Science.gov

Sample records for accelerated storage conditions

  1. From accelerators to storage rings to

    SciTech Connect

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1983-02-01

    This talk gives a general but highly subjective overview of the expectation for accelerators and colliders for high energy physics, but not extended developments of accelerators and storage rings for application to nuclear structure physics, synchrotron radiation, medical applications or industrial use.

  2. Liquid Methane Conditioning Capabilities Developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Small Multi- Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) for Accelerated Lunar Surface Storage Thermal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamberger, Helmut H.; Robinson, R. Craig; Jurns, John M.; Grasl, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Glenn Research Center s Creek Road Cryogenic Complex, Small Multi-Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) recently completed validation / checkout testing of a new liquid methane delivery system and liquid methane (LCH4) conditioning system. Facility checkout validation was conducted in preparation for a series of passive thermal control technology tests planned at SMiRF in FY10 using a flight-like propellant tank at simulated thermal environments from 140 to 350K. These tests will validate models and provide high quality data to support consideration of LCH4/LO2 propellant combination option for a lunar or planetary ascent stage.An infrastructure has been put in place which will support testing of large amounts of liquid methane at SMiRF. Extensive modifications were made to the test facility s existing liquid hydrogen system for compatibility with liquid methane. Also, a new liquid methane fluid conditioning system will enable liquid methane to be quickly densified (sub-cooled below normal boiling point) and to be quickly reheated to saturation conditions between 92 and 140 K. Fluid temperatures can be quickly adjusted to compress the overall test duration. A detailed trade study was conducted to determine an appropriate technique to liquid conditioning with regard to the SMiRF facility s existing infrastructure. In addition, a completely new roadable dewar has been procured for transportation and temporary storage of liquid methane. A new spherical, flight-representative tank has also been fabricated for integration into the vacuum chamber at SMiRF. The addition of this system to SMiRF marks the first time a large-scale liquid methane propellant test capability has been realized at Glenn.This work supports the Cryogenic Fluid Management Project being conducted under the auspices of the Exploration Technology Development Program, providing focused cryogenic fluid management technology efforts to support NASA s future robotic or human exploration missions.

  3. Optimum conditions for adsorptive storage.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Suresh K; Myers, Alan L

    2006-02-14

    The storage of gases in porous adsorbents, such as activated carbon and carbon nanotubes, is examined here thermodynamically from a systems viewpoint, considering the entire adsorption-desorption cycle. The results provide concrete objective criteria to guide the search for the "Holy Grail" adsorbent, for which the adsorptive delivery is maximized. It is shown that, for ambient temperature storage of hydrogen and delivery between 30 and 1.5 bar pressure, for the optimum adsorbent the adsorption enthalpy change is 15.1 kJ/mol. For carbons, for which the average enthalpy change is typically 5.8 kJ/mol, an optimum operating temperature of about 115 K is predicted. For methane, an optimum enthalpy change of 18.8 kJ/mol is found, with the optimum temperature for carbons being 254 K. It is also demonstrated that for maximum delivery of the gas the optimum adsorbent must be homogeneous, and that introduction of heterogeneity, such as by ball milling, irradiation, and other means, can only provide small increases in physisorption-related delivery for hydrogen. For methane, heterogeneity is always detrimental, at any value of average adsorption enthalpy change. These results are confirmed with the help of experimental data from the literature, as well as extensive Monte Carlo simulations conducted here using slit pore models of activated carbons as well as atomistic models of carbon nanotubes. The simulations also demonstrate that carbon nanotubes offer little or no advantage over activated carbons in terms of enhanced delivery, when used as storage media for either hydrogen or methane. PMID:16460092

  4. Fabrication of the APS Storage Ring radio frequency accelerating cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Primdahl, K.; Bridges, J.; DePaola, F.; Kustom, R.; Snee, D.

    1993-07-01

    Specification, heat treatment, strength, and fatigue life of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) Storage Ring 352-MHz radio frequency (RF) accelerating cavity copper is discussed. Heat transfer studies, including finite element analysis, and configuration of water cooling is described. Requirements for and techniques of machining are considered. Braze and electron beam joint designs are compared. Vacuum considerations during fabrication are discussed.

  5. Cable aging phenomena under accelerated aging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Behera, A.K.; Beck, C.E.; Alsammarae, A.

    1996-06-01

    A test program was conducted to determine the impact of accelerated (temperature and radiation) aging on the insulation of power cables. The intent was to develop a more realistic model for cable degradation mechanisms, and a more realistic technique for determining a cable`s qualified life. Samples of new cables and samples of cables obtained from an operating plant were subjected to a series of tests. The test showed that the order of imposing the harsh conditions, the presence of oxygen, and the use of a compressive measurement technique each had a significant impact on the results. This paper discusses the test methodology and test samples, the order of imposing artificial aging, and the results. Also presented are issues planned to be addressed in future testing.

  6. 7 CFR 51.1268 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1268 Section 51... Storage Or Transit § 51.1268 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald, or other deterioration which may have developed on pears after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered...

