desorption enthalpy values for 2-ring PAHs were highest in the coal sample, with values in the soil samples decreasing with decrease in coal content. The values for the higher condensed PAHs showed that the highest desorption enthalpies were from the samples with the largest amount of coal-derived particles. Elevated desorption enthalpies indicated a strong bonding between PAHs and geosorbents. Moreover, with the application of ASE this study was able to conclude that the PAHs in the samples were preferentially adsorbed to carbonaceous materials with high surface areas. PMID:19524343

  20. Thorpe-Ingold Acceleration of Oxirane Formation is Mostly a Solvent Effect

    PubMed Central

    Kostal, Jakub; Jorgensen, William L.

    2010-01-01

    The Thorpe-Ingold hypothesis for the gem-dimethyl effect in the cyclization reactions of 2-chloroethoxide derivatives has been investigated computationally in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. Ab initio MP2/6-311+G(d,p) and CBS-Q calculations reveal little intrinsic difference in reactivity with increasing α-methylation for the series of reactants 1 – 3. However, inclusion of continuum hydration or of explicit hydration through mixed quantum and statistical mechanics (MC/FEP) simulations does reproduce the substantial, experimentally observed rate increases with increasing α-methylation. Analysis of the MC/FEP results provides clear evidence that the rate increases stem primarily from increased steric hindrance to hydration of the nucleophilic oxygen atom with increasing α-methylation. Thus, the gem-dimethyl acceleration of oxirane formation for 1 – 3 is found to be predominantly a solvent effect. PMID:20524660

  1. Determination of pharmaceuticals in biosolids using accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yunjie; Zhang, Weihao; Gu, Cheng; Xagoraraki, Irene; Li, Hui

    2011-01-01

    An analytical method was developed to quantitatively determine pharmaceuticals in biosolid (treated sewage sludge) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The collected biosolid samples were initially freeze dried, and grounded to obtain relatively homogenized powders. Pharmaceuticals were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) under the optimized conditions. The optimal operation parameters, including extraction solvent, temperature, pressure, extraction time and cycles, were identified to be acetonitrile/water mixture (v/v 7:3) as extraction solvent with 3 extraction cycles (15 min for each cycle) at 100 °C and 100 bars. The extracts were cleaned up using solid-phase extraction followed by determination by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. For the 15 target pharmaceuticals commonly found in the environment, the overall method recoveries ranged from 49% to 68% for tetracyclines, 64% to 95% for sulfonamides, and 77% to 88% for other pharmaceuticals (i.e. acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, erythromycin, lincomycin and tylosin). The developed method was successfully validated and applied to the biosolid samples collected from WWTPs located in six cities in Michigan. Among the 15 target pharmaceuticals, 14 pharmaceuticals were detected in the collected biosolid samples. The average concentrations ranged from 2.6 μg/kg for lincomycin to 743.6 μg/kg for oxytetracycline. These results indicated that pharmaceuticals could survive wastewater treatment processes, and accumulate in sewage sludge and biosolids. Subsequent land application of the contaminated biosolids could lead to the dissemination of pharmaceuticals in soil and water environment, which poses potential threats to at-risk populations in the receiving ecosystems. PMID:21112593

  2. Accelerated solvent extraction for gas chromatographic analysis of nicotine and cotinine in meconium samples.

    PubMed

    Sant'anna, Simone Gomes; Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues; Diniz, Edna Maria de Albuquerque; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Adverse effects associated with smoking during pregnancy are well documented. Although self-report surveys on drug consumption during pregnancy have been improved with new interviewing techniques, underreporting is still a concern. Therefore, a series of biological markers and specimens to diagnose fetal exposure to tobacco have been studied. In the present study, an analytical method was developed to detect nicotine and cotinine (the main nicotine metabolite) in meconium samples. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) were used as sample preparation techniques. The analytes were detected by gas-chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The limits of detection were 3.0 and 30 ng/g for cotinine and nicotine, respectively. The method showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.98) in the concentration range studied (LOQ-500 ng/g). The intraday precision, given by the RSD of the method, was less than 15% for cotinine and nicotine. The method proved to be fast, practical, and sensitive. Smaller volumes of organic solvents are necessary compared to other chromatographic methods published in the scientific literature. This is the first report in which ASE was used as sample preparation technique in methods to detect xenobiotics in meconium. PMID:22290748

  3. Comparison of extraction techniques and modeling of accelerated solvent extraction for the authentication of natural vanilla flavors.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, Esmeralda; Chaintreau, Alain

    2009-06-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of vanilla beans has been optimized using ethanol as a solvent. A theoretical model is proposed to account for this multistep extraction. This allows the determination, for the first time, of the total amount of analytes initially present in the beans and thus the calculation of recoveries using ASE or any other extraction technique. As a result, ASE and Soxhlet extractions have been determined to be efficient methods, whereas recoveries are modest for maceration techniques and depend on the solvent used. Because industrial extracts are obtained by many different procedures, including maceration in various solvents, authenticating vanilla extracts using quantitative ratios between the amounts of vanilla flavor constituents appears to be unreliable. When authentication techniques based on isotopic ratios are used, ASE is a valid sample preparation technique because it does not induce isotopic fractionation. PMID:19425014

  4. Optimal extraction and fingerprinting of carotenoids by accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Saha, Supradip; Walia, Suresh; Kundu, Aditi; Sharma, Khushbu; Paul, Ranjit Kumar

    2015-06-15

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is applied for the extraction of carotenoids from orange carrot and the extraction parameters were optimized. Two carotenoids, lutein and β-carotene, are selected as the validation process. Hildebrand solubility parameters and dielectric constant of solvents were taken into consideration in selecting solvent mixture. The effects of various experimental parameters, such as temperature, static time, drying agent etc., on the ASE extraction efficiency are investigated systematically. Interactions among the variables were also studied. Furthermore, two carotenoids were analyzed and characterized by LC-ESI MS. The study concluded that Hildebrand solubility parameter approach may be applicable for less polar bioactive molecules like carotenoids. The properties of solvent and extraction temperature are found to be the most important parameters affecting the ASE extraction efficiency of thermolabile natural compounds. PMID:25660899

  5. Response surface methodology to optimise Accelerated Solvent Extraction of steviol glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni leaves.

    PubMed

    Jentzer, Jean-Baptiste; Alignan, Marion; Vaca-Garcia, Carlos; Rigal, Luc; Vilarem, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Following the approval of steviol glycosides as a food additive in Europe in December 2011, large-scale stevia cultivation will have to be developed within the EU. Thus there is a need to increase the efficiency of stevia evaluation through germplasm enhancement and agronomic improvement programs. To address the need for faster and reproducible sample throughput, conditions for automated extraction of dried stevia leaves using Accelerated Solvent Extraction were optimised. A response surface methodology was used to investigate the influence of three factors: extraction temperature, static time and cycle number on the stevioside and rebaudioside A extraction yields. The model showed that all the factors had an individual influence on the yield. Optimum extraction conditions were set at 100 °C, 4 min and 1 cycle, which yielded 91.8% ± 3.4% of total extractable steviol glycosides analysed. An additional optimisation was achieved by reducing the grind size of the leaves giving a final yield of 100.8% ± 3.3%. PMID:25053094

  6. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  7. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  8. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  9. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  10. 21 CFR 884.4340 - Fetal vacuum extractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fetal vacuum extractor. 884.4340 Section 884.4340....4340 Fetal vacuum extractor. (a) Identification. A fetal vacuum extractor is a device used to... means of a suction cup attached to the scalp and is powered by an external vacuum source. This...

  11. TIGER2 with solvent energy averaging (TIGER2A): An accelerated sampling method for large molecular systems with explicit representation of solvent.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianfeng; Snyder, James A; Stuart, Steven J; Latour, Robert A

    2015-10-14

    The recently developed "temperature intervals with global exchange of replicas" (TIGER2) accelerated sampling method is found to have inaccuracies when applied to systems with explicit solvation. This inaccuracy is due to the energy fluctuations of the solvent, which cause the sampling method to be less sensitive to the energy fluctuations of the solute. In the present work, the problem of the TIGER2 method is addressed in detail and a modification to the sampling method is introduced to correct this problem. The modified method is called "TIGER2 with solvent energy averaging," or TIGER2A. This new method overcomes the sampling problem with the TIGER2 algorithm and is able to closely approximate Boltzmann-weighted sampling of molecular systems with explicit solvation. The difference in performance between the TIGER2 and TIGER2A methods is demonstrated by comparing them against analytical results for simple one-dimensional models, against replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations for sampling the conformation of alanine dipeptide and the folding behavior of (AAQAA)3 peptide in aqueous solution, and by comparing their performance in sampling the behavior of hen egg-white lysozyme in aqueous solution. The new TIGER2A method solves the problem caused by solvent energy fluctuations in TIGER2 while maintaining the two important characteristics of TIGER2, i.e., (1) using multiple replicas sampled at different temperature levels to help systems efficiently escape from local potential energy minima and (2) enabling the number of replicas used for a simulation to be independent of the size of the molecular system, thus providing an accelerated sampling method that can be used to efficiently sample systems considered too large for the application of conventional temperature REMD. PMID:26472361

  12. TIGER2 with solvent energy averaging (TIGER2A): An accelerated sampling method for large molecular systems with explicit representation of solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xianfeng; Snyder, James A.; Stuart, Steven J.; Latour, Robert A.

    2015-10-01

    The recently developed "temperature intervals with global exchange of replicas" (TIGER2) accelerated sampling method is found to have inaccuracies when applied to systems with explicit solvation. This inaccuracy is due to the energy fluctuations of the solvent, which cause the sampling method to be less sensitive to the energy fluctuations of the solute. In the present work, the problem of the TIGER2 method is addressed in detail and a modification to the sampling method is introduced to correct this problem. The modified method is called "TIGER2 with solvent energy averaging," or TIGER2A. This new method overcomes the sampling problem with the TIGER2 algorithm and is able to closely approximate Boltzmann-weighted sampling of molecular systems with explicit solvation. The difference in performance between the TIGER2 and TIGER2A methods is demonstrated by comparing them against analytical results for simple one-dimensional models, against replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations for sampling the conformation of alanine dipeptide and the folding behavior of (AAQAA)3 peptide in aqueous solution, and by comparing their performance in sampling the behavior of hen egg-white lysozyme in aqueous solution. The new TIGER2A method solves the problem caused by solvent energy fluctuations in TIGER2 while maintaining the two important characteristics of TIGER2, i.e., (1) using multiple replicas sampled at different temperature levels to help systems efficiently escape from local potential energy minima and (2) enabling the number of replicas used for a simulation to be independent of the size of the molecular system, thus providing an accelerated sampling method that can be used to efficiently sample systems considered too large for the application of conventional temperature REMD.

  13. Optimization of in-cell accelerated solvent extraction technique for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in river sediments.

    PubMed

    Duodu, Godfred Odame; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2016-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants with adverse impacts on aquatic biota, wildlife and human health even at low concentrations. However, conventional methods for their determination in river sediments are resource intensive. This paper presents an approach that is rapid and also reliable for the detection of OCPs. Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) with in-cell silica gel clean-up followed by Triple Quadrupole Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometry (GCMS/MS) was used to recover OCPs from sediment samples. Variables such as temperature, solvent ratio, adsorbent mass and extraction cycle were evaluated and optimized for the extraction. With the exception of Aldrin, which was unaffected by any of the variables evaluated, the recovery of OCPs from sediment samples was largely influenced by solvent ratio and adsorbent mass and, to some extent, the number of cycles and temperature. The optimized conditions for OCPs extraction in sediment with good recoveries were determined to be 4 cycles, 4.5 g of silica gel, 105 °C, and 4:3 v/v DCM: hexane mixture. With the exception of two compounds (α-BHC and Aldrin) whose recoveries were low (59.73 and 47.66% respectively), the recovery of the other pesticides were in the range 85.35-117.97% with precision <10% RSD. The method developed significantly reduces sample preparation time, the amount of solvent used, matrix interference, and is highly sensitive and selective. PMID:26838409

  14. Accelerated solvent extraction of vitamin K1 in medical foods in conjunction with matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Chase, G W; Thompson, B

    2000-01-01

    An extraction technique is described for vitamin K1 in medical foods, using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) in conjunction with matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD). The medical food sample is treated as it would be with MSPD extraction, followed by ASE for a hands-free automated extraction. The vitamin K1 in the ASE extract is then quantitated by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The chromatography specifications are identical to those in previous work that used MSPD only, with a limit of detection of 6.6 pg and a limit of quantitation of 22 pg on column. Recoveries, which were determined for an analyte-fortified zero control reference material for medical foods, averaged 97.6% (n = 25) for vitamin K1. The method provides a rapid, automatic, specific, and easily controlled assay for vitamin K1 in fortified medical foods with minimal solvent usage. PMID:10772179

  15. Influence of processing procedure on the quality of Radix Scrophulariae: a quantitative evaluation of the main compounds obtained by accelerated solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Wu, Xin; Li, Qinglin; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang; Zhu, Xuemei

    2015-02-01

    An improved high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection combined with accelerated solvent extraction method was used to simultaneously determine six compounds in crude and processed Radix Scrophulariae samples. Accelerated solvent extraction parameters such as extraction solvent, temperature, number of cycles, and analysis procedure were systematically optimized. The results indicated that compared with crude Radix Scrophulariae samples, the processed samples had lower contents of harpagide and harpagoside but higher contents of catalpol, acteoside, angoroside C, and cinnamic acid. The established method was sufficiently rapid and reliable for the global quality evaluation of crude and processed herbal medicines. PMID:25431110

  16. Unraveling Entropic Rate Acceleration Induced by Solvent Dynamics in Membrane Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Kürten, Charlotte; Syrén, Per-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme catalysis evolved in an aqueous environment. The influence of solvent dynamics on catalysis is, however, currently poorly understood and usually neglected. The study of water dynamics in enzymes and the associated thermodynamical consequences is highly complex and has involved computer simulations, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, and calorimetry. Water tunnels that connect the active site with the surrounding solvent are key to solvent displacement and dynamics. The protocol herein allows for the engineering of these motifs for water transport, which affects specificity, activity and thermodynamics. By providing a biophysical framework founded on theory and experiments, the method presented herein can be used by researchers without previous expertise in computer modeling or biophysical chemistry. The method will advance our understanding of enzyme catalysis on the molecular level by measuring the enthalpic and entropic changes associated with catalysis by enzyme variants with obstructed water tunnels. The protocol can be used for the study of membrane-bound enzymes and other complex systems. This will enhance our understanding of the importance of solvent reorganization in catalysis as well as provide new catalytic strategies in protein design and engineering. PMID:26862836

  17. MICROWAVE ACCELERATED SOLVENT-FREE CHEMICAL REACTIONS, PUBLISHED IN AMPERE NEWSLETTER, ISSUE 29, JUNE 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    The worldwide annual usage of volatile organic solvents is generally of the order of ~4 billion pounds. In the environmentally conscieous era, the focus in to design chemical processes and products that eliminate or minimize the waste generation and the ideal approach may compris...

  18. Unraveling Entropic Rate Acceleration Induced by Solvent Dynamics in Membrane Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kürten, Charlotte; Syrén, Per-Olof

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme catalysis evolved in an aqueous environment. The influence of solvent dynamics on catalysis is, however, currently poorly understood and usually neglected. The study of water dynamics in enzymes and the associated thermodynamical consequences is highly complex and has involved computer simulations, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, and calorimetry. Water tunnels that connect the active site with the surrounding solvent are key to solvent displacement and dynamics. The protocol herein allows for the engineering of these motifs for water transport, which affects specificity, activity and thermodynamics. By providing a biophysical framework founded on theory and experiments, the method presented herein can be used by researchers without previous expertise in computer modeling or biophysical chemistry. The method will advance our understanding of enzyme catalysis on the molecular level by measuring the enthalpic and entropic changes associated with catalysis by enzyme variants with obstructed water tunnels. The protocol can be used for the study of membrane-bound enzymes and other complex systems. This will enhance our understanding of the importance of solvent reorganization in catalysis as well as provide new catalytic strategies in protein design and engineering. PMID:26862836

  19. Comparison of microwave, ultrasound and accelerated-assisted solvent extraction for recovery of polyphenols from Citrus sinensis peels.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Balunkeswar; Dahmoune, Farid; Moussi, Kamal; Remini, Hocine; Dairi, Sofiane; Aoun, Omar; Khodir, Madani

    2015-11-15

    Peel of Citrus sinensis contains significant amounts of bioactive polyphenols that could be used as ingredients for a number of value-added products with health benefits. Extraction of polyphenols from the peels was performed using a microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique. The effects of aqueous acetone concentration, microwave power, extraction time and solvent-to-solid ratio on the total phenolic content (TPC), total antioxidant activity (TAA) (using DPPH and ORAC-values) and individual phenolic acids (IPA) were investigated using a response surface method. The TPC, TAA and IPA of peel extracts using MAE was compared with conventional, ultrasound-assisted and accelerated solvent extraction. The maximum predicted TPC under the optimal MAE conditions (51% acetone concentration in water (v/v), 500 W microwave power, 122 s extraction time and 25 mL g(-1) solvent to solid ratio), was 12.20 mg GAE g(-1) DW. The TPC and TAA in MAE extracts were higher than the other three extracts. PMID:25977057

  20. Analysis of coenzyme Q10 in bee pollen using online cleanup by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Lanzhen; Zhou, Jinhui; Yue, Bing; Li, Yi; Wu, Liming; Liu, Fengmao

    2012-07-15

    A method for the determination of coenzyme Q10 in bee pollen has been developed applying an online cleanup of accelerated solvent extraction and using environmentally acceptable organic solvents. The extracted samples were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The optimised method employed 10 mL extraction cells, 1g sample size, absolute ethanol as extraction solvent, 80°C of extraction temperature, one extraction cycle, 5 min of static time, Cleanert Alumina-N as sorbent and 60% flush volume. The method was validated by means of an evaluation of the matrix effects, linearity, limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), trueness, precision and stability. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.25-200mg/L and the LOD and LOQ were 0.16 and 0.35 mg/kg, respectively. The recoveries were above 90%. The inter- and intra-day precision was below 6.3%. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of bee pollen samples. For 20 bee pollen products, the coenzyme Q10 content varied from not detectable to 192.8 mg/kg. PMID:25683435

  1. 1. VIEW EAST, SEED EXTRACTOR BUILDING ON LEFT, IMPLEMENT BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW EAST, SEED EXTRACTOR BUILDING ON LEFT, IMPLEMENT BUILDING ON RIGHT. (see also WV-237-5, WV-237-9, WV-237-h-1, WV-237-L-1) - Parsons Nursery, Seed Extractor Building, South side of U.S. Route 219, Parsons, Tucker County, WV

  2. Accelerated solvent extraction combined with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction before gas chromatography with mass spectrometry for the sensitive determination of phenols in soil samples.

    PubMed

    Xing, Han-Zhu; Wang, Xia; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Wang, Ming-Lin; Zhao, Ru-Song

    2015-05-01

    A method combining accelerated solvent extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the first time as a sample pretreatment for the rapid analysis of phenols (including phenol, m-cresol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) in soil samples. In the accelerated solvent extraction procedure, water was used as an extraction solvent, and phenols were extracted from soil samples into water. The dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique was then performed on the obtained aqueous solution. Important accelerated solvent extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction parameters were investigated and optimized. Under optimized conditions, the new method provided wide linearity (6.1-3080 ng/g), low limits of detection (0.06-1.83 ng/g), and excellent reproducibility (<10%) for phenols. Four real soil samples were analyzed by the proposed method to assess its applicability. Experimental results showed that the soil samples were free of our target compounds, and average recoveries were in the range of 87.9-110%. These findings indicate that accelerated solvent extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction as a sample pretreatment procedure coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry is an excellent method for the rapid analysis of trace levels of phenols in environmental soil samples. PMID:25676868

  3. Cardioprotective potential of Irish macroalgae: generation of glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopropionate containing extracts by accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Juan; Hayes, Maria; McLoughlin, Pádraig; Rai, Dilip K; Soler-Vila, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE®) was used to generate 18 macroalgal extracts from Irish seaweeds. The glycine betaine and dimethylsulfoniopriopionate content of the generated ASE® extracts were estimated using (1)H-NMR and confirmed for selected extracts using ultra performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Dimethylsulfoniopriopionate was only identified in the ASE® extract generated from Codium fragile ISCG0029. Glycine betaine was identified in the ASE® extract generated from Ulva intestinalis ISCG0356 using (1)H-NMR. Mass spectrometry analysis found that the seaweed species Cytoseira nodicaulis ISCG0070, Cytoseira tamariscofolia ISCG0283, and Polysiphonia lanosa ISCG0462 also had a glycine betaine content that ranged from 1.39 ng/ml to 105.11 ng/ml. Generated ASE® macroalgal extracts have potential for use as functional food ingredients in food products. PMID:26018918

  4. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for purification and extraction of silicone passive samplers used for the monitoring of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Brockmeyer, Berit; Kraus, Uta R; Theobald, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive samplers applying accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the removal of silicone oligomers prior to the water deployment (hexane/dichloromethane, 100 °C, 70 min). ASE was also shown to be a very fast (10 min) and efficient extraction method for non-polar contaminants (non-exposed PRC recoveries 66-101 %) sampled by the silicone membrane. For both applications, temperature, extraction time and the solvent used for ASE have been optimized. Purification of the ASE extract was carried out by silica gel and high-pressure liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The silicone oligomer content was checked by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) in order to confirm the absence of the silicone oligomers prior to analysis of passive sampler extracts. The established method was applied on real silicone samplers from the North- and Baltic Sea and showed no matrix effects during analysis of organic pollutants. Internal laboratory standard recoveries were in the same range for laboratory, transport and exposed samplers (85-126 %). PMID:26289330

  5. Accelerated solvent extraction of carotenoids from: Tunisian Kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Zaghdoudi, Khalil; Pontvianne, Steve; Framboisier, Xavier; Achard, Mathilde; Kudaibergenova, Rabiga; Ayadi-Trabelsi, Malika; Kalthoum-Cherif, Jamila; Vanderesse, Régis; Frochot, Céline; Guiavarc'h, Yann

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of carotenoids from biological matrices and quantifications remains a difficult task. Accelerated solvent extraction was used as an efficient extraction process for carotenoids extraction from three fruits cultivated in Tunisia: kaki (Diospyros kaki L.), peach (Prunus persica L.) and apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.). Based on a design of experiment (DoE) approach, and using a binary solvent consisting of methanol and tetrahydrofuran, we could identify the best extraction conditions as being 40°C, 20:80 (v:v) methanol/tetrahydrofuran and 5 min of extraction time. Surprisingly and likely due to the high extraction pressure used (103 bars), these conditions appeared to be the best ones both for extracting xanthophylls such as lutein, zeaxanthin or β-cryptoxanthin and carotenes such as β-carotene, which present quite different polarities. Twelve surface responses were generated for lutein, zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin and β-carotene in kaki, peach and apricot. Further LC-MS analysis allowed comparisons in carotenoids profiles between the fruits. PMID:25872435

  6. Accelerated solvent extraction for GC-based tobacco fingerprinting and its comparison with simultaneous distillation and extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Pang, Tao; Guo, Ziming; Li, Yanli; Wang, Xiaolin; Deng, Jianhua; Zhong, Kejun; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2010-04-15

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure has been developed as a pretreatment method for chemical fingerprinting of volatile and semi-volatile components in cut tobacco. The ASE extraction conditions including temperature, operation pressure and extraction cycles were optimized to maximize extraction yield. The method was validated with repeatability, recovery and linearity. Compared with simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), ASE provides higher extraction yields, less extraction time, lower solvent consumption and less labor time, and is more suitable for tobacco sample preparation. A typical ASE extract was analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). A total of 305 components with signal-to-noise ratio higher than 100 were tentatively identified by NIST05 and Wiley database. Finally, 36 cigarette samples from six cigarette brands were analyzed using the developed chemical fingerprinting method. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis shows good discrimination of different cigarette brands. The results indicate that ASE method can serve as high-throughput sample preparation technique for cigarette chemical fingerprint analysis. PMID:20188977

  7. A Star Image Extractor for Small Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Yamauchi, Masahiro; Gouda, Naoteru; Kobayashi, Yukiyasu; Tsujimoto, Takuji; Yano, Taihei; Suganuma, Masahiro; Nakasuka, Shinichi; Sako, Nobutada; Inamori, Takaya

    We have developed a Star Image Extractor (SIE) which works as an on-board real-time image processor. It is a logic circuit written on an FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array) device. It detects and extracts only an object data from raw image data. SIE will be required with the Nano-JASMINE 1) satellite. Nano-JASMINE is the small astrometry satellite that observes objects in our galaxy. It will be launched in 2010 and needs two years mission period. Nano-JASMINE observes an object with the TDI (Time Delayed Integration) observation mode. TDI is one of operation modes of CCD detector. Data is obtained, by rotating the imaging system including CCD at a rated synchronized with a vertical charge transfer of CCD. Obtained image data is sent through SIE to the Mission-controller.

  8. Extractor configurations for a heavy ion fusion volume source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, O.A.

    2004-08-30

    In order for volume sources to deliver the current (e.g., 0.8 A of Ar{sup +} per module) and brightness necessary for heavy ion fusion (HIF), they must operate at high current density. Conventional extractor designs for 1 to 2 MeV run into voltage breakdown limitations and cannot easily produce the required current rise time (about one microsecond). We discuss two systems that can overcome these volume-extraction problems. Each uses multichannel preaccelerators followed by a single channel main accelerator. Fast beam switching is done in the low energy beamlet stages. A new design, utilizing concentric ring preaccelerators, was recently described for another application [2]. A more conventional design uses a large number of small round beamlets. In either case, the merging beamlets are angled toward the axis, a feature that dominates other focusing. By suitable adjustment of the individual angles, beam aberrations are reduced. Because of the high current density, the overall structure is compact. Emittance growth from merging of beamlets is calculated and scaling is discussed.

  9. AN EVALUATION OF SAMPLE DISPERSION MEDIAS USED WITH ACCELERATED SOLVENT EXTRACTION FOR THE EXTRACTION AND RECOVERY OF ARSENICALS FROM LFB AND DORM-2

    EPA Science Inventory

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) device was evaluated as a semi-automated means for extracting arsenicals from quality control (QC) samples and DORM-2 [standard reference material (SRM)]. Unlike conventional extraction procedures, the ASE requires that the sample be dispe...

  10. Effect of the Drying Process on the Intensification of Phenolic Compounds Recovery from Grape Pomace Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Rajha, Hiba N.; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G.; Maroun, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications. PMID:25322155

  11. Effect of the drying process on the intensification of phenolic compounds recovery from grape pomace using accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Rajha, Hiba N; Ziegler, Walter; Louka, Nicolas; Hobaika, Zeina; Vorobiev, Eugene; Boechzelt, Herbert G; Maroun, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    In light of their environmental and economic interests, food byproducts have been increasingly exploited and valorized for their richness in dietary fibers and antioxidants. Phenolic compounds are antioxidant bioactive molecules highly present in grape byproducts. Herein, the accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of phenolic compounds from wet and dried grape pomace, at 45 °C, was conducted and the highest phenolic compounds yield (PCY) for wet (16.2 g GAE/100 g DM) and dry (7.28 g GAE/100 g DM) grape pomace extracts were obtained with 70% ethanol/water solvent at 140 °C. The PCY obtained from wet pomace was up to two times better compared to the dry byproduct and up to 15 times better compared to the same food matrices treated with conventional methods. With regard to Resveratrol, the corresponding dry pomace extract had a better free radical scavenging activity (49.12%) than the wet extract (39.8%). The drying pretreatment process seems to ameliorate the antiradical activity, especially when the extraction by ASE is performed at temperatures above 100 °C. HPLC-DAD analysis showed that the diversity of the flavonoid and the non-flavonoid compounds found in the extracts was seriously affected by the extraction temperature and the pretreatment of the raw material. This diversity seems to play a key role in the scavenging activity demonstrated by the extracts. Our results emphasize on ASE usage as a promising method for the preparation of highly concentrated and bioactive phenolic extracts that could be used in several industrial applications. PMID:25322155

  12. Development and practical application of accelerated solvent extraction for the isolation of cocaine/crack biomarkers in meconium samples.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Cínthia de Carvalho; Lima, Marcela Bittar; Oliveira, Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues de; Menck, Rafael de Almeida; Diniz, Edna Maria de Albuquerque; Yonamine, Mauricio

    2014-04-15

    A method using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the isolation of cocaine/crack biomarkers in meconium samples, followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and the simultaneous quantification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and validated. Initially, meconium samples were submitted to an ASE procedure, which was followed by SPE with Bond Elut Certify I cartridges. The analytes were derivatizated with PFP/PFPA and analyzed by GC-MS. The limits of detection (LOD) were between 11 and 17ng/g for all analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 30ng/g for anhydroecgonine methyl ester, and 20ng/g for cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester and cocaethylene. Linearity ranged from the LOQ to 1500ng/g for all analytes, with a coefficients of determination greater than 0.991, except for m-hydroxybenzoylecgonine, which was only qualitatively detected. Precision and accuracy were evaluated at three concentration levels. For all analytes, inter-assay precision ranged from 3.2 to 18.1%, and intra-assay precision did not exceed 12.7%. The accuracy results were between 84.5 and 114.2% and the average recovery ranged from 17 to 84%. The method was applied to 342 meconium samples randomly collected in the University Hospital-University of São Paulo (HU-USP), Brazil. Cocaine biomarkers were detected in 19 samples, which represent 5.6% of exposure prevalence. Significantly lower birth weight, length and head circumference were found for the exposed newborns compared with the non-exposed group. This is the first report in which ASE was used as a sample preparation technique to extract cocaine biomarkers from a complex biological matrix such as meconium samples. The advantages of the developed method are the smaller demand for organic solvents and the minor sample handling, which allows a faster and accurate procedure, appropriate to confirm fetal exposure to cocaine/crack. PMID:24657406

  13. [Determination of diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues in greasy wool by accelerated solvent extraction technique and high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yuanmu; Huang, Shaotang; Yu, Xuejun; Gu, Xiaojun; Qiu, Yajun; Chen, Shubing; Fang, Keteng; Chen, Jun

    2009-07-01

    A method for the determination of diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues in greasy wool was developed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues were extracted with acetonitrile saturated with n-hexane at 80 degrees C and 10.34 MPa. The extract was pretreated by a series of procedures such as freezing-lipid filtration, concentration and purification by solid-phase extraction prior to the determination with HPLC. The target analytes were separated on a Waters Atlants dC18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), gradiently eluted with acetonitrile and water as the mobile phases and detected by a photodiode array detector (DAD) at 254 nm. The linear ranges were 0.1 - 10.0 mg/L. There were good linearity between the peak areas and concentrations in the linear range for the analytes, and the correlation coefficients of diflubenzuron and triflumuron were higher than 0.9999. The limits of quantification for diflubenzuron and triflumuron were 0.05 and 0.04 mg/kg (S/N > or = 10), respectively. The method is simple, rapid, sensitive and suitable for preliminary screening of diflubenzuron and triflumuron residues in greasy wool. PMID:19938504

  14. Accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantitation of corticosteroid residues in bovine liver.

    PubMed

    Draisci, R; Marchiafava, C; Palleschi, L; Cammarata, P; Cavalli, S

    2001-04-01

    A new method for the rapid extraction and unequivocal confirmation of two highly potent fluorinated synthetic corticosteroids, dexamethasone and its beta-epimer betamethasone, in bovine liver was developed. Flumethasone was used as internal standard. An extraction procedure using an accelerated solvent extraction system was employed for the isolation of the analytes in liver samples. The procedure was highly automated, including defatting and extraction steps, sequentially carried out under 1.0 x 10(4) kPa in about 35 min. The extracts were then directly analysed by tandem mass spectrometry with on-line liquid chromatography. The analytes were ionised in a heated nebulizer interface operating in the negative ion mode where the molecular related ions [M-H-CH2O]- were generated for each analyte, at m/z 361 for betamethasone and dexamethasone and at m/z 379 for flumethasone. They served as precursor ions for collision-induced dissociation and three diagnostic product ions for the drugs were identified to carry out analyte confirmation by selected reaction monitoring. Assessment of recovery, specificity and precision for betamethasone, dexamethasone and flumethasone proved the method suitable for confirmatory purposes. The limit of quantification of betamethasone and dexamethasone in liver tissue was 1.0 microg/kg. PMID:11334334

  15. PULSED MIXER-SETTLER SOLVENT EXTRACTION CONTACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Figg, W.S.

    1958-08-12

    A mixer-settler extractor is described for contacting immiscible liquids having different specific gravities in order to withdraw one or more components from one liquid with the aid of the other liquid. The extractor consists of a hollow column, a rotary drive shafi extending : through the column with a number of impellers spaced thereon, an equal nunnber of separator plate sets each consisting of one fluorothene and one stainless steel plate with peripheral recesses and flow slots mounted on the column, and a pulse generator. This apparatus is particularly useful in solvent extraction processes for recovering plutonium from aqueous acidic solutions of irradiated uranium.

  16. Contingency support using adaptive telemetry extractor and expert system technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, Thomas; Cruse, Bryant; Wende, Charles

    1987-01-01

    The 'telemetry analysis logic for operations support' prototype system constitutes an expert system that is charged with contingency planning for the NASA Hubble Space Telescope (HST); this system has demonstrated the feasibility of using an adaptive telemetry extractor/reformatter that is integrated with an expert system. A test case generated by a simulator has demonstrated the reduction of the time required for analysis of a complex series of failures to a few minutes, from the hour usually required. The HST's telemetry extractor will be able to read real-time engineering telemetry streams and disk-based data. Telemetry format changes will be handled almost instantaneously.

  17. Ldrd-2015-00076 -- Validation Study Of The SRNL Vacuum Aerosol Contaminant Extractor

    SciTech Connect

    Siegfried, M.

    2015-10-14

    SRNL recently developed a prototype device for the IAEA to prepare particulate samples collected on swipes for laboratory analysis. The Vacuum Aerosol Contaminant Extractor (VacACE) utilizes electrostatic precipitation in lieu of the impaction or ultrasonic solvent extraction methods presently employed by the IAEA to place particles of interest on carbon planchets for investigation. The project was funded by the Intentional Safeguards Projects Office (ISPO) with scope for device design and fabrication, but no scope for validation or testing. Without documented validation of the tool, sample processing and subsequent analysis fidelity cannot be assured. The goal of this project was to determine collection efficacy in a rigorous fashion, demonstrate proof of concept with standardized particulates, and produce a validated VacACE sampling protocol.

  18. Solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  19. CONTINUOUS DISSOLVER EXTRACTOR FOR PROCESSING METAL

    DOEpatents

    Lemon, R.B.; Buckham, J.A.

    1959-02-01

    An apparatus is presented for the continuous dissolution of metal slugs in an aqueous acid and sequential continuous extraction of selected metal values from the acid solution by counter-current contact with an organic solvent. The apparatus comprises a cylindrical tank divided into upper and lower sections. Dissolution of the metal slug takes place in the lower section and the solution so produced is continuously fed to the topmost plate of the upper extraction section. An immiscible organic extractant is continuously passed by a pulsing pump into the lowermost unit of the extraction section. Suitable piping and valving permits of removing the aqueous raffinate solution from the lowermost portion of the extraction section, and simultaneous removal of organic solvent extractant containing the desired product from the uppermost portion of the extraction section.

  20. A Star Image Extractor for the Nano-JASMINE satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Tsujimoto, T.; Yano, T.; Suganuma, M.; Yamada, Y.; Nakasuka, S.; Sako, N.

    2008-07-01

    We have developped a software of Star-Image-Extractor (SIE) which works as the on-board real-time image processor. It detects and extracts only the object data from raw image data. SIE has two functions: reducing image data and providing data for the satellite's high accuracy attitude control system.

  1. Accelerated solvent extraction and pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatographic purification of yunaconitine and 8-deacetylyunaconitine from Aconitum vilmorinianum Kom.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xi-Kai; Li, Jia; Liu, Feng; Lin, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Xiao; Song, Chun-Xia

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to seek an efficient method to extract and purify yunaconitine and 8-deacetylyunaconitine from Aconitum vilmorinianum Kom. by accelerated solvent extraction combined with pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography. The major extraction parameters for accelerated solvent extraction were optimized by an orthogonal test design L9 (3)(4). Then a separation and purification method was established using pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (5:5:2:8, v/v) with 10 mM triethylamine in the upper phase and 10 mM HCl in the lower phase. From 2 g crude extract, 224 mg of 8-deacetylyunaconitine (I) and 841 mg of yunaconitine (II) were obtained with a purity of over 98.0%. The chemical structures were identified by ESI-MS and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. PMID:23784883

  2. Simultaneous chemical fingerprint and quantitative analysis of Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae by accelerated solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dai, Weiquan; Zhao, Weiquan; Gao, Fangyuan; Shen, Jingjing; Lv, Diya; Qi, Yunpeng; Fan, Guorong

    2015-05-01

    Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae (RSG) is a well-known herbal medicine with the homology of medicine and food. In this study, simultaneous chemical fingerprint and quantitative analysis of the bioactive flavonoid components of RSG were developed using accelerated solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. The operational parameters of accelerated solvent extraction including extraction solvent, extraction temperature, static extraction time, solid-to-liquid ratio, and extraction cycles were optimized. Hierarchical cluster analysis, similarity analysis, and principal component analysis were performed to evaluate the similarity and variation of the samples collected from several provinces in China. Subsequently, high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprints were established for the discrimination of 16 batches of RSG samples, and the major six flavonoids, namely, toxifolin, neoastilbin, astilbin, neoisoastilbin, isoastilbin, and engeletin were then quantitatively determined. The calibration curves for all the six analytes showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.999), and the limits of detection and quantification were less than 0.10 and 0.27 μg·mL(-1) , respectively. Therefore, the proposed extraction and determination methods were proved to be robust and reliable for the quality control of RSG. PMID:25678068

  3. A consecutive preparation method based upon accelerated solvent extraction and high-speed counter-current chromatography for isolation of aesculin from Cortex fraxinus.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xing; Zhou, Ting; Xiao, Xiaohua; Li, Gongke

    2012-12-01

    A consecutive preparation method based upon accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was presented and aesculin was obtained from Cortex fraxinus. The extraction condition of ASE was optimized with response surface methodology; some significant parameters such as the solvent system and its stability, the amount of loading sample in HSCCC were also investigated. The original sample was first extracted with methanol at 105°C and 104 bar for 7 min using ASE, then the extracts were consecutively introduced into the HSCCC system and separated and purified with the same ethyl acetate/n-butanol/water (7:3:10, v/v/v) solvent system for five times without further exchange and equilibrium. About 3.1 ± 0.2 mg/g in each time and total of 15.4 mg/g aesculin with purity over 95% was isolated from Cortex fraxinus. The results demonstrated that the consecutive preparation method was time and solvent saving and high throughput, it was suitable for isolation of aesculin from Cortex fraxinus, and also has good potential on the separation and purification of effective compounds from natural product. PMID:23225725

  4. Influence of Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction on the Anthocyanin Profile of Different Vaccinium Species in the Context of Statistical Models for Authentication.

    PubMed

    Heffels, Peter; Weber, Fabian; Schieber, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Anthocyanins are frequently discussed as marker compounds for fruit product authenticity. Proper analysis including sample preparation for the determination of anthocyanin concentrations is crucial for the comparability of authenticity data. The present study determined the influence of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), using two different solvent compositions on the anthocyanin profile of bilberries (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), lowbush blueberries (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.), and American cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.). Besides differences in total anthocyanin concentrations in the extracts, significant deviations (p ≤ 0.05) in the individual anthocyanin concentration were observed, resulting in differing anthocyanin proportions. Linear discriminant analysis comparing the differences caused by the extraction method to the natural differences within a set of 26 bilberry and lowbush blueberry samples of different origins was conducted. It revealed that profile variations induced by the extraction methods are in a similar scale to profile variations as a result of geographic and climatic differences. PMID:26330254

  5. Water as a green solvent for efficient synthesis of isocoumarins through microwave-accelerated and Rh/Cu-catalyzed C-H/O-H bond functionalization

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qiu; Yan, Yunnan; Wang, Xiaowei; Gong, Binwei; Tang, Xiaobo; Shi, JingJing; Xu, H. Eric; Yi, Wei

    2014-08-14

    Green chemistry that uses water as a solvent has recently received great attention in organic synthesis. Here we report an efficient synthesis of biologically important isocoumarins through direct cleavage of C–H/O–H bonds by microwave-accelerated and Rh/Cu-catalyzed oxidative annulation of various substituted benzoic acids, where water is used as the only solvent in the reactions. The remarkable features of this “green” methodology include high product yields, wide tolerance of various functional groups as substrates, and excellent region-/site-specificities, thus rendering this methodology a highly versatile and eco-friendly alternative to the existing methods for synthesizing isocoumarins and other biologically important derivatives such as isoquinolones.

  6. Ultrasonic or accelerated solvent extraction followed by U-HPLC-high mass accuracy MS for screening of pharmaceuticals and fungicides in soil and plant samples.