  7. Accelerated glass reaction under PCT conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Bradley, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Static leach tests similar to PCT (Product Consistency Test) were performed for up to 2 years to assess long-term reaction behavior of high-level nuclear waste glasses similar to those at Defense Waste Processing Facility. These tests show the reaction rate to decrease with the reaction time from an initially high rate to a low rate, but then to accelerate to a higher rate after reaction times of about 1 year, depending on glass surface area/leachant volume ratio used. Solution concentrations of soluble glass components increase as the reaction is accelerated, while release of other glass components into solution is controlled by secondary phases. Net result is that transformation of glass to stable phases is accelerated while the solution becomes enriched in soluble components not effectively contained in secondary phases. Rate becomes linear in time after the acceleration and may be similar to the initial forward rate. A current model of glass reaction predicts that the glass reaction will be accelerated upon the formation of secondary phases which lower the silicic acid solution concentration. These tests show total Si concentration to increase upon reaction acceleration, however, which may be due to the slightly higher pH attained with the acceleration. The sudden change in the reaction rate is likely due to secondary phase formation. 17 refs, 2 tabs, 3 figs.

  8. Accelerated glass reaction under PCT conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Bradley, C.R.

    1992-12-31

    Static leach tests similar to PCT (Product Consistency Test) were performed for up to 2 years to assess long-term reaction behavior of high-level nuclear waste glasses similar to those at Defense Waste Processing Facility. These tests show the reaction rate to decrease with the reaction time from an initially high rate to a low rate, but then to accelerate to a higher rate after reaction times of about 1 year, depending on glass surface area/leachant volume ratio used. Solution concentrations of soluble glass components increase as the reaction is accelerated, while release of other glass components into solution is controlled by secondary phases. Net result is that transformation of glass to stable phases is accelerated while the solution becomes enriched in soluble components not effectively contained in secondary phases. Rate becomes linear in time after the acceleration and may be similar to the initial forward rate. A current model of glass reaction predicts that the glass reaction will be accelerated upon the formation of secondary phases which lower the silicic acid solution concentration. These tests show total Si concentration to increase upon reaction acceleration, however, which may be due to the slightly higher pH attained with the acceleration. The sudden change in the reaction rate is likely due to secondary phase formation. 17 refs, 2 tabs, 3 figs.

  9. 7 CFR 51.309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.309... apples after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered as affecting condition and not...

  10. 7 CFR 51.309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.309... apples after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered as affecting condition and not...

  11. 7 CFR 51.309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.309... apples after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered as affecting condition and not...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1309 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald or other deterioration which may have developed on pears...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1268 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1268 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1268 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald, or other deterioration which may have developed on...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1268 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1268 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1268 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald, or other deterioration which may have developed on...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1309 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald or other deterioration which may have developed on pears...

  16. Acceleration of terrestrial water storage changes from GRACE data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, R.; Chao, B. F.; Heki, K.

    2008-12-01

    Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite has been producing scientific results on mass variations since its launch in 2002, particularly land water storage on seasonal and inter-annual timescales as the soil moisture reflects the time integration of fluxes of precipitation, evapo-transpiration and runoff. For example, in Amazon Basin (e.g. Tapley et al., 2004), Alaska glacial melting (e.g. Tamisiea et al., 2005), ENSO precipitation anomalies (Morishita and Heki, 2008), and seasonal land water storage with global hydrological model (Syed et al., 2008). If climate changes have trends of time scale longer than inter-annual, we can expect to see quadratic trends in land water time series now that over six years have passed since GRACE"fs launch and the time span is becoming long enough to study such trends, which signify the temporal acceleration in gravity, and hence climatic, changes. To look for such accelerations, we compute time series of equivalent water thicknesses in global land regions from monthly GRACE data of gravity anomaly, and model the changes with quadratic functions in addition to seasonal components. We repeat similar calculations for the GLDAS global hydrological model data as well. We found that the geographic distribution of the quadratic trends shows good agreement between GRACE and GLDAS, prominent in East Africa, East Europe, Ural Mountains, eastern North America and southern South America. Amplitudes of the signals are generally larger in GRACE than the corresponding GLDAS model. We also compare and verify such acceleration terms with trends in meteorological data of precipitation and evapo-transpiration.

  17. 7 CFR 51.1309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1309 Section 51... Or Transit § 51.1309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald or other deterioration which may have developed on pears after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered...

  18. Can hydromorphic conditions accelerate soil development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringer, Marianna; Kiss, Klaudia; Horváth-Szabó, Kata; Réka Balázs, Brigitta; Németh, Tibor; Sipos, Péter; Szabó, Máté; Jakab, Gergely; Madarász, Balázs; Szalai, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    The formation and development of waterlogged (hydromorphic) soils are primarily determined by long-term water saturation. The presence of water in the profile can result increasing speed of soil forming processes including the accumulation of organic matter or other components and mineralogical transformations. Original papers refer more than hundreds of years for this kinds of mineral transformations. We suppose that this process could be more rapid. This study focuses on the mineralogical investigation of a sandy meadow soil (calcic, gleyic Phaeozem ferric, arenic) located in a swampy area in Central Hungary. The starting time of the soil formation is a well documented fact: the parent material deposited during an extremely heavy flood event in the 1960s. Therefore, the studied soil profile is the result of the last half century. Our aim was to explore the degree of mineral phase alteration via soil formation during a half-century under hydromorphic conditions. Routine laboratory measurements (selective dissolution methods for the determination of amorphous and crystalline Fe, and Mn content, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy measurements for elemental composition determination, X-ray powder diffraction for mineralogical composition, and particle sizing by laser diffraction) were implemented. Morphological and chemical study of carbonate and iron nodules was carried out by electron microprobe. Simple chemical tests (eg. Fe2+ indication by dipiridil test) and morphological observations were performed on the field. Redox potential (Eh) and pH were measured in 20 cm and 40 cm depths by field monitoring station during the vegetation period. Results show that well developed horizons have emerged during fifty years in the studied soil profile. The most intense mineralogical transformations developed in the zone of the heaviest redox oscillation. Soil formation under hydromorphic conditions proceeds at higher speeds contrariwise to the century time scale reported in

  19. Ice storage systems spark air conditioning savings

    SciTech Connect

    Kohlenberger, C.R.

    1981-03-01

    Thermal storage systems similar to giant storage batteries are explained by means of storing energy (either hot or cold) during these off-peak times for use at the more convenient time when the actual load is impressed on to the system. This load shifting, of course, does not actually save energy. It merely shifts the load to a time when the electric utility can more conveniently handle that load. In fact, more actual KW hours may be utilized by this shift, but with the resulting cost to the consumer being reduced. System concepts are described and energy cost comparisons are made. Various methods of ice making systems are presented and analyzed.

  20. Comparison of the conditioning of high gradient accelerating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Wuensch, Walter; Giner Navarro, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MV /m , at very low breakdown rates, have been successfully achieved in numerous prototype CLIC accelerating structures. The conditioning and operational histories of several structures, tested at KEK and CERN, have been compared and there is clear evidence that the conditioning progresses with the number of rf pulses and not with the number of breakdowns. This observation opens the possibility that the optimum conditioning strategy, which minimizes the total number of breakdowns the structure is subject to without increasing conditioning time, may be to never exceed the breakdown rate target for operation. The result is also likely to have a strong impact on efforts to understand the physical mechanism underlying conditioning and may lead to preparation procedures which reduce conditioning time.

  1. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  2. 7 CFR 51.309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Condition After... which may have developed on apples after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered...

  3. 7 CFR 51.309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Condition After... which may have developed on apples after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered...

  4. Application of permanent magnets in accelerators and electron storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Halbach, K.

    1984-09-01

    After an explanation of the general circumstances in which the use of permanent magnets in accelerators is desirable, a number of specific magnets will be discussed. That discussion includes magnets needed for the operation of accelerators as well as magnets that are employed for the utilization of charged particle beams, such as the production of synchrotron radiation. 15 references, 8 figures.

  5. An adaptive cryptographic accelerator for network storage security on dynamically reconfigurable platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Li; Liu, Jing-Ning; Feng, Dan; Tong, Wei

    2008-12-01

    Existing security solutions in network storage environment perform poorly because cryptographic operations (encryption and decryption) implemented in software can dramatically reduce system performance. In this paper we propose a cryptographic hardware accelerator on dynamically reconfigurable platform for the security of high performance network storage system. We employ a dynamic reconfigurable platform based on a FPGA to implement a PowerPCbased embedded system, which executes cryptographic algorithms. To reduce the reconfiguration latency, we apply prefetch scheduling. Moreover, the processing elements could be dynamically configured to support different cryptographic algorithms according to the request received by the accelerator. In the experiment, we have implemented AES (Rijndael) and 3DES cryptographic algorithms in the reconfigurable accelerator. Our proposed reconfigurable cryptographic accelerator could dramatically increase the performance comparing with the traditional software-based network storage systems.

  6. Stability of lysozyme in aqueous extremolyte solutions during heat shock and accelerated thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Avanti, Christina; Saluja, Vinay; van Streun, Erwin L P; Frijlink, Henderik W; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of lysozyme in aqueous solutions in the presence of various extremolytes (betaine, hydroxyectoine, trehalose, ectoine, and firoin) under different stress conditions. The stability of lysozyme was determined by Nile red Fluorescence Spectroscopy and a bioactivity assay. During heat shock (10 min at 70°C), betaine, trehalose, ectoin and firoin protected lysozyme against inactivation while hydroxyectoine, did not have a significant effect. During accelerated thermal conditions (4 weeks at 55°C), firoin also acted as a stabilizer. In contrast, betaine, hydroxyectoine, trehalose and ectoine destabilized lysozyme under this condition. These findings surprisingly indicate that some extremolytes can stabilize a protein under certain stress conditions but destabilize the same protein under other stress conditions. Therefore it is suggested that for the screening extremolytes to be used for protein stabilization, an appropriate storage conditions should also be taken into account. PMID:24465983

  7. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  8. Variation of nephrotoxicity biomarkers by urinary storage condition in rats.