    PubMed

    Chitescu, Carmen Lidia; Oosterink, Efraim; de Jong, Jacob; Stolker, Alida Adriana Maria Linda

    2012-01-15

    Different veterinary pharmaceuticals are used in agricultural livestock becoming a source of environment contamination. Furthermore, no regulation exists for the concentration limits of pharmaceuticals in soil or water. Monitoring programs for environment contamination with pharmaceuticals are needed, requiring new sensitive and selective screening methods. The present study focuses on developing a method for the simultaneous scanning of forty-two compounds (pharmaceuticals, azole biocides and fungicides) in soil and plant material samples. For extraction purposes the use of ultrasonic assisted and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were compared. The extract was purified and concentrated by applying a solid phase extraction step followed by ultra-high-performance-chromatographic separation and accurate-mass spectrometric detection using Exacte Orbitrap technology (FWHM 50,000). The effects of the different extraction solvents and conditions on the extraction efficiency were tested. Although both extraction approaches are applicable the optimal extraction efficiency was obtained by applying accelerated solvent extraction using solvent mixtures containing acetone for soil and methanol for plant samples. An ASE process has been validated for the determination of selected pharmaceuticals and fungicides in soil and in plant material. The recoveries from soil samples were >70% for more than 68% of the compounds. The levels of detection were ≤10 μg kg(-1) for 93% of the compounds tested. The recoveries from plant material were >70% for 64% of the compounds tested. The levels of detection were ≤10 μg kg(-1) for 66% of the compounds. The developed method was used to screen soil and plant material collected throughout the Netherlands and oxytetracycline residues were detected. PMID:22265554

  7. Pressurized solvent extraction of pure food grade starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercial pressurized solvent extractor was used to remove lipid and non-lipid material from cornstarch using n-propanol/water and ethanol/water mixtures. Yields and chemical composition of the extract fractions were determined. Cornstarch samples were characterized using pasting properties and...

  8. A new solid state extractor pulser for the FNAL magnetron ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, D. S.; Lackey, J.; Larson, J.; Triplett, K.

    2015-10-05

    A new solid state extractor pulser has been installed on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) magnetron ion source, replacing a vacuum tube style pulser that was used for over 40 years. The required ion source extraction voltage is 35 kV for injection into the radio frequency quadrupole. At this voltage, the old pulser had a rise time of over 150 μs due to the current limit of the vacuum tube. The new solid state pulsers are capable of 50 kV, 100 A peak current pulses and have a rise time of 9 μs when installed in the operational system. This paper will discuss the pulser design and operational experience to date.

  9. A new solid state extractor pulser for the FNAL magnetron ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, D. S.; Lackey, J.; Larson, J.; Triplett, K.

    2016-02-01

    A new solid state extractor pulser has been installed on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) magnetron ion source, replacing a vacuum tube style pulser that was used for over 40 years. The required ion source extraction voltage is 35 kV for injection into the radio frequency quadrupole. At this voltage, the old pulser had a rise time of over 150 μs due to the current limit of the vacuum tube. The new solid state pulsers are capable of 50 kV, 100 A peak current pulses and have a rise time of 9 μs when installed in the operational system. This paper will discuss the pulser design and operational experience to date.

  10. A man-portable supercritical fluid extractor

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.W.; Zemanian, T.S.; Lee, R.N.; Wright, C.W.

    1995-12-31

    A new prototype supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) apparatus has been developed for the on-site preparation of solid matrix samples for subsequent organic analysis. The apparatus consists of two parts, each of which satisfy weight and size requirements for portability. They are a generator module that supplies high-pressure carbon dioxide (the source of which is dry ice) and a briefcase containing a pressure regulator, extraction cells, valves for flow control, flow restriction hardware, equipment for sample collection, temperature control devices, and ancillary supplies. The generator module provides carbon dioxide at pressures to 1 kbar ({approximately}14,500 psi), incorporates no moving parts, and allows rapid loading without tools due to novel fingertight closures. Samples are contained in sintered inserts that fit inside three extraction cells that also have rapid, fingertight closures. Analyte collection may be accomplished using liquid solvent or restrictorless rapid depressurization techniques. Control schemes allow operation at a wide variety of pressures and temperatures and the use of static, dynamic, or hybrid static/dynamic extraction strategies. The technical performance of the prototype apparatus was evaluated by comparison of results from the SFE of a soil sample spiked with six to nine organic compounds of environmental interest to Soxhlet extraction.

  11. A man-portable supercritical fluid extractor

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, B.W.; Zemanian, T.S.; Lee, R.N.; Wright, C.W.

    1995-02-01

    A new prototype supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) apparatus has been developed for the on-site preparation of solid matrix samples for subsequent organic analysis. The apparatus consists of two parts, each of which satisfy weight and size requirements for portability. They are a generator module that supplies high-pressure carbon dioxide (the source of which is dry ice) and a briefcase containing a pressure regulator, extraction cells, valves for flow control, flow restriction hardware, equipment for sample collection, temperature control devices, and ancillary supplies. The generator module provides carbon dioxide at pressures to 1 kbar ({approximately}14,500 psi), incorporates no moving parts, and allows rapid loading without tools due to novel fingertight closures. Samples are contained in sintered inserts that fit inside three extraction cells that also have rapid, fingertight closures. Analyte collection can be accomplished using liquid solvent or restrictorless rapid depressurization techniques. Control schemes allow operation at a wide variety of pressures and temperatures and the use of static, dynamic, or hybrid static/dynamic extraction strategies. The technical performance of the prototype apparatus was evaluated by comparison of results from the SFE of a soil sample spiked with six to nine organic compounds of environmental interest to Soxhlet extraction.

  12. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in fish: optimisation and validation of a method based on accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, Giuliana; Ferrari, Angelo; Magi, Emanuele

    2014-01-01

    A simple and robust method for the determination of 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish was developed and validated. A mixture of acetone/n-hexane (1:1, v/v) was selected for accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). After the digestion of fat, the clean-up was carried out using solid phase extraction silica cartridges. Samples were analysed by GC-MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) using three fragment ions for each congener (one quantifier and two qualifiers). PCB 155 and PCB 198 were employed as internal standards. The lowest limit of detection was observed for PCB 28 (0.4ng/g lipid weight). The accuracy of the method was verified by means of the Certified Reference Material EDF-2525 and good results in terms of linearity (R(2)>0.994) and recoveries (80-110%) were also achieved. Precision was evaluated by spiking blank samples at 4, 8 and 12ng/g. Relative standard deviation values for repeatability and reproducibility were lower than 8% and 16%, respectively. The method was applied to the determination of PCBs in 80 samples belonging to four Mediterranean fish species. The proposed procedure is particularly effective because it provides good recoveries with lowered extraction time and solvent consumption; in fact, the total time of extraction is about 12min per sample and, for the clean-up step, a total solvent volume of 13ml is required. PMID:24001849

  13. [Rapid determination of pesticide multiresidues in vegetables and fruits by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with online gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yunfu; Tang, Hongbing; Wu, Ying; Li, Guiying

    2012-07-01

    A novel method was developed for the rapid determination of 22 representative pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with online gel permeation chromatography-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GPC-GC-MS). The sample was extracted by accelerated solvent extraction with dichloromethane-acetone (1:1, v/v) and purified with a carbon/NH2 column, evaporated to dryness by nitrogen, then dissolved in cyclohexane-acetone (7:3, v/v), and finally identified and quantified by GPC-GC-MS system in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The results showed that the linearities of the 22 pesticides were good in their linear ranges. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.3-1.8 microg/kg. The limits of quantification (S/N = 10) ranged from 1-6 microg/kg. The recoveries for all at three spiked levels in Chinese cabbages and apples ranged from 70.5% to 107.5% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 2.1%-8.7%. The proposed method is accurate, sensitive and highly efficient in the extraction, and can be used for the quick determination of the pesticide multiresidues in vegetables and fruits. PMID:23189658

  14. Rapid determination of trace polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter using accelerated solvent extraction followed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianci

    2016-05-01

    A method has been developed for the trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are known as persistent organic pollutants and ubiquitous constituents of fine particulate matter that causes growing airborne pollution. The method, which was especially for samples of airborne particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter, utilized accelerated solvent extraction and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. Four principal parameters of accelerated solvent extraction were optimized to obtain maximum extraction efficiency. Using the established synergetic programs of gradient elution and fluorescence wavelength switching, a rapid separation was achieved in 6.56 min with good linearity for 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (coefficient of determination above 0.999). The limits of detection ranged from 0.833 to 10.0 pg/m(3) . The precision of the method expressed as inter-day relative standard deviation ranged from 0.2 to 1%, which was calculated from nine repetitive measurements of 8.00 μg/L analytes. Average spiked recoveries ranged from 71.6 to 97.7%, with the exception of naphthalene. The rapid, sensitive, and accurate method can meet the pressing needs of health risk assessment and increasingly heavy daily tasks of air quality monitoring. PMID:26991966

  15. Occupational exposure to complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds in ambient air: desorption from activated charcoal using accelerated solvent extraction can replace carbon disulfide?

    PubMed

    Fabrizi, Giovanni; Fioretti, Marzia; Rocca, Lucia Mainero

    2013-01-01

    A desorption study of 57 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been conducted by use of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Different solvents were tested to extract activated charcoal tubes with the objective of replacing carbon disulfide, used in official methods, because of its highly toxic health and environmental effects. Extraction conditions, for example temperature and number of cycles, were investigated and optimized. The definitive extraction procedure selected was use of acetone at 150 °C and two consecutive extraction cycles at a pressure of 1,500 psi. Considering a sample volume of 0.005 Nm(3), corresponding to a sampling time of 8 h at a flow rate of 0.01 L min(-1), the method was validated over the concentration range 65-26,300 μg Nm(-3). The lowest limit of quantification was 6 μg Nm(-3), and recovery for the 93 % of analytes ranged from 65 to 102 %. For most of the compounds, relative standard deviations were less than 15 % for inter and intra-day precision. Uncertainty of measurement was also determined: the relative expanded uncertainty was always below 29.6 %, except for dichlorodifluoromethane. This work shows that use of friendlier solvent, for example acetone, coupled with use of ASE, can replace use of CS(2) for chemical removal of VOCs from activated charcoal. ASE has several advantages over traditional solvent-extraction methods, including shorter extraction time, minimum sample manipulation, high reproducibility, and less extraction discrimination. No loss of sensitivity occurs and there is also a salutary effect on bench workers' health and on the smell of laboratory air. PMID:22968683

  16. Development of an accelerated solvent extraction, ultrasonic derivatisation LC-MS/MS method for the determination of the marker residues of nitrofurans in freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Wei, Huimin; Yuanhu, Pan; Liu, Zhenli; Huang, Lingli; Wang, Yulian; Xie, Shuyu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-01-01

    A rapid method using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and ultrasound enhanced derivatisation has been developed for the quantitative determination of metabolites of nitrofurans, namely 3-amino-2-oxalidinone (AOZ), 5-morpholinomethyl-3-amino-2-oxalidinone (AMOZ), 1-amino-hydantoin (AHD) and semicarbazide (SEM), in muscle and skin of carp and finless eel. The target analytes were extracted using ASE, ultrasonic derivatisation for 1 h and then purified by solid phase extraction. Averaged decision limits (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) of the method were in the range of 0.07-0.13 and 0.31-0.49 µg kg⁻¹ in carp and finless eel, respectively. The accuracy in terms of recovery was in the range 77.2-97.4%. The simplified and traditional methods were compared with incurred residue samples. The simplified method reduced the derivatisation time and has been applied to the determination of nitrofurans residues in fish. PMID:22320705

  17. Determination of acetanilide herbicides in cereal crops using accelerated solvent extraction, solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-electron capture detector.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaping; Yang, Jun; Shi, Ronghua; Su, Qingde; Yao, Li; Li, Panpan

    2011-07-01

    A method was developed to determine eight acetanilide herbicides from cereal crops based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) analysis. During the ASE process, the effect of four parameters (temperature, static time, static cycles and solvent) on the extraction efficiency was considered and compared with shake-flask extraction method. After extraction with ASE, four SPE tubes (graphitic carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA), GCB, Florisil and alumina-N) were assayed for comparison to obtain the best clean-up efficiency. The results show that GCB/PSA cartridge gave the best recoveries and cleanest chromatograms. The analytical process was validated by the analysis of spiked blank samples. Performance characteristics such as linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), precision and recovery were studied. At 0.05 mg/kg spiked level, recoveries and precision values for rice, wheat and maize were 82.3-115.8 and 1.1-13.6%, respectively. For all the herbicides, LOD and LOQ ranged from 0.8 to 1.7 μg/kg and from 2.4 to 5.3 μg/kg, respectively. The proposed analytical methodology was applied for the analysis of the targets in samples; only three herbicides, propyzamid, metolachlor and diflufenican, were detected in two samples. PMID:21656677

  18. Accelerated solvent extraction followed by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to ion trap LC/MS/MS for analysis of benzalkonium chlorides in sediment samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrer, I.; Furlong, E.T.

    2002-01-01

    Benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) were successfully extracted from sediment samples using a new methodology based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by an on-line cleanup step. The BACs were detected by liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using an electrospray interface operated in the positive ion mode. This methodology combines the high efficiency of extraction provided by a pressurized fluid and the high sensitivity offered by the ion trap MS/MS. The effects of solvent type and ASE operational variables, such as temperature and pressure, were evaluated. After optimization, a mixture of acetonitrile/water (6:4 or 7:3) was found to be most efficient for extracting BACs from the sediment samples. Extraction recoveries ranged from 95 to 105% for C12 and C14 homologues, respectively. Total method recoveries from fortified sediment samples, using a cleanup step followed by ASE, were 85% for C12BAC and 79% for C14-BAC. The methodology developed in this work provides detection limits in the subnanogram per gram range. Concentrations of BAC homologues ranged from 22 to 206 ??g/kg in sediment samples from different river sites downstream from wastewater treatment plants. The high affinity of BACs for soil suggests that BACs preferentially concentrate in sediment rather than in water.

  19. 15.6 GHz Ceramic RF Power Extractor Design

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, A.V.; Luo, Y.; Yu, D.

    2004-12-07

    A 15.6GHz, slow-wave dielectric structure with matched RF power outcoupler is described. The extractor is to be driven at the 12th harmonic of a bunched electron beam at the upgraded AWA facility at ANL. The design includes a single-port output with two stubs, an upstream absorber, and a ceramic tube matched for the fundamental mode at the downstream end and for the dipole mode at the upstream end. Two codes (Microwave Studio registered and Gd1) were used to optimize and analyze the design in frequency and time domains including wakefields.

  20. Extractor of software networks from enriched concrete syntax trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savić, Miloš; Rakić, Gordana; Budimac, Zoran; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2012-09-01

    Software networks are directed graphs of dependencies among entities (packages, classes, methods, etc.) found in a software system. These structures are used to study organizational software complexity and evolution. In this paper the prototype of software networks extractor - SNEIPL is described. SNEIPL uses enriched concrete syntax tree (eCST) representation of a source code. The benefit of such representation is that it enables independency of programming language. First experiences using SNEIPL showed that it correctly extracted isomorphic software networks from the source code of two structurally and semantically equivalent programs written in different programming languages.

  1. [Intrauterine extraction of intrauterine devices using the BMK-2 extractor of our design].

    PubMed

    Berić, B; Vukelić, J; Marjanović, M; Bujas, M; Tomcova, A

    1989-01-01

    The so-called "lost" IUD's cannot be removed by common vaginocervical traction. The author extracts them by the intrauterine BMK-extractor (Instrumntalia, Zagreb) of his own construction. There were 150 extractions with no complication, performed by the use of the BMK-2 extractor in period from August 1, 1985 to December 31, 1988. PMID:2640268

  2. Comparison of accelerated solvent extraction and quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for extraction and determination of pharmaceuticals in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ya-Hui; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Wei; Boyd, Stephen A; Li, Hui

    2015-07-24

    Land application of biosolids and irrigation with reclaimed water in agricultural production could result in accumulation of pharmaceuticals in vegetable produce. To better assess the potential human health impact from long-term consumption of pharmaceutical-contaminated vegetables, it is important to accurately quantify the amount of pharmaceuticals accumulated in vegetables. In this study, a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method was developed and optimized to extract multiple classes of pharmaceuticals from vegetables, which were subsequently quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. For the eleven target pharmaceuticals in celery and lettuce, the extraction recovery of the QuEChERS method ranged from 70.1 to 118.6% with relative standard deviation <20%, and the method detection limit was achieved at the levels of nanograms of pharmaceuticals per gram of vegetables. The results revealed that the performance of the QuEChERS method was comparable to, or better than that of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) method for extraction of pharmaceuticals from plants. The two optimized extraction methods were applied to quantify the uptake of pharmaceuticals by celery and lettuce growing hydroponically. The results showed that all the eleven target pharmaceuticals could be absorbed by the vegetables from water. Compared to the ASE method, the QuEChERS method offers the advantages of short time and reduced costs of sample preparation, and less amount of organic solvents used. The established QuEChERS method could be used to determine the accumulation of multiple classes of pharmaceutical residues in vegetables and other plants, which is needed to evaluate the quality and safety of agricultural produce consumed by humans. PMID:26065569

  3. [Determination of eight defoliant residues in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Dong, Suozhuai; Pan, Lulu; Zhao, Shanhong; Wang, Lijun; Guo, Fanglong; Li, Dan

    2013-07-01

    A novel method has been developed for the rapid extraction and determination of eight defoliants including thidiazuron, butiphos, methabenzthiazuron, abscisic acid, carfentra-zone-ethyl, diuron, paraquat, and pyrithiobac-sodium in cotton by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The defoliants in cotton were extracted by ASE and the extracts were dried by a rotavapor, then redissolved in the solvents of acetonitrile and water (1:9, v/v). The chromatographic analysis was performed on an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (50 mmx 2. 1 mm, 1. 8 microm) by a gradient elution employing of acetonitrile and 0.05% (v/v) formic acid as mobile phases. The analytes were detected by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. Good linearities (r >0.99) were observed between 0. 01 and 0. 3 mg/L for all the compounds. The recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were obtained by spiking untreated samples with the eight defoliants at 0. 1, 0. 5 and 1.0 mg/kg. The average recoveries of the eight defoliants were from (84. 18 +/- 8.04)% to (95.99 +/- 6.76)%. The precision values expressed as RSDs were from 7. 04% to 10. 60% (n = 6). The limits of detection were 0. 8 - 29 microg/kg and the limits of quantification were 2.5 - 96 1/4g/kg for the analytes. The results ahowed that the method is simple, rapid, sensitive and accurate, and is suitable for the quantitative determination and confirmation of the eight defoliants in cotton. PMID:24164041

  4. Validation of an accelerated solvent extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for Pacific ciguatoxin-1 in fish flesh and comparison with the mouse neuroblastoma assay.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jia Jun; Mak, Yim Ling; Murphy, Margaret B; Lam, James C W; Chan, Wing Hei; Wang, Mingfu; Chan, Leo L; Lam, Paul K S

    2011-07-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a global foodborne illness caused by consumption of seafood containing ciguatoxins (CTXs) originating from dinoflagellates such as Gambierdiscus toxicus. P-CTX-1 has been suggested to be the most toxic CTX, causing ciguatera at 0.1 μg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. CTXs are structurally complex and difficult to quantify, but there is a need for analytical methods for CFP toxins in coral reef fishes to protect human health. In this paper, we describe a sensitive and rapid extraction method using accelerated solvent extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the detection and quantification of P-CTX-1 in fish flesh. By the use of a more sensitive MS system (5500 QTRAP), the validated method has a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01 μg/kg, linearity correlation coefficients above 0.99 for both solvent- and matrix-based standard solutions as well as matrix spike recoveries ranging from 49% to 85% in 17 coral reef fish species. Compared with previous methods, this method has better overall recovery, extraction efficiency and LOQ. Fish flesh from 12 blue-spotted groupers (Cephalopholis argus) was assessed for the presence of CTXs using HPLC-MS/MS analysis and the commonly used mouse neuroblastoma assay, and the results of the two methods were strongly correlated. This method is capable of detecting low concentrations of P-CTX-1 in fish at levels that are relevant to human health, making it suitable for monitoring of suspected ciguateric fish both in the environment and in the marketplace. PMID:21505950

  5. One way Doppler Extractor. Volume 2: Digital VCO technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nossen, E. J.; Starner, E. R.

    1974-01-01

    A feasibility analysis and trade-offs for a one-way Doppler extractor using digital VCO techniques is presented. The method of Doppler measurement involves the use of a digital phase lock loop; once this loop is locked to the incoming signal, the precise frequency and hence the Doppler component can be determined directly from the contents of the digital control register. The only serious error source is due to internally generated noise. Techniques are presented for minimizing this error source and achieving an accuracy of 0.01 Hz in a one second averaging period. A number of digitally controlled oscillators were analyzed from a performance and complexity point of view. The most promising technique uses an arithmetic synthesizer as a digital waveform generator.

  6. Field emitter based extractor gauges and residual gas analyzers

    SciTech Connect

    Changkun Dong; G. Rao Myneni

    1999-04-01

    Attempts at using the Spindt-type molybdenum field emitter arrays in the extractor gauges and a residual gas analyzer are presented in this article. The sensitivity of the fuel emitter gauge is as high as 11 Torr{sup -1}. The departure from linearity of the pressure versus ion current measurements did not exceed 10% over the pressure range of 10{sup -10} - 10{sup -6} Torr. Stable sensitivities for nitrogen, helium, and hydrogen were achieved below 10{sup -7} Torr with the field emitter residual gas analyzer. The slightly reduced emission current and sensitivity, after long-term operation, are of concern and need to be addressed. Residual gas spectra indicate that when using field emitters, the electron stimulated desorption ions (O{sup +}, F{sup +}, and Cl{sup +}) are reduced as compared to those made using a hot filament source.

  7. Optimization of an accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the separation and determination of essential oil from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Sun, Qiushi; Hu, Zhiyan; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Tingting; Fan, Guorong

    2015-10-01

    In this study, an accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was established and employed for the extraction, concentration and analysis of essential oil constituents from Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. Response surface methodology was performed to optimize the key parameters in accelerated solvent extraction on the extraction efficiency, and key parameters in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction were discussed as well. Two representative constituents in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort, (Z)-ligustilide and n-butylphthalide, were quantitatively analyzed. It was shown that the qualitative result of the accelerated solvent extraction dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction approach was in good agreement with that of hydro-distillation, whereas the proposed approach took far less extraction time (30 min), consumed less plant material (usually <1 g, 0.01 g for this study) and solvent (<20 mL) than the conventional system. To sum up, the proposed method could be recommended as a new approach in the extraction and analysis of essential oil. PMID:26304788

  8. Applicability of accelerated solvent extraction for synthetic colorants analysis in meat products with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Qie Gen; Li, Wei Hong; Luo, Lin Guang

    2012-02-24

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with photodiode array detection (PDA) has been used for the quantitative determination of synthetic colorants in meat products. Samples were extracted with ethanol-water-ammonia with a ratio of 75:24:1 (v/v/v) using ASE instrument at 85°C. As a result, all the colorants in meat products were separated using an optimized gradient elution within 3.5 min. Detection and quantification limits of synthetic colorants were in the ranges of 0.01-0.02 mg kg(-1) and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day precision of the synthetic colorants were ranged between 1.7% (E123) to 5.2% (E124) and 3.2% (E124) to 6.0% (E129), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day recoveries of the synthetic colorants were ranged between 76.9% (E124) to 84.9% (E102) and 76.3% (E124) to 84.3% (E127), respectively. The method has been applied for the determination of seven synthetic colorants in meat products. PMID:22284887

  9. [Determination of ten pesticides of pyrazoles and pyrroles in tea by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Xu, Dunming; Lu, Shengyu; Chen, Dajie; Lan, Jinchang; Zhang, Zhigang; Yang, Fang; Zhou, Yu

    2013-03-01

    An effective method was developed and applied to determine the residues of ten pesticides of pyrazoles and pyrroles in tea by accelerated solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (ASE-GC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate-hexane (1:1, v/v) for 5 min at 1.03 x 10(7) Pa and 100 degree C for one cycle. Then, they were purified by Envi-Carb/PSA column, and eluted by ethyl acetate-hexane (1:1, v/v). The analytes were determined by GC-MS/MS and quantified by external standard method. The limits of quantification were 0.003 mg/kg for fenpyroximate, 0.001 mg/kg for fipronil-sulfide, 0.002 mg/kg for fipronil, 0.005 mg/kg for fipronil-sulfone, 0.002 mg/kg for chlorfenapyr, 0.006 mg/kg for flusilazole, 0.001 mg/kg for difenzoquat, 0.001 mg/kg for pyraflufen-ethyl, 0.000 3 mg/kg for tebufenpyrad and 0.005 mg/kg for tolfenpyrad. The results show that the proposed method is sensitive and accurate for the determination of the ten pesticide residues. PMID:23785993

  10. Simultaneous determination of fluoroquinolones in foods of animal origin by a high performance liquid chromatography and a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huan; Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Pan, Yuanhu; Liu, Zhenli; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Dai, Menghong; Peng, Dapeng; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-02-15

    A confirmatory and quantitative method based on a high performance liquid chromatography UV detector (HPLC-UV) and a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with an extraction procedure of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) has been developed for simultaneous determination of 15 kinds of fluoroquinolones in various animal origin food samples. The sample preparation procedures consist of an extraction step with acetonitrile and a cleaning-up step with Oasis HLB cartridge. Parameters for extraction pressure and temperature, cycle of ASE, clean-up, and analysis procedure have been optimized systematically. The recoveries of FQNs spiked in the tissues as the muscle, liver, kidney of swine, bovine, chicken and fish at a concentration range of 10-800μg/kg were found between 70.6% and 111.1% with relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 15% in HPLC. The LOD and LOQ of the HPLC for the 15 FQNs were 3μg/kg and 10μg/kg, respectively, and those of the LC-MS/MS were 0.3 and 1μg/kg, respectively. These rapid and reliable methods can be used to efficiently separate, characterize and quantify the residues of 15 FQNs (Marbofloxacin, Enoxacin, Fleroxacin, Ofloxacin, Pefloxacin, Lomefloxacin, Danofloxacin, Enrofloxacin, Orbifloxacin, Cinoxacin, Gatifloxacin, Sarafloxacin, Difloxacin, Nalidixic Acid, Flumequine) in food of animal origin. PMID:22230742

  11. Analysis of vitamin K1 in fruits and vegetables using accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Jäpelt, Rie Bak; Jakobsen, Jette

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific analytical method to study vitamin K1 in fruits and vegetables. Accelerated solvent extraction and solid phase extraction was used for sample preparation. Quantification was done by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization in selected reaction monitoring mode with deuterium-labeled vitamin K1 as an internal standard. The precision was estimated as the pooled estimate of three replicates performed on three different days for spinach, peas, apples, banana, and beetroot. The repeatability was 5.2% and the internal reproducibility was 6.2%. Recovery was in the range 90-120%. No significant difference was observed between the results obtained by the present method and by a method using the same principle as the CEN-standard i.e. liquid-liquid extraction and post-column zinc reduction with fluorescence detection. Limit of quantification was estimated to 0.05 μg/100g fresh weight. PMID:26304366

  12. Investigation of six bioactive anthraquinones in slimming tea by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance capillary electrophoresis with diode-array detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Su, Ming; Liang, Shuxuan; Sun, Hanwen

    2016-05-15

    A rapid and effective method for effective separation and rapid simultaneous determination of six bioactive anthraquinones by capillary zone electrophoresis was developed. An accelerated solvent extraction procedure was used for the extraction of anthraquinones from slimming tea. Under the optimized conditions, the effective separation of six anthraquinones was achieved within 8 min. Good linearity was achieved, with a correlation coefficient (r) of ⩾ 0.999. The limit of detection ranged from 0.33 to 1.40 μg mL(-1). The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) of the six analytes was in the range of 2.3-3.9% and 3.2-4.9%, respectively. The average recovery of the six analytes from real tea samples was in the range of 86.15-98.30% with the RSD of 1.04-4.99%. The developed and validated method has speediness, high sensitivity, recovery and precision, and can be applied for the quality control of slimming tea. PMID:26775937

  13. Validation and application of a multi-residue method, using accelerated solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography, for pesticides quantification in soil.

    PubMed

    Leyva-Morales, J B; Valdez-Torres, J B; Bastidas-Bastidas, P J; Betancourt-Lozano, M

    2015-01-01

    A multi-residue method was developed to determine different types of pesticides in soils. An extraction with pressure and temperature, through accelerated solvent extraction (dichloromethane:acetone, 50:50, v/v). The pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with several selective detectors: electron capture detector, pulsed flame photometric detector and thermionic specific detector. The following parameters were determined: limit of detection, limit of quantification, equipment linearity (working interval), method linearity as well as, method accuracy and precision. The average recoveries ranged between 76 and 106%, with the exception of chlorothalonil, which had an average recovery of 46%. Additionally, detection limits from 0.9 to 7.6ng g -: (1) and the quantification limits from 3.00 to 25.47ng g -: (1) were estimated. In terms of linearity and precision, the results obtained were in the ranges considered adequate (R(2) ≥ 0.98 and coefficient of variation (CV) ≤ 20%), with the exception of aldrin (R(2) = 0.946, CV = 35.79%), lindane (R(2) = 0.917, CV = 32.91%) and chlorothalonil (R(2) = 0.8184, CV = 81.35%). The proposed method was used to evaluate pesticides in real soil samples, detecting concentrations over 1000ng g -: (1) for some pesticides. The method was correctly validated and provided for the rapid determination of pesticides in soil. PMID:26041247

  14. Determination of Polymer Additives-Antioxidants, Ultraviolet Stabilizers, Plasticizers and Photoinitiators in Plastic Food Package by Accelerated Solvent Extraction Coupled with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Qin-Bao; Hu, Chang-Ying; Su, Qi-Zhi; Wu, Yu-Mei

    2015-07-01

    An analytical method for the quantitative determination of 4 antioxidants, 9 ultraviolet (UV) stabilizers, 12 phthalate plasticizers and 2 photoinitiators in plastic food package using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) has been developed. Parameters affecting the efficiency in the process such as extraction and chromatographic conditions were studied in order to determine operating conditions. The analytical method of ASE-HPLC showed good linearity with good correlation coefficients (R ≥ 0.9833). The limits of detection and quantification were between 0.03 and 0.30 µg mL(-1) and between 0.10 and 1.00 µg mL(-1) for 27 analytes. Average spiked recoveries for most analytes in samples were >70.4% at 10, 20 and 40 µg g(-1) spiked levels, except UV-9 and Irganox 1010 (58.6 and 64.0% spiked at 10 µg g(-1), respectively), the relative standard deviations were in the range from 0.4 to 15.4%. The methodology has been proposed for the analysis of 27 polymer additives in plastic food package. PMID:25472804

  15. Determination of typical lipophilic marine toxins in marine sediments from three coastal bays of China using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlong; Chen, Junhui; Li, Zhaoyong; Wang, Shuai; Shi, Qian; Cao, Wei; Zheng, Xiaoling; Sun, Chengjun; Wang, Xiaoru; Zheng, Li

    2015-12-30

    A method based on sample preparation by accelerated solvent extraction and analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was validated and used for determination of seven typical lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs) in marine sediment samples collected from three typical coastal bays in China. Satisfactory specificity, reproducibility (RSDs ≤ 14.76%), stability (RSDs ≤ 17.37%), recovery (78.0%-109.0%), and detection limit (3.440 pg/g-61.85 pg/g) of the developed method were achieved. The results obtained from the analysis of samples from Hangzhou Bay revealed okadaic acid as the predominant LMT with concentrations ranging from 186.0 to 280.7 pg/g. Pecenotoxin-2 was quantified in sediment samples from Laizhou Bay at the concentrations from 256.4 to 944.9 pg/g. These results suggested that the proposed method was reliable for determining the typical LMTs in marine sediments and that the sediments obtained from Hangzhou Bay, Laizhou Bay and Jiaozhou Bay were all contaminated by certain amounts of LMTs. PMID:26507511

  16. A PLANAR, RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE LAUNCHER AND EXTRACTOR FOR A DUAL-MODED RF POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Nantista, Christopher D.

    2000-11-21

    The desire to reduce the amount of low-loss, circular-waveguide delay line required in a pulse-compressing power distribution system for the Next Linear Collider has led to the pursuit of multi-moded schemes [1]. In such a system, power is delivered to different destinations through the same waveguide via different propagating modes. Current plans [2] utilize two modes, with manipulations done primarily in overmoded rectangular guide. We describe two key components of the system, a four-input/four-output, dual-mode launcher and an extractor for diverting one mode from the delay line to an accelerator feed while allowing the other to pass on to an upstream feed. These novel passive waveguide devices utilize the rectangular TE10 and TE20 modes. Because they must carry up to 600 MW pulsed rf power, H-planar symmetry is maintained in their designs to allow the use of overheight waveguide, and features that invite breakdown, such as coupling slots, irises, and septa, are avoided. Special rectangular-to-circular tapers [3] will be used to convert between the above modes and the circular TE11{sup o} (TE12{sup o}) and TE01{sup o} delay line modes, respectively. Rectangular waveguide for relative ease of handling. Mode converters, including special cross-section tapers [3] will be used to transform between the above circular waveguide modes and the TE20 and TE10 rectangular waveguide modes, respectively.

  17. Model of mass transfer processes in the cascade of centrifugal extractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenetskaya, E. P.; Goryunov, A. G.; Daneikina, N. V.

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes a mathematical model of mass transfer processes in a cascade of reverse-flow centrifugal extractors. Model of operation of each extractor is given as tightly coupled system of mixing and separating chambers. All model units are represented by systems of differential equations. The article presents the results of testing of the developed model, which confirmed the validity of the assumptions made in the model. The authors assessed the impact of the overflow of dense phase level on the hydrostatic position of phase interface level in the extractor. The research showed that a change in the volume of dense and light phases occurs in each apparatus of a cascade even in the steady mode. Operation of the cascade consisting of 12 series-connected centrifugal extractors was simulated in order to verify the model. Computer simulation results confirm the adequacy of the developed model.

  18. Continuous back extraction operation by a single liquid-liquid centrifugal extractor

    SciTech Connect

    Nakase, M.; Takeshita, K.

    2013-07-01

    We have developed a small, high-performance liquid-liquid countercurrent centrifugal extractor for the nuclear fuel cycle. The single extractor allows extraction with many multiple theoretical stages due to the formation of Taylor vortices. We have previously demonstrated multistage extraction for a forward extraction system. In this study, we have applied the centrifugal extractor to a continuous back extraction system with di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid. We examined the performance of our concept of the centrifugal extractor by varying the rotational speeds of the inner rotor and the nitric acid concentration in the stripping solution. The dispersion behavior, flow characteristics were determined and the back extraction performance was examined for a single chemical species and for multiple species. Complete back extraction by continuous process was achieved and it showed the possibility to minimize the volume and nitric acid concentration of the stripping solution. Our centrifugal extractors may provide a more effective separation system than the conventional separation process that uses many continuously connected extractors. (authors)

  19. Development of a method based on accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for determination of arylphenoxypropionic herbicides in soil.

    PubMed

    Marchese, S; Perret, D; Gentili, A; Curini, R; Marino, A

    2001-01-01

    A sensitive and specific analytical procedure for determining arylphenoxypropionic herbicides in soil samples, using Ionspray ionization (ISI) liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), is presented. Arylphenoxypropionic acids are a new class of herbicides used for selective removal of most grass species from any non-grass crop, commercialized as herbicide esters. Previous studies have shown that the esters undergo fast hydrolysis in the presence of vegetable tissues and soil bacteria, yelding the corresponding free acid. The feasibility of rapidly extracting arylphenoxypropionic herbicides from soil by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) techniques was evaluated. Four different soil samples were fortified with target compounds at levels of 5 and 20 ng/g by following a procedure able to mimic weathered soils. Herbicides were extracted by a methanol/water (80:20 v/v) solution (0.12 M) of NaCl at 90 degrees C. After clean-up using graphitized carbon black (GCB) as absorbent, the extract was analyzed by HPLC/ISI-MS. The effect of concentration of acid in the mobile phase on the response of ISI-MS was investigated. The effects of varying the orifice plate voltage on the production of diagnostic fragment ions, and on the response of the MS detector, were also investigated. The ISI-MS response was linearly related to the amounts of analytes injected between 1 and 200 ng. The limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of the method for the pesticides in soil samples was estimated to be less than 1 ng/g. PMID:11291116

  20. Simultaneous determination of lincomycin and spectinomycin residues in animal tissues by gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Tao, Y; Chen, D; Yu, G; Yu, H; Pan, Y; Wang, Y; Huang, L; Yuan, Z

    2011-02-01

    A new multi-dimensional analytical method using gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC-NPD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for qualitative and quantitative measurement of lincomycin and spectinomycin residues in food animal tissues. This method is based on a new extraction procedure using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The analytes were extracted by phosphate buffer with trichloroacetic acid deproteinization and clean-up by C₁₈ solid-phase extraction (SPE) adding dodecanesulfonic acid sodium salt as an ion-pair reagent. The eluted fraction was evaporated and derivatised with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) for GC-NPD analysis and GC-MS confirmation. Parameters for extraction pressure, temperature and cycle of ASE, clean-up, derivatisation and analysis procedure were optimised. The method was validated in muscle, kidney and liver of swine, bovine with a low concentration (limit of quantification) of 16.4 and 21.4 µg kg⁻¹ for these two analytes using GC-NPD. For GC-MS, the limits of quantification were 4.1 and 5.6 µg kg⁻¹, respectively. Spiked recoveries from levels of 20 to 200 µg kg⁻¹ were found to be between 73% and 99% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 17% in GC-NPD. For GC-MS, levels from 5 to 20 µg kg⁻¹ had between 70% and 93% with an RSD of less than 21%. This rapid and reliable method can be used for the characterisation and quantification of residues of lincomycin and spectinomycin in animal tissues. PMID:21240824

  1. Determination of ultra-trace organic acids in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) by accelerated solvent extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuiliang; Fan, China Q; Wang, Ping

    2015-02-15

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE)-solid-phase extraction (SPE)-liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ASE-SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS) methodology was developed for the extraction, cleanup and quantification of ultra-trace organic acids in Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) tissues. The separation was carried out on a Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87H sulfonic column with an eluent containing 5 mmol L(-1) H₂SO₄ at a flow rate of 0.5 mL min(-1). A linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) source was operated in negative ion mode, and the six organic acids were eluted within 20 min. ASE extraction, SPE cleanup and LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis conditions were optimized to obtain reliable information about plant organic acid composition. Selective reaction monitoring (SRM) was employed for quantitative measurement. Intra-day precisions averaged 6.7%, and inter-day precisions were 2.1-10.7% for organic acid measurements in the pine samples. External standard calibration curves were linear over the range of 16.5-5000 ng L(-1), and detection limits based on a signal-to-noise ratio of three were at 0.5-5.0 ng L(-1). The results obtained showed the sensibility of the method was better than that of previously described HPLC methodology, and had no significant matrix effect. The proposed ASE-SPE-LC-ESI-MS/MS method is sensitive and reliable for the determination of ultra-trace organic acids in plant samples, despite the presence of the particularly complex matrix. PMID:25594951

  2. A sensitive and validated HPLC method for the determination of cyromazine and melamine in herbal and edible plants using accelerated solvent extraction and cleanup with SPE.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xusheng; Wu, Xingqiang; Liang, Shuxuan; Sun, Hanwen

    2014-08-01

    A highly sensitive method was developed for the determination of the residues of cyromazine (CYR) and its metabolite, melamine (MEL), in herbal and edible plant samples by using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection (RP-HPLC-DAD) with accelerated solvent extraction and solid phase extraction cleanup. The conditions of separation and detection were investigated and optimized. A Waters C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) was used for the RP-HPLC, with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid solution and methanol (85:15, v/v, pH 2.6). Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was achieved with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998. The limits of quantification of the method were 2.15 µg/kg for CYR and 2.51 µg/kg for MEL, which are maximum residue limits as low as three orders of magnitude. The recovery values at three spiked concentrations were in the range of 96.2-107.1% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.1-5.7% for CYR, and 92.7-104.9% with RSDs of 1.7-6.1% for MEL. The proposed method allows detection at levels as low as µg/kg levels for CYR and MEL. The method was validated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and can be used for the routine determination of CYR and MEL in herbal and edible plant samples with the characteristics of speed, high sensitivity and accuracy, and low consumption of reagents. PMID:23845887

  3. Acid wash of second cycle solvent in the recovery of uranium from phosphate rock

    SciTech Connect

    York, W.R.

    1984-02-07

    Entrainment of contaminated water in the organic phase and poor phase disengagement is prevented in the second cycle scrubber, in a two cycle-uranium recovery process, by washing the organic solvent stream containing entrained H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ from the second cycle extractor, with a dilute aqueous sulfuric or nitric acid solution in an acid scrubber, prior to passing the solvent stream into the second cycle stripper.

  4. Long-wave infrared profile feature extractor (PFx) sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartain, Ronald B.; Aliberti, Keith; Alexander, Troy; Chiu, David

    2009-05-01

    The Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Profile Feature Extractor (PFx) sensor has evolved from the initial profiling sensor that was developed by the University of Memphis (Near IR) and the Army Research Laboratory (visible). This paper presents the initial signatures of the LWIR PFx for human with and without backpacks, human with animal (dog), and a number of other animals. The current version of the LWIR PFx sensor is a diverging optical tripwire sensor. The LWIR PFx signatures are compared to the signatures of the Profile Sensor in the visible and Near IR spectral regions. The LWIR PFx signatures were collected with two different un-cooled micro bolometer focal plane array cameras, where the individual pixels were used as stand alone detectors (a non imaging sensor). This approach results in a completely passive, much lower bandwidth, much longer battery life, low weight, small volume sensor that provides sufficient information to classify objects into human Vs non human categories with a 98.5% accuracy.

  5. Improved visual background extractor using an adaptive distance threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guang; Wang, Jinkuan; Cai, Xi

    2014-11-01

    Camouflage is a challenging issue in moving object detection. Even the recent and advanced background subtraction technique, visual background extractor (ViBe), cannot effectively deal with it. To better handle camouflage according to the perception characteristics of the human visual system (HVS) in terms of minimum change of intensity under a certain background illumination, we propose an improved ViBe method using an adaptive distance threshold, named IViBe for short. Different from the original ViBe using a fixed distance threshold for background matching, our approach adaptively sets a distance threshold for each background sample based on its intensity. Through analyzing the performance of the HVS in discriminating intensity changes, we determine a reasonable ratio between the intensity of a background sample and its corresponding distance threshold. We also analyze the impacts of our adaptive threshold together with an update mechanism on detection results. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms ViBe even when the foreground and background share similar intensities. Furthermore, in a scenario where foreground objects are motionless for several frames, our IViBe not only reduces the initial false negatives, but also suppresses the diffusion of misclassification caused by those false negatives serving as erroneous background seeds, and hence shows an improved performance compared to ViBe.

  6. Understanding the Mechanisms Enabling an Ultra-high Efficiency Moving Wire Interface for Real-time Carbon 14 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Quantitation of Samples Suspended in Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Avraham Thaler

    Carbon 14 (14C) quantitation by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is a powerfully sensitive and uniquely quantitative tool for tracking labeled carbonaceous molecules in biological systems. This is due to 14C's low natural abundance of 1 ppt, the nominal difference in biological activity between an unlabeled and a 14C-labeled molecule, and the ability of AMS to measure isotopic ratios independently of a sample's other characteristics. To make AMS more broadly accessible, a moving wire interface for real-time coupling of high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to AMS and high throughput AMS quantitation of minute single samples has been developed. Prior to this work, samples needed to be converted to solid carbon before measurement. This conversion process has many steps and requires that the sample size be large enough to allow precise handling of the resulting graphite. These factors make the process susceptible to error and time consuming, as well as requiring 0.5 ug of carbon. Samples which do not contain enough carbon, such as HPLC fractions, must be bulked up. This adds background and increases effort. The moving wire interface overcomes these limitations by automating sample processing. Samples placed on the wire are transported through a solvent removal stage followed by a combustion stage after which the combustion products are directed to a gas accepting ion source. The ion source converts the carbon from the CO2 combustion product into C ions, from which an isotopic ratio can be determined by AMS. Although moving wire interfaces have been implemented for various tasks since 1964, the efficiency of these systems at transferring fluid from an HPLC to the wire was only 3%, the efficiency of transferring combustion products from the combustion oven to ion source was only 30%, the flow and composition of the carrier gas from the combustion oven to the ion source needed to be optimized for coupling to an AMS gas accepting ion source and the drying ovens

  7. Deep eutectic solvents in countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Roehrer, Simon; Bezold, Franziska; García, Eva Marra; Minceva, Mirjana

    2016-02-19

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were evaluated as solvents in centrifugal partition chromatography, a liquid-liquid chromatography separation technology. To this end, the partition coefficients of ten natural compounds of different hydrophobicity were determined in non-aqueous biphasic systems containing DES. The influence of the composition of DESs and the presence of water in the biphasic system on the partition coefficient were also examined. In addition, several process relevant physical properties of the biphasic system, such as the density and viscosity of the phases, were measured. A mixture of three to four hydrophobic compounds was successfully separated in a centrifugal partition extractor using a heptane/ethanol/DES biphasic system. PMID:26810802

  8. Analysis of organochlorine pesticides in coral (Porites evermanni) samples using accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongli; Miao, Xiusheng; Li, Qing X

    2008-02-01

    A gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry method was developed for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in coral samples, which were extracted with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and cleaned up on a sulfuric acid-modified silica gel column. The optimal ASE conditions were found to be 100 degrees C and 2000 psi, with a mixture of acetone and methylene chloride (1:1, v/v). The target analytes include hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs, specifically, alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-HCH isomers), heptachlor, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), o,p'-, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p'-, p,p'-DDT), o,p'-, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl-dichloroethylene (o,p'-, p,p'-DDE), and o,p'-, p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (o,p'-, p,p'-DDD). Standard sand samples were used as an alternative matrix spiked with OCP standards to determine the method precision and accuracy. Average recoveries of OCPs ranged from 82% to 102%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3%-6%, at a level of 10 ng/g and from 50% to 68%, with RSDs of 13%-19% at a level of 2 ng/g. The developed method was applied for analysis of OCPs in coral samples collected from Tern Island and Bikini Atoll in the Pacific Ocean. The concentrations of HCB were 7-26 pg/g dry weight in the samples from Bikini Atoll and 3-45 pg/g in those from Tern Island, and heptachlor concentrations were 208-2200 and 44-104 pg/g in the coral samples from Bikini Atoll and Tern Island, respectively. (summation operator)HCH (sum of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-HCH) were 8-82 pg/g in Bikini Atoll coral and 86-629 pg/g in Tern island coral, and (summation operator)DDT (sum of o,p'-, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-, p,p'-DDE, and o,p'- p,p'-DDT) were 80-212 pg/g in Bikini Atoll coral and 593-3165 pg/g in Tern Island coral. The results suggest that coral is a viable indicator species for pollution monitoring, which pollutants and their concentrations may be related to dated carbonate layers. PMID:17721673

  9. Analysis of intracellular and extracellular microcystin variants in sediments and pore waters by accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zastepa, Arthur; Pick, Frances R; Blais, Jules M; Saleem, Ammar

    2015-05-01

    The fate and persistence of microcystin cyanotoxins in aquatic ecosystems remains poorly understood in part due to the lack of analytical methods for microcystins in sediments. Existing methods have been limited to the extraction of a few extracellular microcystins of similar chemistry. We developed a single analytical method, consisting of accelerated solvent extraction, hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid phase extraction, and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, suitable for the extraction and quantitation of both intracellular and extracellular cyanotoxins in sediments as well as pore waters. Recoveries of nine microcystins, representing the chemical diversity of microcystins, and nodularin (a marine analogue) ranged between 75 and 98% with one, microcystin-RR (MC-RR), at 50%. Chromatographic separation of these analytes was achieved within 7.5 min and the method detection limits were between 1.1 and 2.5 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw). The robustness of the method was demonstrated on sediment cores collected from seven Canadian lakes of diverse geography and trophic states. Individual microcystin variants reached a maximum concentration of 829 ng g(-1) dw on sediment particles and 132 ng mL(-1) in pore waters and could be detected in sediments as deep as 41 cm (>100 years in age). MC-LR, -RR, and -LA were more often detected while MC-YR, -LY, -LF, and -LW were less common. The analytical method enabled us to estimate sediment-pore water distribution coefficients (K(d)), MC-RR had the highest affinity for sediment particles (log K(d)=1.3) while MC-LA had the lowest affinity (log K(d)=-0.4), partitioning mainly into pore waters. Our findings confirm that sediments serve as a reservoir for microcystins but suggest that some variants may diffuse into overlying water thereby constituting a new route of exposure following the dissipation of toxic blooms. The method is well suited to determine the fate and persistence of different

  10. Design and analysis of a radio frequency extractor in an S-band relativistic klystron amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Zehai; Zhang Jun; Shu Ting; Qi Zumin

    2012-09-15

    A radio frequency (RF) extractor converts the energy of a strongly modulated intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) into the energy of high power microwave in relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA). In the aim of efficiently extracting the energy of the modulated IREB, a RF extractor with all round coupling structure is proposed. Due to the all round structure, the operating transverse magnetic mode can be established easily and its resonant property can be investigated with an approach of group delay time. Furthermore, the external quality factor can be low enough. The design and analysis of the extractor applied in an S-band RKA are carried out, and the performance of the extractor is validated with three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulations. The extraction efficiency reaches 27% in the simulation with a totally 3D model of the whole RKA. The primary experiments are also carried out and the results show that the RF extractor with the external quality factor of 7.9 extracted 22% of the beam power and transformed it into the high power microwave. Better results are expected after the parasitic mode between the input and middle cavities is suppressed.

  11. Design and analysis of a radio frequency extractor in an S-band relativistic klystron amplifier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zehai; Zhang, Jun; Shu, Ting; Qi, Zumin

    2012-09-01

    A radio frequency (RF) extractor converts the energy of a strongly modulated intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) into the energy of high power microwave in relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA). In the aim of efficiently extracting the energy of the modulated IREB, a RF extractor with all round coupling structure is proposed. Due to the all round structure, the operating transverse magnetic mode can be established easily and its resonant property can be investigated with an approach of group delay time. Furthermore, the external quality factor can be low enough. The design and analysis of the extractor applied in an S-band RKA are carried out, and the performance of the extractor is validated with three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulations. The extraction efficiency reaches 27% in the simulation with a totally 3D model of the whole RKA. The primary experiments are also carried out and the results show that the RF extractor with the external quality factor of 7.9 extracted 22% of the beam power and transformed it into the high power microwave. Better results are expected after the parasitic mode between the input and middle cavities is suppressed. PMID:23020400

  12. Design and analysis of a radio frequency extractor in an S-band relativistic klystron amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zehai; Zhang, Jun; Shu, Ting; Qi, Zumin

    2012-09-01

    A radio frequency (RF) extractor converts the energy of a strongly modulated intense relativistic electron beam (IREB) into the energy of high power microwave in relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA). In the aim of efficiently extracting the energy of the modulated IREB, a RF extractor with all round coupling structure is proposed. Due to the all round structure, the operating transverse magnetic mode can be established easily and its resonant property can be investigated with an approach of group delay time. Furthermore, the external quality factor can be low enough. The design and analysis of the extractor applied in an S-band RKA are carried out, and the performance of the extractor is validated with three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell simulations. The extraction efficiency reaches 27% in the simulation with a totally 3D model of the whole RKA. The primary experiments are also carried out and the results show that the RF extractor with the external quality factor of 7.9 extracted 22% of the beam power and transformed it into the high power microwave. Better results are expected after the parasitic mode between the input and middle cavities is suppressed.

  13. Numerical method for determining electrode shapes for high-perveance extractors

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.D.; Armstrong, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The design of high-perveance extractors is dominated by the space-charge forces in the beam and by the aberrations caused by fringing fields at the apertures. Computer programs were developed for various extractor geometries that incorporate these effects. Basically the approach was to find a Laplace solution, external to the beam, that matches smoothly to the Child-Langmuir potential distribution in a laminar-flow ion beam. The electrode shapes calculated are not unique but do provide the desired beam optics. The application of this technique to the development of electrodes for a 250-mA, 75-keV hydrogen-ion extractor is discussed. For this application spherical geometry was used. The beam obtained was of high quality, that is, low emittance and small angular divergence.

  14. Enhanced flavour extraction in continuous liquid-liquid extractors.

    PubMed

    Apps, Peter; Tock, Margaux Lim Ah

    2005-08-12

    Continuous liquid-liquid extraction is a versatile, reliable and robust sample preparation technique, but there is a tendency for the solvent to make channels through the sample, causing uneven and incomplete extraction. A simple, cheap magnetic stirrer that prevents channelling improves extraction efficiency by between 2.8 and 17.6 times. PMID:16078710

  15. High current Cu3P liquid metal ion source using a novel extractor configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi-Rusli, R. H.; Corelli, J. C.

    1987-12-01

    It has been found that by utilizing a sharp needle for the extractor electrode in close proximity to the source tip wetted with Cu3P liquid alloy, a large increase (factor ˜300) in ion current is observed in comparison to standard liquid metal ion sources (LMIS's). In standard previously used LMIS's the extractor electrode was a flat plane with a circular hole centered on the source needle tip. This new high current source has important applications in focused and broad ion beam deposition systems.

  16. Extraction kinetics of rare earth metals with 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester using a hollow fiber membrane extractor

    SciTech Connect

    Kubota, Fukiko; Goto, Masahiro; Nakashio, Fumiyuki; Hano, Tadashi

    1995-03-01

    A kinetic study concerning chemical complexation-based solvent extraction of rare earth metals with 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester dissolved as an extractant in n-heptane was carried out using a microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber membrane extractor. The effects of concentration of chemical species in aqueous and organic feed solutions on the apparent permeabilities of metal species for extraction and stripping, respectively, were investigated to clarify the permeation mechanism. From the experimental results it was predicted that the permeation rate is controlled by diffusion of the chemical species in aqueous and organic phases and by interfacial chemical reaction. The experimental data were analyzed by the diffusion model accompanied with an interfacial reaction, taking into account the velocity distributions of the aqueous and organic phases through the inner and outer sides of the hollow fiber.

  17. Pitfall Traps and Mini-Winkler Extractor as Complementary Methods to Sample Soil Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, A C; Batistella, D A; Battirola, L D; Marques, M I

    2016-02-01

    We compared abundance, species richness, and capture efficiency with pitfall traps and mini-Winkler extractors to examine their use as complementary methods for sampling soil Coleoptera during dry (2010) and high water seasons (2011) in three areas, including inundated and non-inundated regions, in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We paired treatments with two 10 × 10 m plots in inundated and non-inundated locations that were repeated three times in each location for a total of 18 plots. In each plot, we used nine pitfall traps and collected 2 m(2) of leaf litter and surface soil samples with mini-Winkler extractors. We collected a total of 4260 adult beetles comprising 36 families, 113 genera, and 505 species. Most were caught in pitfalls (69%) and the remainder in the mini-Winkler extractors (31%). Each method provided distinct information about the beetle community: 252 species were captured only in pitfall traps, 147 using only the mini-Winkler extractors, and these methods shared another 106 species. Pitfall and mini-Winkler contribute in different ways for the sampling of the soil beetle community, and so they should be considered complementary for a more thorough assessment of community diversity. PMID:26493175

  18. Development of a high-capacity extractor cleaner for cotton strippers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton strippers have used extractor type cleaners for many years to remove large foreign material from harvested seed cotton. These machines are commonly referred to as "field cleaners" and are similar in design and operation to stick machines used in gins. The field cleaners used on modern cotton ...

  19. Design considerations for a higher-order-mode dielectric-loaded power extractor set for millimeter-wave generation.

    SciTech Connect

    Gai, W.; Liu, W.; Gao, F.; Wong, T.; Jing, C.; High Energy Physics; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; Euclid Techlabs LLC

    2009-10-11

    The design of an electron-beam excited device for millimeter-wave generation is presented. Referred to as a dielectric-loaded power extractor, it is based on the higher-order-mode operation of a dielectric-loaded waveguide. With a matching transition, the unit can deliver power to the output waveguide at one of two frequencies, 20.8 and 35.1 GHz, corresponding to the TM{sub 02} and TM{sub 03} modes, respectively. By properly choosing the thickness of the dielectric lining, both modes are tuned to synchronize with an ultra-relativistic electron beam traversing the unit so that the wakefield generated by the beam is excited at these modes, chosen to be at 20.8 and 35.1 GHz, respectively, both corresponding to a harmonic of the 1.3 GHz operating frequency at an accelerator facility. Power generated in the unintended TM{sub 01} mode is effectively suppressed for bunch train operation by a novel technique. The device consists of a dielectric-loaded decelerating structure and two changeable output couplers to deliver the millimeter-wave power to a standard waveguide. For a drive beam with 50 nC of charge per bunch, power levels of 90.4 and 8.68 MW are expected to be delivered by the device at 20.8 and 35.1 GHz, respectively.

  20. Determination of four major saponins in the seeds of Aesculus chinensis Bunge using accelerated solvent extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junhui; Li, Wenlong; Yang, Baijuan; Guo, Xiuchun; Lee, Frank Sen-Chun; Wang, Xiaoru

    2007-07-23

    A new method based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by a reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and positive ion electrospray-time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF/MS) analysis has been developed for the characterization and quantification of four major saponins in extracts of the seeds of Aesculus chinensis Bunge (semen aesculi). The saponins escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted from seeds of A. chinesis Bunge via ASE, and the operational parameters of ASE were optimized, such as extraction solvent, extraction temperature, static extraction time and extraction cycles. The optimized procedure employed 70% MeOH as extraction solvent, 120 degrees C of extraction temperature, 7 min of static extraction time, 60% flush volume and the extraction recoveries of the four compounds were nearly to 100% for two cycles. The HPLC conditions are as follows: SinoChrom ODS BP C18 (4.6 mm x 200 mm, 5 microm) column, acetonitrile and 0.10% phosphoric acid solution as mobile phase, flow rate is 1.0 mL min(-1), detection length of UV is 203 nm, injection volume is 10 microL. The results indicated that the developed HPLC method is simple, sensitive and reliable for the determination of four major saponins in seeds of A. chinesis Bunge with a good linearity (r2 > 0.9994), precision (relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) < 1.5%) and the recovery ranges of 95.2-97.3%. The limits of detection (LOD) of the four compounds were in the range of 0.40-0.75 microg mL(-1). This assay can be readily utilized as a quality control method for semen aesculi and other related medicinal plants. PMID:17631106

  1. Combination of accelerated solvent extraction and vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of dimethyl fumarate in textiles and leathers by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Zhu, Yan

    2014-02-01

    A simple and environmentally friendly sample preparation procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed to assay dimethyl fumarate in textiles and leathers. The sample preparation procedure involved an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) using water as the extract solvent, followed by the extraction and concentration of dimethyl fumarate from the aqueous solution using vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME). The parameters affecting the ASE and VALLME were optimized to achieve the maximum extraction efficiency, and the performance of the developed method was evaluated. Good linearity was observed over the range assayed (0.01-1mg/kg) with a regression coefficient of 0.998. The limit of detection and enrichment factor for the VALLME step were 0.001 mg/kg and 53, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision were below 8.9%, and the recovery was approximately 84-103%. The as-developed method was successfully applied to textiles and leather samples. PMID:24401436

  2. Mach-Zehnder Interferometric Wavelength Converter as a Pseudo Return-to-Zero Extractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Churl; Leem, Young Ahn; Sim, Eun Deok; Yee, Dae-Su; Ko, Hyun Sung; Kim, Sung-bock; Park, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2007-05-01

    We have used semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric wavelength converter (MZ-IWC) as a pseudo return-to-zero (PRZ) extractor. Applying this scheme, PRZ was extracted from non-return-to-zero pump beam after MZ-IWC and optical clock was recovered by injection-locking a self-pulsating laser diode with the extracted PRZ. In addition, a wavelength-converted signal was obtained from probe beam.

  3. Detection of soil microarthropod aggregations in soybean fields, using a modified tullgren extractor

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, F.P. Jr.; Crossley, D.A. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The spatial distribution of soil microarthropods in soybean fields was investigated by use of a modified Tullgren extractor. Blocks of soil were extracted over a grid of collection cells from which microarthropod aggregations could be identified and measured. Aggregations in conventionally tilled soybeans were smaller than those in no tillage soybeans, and had less influence on population distributions. Population size was highly correlated with the area of soil microarthropod aggregations. 10 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  4. MuffinInfo: HTML5-Based Statistics Extractor from Next-Generation Sequencing Data.

    PubMed

    Alic, Andy S; Blanquer, Ignacio

    2016-09-01

    Usually, the information known a priori about a newly sequenced organism is limited. Even resequencing the same organism can generate unpredictable output. We introduce MuffinInfo, a FastQ/Fasta/SAM information extractor implemented in HTML5 capable of offering insights into next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. Our new tool can run on any software or hardware environment, in command line or graphically, and in browser or standalone. It presents information such as average length, base distribution, quality scores distribution, k-mer histogram, and homopolymers analysis. MuffinInfo improves upon the existing extractors by adding the ability to save and then reload the results obtained after a run as a navigable file (also supporting saving pictures of the charts), by supporting custom statistics implemented by the user, and by offering user-adjustable parameters involved in the processing, all in one software. At the moment, the extractor works with all base space technologies such as Illumina, Roche, Ion Torrent, Pacific Biosciences, and Oxford Nanopore. Owing to HTML5, our software demonstrates the readiness of web technologies for mild intensive tasks encountered in bioinformatics. PMID:27606794

  5. Development of diffractive XUV-VUV light extractors for fusion plasma diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutman, D.; Caravelli, G.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Finkenthal, M.; Tritz, K.; Kaita, R.; Roquemore, L.

    2009-11-01

    The diagnostic and control of next generation MFE and ICF fusion experiments will require optical light extractors capable of withstanding intense plasma and radiation exposure. A solution applicable from the XUV to the infrared is to use free-standing diffractive optics such as transmission gratings or zone plates. Here we present results on XUV-VUV diffractive extractors for the diagnostic of boundary MFE plasmas. For the VUV range we developed Si transmission gratings having 1 μm period, 5 μm thickness, 40% open fraction, 1x2 mm active area, and coated with Ni, while for the XUV range we use SiN gratings having 0.2 μm period, 0.3 μm thickness, 1x1 mm area, and coated with Ta. The grating extractors are spectrally and spatially calibrated in the laboratory using a newly developed extended XUV-VUV source and will be employed for imaging spectrometry on the NSTX experiment. The operational characteristics of the extended source and first space resolved XUV-VUV spectra will be presented. Work supported by DoE Grant DE-FG02-99ER54523 at JHU and Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 at PU.

  6. Comparing features extractors in EEG-based cognitive fatigue detection of demanding computer tasks.

    PubMed

    Rifai Chai; Smith, Mitchell R; Nguyen, Tuan N; Sai Ho Ling; Coutts, Aaron J; Nguyen, Hung T

    2015-08-01

    An electroencephalography (EEG)-based classification system could be used as a tool for detecting cognitive fatigue from demanding computer tasks. The most widely used feature extractor in EEG-based fatigue classification is power spectral density (PSD). This paper investigates PSD and three alternative feature extraction methods, in order to find the best feature extractor for the classification of cognitive fatigue during cognitively demanding tasks. These compared methods are power spectral entropy (PSE), wavelet, and autoregressive (AR). Bayesian neural network was selected as the classifier in this study. The results showed that the use of PSD and PSE methods provide an average accuracy of 60% for each computer task. This finding is slightly improved using the wavelet method which has an average accuracy of 61%. The AR method is the best feature extractor compared with the PSD, PSE and wavelet in this study with accuracy of 75.95% in AX-continuous performance test (AX-CPT), 75.23% in psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) and 76.02% in Stroop task (p-value <; 0.05). PMID:26738050

  7. Microwave accelerated selective Soxhlet extraction for the determination of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in ginseng with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Xiao, Xiaohua; Li, Gongke

    2012-07-01

    Microwave accelerated selective Soxhlet extraction (MA-SSE), a novel selective extraction technique, was investigated in this study. A Soxhlet extraction system containing a glass filter was designed as an extractor. During the procedure of MA-SSE, both the target analytes and the interfering components were extracted from the sample into the extraction solvent enhanced by microwave irradiation. After the solvent flowed though the sorbent, the interfering components were adsorbed by the sorbent, and the target analytes remaining in the solvent were collected in the extraction bottle. No cleanup or filtration was required after extraction. The efficiency of the MA-SSE approach was demonstrated in the determination of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticide residues in ginseng by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Under the optimized conditions, low limits of detection (0.050-0.50 μg/kg) were obtained. The recoveries were in the range of 72.0-110.1% with relative standard deviations less than 7.1%. Because of the effect of microwave irradiation, MA-SSE showed significant advantage compared with other extraction techniques. The sorbent used in this study showed good cleanup ability. The mechanism of MA-SSE was demonstrated to be based on the rupture of the cell walls according to the structural changes of ginseng samples. On the basis of the results, MA-SSE as a simple and effective sample preparation technique for the analysis of pesticide residues in complex matrixes shows great promise. PMID:22686368

  8. Solvent Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article describes production of butanol [acetone-butanol-ethanol, (also called AB or ABE or solvent)] by fermentation using both traditional and current technologies. AB production from agricultural commodities such as corn and molasses was an important historical fermentation. Unfortunately,...

  9. Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, and perfluorooctanoic acid in small household electronics appliances of "Prohibition on Certain Hazardous Substances in Consumer Products" instruction using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qiaozhen; Du, Zhenxia; Zhang, Yun; Lu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Jinhua; Yu, Wenlian

    2013-02-01

    Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, tetrabromobisphenol A, and perfluorooctanoic acid in small household electronics appliances by accelerated solvent extraction-ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established. Samples, heated for 5 min, were extracted by toluene/methanol (10:1, v/v) under the pressure 1500 psi at 100°C, and were extracted 3 static cycles with 20 min per cycle. And then 15 mL extractant solvent was used to wash the samples, and at last the sample was purged by nitrogen for 100 s. The partial extractant (10 mL) was concentrated by nitrogen and re-dissolved with 1 mL methanol/water (1:1, v/v). The three compounds were separated by BEH C18 column effectively in 3 min and detected by electrospray ionization mode mass spectrometry. The linear ranges for bisphenol A, perfluorooctanoic acid, and tetrabromobisphenol A were 1-100, 10-1000 ng/mL, and 0.1-10 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient was greater than 0.996. The LOD and limit of quantitation for three compounds were 0.1, 10, 1 ng/mL, and 0.5, 50, 5 ng/mL, respectively. And the recoveries were 84-92, 76-82, and 72-74%, respectively, with RSD < 5%. The method was successfully used in determining the real samples. The method and the result were confirmed by liquid chromatography-ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. PMID:23341327

  10. Online cleanup of accelerated solvent extractions for determination of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) in royal jelly using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiaofeng; Wang, Feng; Zhou, Jinhui; Chen, Fang; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jing

    2009-06-10

    Determination of the levels of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) in royal jelly is important for the study of its pharmacological activities, health benefits, and adenosine phosphate degradation. In this study was developed a novel method to determine ATP, ADP, and AMP levels in royal jelly using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) followed by online cleanup and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection (DAD). The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using an 11 mL ASE cell, ethanol/water (5:5 v/v) as the extraction solvent, 1500 psi, 80 degrees C, a 5 min static time, and a 60% flush volume. Optimum separation of the three compounds was achieved in <25 min using a Waters XBridge Shield RP18 column with 0.05 mol L(-1) NH(4)H(2)PO(4) (pH 5.70) and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. Detection was performed at 257 nm. The method was sensitive (LOD

  11. Solvent degradation products in nuclear fuel processing solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, H.E. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    The Savannah River Plant uses a modified Purex process to recover enriched uranium and separate fission products. This process uses 7.5% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in normal paraffin hydrocarbons for the solvent extraction of a nitric acid solution containing the materials to be separated. Periodic problems in product decontamination result from solvent degradation. A study to improve process efficiency has identified certain solvent degradation products and suggested mitigation measures. Undecanoic acid, lauric acid, and tridecanoic acid were tentatively identified as diluent degradation products in recycle solvent. These long-chain organic acids affect phase separation and lead to low decontamination factors. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to concentrate the organic acids in solvent prior to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). SPE and HPLC methods were optimized in this work for analysis of decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, and lauric acid in solvent. Accelerated solvent degradation studies with 7.5% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons showed that long-chain organic acids and long-chain alkyl butyl phosphoric acids are formed by reactions with nitric acid. Degradation of both tributyl phosphate and hydrocarbon can be minimized with purified normal paraffin replacing the standard grade presently used. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  12. Preparation of (90)YCl(3) radiopharmaceutical precursor for nuclear medicine using technology of centrifugal extractors.

    PubMed

    Srank, J; Melichar, F; Filyanin, A T; Tomes, M; Beran, M

    2010-12-01

    Separation of (90)Y from a parent solution of (90)Sr-(90)Y in 0.5 M nitric acid by two-stage liquid-liquid extraction has been investigated using centrifugal extractors. The extraction agent used was 0.25 M di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) in n-dodecane. Back-extraction used 5 M HCl. Evaporation of HCl was performed in a rotary vacuum evaporator. Experience gained during the design, construction and running of more than 100 hot separations is presented. A short description of analytical methods used and results of the determination of chemical, radionuclidic and radiochemical purities and sterility are given. PMID:20692176

  13. Counter current "emulsion flow" extractor for continuous liquid-liquid extraction from suspended solutions.

    PubMed

    Yanase, Nobuyuki; Naganawa, Hirochika; Nagano, Tetsushi; Noro, Junji

    2011-01-01

    A single current "emulsion flow" liquid-liquid extraction apparatus has a head with a number of holes from which micrometer-sized droplets of an aqueous phase spout into an organic phase to mix the two liquid phases. For practical use, however, a fatal problem can occur when particulate components in the aqueous phase plug the holes. In the present study, we have succeeded in solving the problem by applying a counter current-type emulsion flow extractor where micrometer-sized droplets of the organic phase are generated. PMID:21415518

  14. Rapid Identification and Quantification of Natural Antioxidants in the Seeds of Rhubarb from Different Habitats in China Using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn-DPPH Assay.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liang; Geng, Dan-dan; Hu, Feng-zu; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the 10 accessions of rhubarb seeds from different habitats in China were investigated. Lipids were removed using petroleum ether, and the effective components were then separated using accelerated solvent extraction with 80% aqueous methanol. An off-line 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging method was used as the marker to evaluate the total antioxidant capability of extracts. On-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detectors-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n)) and HPLC-DAD-DPPH assays were developed for rapid identification and quantification of individual free-radical scavengers in extracts of rhubarb seeds. Ten free-radical scavengers from methanolic extracts of the rhubarb seeds were screened, five of which were identified and quantitatively analyzed: epicatechin, myricetin, hyperoside, quercitrin and quercetin. All were identified in rhubarb seeds for the first time and can be regarded as the major potent antioxidants in rhubarb seeds due to representing most of the total free-radical scavenging activity. Preliminary analysis of structures was performed for another five antioxidants. Based on our validation results, the developed method can be used for rapid separation, convenient identification and quantification of the multiple antioxidative constituents in rhubarb seeds, featuring good quantification parameters, accuracy and precision. The results are important to clarify the material basis and therapeutic mechanism of rhubarb seeds. PMID:26206792

  15. Performance of the goulden large-sample extractor in multiclass pesticide isolation and preconcentration from stream water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, G.D.; Foreman, W.T.; Gates, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    The reliability of the Goulden large-sample extractor in preconcentrating pesticides from water was evaluated from the recoveries of 35 pesticides amended to filtered stream waters. Recoveries greater than 90% were observed for many of the pesticides in each major chemical class, but recoveries for some of the individual pesticides varied in seemingly unpredictable ways. Corrections cannot yet be factored into liquid-liquid extraction theory to account for matrix effects, which were apparent between the two stream waters tested. The Goulden large-sample extractor appears to be well suited for rapid chemical screening applications, with quantitative analysis requiring special quality control considerations. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  16. Spaceborne SAR data for global urban mapping at 30 m resolution using a robust urban extractor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yifang; Jacob, Alexander; Gamba, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    With more than half of the world population now living in cities and 1.4 billion more people expected to move into cities by 2030, urban areas pose significant challenges on local, regional and global environment. Timely and accurate information on spatial distributions and temporal changes of urban areas are therefore needed to support sustainable development and environmental change research. The objective of this research is to evaluate spaceborne SAR data for improved global urban mapping using a robust processing chain, the KTH-Pavia Urban Extractor. The proposed processing chain includes urban extraction based on spatial indices and Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) textures, an existing method and several improvements i.e., SAR data preprocessing, enhancement, and post-processing. ENVISAT Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) C-VV data at 30 m resolution were selected over 10 global cities and a rural area from six continents to demonstrate the robustness of the improved method. The results show that the KTH-Pavia Urban Extractor is effective in extracting urban areas and small towns from ENVISAT ASAR data and built-up areas can be mapped at 30 m resolution with very good accuracy using only one or two SAR images. These findings indicate that operational global urban mapping is possible with spaceborne SAR data, especially with the launch of Sentinel-1 that provides SAR data with global coverage, operational reliability and quick data delivery.

  17. The correlation study of parallel feature extractor and noise reduction approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, Deshinta Arrova; Sundararajan, Elankovan; Prabuwono, Anton Satria

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents literature reviews that show variety of techniques to develop parallel feature extractor and finding its correlation with noise reduction approaches for low light intensity images. Low light intensity images are normally displayed as darker images and low contrast. Without proper handling techniques, those images regularly become evidences of misperception of objects and textures, the incapability to section them. The visual illusions regularly clues to disorientation, user fatigue, poor detection and classification performance of humans and computer algorithms. Noise reduction approaches (NR) therefore is an essential step for other image processing steps such as edge detection, image segmentation, image compression, etc. Parallel Feature Extractor (PFE) meant to capture visual contents of images involves partitioning images into segments, detecting image overlaps if any, and controlling distributed and redistributed segments to extract the features. Working on low light intensity images make the PFE face challenges and closely depend on the quality of its pre-processing steps. Some papers have suggested many well established NR as well as PFE strategies however only few resources have suggested or mentioned the correlation between them. This paper reviews best approaches of the NR and the PFE with detailed explanation on the suggested correlation. This finding may suggest relevant strategies of the PFE development. With the help of knowledge based reasoning, computational approaches and algorithms, we present the correlation study between the NR and the PFE that can be useful for the development and enhancement of other existing PFE.

  18. The correlation study of parallel feature extractor and noise reduction approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Dewi, Deshinta Arrova; Sundararajan, Elankovan; Prabuwono, Anton Satria

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents literature reviews that show variety of techniques to develop parallel feature extractor and finding its correlation with noise reduction approaches for low light intensity images. Low light intensity images are normally displayed as darker images and low contrast. Without proper handling techniques, those images regularly become evidences of misperception of objects and textures, the incapability to section them. The visual illusions regularly clues to disorientation, user fatigue, poor detection and classification performance of humans and computer algorithms. Noise reduction approaches (NR) therefore is an essential step for other image processing steps such as edge detection, image segmentation, image compression, etc. Parallel Feature Extractor (PFE) meant to capture visual contents of images involves partitioning images into segments, detecting image overlaps if any, and controlling distributed and redistributed segments to extract the features. Working on low light intensity images make the PFE face challenges and closely depend on the quality of its pre-processing steps. Some papers have suggested many well established NR as well as PFE strategies however only few resources have suggested or mentioned the correlation between them. This paper reviews best approaches of the NR and the PFE with detailed explanation on the suggested correlation. This finding may suggest relevant strategies of the PFE development. With the help of knowledge based reasoning, computational approaches and algorithms, we present the correlation study between the NR and the PFE that can be useful for the development and enhancement of other existing PFE.

  19. Fast and Online Determination of Five Avermectin Residues in Foodstuffs of Plant and Animal Origin Using Reusable Polymeric Monolithic Extractor Coupled with LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wang, Man-Man; Zheng, Guo-Ying; Ai, Lian-Feng; Wang, Xue-Sheng

    2015-04-29

    A hydrophobic monolith (10 mm × 2.1 mm i.d.) was developed as a reusable online solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent coupled with LC-MS/MS for the rapid determination of five avermectin residues in foodstuffs of both plant and animal origin. The online SPE was achieved using a 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution as the loading solvent, and acetonitrile (MeCN) was selected for the washing step. After being transferred from the monolith into a C18 analytical column using MeCN, the analytes were analyzed by LC-MS/MS using MeCN/0.1% NH4OH (10:90, v/v) as the mobile phase. The detection limit was 2 μg/kg for five avermectins, and the recoveries in fresh pear, chili seed, bovine muscle, and milk ranged from 71.8% to 101.3% with relative standard deviations of less than 8.94%. The online SPE and determination were achieved within 15 min, and the monolithic extractor was reusable for more than 500 experiments. PMID:25865176

  20. Optimisation and application of accelerated solvent extraction and flash chromatography for quantification of PCBs in tree barks and XAD-2 passive samplers using GC-ECD with dual columns.

    PubMed

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Millet, Maurice

    2013-07-15

    An analytical method for the quantification of Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in XAD-2 passive air samplers (PAS) and tree barks collected close to the Rhine River between France and Germany was developed. This method used Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE) followed by a purification step by flash chromatography using a 4gr cartridge (3 g of silica gel and 1 g of 44% acidified silica) and analysis by GC-ECD with dual columns. Quantification (QL) and detection (DL) limits varied 0.5 from and 5.7 ng PAS(-1) and from 0.5 and 3.0 ng PAS(-1) respectively. For tree barks, quantification and detection limits were calculated for each congener on washed tree bark sample with a signal to noise ratio of 3:1 and 10:1 (corresponding to a LQ in the range of 1-4 ng per bark sample by congeners). Uncertainties on each congener concentration were calculated to be in the range of 3-20% XAD-2 passive samplers were field calibrated by using Hi-vol. Samplers. Sampling rates of 4.2, 11.5, 1.6, and 7.9 m(3) PAS(-1) d(-1) for tri-, tetra-, penta- hexa-PCBs, respectively were obtained and are comparable to those already obtained with PUF-PAS for gas phase only (gas/particle distribution was 90/10). Method was applied to real atmospheric samples collected by XAD-2 passive samplers and tree barks in the east of France. PMID:23622537

  1. Rapid analysis of multi-pesticides in Morinda officinalis by GC-ECD with accelerated solvent extraction assisted matrix solid phase dispersion and positive confirmation by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongmei; Kong, Weijun; Gong, Bao; Miao, Qing; Qi, Yun; Yang, Meihua

    2015-01-01

    In this work, 33 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 9 pyrethroid pesticides (PYPs) in Morinda officinalis were effectively and selectively extracted and cleaned up by accelerated solvent extraction assisted matrix solid phase dispersion (ASE/MSPD) method, followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Carbophenothion was selected as the internal standard and added into the final extracts to improve the precision and accuracy of the method. Parameters for ASE/MSPD procedure including ratio of acetone to n-hexane, temperature and amount of Florisil were optimized to improve the performance of the method through orthogonal experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, the average recoveries (six replicates) for all pesticides (spiked at 0.05, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)) ranged from 69.3% to 112% with RSD less than 14.14%. A wide linear range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) was observed with r values of 0.9963-0.9999. Meanwhile, the method gave high selectivity and sensitivity (LODs<3 μg kg(-1) and LOQs<8.0 μg kg (-1)), good repeatability (RSD of 9.64%, on average) and precision (RSD of 5.48%, averagely) and excellent stability (RSD <9.47%). The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated by applying it for preconcentration and determination of OCPs and PYPs in 40 batches of real samples. Four kinds of pesticides (beta-endosulfan, tecnazene, hexachlorobenzene and alpha-BHC) were detected in three batches of samples, which were successfully confirmed by GC-MS. The results indicated that ASE/MSPD is a reliable and half-automated extraction and purification technique, with many advantages over traditional techniques. The combination of ASE/MSPD and GC-ECD could be especially useful for trace analysis of pesticide residues in complex matrices. PMID:25463199

  2. Characterisation of steroids in wooden crates of veal calves by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-QqQ-MS-MS).

    PubMed

    Verheyden, K; Noppe, H; Vanden Bussche, J; Wille, K; Bekaert, K; De Boever, L; Van Acker, J; Janssen, C R; De Brabander, H F; Vanhaecke, L

    2010-05-01

    Illegal steroid administration to enhance growth performance in veal calves has long been, and still is, a serious issue facing regulatory agencies. Over the last years, stating undisputable markers of illegal treatment has become complex because of the endogenous origin of several anabolic steroids. Knowledge on the origin of an analyte is therefore of paramount importance. The present study shows the presence of steroid analytes in wooden crates used for housing veal calves. For this purpose, an analytical procedure using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE(R)), solid-phase extraction (SPE) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-MS-MS) is developed for the characterisation of androstadienedione (ADD), boldenone (bBol), androstenedione (AED), beta-testosterone (bT), alpha-testosterone (aT), progesterone (P) and 17alpha-hydroxy-progesterone (OH-P) in wood samples. In samples of wooden crates used for housing veal calves, ADD, AED, aT and P could be identified. Using the standard addition approach concentrations of these analytes were determined ranging from 20 +/- 4 ppb to 32 +/- 4 ppb for ADD, from 19 +/- 5 ppb to 44 +/- 17 ppb for AED, from 11 +/- 6 ppb to 30 +/- 2 ppb for aT and from 14 +/- 1 ppb to 42 +/- 27 ppb for P, depending on the sample type. As exposure of veal calves to steroid hormones in their housing facilities might complicate decision-making on illegal hormone administration, inequitable slaughter of animals remains possible. Therefore, complete prohibition of wooden calf accommodation should be considered. PMID:20186540

  3. [Determination of 19 antibiotic and 2 sulfonamide metabolite residues in wild fish muscle in mariculture areas of Laizhou Bay using accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Sisi; Du, Juan; Chen, Jingwen; Zhao, Hongxia

    2014-12-01

    A sample preparation and analytical method with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) was developed to detect 19 antibiotic (9 sulfonamides, 4 quinolones, 3 macrolides and 3 others) and 2 sulfonamide metabolite residues in fish muscle. The target compounds were extracted using ASE and purified simultaneously by a C18 resin in the extraction cell. The extracts were evaporated to dryness, and redissolved with the initial mobile phase for HPLC-MS/MS analysis after freezing centrifugation (10,000 r/min, -4 °C) to remove the fat and other matrix compounds further. The separation of the analytes was carried out on an Xterra MS C18 column with methanol-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) as mobile phase A and 0. 1% formic acid (containing 0. 1% ammonium formate) as mobile phase B. The spiked recoveries of the method were 55. 2%-113. 3%, with the relative standard deviations of 0. 1% - 17. 6% (n = 6). The limits of detection ranged from 0. 003 to 0. 6 ng/g. The method was applied to two fish (Synechogobius hasta and Liza haematocheilus) collected in mariculture areas of Laizhou Bay and six antibiotics were detected, in which the mass concentrations of norfloxacin were highest with mean values of 67. 01 and 27. 58 ng/g, respectively. The method is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and useful in the study on exposure levels and environmental behavior of the antibiotics. PMID:25902638

  4. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air samples by using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography dual electron capture detection.