    PubMed

    Le, Jung-Min; Han, Young-Hwan; Choi, Su-Jeong; Park, Ju-Seong; Jang, Jeong-Jun; Bae, Re-Ji-Na; Lee, Mi Ju; Kim, Myoung Jun; Lee, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Duyeol; Lee, Hye-Young; Park, Sun-Hee; Park, Cheol-Beom; Kang, Jin Seok; Kang, Jong-Koo

    2014-12-01

    Recently, there has been an increase in the use of several nephrotoxicity biomarkers in preclinical experiments. In addition, it has been indicated that the result may have been influenced by secondary factors, such as sample storage condition or storage period. In this study, we have assessed the variation in urinary nephrotoxicity biomarkers as a result of urine storage conditions and storage period of the urine. Urine was sampled from specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats (19 weeks old), which were housed individually in hanged stainless steel wire mesh cages. Urine was stored at 20℃, at 4℃, or at -70℃ after sampling. The levels of the biomarkers such as beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), cystatin-C (Cys-C), N-acetyl-β- D-glucosaminidase (NAG), micro albumin (MA), micro protein (MP) were measured at 6, 24, 48 and 144 hr after sampling. The B2M level was significantly decreased at 6, 24, 48, and 144 hr compared to 0 hr at -70℃ (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.05, respectively) and 24 and 144 hr at 20℃ (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively). The Cys-C level was significantly decreased at 144 hr compared to 0 hr at 4℃ (p < 0.01), at 20℃ (p < 0.05) and at 70℃ (p < 0.01). MP and MA levels were not different for 144 hr in all storage conditions. Taken together, B2M and Cys-C levels were modulated by storage temperature and period. For the enhancement of test accuracy, it is suggested that strict protocols be established for samples to minimize the effects of the storage conditions on the detected levels of biomarkers. PMID:25584151

  9. Power-conditioning system for the Advanced Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M.A.; Smith, M.E.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, D.R.; Cook, E.G.; Copp, R.L.; Lee, F.D.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers, D.; Speckert, G.C.

    1982-06-01

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed, linear induction, electron accelerator currently under construction and nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 near Livermore, California. The ATA is a 50 MeV, 10 kA machine capable of generating electron beam pulses at a 1 kHz rate in a 10 pulse burst, 5 pps average, with a pulse width of 70 ns FWHM. Ten 18 kV power supplies are used to charge 25 capacitor banks with a total energy storage of 8 megajoules. Energy is transferred from the capacitor banks in 500 microsecond pulses through 25 Command Resonant Charge units (CRC) to 233 Thyratron Switch Chassis. Each Thyratron Switch Chassis contains a 2.5 microfarad capacitor and is charged to 25 kV (780 joules) with voltage regulation of +- .05%. These capacitors are switched into 10:1 step-up resonant transformers to charge 233 Blumleins to 250 kV in 20 microseconds. A magnetic modulator is used instead of a Blumlein to drive the grid of the injector.

  10. Accelerating CSP with storage in Namibia - Brave or impossible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Grant H.; Mutschler, Margaret

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides the background to, and progress on, the first Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant in Namibia. The paper will provide progress on the work completed in the pre-feasibility study, address some aspects regarding the site selection for the first CSP project, provide an update on the procurement of solar resource data and offer some considerations regarding the potential acceleration of the first CSP plant in Namibia.

  11. Transport synthetic acceleration with opposing reflecting boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zika, M.R.; Adams, M.L.

    2000-02-01

    The transport synthetic acceleration (TSA) scheme is extended to problems with opposing reflecting boundary conditions. This synthetic method employs a simplified transport operator as its low-order approximation. A procedure is developed that allows the use of the conjugate gradient (CG) method to solve the resulting low-order system of equations. Several well-known transport iteration algorithms are cast in a linear algebraic form to show their equivalence to standard iterative techniques. Source iteration in the presence of opposing reflecting boundary conditions is shown to be equivalent to a (poorly) preconditioned stationary Richardson iteration, with the preconditioner defined by the method of iterating on the incident fluxes on the reflecting boundaries. The TSA method (and any synthetic method) amounts to a further preconditioning of the Richardson iteration. The presence of opposing reflecting boundary conditions requires special consideration when developing a procedure to realize the CG method for the proposed system of equations. The CG iteration may be applied only to symmetric positive definite matrices; this condition requires the algebraic elimination of the boundary angular corrections from the low-order equations. As a consequence of this elimination, evaluating the action of the resulting matrix on an arbitrary vector involves two transport sweeps and a transmission iteration. Results of applying the acceleration scheme to a simple test problem are presented.

  12. Impact of storage condition on fiber quality and color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of cotton produced in the United States is exported. Baled lint is stored for an average of approximately 18 months before processing in textile mills. The duration and environmental conditions of cotton storage and shipping can impact cotton quality in terms of color and possibly pro...

  13. Behavior of whey protein concentrates under extreme storage conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...

  14. Prediction of the radiation situation during conditioned radioactive waste storage in hangar-type storage facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosnovskii, S. V.; Bulka, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    An original technology for the conditioning of solidified radioactive waste was developed by the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant (NPP) staff. The technology provides for waste placement inside NZK-150-1.5P containers with their further storage at light hangar-type storage facilities. A number of technical solutions were developed that allow for reducing the gamma-radiation dose rate from the package formed. A methodology for prediction of the radiation situation around hangars, depending on the radiation characteristics of irrecoverable shielding containers (ISCs) located in the peripheral row of a storage facility, was developed with the purpose of assuring safe storage. Based on empirical data, the field background gamma-radiation dose rate at an area as a function of the average dose rate at the hangar surface and the average dose rate close packages, placed in the peripheral row of the storage facility, was calculated. The application of the developed methodology made it possible to reduce by ten times the expenditures for the conditioning and holding of solidified radioactive waste (SRW) while unconditionally providing storage safety.