    PubMed

    Mokbel, Haifaa; Al Dine, Enaam Jamal; Elmoll, Ahmad; Liaud, Céline; Millet, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    An analytical method associating accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) in immersion mode combined with gas chromatography dual electrons capture detectors (SPME-GC-2ECD) has been developed and studied for the simultaneous determination of 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air samples (active and XAD-2 passive samplers). Samples were extracted with ASE with acetonitrile using the following conditions: temperature, 150 °C; pressure, 1500 psi; static, 15 min; cycles, 3; purge, 300 s; flush, 100 %. Extracts were reduced to 1 mL, and 500 μL of this extract, filled with deionised water, was subject to SPME extraction. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method attained the best extraction efficiency under the optimised conditions: extraction of PCB-OCP mixture using 100-μm PDMS fibre at 80 °C for 40 min with no addition of salt. The performance of the proposed ASE-SPME-GC-2ECD methodology with respect to linearity, limit of quantification and detection was evaluated by spiking of XAD-2 resin with target compounds. The regression coefficient (R (2)) of most compounds was found to be high of 0.99. limits of detection (LODs) are between 0.02 and 4.90 ng m(-3), and limits of quantification (LOQs) are between 0.05 and 9.12 ng m(-3) and between 0.2 and 49 ng/sampler and 0.52 and 91 ng/sampler, respectively, for XAD-2 passive samplers. Finally, a developed procedure was applied to determine selected PCBs and OCPs in the atmosphere. PMID:26780048

  5. Using the joint transform correlator as the feature extractor for the nearest neighbor classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soon, Boon Y.; Karim, Mohammad A.; Alam, Mohammad S.

    1999-01-01

    Financial transactions using credit cards have gained popularity but the growing number of counterfeits and frauds may defeat the purpose of the cards. The search for a superior method to curb the criminal acts has become urgent especially in the brilliant information age. Currently, neural-network-based pattern recognition techniques are employed for security verification. However, it has been a time consuming experience, as some techniques require a long period of training time. Here, a faster and more efficient method is proposed to perform security verification that verifies the fingerprint images using the joint transform correlator as a feature extractor for nearest neighbor classifier. The uniqueness comparison scheme is proposed to improve the accuracy of the system verification. The performance of the system under noise corruption, variable contrast, and rotation of the input image is verified with a computer simulation.

  6. An analytical method coupling accelerated solvent extraction and HPLC-fluorescence for the quantification of particle-bound PAHs in indoor air sampled with a 3-stages cascade impactor.

    PubMed

    Liaud, Céline; Millet, Maurice; Le Calvé, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Most of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are associated to airborne particles and their health impact depends on the particle size where they are bound. This work aims to develop a high sensitive analytical technique to quantify particulate PAHs sampled with a 3-stages cascade impactor in order to derive simultaneously their individual concentration in PM1, PM2.5 and PM10. Three key steps of the method were evaluated separately in order to avoid any PAHs loss during the global sample preparation procedure: (1) the accelerated solvent extraction of PAHs from the filter; (2) the primary concentration of the extract until 1 mL by means of a rotary evaporator at 45°C and 220 mbar and (3) the final concentration of the pre-concentrated extract to about 100-150 µL under a gentle nitrogen stream. Each recovery experiment was realized in triplicates. All these steps evaluated independently show that the overall PAHs loss, even for those with a low molecular weight, should not exceed more than a few percent. Extracts were then analyzed by using a HPLC coupled to fluorescence and Diode Array Detectors with the external standard method. The resulting calibration curves containing between 9 and 12 points were plotted in the concentration range of 0.05-45 µg L(-1) for most of the 16 US-EPA priority PAHs and were fully linear (R(2)>0.999). Limits Of Quantification were in the range 0.05-0.47 µg L(-1) corresponding to 0.75-7.05 pg m(-3) for 20 m(3) of pumped air. Finally, taking into account the average PAHs concentrations previously reported in typical European indoor environments, and considering the use of a 3-stages cascade impactor to collect simultaneously PM>10 µm, 2.5 µm

  7. Cleaning solvent substitution in electronic assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    Alternatives to chlorinated and fluorinated solvents have been identified, qualified, and implemented into production of complex electronic assemblies. Extensive compatibility studies were performed with components, piece-parts, and materials. Electrical testing and accelerated aging were used to screen for detrimental, long-term effects. A terpene, d-limonene, has been selected as the solvent of choice for cleaning complex electronic assemblies, and has been found to be compatible with the components and materials tested. A brief history of the overall project will be presented, along with representative cleaning efficiency results, compatibility results, and residual solvent data.

  8. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, J.C.

    1984-03-13

    A process is claimed for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 vol % of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  9. Solvent wash solution

    DOEpatents

    Neace, James C.

    1986-01-01

    Process for removing diluent degradation products from a solvent extraction solution, which has been used to recover uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. A wash solution and the solvent extraction solution are combined. The wash solution contains (a) water and (b) up to about, and including, 50 volume percent of at least one-polar water-miscible organic solvent based on the total volume of the water and the highly-polar organic solvent. The wash solution also preferably contains at least one inorganic salt. The diluent degradation products dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent and the organic solvent extraction solvent do not dissolve in the highly-polar organic solvent. The highly-polar organic solvent and the extraction solvent are separated.

  10. Low cost venom extractor based on Arduino(®) board for electrical venom extraction from arthropods and other small animals.

    PubMed

    Besson, Thomas; Debayle, Delphine; Diochot, Sylvie; Salinas, Miguel; Lingueglia, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Extracting venom from small species is usually challenging. We describe here an affordable and versatile electrical venom extractor based on the Arduino(®) Mega 2560 Board, which is designed to extract venom from arthropods and other small animals. The device includes fine tuning of stimulation time and voltage. It was used to collect venom without apparent deleterious effects, and characterized for the first time the venom of Zoropsis spinimana, a common spider in French Mediterranean regions. PMID:27158113

  11. Automatic sorting installation based on two CCD cameras for measuring gauge diameter and ellipticity of pulp extractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Dmitry L.; Akhtiamov, Rishad A.; Dorogov, Nikolai V.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Nureev, Ilnur I.; Yusupov, Alfred Y.

    2000-12-01

    The concrete problem, which decision is presented in given paper, consists in measuring of pulp extractor diameter apart 1 mm from its operating end and their automatic sorting. The range of measuring sizes is 180-260 micrometers , necessary measurement accuracy is 1 micrometers . The sorting is carried out on 8 subranges in 10 micrometers . The ellipticity of a pulp extractor is analyzed additionally and used as a qualitative index. The comparative analysis of different tools on metrology performances and cost problems of their embodying has allowed to select television system, as the class on the basis of which is necessary to build a required system. Problems decided at built-up of a system are: use of short focus lenses with major augmentation for shaping pulse duration solved for measuring to within 1 micrometers error; the account of lenses aberrations influence on a measuring error; use of cameras with a size of pixels in 0.7-1 micrometers ; definition of the line number, which corresponds to a gauge diameter of a pulp extractor; holding of a statistical average and extrapolation of data of measuring; the analysis of system variants with the purpose of its simplification and cost decreasing.

  12. Array data extractor (ADE): a LabVIEW program to extract and merge gene array data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Large data sets from gene expression array studies are publicly available offering information highly valuable for research across many disciplines ranging from fundamental to clinical research. Highly advanced bioinformatics tools have been made available to researchers, but a demand for user-friendly software allowing researchers to quickly extract expression information for multiple genes from multiple studies persists. Findings Here, we present a user-friendly LabVIEW program to automatically extract gene expression data for a list of genes from multiple normalized microarray datasets. Functionality was tested for 288 class A G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and expression data from 12 studies comparing normal and diseased human hearts. Results confirmed known regulation of a beta 1 adrenergic receptor and further indicate novel research targets. Conclusions Although existing software allows for complex data analyses, the LabVIEW based program presented here, “Array Data Extractor (ADE)”, provides users with a tool to retrieve meaningful information from multiple normalized gene expression datasets in a fast and easy way. Further, the graphical programming language used in LabVIEW allows applying changes to the program without the need of advanced programming knowledge. PMID:24289243

  13. A vacuum-operated pore-water extractor for estuarine and freshwater sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    A vacuum-operated pore-water extractor for estuarine and freshwater sediments was developed and constructed from a fused-glass air stone attached with aquarium airline tubing to a 30 or 60 cc polypropylene syringe. Pore water is extracted by inserting the air stone into the sediment and creating a vacuum by retracting and bracing the syringe plunger. A hand-operated vacuum pump attached to a filtration flask was also evaluated as an alternative vacuum source. The volume and time to extract pore water varies with the number of devices and the sediment particle size. Extraction time is longer for fine sediments than for sandy sediments. Four liters of sediment generally yield between 500 and 1,500 mL of pore water. The sediment that surrounds and accumulates on the air stone acts as a filter, and, except for the first few milliliters, the collected pore water is clear. Because there is no exposure to air or avenue for escape, volatile compounds andin situ characteristics are retained in the extracted pore water.

  14. Long-pulse beam acceleration of MeV-class H(-) ion beams for ITER NB accelerator.

    PubMed

    Umeda, N; Kashiwagi, M; Taniguchi, M; Tobari, H; Watanabe, K; Dairaku, M; Yamanaka, H; Inoue, T; Kojima, A; Hanada, M

    2014-02-01

    In order to realize neutral beam systems in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor whose target is to produce a 1 MeV, 200 A/m(2) during 3600 s D(-) ion beam, the electrostatic five-stages negative ion accelerator so-called "MeV accelerator" has been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. To extend pulse length, heat load of the acceleration grids was reduced by controlling the ion beam trajectory. Namely, the beam deflection due to the residual magnetic field of filter magnet was suppressed with the newly developed extractor with a 0.5 mm off-set aperture displacement. The new extractor improved the deflection angle from 6 mrad to 1 mrad, resulting in the reduction of direct interception of negative ions from 23% to 15% of the total acceleration power, respectively. As a result, the pulse length of 130 A/m(2), 881 keV H(-) ion beam has been successfully extended from a previous value of 0.4 s to 8.7 s. This is the first long pulse negative ion beam acceleration over 100 MW/m(2). PMID:24593581

  15. NEPTUNIUM SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, L.R.; Fields, P.R.

    1959-10-01

    The separation of neptunium from an aqueous solution by solvent extraction and the extraction of neptunium from the solvent solution are described. Neptunium is separated from an aqueous solution containing tetravalent or hexavalent neptunium nitrate, nitric acid, and a nitrate salting out agent, such as sodium nitrate, by contacting the solution with an organic solvent such as diethyl ether. Subsequently, the neptunium nitrate is extracted from the organic solvent extract phase with water.

  16. Solvent refining process

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, T.C.; Sequeira, A.J.; Smith, B.F.

    1981-10-13

    An improved process is described for solvent refining lubricating oil base stocks from petroleum fractions containing both aromatic and nonaromatic constituents. The process utilizes n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as a selective solvent for aromatic hydrocarbons wherein the refined oil fraction and the extract fraction are freed of final traces of solvent by stripping with gaseous ammonia. The process has several advantages over conventional processes including a savings in energy required for the solvent refining process, and reduced corrosion of the process equipment.

  17. Solvents and sustainable chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Welton, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Solvents are widely recognized to be of great environmental concern. The reduction of their use is one of the most important aims of green chemistry. In addition to this, the appropriate selection of solvent for a process can greatly improve the sustainability of a chemical production process. There has also been extensive research into the application of so-called green solvents, such as ionic liquids and supercritical fluids. However, most examples of solvent technologies that give improved sustainability come from the application of well-established solvents. It is also apparent that the successful implementation of environmentally sustainable processes must be accompanied by improvements in commercial performance. PMID:26730217

  18. Solvent recycle/recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Paffhausen, M.W.; Smith, D.L.; Ugaki, S.N.

    1990-09-01

    This report describes Phase I of the Solvent Recycle/Recovery Task of the DOE Chlorinated Solvent Substitution Program for the US Air Force by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, EG G Idaho, Inc., through the US Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The purpose of the task is to identify and test recovery and recycling technologies for proposed substitution solvents identified by the Biodegradable Solvent Substitution Program and the Alternative Solvents/Technologies for Paint Stripping Program with the overall objective of minimizing hazardous wastes. A literature search to identify recycle/recovery technologies and initial distillation studies has been conducted. 4 refs.

  19. Dual solvent refining process

    SciTech Connect

    Woodle, R.A.

    1982-04-20

    A dual solvent refining process is claimed for solvent refining petroleum based lubricating oil stocks with n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as selective solvent for aromatic oils wherein a highly paraffinic oil having a narrow boiling range approximating the boiling point of n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone is employed as a backwash solvent. The process of the invention results in an increased yield of refined lubricating oil stock of a predetermined quality and simplifies separation of the solvents from the extract and raffinate oil fractions.

  20. Evaluation of the Goulden Large-Sample Extractor for acidic compounds in natural waters

    SciTech Connect

    Headley, J.V.; Dickson, L.C.; Swyngedouw, C.; Crosley, B.; Whitley, G.

    1996-11-01

    The Goulden Large-Sample Extractor has received extensive use for monitoring and surveillance surveys of natural waters impacted by pulp and paper mills and agricultural runoff water. However, there are concerns about whether this sampler, which was originally developed for extractions of hydrophobic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other organochlorines, is suitable for sampling polar acidic compounds. The sampler was evaluated for recovery of surrogates for resin acids, fatty acids, herbicide acids, and chlorophenols from natural waters. Performance tests conducted in this work indicated that three surrogate compounds with K{sub p} (C{sub DCM}/C{sub water pH 2}) values from 16,700 to 1,260 were extracted from pH 2-adjusted 20-L water samples with an average recovery of 83.6%. The surrogate compounds with K{sub p} values less than 1,000 were extracted with significantly lower recoveries. The variability ranged from 10 to 36% relative standard deviation. Specific performance criteria (percent recoveries {+-} standard deviation, number of determinations in parentheses) observed for the surrogates 2,4,6-tribromophenol, heptadecanoic acid, O-methylpodocarpic acid, dichlorophenylacetic acid, and 4-bromophenol were 89.5 {+-} 24.0 (17), 82.8 {+-} 21.7 (18), 78.4 {+-} 14.8 (18), 41.9 {+-} 8.5 (16), and 22.1 {+-} 8.1 (19), respectively. Low recoveries of the 4-bromophenol surrogate may be due in part to side reactions with diazomethane. As a result, 4-bromophenol is not recommended as a surrogate. These values can be used to provide guidelines for acceptable surrogate recoveries and validation of extractions of polar acidic compounds.

  1. Multi-nanosecond high power pulse generation at 7.8GHz with a dielectric-loaded power extractor.

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, M..; Gai, W.; Konecny, R.; Liu, W.; Power, J. G.; Gao, F.; Jing, C.; Wong, T.; Yusof, Z.; High Energy Physics; Illinois Inst. of Tech.; Euclid Techlabs LLC; IEEE

    2009-06-01

    Power extraction from charged particle beams is a prospective way to develop future high power radio frequency (RF) sources. We have designed and tested a 7.8 GHz power extractor based on a dielectric-loaded waveguide. Building upon earlier work on single electron bunch tests, 10 ns and 22 ns megawatt-level RF pulses have been generated with trains consisting of 16 electron bunches each, by using a laser splitting-recombination scheme. In addition, 44 MW of peak power has been generated with a train consisting 4 electron bunches. Behaviors of higher-order-modes are also explored.

  2. Solvent extraction of diatomite

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, W.

    1984-07-24

    There is provided a method of extracting hydrocarbons from a diatomite ore. The particle size of the ore is first reduced to form a processed ore. The processed ore is then mixed with a substantially irregular granular material to form an unstratified ore mixture having increased permeability to an extracting solvent. The unstratified ore mixture is then permeated with an extracting solvent to obtain a hydrocarbon-solvent stream from which hydrocarbons are subsequently separated. The irregular granular material may be sand.

  3. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  4. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  5. Solvent extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Woodle, R.A.

    1982-01-19

    A solvent refining process is disclosed utilizing n-methyl-2-pyrrolidone as solvent in which primary extract from the extraction zone is cooled to form a secondary raffinate and secondary extract and the secondary and primary raffinates are blended to produce an increased yield of product of desired quality. In a preferred embodiment of the process, the lubricating oil feedstock to the process is first contacted with a stripping medium previously used in the process for the recovery of solvent from at least one of the product streams whereby solvent contained in said stripping medium is recovered therefrom.

  6. Development of negative ion extractor in the high-power and long-pulse negative ion source for fusion application.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, M; Umeda, N; Tobari, H; Kojima, A; Yoshida, M; Taniguchi, M; Dairaku, M; Maejima, T; Yamanaka, H; Watanabe, K; Inoue, T; Hanada, M

    2014-02-01

    High power and long-pulse negative ion extractor, which is composed of the plasma grid (PG) and the extraction grid (EXG), is newly developed toward the neutral beam injector for heating and current drive of future fusion machines such as ITER, JT-60 Super Advanced and DEMO reactor. The PG is designed to enhance surface production of negative ions efficiently by applying the chamfered aperture. The efficiency of the negative ion production for the discharge power increased by a factor of 1.3 against that of the conventional PG. The EXG is also designed with the thermal analysis to upgrade the cooling capability for the long pulse operation of >1000 s required in ITER. Though the magnetic field for electron suppression is reduced to 0.75 of that in the conventional EXG due to this upgrade, it was experimentally confirmed that the extracted electron current can be suppressed to the allowable level for the long pulse operation. These results show that newly developed extractor has the high potential for the long pulse extraction of the negative ions. PMID:24593597

  7. Development of negative ion extractor in the high-power and long-pulse negative ion source for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, M. Umeda, N.; Tobari, H.; Kojima, A.; Yoshida, M.; Taniguchi, M.; Dairaku, M.; Maejima, T.; Yamanaka, H.; Watanabe, K.; Inoue, T.; Hanada, M.

    2014-02-15

    High power and long-pulse negative ion extractor, which is composed of the plasma grid (PG) and the extraction grid (EXG), is newly developed toward the neutral beam injector for heating and current drive of future fusion machines such as ITER, JT-60 Super Advanced and DEMO reactor. The PG is designed to enhance surface production of negative ions efficiently by applying the chamfered aperture. The efficiency of the negative ion production for the discharge power increased by a factor of 1.3 against that of the conventional PG. The EXG is also designed with the thermal analysis to upgrade the cooling capability for the long pulse operation of >1000 s required in ITER. Though the magnetic field for electron suppression is reduced to 0.75 of that in the conventional EXG due to this upgrade, it was experimentally confirmed that the extracted electron current can be suppressed to the allowable level for the long pulse operation. These results show that newly developed extractor has the high potential for the long pulse extraction of the negative ions.

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  9. ONSITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery: atmospheric batch distillation, vacuum heat-pump distillation, and a low-emission vapor degreaser with closed solvent, liquid an...

  10. Solvent-free synthesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter gives a brief introduction about solvent-free reactions whose importance can be gauged by the increasing number of publications every year during the last decade. The mechanistic aspects of the reactions under solvent-free conditions have been highlighted. Our observ...

  11. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  12. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  13. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Teng, L.C.

    1960-01-19

    ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

  14. A Comparison of the Pitfall Trap, Winkler Extractor and Berlese Funnel for Sampling Ground-Dwelling Arthropods in Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

    PubMed Central

    Sabu, Thomas K.; Shiju, Raj T.; Vinod, KV.; Nithya, S.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the ground-dwelling arthropod diversity in tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF). Due to unique habitat conditions in TMCFs with continuously wet substrates and a waterlogged forest floor along with the innate biases of the pitfall trap, Berlese funnel and Winkler extractor are certain to make it difficult to choose the most appropriate method to sample the ground-dwelling arthropods in TMCFs. Among the three methods, the Winkler extractor was the most efficient method for quantitative data and pitfall trapping for qualitative data for most groups. Inclusion of floatation method as a complementary method along with the Winkler extractor would enable a comprehensive quantitative survey of ground-dwelling arthropods. Pitfall trapping is essential for both quantitative and qualitative sampling of Diplopoda, Opiliones, Orthoptera, and Diptera. The Winkler extractor was the best quantitative method for Psocoptera, Araneae, Isopoda, and Formicidae; and the Berlese funnel was best for Collembola and Chilopoda. For larval forms of different insect orders and the Acari, all the three methods were equally effective. PMID:21529148

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Jonke, A.A.

    1957-10-01

    In improved solvent extraction process is described for the extraction of metal values from highly dilute aqueous solutions. The process comprises contacting an aqueous solution with an organic substantially water-immiscible solvent, whereby metal values are taken up by a solvent extract phase; scrubbing the solvent extract phase with an aqueous scrubbing solution; separating an aqueous solution from the scrubbed solvent extract phase; and contacting the scrubbed solvent phase with an aqueous medium whereby the extracted metal values are removed from the solvent phase and taken up by said medium to form a strip solution containing said metal values, the aqueous scrubbing solution being a mixture of strip solution and an aqueous solution which contains mineral acids anions and is free of the metal values. The process is particularly effective for purifying uranium, where one starts with impure aqueous uranyl nitrate, extracts with tributyl phosphate dissolved in carbon tetrachloride, scrubs with aqueous nitric acid and employs water to strip the uranium from the scrubbed organic phase.

  16. Solvent alternatives guide

    SciTech Connect

    Elion, J.M.; Monroe, K.R.; Hill, E.A.

    1996-06-01

    It is no longer legal to manufacture or import chlorofluorocarbon 113 or methyl chloroform solvents, and companies that currently clean their parts with either material are now required to implement environmentally safe substitutes. To help find alternative methods, Research Triangle Institute`s Surface Cleaning Technology Program has designed a Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE), an online tool that enables access to practical information and recommendations for acceptable solvents. Developed in partnership with the US Environmental Protection Agency, SAGE is available free of charge on the Internet`s World Wide Web.

  17. Microfluidic Extraction of Biomarkers using Water as Solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amashukeli, Xenia; Manohara, Harish; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, Imran

    2009-01-01

    A proposed device, denoted a miniature microfluidic biomarker extractor (mu-EX), would extract trace amounts of chemicals of interest from samples, such as soils and rocks. Traditionally, such extractions are performed on a large scale with hazardous organic solvents; each solvent capable of dissolving only those molecules lying within narrow ranges of specific chemical and physical characteristics that notably include volatility, electric charge, and polarity. In contrast, in the mu-EX, extractions could be performed by use of small amounts (typically between 0.1 and 100 L) of water as a universal solvent. As a rule of thumb, in order to enable solvation and extraction of molecules, it is necessary to use solvents that have polarity sufficiently close to the polarity of the target molecules. The mu-EX would make selection of specific organic solvents unnecessary, because mu-EX would exploit a unique property of liquid water: the possibility of tuning its polarity to match the polarity of organic solvents appropriate for extraction of molecules of interest. The change of the permittivity of water would be achieved by exploiting interactions between the translational states of water molecules and an imposed electromagnetic field in the frequency range of 300 to 600 GHz. On a molecular level, these interactions would result in disruption of the three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network among liquid-water molecules and subsequent solvation and hydrolysis of target molecules. The mu-EX is expected to be an efficient means of hydrolyzing chemical bonds in complex macromolecules as well and, thus, enabling analysis of the building blocks of these complex chemical systems. The mu-EX device would include a microfluidic channel, part of which would lie within a waveguide coupled to an electronically tuned source of broad-band electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from 300 to 600 GHz (see figure). The part of the microfluidic channel lying in the waveguide would

  18. Non-aqueous cleaning solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    A variety of environmental, safety, and health concerns exist over use of chlorinated and fluorinated cleaning solvents. Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, and the Kansas City Division of Allied Signal have combined efforts to focus on finding alternative cleaning solvents and processes which are effective, environmentally safe, and compliant with local, state, and federal regulations. An alternative solvent has been identified, qualified, and implemented into production of complex electronic assemblies, where aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning processes are not allowed. Extensive compatibility studies were performed with components, piece-parts, and materials. Electrical testing and accelerated aging were used to screen for detrimental, long-term effects. A terpene, d-limonene, has been selected as the solvent of choice, and has been found to be compatible with the components and materials tested. A brief history of the overall project will be presented, along with representative cleaning efficiency results, compatibility results, and residual solvent data. The electronics industry is constantly searching for proven methods and environmentally safe materials to use in manufacturing processes. The information in this presentation will provide another option to consider on future projects for applications requiring high levels of quality, reliability, and cleanliness from non-aqueous cleaning processes.

  19. Non-aqueous cleaning solvent substitution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Gerald J.

    1994-01-01

    A variety of environmental, safety, and health concerns exist over use of chlorinated and fluorinated cleaning solvents. Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, and the Kansas City Division of AlliedSignal have combined efforts to focus on finding alternative cleaning solvents and processes which are effective, environmentally safe, and compliant with local, state, and federal regulations. An alternative solvent has been identified, qualified, and implemented into production of complex electronic assemblies, where aqueous and semi-aqueous cleaning processes are not allowed. Extensive compatibility studies were performed with components, piece-parts, and materials. Electrical testing and accelerated aging were used to screen for detrimental, long-term effects. A terpene, d-limonene, was selected as the solvent of choice, and it was found to be compatible with the components and materials tested. A brief history of the overall project will be presented, along with representative cleaning efficiency results, compatibility results, and residual solvent data. The electronics industry is constantly searching for proven methods and environmentally-safe materials to use in manufacturing processes. The information in this presentation will provide another option to consider on future projects for applications requiring high levels of quality, reliability, and cleanliness from non-aqueous cleaning processes.

  20. CHLORINATED SOLVENT PLUME CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This lecture will cover recent success in controlling and assessing the treatment of shallow ground water plumes of chlorinated solvents, other halogenated organic compounds, and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE).

  1. Continuous countercurrent membrane column for the separation of solute/solvent and solvent/solvent systems

    DOEpatents

    Nerad, Bruce A.; Krantz, William B.

    1988-01-01

    A reverse osmosis membrane process or hybrid membrane - complementary separator process for producing enriched product or waste streams from concentrated and dilute feed streams for both solvent/solvent and solute/solvent systems is described.

  2. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  3. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF RUTHENIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.; Leader, G.R.

    1959-07-14

    The separation of rathenium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is described. According to the invention, a nitrite selected from the group consisting of alkali nitrite and alkaline earth nitrite in an equimolecular quantity with regard to the quantity of rathenium present is added to an aqueous solution containing ruthenium tetrantrate to form a ruthenium complex. Adding an organic solvent such as ethyl ether to the resulting mixture selectively extracts the rathenium complex.

  4. Rational enhancement of enzyme performance in organic solvents. Final technical report, 1992--1996

    SciTech Connect

    Klibanov, A.M.

    1996-12-31

    This research focused on the following: the dependence of enzymatic activity of several model hydrolases in nonaqueous solvents; control of substrate selectivity of the protease subtilisin Carlsberg by the solvent; control of catalytic activity and enantioselectivity of this enzyme in organic solvents by immobilization support; lipase-catalyzed acylation of sugars in anhydrous hydrophobic media; the possibility of accelerating enzymatic processes in organic solvents by certain cosolvents; whether lipase catalysis in organic solvents can be enhanced by introducing interfaces in the in the reaction medium; the structure of proteins suspended in organic solvents; improving enzymatic enantioselectivity in organic solvents; analyzing the plunge in enzymatic activity upon replacing water with organic solvents; and the structural basis for the phenomenon of molecular memory of imprinted proteins in organic solvents.

  5. LLNL solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitch, M.G.

    1992-12-01

    Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), manufactures the electrical, electromechanical, mechanical, and plastic components for nuclear weapons. The KCD has made a commitment to eliminate the use of chlorohydrocarbon (CHC) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents to the greatest technical extent possible consistent with nuclear safety and stockpile reliability requirements by July 1993. Several non-halogenated solvents (Exxate 1000, Bioact EC-7, Bioact EC-7R, d-limonene, ACT-100, Kester 5769, and isopropyl alcohol) were evaluated to determine the most effective, non-chlorinated non-fluorinated, alternate solvent cleaning system for a particular electronic assembly in lieu of the current trichloroethylenefisopropyl alcohol baseline cleaning process. All of these solvents were evaluated using current manual spray cleaning processes. The solvents were evaluated for their effectiveness in removing a rosin based RMA solder flux, a particular silicone mold release, and a wide variety of general contaminants (oils, greases, mold releases, resins, etc.) normally found in production departments. A DI water/isopropyl alcohol spray cleaning process was also evaluated for removing two organic acid fluxes. Test samples were contaminated, spray cleaned with the appropriate solvent, and then analyzed for cleanliness. The Meseran Surface Analyzer was used to measure,, organic contamination on the samples before and after cleaning. An Omega Meter Model 600 was also used to detect solder flux residues.

  6. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  7. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. M.; Simandl, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92 percent. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting, and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes, and swelling of epoxies.

  8. Multiresidue analysis of aromatic organochlorines in soil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and QuEChERS extraction based on water/dichloromethane partitioning. Comparison with accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Rouvière, Florent; Buleté, Audrey; Cren-Olivé, Cécile; Arnaudguilhem, Carine

    2012-05-15

    A novel multiresidue method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 34 organochlorines, including chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, chlorinated hydrocarbons and chlorinated olefins, in soil by GC-MS, using a QuEChERS-based extraction. The conventional QuEChERS method was optimised and, for the first time, the use of a non miscible-water solvent was required. The method was compared to ASE extraction, versatile technique widely used for the soils' extraction and QuEChERS-based method was shown to be the most efficient in terms of recoveries, simplicity and rapidity. For ASE, recoveries between 42% and 85% were obtained for the majority of the compounds. However, due to the high pressure, all volatile compounds were lost. In opposite, QuEChERS extraction allowed detection and quantification of all the compounds with recoveries between 60% and 100%. Moreover, no additional clean up by dispersive SPE on PSA was necessary, which allowed reducing the cost of the analysis. Performance of the method was assessed. The method was linear over the range of concentration of 10-5000 μg kg(-1). Precision, expressed as intra-day precision and inter-day variation was verified at three concentrations. Limits of detection were from 2 to 50 μg kg(-1) and limits of quantification from 7 to 170 μg kg(-1) for the majority of the compounds (chlorobenzenes and chlorinated hydrocarbons and olefins), except for chlorophenols. The method was further applied to different soils coming from a contaminated industrial site, where a new environmental remediation process, using phytoremediation, was tested. The results showed that the method could be applied to any kind of soils (mineral or organic) and was appropriate to very volatile compounds which were not available with conventional technique. PMID:22483920

  9. Separation by solvent extraction

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Jr., Charles H.

    1976-04-06

    17. A process for separating fission product values from uranium and plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution, comprising adding an oxidizing agent to said solution to secure uranium and plutonium in their hexavalent state; contacting said aqueous solution with a substantially water-immiscible organic solvent while agitating and maintaining the temperature at from -1.degree. to -2.degree. C. until the major part of the water present is frozen; continuously separating a solid ice phase as it is formed; separating a remaining aqueous liquid phase containing fission product values and a solvent phase containing plutonium and uranium values from each other; melting at least the last obtained part of said ice phase and adding it to said separated liquid phase; and treating the resulting liquid with a new supply of solvent whereby it is practically depleted of uranium and plutonium.

  10. Halogenated solvent remediation

    DOEpatents

    Sorenson, Kent S.

    2004-08-31

    Methods for enhancing bioremediation of ground water contaminated with nonaqueous halogenated solvents are disclosed. A preferred method includes adding a composition to the ground water wherein the composition is an electron donor for microbe-mediated reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated solvents and enhances mass transfer of the halogenated solvents from residual source areas into the aqueous phase of the ground water. Illustrative compositions effective in these methods include surfactants such as C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, salts thereof, esters of C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, and mixtures thereof. Especially preferred compositions for use in these methods include lactic acid, salts of lactic acid, such as sodium lactate, lactate esters, and mixtures thereof. The microbes are either indigenous to the ground water, or such microbes can be added to the ground water in addition to the composition.

  11. Halogenated solvent remediation

    DOEpatents

    Sorenson, Jr., Kent S.

    2008-11-11

    Methods for enhancing bioremediation of ground water contaminated with nonaqueous halogenated solvents are disclosed. An illustrative method includes adding an electron donor for microbe-mediated anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated solvents, which electron donor enhances mass transfer of the halogenated solvents from residual source areas into the aqueous phase of the ground water. Illustrative electron donors include C.sub.2-C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, salts thereof, esters of C.sub.2-C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, and mixtures thereof, of which lactic acid, salts of lactic acid--such as sodium lactate, lactate esters, and mixtures thereof are particularly illustrative. The microbes are either indigenous to the ground water, or such microbes can be added to the ground water in addition to the electron donor.

  12. Breathing with chlorinated solvents

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, P.L.

    1997-06-06

    Chlorinated solvents are effective cleaners and in the past dirted solvents were dumped into landfills, stored in tanks that often leaked, or spilled. As a result the most common contaminants of organic groundwater at hazardous waste sites are the two major chlorinated solvents - tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE). Both are suspected carcinogens and both are highly resistant to biodegradation. Now however, there is a report of a bacterium that can remove all of the chlorine atoms from both by halorespiration to form ethene, an innocuous end product. This article goes on to discuss the background of biodegradation of chlorinated compounds, why it is so difficult, and what the future is in this area. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Solvent resistant copolyimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Alice C. (Inventor); St. Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A solvent resistant copolyimide was prepared by reacting 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride with a diaimine blend comprising, based on the total amount of the diamine blend, about 75 to 90 mole percent of 3,4'-oxydianiline and about 10 to 25 mole percent p-phenylene diamine. The solvent resistant copolyimide had a higher glass transition temperature when cured at 350.degree. , 371.degree. and 400.degree. C. than LaRC.TM.-IA. The composite prepared from the copolyimide had similar mechanical properties to LaRC.TM.-IA. Films prepared from the copolyimide were resistant to immediate breakage when exposed to solvents such as dimethylacetamide and chloroform. The adhesive properties of the copolyimide were maintained even after testing at 23.degree., 150.degree., 177.degree. and 204.degree. C.

  14. Safe battery solvents

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  15. Plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, R.D.; Chen, P.

    1986-03-01

    In this paper we discuss plasma accelerators which might provide high gradient accelerating fields suitable for TeV linear colliders. In particular we discuss two types of plasma accelerators which have been proposed, the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator. We show that the electric fields in the plasma for both schemes are very similar, and thus the dynamics of the driven beams are very similar. The differences appear in the parameters associated with the driving beams. In particular to obtain a given accelerating gradient, the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator has a higher efficiency and a lower total energy for the driving beam. Finally, we show for the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator that one can accelerate high quality low emittance beams and, in principle, obtain efficiencies and energy spreads comparable to those obtained with conventional techniques.

  16. Solvent dewatering coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, D.E.; Buchholz, H.F.

    1984-07-17

    Drying of wet coal is facilitated by the addition of a nonaqueous solvent, such as acetone, to the coal followed by application of heat to remove both solvent and water from the coal. The coal may be further upgraded by briquetting or pelletizing fine coal particles with waxes and resins extracted from the coal, or the waxes and resins may be left on the coal to reduce the tendency of the coal to reabsorb water. In addition, minerals such as sodium and potassium salts may be removed from the coal to reduce slagging and fouling behavior of the coal.

  17. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy hazardous contaminants, but is a means of separating those contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous material that must be treated. enerally it is used as one in a series of unit operations an...

  18. SOLVENT EXTRACTION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent extraction does not destroy wastes, but is a means of separating hazardous contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments, thereby reducing the volume of the hazardous waste that must be treated. enerally it is used as one ina series of unit operations, and can reduce th...

  19. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  20. Organic solvent topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  1. Automated solvent concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, J. S.; Stuart, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Designed for automated drug identification system (AUDRI), device increases concentration by 100. Sample is first filtered, removing particulate contaminants and reducing water content of sample. Sample is extracted from filtered residue by specific solvent. Concentrator provides input material to analysis subsystem.

  2. ONSITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery. The technologies were (1) atmospheric batch distillation, (2) vacuum heat-pump distillation, and (3) low-emission vapor degreas...

  3. DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-aided design of chemicals and chemical mixtures provides a powerful tool to help engineers identify cleaner process designs and more-benign alternatives to toxic industrial solvents. Three software programs are discussed: (1) PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replaceme...

  4. Solvent vapor collector

    DOEpatents

    Ellison, Kenneth; Whike, Alan S.

    1979-01-30

    A solvent vapor collector is mounted on the upstream inlet end of an oven having a gas-circulating means and intended for curing a coating applied to a strip sheet metal at a coating station. The strip sheet metal may be hot and solvent vapors are evaporated at the coating station and from the strip as it passes from the coating station to the oven. Upper and lower plenums within a housing of the collector are supplied with oven gases or air from the gas-circulating means and such gases or air are discharged within the collector obliquely in a downstream direction against the strip passing through that collector to establish downstream gas flows along the top and under surfaces of the strip so as, in turn, to induct solvent vapors into the collector at the coating station. A telescopic multi-piece shroud is usefully provided on the housing for movement between an extended position in which it overlies the coating station to collect solvent vapors released thereat and a retracted position permitting ready cleaning and adjustment of that coating station.

  5. Solvent-Ion Interactions in Salt Water: A Simple Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Joan D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a procedurally quick, simple, and inexpensive experiment which illustrates the magnitude and some effects of solvent-ion interactions in aqueous solutions. Theoretical information, procedures, and examples of temperature, volume and hydration number calculations are provided. (JN)

  6. Structuring of polymer solutions upon solvent evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, C.; van der Schoot, P.; Michels, J. J.

    2015-02-01

    The morphology of solution-cast, phase-separated polymers becomes finer with increasing solvent evaporation rate. We address this observation theoretically for a model polymer where demixing is induced by steady solvent evaporation. In contrast to what is the case for a classical, thermal quench involving immiscible blends, the spinodal instability initially develops slowly and the associated length scale is not time invariant but decreases with time as t-1 /2. After a time lag, phase separation accelerates. Time lag and characteristic length exhibit power-law behavior as a function of the evaporation rate with exponents of -2 /3 and -1 /6 . Interestingly, at later stages the spinodal structure disappears completely while a second length scale develops. The associated structure coarsens but does not follow the usual Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner kinetics.

  7. Summary report on the design of the retained gas sampler system (retained gas sampler, extruder and extractor)

    SciTech Connect

    Wootan, D.W.; Bolden, R.C.; Bridges, A.E.; Cannon, N.S.; Chastain, S.A.; Hey, B.E.; Knight, R.C.; Linschooten, C.G.; Pitner, A.L.; Webb, B.J.

    1994-09-29

    This document summarizes work performs in Fiscal Year 1994 to develop the three main components of Retained Gas Sampler System (RGSS). These primary components are the Retained Gas Sampler (RGS), the Retained Gas Extruder (RGE), and the Retained Gas Extractor (RGEx). The RGS is based on the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Universal Sampler design, and includes modifications to reduce gas leakage. The primary data priorities for the RGSS are to measure the void fraction and the flammable gas concentration in the waste sample. Significant progress has been made in developing the RGSS. The RGSS is being developed by WHC to extract a representative waste sample from a Flammable Gas Watch List Tanks and to measure both the amount and composition of free and {open_quotes}bound{close_quotes} gases. Sudden releases of flammable gas mixtures are a safety concern for normal waste storage operations and eventual waste retrieval. Flow visualization testing was used to identify important fluid dynamic issues related to the sampling process. The primary data priorities for the RGSS are to measure the void fraction and the flammable gas concentration in the waste sample. The safety analysis for the RGSS is being performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and is more than sixty percent (60%) complete.

  8. Antinociceptive and acute toxicity evaluation of Vernonia condensata Baker leaves extracted with different solvents and their mixtures.