  15. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.J.; Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-10-30

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

  16. Accelerated aging of outdoor insulation under acid rain conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Nancy Ellen

    2000-11-01

    Outdoor insulation has evolved from glass to ceramics to epoxy in the past decades, and more recently into the area of polymer composites. Accelerated aging must be performed to examine the effectiveness of materials prior to use under actual service conditions. Traditionally this aging has been performed with sodium chloride as the conductive component in the high humidity and wet tests. This approach does not necessarily represent actual service conditions, as globally the precipitation is acidic in nature and contains many constituents in addition to sodium and chloride. The main focus of this work was to examine the effect of acid precipitation on materials used in outdoor insulation applications. This was achieved through the use of a rotating tracking wheel and a controlled high humidity chamber with the application of a synthetic acid rain solution. The analysis techniques utilized to examine the results of the accelerated aging were leakage current monitoring, evaluation of changes in dielectric properties as well as electron microscopy. In addition, changes in hydrophobicity were quantified. Based on experimental observations, a first order life prediction model was developed to investigate the usefulness of the acid rain aging technique. This model was founded on the results of a series of tests conducted with varying solution conductivity, while maintaining constant acid content. This model permits the prediction of the life of a material at normal precipitation conductivity levels.

  17. Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Storage Disorders and Other Neuronopathic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Matern, Dietrich; Oglesbee, Devin; Tortorelli, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) is a public health program aimed at identifying treatable conditions in presymptomatic newborns to avoid premature mortality, morbidity, and disabilities. Currently, every newborn in the Unites States is screened for at least 29 conditions where evidence suggests that early detection is possible and beneficial. With new or improved treatment options and development of high-throughput screening tests, additional conditions have been proposed for inclusion into NBS programs. Among those are several conditions with a strong neuronopathic component. Some of these conditions have already been added to a few national and international screening programs, whereas others are undergoing pilot studies to determine the test performance metrics. Here, we review the current state of NBS for 13 lysosomal storage disorders, X-adrenoleukodystrophy, Wilson disease, and Friedreich ataxia. PMID:23798012

  18. Newborn screening for lysosomal storage disorders and other neuronopathic conditions.

    PubMed

    Matern, Dietrich; Oglesbee, Devin; Tortorelli, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) is a public health program aimed at identifying treatable conditions in presymptomatic newborns to avoid premature mortality, morbidity, and disabilities. Currently, every newborn in the Unites States is screened for at least 29 conditions where evidence suggests that early detection is possible and beneficial. With new or improved treatment options and development of high-throughput screening tests, additional conditions have been proposed for inclusion into NBS programs. Among those are several conditions with a strong neuronopathic component. Some of these conditions have already been added to a few national and international screening programs, whereas others are undergoing pilot studies to determine the test performance metrics. Here, we review the current state of NBS for 13 lysosomal storage disorders, X-adrenoleukodystrophy, Wilson disease, and Friedreich ataxia. PMID:23798012

  19. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    PubMed Central

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  20. Accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatologic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jison; Maron, David J; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Weyand, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory disease involving aberrant immune and tissue healing responses, which begins with endothelial dysfunction and ends with plaque development, instability and rupture. The increased risk for coronary artery disease in patients with rheumatologic diseases highlights how aberrancy in the innate and adaptive immune system may be central to development of both disease states and that atherosclerosis may be on a spectrum of immune-mediated conditions. Recognition of the tight association between chronic inflammatory disease and complications of atherosclerosis will impact the understanding of underlying pathogenic mechanisms and change diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in patients with rheumatologic syndromes as well as patients with coronary artery disease. In this review, we provide a summary of the role of the immune system in atherosclerosis, discuss the proposed mechanisms of accelerated atherosclerosis seen in association with rheumatologic diseases, evaluate the effect of immunosuppression on atherosclerosis and provide updates on available risk assessment tools, biomarkers and imaging modalities. PMID:27042216

  1. Sample storage conditions significantly influence faecal microbiome profiles

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Jocelyn M; Leong, Lex EX; Rogers, Geraint B

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing-based studies of the human faecal microbiota are increasingly common. Appropriate storage of sample material is essential to avoid the introduction of post-collection bias in microbial community composition. Rapid freezing to −80 °C is commonly considered to be best-practice. However, this is not feasible in many studies, particularly those involving sample collection in participants’ homes. We determined the extent to which a range of stabilisation and storage strategies maintained the composition of faecal microbial community structure relative to freezing to −80 °C. Refrigeration at 4 °C, storage at ambient temperature, and the use of several common preservative buffers (RNAlater, OMNIgene.GUT, Tris-EDTA) were assessed relative to freezing. Following 72 hours of storage, faecal microbial composition was assessed by 16 S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Refrigeration was associated with no significant alteration in faecal microbiota diversity or composition. However, samples stored using other conditions showed substantial divergence compared to −80 °C control samples. Aside from refrigeration, the use of OMNIgene.GUT resulted in the least alteration, while the greatest change was seen in samples stored in Tris-EDTA buffer. The commercially available OMNIgene.GUT kit may provide an important alternative where refrigeration and cold chain transportation is not available. PMID:26572876

  2. Transport and storage conditions for cultural recovery of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Maass, M; Dalhoff, K