    PubMed

    Risso, Wagner E; Scarminio, Ieda S; Moreira, Estefania G

    2010-08-01

    Extract of Vernonia condensata (Asteraceae = Compositae) leaves has different uses in Brazilian folk medicine, which includes analgesic and antiinflamatory agent. The aim of this study was to apply a modified simplex-centroid mixture design to evaluate the best extractor system for the antinociceptive activity, evaluated by writhing test. Different solvents (acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol and ethyl acetate) as well as their binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures were used. For comparison, aqueous extract was also evaluated. LD50 was estimated and qualitative phytochemical screening, conducted. The extracts with antinociceptive activity were: aqueous, acetone, dicloromethane (DCM), ethanol (ETOH), acetone-DCM, acetone-ETOH, acetone-ethyl acetate, ETOH-ethyl acetate, acetone-DCM-ethyl acetate, acetone-ETOH-ethyl acetate and DCM-ETOH-ethyl acetate. The higher margin of safety (LD50/ED50) was for acetone > acetone-ETOH-ethyl acetate > aqueous > ETOH = acetone-ETOH > DCM > acetone-ethyl acetate > DCM-ETOH-ethyl acetate > acetone-DCM > acetone-DCM-ethyl acetate. Phytochemical screening showed that all the extracts contained alkaloids, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and saponins. In conclusion, the extractor system influences both the pharmacological activity and acute toxicity of leaves from V. condensata. Acetone and the ternary mixture, acetone-ETOH-ethyl acetate extracts showed higher margin of safety than aqueous extract. PMID:21341539

  9. Solvent dewaxing of lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sequeira, A. Jr.

    1991-04-09

    This paper describes improvement in a process for producing a dewaxed lubricating oil from a wax-bearing mineral oil by the steps comprising; mixing the oil with a dewaxing solvent thereby forming an oil-solvent mixture, chilling the oil-solvent mixture to a dewaxing temperature thereby crystallizing the wax and forming an oil-solvent crystalline wax mixture, separating the oil-solvent-crystalline wax mixture to form a dewaxed oil-solvent mixture and crystalline wax, steam stripping the dewaxed oil-solvent mixture at a temperature of 300{degrees}F to 600{degrees}F and pressure of 1 atm to 3 atm, to yield a solvent free dewaxed oil.

  10. DESIGNING ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN SOLVENT SUBSTITUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the signing of 1987 Montreal Protocol, reducing and eliminating the use of harmful solvents has become an internationally imminent environmental protection mission. Solvent substitution is an effective way to achieve this goal. The Program for Assisting the Replacement of...

  11. Solvent substitution for electronic products

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovich, M.K.

    1992-01-01

    Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), manufactures the electrical, electrochemical, mechanical, and plastic components for nuclear weapons. The KCD has made a commitment to eliminate the use of chlorohydrocarbon (CHC) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents to the greatest technical extent possible consistent with nuclear safety and stockpile reliability requirements. Current cleaning processes in the production departments use trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and various CFC-113 based solvents. Several non-halogenated solvents (Solvent A - an aqueous solvent based on N,N-dimethylacetamide, Solvent B - an aqueous mixture of ethanol amines, Solvent C - a hydrocarbon solvent based on octadecyl acetate, Solvent D - a terpene (d-limonene) hydrocarbon solvent combined with emulsifiers, Solvent E - a terpene (d-limonene) hydrocarbon solvent combined with a separation agent, d-limonene, and isopropyl alcohol) were evaluated to determine the most effective, non-chlorinated, non-fluorinated, alternate solvent cleaning system. All of these solvents were evaluated using current manual spray cleaning processes. The solvents were evaluated for their effectiveness in removing a rosin based RMA solder flux, a particular silicone mold release, and oils, greases, mold releases, resins, etc. The Meseran Surface Analyzer was used to measure organic contamination on the samples before and after cleaning. An Omega Meter Model 600 was also used to detect solder flux residues. Solvents C, D, E and d-limonene the best alternatives to trichloroethylene for removing all of the contaminants tested. For this particular electronic assembly, d-limonene was chosen as the alternate because of material compatibility and long-term reliability concerns.

  12. Glove permeation by organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.O.; Lum, B.Y.; Carlson, G.J.; Wong, C.M.; Johnson, J.S.

    1981-03-01

    The vapor penetration of 29 common laboratory solvents on 28 protective gloves has been tested and measured using gas-phase, infrared spectrophotometric techniques to determine the permeation characteristics. Five different types of permeation behavior were identified. No one glove offered complete protection against all the solvents tested. The permeation rate of the solvent was found to be inversely proportional to glove thickness for a given manufacturer's material. Of two solvent mixtures tested, one exhibited a large, positive, synergistic rate.

  13. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  14. Hazardous solvent substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-11-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is `What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?`You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product`s constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace.

  15. Solvent replacement for green processing.

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, J; Chin, B; Huibers, P D; Garcia-Valls, R; Hatton, T A

    1998-01-01

    The implementation of the Montreal Protocol, the Clean Air Act, and the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 has resulted in increased awareness of organic solvent use in chemical processing. The advances made in the search to find "green" replacements for traditional solvents are reviewed, with reference to solvent alternatives for cleaning, coatings, and chemical reaction and separation processes. The development of solvent databases and computational methods that aid in the selection and/or design of feasible or optimal environmentally benign solvent alternatives for specific applications is also discussed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9539018

  16. SOLVENT FIRE BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-05-22

    Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) conducted a burn test of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent to determine the combustion products. The testing showed hydrogen fluoride gas is not a combustion product from a solvent fire when up to 70% of the solvent is consumed. The absence of HF in the combustion gases may reflect concentration of the modifier containing the fluoride groups in the unburned portion. SwRI reported results for other gases (CO, HCN, NOx, formaldehyde, and hydrocarbons). The results, with other supporting information, can be used for evaluating the consequences of a facility fire involving the CSSX solvent inventory.

  17. Enhanced extraction yields and mobile phase separations by solvent mixtures for the analysis of metabolites in Annona muricata L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro de Souza, Eloana Benassi; da Silva, Renata Reis; Afonso, Sabrina; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2009-12-01

    The effects of five extraction solvents and their mixtures on the yield of metabolites in crude and fractionated extracts of Annona muricata L. leaves were investigated by direct comparison. Extraction media were prepared using simplex centroid mixtures of ethanol, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, acetone, and chloroform. The effects of the mobile phase solvent strength and the analysis wavelength on the chromatographic separation were also investigated. Solvent mixtures rather than pure solvents were found to be the most efficient extractors for the different fractions. The results indicated that the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (26:27:47 v/v/v) was most suitable for the basic fraction analysis at 254 nm, whereas the mobile phase composed of methanol/acetonitrile/water (35:35:30 v/v/v) was the most adequate for the organic fraction analysis at 254 nm. The results indicated that the chromatographic profiles and number of peaks were affected by the mobile phase strength and analysis wavelength. PMID:19882621

  18. Occupational solvent exposure and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Sabbath, E.L.; Glymour, M.M.; Berr, C.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Chronic occupational solvent exposure is associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Cognitive reserve may protect solvent-exposed workers from cognitive impairment. We tested whether the association between chronic solvent exposure and cognition varied by educational attainment, a proxy for cognitive reserve. Methods: Data were drawn from a prospective cohort of French national gas and electricity (GAZEL) employees (n = 4,134). Lifetime exposure to 4 solvent types (chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, benzene, and nonbenzene aromatic solvents) was assessed using a validated job-exposure matrix. Education was dichotomized at less than secondary school or below. Cognitive impairment was defined as scoring below the 25th percentile on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at mean age 59 (SD 2.8; 88% of participants were retired at testing). Log-binomial regression was used to model risk ratios (RRs) for poor cognition as predicted by solvent exposure, stratified by education and adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results: Solvent exposure rates were higher among less-educated patients. Within this group, there was a dose-response relationship between lifetime exposure to each solvent type and RR for poor cognition (e.g., for high exposure to benzene, RR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.09–1.41), with significant linear trends (p < 0.05) in 3 out of 4 solvent types. Recency of solvent exposure also predicted worse cognition among less-educated patients. Among those with secondary education or higher, there was no significant or near-significant relationship between any quantification of solvent exposure and cognition. Conclusions: Solvent exposure is associated with poor cognition only among less-educated individuals. Higher cognitive reserve in the more-educated group may explain this finding. PMID:22641403

  19. TOXICITY CHARACTERISTIC LEACHING PROCEDURE APPLIED TO RADIOACTIVE SALTSTONE CONTAINING TETRAPHENYLBORATE: DEVELOPMENT OF A MODIFIED ZERO-HEADSPACE EXTRACTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Crapse, K.; Cozzi, A.; Crawford, C.; Jurgensen, A.

    2006-09-30

    In order to assess the effect of extended curing times at elevated temperatures on saltstone containing Tank 48H waste, saltstone samples prepared as a part of a separate study were analyzed for benzene using a modification of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method 1311 Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). To carry out TCLP for volatile organic analytes (VOA), such as benzene, in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) shielded cells (SC), a modified TCLP Zero-Headspace Extractor (ZHE) was developed. The modified method was demonstrated to be acceptable in a side by side comparison with an EPA recommended ZHE using nonradioactive saltstone containing tetraphenylborate (TPB). TCLP results for all saltstone samples tested containing TPB (both simulant and actual Tank 48H waste) were below the regulatory limit for benzene (0.5 mg/L). In general, higher curing temperatures corresponded to higher concentrations of benzene in TCLP extract. The TCLP performed on the simulant samples cured under the most extreme conditions (3000 mg/L TPB in salt and cured at 95 C for at least 144 days) resulted in benzene values that were greater than half the regulatory limit. Taking into account that benzene in TCLP extract was measured on the same order of magnitude as the regulatory limit, that these experimental conditions may not be representative of actual curing profiles found in the saltstone vault and that there is significant uncertainty associated with the precision of the method, it is recommended that to increase confidence in TCLP results for benzene, the maximum curing temperature of saltstone be less than 95 C. At this time, no further benzene TCLP testing is warranted. Additional verification would be recommended, however, should future processing strategies result in significant changes to salt waste composition in saltstone as factors beyond the scope of this limited study may influence the decomposition of TPB in saltstone.

  20. Solvent Fractionation of Lignin

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Sabornie; Saito, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    Lignin is a highly abundant source of renewable carbon that can be considered as a valuable sustainable source of biobased materials. The major issues for the commercial production of value added high performance lignin products are lignin s physical and chemical heterogenities. To overcome these problems, a variety of procedures have been developed to produce pure lignin suitable for high performace applications such as lignin-derived carbon materials. However, most of the isolation procedures affect lignin s properties and structure. In this chapter, a short review of the effect of solvent fractionation on lignin s properties and structure is presented.

  1. Accelerated Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of Accelerated Reader, a system of computerized testing and record-keeping that supplements the regular classroom reading program. Accelerated Reader's primary goal is to increase literature-based reading practice. The program offers a computer-aided reading comprehension and management program intended to motivate…

  2. Solvent free hydroxylation of the methyl esters of Blighia unijugata seed oil in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of oil from the seed of Blighia unijugata gave a yield of 50.82 ± 1.20% using hexane in a soxhlet extractor. The iodine and saponification values were 67.60 ± 0.80 g iodine/100 g and 239.20 ± 1.00 mg KOH/g respectively with C18:1 being the dominant fatty acid. Unsaturated methyl esters of Blighia unijugata which had been previously subjected to urea adduct complexation was used to synthesize methyl 9, 10-dihydroxyoctadecanoate via hydroxylation in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium permanganate (CTAP). The reaction was monitored and confirmed using FTIR and GC-MS. This study has revealed that oxidation reaction of mono unsaturated bonds using CTAP could be achieved under solvent free condition. PMID:22145711

  3. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  4. Solvent Blending Strategy to Upgrade MCU CSSX Solvent to Equivalent Next-Generation CSSX Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Moyer, Bruce A

    2012-12-01

    The results of the present study have validated an equal-volume blending strategy for upgrading freshly prepared CSSX solvent to a blended solvent functionally equivalent to NG-CSSX solvent. It is shown that blending fresh CSSX solvent as currently used in MCU with an equal volume of an NG-CSSX solvent concentrate of appropriate composition yields a blended solvent composition (46.5 mM of MaxCalix, 3.5 mM of BOBCalixC6, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, 3 mM of guanidine suppressor, and 1.5 mM of TOA in Isopar L) that exhibits equivalent batch ESS performance to that of the NG-CSSX solvent containing 50 mM of MaxCalix, 0.5 M of Cs-7SB, and 3 mM of guanidine suppressor in Isopar L. The solvent blend composition is robust to third-phase formation. Results also show that a blend containing up to 60% v/v of CSSX solvent could be accommodated with minimal risk. Extraction and density data for the effect of solvent concentration mimicking diluent evaporation or over-dilution of the equal-volume blended solvent are also given, providing input for setting operational limits. Given that the experiments employed all pristine chemicals, the results do not qualify a blended solvent starting with actual used MCU solvent, which can be expected to have undergone some degree of degradation. Consequently, further work should be considered to evaluate this risk and implement appropriate remediation if needed.

  5. Solvents level dipole moments.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenkel; Li, Xiaosong; Dalton, Larry R; Robinson, Bruce H; Eichinger, Bruce E

    2011-11-01

    The dipole moments of highly polar molecules measured in solution are usually smaller than the molecular dipole moments that are calculated with reaction field methods, whereas vacuum values are routinely calculated in good agreement with available vapor phase data. Whether from Onsager's theory (or variations thereof) or from quantum mechanical methods, the calculated molecular dipoles in solution are found to be larger than those measured. The reason, of course, is that experiments measure the net dipole moment of solute together with the polarized (perturbed) solvent "cloud" surrounding it. Here we show that the reaction field charges that are generated in the quantum mechanical self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) method give a good estimate of the net dipole moment of the solute molecule together with the moment arising from the reaction field charges. This net dipole is a better description of experimental data than the vacuum dipole moment and certainly better than the bare dipole moment of the polarized solute molecule. PMID:21923185

  6. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  7. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  8. ION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Bell, J.S.

    1959-09-15

    An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.

  9. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  10. Speech recognition in reverberant and noisy environments employing multiple feature extractors and i-vector speaker adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md Jahangir; Gupta, Vishwa; Kenny, Patrick; Dumouchel, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    The REVERB challenge provides a common framework for the evaluation of feature extraction techniques in the presence of both reverberation and additive background noise. State-of-the-art speech recognition systems perform well in controlled environments, but their performance degrades in realistic acoustical conditions, especially in real as well as simulated reverberant environments. In this contribution, we utilize multiple feature extractors including the conventional mel-filterbank, multi-taper spectrum estimation-based mel-filterbank, robust mel and compressive gammachirp filterbank, iterative deconvolution-based dereverberated mel-filterbank, and maximum likelihood inverse filtering-based dereverberated mel-frequency cepstral coefficient features for speech recognition with multi-condition training data. In order to improve speech recognition performance, we combine their results using ROVER (Recognizer Output Voting Error Reduction). For two- and eight-channel tasks, to get benefited from the multi-channel data, we also use ROVER, instead of the multi-microphone signal processing method, to reduce word error rate by selecting the best scoring word at each channel. As in a previous work, we also apply i-vector-based speaker adaptation which was found effective. In speech recognition task, speaker adaptation tries to reduce mismatch between the training and test speakers. Speech recognition experiments are conducted on the REVERB challenge 2014 corpora using the Kaldi recognizer. In our experiments, we use both utterance-based batch processing and full batch processing. In the single-channel task, full batch processing reduced word error rate (WER) from 10.0 to 9.3 % on SimData as compared to utterance-based batch processing. Using full batch processing, we obtained an average WER of 9.0 and 23.4 % on the SimData and RealData, respectively, for the two-channel task, whereas for the eight-channel task on the SimData and RealData, the average WERs found were 8

  11. Influence of experimental conditions on the extraction of phenolic compounds from parsley (Petroselinum crispum) flakes using a pressurized liquid extractor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of six pressurized liquid extraction parameters (temperature, pressure, particle size, flush volume, static time, and solid to-solvent ratio) on extraction of phenolic compounds from parsley flakes was examined. Parsley extracts were analyzed for their phenolic content by high performa...

  12. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  13. Toxicological profile for Stoddard solvent

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This statement was prepared to give you information about Stoddard solvent and to emphasize the human health effects that may result from exposure to it. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified 1,397 sites on its `National Priorities List` (NPL). Stoddard solvent has been found in at least seven of these sites.

  14. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  15. Design and Fabrication of a Dielectric Total Internal Reflecting Solar Concentrator and Associated Flux Extractor for Extreme High Temperature (2500K) Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soules, Jack A.; Buchele, Donald R.; Castle, Charles H.; Macosko, Robert P.

    1997-01-01

    The Analex Corporation, under contract to the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC), Cleveland, Ohio, recently evaluated the feasibility of utilizing refractive secondary concentrators for solar heat receivers operating at temperatures up to 2500K. The feasibility study pointed out a number of significant advantages provided by solid single crystal refractive devices over the more conventional hollow reflective compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs). In addition to the advantages of higher concentration ratio and efficiency, the refractive concentrator, when combined with a flux extractor rod, provides for flux tailoring within the heat receiver cavity. This is a highly desirable, almost mandatory, feature for solar thermal propulsion engine designs presently being considered for NASA and Air Force thermal applications. Following the feasibility evaluation, the NASA-LeRC, NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and Analex Corporation teamed up to design, fabricate, and test a refractive secondary concentrator/flux extractor system for potential use in the NASA-MSFC "Shooting Star" flight experiment. This paper describes the advantages and technical challenges associated with the design methodologies developed and utilized and the material and fabrication limitations encountered.

  16. WASH SOLVENT REUSE IN PAINT PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated solvent used to clean paint manufacture equipment for its utility in production of subsequent batches of solvent-borne paint. eusing wash solvent would reduce the amount of solvent disposed of as waste. he evaluation of this wash-solvent recovery technology...

  17. COMPUTER AIDED SOLVENT DESIGN FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent substitution is an effective and useful means of eliminating the use of harmful solvents, but finding substitute solvents which are less harmful and as effective as currently used solvents presents significant difficulties. Solvent substitution is a form of reverse engin...

  18. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  19. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOEpatents

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  20. IMS - MS Data Extractor

    2015-10-20

    An automated drift time extraction and computed associated collision cross section software tool for small molecule analysis with ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The software automatically extracts drift times and computes associated collision cross sections for small molecules analyzed using ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) based on a target list of expected ions provided by the user.

  1. Core sample extractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akins, James; Cobb, Billy; Hart, Steve; Leaptrotte, Jeff; Milhollin, James; Pernik, Mark

    1989-01-01

    The problem of retrieving and storing core samples from a hole drilled on the lunar surface is addressed. The total depth of the hole in question is 50 meters with a maximum diameter of 100 millimeters. The core sample itself has a diameter of 60 millimeters and will be two meters in length. It is therefore necessary to retrieve and store 25 core samples per hole. The design utilizes a control system that will stop the mechanism at a certain depth, a cam-linkage system that will fracture the core, and a storage system that will save and catalogue the cores to be extracted. The Rod Changer and Storage Design Group will provide the necessary tooling to get into the hole as well as to the core. The mechanical design for the cam-linkage system as well as the conceptual design of the storage device are described.

  2. Ball valve extractor

    DOEpatents

    Herndon, Charles; Brown, Roger A.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and process for removing a ball valve is provided. The ball valve removal tool provides a handle sliding along the length of a shaft. One end of the shaft is secured within an interior cavity of a ball valve while the opposite end of the shaft defines a stop member. By providing a manual sliding force to the handle, the handle impacts the stop member and transmits the force to the ball valve. The direction of the force is along the shaft of the removal tool and disengages the ball valve from the ball valve housing.

  3. Cesium Concentration in MCU Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D

    2006-01-18

    During Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) operations, Cs-137 concentrations in product streams will vary depending on the location in the process and on the recent process conditions. Calculations of cesium concentrations under a variety of operating conditions reveal the following: (1) Under nominal operations with salt solution feed containing 1.1 Ci Cs-137 per gallon, the maximum Cs-137 concentration in the process will occur in the strip effluent (SE) and equal 15-16.5 Ci/gal. (2) Under these conditions, the majority of the solvent will contain 0.005 to 0.01 Ci/gal, with a limited portion of the solvent in the contactor stages containing {approx}4 Ci/gal. (3) When operating conditions yield product near 0.1 Ci Cs-137/gal in the decontaminated salt solution (DSS), the SE cesium concentration will be the same or lower than in nominal operations, but majority of the stripped solvent will increase to {approx}2-3 Ci/gal. (4) Deviations in strip and waste stream flow rates cause the largest variations in cesium content: (a) If strip flow rates deviate by -30% of nominal, the SE will contain {approx}23 Ci/gal, although the cesium content of the solvent will increase to only 0.03 Ci/gal; (b) If strip flow rate deviates by -77% (i.e., 23% of nominal), the SE will contain 54 Ci/gal and solvent will contain 1.65 Ci/gal. At this point, the product DSS will just reach the limit of 0.1 Ci/gal, causing the DSS gamma monitors to alarm; and (c) Moderate (+10 to +30%) deviations in waste flow rate cause approximately proportional increases in the SE and solvent cesium concentrations. Recovery from a process failure due to poor cesium stripping can achieve any low cesium concentration required. Passing the solvent back through the contactors while recycling DSS product will produce a {approx}70% reduction during one pass through the contactors (assuming the stripping D value is no worse than 0.36). If the solvent is returned to the solvent hold tank

  4. Acceleration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work to support the NASA MSFC Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) was performed. Four tasks (analysis development, analysis research, analysis documentation, and acceleration analysis) were addressed by parallel projects. Work concentrated on preparation for and implementation of near real-time SAMS data analysis during the USMP-1 mission. User support documents and case specific software documentation and tutorials were developed. Information and results were presented to microgravity users. ACAP computer facilities need to be fully implemented and networked, data resources must be cataloged and accessible, future microgravity missions must be coordinated, and continued Orbiter characterization is necessary.

  5. The effect of solvent-conditioning on soil organic matter sorption affinity for diuron and phenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Ahangar, Ahmad Gholamalizadeh; Smernik, Ronald J; Kookana, Rai S; Chittleborough, David J

    2009-08-01

    The effect of solvent-conditioning on the sorption of diuron and phenanthrene was investigated. The organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (K(OC)) for diuron and phenanthrene (determined from single initial concentrations of 0.8mgL(-1) and 1.5mgL(-1), respectively) were consistently higher following solvent-conditioning of a whole soil with five organic solvents (acetonitrile, acetone, methanol, chloroform and dichloromethane). The relative increase in K(OC) was inversely related to the polarity of the conditioning solvent (i.e. greater increases in K(OC) were observed for the least polar solvents: chloroform and dichloromethane). The effect of solvent-conditioning on the sorption properties of the same soil that had been lipid-extracted using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was also investigated. Since lipid extraction involves treatment with a non-polar solvent (95:5 dichloromethane:methanol) one may have expected no further increase in K(OC) on solvent-conditioning. On the contrary, the lipid-extracted soil exhibited very similar increases in K(OC) as the whole soil. This demonstrated that lipid removal and solvent-conditioning, which both increased K(OC) for this soil, are quite separate phenomena. PMID:19435638

  6. Swelling of lignites in organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    R.G. Makitra; D.V. Bryk

    2008-10-15

    Data on the swelling of Turkish lignites can be summarized using linear multiparameter equations that take into account various properties of solvents. Factors responsible for the amounts of absorbed solvents are the basicity and cohesion energy density of the solvents.

  7. EXPERIENCES IN DESIGNING SOLVENTS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To meet the great need of replacing many harmful solvents commonly used by industry and the public with environmentally benign substitute solvents, the PARIS II solvent design software has been developed. Although the difficulty of successfully finding replacements increases with...

  8. Chromatographic NMR in NMR solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrara, Caroline; Viel, Stéphane; Delaurent, Corinne; Ziarelli, Fabio; Excoffier, Grégory; Caldarelli, Stefano

    2008-10-01

    Recently, it was demonstrated that pseudo-chromatographic NMR experiments could be performed using typical chromatographic solids and solvents. This first setup yielded improved separation of the spectral components of the NMR spectra of mixtures using PFG self-diffusion measurements. The method (dubbed Chromatographic NMR) was successively shown to possess, in favorable cases, superior resolving power on non-functionalized silica, compared to its LC counterpart. To further investigate the applicability of the method, we studied here the feasibility of Chromatographic NMR in common deuterated solvents. Two examples are provided, using deuterated chloroform and water, for homologous compounds soluble in these solvents, namely aromatic molecules and alcohols, respectively.

  9. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  10. Accelerated Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

  11. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

    DOEpatents

    Pope, K.E.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

  12. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  13. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Solvent-Composition Recommendation

    SciTech Connect

    Klatt, L.N.

    2002-05-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy has selected caustic-side solvent extraction as the preferred cesium removal technology for the treatment of high-level waste stored at the Savannah River Site. Data for the solubility of the extractant, calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6), acquired and reported for the Salt Processing Program down-select decision, showed the original solvent composition to be supersaturated with respect to the extractant. Although solvent samples have been observed for approximately 1 year without any solids formation, work was completed to define a new solvent composition that was thermodynamically stable with respect to solids formation and to expand the operating temperature with respect to third-phase formation. Chemical and physical data as a function of solvent component concentrations were collected. The data included calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6) solubility; cesium distribution ratio under extraction, scrub, and strip conditions; flow sheet robustness; temperature range of third-phase formation; dispersion numbers for the solvent against waste simulant, scrub and strip acids, and sodium hydroxide wash solutions; solvent density; viscosity; and surface and interfacial tension. These data were mapped against a set of predefined performance criteria. The composition of 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octyl benzo-crown-6), 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine in the diluent Isopar{reg_sign} L provided the best match between the measured properties and the performance criteria. Therefore, it is recommended as the new baseline solvent composition.

  14. SAGE--SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAGE is a comprehensive guide designed to provide pollution prevention information on solvent and process alternatives for parts cleaning and degreasing. SAGE does not recommend any ozone depleting chemicals. SAGE was developed by the Surface Cleaning Program at Research Triang...

  15. SOLV-DB: Solvents Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    SOLV-DB provides a specialized mix of information on commercially available solvents. The development of the database was funded under the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) with funds from EPA and DOE's Office of Industrial Technologies in EE. The information includes: • Health and safety considerations involved in choosing and using solvents • Chemical and physical data affecting the suitability of a particular solvent for a wide range of potential applications • Regulatory responsibilities, including exposure and effluent limits, hazard classification status with respect to several key statutes, and selected reporting requirements • Environmental fate data, to indicate whether a solvent is likely to break down or persist in air or water, and what types of waste treatment techniques may apply to it • CAS numbers (from Chemical Abstracts Service) and Sax Numbers (from Sax, et.al., Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials) Supplier Information See help information at http://solvdb.ncms.org/welcome.htm (Specialized Interface)

  16. ON-SITE SOLVENT RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluated the product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic aspects of three technologies for onsite solvent recovery: atmospheric batch distillation, vacuum heat-pump distillation, and low-emission vapor degreasing. The atmospheric and vacuum ...

  17. Compact accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  18. BICEP's acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2014-10-01

    The recent Bicep2 [1] detection of, what is claimed to be primordial B-modes, opens up the possibility of constraining not only the energy scale of inflation but also the detailed acceleration history that occurred during inflation. In turn this can be used to determine the shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) for the first time — if a single, scalar inflaton is assumed to be driving the acceleration. We carry out a Monte Carlo exploration of inflationary trajectories given the current data. Using this method we obtain a posterior distribution of possible acceleration profiles ε(N) as a function of e-fold N and derived posterior distributions of the primordial power spectrum P(k) and potential V(φ). We find that the Bicep2 result, in combination with Planck measurements of total intensity Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, induces a significant feature in the scalar primordial spectrum at scales k∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc {sup -1}. This is in agreement with a previous detection of a suppression in the scalar power [2].

  19. Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering To Make Microsphere Scaffolds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurencin, Cato T.; Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    A solvent/non-solvent sintering technique has been devised for joining polymeric microspheres to make porous matrices for use as drug-delivery devices or scaffolds that could be seeded with cells for growing tissues. Unlike traditional sintering at elevated temperature and pressure, this technique is practiced at room temperature and pressure and, therefore, does not cause thermal degradation of any drug, protein, or other biochemical with which the microspheres might be loaded to impart properties desired in a specific application. Also, properties of scaffolds made by this technique are more reproducible than are properties of comparable scaffolds made by traditional sintering. The technique involves the use of two miscible organic liquids: one that is and one that is not a solvent for the affected polymer. The polymeric microspheres are placed in a mold having the size and shape of the desired scaffold, then the solvent/non-solvent mixture is poured into the mold to fill the void volume between the microspheres, then the liquid mixture is allowed to evaporate. Some of the properties of the resulting scaffold can be tailored through choice of the proportions of the liquids and the diameter of the microspheres.

  20. Computational comparison of oxidation stability: Solvent/salt monomers vs solvent-solvent/salt pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Young; Park, Min Sik; Lim, Younhee; Kang, Yoon-Sok; Park, Jin-Hwan; Doo, Seok-Gwang

    2015-08-01

    A fundamental understanding of the anodic stabilities of electrolytes is important for the development of advanced high-voltage electrolytes. In this study, we calculated and systematically compared the oxidation stabilities of monomeric solvents and anions, and bimolecular solvent-solvent and anion-solvent systems that are considered to be high-voltage electrolyte components, using ab initio calculations. Oxidation stabilities of solvent or anion monomers without considering specific solvation molecules cannot represent experimental oxidation stabilities. The oxidation of electrolytes usually forms neutral or cationic radicals, which immediately undergo further reactions stabilizing the products. Oxidatively driven intermolecular reactions are the main reason for the lower oxidation stabilities of electrolytes compared with those of monomeric compounds. Electrolyte components such as tetramethylene sulfone (TMS), ethyl methyl sulfone (EMS), bis(oxalate)borate (BOB-), and bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonamide (TFSI-) that minimize such intermolecular chemical reactions on oxidation can maintain the oxidation stabilities of monomers. In predictions of the theoretical oxidation stabilities of electrolytes, simple comparisons of highest occupied molecular orbital energies can be misleading, even if microsolvation or bulk clusters are considered. Instead, bimolecular solvent complexes with a salt anion should be at least considered in oxidation calculations. This study provides important information on fundamental and applied aspects of the development of electrolytes.

  1. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  2. Coal liquefaction process with enhanced process solvent

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.; Kang, Dohee

    1984-01-01

    In an improved coal liquefaction process, including a critical solvent deashing stage, high value product recovery is improved and enhanced process-derived solvent is provided by recycling second separator underflow in the critical solvent deashing stage to the coal slurry mix, for inclusion in the process solvent pool.

  3. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  4. Method of treating radioactively contaminated solvent waste

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, W.; Mallek, H.; Plum, W.

    1981-07-07

    A method of and apparatus for treating radioactively contaminated solvent waste are claimed. The solvent waste is supplied to material such as peat, vermiculite, diaton, etc. This material effects the distribution or dispersion of the solvent and absorbs the foreign substances found in the solvent waste. Air or an inert gas flows through the material in order to pick up the solvent portions which are volatile as a consequence of their vapor pressure. The thus formed gas mixture, which includes air or inert gas and solvent portions, is purified in a known manner by thermal, electrical, or catalytic combustion of the solvent portions.

  5. DOE solvent handbook information sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Solvents and cleaners are used in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy-Defense Program (DOE-DP) maintenance facilities for removing wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold releases, and other contaminants before repairing or electroplating parts. Private industry also uses cleaners and degreasers for surface preparation of various metals. Growing environmental and worker safety concerns have brought attention to these solvents and cleaners, most of which are classified as toxic. Tightening government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals, and restrict the use of various halogenated hydrocarbons because of their atmospheric-ozone depleting effects, as well as their cancer-related risks. As a result, a program was established to develop an efficient, easily accessible, electronic solvent utilization handbook. This is being accomplished by: (1) identifying solvents (alternatives) that are not currently restricted by government regulations for use DOE-DP facilities, and private industry, (2) evaluating their cleaning performance, (3) evaluating their corrosivity, (4) evaluating their air emissions, (5) evaluating the possibility of recycling or recovering all or portions of the alternative degreasers, (6) testing substitute solvents compatibility with non-metallic materials, (7) inputting all of the data gathered (including previous biodegradability information) into a database, and (8) developing a methodology for efficient, widespread access to the data base information system.

  6. DOE solvent handbook information sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, A.A.

    1992-05-01

    Solvents and cleaners are used in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy-Defense Program (DOE-DP) maintenance facilities for removing wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold releases, and other contaminants before repairing or electroplating parts. Private industry also uses cleaners and degreasers for surface preparation of various metals. Growing environmental and worker safety concerns have brought attention to these solvents and cleaners, most of which are classified as toxic. Tightening government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals, and restrict the use of various halogenated hydrocarbons because of their atmospheric-ozone depleting effects, as well as their cancer-related risks. As a result, a program was established to develop an efficient, easily accessible, electronic solvent utilization handbook. This is being accomplished by: (1) identifying solvents (alternatives) that are not currently restricted by government regulations for use DOE-DP facilities, and private industry, (2) evaluating their cleaning performance, (3) evaluating their corrosivity, (4) evaluating their air emissions, (5) evaluating the possibility of recycling or recovering all or portions of the alternative degreasers, (6) testing substitute solvents compatibility with non-metallic materials, (7) inputting all of the data gathered (including previous biodegradability information) into a database, and (8) developing a methodology for efficient, widespread access to the data base information system.

  7. Helpful hints for physical solvent absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, W.

    1982-11-01

    Review of experience with natural gas treatment using physical solvents points to design and operating suggestions. Experiences with three plants using either Selexol or Sepasolv MPE solvent shows that both solvents perform well. The solvents offer economical and problem-free purification of natural gas. The Sepasolv MPE and Selexol solvents are very similar in chemical structure and physical properties. Thus, their application range is almost similar. An exchange is possible in most plants without equipment modification and/or process data.

  8. Solvent extraction of holmium and yttrium with bis(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizuka, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Baba, Y.; Inoue, K. ); Nakashio, F. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper discusses a kinetic study on the solvent extraction of holmium(III) and yttrium(III) with bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) from nitrate media conducted at 303 K using a hollow fiber membrane extractor. Also studied were the distribution equilibria of these metals and interfacial adsorption equilibria of D2EHPA and its metal complexes between the organic and aqueous phases. It was found that the metals (M{sup 3+}) were extracted with D2EHPA (HR) ad MR{sub 3} {center dot} 3HR into the organic phase, and the extraction equilibrium constants were evaluated. Furthermore, it was established that dimeric D2EHPA can be adsorbed at the interface between the organic and aqueous phases, while the interfacial activities of D2EHPA-metal complexes were negligibly small. The apparent orders 2, 1, and 2 of the permeabilities for the extraction of both metals were found with respect to the pH of the aqueous solution and the concentrations of the metal ion and dimeric D2EHPA, while the orders 1, 1, and {minus}1 of the permeabilities for the stripping of both metals were found with respect to the hydrogen ion activity and the concentrations of the metal complex and dimeric D2EHPA, respectively. The diffusional effects were reasonably explained by the diffusion model accompanied by an interfacial reaction, taking into account the velocity distributions of the aqueous and organic phases through the inner and outer sides of a hollow fiber.

  9. Solvent sensitive polymer composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, A.; Armellini, C.; Carpentiero, A.; Minati, L.; Righini, G. C.; Ferrari, M.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we describe a composite system based on polystyrene colloidal nanoparticles assembled and embedded in an elastomeric matrix (polymer colloidal crystal, PCC), in the specific we have designed a PCC structure which displays an iridescent green color that can be attributed to the photonic crystal effect. This effect has been exploited to create a chemical sensor, in fact optical measurements have evidenced that the composite structure presents a different optical response as a function of the solvent applied on the surface. In particular we have demonstrated that the PCC possess, for specific solvents: (i) high sensitivity, (ii) fast response (less than 1s), and (iii) reversibility of the signal change. Finally preliminary results on the PCC have shown that this system can be also used as optical writing substrate using a specific solvent as ink, moreover an erasing procedure is also reported and discussed.

  10. Solvent reorganization of electron transitions in viscous solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Ghorai, Pradip K.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2006-04-14

    We develop a model of electron transfer reactions at conditions of nonergodicity when the time of solvent relaxation crosses the observation time window set up by the reaction rate. Solvent reorganization energy of intramolecular electron transfer in a charge-transfer molecule dissolved in water and acetonitrile is studied by molecular dynamics simulations at varying temperatures. We observe a sharp decrease of the reorganization energy at a temperature identified as the temperature of structural arrest due to cage effect, as discussed by the mode-coupling theory. This temperature also marks the onset of the enhancement of translational diffusion relative to rotational relaxation signaling the breakdown of the Stokes-Einstein relation. The change in the reorganization energy at the transition temperature reflects the dynamical arrest of the slow, collective relaxation of the solvent related to the relaxation of the solvent dipolar polarization. An analytical theory proposed to describe this effect agrees well with both the simulations and experimental Stokes shift data. The theory is applied to the analysis of charge-transfer kinetics in a low-temperature glass former. We show that the reorganization energy is substantially lower than its equilibrium value for the low-temperature portion of the data. The theory predicts the possibility of discontinuous changes in the dependence of the electron transfer rate on the free energy gap when the reaction switches between ergodic and nonergodic regimes.

  11. Solvent diffusion into fluoropolymer membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Aminabhavi, T.M.; Munnolli, R.S.

    1993-12-31

    Solvent diffusion in polymers is important to the physical properties of the material from processing to end-use and shelf-life. Many aspects of diffusion in polymers have been studied using indirect and direct methods. Du Pont`s fluoropolymers are known for their excellent resistance to a variety of organic solvents. This paper describes the measurement of diffusion coefficients and the derived thermodynamic quantities on four different fluoropolymer membranes with several esters. This information is interpreted in terms of the molecular organization and phase structure. Diffusion coefficients are sensitive to structural changes as well as binding and association phenomena.

  12. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  13. Attention's Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Robert M G; McClenahan, Laura J; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2016-06-01

    How do people get attention to operate at peak efficiency in high-pressure situations? We tested the hypothesis that the general mechanism that allows this is the maintenance of multiple target representations in working and long-term memory. We recorded subjects' event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing the working memory and long-term memory representations used to control attention while performing visual search. We found that subjects used both types of memories to control attention when they performed the visual search task with a large reward at stake, or when they were cued to respond as fast as possible. However, under normal circumstances, one type of target memory was sufficient for slower task performance. The use of multiple types of memory representations appears to provide converging top-down control of attention, allowing people to step on the attentional accelerator in a variety of high-pressure situations. PMID:27056975

  14. Organic Solvent Effects in Biomass Conversion Reactions.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Li; Luterbacher, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Transforming lignocellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals has been intensely studied in recent years. A large amount of work has been dedicated to finding suitable solvent systems, which can improve the transformation of biomass into value-added chemicals. These efforts have been undertaken based on numerous research results that have shown that organic solvents can improve both conversion and selectivity of biomass to platform molecules. We present an overview of these organic solvent effects, which are harnessed in biomass conversion processes, including conversion of biomass to sugars, conversion of sugars to furanic compounds, and production of lignin monomers. A special emphasis is placed on comparing the solvent effects on conversion and product selectivity in water with those in organic solvents while discussing the origins of the differences that arise. We have categorized results as benefiting from two major types of effects: solvent effects on solubility of biomass components including cellulose and lignin and solvent effects on chemical thermodynamics including those affecting reactants, intermediates, products, and/or catalysts. Finally, the challenges of using organic solvents in industrial processes are discussed from the perspective of solvent cost, solvent stability, and solvent safety. We suggest that a holistic view of solvent effects, the mechanistic elucidation of these effects, and the careful consideration of the challenges associated with solvent use could assist researchers in choosing and designing improved solvent systems for targeted biomass conversion processes. PMID:26676907

  15. NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The protocol will simply describe in detail, with references and illustrations, the approach currently used by staff of the SPRD to evaluate natural attenuation of chlorinated solvents in ground water. Staff of SPRD, and staff of the Air Force Center for environmental excellence...

  16. Nanopapers for organic solvent nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Mautner, A; Lee, K-Y; Lahtinen, P; Hakalahti, M; Tammelin, T; Li, K; Bismarck, A

    2014-06-01

    Would it not be nice to have an organic solvent nanofiltration membrane made from renewable resources that can be manufactured as simply as producing paper? Here the production of nanofiltration membranes made from nanocellulose by applying a papermaking process is demonstrated. Manufacture of the nanopapers was enabled by inducing flocculation of nanofibrils upon addition of trivalent ions. PMID:24752201

  17. Improved Purex solvent scrubbing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Mailen, J.C.; Tallent, O.K.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of hydrazine and hydroxylamine salts as solvent scrubbing agents that can be decomposed into gases are summarized. Results from testing of countercurrent scrubbers and solid sorber columns that produce lesser amounts of permanent salts are reported. The status of studies of the acid-degradation of paraffin diluent and the options for removal of long-chain organic acids is given.

  18. Physical solvent for gas sweetening

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrin, C. R.; Manning, W. P.

    1984-11-27

    This invention relates to a novel solvent, N-2-methoxyethyl-2-pyrrolidone, that can be used in two ways. First, in the pure or undiluted form, it absorbs hydrogen sulfide and other sulfurous gases selectively and simultaneously dries the gas. Second, when mixed with an alkanolamine and water, it is a superior absorbent of mercaptans, sulfides, and disulfides, and removes acid gases.