    1995-01-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae is characterized by rapidly decreasing viability outside the host cell, and efficient preservation of its infectivity is a prerequisite for subsequent cell culture recovery. Extracellular survival of three C. pneumoniae stock strains and three wild-type strains subjected to simulated conditions of transport was therefore examined in order to establish recommendations for transport and storage of clinical specimens. The presence of fetal calf serum in transport media as well as refrigeration distinctly improved chlamydial retrieval during prolonged transport. Loss of infectivity was kept to a minimum in Eagle's minimal essential medium or sucrose-phosphate-glutamine medium. Storage at 22 degrees C permitted a stock strain recovery of 81% after 12 h. When refrigeration to 4 degrees C was provided, recovery rates of 74% could be achieved after 48 h. Though the strains were from different geographic regions, requirements for good survival were comparable and should therefore apply worldwide. The results indicate that the laboratory strains are not extremely labile. However, comparative examination of the wild-type strains showed less stability: primary isolates were not satisfactorily retrievable beyond 4 h at 22 degrees C or beyond 24 h at 4 degrees C. Further extension of storage times resulted in rapidly decreasing recovery, indicating a requirement to freeze samples at -75 degrees C to preserve viability. Adherence to the shorter storage periods suggested by the data obtained with primary isolates is recommended to ensure successful transport until more extensive testing with clinical materials is available. PMID:7665648

  3. STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION OF SUPRATHERMAL PARTICLES UNDER PRESSURE BALANCE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Antecki, T.; Schlickeiser, R.; Zhang, M. E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de

    2013-02-10

    The acceleration of suprathermal charged particles in the heliosphere under pressure balance conditions including for the first time the radial spatial particle diffusion and convection in the solar wind is investigated. The physical conditions are derived for which the stationary phase space distribution of suprathermal particles approaches the power-law distribution f{proportional_to}p {sup -5}, which is often seen in spacecraft observations. For separable source distributions in momentum and position we analytically solve the stationary particle transport equation for a radially constant solar wind speed V {sub 0} and a momentum-independent radial spatial diffusion coefficient. The resulting stationary solution at any position within the finite heliosphere is the superposition of an infinite sum of power laws in momentum below and above the (assumed mono-momentum) injection momentum p{sub I} . The smallest spatial eigenvalue determines the flattest power law, to which the full stationary solution approaches at large and small enough momenta. Only for the case of a reflecting inner and a free-escape outer spatial boundary, does one small eigenvalue exist, yielding the power-law distribution f{proportional_to}p {sup -5} at sufficiently large momentum values. The other three spatial boundary conditions imply steeper momentum spectra. Momentum spectra and radial profiles of suprathermal particles are calculated by adopting a uniform outer ring spatial source distribution.

  4. Influence of storage and packaging conditions on the quality of soy flour from sprouted soybean.

    PubMed

    Agrahar-Murugkar, Dipika; Jha, Krishna

    2011-06-01

    Full fat soy (Glycine max L) flour (FFSF) from germinated 'MAUS 47' variety was packed in Al foil laminated paper (75 microns Al foil), low density polyethylene (LDPE, 125 microns), biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP, 100 microns) packets and polyethylene tetraphthalate (PET) jars and stored in ambient (25-35 °C, 45-55%RH) and accelerated conditions (40 °C, 90% RH) and tested every 15 days for a period of 75 days for changes in moisture, protein, fat, free fatty acid and nitrogen solubility. Increase in contents of moisture and free fatty acid with corresponding decrease in fat and solubility were observed in all stored packs more under accelerated conditions as compared to ambient conditions of storage. Among packaging materials FFSF from sprouted soybean was best kept in Al foil laminated packages followed by LDPE and BOPP packaging materials. Flour from sprouted soybean could be kept safely for 90 days in ambient and 75 days in accelerated conditions. PMID:23572754

  5. Shelf-life and colour change kinetics of Aloe vera gel powder under accelerated storage in three different packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, C T; Rao, P Srinivasa

    2013-08-01

    Aloe vera gel powder was produced through dehumidified air drying of Aloe vere gel at optimized conditions of temperature, relative humidity and air velocity of 64 °C, 18% and 0.8 m.s(-1), respectively. The powder was packed in three different packaging materials viz., laminated aluminum foil (AF), biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) and polypropylene (PP). The shelf-life of the powder was predicted on the basis of free flowness of product under accelerated storage condition (38 ± 1 °C, 90 ± 1% relative humidity) and was calculated to be 33.87, 42.58 and 51.05 days in BOPP, PP and AF, respectively. The storage stability of powder in terms of colour change was studied. The magnitude of colour change of Aloe vera gel powder during storage suggests that AF was better than BOPP and PP. The colour change of powder during storage followed first order reaction kinetics with a rate constant of 0.0444 per day for AF, 0.075 per day for BOPP and 0.0498 per day for PP. PMID:24425977

  6. Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Laisuo; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Xie, Fengchao; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates path dependence of lithium ion cells that are stored under static and non-static conditions. In the static storage tests, the levels of temperature and state of charge (SOC) are kept constant. The results of 12 tests from a combination of three temperatures and four SOCs show that, as expected, the cell ages faster at higher temperature and higher SOC. However, the cell aging mode, while consistent for all the evaluated temperatures, is different at 95% SOC from that at lower SOCs. In the non-static storage tests, the levels of temperature and SOC vary with time during the test process. The effect of the sequence of stress levels on cell aging is studied statistically using the statistical method of analysis of variation (ANOVA). It is found that cell capacity fade is path independent of both SOC and temperature, while cell resistance increase is path dependent on SOC and path independent of temperature. Finally, rate-based empirical aging models are adopted to fit the cell aging in the static storage tests. The aging model for capacity fade is demonstrated to be applicable to the non-static tests with errors between -3% and +3% for all the tested conditions over 180 days.