  19. Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Molnar, Linda K.; Hatton, T. Alan; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2001-05-15

    Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

  20. Comparison of Fluor Solvent and Selexol processes

    SciTech Connect

    Bucklin, R.W.; Schendel, R.L.

    1984-09-01

    Physical solvent processes can be useful for acid gas removal applications. The necessity for screening physical solvent characteristics to eliminate those solvents that are unsuitable or noncompetitive for a particular application is discussed. The Fluor Solvent and Selexol processes are compared. Selexol has an advantage over other solvents in oil applications involving H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ removal in hydrocarbon systems. Fluor Solvent and Selexol have an experience advantage over other processes in applications for CO/sub 2/ removal only.

  1. Medium-assisted non-polar solvent dynamic microwave extraction for determination of organophosphorus pesticides in cereals using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lijie; Song, Ying; Xu, Xu; Li, Na; Shao, Mingyuan; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin; Yu, Cui; Ma, Qiang; Lu, Chunmei; Wang, Ziming

    2014-11-01

    A fast and green pretreatment method, medium-assisted non-polar solvent dynamic microwave extraction, was first applied to extract ten of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from five cereal samples. Without adding any polar solvent, graphite powders (GP) were used as microwave absorption medium to transform microwave energy into heat energy. For recycling GP, an extractor was made by sealing GP inside the exterior tube of a glass sleeve. By dynamic microwave extraction using hexane as extraction solvent, ten OPPs could be extracted completely within 200s, and the extract was directly analysed by GC-MS without any clean-up process. The effects of some experimental parameters on extraction efficiency were investigated and optimised. Relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day ranging from 1.02% to 5.32% were obtained. Five real samples were analysed, and the recoveries obtained were in the range of 73.2-99.8%, and the relative standard deviations were lower than 6.63%. PMID:24874384

  2. Modular Polymer Biosensors by Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Jayven S.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Grate, Jay W.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Gratton, Enrico; Vasdekis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography (SIIL), a rapid benchtop microsystem prototyping technique, including polymer functionalization, imprinting and bonding. Here, we focus on the realization of planar polymer sensors using SIIL through simple solvent immersion without imprinting. We describe SIIL’s impregnation characteristics, including an inherent mechanism that not only achieves practical doping concentrations, but their unexpected 4-fold enhancement compared to the immersion solution. Subsequently, we developed and characterized optical sensors for detecting molecular O2. To this end, a high dynamic range is reported, including its control through the immersion duration, a manifestation of SIIL’s modularity. Overall, SIIL exhibits the potential of improving the operating characteristics of polymer sensors, while significantly accelerating their prototyping, as it requires a few seconds of processing and no need for substrates or dedicated instrumentation. These are critical for O2 sensing as probed by way of example here, as well as any polymer permeable reactant.

  3. Acceleration modules in linear induction accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shao-Heng; Deng, Jian-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) is a unique type of accelerator that is capable of accelerating kilo-Ampere charged particle current to tens of MeV energy. The present development of LIA in MHz bursting mode and the successful application into a synchrotron have broadened LIA's usage scope. Although the transformer model is widely used to explain the acceleration mechanism of LIAs, it is not appropriate to consider the induction electric field as the field which accelerates charged particles for many modern LIAs. We have examined the transition of the magnetic cores' functions during the LIA acceleration modules' evolution, distinguished transformer type and transmission line type LIA acceleration modules, and re-considered several related issues based on transmission line type LIA acceleration module. This clarified understanding should help in the further development and design of LIA acceleration modules.

  4. Use of field-applied quality control samples to monitor performance of a Goulden large-sample extractor/GC-MS method for pesticides in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foreman, W.T.; Gates, Paul M.; Foster, G.D.; Rinella, F.A.; McKenzie, S.W.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1985, the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) has been used to isolate a broad array of trace-organic contaminants from large volumes of water. In this study, field-applied quality control measures, including matrix and surrogate spikes and blanks, were used to monitor method performance from GLSE extraction through GC-MS analysis. The method was applied to the determination of multiple classes of pesticides isolated from 4- to 112-L filtered surface-water samples. Average recoveries of six surrogate compounds ranged from 84 ?? 18% for [2H10]diazinon to 15 ?? 13% for 4,4'-[2H8]DDT, the low recoveries for which were largely a result of unmonitored breakdown of this surrogate by the GC injection system. Field-matrix-spike samples were prepared by fortifying 10-L, 35-L, and 110-L filtered surface-water samples with 68 pesticides to amended concentrations of 11- to 50-ng/L each. Recoveries ranged from not detected to greater than 100%. Variability in pesticide recoveries from triplicate 10-L water samples collected at one site averaged 5.7% relative standard deviation and did not exceed 19%.Since 1985, the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) has been used to isolate a broad array of trace-organic contaminants from large volumes of water. In this study, field-applied quality control measures, including matrix and surrogate spikes and blanks, were used to monitor method performance from GLSE extraction through GC-MS analysis. The method was applied to the determination of multiple classes of pesticides isolated from 4- to 112-L filtered surface-water samples. Average recoveries of six surrogate compounds ranged from 84 ?? 18% for [2H10]diazinon to 15 ?? 13% for 4,4???-[2H8]DDT, the low recoveries for which were largely a result of unmonitored breakdown of this surrogate by the GC injection system. Field-matrix-spike samples were prepared by fortifying 10-L, 35-L, and 110-L filtered surface-water samples with 68 pesticides to amended concentrations of 11- to 50

  5. Dipolar correlations in structured solvents under nanoconfinement.

    PubMed

    Buyukdagli, Sahin; Blossey, Ralf

    2014-06-21

    We study electrostatic correlations in structured solvents confined to nanoscale systems. We derive variational equations of Netz-Orland type for a model liquid composed of finite size dipoles. These equations are solved for both dilute solvents and solvents at physiological concentrations in a slit nanopore geometry. Correlation effects are of major importance for the dielectric reduction and anisotropy of the solvent resulting from dipole image interactions and also lead to a reduction of van der Waals attractions between low dielectric bodies. Finally, by comparison with other recently developed self-consistent theories and experiments, we scrutinize the effect of solvent-membrane interactions on the differential capacitance of the charged liquid in contact with low dielectric substrates. The interfacial solvent depletion driven by solvent-image interactions plays the major role in the observed low values of the experimental capacitance data, while non-locality associated with the extended charge structure of solvent molecules only brings a minor contribution. PMID:24952564

  6. Wash solvent reuse in paint production

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, A.B.; Heater, K.J.; Olfenbuttel, R.F.

    1994-04-01

    The project evaluated solvent used to clean paint manufacture equipment for its utility in production of subsequent batches of solvent-borne paint. Reusing wash solvent would reduce the amount of solvent disposed of as waste. The evaluation of this wash-solvent recovery technology was conducted by Battelle Memorial Institute for the Pollution Prevention Research Branch of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The evaluation was conducted with the cooperation and assistance of Vanex Color, Inc. The product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention, and economic impacts of this technology change, as it has been implemented by Vanex, were examined. Two batches of a solvent-borne alkyd house paint were prepared at Vanex--one batch made with 100%-new solvent and the other with 30%-wash solvent--and sampled for laboratory analysis at Battelle.

  7. Progress on plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1986-05-01

    Several plasma accelerator concepts are reviewed, with emphasis on the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator (PWFA). Various accelerator physics issues regarding these schemes are discussed, and numerical examples on laboratory scale experiments are given. The efficiency of plasma accelerators is then revealed with suggestions on improvements. Sources that cause emittance growth are discussed briefly.

  8. Solvent pretreatment of feed coal for briquetting

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.M.; Miller, M.R.

    1980-11-25

    Solvent pretreating of coal fines prior to briquetting results in coal briquettes which have no added binder and which will withstand weathering conditions better than binder containing briquettes. The solvents are generally described as organic Lewis base solvents which are capable of electron donor action, and include among others, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and ethylene diamine.

  9. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  10. Solvent Extraction of Furfural From Biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent-extraction method reduces energy required to remove furfural produced during acid hydrolysis of biomass. Acid hydrolysis performed in vessel containing both solvents and reacting ingredients. With intimate contact between solvents and aqueous hydrolyis liqour, furfural removed form liquor almost as fast as it forms.

  11. The hype with ionic liquids as solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Werner; Häckl, Katharina

    2016-09-01

    In this mini review, we give our personal opinion about the present state of the art concerning Ionic Liquids, proposed as alternative solvents. In particular, we consider their different drawbacks and disadvantages and discuss the critical aspects of the research of Ionic Liquids as solvents. Finally, we point out some aspects on potentially promising Ionic Liquid solvents.

  12. Determination of dissolved-phase pesticides in surface water from the Yakima River basin, Washington, using the Goulden large-sample extractor and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, G.D.; Gates, Paul M.; Foreman, W.T.; McKenzie, S.W.; Rinella, F.A.

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides in the dissolved phase of surface water samples from the Yakima River basin, WA, were determined using preconcentration in the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Sample volumes ranging from 10 to 120 L were processed with the GLSE, and the results from the large-sample analyses were compared to those derived from 1-L continuous liquid-liquid extractions. Few of the 40 target pesticides were detected in 1-L samples, whereas large-sample preconcentration in the GLSE provided detectable levels for many of the target pesticides. The number of pesticides detected in GLSE processed samples was usually directly proportional to sample volume, although the measured concentrations of the pesticides were generally lower at the larger sample volumes for the same water source. The GLSE can be used to provide lower detection levels relative to conventional liquid-liquid extraction in GC/MS analysis of pesticides in samples of surface water. ?? 1993 American Chemical Society.

  13. Determination of dissolved-phase pesticides in surface water from the Yakima River basin, Washington, using the Goulden large-sample extractor and gas chromatography/mass spectrometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Gregory D.; Gates, Paul M.; Foreman, William T.; McKenzie, Stuart W.; Rinella, Frank A.

    1993-01-01

    Concentrations of pesticides in the dissolved phase of surface water samples from the Yakima River basin, WA, were determined using preconcentration in the Goulden large-sample extractor (GLSE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Sample volumes ranging from 10 to 120 L were processed with the GLSE, and the results from the large-sample analyses were compared to those derived from 1-L continuous liquid-liquid extractions Few of the 40 target pesticides were detected in 1-L samples, whereas large-sample preconcentration in the GLSE provided detectable levels for many of the target pesticides. The number of pesticides detected in GLSE processed samples was usually directly proportional to sample volume, although the measured concentrations of the pesticides were generally lower at the larger sample volumes for the same water source. The GLSE can be used to provide lower detection levels relative to conventional liquid-liquid extraction in GC/MS analysis of pesticides in samples of surface water.

  14. Solvent cleaning system and method for removing contaminants from solvent used in resin recycling

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2009-01-06

    A two step solvent and carbon dioxide based system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material and which further includes a solvent cleaning system for periodically removing the contaminants from the solvent so that the solvent can be reused and the contaminants can be collected and safely discarded in an environmentally safe manner.

  15. Insecticide solvents: interference with insecticidal action.

    PubMed

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F

    1977-06-10

    Several commercial solvent mixtures commonly used as insecticide carriers in spray formulations increase by more than threefold the microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro N-methylaniline in midgut preparations of southern army-worm (Spodoptera eridania) larvae exposed orally to the test solvents. Under laboratory conditions, the same solvent mixtures exhibit a protective action against the in vivo toxicity of the insecticide carbaryl to the larvae. The data are discussed with respect to possible solvent-insecticide interactions occurring under field conditions and, more broadly, to potential toxicological hazards of these solvents to humans. PMID:860135

  16. Batch extracting process using magneticparticle held solvents

    DOEpatents

    Nunez, Luis; Vandergrift, George F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the solvent-containing magnetic particles are contacted with a mixture containing the heavy metal values to transfer metal values into the solvent carried by the magnetic particles, and then magnetically separating the magnetic particles. Ion exchange resins may be used for selective solvents.

  17. Organic solvent adaptation of Gram positive bacteria: applications and biotechnological potentials.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sebastian; Pandey, Ashok; Castro, Guillermo R

    2011-01-01

    Organic-solvent-tolerant bacteria are considered extremophiles with different tolerance levels that change among species and strains, but also depend on the inherent toxicity of the solvent. Extensive studies to understand the mechanisms of organic solvent tolerance have been done in Gram-negative bacteria. On the contrary, the information on the solvent tolerance mechanisms in Gram-positive bacteria remains scarce. Possible shared mechanisms among Gram-(-) and Gram-(+) microorganisms include: energy-dependent active efflux pumps that export toxic organic solvents to the external medium; cis-to-trans isomerization of unsaturated membrane fatty acids and modifications in the membrane phospholipid headgroups; formation of vesicles loaded with toxic compounds; and changes in the biosynthesis rate of phospholipids to accelerate repair processes. However, additional physiological responses of Gram-(+) bacteria to organic solvents seem to be specific. The aim of the present work is to review the state of the art of responsible mechanisms for organic solvent tolerance in Gram-positive bacteria, and their industrial and environmental biotechnology potential. PMID:21504787

  18. Effect of solvents on obligately anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Martinez, Maria Fernanda; Kelessidou, Niki; Law, Zoe; Gardiner, John; Stephens, Gill

    2008-02-01

    Growth of Acetobacterium woodii and Clostridium sporogenes was studied in the presence of water-immiscible solvents. Nitrogen purging, vacuum distillation or distillation under nitrogen were all suitable as methods to remove oxygen from the solvents, since growth rates and yields of A. woodii were unaffected in the presence of tetradecane which had been degassed by these methods. Varying the solvent volume from 20% to 80% of the culture volume had little effect on growth rate of A. woodii. A.woodii was relatively sensitive to organic solvents since growth was inhibited by alkanes with logP(octanol/water) values below 7.1. C. sporogenes was less solvent sensitive, since it grew without inhibition when the logP of the solvent was > or = 6.6. Nevertheless, both A. woodii and C. sporogenes were more sensitive to solvent polarity than aerobic bacteria. PMID:18083050

  19. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    SciTech Connect

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  20. Solvent cavitation under solvophobic confinement.

    PubMed

    Ashbaugh, Henry S

    2013-08-14

    The stability of liquids under solvophobic confinement can tip in favor of the vapor phase, nucleating a liquid-to-vapor phase transition that induces attractive forces between confining surfaces. In the case of water adjacent to hydrophobic surfaces, experimental and theoretical evidence support confinement-mediated evaporation stabilization of biomolecular and colloidal assemblies. The macroscopic thermodynamic theory of cavitation under confinement establishes the connection between the size of the confining surfaces, interfacial free energies, and bulk solvent pressure with the critical evaporation separation and interfacial forces. While molecular simulations have confirmed the broad theoretical trends, a quantitative comparison based on independent measurements of the interfacial free energies and liquid-vapor coexistence properties has, to the best of our knowledge, not yet been performed. To overcome the challenges of simulating a large number of systems to validate scaling predictions for a three-dimensional fluid, we simulate both the forces and liquid-vapor coexistence properties of a two-dimensional Lennard-Jones fluid confined between solvophobic plates over a range of plate sizes and reservoir pressures. Our simulations quantitatively agree with theoretical predictions for solvent-mediated forces and critical evaporation separations once the length dependence of the solvation free energy of an individual confining plate is taken into account. The effective solid-liquid line tension length dependence results from molecular scale correlations for solvating microscopic plates and asymptotically decays to the macroscopic value for plates longer than 150 solvent diameters. The success of the macroscopic thermodynamic theory at describing two-dimensional liquids suggests application to surfactant monolayers to experimentally confirm confinement-mediated cavitation. PMID:23947875

  1. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  2. Solvent refined coal (SRC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) project by The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co. at the SRC Pilot Plant in Fort Lewis, Washington and the Gulf Science and Technology Company Process Development Unit (P-99) in Harmarville, Pennsylvania, for the Department of Energy during the month of October, 1980. The Fort Lewis Pilot Plant was shut down the entire month of October, 1980 for inspection and maintenance. PDU P-99 completed two runs during October investigating potential start-up modes for the Demonstration Plant.

  3. Spectral Ewald Acceleration of Stokesian Dynamics for polydisperse suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mu; Brady, John F.

    2016-02-01

    In this work we develop the Spectral Ewald Accelerated Stokesian Dynamics (SEASD), a novel computational method for dynamic simulations of polydisperse colloidal suspensions with full hydrodynamic interactions. SEASD is based on the framework of Stokesian Dynamics (SD) with extension to compressible solvents, and uses the Spectral Ewald (SE) method [Lindbo and Tornberg (2010) [29

  4. Rational solvent selection for cooling crystallizations

    SciTech Connect

    Nass, K.K. . Chemicals Development Div.)

    1994-06-01

    The development of a successful crystallization process for purification and isolation of an organic compound requires the selection of a suitable solvent or solvent mixture; to date, no logical method has been established for determining the best solvent combination. The process chemist or engineer often employs a trial-and-error procedure to identify an appropriate solvent system, the success of which is dependent on experience and intuition. This paper describes a strategy for choosing crystallization solvents based upon equilibrium limits. The approach utilizes a group-contribution method (UNIFAC) to predict a value for the activity coefficient of the solute in a given solvent system at the saturation point. This value is then used to calculate the solubility of the solute at a high'' temperature and a low'' temperature. The resulting solubility values determine the maximum theoretical yield for the process. Both quantities are used to rank order solvents and/or their mixtures relative to one another according to their solvent power and potential process yield. Several examples illustrating the successful application of this method are described, and potential improvements to the algorithm are discussed. Implementation of this strategy will reduce product cycle time, minimize solvent usage, and allow identification of cheaper solvent alternatives.

  5. The solvent component of macromolecular crystals

    PubMed Central

    Weichenberger, Christian X.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Kantardjieff, Katherine; Rupp, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The mother liquor from which a biomolecular crystal is grown will contain water, buffer molecules, native ligands and cofactors, crystallization precipitants and additives, various metal ions, and often small-molecule ligands or inhibitors. On average, about half the volume of a biomolecular crystal consists of this mother liquor, whose components form the disordered bulk solvent. Its scattering contributions can be exploited in initial phasing and must be included in crystal structure refinement as a bulk-solvent model. Concomitantly, distinct electron density originating from ordered solvent components must be correctly identified and represented as part of the atomic crystal structure model. Herein, are reviewed (i) probabilistic bulk-solvent content estimates, (ii) the use of bulk-solvent density modification in phase improvement, (iii) bulk-solvent models and refinement of bulk-solvent contributions and (iv) modelling and validation of ordered solvent constituents. A brief summary is provided of current tools for bulk-solvent analysis and refinement, as well as of modelling, refinement and analysis of ordered solvent components, including small-molecule ligands. PMID:25945568

  6. The solvent component of macromolecular crystals.

    PubMed

    Weichenberger, Christian X; Afonine, Pavel V; Kantardjieff, Katherine; Rupp, Bernhard

    2015-05-01

    The mother liquor from which a biomolecular crystal is grown will contain water, buffer molecules, native ligands and cofactors, crystallization precipitants and additives, various metal ions, and often small-molecule ligands or inhibitors. On average, about half the volume of a biomolecular crystal consists of this mother liquor, whose components form the disordered bulk solvent. Its scattering contributions can be exploited in initial phasing and must be included in crystal structure refinement as a bulk-solvent model. Concomitantly, distinct electron density originating from ordered solvent components must be correctly identified and represented as part of the atomic crystal structure model. Herein, are reviewed (i) probabilistic bulk-solvent content estimates, (ii) the use of bulk-solvent density modification in phase improvement, (iii) bulk-solvent models and refinement of bulk-solvent contributions and (iv) modelling and validation of ordered solvent constituents. A brief summary is provided of current tools for bulk-solvent analysis and refinement, as well as of modelling, refinement and analysis of ordered solvent components, including small-molecule ligands. PMID:25945568

  7. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2006-04-18

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  8. Laser driven ion accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tajima, Toshiki

    2005-06-14

    A system and method of accelerating ions in an accelerator to optimize the energy produced by a light source. Several parameters may be controlled in constructing a target used in the accelerator system to adjust performance of the accelerator system. These parameters include the material, thickness, geometry and surface of the target.

  9. Electrochemistry in deep eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Nkuku, Chiemela A; LeSuer, Robert J

    2007-11-22

    We report the cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and scanning electrochemical microscopy of ferrocene dissolved in deep eutectic solvents (DES), consisting of choline chloride (ChCl) and either trifluoroacetamide (TFA) or malonic acid as the hydrogen-bond donor. Despite the use of ultramicroelectrodes, which were required due to the modest conductivities of the DES employed, linear diffusion behavior was observed in cyclic voltammetric experiments. The high viscosity of 1:2 ChCl/TFA relative to non-aqueous electrochemical solvents leads to a low diffusion coefficient, 2.7 x 10(-8) cm2 s(-1) for ferrocene in this medium. Because of the difficulties in achieving steady-state conditions, SECM approach curves were tip velocity dependent. Under certain conditions, SECM approach curves to an insulating substrate displayed a positive-feedback response. Satisfactory simulation of this unexpected behavior was obtained by including convection terms into the mass transport equations typically used for SECM theory. The observance of positive-feedback behavior at an insulating substrate can be described in terms of a dimensionless parameter, the Peclet number, which is the ratio of the convective and diffusive timescales. Fitting insulator approach curves of ferrocene in 1:2 ChCl/TFA shows an apparent increase in the diffusion coefficient with increasing tip velocity, which can be explained by DES behaving as a shear thinning non-Newtonian fluid. PMID:17973421

  10. Solvent Extraction External Radiation Stability Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A.

    2001-01-05

    Personnel irradiated a number of samples of calixarene-based solvent. Analysis of these samples indicated that measurable loss of the calixarene occurred at very high doses (-16 Mrad). No measurable loss of the Cs-7SB modifier occurred at equivalent doses. The primary degradation product, 4-sec-butylphenol, observed during analysis of the samples came from degradation of the modifier. Also, TOA proved more susceptible to damage than the other components of the solvent. The total degradation of the solvent proved relatively minor. The consistent solvent performance, as indicated by the measured D Cs values, after exposure at high total doses serves as evidence of the relatively low degree of degradation of the solvent components. Additional tests employing internal irradiation of solvents with both simulants and SRS tank waste will be completed by the end of March 2001 to provide confirmation of the results presented herein.

  11. Aryne Compatible Solvents are not Always Innocent.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sung-Eun; Chenoweth, David M

    2016-08-19

    Arynes are important and versatile intermediates in a variety of transformations. Commonly used solvents for aryne chemistry include acetonitrile and dichloromethane. Although rarely reported, the reactive nature of aryne intermediates makes them prone to side reactions, which sometimes involve solvent participation. Acetonitrile and dichloromethane are not always innocent solvents and can participate in aryne-based reactions. These results are presented in the context of ongoing mechanistic investigations of the triple aryne-tetrazine reaction. PMID:27486792

  12. Femtosecond dynamics in hydrogen-bonded solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Castner, E.W. Jr.; Chang, Y.J.

    1993-09-01

    We present results on the ultrafast dynamics of pure hydrogen-bonding solvents, obtained using femtosecond Fourier-transform optical-heterodyne-detected, Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy. Solvent systems we have studied include the formamides, water, ethylene glycol, and acetic acid. Inertial and diffusive motions are clearly resolved. We comment on the effect that such ultrafast solvent motions have on chemical reactions in solution.

  13. Solvent effects on ozonolysis reaction intermediates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rio, Emma; Aplincourt, Philippe; Ruiz-López, Manuel F.

    1997-12-01

    Solvent effects on relative stability, electronic and molecular structure of ozonolysis reaction intermediates are analyzed with the help of ab initio MP2/6-31+G ** calculations. A continuum model is employed to account for solute-solvent electrostatic interactions. The results show that there are large effects on the structure and relative stability of carbonyl oxide by substantially favoring its zwitterionic character. A complex formed by carbonyl oxide and formaldehyde is shown to be stable in the gas phase and in solution. This complex can be involved in solvent cage reactions leading to secondary ozonides. Thermodynamically, primary ozonide decomposition is favored by the solvent.

  14. Solvent recovery system provides timely compliance solution

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Hoechst Celanese Corp. (Coventry, Rhode Island) faced the challenge of meeting an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) deadline for solvent recovery within one year. The company also had to ensure that a new solvent recovery system would satisfy Rhode Island state requirements. An initial search for the required technology was fruitless. Finally, MG Industries (Saint Charles, Missouri), an industrial gas supplier, was chosen for the job. Using CRYOSOLV, as the waste stream cools in the cryogenic condenser (heat exchanger), the solvents condense at temperatures below the dewpoint. The recovered solvent can be recycled into the process, while clean gas is vented to the atmosphere.

  15. Chronic solvent abuse. 1. Cognitive sequelae.

    PubMed

    Zur, J; Yule, W

    1990-01-01

    Twelve adolescent males with a history of chronic solvent abuse were compared with 12 delinquent controls on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Toluene was the active constituent most commonly abused. Solvent abusers tended to have lower overall intelligence test scores. On the Bexley Maudsley Automated Screening Test, the solvent abusers scored significantly lower on tests involving visual processing, especially the Symbol Digit Coding test. These results are cautiously interpreted as indicating that chronic solvent abuse carries an increased risk of cognitive impairment. PMID:2311197

  16. MCU MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH CSSX SOLVENT

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F

    2006-01-13

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) plans to use several new materials of construction not previously used with CSSX solvent. SRNL researchers tested seven materials proposed for service in seal and gasket applications. None of the materials leached detectable amounts of components into the CSSX solvent during 96 hour tests. All are judged acceptable for use based on their effect on the solvent. However, some of the materials adsorbed solvent or changed dimensions during contact with solvent. Consultation with component and material vendors with regard to performance impact and in-use testing of the materials is recommended. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), a material selected for use in contactor bearing seals, did not gain weight or change dimensions on contact with CSSX solvent. Analysis of the solvent contacted with this material showed no impurities and the standard dispersion test gave acceptable phase separation results. The material contains a leachable hydrocarbon substance, detectable on exposed surfaces, that did not adversely contaminate the solvent within the limits of the testing. We recommend contacting the vendor to determine the source and purpose of this component, or, alternatively, pursue the infrared analysis of the PEEK in an effort to better define potential impacts.

  17. Process for hydrogenating coal and coal solvents

    DOEpatents

    Tarrer, Arthur R.; Shridharani, Ketan G.

    1983-01-01

    A novel process is described for the hydrogenation of coal by the hydrogenation of a solvent for the coal in which the hydrogenation of the coal solvent is conducted in the presence of a solvent hydrogenation catalyst of increased activity, wherein the hydrogenation catalyst is produced by reacting ferric oxide with hydrogen sulfide at a temperature range of 260.degree. C. to 315.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere to produce an iron sulfide hydrogenation catalyst for the solvent. Optimally, the reaction temperature is 275.degree. C. Alternately, the reaction can be conducted in a hydrogen atmosphere at 350.degree. C.

  18. Hot-solvent miscible displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Awang, M.; Farouq Ali, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    This work describes an experimental and theoretical investigation of miscible displacement under nonisothermal conditions. The hot miscible floods were performed in an adiabatic glass bead pack, displacing one hydrocarbon by a more viscous hydrocarbon, the latter being at an elevated temperature. As a result, dispersion of both mass and heat took place, and was determined by temperature and concentration measurements. The system was simulated by coupled convective-diffusion and thermal conduction-convection equations. The results of the numerical as well as an approximate analytical solution were compared with the experimentally observed behavior. The numerical and experimental results point to the factors which should be considered in the choice of a solvent for a thermal-miscible type oil recovery process.

  19. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (< 1 mg0.1 m2), especially flammable residue. Traditionally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been used in the precision cleaning of LOX systems, specifically CFC 113 (C2Cl3F3). CFCs have been known to cause the depletion of ozone and in 1987, were banned by the Montreal Protocol due to health, safety and environmental concerns. This has now led to the development of new processes in the precision cleaning of aerospace components. An ideal solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the

  20. Single polymer chains in poor solvent: Using the bond fluctuation method with explicit solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentzsch, Christoph; Werner, Marco; Sommer, Jens-Uwe

    2013-03-01

    We use the bond fluctuation model with explicit solvent to study single polymer chains under poor solvent conditions. Static and dynamic properties of the bond fluctuation model with explicit solvent are compared with the implicit solvent model, and the Θ-temperatures are determined for both solvent models. We show that even in the very poor solvent regime, dynamics is not frozen for the explicit solvent model. We investigate some aspects of the structure of a single collapsed globule and show that rather large chain lengths are necessary to reach the scaling regime of a dense sphere. The force-extension curve of a single polymer chain under poor solvent conditions in the fixed end-to-end distance ensemble is analyzed. We find that the transition of the tadpole conformation to the stretched chain conformation is rather smooth because of fluctuation effects, which is in agreement with recent experimental results.

  1. Quantitation of buried contamination by use of solvents. [degradation of silicone polymers by amine solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, S. P.; Hsiao, Y. C.; Hill, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    Spore recovery form cured silicone potting compounds using amine solvents to degrade the cured polymers was investigated. A complete list of solvents and a description of the effect of each on two different silicone polymers is provided.

  2. Wide electrochemical window solvents for use in electrochemical devices and electrolyte solutions incorporating such solvents

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Zhang, Sheng-Shui; Xu, Kang

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to electrolyte solvents for use in liquid or rubbery electrolyte solutions. Specifically, this invention is directed to boron-containing electrolyte solvents and boron-containing electrolyte solutions.

  3. Single polymer chains in poor solvent: using the bond fluctuation method with explicit solvent.

    PubMed

    Jentzsch, Christoph; Werner, Marco; Sommer, Jens-Uwe

    2013-03-01

    We use the bond fluctuation model with explicit solvent to study single polymer chains under poor solvent conditions. Static and dynamic properties of the bond fluctuation model with explicit solvent are compared with the implicit solvent model, and the Θ-temperatures are determined for both solvent models. We show that even in the very poor solvent regime, dynamics is not frozen for the explicit solvent model. We investigate some aspects of the structure of a single collapsed globule and show that rather large chain lengths are necessary to reach the scaling regime of a dense sphere. The force-extension curve of a single polymer chain under poor solvent conditions in the fixed end-to-end distance ensemble is analyzed. We find that the transition of the tadpole conformation to the stretched chain conformation is rather smooth because of fluctuation effects, which is in agreement with recent experimental results. PMID:23485321

  4. MESERAN Test Results for Elimination of Flammable Solvents in Wipe Applications at Pantex

    SciTech Connect

    M. G. Benkovich

    2005-03-30

    In recent years, efforts have been made within the nuclear weapons complex (National Nuclear Security Administration) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to replace Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated solvents (i.e., flammable, toxic, corrosive, and reactive) and ozone-depleting chemicals (ODC) with more benign alternatives. Within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) sectors, these solvents are used for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. A primary goal of this study is to replace flammable solvents for wiping applications. Two cleaners, including a hydrofluoroether (HFE) and an azeotrope of the HFE and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), have been studied as potential replacements for flammable solvents. Cleaning efficacy, short-term and longterm materials compatibility, corrosion, drying times, flammability, environment, safety and health (ES&H) issues and accelerated aging studies are among the tests that are being conducted and that are used to screen candidate solvents by the interagency team performing this work. The results are compared to the traditionally used isopropyl alcohol, which serves as the baseline cleaner. This report details the results of MESERAN (Measurement and Evaluation of Surfaces by Evaporative Rate ANalysis) testing performed at the Kansas City Plant (KCP) to quantify the cleaning efficacy on samples contaminated with the various contaminants and cleaned by wiping with the various solvents being evaluated.

  5. A COMPARISON OF AUTOMATED AND TRADITIONAL METHODS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF ARSENICALS FROM FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    An automated extractor employing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) has been compared with a traditional sonication method of extraction for the extraction of arsenicals from fish tissue. Four different species of fish and a standard reference material, DORM-2, were subjected t...

  6. The direction of acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, Thomas; Burde, Jan-Philipp; Lück, Stephan

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration is a physical quantity that is difficult to understand and hence its complexity is often erroneously simplified. Many students think of acceleration as equivalent to velocity, a ˜ v. For others, acceleration is a scalar quantity, which describes the change in speed Δ|v| or Δ|v|/Δt (as opposed to the change in velocity). The main difficulty with the concept of acceleration therefore lies in developing a correct understanding of its direction. The free iOS app AccelVisu supports students in acquiring a correct conception of acceleration by showing acceleration arrows directly at moving objects.

  7. TURBULENT SHEAR ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Ohira, Yutaka

    2013-04-10

    We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a length scale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation that contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration becomes important on small scales. Moreover, using Monte Carlo simulations, we confirm that the ensemble-averaged transport equation describes the turbulent shear acceleration.

  8. Accelerated Chemical Reactions and Organic Synthesis in Leidenfrost Droplets.

    PubMed

    Bain, Ryan M; Pulliam, Christopher J; Thery, Fabien; Cooks, R Graham

    2016-08-22

    Leidenfrost levitated droplets can be used to accelerate chemical reactions in processes that appear similar to reaction acceleration in charged microdroplets produced by electrospray ionization. Reaction acceleration in Leidenfrost droplets is demonstrated for a base-catalyzed Claisen-Schmidt condensation, hydrazone formation from precharged and neutral ketones, and for the Katritzky pyrylium into pyridinium conversion under various reaction conditions. Comparisons with bulk reactions gave intermediate acceleration factors (2-50). By keeping the volume of the Leidenfrost droplets constant, it was shown that interfacial effects contribute to acceleration; this was confirmed by decreased reaction rates in the presence of a surfactant. The ability to multiplex Leidenfrost microreactors, to extract product into an immiscible solvent during reaction, and to use Leidenfrost droplets as reaction vessels to synthesize milligram quantities of product is also demonstrated. PMID:27465311

  9. Development of a multiplexed electrospray micro-thruster with post-acceleration and beam containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenguito, G.; Gomez, A.

    2013-10-01

    We report the development of a compact thruster based on Multiplexed ElectroSprays (MES). It relied on a microfabricated Si array of emitters coupled with an extractor electrode and an accelerator electrode. The accelerator stage was introduced for two purposes: containing beam opening and avoiding electrode erosion due to droplet impingement, as well as boosting specific impulse and thrust. Multiplexing is generally necessary as a thrust multiplier to reach eventually the level required (O(102) μN) by small satellites. To facilitate system optimization and debugging, we focused on a 7-nozzle MES device and compared its performance to that of a single emitter. To ensure uniformity of operation of all nozzles their hydraulic impedance was augmented by packing them with micrometer-size beads. Two propellants were tested: a solution of 21.5% methyl ammonium formate in formamide and the better performing pure ionic liquid ethyl ammonium nitrate (EAN). The 7-MES device spraying EAN at ΔV = 5.93 kV covered a specific impulse range from 620 s to 1900 s and a thrust range from 0.6 μN to 5.4 μN, at 62% efficiency. Remarkably, less than 1% of the beam was demonstrated to impact on the accelerator electrode, which bodes well for long-term applications in space.

  10. SOLVENT RECOVERY AT VANDENBERG AIR FORCE BASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a feasibility study of the addition of vapor recovery and solvent purification equipment for Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) to reuse the large quantities of waste solvent generated in space shuttle preparation operations. (NOTE: Operation of VAFB as ...

  11. Green chemicals: Searching for cleaner solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, A.

    1994-10-05

    While increased pressure from EPA has solvents producers scrambling to find greener alternatives, many say the cost effectiveness and performance characteristics of traditional technologies are such that they will not disappear quickly. Though a variety of alternative {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} solvents have been developed and commercialized, better means of solvent recovery have also come along, ensuring continued use of many organic solvents. The 1990 Clean Air Act (CAA), designed to eliminate volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone depleters, and other hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), has put limits on many organic solvents. Those most under fire are chlorinated solvents, such as methylene chloride, 1,1,1 trichloroethylene (methyl chloroform), and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-113. Producers have been developing a variety of lower VOC solvents to replace those being phased out or regulated. Among those likely to experience most growth are aliphatic hydrocarbons to replace chlorinated solvents in cleaning applications. Growth is also expected for alcohols, esters, and glycol ethers for other end-use applications.

  12. Remediating pesticide contaminated soils using solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sahle-Demessie, E.; Meckes, M.C.; Richardson, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p{prime}-DDT, p,p{prime}-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as solvents over a wide range of operating conditions. It was demonstrated that a six-stage methanol extraction using a solvent-to-soil ratio of 1.6 can decrease pesticide levels in the soil by more than 99% and reduce the volume of material requiring further treatment by 25 times or more. The high solubility of the pesticides in methanol resulted in rapid extraction rates, with the system reaching quasi-equilibrium state in 30 minutes. The extraction efficiency was influenced by the number of extraction stages, the solvent-to-soil ratio, and the soil moisture content. Various methods were investigated to regenerate and recycle the solvent. Evaporation and solvent stripping are low cost and reliable methods for removing high pesticide concentrations from the solvent. For low concentrations, GAC adsorption may be used. Precipitating and filtering pesticides by adding water to the methanol/pesticide solution was not successful when tested with soil extracts. 26 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. SOLVENT-FREE ORGANIC SYNTHESES USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The latest results on microwave-expedited solvent-free approach as applied to the assembly of organic molecules will be presented. The salient features of this expeditious methodology such as solvent conservation and ease of manipulation etc. will be described in the context of r...

  14. Solvation of rhodamine575 in some solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amit

    2016-05-01

    FTIR spectra of Rhodamine575 dye in powder form and in different solvents are reported. Positions of some of the observed FTIR bands show noticeable change in solvents. The bands, which shift, have contributions from the vibrational motion of nitrogen atoms of the ethylamine groups, oxygen atom of the carboxylic group attached to the phenyl ring and oxygen atom of the Xanthene ring.

  15. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  16. Supercritical-Multiple-Solvent Extraction From Coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, W.; Fong, W.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P.; Lawson, D.

    1983-01-01

    Large and small molecules dissolve different constituents. Experimental apparatus used to test supercritical extraction of hydrogen rich compounds from coal in various organic solvents. In decreasing order of importance, relevant process parameters were found to be temperature, solvent type, pressure, and residence time.

  17. Coal mining with a liquid solvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, D. D.; Miller, C. G.

    1979-01-01

    Study suggests carbonated water can dissolve or suspend coal and carry it to surface. Mixture of carbon dioxide and water may be coal solvent that will make unmanned mining reality. When used with proposed process monitoring coal solubility with conventional strain gage, solvent is basis for rapid cost effective extraction of coal from underground seams.

  18. REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SOILS BY SOLVENT FLUSHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent flushing is a potential technique for remediating a waste disposal/spill site contaminated with organic chemicals. This technique involves the injection of a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus alcohols) that enhances contaminant solubility, reduces the retardation factor, ...

  19. Classification of Solvents according to Interaction Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Wasi

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a model for solvent effects based on the observation that the excitation energy of all-trans-N-Retinylidenmethyl-n-butylammonium iodide is directly related to the dielectric constant of a series of aromatic and aliphatic solvents as the dielectric constant (e) ranges from 2 to 10.5. (BT)

  20. REMEDIATING PESTICIDE CONTAMINATED SOILS USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale solvent extraction studies were performed on soil samples obtained from a Superfund site contaminated with high levels of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD,, p,p'-DDE and toxaphene. The effectiveness of the solvent extraction process was assessed using methanol and 2-propanol as sol...

  1. Pneumatic conveying of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.

    1984-11-06

    A method for pneumatically conveying solvent refined coal to a burner under conditions of dilute phase pneumatic flow so as to prevent saltation of the solvent refined coal in the transport line by maintaining the transport fluid velocity above approximately 95 ft/sec.

  2. Lube solvents no threat to waste treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, E.H.; Tullos, L.F.

    1980-10-01

    Biological treatment of reasonable loads of lubricating oil extraction solvents should pose no problems for a diversified refinery treatment system. Activated sludge, aerated lagoons, or oxidation ponds are the most frequently employed biological processes for treating such wastes. Rates of solvent degradation are reported for phenol and furfural.

  3. A spreadsheet algorithm for stagewise solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

  4. SOLVENT DESIGN UNDER VARYING ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is currently a great need to replace many solvents that are commonly used by industry and the public, but whose continued use entails a number of human health and environmental risks. One issue hampering solvent replacement is the general thought that replacement, particul...

  5. ENHANCED PROCESSING OF GREEN SOLVENTS - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvents are a valuable processing tool in the chemical and related industries. Solvents are used to enhance mass transfer, heat transfer and in most cases are a processing aid and eventually are not used in the final product but to enhance the fabrication of the final pr...

  6. Structure of the polymer-solvent interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Danny G., Jr.; Schmidt, James W.

    1990-01-01

    The first measurements of ellipticities from the liquid-liquid interface between polymer and solvent mixtures near their consolute points are reported. When scaled according to theory the ellipticities of high molecular weight polystyrene + solvent mixtures are consistent with those from simple, low molecular weight mixtures. The universal value of the scaled ellipticity is approximately 20 percent lower than that predicted by present theories.

  7. EXPERIENCES IN DESIGNING SOLVENTS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvents used throughout industry are chosen to meet specific technological requirements such as solute solubility, cleaning and degreasing, or being a medium for paints and coatings. With the increasing awareness of the human health effects and environmental tisks of solvent use...

  8. EXPERIENCES IN DESIGNING SOLVENTS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvents used throughout industry are chosen to meet specific technological requirements such as solute solubility, cleaning and degreasing, or being a medium for paints and coatings. With the increasing awareness of the human health effects and environmental risks of solvent use...