  7. ACCELERATORS: Preliminary application of turn-by-turn data analysis to the SSRF storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Hui; Zhao, Zhen-Tang

    2009-07-01

    There is growing interest in utilizing the beam position monitor turn-by-turn (TBT) data to debug accelerators. TBT data can be used to determine the linear optics, coupled optics and nonlinear behaviors of the storage ring lattice. This is not only a useful complement to other methods of determining the linear optics such as LOCO, but also provides a possibility to uncover more hidden phenomena. In this paper, a preliminary application of a β function measurement to the SSRF storage ring is presented.

  8. The acceleration and storage of radioactive ions for a neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    B. Autin et al.

    2003-12-23

    The term beta-beam has been coined for the production of a pure beam of electron neutrinos or their antiparticles through the decay of radioactive ions circulating in a storage ring. This concept requires radioactive ions to be accelerated to a Lorentz gamma of 150 for {sup 6}He and 60 for {sup 18}Ne. The neutrino source itself consists of a storage ring for this energy range, with long straight sections in line with the experiment(s). Such a decay ring does not exist at CERN today, nor does a high-intensity proton source for the production of the radioactive ions. Nevertheless, the existing CERN accelerator infrastructure could be used as this would still represent an important saving for a beta-beam facility. This paper outlines the first study, while some of the more speculative ideas will need further investigations.

  9. Comparative transcriptome and metabolome provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of accelerated senescence in litchi fruit after cold storage.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ze; Qu, Hongxia; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Zhengke; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Bao; Cheng, Yunjiang; Jiang, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Litchi is a non-climacteric subtropical fruit of high commercial value. The shelf life of litchi fruit under ambient conditions (AC) is approximately 4-6 days. Post-harvest cold storage prolongs the life of litchi fruit for up to 30 days with few changes in pericarp browning and total soluble solids. However, the shelf life of litchi fruits at ambient temperatures after pre-cold storage (PCS) is only 1-2 days. To better understand the mechanisms involved in the rapid fruit senescence induced by pre-cold storage, a transcriptome of litchi pericarp was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. Results suggested that the senescence of harvested litchi fruit was likely to be an oxidative process initiated by ABA, including oxidation of lipids, polyphenols and anthocyanins. After cold storage, PCS fruit exhibited energy deficiency, and respiratory burst was elicited through aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which was regulated specifically by an up-regulated calcium signal, G-protein-coupled receptor signalling pathway and small GTPase-mediated signal transduction. The respiratory burst was largely associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated peroxidase activity and initiation of the lipoxygenase pathway, which were closely related to the accelerated senescence of PCS fruit. PMID:26763309

  10. Comparative transcriptome and metabolome provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of accelerated senescence in litchi fruit after cold storage

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ze; Qu, Hongxia; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Zhengke; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Bao; Cheng, Yunjiang; Jiang, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Litchi is a non-climacteric subtropical fruit of high commercial value. The shelf life of litchi fruit under ambient conditions (AC) is approximately 4–6 days. Post-harvest cold storage prolongs the life of litchi fruit for up to 30 days with few changes in pericarp browning and total soluble solids. However, the shelf life of litchi fruits at ambient temperatures after pre-cold storage (PCS) is only 1–2 days. To better understand the mechanisms involved in the rapid fruit senescence induced by pre-cold storage, a transcriptome of litchi pericarp was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. Results suggested that the senescence of harvested litchi fruit was likely to be an oxidative process initiated by ABA, including oxidation of lipids, polyphenols and anthocyanins. After cold storage, PCS fruit exhibited energy deficiency, and respiratory burst was elicited through aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which was regulated specifically by an up-regulated calcium signal, G-protein-coupled receptor signalling pathway and small GTPase-mediated signal transduction. The respiratory burst was largely associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated peroxidase activity and initiation of the lipoxygenase pathway, which were closely related to the accelerated senescence of PCS fruit. PMID:26763309

  11. Arctic hillslope hydrologic response to changing water storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushlow, C. R.; Godsey, S.