  9. Physics design of a 100 keV acceleration grid system for the diagnostic neutral beam for international tokamak experimental reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. J.; De Esch, H. P. L.

    2010-01-15

    This paper describes the physics design of a 100 keV, 60 A H{sup -} accelerator for the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) for international tokamak experimental reactor (ITER). The accelerator is a three grid system comprising of 1280 apertures, grouped in 16 groups with 80 apertures per beam group. Several computer codes have been used to optimize the design which follows the same philosophy as the ITER Design Description Document (DDD) 5.3 and the 1 MeV heating and current drive beam line [R. Hemsworth, H. Decamps, J. Graceffa, B. Schunke, M. Tanaka, M. Dremel, A. Tanga, H. P. L. De Esch, F. Geli, J. Milnes, T. Inoue, D. Marcuzzi, P. Sonato, and P. Zaccaria, Nucl. Fusion 49, 045006 (2009)]. The aperture shapes, intergrid distances, and the extractor voltage have been optimized to minimize the beamlet divergence. To suppress the acceleration of coextracted electrons, permanent magnets have been incorporated in the extraction grid, downstream of the cooling water channels. The electron power loads on the extractor and the grounded grids have been calculated assuming 1 coextracted electron per ion. The beamlet divergence is calculated to be 4 mrad. At present the design for the filter field of the RF based ion sources for ITER is not fixed, therefore a few configurations of the same have been considered. Their effect on the transmission of the electrons and beams through the accelerator has been studied. The OPERA-3D code has been used to estimate the aperture offset steering constant of the grounded grid and the extraction grid, the space charge interaction between the beamlets and the kerb design required to compensate for this interaction. All beamlets in the DNB must be focused to a single point in the duct, 20.665 m from the grounded grid, and the required geometrical aimings and aperture offsets have been calculated.

  10. Physics design of a 100 keV acceleration grid system for the diagnostic neutral beam for international tokamak experimental reactor.

    PubMed

    Singh, M J; De Esch, H P L

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the physics design of a 100 keV, 60 A H(-) accelerator for the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) for international tokamak experimental reactor (ITER). The accelerator is a three grid system comprising of 1280 apertures, grouped in 16 groups with 80 apertures per beam group. Several computer codes have been used to optimize the design which follows the same philosophy as the ITER Design Description Document (DDD) 5.3 and the 1 MeV heating and current drive beam line [R. Hemsworth, H. Decamps, J. Graceffa, B. Schunke, M. Tanaka, M. Dremel, A. Tanga, H. P. L. De Esch, F. Geli, J. Milnes, T. Inoue, D. Marcuzzi, P. Sonato, and P. Zaccaria, Nucl. Fusion 49, 045006 (2009)]. The aperture shapes, intergrid distances, and the extractor voltage have been optimized to minimize the beamlet divergence. To suppress the acceleration of coextracted electrons, permanent magnets have been incorporated in the extraction grid, downstream of the cooling water channels. The electron power loads on the extractor and the grounded grids have been calculated assuming 1 coextracted electron per ion. The beamlet divergence is calculated to be 4 mrad. At present the design for the filter field of the RF based ion sources for ITER is not fixed, therefore a few configurations of the same have been considered. Their effect on the transmission of the electrons and beams through the accelerator has been studied. The OPERA-3D code has been used to estimate the aperture offset steering constant of the grounded grid and the extraction grid, the space charge interaction between the beamlets and the kerb design required to compensate for this interaction. All beamlets in the DNB must be focused to a single point in the duct, 20.665 m from the grounded grid, and the required geometrical aimings and aperture offsets have been calculated. PMID:20113091

  11. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  12. Improved plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  13. METHOD FOR SOLVENT-ISOSTATIC PRESSING

    DOEpatents

    Archibald, P.B.

    1962-09-18

    This invention provides a method for producing densely compacted bodies having relatively large dimensions. The method comprises the addition of a small quantity of a suitable solvent to a powder which is to be compacted. The solvent- moistened powder is placed inside a flexible bag, and the bag is suspended in an isostatic press. The solvent is squeezed out of the powder by the isostatic pressure, and the resulting compacted body is recovered. The presence of the solvent markedly decreases the proportion of void space in the powder, thereby resulting in a denser, more homogeneous compact. Another effect of the solvent is that it allows the isostatic pressing operation to be conducted at substantially lower pressures than are conventionally employed. (AEC)

  14. Organic solvent regeneration of granular activated carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, W. H.; Suidan, M. T.; Roller, M. A.; Kim, B. R.; Gould, J. P.

    1982-09-01

    The use of activated carbon for the treatment of industrial waste-streams was shown to be an effective treatment. The high costs associated with the replacement or thermal regeneration of the carbon have prohibited the economic feasibility of this process. The in situ solvent regeneration of activated carbon by means of organic solvent extraction was suggested as an economically alternative to thermal regeneration. The important aspects of the solvent regeneration process include: the physical and chemical characteristics of the adsorbent, the pore size distribution and energy of adsorption associated with the activated carbon; the degree of solubility of the adsorbate in the organic solvent; the miscibility of the organic solvent in water; and the temperature at which the generation is performed.

  15. Stabilization of Underground Solvent Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Smail, T.R.

    2003-08-15

    The Old Solvent Tanks (OST), located at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are comprised of 22 underground storage tanks that were used to store spent radioactive solvent and aqueous wastes generated from the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) process. The OSTs were installed at various dates between 1955 and 1968 and used to store the spent solvents until 1974. The spent solvents stored in the OSTs were transferred out from 1976 through 1981 leaving only residual liquids and sludges that could not be pumped out.Final remediation goals include an overlying infiltration control system. If the tanks were to structurally fail, they would collapse causing potential for onsite worker exposure and release of tank contents to the environment. Therefore, as an interim action, methods for stabilizing the tanks were evaluated. This paper will discuss the systems designed to perform and monitor the grouting operation, the grouting process, and the radiological controls and wastes associated with grouting the Old Solvent Tanks.

  16. SOLVENT DISPERSION AND FLOW METER CALCULATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.; Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.

    2013-06-21

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) found that the dispersion numbers for the six combinations of CSSX:Next Generation Solvent (NGS) “blend” and pure NGS versus salt solution, caustic wash, and strip aqueous solutions are all good. The dispersion numbers are indications of processability with centrifugal contactors. A comparison of solvent physical and thermal properties shows that the Intek™ solvent flow meter in the plant has a reading biased high versus calibrated flow when NGS is used, versus the standard CSSX solvent. The flow meter, calibrated for CSSX solvent, is predicted to read 2.8 gpm of NGS in a case where the true flow of NGS is 2.16 gpm.

  17. Toxic hepatitis in occupational exposure to solvents

    PubMed Central

    Malaguarnera, Giulia; Cataudella, Emanuela; Giordano, Maria; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Giuseppe; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    The liver is the main organ responsible for the metabolism of drugs and toxic chemicals, and so is the primary target organ for many organic solvents. Work activities with hepatotoxins exposures are numerous and, moreover, organic solvents are used in various industrial processes. Organic solvents used in different industrial processes may be associated with hepatotoxicity. Several factors contribute to liver toxicity; among these are: species differences, nutritional condition, genetic factors, interaction with medications in use, alcohol abuse and interaction, and age. This review addresses the mechanisms of hepatotoxicity. The main pathogenic mechanisms responsible for functional and organic damage caused by solvents are: inflammation, dysfunction of cytochrome P450, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. The health impact of exposure to solvents in the workplace remains an interesting and worrying question for professional health work. PMID:22719183

  18. Hydrocarbon-solvent based cleaners as replacements for chlorinated and CFC solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiner, J.L.; Berlin, E.P.

    1995-12-31

    Chlorinated and CFC solvents have been used for about 30 years to remove various contaminants from products during the manufacturing process. Among the contaminants being removed are oils, greases, and waxes that have petroleum products as the base. Prior to the advent of the chlorinated solvents petroleum distillates were used for these cleaning operations. Processing improvements over the past 30 years now permit production of higher purity hydrocarbons solvents that can be used as replacements for the chlorinated and CFC solvents being phased out. These hydrocarbon solvents are well suited for removal of the various petroleum based contaminants, as one recalls the old adage {open_quotes}like dissolves like.{close_quotes}

  19. Acceleration gradient of a plasma wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.

    2008-02-25

    The phase velocity of the wakefield waves is identical to the electron beam velocity. A theoretical analysis indicates that the acceleration gradient of the wakefield accelerator normalized by the wave breaking amplitude is K{sub 0}({xi})/K{sub 1}({xi}), where K{sub 0}({xi}) and K{sub 1}({xi}) are the modified Bessel functions of the second kind of order zero and one, respectively and {xi} is the beam parameter representing the beam intensity. It is also shown that the beam density must be considerably higher than the diffuse plasma density for the large radial velocity of plasma electrons that are required for a high acceleration gradient.

  20. PARIS II: Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a summary of U.S. EPA researchers' work developing the solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). PARIS II finds less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures to replace more toxic solvents co...

  1. Far field acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.

    1995-07-01

    Far fields are propagating electromagnetic waves far from their source, boundary surfaces, and free charges. The general principles governing the acceleration of charged particles by far fields are reviewed. A survey of proposed field configurations is given. The two most important schemes, Inverse Cerenkov acceleration and Inverse free electron laser acceleration, are discussed in detail.

  2. Angular Acceleration Without Torque?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.2

  3. Sustained linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, T. M.

    1973-01-01

    The subjective effects of sustained acceleration are discussed, including positive, negative, forward, backward, and lateral acceleration effects. Physiological effects, such as retinal and visual response, unconsciousness and cerebral function, pulmonary response, and renal output, are studied. Human tolerance and performance under sustained acceleration are ascertained.

  4. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  5. Acceleration: It's Elementary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Acceleration is one tool for providing high-ability students the opportunity to learn something new every day. Some people talk about acceleration as taking a student out of step. In actuality, what one is doing is putting a student in step with the right curriculum. Whole-grade acceleration, also called grade-skipping, usually happens between…

  6. Predicting the Solubility of Pharmaceutical Cocrystals in Solvent/Anti-Solvent Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lange, Linda; Heisel, Stefan; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the solubilities of pharmaceutical cocrystals in solvent/anti-solvent systems were predicted using PC-SAFT in order to increase the efficiency of cocrystal formation processes. Modeling results and experimental data were compared for the cocrystal system nicotinamide/succinic acid (2:1) in the solvent/anti-solvent mixtures ethanol/water, ethanol/acetonitrile and ethanol/ethyl acetate at 298.15 K and in the ethanol/ethyl acetate mixture also at 310.15 K. The solubility of the investigated cocrystal slightly increased when adding small amounts of anti-solvent to the solvent, but drastically decreased for high anti-solvent amounts. Furthermore, the solubilities of nicotinamide, succinic acid and the cocrystal in the considered solvent/anti-solvent mixtures showed strong deviations from ideal-solution behavior. However, by accounting for the thermodynamic non-ideality of the components, PC-SAFT is able to predict the solubilities in all above-mentioned solvent/anti-solvent systems in good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:27164075

  7. Charge stabilization in nonpolar solvents.

    PubMed

    Hsu, M F; Dufresne, E R; Weitz, D A

    2005-05-24

    While the important role of electrostatic interactions in aqueous colloidal suspensions is widely known and reasonably well-understood, their relevance to nonpolar suspensions remains mysterious. We measure the interaction potentials of colloidal particles in a nonpolar solvent with reverse micelles. We find surprisingly strong electrostatic interactions characterized by surface potentials, |ezeta|, from 2.0 to 4.4 k(B)T and screening lengths, kappa(-1), from 0.2 to 1.4 microm. Interactions depend on the concentration of reverse micelles and the degree of confinement. Furthermore, when the particles are weakly confined, the values of |ezeta| and kappa extracted from interaction measurements are consistent with bulk measurements of conductivity and electrophoretic mobility. A simple thermodynamic model, relating the structure of the micelles to the equilibrium ionic strength, is in good agreement with both conductivity and interaction measurements. Since dissociated ions are solubilized by reverse micelles, the entropic incentive to charge a particle surface is qualitatively changed from aqueous systems, and surface entropy plays an important role. PMID:15896027

  8. Compact Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2004-01-01

    A plasma accelerator has been conceived for both material-processing and spacecraft-propulsion applications. This accelerator generates and accelerates ions within a very small volume. Because of its compactness, this accelerator could be nearly ideal for primary or station-keeping propulsion for spacecraft having masses between 1 and 20 kg. Because this accelerator is designed to generate beams of ions having energies between 50 and 200 eV, it could also be used for surface modification or activation of thin films.

  9. Solvent Effect on the Photolysis of Riboflavin.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iqbal; Anwar, Zubair; Ahmed, Sofia; Sheraz, Muhammad Ali; Bano, Raheela; Hafeez, Ambreen

    2015-10-01

    The kinetics of photolysis of riboflavin (RF) in water (pH 7.0) and in organic solvents (acetonitrile, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, ethyl acetate) has been studied using a multicomponent spectrometric method for the assay of RF and its major photoproducts, formylmethylflavin and lumichrome. The apparent first-order rate constants (k obs) for the reaction range from 3.19 (ethyl acetate) to 4.61 × 10(-3) min(-1) (water). The values of k obs have been found to be a linear function of solvent dielectric constant implying the participation of a dipolar intermediate along the reaction pathway. The degradation of this intermediate is promoted by the polarity of the medium. This indicates a greater stabilization of the excited-triplet states of RF with an increase in solvent polarity to facilitate its reduction. The rate constants for the reaction show a linear relation with the solvent acceptor number indicating the degree of solute-solvent interaction in different solvents. It would depend on the electron-donating capacity of RF molecule in organic solvents. The values of k obs are inversely proportional to the viscosity of the medium as a result of diffusion-controlled processes. PMID:25698084

  10. Differential response of marine diatoms to solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Tadros, M.G.; Phillips, J.; Patel, H.; Pandiripally, V.

    1995-06-01

    Unicellular algae in aquatic ecosystems are subjected to a variety of pollutants from sources such as runoff from agricultural lands and industrial outfalls. Organic solvents are natural components of oil deposits and commonly find their way into surface waters as a result of discharges from refineries, waste oil, disposal, and accidental spills. Organic solvents can make their way into the environment as industrial wastes. Because of their carcinogenic potential, contamination of soil and water by solvents is cause for serious concern. Relatively few reports have been published on the comparative toxicity of solvents towards test organisms, and these dealt primarily with fish and aquatic invertebrates. However, only few data of toxicity effects of solvents on algae have been published. Phytoplankton species vary in their tolerance to trace metals. Diatoms in particular are able to detoxify trace metals by the excretion of organic compounds. A previous study reported that diatoms collected form different sites in the Gulf of Mexico varied in their physiological characteristics. Algae have been considered to be good indicator s of bioactivity of industrial wastes. Unicellular algae vary in their response to a variety of toxicants. Little is known, however, about toxicity of solvents to marine diatoms. The work reported here was done to examine the effect of selected solvents on seven diatom species to determine whether they differed in their responses to these chemicals. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Organic Solvent Tolerant Lipases and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Shamsher S.

    2014-01-01

    Lipases are a group of enzymes naturally endowed with the property of performing reactions in aqueous as well as organic solvents. The esterification reactions using lipase(s) could be performed in water-restricted organic media as organic solvent(s) not only improve(s) the solubility of substrate and reactant in reaction mixture but also permit(s) the reaction in the reverse direction, and often it is easy to recover the product in organic phase in two-phase equilibrium systems. The use of organic solvent tolerant lipase in organic media has exhibited many advantages: increased activity and stability, regiospecificity and stereoselectivity, higher solubility of substrate, ease of products recovery, and ability to shift the reaction equilibrium toward synthetic direction. Therefore the search for organic solvent tolerant enzymes has been an extensive area of research. A variety of fatty acid esters are now being produced commercially using immobilized lipase in nonaqueous solvents. This review describes the organic tolerance and industrial application of lipases. The main emphasis is to study the nature of organic solvent tolerant lipases. Also, the potential industrial applications that make lipases the biocatalysts of choice for the present and future have been presented. PMID:24672342

  12. Environmental Impacts on Nuclear Reprocessing Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillens, A. R.; Fessenden, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear tests have been employed ever since the first nuclear explosion in Alamogordo, NM during the mid-1940s. Nuclear weapons pose a threat to civil society and result in extensive biological (medical) damages. For this reason, treaties banning nuclear tests and weapons have been employed since the 1960s to cease proliferation of weapons. However, as nuclear tests continue in secrecy and actinides, such as plutonium and uranium, are eligible for theft, nuclear forensics is needed to prevent weapons proliferation. In this study, solvents [tributyl phosphate (TBP), dodecane, decanol] used in reprocessing spent nuclear fuel are analyzed using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer, which provides indisputable evidence in identifying the operation in which solvents were used. Solvent samples are observed under variable conditions in the laboratory for different time periods. It is assumed that their carbon isotope values (δ13C) will become more positive (shift heavy) with time. It is found that the solvents are hygroscopic. TBP leaves the most robust signature compared to the other solvents studied and the isotope values for all solvents under all conditions become more positive with time. This study serves as primary research in understanding how solvents behave under variable conditions in the laboratory and how this could be translated to the environment in fate and transport studies.

  13. High brightness electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, Richard L.; Carlsten, Bruce E.; Young, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A compact high brightness linear accelerator is provided for use, e.g., in a free electron laser. The accelerator has a first plurality of acclerating cavities having end walls with four coupling slots for accelerating electrons to high velocities in the absence of quadrupole fields. A second plurality of cavities receives the high velocity electrons for further acceleration, where each of the second cavities has end walls with two coupling slots for acceleration in the absence of dipole fields. The accelerator also includes a first cavity with an extended length to provide for phase matching the electron beam along the accelerating cavities. A solenoid is provided about the photocathode that emits the electons, where the solenoid is configured to provide a substantially uniform magnetic field over the photocathode surface to minimize emittance of the electons as the electrons enter the first cavity.

  14. Fiber Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Hammond, Andrew P.; /Reed Coll. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    One of the options for future particle accelerators are photonic band gap (PBG) fiber accelerators. PBG fibers are specially designed optical fibers that use lasers to excite an electric field that is used to accelerate electrons. To improve PBG accelerators, the basic parameters of the fiber were tested to maximize defect size and acceleration. Using the program CUDOS, several accelerating modes were found that maximized these parameters for several wavelengths. The design of multiple defects, similar to having closely bound fibers, was studied to find possible coupling or the change of modes. The amount of coupling was found to be dependent on distance separated. For certain distances accelerating coupled modes were found and examined. In addition, several non-periodic fiber structures were examined using CUDOS. The non-periodic fibers produced several interesting results and promised more modes given time to study them in more detail.

  15. Effect of solvent characteristics on coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, He; Wang, Shaojie; Wang, Keyu; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

    1996-12-31

    It has been known for a long time that the characteristics of the liquefaction solvent has a profound effect on direct coal liquefaction. The amount of hydrogen consumed during the liquefaction process, the degree and quantity of retrograde reactions that occur, and the quality of the liquid products are all influenced by the process solvent. A number of analytical approaches have been developed to determine the important characteristics of the solvent for coal liquefaction. The hydrogen donor ability has clearly been important. However, such other characteristics of a liquefaction solvent as solubility parameter, content and type of higher aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolic content have also been found to be significant. Finseth et al. have shown that the bulk of the hydrogen consumed from an uncatalyzed donor solvent liquefaction above 400{degrees}C is consumed in gas generation, heteroatom removal and hydrogenolysis of the coal matrix. Wilson et al. have also shown that the major role of hydrogen in uncatalyzed liquefaction is consumed by alkyl fission and hydrogenolysis reactions and not with hydrogenating aromatic rings. McMillan et al. have postulated that a radical hydrogen transfer process along with donor solvent capping of thermally produced radicals from the coal as possible processes involved with the hydroaromatic donor solvents in coal liquefaction. With the development of a short contact time batch reactor (SCTBR), determining the influence of the processing solvent on the liquefaction rates, conversion profiles and the quality of the liquid product at a particular time became possible. The influence of type of solvent, combined with other effects, such as gas atmosphere (i.e., in hydrogen and in nitrogen) and catalyst, on the coal liquefaction is reported in this paper.

  16. Acceleration in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    The origin of cosmic rays and applicable laboratory experiments are discussed. Some of the problems of shock acceleration for the production of cosmic rays are discussed in the context of astrophysical conditions. These are: The presumed unique explanation of the power law spectrum is shown instead to be a universal property of all lossy accelerators; the extraordinary isotropy of cosmic rays and the limited diffusion distances implied by supernova induced shock acceleration requires a more frequent and space-filling source than supernovae; the near perfect adiabaticity of strong hydromagnetic turbulence necessary for reflecting the accelerated particles each doubling in energy roughly 10{sup 5} to {sup 6} scatterings with negligible energy loss seems most unlikely; the evidence for acceleration due to quasi-parallel heliosphere shocks is weak. There is small evidence for the expected strong hydromagnetic turbulence, and instead, only a small number of particles accelerate after only a few shock traversals; the acceleration of electrons in the same collisionless shock that accelerates ions is difficult to reconcile with the theoretical picture of strong hydromagnetic turbulence that reflects the ions. The hydromagnetic turbulence will appear adiabatic to the electrons at their much higher Larmor frequency and so the electrons should not be scattered incoherently as they must be for acceleration. Therefore the electrons must be accelerated by a different mechanism. This is unsatisfactory, because wherever electrons are accelerated these sites, observed in radio emission, may accelerate ions more favorably. The acceleration is coherent provided the reconnection is coherent, in which case the total flux, as for example of collimated radio sources, predicts single charge accelerated energies much greater than observed.

  17. Permeation of aromatic solvent mixtures through nitrile protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Hsu, Ya-Ping; Chen, Su-Yi

    2008-05-30

    The permeation of binary and ternary mixtures of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and p-xylene through nitrile gloves were investigated using the ASTM F739 test cell. The more slowly permeating component of a mixture was accelerated to have a shorter breakthrough time than its pure form. The larger differences in solubility parameter between a solvent mixture and glove resulted in a lower permeation rate. Solubility parameter theory provides a potential approach to interpret the changes of permeation properties for BTEX mixtures through nitrile gloves. Using a one-dimensional diffusion model based on Fick's law, the permeation concentrations of ASTM F739 experiments were appropriately simulated by the estimated diffusion coefficient and solubility. This study will be a fundamental work for the risk assessment of the potential dermal exposure of workers wearing protective gloves. PMID:17977655

  18. THE DESIGN OF TECHNOLOGICALLY EFFECTIVE AND ENVIRONMENTALLY BENIGN SOLVENT SUBSTITUTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is presently considerable interest in finding environmentally benign replacement solvents that can perform in many different applications as solvents normally do. This requires solvents with desirable properties, e.g., ability to dissolve certain compounds, and without oth...

  19. Supercapacitor Electrolyte Solvents with Liquid Range Below -80 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik; Smart, Marshall; West, William

    2010-01-01

    A previous NASA Tech Brief ["Low-Temperature Supercapacitors" (NPO-44386) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No 7 (July 2008), page 32] detailed ongoing efforts to develop non-aqueous supercapacitor electrolytes capable of supporting operation at temperatures below commercially available cells (which are typically limited to charging and discharging at > or equal to -40 C). These electrolyte systems may enable energy storage and power delivery for systems operating in extreme environments, such as those encountered in the Polar regions on Earth or in the exploration of space. Supercapacitors using these electrolytes may also offer improved power delivery performance at moderately low temperatures (e.g. -40 to 0 C) relative to currently available cells, offering improved cold-cranking and cold-weather acceleration capabilities for electrical or hybrid vehicles. Supercapacitors store charge at the electrochemical double-layer, formed at the interface between a high surface area electrode material and a liquid electrolyte. The current approach to extending the low-temperature limit of the electrolyte focuses on using binary solvent systems comprising a high-dielectric-constant component (such as acetonitrile) in conjunction with a low-melting-point co-solvent (such as organic formates, esters, and ethers) to depress the freezing point of the system, while maintaining sufficient solubility of the salt. Recent efforts in this area have led to the identification of an electrolyte solvent formulation with a freezing point of -85.7 C, which is achieved by using a 1:1 by volume ratio of acetonitrile to 1,3-dioxolane

  20. Photodegradation of mutagens in solvent-refined coal liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkwarf, D.R.; Stewart, D.L.; Pelroy, R.A.; Weimer, W.C.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate any changes in the chemical composition and microbial mutagenicities of two representative solvent-refined coal (SRC) liquids as a function of exposure time to sunlight and air. This information was desired to assess potential health hazards arising from ground spills of these liquids during production, transport and use. Results of microbial mutagenicity assays using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, conducted after exposure, showed that the mutagenicities of both an SRC-II fuel oil blend and an SRC-I process solvent decreased continuously with exposure time to air and that the decrease was accelerated by simultaneous exposure to simulated sunlight. The liquids were exposed as thin layers supported on surfaces of glass, paper, clay or aluminum; but the type of support had little effect on the results. The contrast between these results and the reported increases of mutagenesis in organisms exposed simultaneously to coal liquids and near-ultraviolet light suggested that short-lived mutagenic intermediates, e.g., organic free radicals, were formed in the liquids during exposure to light. The highest activities of microbial mutagenicity in the SRC liquids were found in fractions rich in amino polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (amino PAH). After a 36-hour exposure of the fuel oil blend to air in the dark, the mutagenicity of its amine-rich fraction was reduced by 65%; whereas a 36-hour exposure in the light reduced the mutagenicity of this fraction by 92%. Similar rates of reduction in mutagenicity were achieved in exposures of the process solvent. The mutagenicities of other chemical fractions remained low during exposure.

  1. Solvent environment conducive to protein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel; de las Mercedes Boland, Maria

    2002-10-01

    The effect of solvent structuring induced by molecular crowding is elucidated within a competitive situation involving protein folding and aggregation. Two patterned fragments of amyloidogenic proteins are chosen as study cases and analyzed by molecular dynamics with an implicit treatment of the solvent. The extent of crowding needed to induce aggregation is determined. The results constitute a first step to assess the relevance of in vivo environments in understanding fibrillogenesis. The approach is independently validated by satisfactorily reproducing the results of an all-atom explicit solvent trajectory. PMID:12372617

  2. Switchable solvents and methods of use thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, Philip G; Eckert, Charles A; Liotta, Charles L; Heldebrant, David J

    2014-04-29

    A solvent that reversibly converts from a nonionic liquid mixture to an ionic liquid upon contact with a selected trigger, e.g., contact with CO.sub.2, is described. In preferred embodiments, the ionic solvent is readily converted back to the nonionic liquid mixture. The nonionic liquid mixture includes an amidine or guanidine or both, and water, alcohol, or a combination thereof. Single component amine solvents that reversibly convert between ionic and non-ionic states are also described. Some embodiments require increased pressure to convert; others convert at 1 atmosphere.

  3. Genomic and Genetic Approaches to Solvent Tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Eleftherios T. Papoutsakis

    2005-06-10

    The proposed research is to understand and exploit the molecular basis that determines tolerance of the industrially important anaerobic clostridia to solvents. Furthermore, we aim to develop general genomic and metabolic engineering strategies for understanding the molecular basis of tolerance to chemicals and for developing tolerant strains. Our hypothesis is that the molecular basis of what makes bacterial cells able to withstand high solvent concentrations can be used to metabolically engineer cells so that they can tolerate higher concentrations of solvents and related chemicals.

  4. Switchable solvents and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Jessop, Philip G.; Eckert, Charles A.; Liotta, Charles L.; Heldebrant, David J.

    2013-08-20

    A solvent that reversibly converts from a nonionic liquid mixture to an ionic liquid upon contact with a selected trigger, e.g., contact with CO.sub.2, is described. In preferred embodiments, the ionic solvent is readily converted back to the nonionic liquid mixture. The nonionic liquid mixture includes an amidine or guanidine or both, and water, alcohol, or a combination thereof. Single component amine solvents that reversibly convert between ionic and non-ionic states are also described. Some embodiments require increased pressure to convert; others convert at 1 atmosphere.

  5. Switchable solvents and methods of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    Jessop, Philip G.; Eckert, Charles A.; Liotta, Charles L.; Heldebrant, David J.

    2011-07-19

    A solvent that reversibly converts from a nonionic liquid mixture to an ionic liquid upon contact with a selected trigger, e.g., contact with CO.sub.2, is described. In preferred embodiments, the ionic solvent is readily converted back to the nonionic liquid mixture. The nonionic liquid mixture includes an amidine or guanidine or both, and water, alcohol, or a combination thereof. Single component amine solvents that reversibly convert between ionic and non-ionic states are also described. Some embodiments require increased pressure to convert; others convert at 1 atmosphere.

  6. What makes critical-solvent processes work

    SciTech Connect

    Brule, M.R.; Corbett, R.W.

    1984-06-01

    Critical-solvent processing (sometimes called supercritical-gas extraction) is an ongoing technology based on phase-equilibrium phenomena in the critical region. Many new practical applications of critical-solvent processing are being conceived and implemented in the food, drug and chemical industries. The advantages afforded by critical-solvent processing in performing difficult separations such as caffeine from coffee, nicotine from tobacco, chemotherapeutic drugs from plants, and chemical feedstocks from petroleum and synfuels residua have been realized just in the last decade or so.

  7. A Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, R.A.; Regalbuto, M.C.

    1993-08-01

    The material balance and equilibrium equations for solvent extraction processes have been combined with computer spreadsheets in a new way so that models for very complex multicomponent multistage operations can be setup and used easily. A part of the novelty is the way in which the problem is organized in the spreadsheet. In addition, to facilitate spreadsheet setup, a new calculational procedure has been developed. The resulting Spreadsheet Algorithm for Stagewise Solvent Extraction (SASSE) can be used with either IBM or Macintosh personal computers as a simple yet powerful tool for analyzing solvent extraction flowsheets.

  8. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.; Snedden, Richard B.; Foster, Edward P.; Bellas, George T.

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  9. Mechanism of paint removing by organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Del Nero, V.; Siat, C.; Marti, M.J.; Aubry, J.M.; Lallier, J.P.; Dupuy, N.; Huvenne, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of paint removing has been studied by comparing the stripping efficiency of a given solvent with its ability to swell the film. The most effective solvents have a Hildebrand{close_quote}s parameter, {delta}{sub H}, ranging from 10.5 to 12 and a Dimroth parameter, ET{sub (30)}, ranging from 0.25 to 0.4. The synergy observed with the mixtures DMSO/non polar solvent is explained by a dissociation of the DMSO clusters into individual molecules which diffuse more easily. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Optical nonlinearity of HBI in different solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Feng; Ma, Lina; Geng, Yaohui; Zhang, Siwen; Wang, Zhe; Cheng, Xiaoman

    2014-04-01

    2-(2'-Hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazole (HBI) is one kind of organic molecules featuring excited-state proton transfer (ESPT). The nonlinear optical properties of 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzimidazole (HBI) in different polar solvents were investigated by means of Z-scan technique under the excitation of the 1064 nm picoseconds laser pulse. The experimental results show that the nonlinear refractive indices decrease with the enhancement of the polarity of the solvent. The nonlinear refractive indices sensitive to the solvent polarity allow them to be widely used for the optoelectronic devices.

  11. Coal liquefaction with coal tar solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Gir, S.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1986-12-16

    A method is described of liquefying coal, comprising: mixing solid coal with a process solvent comprising coal tar material which has been at least partially hydrogenated under conditions which selectively hydrogenate aromatic coal tar components to hydroaromatics and which preserve the integrity of organonitrogen coal tar components, to produce a coal-solvent slurry; treating the coal-solvent slurry under coal-liquefying conditions in a liquefaction zone to produce a solution containing coal liquefaction products; and recovering coal liquefaction products from the solution.

  12. TRUEX process solvent cleanup with solid sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Tse, Pui-Kwan; Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    Solid sorbents, alumina, silica gel, and Amberlyst A-26 have been tested for the cleanup of degraded TRUEX-NPH solvent. A sodium carbonate scrub alone does not completely remove acidic degradation products from highly degraded solvent and cannot restore the stripping performance of the solvent. By following the carbonate scrub with either neutral alumina or Amberlyst A-26 anion exchange resin, the performance of the TRUEX-NPH is substantially restored. The degraded TRUEX-NPH was characterized before and after treatment by supercritical fluid chromatography. Its performance was evaluated by americium distribution ratios, phase-separation times, and lauric acid distribution coefficients. 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Solvent effects on infrared spectra of methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate in pure organic solvents and in ethanol/CCl 4 binary solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qing; Fang, Danjun; Zheng, Jianping

    2004-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy studies of methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (MHB) in 17 different organic solvents and in ethanol/CCl 4 binary solvent were undertaken to investigate the solvent-solute interactions. The frequencies of carbonyl stretching vibration ν(CO) of MHB in single solvents were correlated with the solvent acceptor number (AN) and the linear solvation energy relationships (LSER). The assignments of the two bands of ν(CO) of MHB in alcohols and the single one of that in non-alcoholic solvents were discussed. The shifts of ν(CO) of MHB in ethanol/CCl 4 binary solvents showed that several kinds of solute-solvent hydrogen bonding interactions coexisted in the mixture solvents, with a change in the mole fraction of ethanol in the binary solvents.

  14. Interaction of organic solvents with protein structures at protein-solvent interface.

    PubMed

    Khabiri, Morteza; Minofar, Babak; Brezovský, Jan; Damborský, Jiří; Ettrich, Rudiger

    2013-11-01

    The effect of non-denaturing concentrations of three different organic solvents, formamide, acetone and isopropanol, on the structure of haloalkane dehalogenases DhaA, LinB, and DbjA at the protein-solvent interface was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Analysis of B-factors revealed that the presence of a given organic solvent mainly affects the dynamical behavior of the specificity-determining cap domain, with the exception of DbjA in acetone. Orientation of organic solvent molecules on the protein surface during the simulations was clearly dependent on their interaction with hydrophobic or hydrophilic surface patches, and the simulations suggest that the behavior of studied organic solvents in the vicinity of hyrophobic patches on the surface is similar to the air/water interface. DbjA was the only dimeric enzyme among studied haloalkane dehalogenases and provided an opportunity to explore effects of organic solvents on the quaternary structure. Penetration and trapping of organic solvents in the network of interactions between both monomers depends on the physico-chemical properties of the organic solvents. Consequently, both monomers of this enzyme oscillate differently in different organic solvents. With the exception of LinB in acetone, the structures of studied enzymes were stabilized in water-miscible organic solvents. PMID:22760789

  15. The Generally Useful Estimate of Solvent Systems (GUESS) method enables the rapid purification of methylpyridoxine regioisomers by countercurrent chromatography.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Friesen, J Brent; Klein, Larry L; McAlpine, James B; Lankin, David C; Pauli, Guido F; Chen, Shao-Nong

    2015-12-24

    The TLC-based Generally Useful Estimate of Solvent Systems (GUESS) method was employed for countercurrent chromatography solvent system selection, in order to separate the three synthetic isomers: 3-O-methylpyridoxine, 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (ginkgotoxin), and 5'-O-methylpyridoxine. The Rf values of the three isomers indicated that ChMWat+2 (chloroform-methanol-water 10:5:5, v/v/v) was appropriate for the countercurrent separation. The isomer separation was highly selective and demonstrated that the TLC-based GUESS method can accelerate solvent system selection for countercurrent separation. Accordingly, the study re-emphasizes the practicality of TLC as a tool to facilitate the rapid development of new countercurrent and centrifugal partition chromatography methods for this solvent system. Purity and structure characterization of all samples was performed by quantitative (1)H NMR. PMID:26680272

  16. Plasma inverse transition acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Ming

    2001-06-18

    It can be proved fundamentally from the reciprocity theorem with which the electromagnetism is endowed that corresponding to each spontaneous process of radiation by a charged particle there is an inverse process which defines a unique acceleration mechanism, from Cherenkov radiation to inverse Cherenkov acceleration (ICA) [1], from Smith-Purcell radiation to inverse Smith-Purcell acceleration (ISPA) [2], and from undulator radiation to inverse undulator acceleration (IUA) [3]. There is no exception. Yet, for nearly 30 years after each of the aforementioned inverse processes has been clarified for laser acceleration, inverse transition acceleration (ITA), despite speculation [4], has remained the least understood, and above all, no practical implementation of ITA has been found, until now. Unlike all its counterparts in which phase synchronism is established one way or the other such that a particle can continuously gain energy from an acceleration wave, the ITA to be discussed here, termed plasma inverse transition acceleration (PITA), operates under fundamentally different principle. As a result, the discovery of PITA has been delayed for decades, waiting for a conceptual breakthrough in accelerator physics: the principle of alternating gradient acceleration [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]. In fact, PITA was invented [7, 8] as one of several realizations of the new principle.

  17. Active-site motions and polarity enhance catalytic turnover of hydrated subtilisin dissolved in organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Elton P; Eppler, Ross K; Beaudoin, Julianne M; Dordick, Jonathan S; Reimer, Jeffrey A; Clark, Douglas S

    2009-04-01

    The enzyme subtilisin Carlsberg was surfactant-solubilized into two organic solvents, isooctane and tetrahydrofuran, and hydrated through stepwise changes in the thermodynamic water activity, a(w). The apparent turnover number k(cat)(app) in these systems ranged from 0.2 to 80 s(-1) and increased 11-fold in isooctane and up to 50-fold in tetrahydrofuran with increasing a(w). (19)F NMR relaxation experiments employing an active-site inhibitor were used to assess the dependence of active-site motions on a(w). The rates of NMR-derived fast (k > 10(7) s(-1)) and slow (k < 10(4) s(-1)) active-site motions increased in both solvents upon hydration, but only the slow motions correlated with k(cat). The (19)F chemical shift was a sensitive probe of the local electronic environment and provided an empirical measure of the active-site dielectric constant epsilon(as), which increased with hydration to epsilon(as) approximately 13 in each solvent. In both solvents, the transition state free energy data and epsilon(as) followed Kirkwood's model for the continuum solvation of a dipole, indicating that water also enhanced catalysis by altering the active-site's electronic environment and increasing its polarity to better stabilize the transition state. These results reveal that favorable dynamic and electrostatic effects both contribute to accelerated catalysis by solubilized subtilisin Carlsberg upon hydration in organic solvents. PMID:19317505

  18. Active-site motions and polarity enhance catalytic turnover of hydrated subtilisin dissolved in organic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Elton P; Eppler, Ross K; Beaudoin, Julianne M; Dordick, Jonathan S; Reimer, Jeffrey A; Clark, Douglas S

    2009-01-01

    The enzyme subtilisin Carlsberg was surfactant-solubilized into two organic solvents, isooctane and tetrahydrofuran, and hydrated through stepwise changes in the thermodynamic water activity, aw. The apparent turnover number kcatapp in these systems ranged from 0.2 to 80 s−1 and increased 11-fold in isooctane and up to 50-fold in tetrahydrofuran with increasing aw. 19F-NMR relaxation experiments employing an active-site inhibitor were used to assess the dependence of active-site motions on aw. The rates of NMR-derived fast (k > 107 s−1) and slow (k < 104 s−1) active-site motions increased in both solvents upon hydration, but only the slow motions correlated with kcat. The 19F chemical shift was a sensitive probe of the local electronic environment and provided an empirical measure of the active-site dielectric constant εas, which increased with hydration to εas ≈ 13 in each solvent. In both solvents the transition state free energy data and εas followed Kirkwood’s model for the continuum solvation of a dipole, indicating that water also enhanced catalysis by altering the active-site’s electronic environment and increasing its polarity to better stabilize the transition state. These results reveal that favorable dynamic and electrostatic effects both contribute to accelerated catalysis by solubilized subtilisin Carlsberg upon hydration in organic solvents. PMID:19317505

  19. Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2009-10-29

    This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

  20. Solvent mediated microstructures and release behavior of insulin from pH-sensitive nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi Min; Guo, Xin Dong; Zhang, Li Juan; Jiang, Wei; Ling, Li; Qian, Yu; Chen, Yun

    2012-06-01

    The insulin loaded nanoparticles composed of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HP55) were prepared via the emulsions solvent diffusion method with two different solvents, namely, DMSO and acetone/water. The microstructures of the nanoparticles were studied by the solubility parameters theory, DSC, FTIR, and the nitrogen adsorption technique. Phase-separated PLGA domains were observed from the nanoparticles prepared with both types of solvents. Mesopores were observed from the nanoparticles prepared with DMSO as the solvent and almost did not exist with acetone/water. An in vitro drug release study showed that the pH-sensitivity of nanoparticles was not only attributed to the pH-dependent dissolubility of HP55 but also to the internal microstructure. The formation of mesopores accelerated the release of insulin, leading to no obvious pH-sensitivity of the nanoparticles prepared with DMSO. However, for the nanoparticles prepared with acetone/water, the release of insulin was pH-dependent. The results demonstrated that solvents played an important role in affecting the microstructures of nanoparticles, which influenced markedly the insulin release behavior. PMID:22356870

  1. Folding and imaging of DNA nanostructures in anhydrous and hydrated deep-eutectic solvents.

    PubMed

    Gállego, Isaac; Grover, Martha A; Hud, Nicholas V

    2015-06-01

    There is great interest in DNA nanotechnology, but its use has been limited to aqueous or substantially hydrated media. The first assembly of a DNA nanostructure in a water-free solvent, namely a low-volatility biocompatible deep-eutectic solvent composed of a 4:1 mixture of glycerol and choline chloride (glycholine), is now described. Glycholine allows for the folding of a two-dimensional DNA origami at 20 °C in six days, whereas in hydrated glycholine, folding is accelerated (≤3 h). Moreover, a three-dimensional DNA origami and a DNA tail system can be folded in hydrated glycholine under isothermal conditions. Glycholine apparently reduces the kinetic traps encountered during folding in aqueous solvent. Furthermore, folded structures can be transferred between aqueous solvent and glycholine. It is anticipated that glycholine and similar solvents will allow for the creation of functional DNA structures of greater complexity by providing a milieu with tunable properties that can be optimized for a range of applications and nanostructures. PMID:25900011

  2. [Shoe factory workers, solvents and health].

    PubMed

    Foà, Vito; Martinotti, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to organic solvents in footwear manufacturing industry came from the glues used adhering the shoe parts to each other. Benzene was the first solvent used in shoe factories until the evidence of its capacity to cause leukaemia. Then, the demonstration that exposure to n-hexane was related to distal polyneuropathy limited the use of this substance. After that, results of neurotoxicological studies conducted on workers exposed to different mixtures of organic solvents make necessary prevention measure directed to a progressive reduction of air dispersion of these chemicals. Today exposure to solvents in workplaces is regulated by health based exposure limit values that should warranty absence of central nervous system effects. One of the most important rules of occupational medicine is verify that these exposure levels are really health protective also for workers with increased susceptibility. PMID:22697025

  3. Innovative Technologies for Chlorinated Solvent Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennell, Kurt D.; Cápiro, Natalie L.

    2014-07-01

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * TRADITIONAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (1980s) * RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF INNOVATIVE REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (1990s-2000s) * CURRENT TRENDS IN CHLORINATED SOLVENT REMEDIATION (2010s) * CLOSING THOUGHTS * REFERENCES

  4. Volatile Solvent Use among Western Australian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Annemaree; Houghton, Stephen; Odgers, Peta

    1998-01-01

    Semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 adolescents who reported inhaling volatile solvents. All were aware of the short-term health risks involved in use, and most reported experiencing ill effects. Offers suggestions for intervention. (Author/GCP)

  5. "Solvent Effects" in 1H NMR Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaleiro, Jose A. S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a simple undergraduate experiment in chemistry dealing with the "solvent effects" in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Stresses the importance of having students learn NMR spectroscopy as a tool in analytical chemistry. (TW)

  6. Implicit solvent methods for free energy estimation

    PubMed Central

    Decherchi, Sergio; Masetti, Matteo; Vyalov, Ivan; Rocchia, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Solvation is a fundamental contribution in many biological processes and especially in molecular binding. Its estimation can be performed by means of several computational approaches. The aim of this review is to give an overview of existing theories and methods to estimate solvent effects giving a specific focus on the category of implicit solvent models and their use in Molecular Dynamics. In many of these models, the solvent is considered as a continuum homogenous medium, while the solute can be represented at the atomic detail and at different levels of theory. Despite their degree of approximation, implicit methods are still widely employed due to their trade-off between accuracy and efficiency. Their derivation is rooted in the statistical mechanics and integral equations disciplines, some of the related details being provided here. Finally, methods that combine implicit solvent models and molecular dynamics simulation, are briefly described. PMID:25193298

  7. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF ORGANIC WATER POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on experiments with model systems of known organic water pollutants and environmental samples, conclusions are reached concerning the best general solvent for extraction and the most appropriate methods for related manipulations. Chloroform, methylene chloride-ether mixture...

  8. Biological monitoring of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Monster, A.C.

    1986-08-01

    The possibility of biological monitoring of exposure to some volatile, halogenated hydrocarbons will be discussed. Most of these agents are widely used as solvents. All agents act on the nervous system as narcotics and differ widely in toxicity. Most of the solvents undergo biotransformation to metabolites. This allows biological assessment of exposure by measurement of the solvent and/or metabolites in exhaled air, blood, and/or urine. However, the same metabolites may occur with exposure to different chlorinated hydrocarbons, eg, trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid from exposure to trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. On the other hand, these agents differ widely in the percentage that is metabolized. There are large gaps in our knowledge, however, and much research will have to be carried out before even tentative data can be established for most of the solvents.

  9. United States Air Force Wipe Solvent Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornung, Steven D.; Beeson, Harold D.

    2000-01-01

    The Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB), as part of the Air Force Material Command, requested that NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) conduct testing and analyses in support of the United States Air Force Wipe Solvent Development Project. The purpose of the wipe solvent project is to develop an alternative to be used by Air Force flight line and maintenance personnel for the wipe cleaning of oxygen equipment. This report provides material compatibility, liquid oxygen (LOX) mechanical impact, autogenous ignition temperature (AIT), and gauge cleaning test data for some of the currently available solvents that may be used to replace CFC-113 and methyl chloroform. It provides data from previous WSTF test programs sponsored by the Naval Sea Systems Command, the Kennedy Space Center, and other NASA programs for the purpose of assisting WP AFB in identifying the best alternative solvents for validation testing.

  10. Modelling the effect of solvents on carbohydrates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbohydrates are polar molecules and their conformational and anomeric equilibrium can be strongly influenced by solvents. This review provides examples of studies addressing different issues of glycochemistry, such as anomeric equilibrium, conformational changes in rings, modelling of inter-residu...

  11. Deasphalted oil -- A natural asphaltene solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, A.K.M.; Nazarko, T.W.; Sills, S.; Fuhr, B.J.

    1995-11-01

    Asphaltene deposition in the near-wellbore region can block pore throats, change wettability characteristics and relative-permeability relationships, and therefore, reduce oil production. Conventional aromatic solvents (e.g., toluene, xylene) alone or in combination with various dispersants are used to remove asphaltene damage from the near-wellbore region. However, these aromatic solvents are expensive and are not environmentally friendly. The objective of this work was to systematically evaluate the asphaltene-solvating power of various non conventional solvents, including deasphalted oil, using a light-scattering technique. Experimental results suggest that deasphalted oil is a strong asphaltene solvent presumably because of its native resin and aromatic contents. Addition of asphaltene dispersants also increases the solubilizing power of the deasphalted oil. Furthermore, various refinery and heavy oil upgrader streams show strong ability to solubilize asphaltenes.

  12. Deasphalted oil: A natural asphaltene solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Jamaluddin, A.K.M.; Nazarko, T.W.; Sills, S.; Fuhr, B.J.

    1996-08-01

    Asphaltene deposition in the near-wellbore region can block pore throats, change wettability characteristics and relative-permeability relationships, and therefore, reduce oil production. Conventional aromatic solvents (e.g., toluene and xylene) alone or in combination with various dispersants are used to remove asphaltene damage from the near-wellbore region. However, these aromatic solvents are expensive and are not environmentally friendly. The objective of this work was to systematically evaluate the asphaltene-solvating power of various nonconventional solvents, including deasphalted oil, using a light-scattering technique. Experimental results suggest that deasphalted oil is a strong asphaltene solvent presumably because of its native resin and aromatic contents. Addition of asphaltene dispersants also increases the solubilizing power of the deasphalted oil. Furthermore, various refinery and heavy oil upgrader streams show strong ability to solubilize asphaltenes.

  13. Solvent exposures in screen printing shops.

    PubMed

    Horstman, S W; Browning, S R; Szeluga, R; Burzycki, J; Stebbins, A

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive description of working conditions, exposure patterns for organic solvents, and related health symptoms among workers in ten small screen printing companies located in Seattle, Washington, is presented. Sampling methods included continuous area monitoring, grab sampling, personal sampling, and time study observation. A total of 27 workers were observed and monitored for solvent exposure. Short-term peak exposures were characterized in terms of magnitude, duration and repetition, and their contribution to time weighted average (TWA) exposures were evaluated. A health questionnaire addressing the symptoms potentially attributable to solvents was used to investigate the possible health effects from exposure. Significant differences in the prevalence of headaches, dizziness, intoxication, and dry skin (p < 0.01) were reported among workers who had some solvent exposure compared with the referent group that was not exposed. Exposed workers were also more likely to report fatigue, loss of strength in the arms and hands, difficulty concentrating, sore throat, and a low alcohol tolerance. The study documented highly variable levels of solvent exposures. Screen printing workers in different companies, while performing the same basic tasks, had time weighted average (TWA) exposures ranging from 2% to 100% of the recommended threshold limit value (TLV) for mixtures. Continuous monitoring indicated that high short-term exposures are responsible for the bulk of TWA exposures. Grab samples and continuous monitoring verified that recommended Short Term Exposure Limits (STEL) for individual solvents may be exceeded on a routine basis. Frequent skin contact with solvents was also observed. Health problems in this industry and other small industries using organic solvents may result from these complex patterns of exposure. PMID:11759907

  14. Water as a Solvent for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Pratt, Lawrence R.

    2015-01-01

    "Follow the water" is our basic strategy in searching for life in the universe. The universality of water as the solvent for living systems is usually justified by arguing that water supports the rich organic chemistry that seeds life, but alternative chemistries are possible in other organic solvents. Here, other, essential criteria for life that have not been sufficiently considered so far, will be discussed.

  15. Method of stripping metals from organic solvents

    DOEpatents

    Todd, Terry A.; Law, Jack D.; Herbst, R. Scott; Romanovskiy, Valeriy N.; Smirnov, Igor V.; Babain, Vasily A.; Esimantovski, Vyatcheslav M.

    2009-02-24

    A new method to strip metals from organic solvents in a manner that allows for the recycle of the stripping agent. The method utilizes carbonate solutions of organic amines with complexants, in low concentrations, to strip metals from organic solvents. The method allows for the distillation and reuse of organic amines. The concentrated metal/complexant fraction from distillation is more amenable to immobilization than solutions resulting from current practice.

  16. Biofiltration of solvent vapors from air

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Young-sook.

    1993-01-01

    For various industrial solvent vapors, biofiltration promises to offer a cost-effective emission control technology. Exploiting the full potential of this technology will help attain the goals of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Concentrating on large volumes of volatile industrial solvents, stable multicomponent microbial enrichments capable of growing a mineral medium with solvent vapors as their only source of carbon and energy were obtained from soil and sewage sludge. These consortia were immobilized on an optimized porous solid support (ground peat moss and perlite). The biofilter material was packed in glass columns connected to an array of pumps and flow meters that allowed the independent variation of superficial velocity and solvent vapor concentrations. In various experiments, single solvents, such as methanol, butanol, acetonitrile, hexane and nitrobenzene, and solvent mixtures, such as benzene-toluene-xylene (BTX) and chlorobenzene-o-dichlorobenzene (CB/DCB) were biofiltered with rates ranging from 15 to334 g solvent removed per m[sup 3] filter volume /h. Pressure drops were low to moderate (0-10 mmHg/m) and with periodic replacement of moisture, the biofiltration activity could be maintained for a period of several months. The experimental data on methanol biofiltration were subjected to mathematical analysis and modeling by the group of Dr. Baltzis at NJIT for a better understanding and a possible scale up of solvent vapor biofilters. In the case of chlorobenzenes and nitrobenzene, the biofilter columns had to be operated with water recirculation in a trickling filter mode. To prevent inactivation of the trickling filter by acidity during CB/DCB removal, pH control was necessary, and the removal rate of CB/DCB was strongly influenced by the flow rate of the recyling water. Nitrobenzene removal in a trickling filter did not require pH control, since the nitro group was reduced and volatilized as ammonia.

  17. Process for solvent refining of coal using a denitrogenated and dephenolated solvent

    DOEpatents

    Garg, Diwakar; Givens, Edwin N.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1984-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the solvent refining of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures and pressure in a hydrogen atmosphere using a hydrocarbon solvent which before being recycled in the solvent refining process is subjected to chemical treatment to extract substantially all nitrogenous and phenolic constituents from the solvent so as to improve the conversion of coal and the production of oil in the solvent refining process. The solvent refining process can be either thermal or catalytic. The extraction of nitrogenous compounds can be performed by acid contact such as hydrogen chloride or fluoride treatment, while phenolic extraction can be performed by caustic contact or contact with a mixture of silica and alumina.

  18. The Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

  19. Solvent dependent photophysical properties of dimethoxy curcumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barik, Atanu; Indira Priyadarsini, K.

    2013-03-01

    Dimethoxy curcumin (DMC) is a methylated derivative of curcumin. In order to know the effect of ring substitution on photophysical properties of curcumin, steady state absorption and fluorescence spectra of DMC were recorded in organic solvents with different polarity and compared with those of curcumin. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of DMC, like curcumin, are strongly dependent on solvent polarity and the maxima of DMC showed red shift with increase in solvent polarity function (Δf), but the above effect is prominently observed in case of fluorescence maxima. From the dependence of Stokes' shift on solvent polarity function the difference between the excited state and ground state dipole moment was estimated as 4.9 D. Fluorescence quantum yield (ϕf) and fluorescence lifetime (τf) of DMC were also measured in different solvents at room temperature. The results indicated that with increasing solvent polarity, ϕf increased linearly, which has been accounted for the decrease in non-radiative rate by intersystem crossing (ISC) processes.

  20. Solvent dependent photophysical properties of dimethoxy curcumin.

    PubMed

    Barik, Atanu; Indira Priyadarsini, K

    2013-03-15

    Dimethoxy curcumin (DMC) is a methylated derivative of curcumin. In order to know the effect of ring substitution on photophysical properties of curcumin, steady state absorption and fluorescence spectra of DMC were recorded in organic solvents with different polarity and compared with those of curcumin. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of DMC, like curcumin, are strongly dependent on solvent polarity and the maxima of DMC showed red shift with increase in solvent polarity function (Δf), but the above effect is prominently observed in case of fluorescence maxima. From the dependence of Stokes' shift on solvent polarity function the difference between the excited state and ground state dipole moment was estimated as 4.9 D. Fluorescence quantum yield (φ(f)) and fluorescence lifetime (τ(f)) of DMC were also measured in different solvents at room temperature. The results indicated that with increasing solvent polarity, φ(f) increased linearly, which has been accounted for the decrease in non-radiative rate by intersystem crossing (ISC) processes. PMID:23314392

  1. Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange in Radiochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarnemark, G.

    In 1805, Bucholz extracted uranium from a nitric acid solution into ether and back-extracted it into pure water. This is probably the first reported solvent-extraction investigation. During the following decades, the distribution of neutral compounds between aqueous phases and pure solvents was studied, e.g., by Peligot, Berthelot and Jungfleisch, and Nernst. Selective extractants for analytical purposes became available during the first decades of the twentieth century. From about 1940, extractants such as organophosphorous esters and amines were developed for use in the nuclear fuel cycle. This connection between radiochemistry and solvent-extraction chemistry made radiochemists heavily involved in the development of new solvent extraction processes, and eventually solvent extraction became a major separation technique in radiochemistry. About 160 years ago, Thompson and Way observed that soil can remove potassium and ammonium ions from an aqueous solution and release calcium ions. This is probably the first scientific report on an ion-exchange separation. The first synthesis of the type of organic ion exchangers that are used today was performed by Adams and Holmes in 1935. Since then, ion-exchange techniques have been used extensively for separations of various radionuclides in trace as well as macro amounts. During the last 4 decades, inorganic ion exchangers have also found a variety of applications. Today, solvent extraction as well as ion exchange are used extensively in the nuclear industry and for nuclear, chemical, and medical research. Some of these applications are discussed in the chapter.

  2. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Chemical and Physical Properties of the Optimized Solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Delmau, L.H.

    2002-10-08

    This work was undertaken to optimize the solvent used in the Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process and to measure key chemical and physical properties related to its performance in the removal of cesium from the alkaline high-level salt waste stored in tanks at the Savannah River Site. The need to adjust the solvent composition arose from the prior discovery that the previous baseline solvent was supersaturated with respect to the calixarene extractant. The following solvent-component concentrations in Isopar{reg_sign} L diluent are recommended: 0.007 M calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) extractant, 0.75 M 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol (Cs-7SB) phase modifier, and 0.003 M tri-n-octylamine (TOA) stripping aid. Criteria for this selection included BOBCalixC6 solubility, batch cesium distribution ratios (D{sub Cs}), calculated flowsheet robustness, third-phase formation, coalescence rate (dispersion numbers), and solvent density. Although minor compromises within acceptable limits were made in flowsheet robustness and solvent density, significant benefits were gained in lower risk of third-phase formation and lower solvent cost. Data are also reported for the optimized solvent regarding the temperature dependence of D{sub Cs} in extraction, scrubbing, and stripping (ESS); ESS performance on recycle; partitioning of BOBCalixC6, Cs-7SB, and TOA to aqueous process solutions; partitioning of organic anions; distribution of metals; solvent phase separation at low temperatures; solvent stability to elevated temperatures; and solvent density and viscosity. Overall, the technical risk of the CSSX process has been reduced by resolving previously identified issues and raising no new issues.

  3. ACCELERATION RESPONSIVE SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Chabrek, A.F.; Maxwell, R.L.

    1963-07-01

    An acceleration-responsive device with dual channel capabilities whereby a first circuit is actuated upon attainment of a predetermined maximum acceleration level and when the acceleration drops to a predetermined minimum acceleriltion level another circuit is actuated is described. A fluid-damped sensing mass slidably mounted in a relatively frictionless manner on a shaft through the intermediation of a ball bushing and biased by an adjustable compression spring provides inertially operated means for actuating the circuits. (AEC)

  4. Space Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This training video, presented by the Lewis Research Center's Space Experiments Division, gives a background and detailed instructions for preparing the space acceleration measurement system (SAMS) for use. The SAMS measures, conditions, and records forces of low gravity accelerations, and is used to determine the effect of these forces on various experiments performed in microgravity. Inertial sensors are used to measure positive and negative acceleration over a specified frequency range. The video documents the SAMS' uses in different configurations during shuttle missions.

  5. Wake field accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1986-02-01

    In a wake field accelerator a high current driving bunch injected into a structure or plasma produces intense induced fields, which are in turn used to accelerate a trailing charge or bunch. The basic concepts of wake field acceleration are described. Wake potentials for closed cavities and periodic structures are derived, as are wake potentials on a collinear path with a charge distribution. Cylindrically symmetric structures excited by a beam in the form of a ring are considered. (LEW)

  6. Accelerating into the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Cherry

    2009-05-01

    Accelerator science has traditionally been associated with high-energy physics and nuclear physics. But the use of accelerators in other areas of science, as well as in medicine and industry, is steadily growing. Accelerators are now, for example, used to treat cancer using proton therapy, which can deposit radiation onto a tumour while causing much less damage to surrounding healthy tissue than with other treatment techniques.

  7. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, J.S.; Sheffield, R.L.

    1985-05-20

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radiofrequency-powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  8. Optically pulsed electron accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Fraser, John S.; Sheffield, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    An optically pulsed electron accelerator can be used as an injector for a free electron laser and comprises a pulsed light source, such as a laser, for providing discrete incident light pulses. A photoemissive electron source emits electron bursts having the same duration as the incident light pulses when impinged upon by same. The photoemissive electron source is located on an inside wall of a radio frequency powered accelerator cell which accelerates the electron burst emitted by the photoemissive electron source.

  9. Miniaturization Techniques for Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, James E.

    2003-05-27

    The possibility of laser driven accelerators [1] suggests the need for new structures based on micromachining and integrated circuit technology because of the comparable scales. Thus, we are exploring fully integrated structures including sources, optics (for both light and particle) and acceleration in a common format--an accelerator-on-chip (AOC). Tests suggest a number of preferred materials and techniques but no technical or fundamental roadblocks at scales of order 1 {micro}m or larger.

  10. Particle acceleration in flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, Arnold O.; Kosugi, Takeo; Aschwanden, Markus J.; Benka, Steve G.; Chupp, Edward L.; Enome, Shinzo; Garcia, Howard; Holman, Gordon D.; Kurt, Victoria G.; Sakao, Taro

    1994-01-01

    Particle acceleration is intrinsic to the primary energy release in the impulsive phase of solar flares, and we cannot understand flares without understanding acceleration. New observations in soft and hard X-rays, gamma-rays and coherent radio emissions are presented, suggesting flare fragmentation in time and space. X-ray and radio measurements exhibit at least five different time scales in flares. In addition, some new observations of delayed acceleration signatures are also presented. The theory of acceleration by parallel electric fields is used to model the spectral shape and evolution of hard X-rays. The possibility of the appearance of double layers is further investigated.

  11. Charged particle accelerator grating

    DOEpatents

    Palmer, Robert B.

    1986-09-02

    A readily disposable and replaceable accelerator grating for a relativistic particle accelerator. The grating is formed for a plurality of liquid droplets that are directed in precisely positioned jet streams to periodically dispose rows of droplets along the borders of a predetermined particle beam path. A plurality of lasers are used to direct laser beams into the droplets, at predetermined angles, thereby to excite the droplets to support electromagnetic accelerating resonances on their surfaces. Those resonances operate to accelerate and focus particles moving along the beam path. As the droplets are distorted or destroyed by the incoming radiation, they are replaced at a predetermined frequency by other droplets supplied through the jet streams.

  12. Accelerator-based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Kreiner, A J; Baldo, M; Bergueiro, J R; Cartelli, D; Castell, W; Thatar Vento, V; Gomez Asoia, J; Mercuri, D; Padulo, J; Suarez Sandin, J C; Erhardt, J; Kesque, J M; Valda, A A; Debray, M E; Somacal, H R; Igarzabal, M; Minsky, D M; Herrera, M S; Capoulat, M E; Gonzalez, S J; del Grosso, M F; Gagetti, L; Suarez Anzorena, M; Gun, M; Carranza, O

    2014-06-01

    The activity in accelerator development for accelerator-based BNCT (AB-BNCT) both worldwide and in Argentina is described. Projects in Russia, UK, Italy, Japan, Israel, and Argentina to develop AB-BNCT around different types of accelerators are briefly presented. In particular, the present status and recent progress of the Argentine project will be reviewed. The topics will cover: intense ion sources, accelerator tubes, transport of intense beams, beam diagnostics, the (9)Be(d,n) reaction as a possible neutron source, Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), a treatment room, and treatment planning in realistic cases. PMID:24365468

  13. Influence of solute-solvent coordination on the orientational relaxation of ion assemblies in polar solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Minbiao; Hartsock, Robert W.; Sung, Zheng; Gaffney, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the rotational dynamics of lithium thiocyanate (LiNCS) dissolved in various polar solvents with time and polarization resolved vibrational spectroscopy. LiNCS forms multiple distinct ionic structures in solution that can be distinguished with the CN stretch vibrational frequency of the different ionic assemblies. By varying the solvent and the LiNCS concentration, the number and type of ionic structures present in solution can be controlled. Control of the ionic structure provides control over the volume, shape, and dipole moment of the solute, critical parameters for hydrodynamic and dielectric continuum models of friction. The use of solutes with sizes comparable to or smaller than the solvent molecules also helps amplify the sensitivity of the measurement to the short-ranged solute-solvent interaction. The measured orientational relaxation dynamics show many clear and distinct deviations from simple hydrodynamic behavior. All ionic structures in all solvents exhibit multi-exponential relaxation dynamics that do not scale with the solute volume. For Lewis base solvents such as benzonitrile, dimethyl carbonate, and ethyl acetate, the observed dynamics strongly show the effect of solute-solvent complex formation. For the weak Lewis base solvent nitromethane, we see no evidence for solute-solvent complex formation, but still see strong deviation from the predictions of simple hydrodynamic theory.

  14. Phase separation phenomena of polysulfone/solvent/organic nonsolvent and polyethersulfone/solvent/organic nonsolvent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dongliang; Li, K.; Sourirajan, S.; Teo, W.K. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-12-10

    The precipitation values (PVs) of several organic nonsolvents in polysulfone (PSf)/solvent and polyethersulfone (PESf)/solvent systems were measured in temperatures ranging from 10 to 80 C by the direct titration method and compared with those of water in the same systems. The solvents used were N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAC); the organic nonsolvents employed were methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol as well as acetic acid and propionic acid. The compositions of nonsolvent, polymer, and solvent at the precipitation points for different polymer concentrations up to 10 wt% were also determined at 30 C with respect to both the polymers and six nonsolvents presented. These results were used to obtain the polymer precipitation curves in the polymer-solvent-nonsolvent triangular phase diagrams and to determine the theta composition of solvent-nonsolvent triangular phase diagrams and to determine the theta composition of solvent-nonsolvent for a polymer. The effect of temperature on the precipitation value was observed to be dramatically different for different polymer/solvent/nonsolvent systems. These results were explained on the basis of polar and nonpolar interactions of the polymer, solvent, and nonsolvent system.

  15. CHEMICAL STABILITY OF POLYPHENYLENE SULFIDE IN THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT FOR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-12-08

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. For simplicity, this solvent is referred to as the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The initial deployment target envisioned for the technology was within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), the polymer used in the coalescers within MCU. This report provides the data from exposing PPS polymer to NGS. The test was conducted over a three month period. PPS is remarkably stable in the presence of the next generation solvent. Testing showed no indication of swelling or significant leaching. Preferential sorption of the Modifier on PPS was observed but the same behavior occurs with the baseline solvent. Therefore, PPS coalescers exposed to the NGS are expected to perform comparably to those in contact with the baseline solvent.

  16. Acceleration of polarized protons in circular accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.

    1980-09-12

    The theory of depolarization in circular accelerators is presented. The spin equation is first expressed in terms of the particle orbit and then converted to the equivalent spinor equation. The spinor equation is then solved for three different situations: (1) a beam on a flat top near a resonance, (2) uniform acceleration through an isolated resonance, and (3) a model of a fast resonance jump. Finally, the depolarization coefficient, epsilon, is calculated in terms of properties of the particle orbit and the results are applied to a calculation of depolarization in the AGS.

  17. Biotechnology for the acceleration of carbon dioxide capture and sequestration.

    PubMed

    Savile, Christopher K; Lalonde, James J

    2011-12-01

    The potential for enzymatic acceleration of carbon dioxide capture from combustion products of fossil fuels has been demonstrated. Carbonic anhydrase (CA) accelerates post combustion CO(2) capture, but available CAs are woefully inadequate for the harsh conditions employed in most of these processes. In this review, we summarize recent approaches to improve CA, and processes employing this enzyme, to maximize the benefit from this extremely fast biocatalyst. Approaches to overcoming limitations include sourcing CAs from thermophilic organisms, using protein engineering to evolve thermo-tolerant enzymes, immobilizing the enzyme for stabilization and confinement to cooler regions and process modifications that minimize the (thermo-, solvent) stress on the enzyme. PMID:21737251

  18. Detailed design optimization of the MITICA negative ion accelerator in view of the ITER NBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Antoni, V.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; de Esch, H. P. L.; De Lorenzi, A.; Fonnesu, N.; Gambetta, G.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Kashiwagi, M.; Marconato, N.; Marcuzzi, D.; Pilan, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Singh, M.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Toigo, V.; Veltri, P.; Zaccaria, P.

    2016-01-01

    The ITER Neutral Beam Test Facility (PRIMA) is presently under construction at Consorzio RFX (Padova, Italy). PRIMA includes two experimental devices: an ITER-size ion source with low voltage extraction, called SPIDER, and the full prototype of the whole ITER Heating Neutral Beams (HNBs), called MITICA. The purpose of MITICA is to demonstrate that all operational parameters of the ITER HNB accelerator can be experimentally achieved, thus establishing a large step forward in the performances of neutral beam injectors in comparison with the present experimental devices. The design of the MITICA extractor and accelerator grids, here described in detail, was developed using an integrated approach, taking into consideration at the same time all the relevant physics and engineering aspects. Particular care was taken also to support and validate the design on the basis of the expertise and experimental data made available by the collaborating neutral beam laboratories of CEA, IPP, CCFE, NIFS and JAEA. Considering the operational requirements and the other physics constraints of the ITER HNBs, the whole design has been thoroughly optimized and improved. Furthermore, specific innovative concepts have been introduced.

  19. Extraction of intense beams from ECR ion sources and electrostatic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavenago, M.; Galata, A.

    2005-10-01

    High-space charge effects and problems related to beam transport are discussed in the context of an electron cyclotron-resonance ion sources extraction and pre-acceleration low emittance line (which works as the injector of a new superconducting Radio Frequency Quadruple (RFQ) under commissioning at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL)) at several values of the extracted beam current. In the extractor, both the cases of short-range magnetic fringe field (virtual source approximation) and large-range fringe field are simulated. Analytical expression of ion flow and plasma sheaths are easily incorporated in the charged fluid approach and in numerical modeling with three-dimensional simulation programs, which can treat several coupled field variables and lower space dimension (known as multiphysics codes). Advantages of flexibility and of representation of finer details are remarked. Effects of plasma potential and extraction hole thickness (0.5 mm) on the plasma meniscus can be resolved, even in the context of a simulation including 1 m long objects. An example of beam injection into an acceleration tube is also given, results are consistent with the tube-design goals and with the experimentally observed parameters.

  20. Scaling FFAG accelerator for muon acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrange, JB.; Planche, T.; Mori, Y.

    2011-10-06

    Recent developments in scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerators have opened new ways for lattice design, with straight sections, and insertions like dispersion suppressors. Such principles and matching issues are detailed in this paper. An application of these new concepts is presented to overcome problems in the PRISM project.

  1. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  2. Accelerators (4/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  3. J-PARC Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Yoshishige

    2008-02-21

    The Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) is under construction in Tokai site. The linac beam commissioning started last fall, while the beam commissioning of the 3-GeV Rapid-Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) will start this fall. The status of the J-PARC accelerator is reported with emphasis on the technical development accomplished for the J-PARC.

  4. Particle Acceleration in Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi

    2005-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., active galactic nuclei (AGNs), gamma ray burst (GRBs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Fermi acceleration is the mechanism usually assumed for the acceleration of particles in astrophysical environments.

  5. Diagnostics for induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The induction accelerator was conceived by N. C. Christofilos and first realized as the Astron accelerator that operated at LLNL from the early 1960`s to the end of 1975. This accelerator generated electron beams at energies near 6 MeV with typical currents of 600 Amperes in 400 ns pulses. The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) built at Livermore`s Site 300 produced 10,000 Ampere beams with pulse widths of 70 ns at energies approaching 50 MeV. Several other electron and ion induction accelerators have been fabricated at LLNL and LBNL. This paper reviews the principal diagnostics developed through efforts by scientists at both laboratories for measuring the current, position, energy, and emittance of beams generated by these high current, short pulse accelerators. Many of these diagnostics are closely related to those developed for other accelerators. However, the very fast and intense current pulses often require special diagnostic techniques and considerations. The physics and design of the more unique diagnostics developed for electron induction accelerators are presented and discussed in detail.

  6. Accelerators Beyond The Tevatron?

    SciTech Connect

    Lach, Joseph

    2010-07-01

    Following the successful operation of the Fermilab superconducting accelerator three new higher energy accelerators were planned. They were the UNK in the Soviet Union, the LHC in Europe, and the SSC in the United States. All were expected to start producing physics about 1995. They did not. Why?

  7. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  8. KEK digital accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, T.; Adachi, T.; Takayama, K.; Leo, K. W.; Arai, T.; Arakida, Y.; Hashimoto, M.; Kadokura, E.; Kawai, M.; Kawakubo, T.; Kubo, Tomio; Koyama, K.; Nakanishi, H.; Okazaki, K.; Okamura, K.; Someya, H.; Takagi, A.; Tokuchi, A.; Wake, M.

    2011-07-01

    The High Energy Accelerator Research Organization KEK digital accelerator (KEK-DA) is a renovation of the KEK 500 MeV booster proton synchrotron, which was shut down in 2006. The existing 40 MeV drift tube linac and rf cavities have been replaced by an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source embedded in a 200 kV high-voltage terminal and induction acceleration cells, respectively. A DA is, in principle, capable of accelerating any species of ion in all possible charge states. The KEK-DA is characterized by specific accelerator components such as a permanent magnet X-band ECR ion source, a low-energy transport line, an electrostatic injection kicker, an extraction septum magnet operated in air, combined-function main magnets, and an induction acceleration system. The induction acceleration method, integrating modern pulse power technology and state-of-art digital control, is crucial for the rapid-cycle KEK-DA. The key issues of beam dynamics associated with low-energy injection of heavy ions are beam loss caused by electron capture and stripping as results of the interaction with residual gas molecules and the closed orbit distortion resulting from relatively high remanent fields in the bending magnets. Attractive applications of this accelerator in materials and biological sciences are discussed.

  9. Accelerators (5/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  10. Accelerating global forest mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    Forest mortality is apparently accelerating globally. The evidence supporting this contention is now substantial, as is the evidence suggesting the acceleration has just begun and will become progressively worse in upcoming decades. I will review the data and models used to make these contentions.

  11. Accelerators (3/5)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    1a) Introduction and motivation 1b) History and accelerator types 2) Transverse beam dynamics 3a) Longitudinal beam dynamics 3b) Figure of merit of a synchrotron/collider 3c) Beam control 4) Main limiting factors 5) Technical challenges Prerequisite knowledge: Previous knowledge of accelerators is not required.

  12. Solvent disperser for removing oil from sponge core

    SciTech Connect

    Di Foggio, R.

    1988-09-20

    This patent describes method for dispersing solvent for use in determining the oil saturation of an earth formation by means of sponge coring, comprising: (a) receiving solvent dripping downwardly, and (b) conducting the received solvent by means of capillary action to an application zone located and dimensioned for passing such solvent to the sponge in a sponge core barrel.

  13. COMPUTER-AIDED SOLVENT DESIGN FOR POLLUTION PREVENTION: PARIS II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solvent substitution is an attractive way of elijminating the use of regulated solvents because it usually does not require major chanages in existing processes, equipment or operations. Successful solvent substitution is dependent on finding solvents that are as effective or be...

  14. Spontaneous vesicle formation in a deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Saffron J; Atkin, Rob; Warr, Gregory G

    2016-02-14

    Solvent penetration experiments and small-angle X-ray scattering reveal that phospholipids dissolved in a deep eutectic solvent (DES) spontaneously self-assemble into vesicles above the lipid chain melting temperature. This means DESs are one of the few nonaqueous solvents that mediate amphiphile self-assembly, joining a select set of H-bonding molecular solvents and ionic liquids. PMID:26701210

  15. Accelerators, Beams And Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators And Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.; /SLAC

    2011-10-24

    Accelerator science and technology have evolved as accelerators became larger and important to a broad range of science. Physical Review Special Topics - Accelerators and Beams was established to serve the accelerator community as a timely, widely circulated, international journal covering the full breadth of accelerators and beams. The history of the journal and the innovations associated with it are reviewed.

  16. Cascaded radiation pressure acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Zhikun; Shen, Baifei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, Xiaomei E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Wang, Wenpeng; Zhang, Lingang; Yi, Longqing; Shi, Yin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-07-15

    A cascaded radiation-pressure acceleration scheme is proposed. When an energetic proton beam is injected into an electrostatic field moving at light speed in a foil accelerated by light pressure, protons can be re-accelerated to much higher energy. An initial 3-GeV proton beam can be re-accelerated to 7 GeV while its energy spread is narrowed significantly, indicating a 4-GeV energy gain for one acceleration stage, as shown in one-dimensional simulations and analytical results. The validity of the method is further confirmed by two-dimensional simulations. This scheme provides a way to scale proton energy at the GeV level linearly with laser energy and is promising to obtain proton bunches at tens of gigaelectron-volts.

  17. Towards ultra-fast solvent evaporation, the development of a computer controlled solvent vapor annealing chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Gunnar; Wong, J.; Drapes, C.; Grant, M.; Baruth, A.

    Despite the promise of cheap and fast nanoscale ordering of block polymer thin films via solvent vapor annealing, a standardized, scalable production scheme remains elusive. Solvent vapor annealing exposes a nano-thin film to the vapors of one or more solvents with the goal of forming a swollen and mobile state to direct the self-assembly process by tuning surface energies and mediating unfavorable chain interactions. We have shown that optimized annealing conditions, where kinetic and thermal properties for crystal growth are extremely fast (<1s), exist at solvent concentrations just below the order-disorder transition of the film. However, when investigating the propagation of a given morphology into the bulk of a film during drying, the role of solvent evaporation comes under great scrutiny. During this process, the film undergoes a competition between two fronts; phase separation and kinetic trapping. Recent results in both theory and experiment point toward this critical element in controlling the resultant morphologies; however, no current method includes a controllable solvent evaporation rate at ultra-fast time scales. We report on a computer-controlled, pneumatically actuated chamber that provides control over solvent evaporation down to 15 ms. Furthermore, in situ spectral reflectance monitors solvent concentration with 10 ms temporal resolution and reveals several possible evaporation trajectories, ranging from linear to exponential to logarithmic. Funded by Dr. Randolph Ferlic Summer Research Scholarship and NASA Nebraska Space Grant.

  18. Changes in psychological performances of solvent-poisoned and solvent-exposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstroem, K.

    1980-01-01

    The changes in psychological performances associated with long-term exposure to organic solvents and solvent mixtures were studied in a group of 56 male workers diagnosed as having an occupational disease caused by solvents. Their mean duration of exposure was 9.1 +/- SD 8.3 years, and they were exposed mainly to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons and to mixtures of paint solvents. The psychological performances of these solvent-exposed patients were compared with those of 98 styrene-exposed workers and a nonexposed group of 43 construction workers. The applied psychological test variables were factor analyzed, before other statistical analysis, in order to clarify what they measured in the present study. The solvent-exposed group was characterized by a decline in visuomotor performance and decreased freedom from distractibility. The poor visuomotor performances were also related to the long duration of solvent exposure in this group of patients. The index applied for the exposure level revealed no significant relationships to psychological performances among the solvent-exposed patients. The psychological performances of the styrene-exposed group differed only very slightly from those of the nonexposed workers.

  19. Advanced accelerator methods: The cyclotrino

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, J.J.; Bertsche, K.J.; Friedman, P.G.; Morris, D.E.; Muller, R.A.

    1987-04-01

    Several new and unusual, advanced techniques in the small cyclotron are described. The cyclotron is run at low energy, using negative ions and at high harmonics. Electrostatic focusing is used exclusively. The ion source and injection system is in the center, which unfortunately does not provide enough current, but the new system design should solve this problem. An electrostatic extractor that runs at low voltage, under 5 kV, and a microchannel plate detector which is able to discriminate low energy ions from the /sup 14/C are used. The resolution is sufficient for /sup 14/C dating and a higher intensity source should allow dating of a milligram size sample of 30,000 year old material with less than 10% uncertainty.

  20. Chlorinated solvent replacements recycle/recovery review report

    SciTech Connect

    Beal, M.; Hsu, D.; McAtee, R.E.; Weidner, J.R.; Berg, L.; McCandless, F.P.; Waltari, S.; Peterson, C.

    1992-08-01

    This report is a literature review of waste solvents recycle/recovery methods and shows the results of solvent separations using membrane and distillation technologies. The experimental solvent recovery methods were conducted on solvent replacements for chlorinated solvents at Montana State University. The literature review covers waste solvents separation using distillation, membranes decantation, filtration, carbon adsorption, solvent extraction, and other vapor-phase separation techniques. The results of this study identify solvent distillation methods as the most common separation technique. The alternative separation methods typically supplement distillation. The study shows the need for industries to identify waste solvent disposal methods and investigate the economics of waste solvent recycling as a possible waste reduction method.

  1. Solvent gating of intramolecular electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.M. ); Spears, K.G.; Gong, J.H.; Wach, M. )

    1994-02-03

    The rates for ionic photodissociation of malachite green leucocyanide to form cyanide ion and a malachite green carbonium ion were measured as a function of solvent and temperature. The observed rates in mixtures of polar and nonpolar solvents all had an activation energy of about 1 kcal/mol for a wide range of dielectric constants. This dissociative intramolecular electron transfer (DIET) is unusual because it is the first example where solvent configurational entropy changes are required to enable a large amplitude molecular distortion leading to a nonadiabatic electron transfer and ionic dissociation. This solvent gated intramolecular electron-transfer mechanism is supported by analysis of the preexponential and activation energy trends in dipolar aprotic solven mixtures and alcohol solvents. The large amplitude motion is not separately measurable due to the slow gating rates, but viscosity effects on both the preexponential and the activation energy are analyzed to demonstrate consistency with a barrierless diffusion model having a structural dependence on electron-transfer rate. The rate has an inverse dependence on viscosity raised to the 0.53 power. 36 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  3. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  4. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

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  5. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  6. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

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    2012-07-01

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  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  9. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for...—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction values in... formulation data. Solvent/solvent blend CAS. No. Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic...

  10. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Rrrr of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  11. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  12. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Oooo of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  13. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  14. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass... manufacturer's formulation data Solvent/solvent blend CAS. No. Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical...

  15. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  16. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Kkkk of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

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  17. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart IIIi of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for... of Part 63—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass... manufacturer's formulation data Solvent/solvent blend CAS. No. Averageorganic HAP mass fraction Typical...

  18. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Nnnn of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

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  19. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

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  20. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Qqqq of... - Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for...—Default Organic HAP Mass Fraction for Solvents and Solvent Blends You may use the mass fraction values in... formulation data. Solvent/solvent blend CAS. No. Average organic HAP mass fraction Typical organic...