    2013-12-01

    Solute transport from terrestrial to aquatic environments depends on dynamics of water storage and flux. In the arctic, these dynamics are related to changes in permafrost and hydrological conditions that vary with climate across multiple scales. In order to predict the continued trajectory of arctic landscape and ecosystem evolution, observed changes to the hydrologic regime and riverine nutrient fluxes require properly scaled, mechanistic explanations. We address this issue at the hillslope scale by quantifying hydrologic response to changing storage as part of a collaborative effort to understand the coupled hydrology and biogeochemistry of arctic hillslopes. Hillslopes underlain by continuous permafrost experience gradual, summer-season increases in potential water storage through active layer thaw, as well as stochastic changes in available water storage as soil moisture conditions change due to storm events, evapotranspiration, and subsurface flow. Preferential flowpaths called water tracks are ubiquitous features draining arctic hillslopes and are the focus of our study. We predict that water track hydrologic response to precipitation is a function of snowmelt or storm characteristics and available storage. We hypothesize that ¬the ratio of runoff to precipitation will decrease as available storage increases, whether due to the seasonal increase in active layer thaw, or an extended dry period. Intensive snow and thaw depth surveys on a water track on the hillslopes of the Upper Kuparuk River watershed in northern Alaska during May to June 2013 reveal that snow persisted one week longer in a water track than the adjacent hillslope, and thus active layer thaw initiated earlier on the adjacent hillslope. Despite this earlier thaw timing, thaw depth in the water track exceeded that on the non-track hillslope within five days of being uncovered. Thaw, and thus subsurface storage, in water tracks remained greater than the rest of the hillslope for at least the

  12. Flowpath acceleration vs flowpath activation: how do hydrologic systems respond to dynamic inputs and changes in storage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Ciaran

    2016-04-01

    The response of catchments to rainfall or snowmelt can be understood in terms of the propagation and dissipation of a wave of fluid energy, and in terms of the translation of fluid parcels in space. The first determines the amount of flow in a stream, and the second determines the age composition of that streamflow. However, these are not distinct phenomena, but two aspects of the integrated catchment scale hydrologic response. Previous work has shown that catchment storage is the dominant state variable controlling both the magnitude of the flow response and the age composition of that flow response. Here, I will present a succinct framework that unifies the flow and transport properties of a watershed, and their relationship to storage. This framework further extends rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) function theory. The framework suggests that the hydrologic response of a watershed to inputs can be understood to consist of two modalities: flowpath acceleration and flowpath activation. In the first case, additional potential energy drives an acceleration of flowpaths, so that water of all ages moves more quickly toward the catchment outlet. In the second case, the additional new water moves toward the outlet along newly-activated flow paths without modifying the velocity of water previously in the watershed. Real hydrologic systems may exhibit some combination of both modalities across their age-ranked storage. The proposed framework allows the dominant modalities of a given hydrologic system to be explored with few a priori assumptions. Data from several hydrologic systems will be used to demonstrate the method, and gain insights into the sensitivity of catchment flow and transport in variable climatic conditions.

  13. Ice storage rooftop retrofit for rooftop air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.J.; Jennings, L.W.

    1997-09-01

    A significant fraction of the floor space in commercial and federal buildings is cooled by single-package rooftop air conditioning units. These units are located on flat roofs and usually operate during the day under hot conditions. They are usually less energy efficient than a chiller system for building cooling. Several U.S. companies are developing systems that employ ice storage in conjunction with chillers to replace older, inefficient rooftop units for improved performance and minimal use of on-peak electricity. Although the low evaporator temperatures needed for ice making tend to reduce the efficiency of the chiller, the overall operating costs of the ice storage system may be lower than that of a packaged, conventional rooftop installation. One version of this concept, the Roofberg{reg_sign} System developed by the Calmac Corporation, was evaluated on a small building at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Roofberg system consists of a chiller, an ice storage tank, and one or more rooftop units whose evaporator coils have been adapted to use a glycol solution for cooling. The ice storage component decouples the cooling demand of the building from the operation of the chiller. Therefore, the chiller can operate at night (cooler, more efficient condensing temperatures) to meet a daytime cooling demand. This flexibility permits a smaller chiller to satisfy a larger peak cooling load. Further, the system can be operated to shift the cooling demand to off-peak hours when electricity from the utility is generated more efficiently and at lower cost. This Roofberg system was successfully installed last year on a small one-story office building in Oak Ridge and is currently being operated to cool the building. The building and system were sufficiently instrumented to allow a determination of the performance and efficiency of the Roofberg system. Although the energy efficiency of a simulated Roofberg storage/chiller concept operating in the

  14. The sensitivity of human mesenchymal stem cells to vibration and cold storage conditions representative of cold transportation

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaev, N. I.; Liu, Y.; Hussein, H.; Williams, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, the mechanical and hypothermic damage induced by vibration and cold storage on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) stored at 2–8°C was quantified by measuring the total cell number and cell viability after exposure to vibration at 50 Hz (peak acceleration 140 m s−2 and peak displacement 1.4 mm), 25 Hz (peak acceleration 140 m s−2, peak displacement 5.7 mm), 10 Hz (peak acceleration 20 m s−2, peak displacement 5.1 mm) and cold storage for several durations. To quantify the viability of the cells, in addition to the trypan blue exclusion method, the combination of annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide was applied to understand the mode of cell death. Cell granularity and a panel of cell surface markers for stemness, including CD29, CD44, CD105 and CD166, were also evaluated for each condition. It was found that hMSCs were sensitive to vibration at 25 Hz, with moderate effects at 50 Hz and no effects at 10 Hz. Vibration at 25 Hz also increased CD29 and CD44 expression. The study further showed that cold storage alone caused a decrease in cell viability, especially after 48 h, and also increased CD29 and CD44 and attenuated CD105 expressions. Cell death would most likely be the consequence of membrane rupture, owing to necrosis induced by cold storage. The sensitivity of cells to different vibrations within the mechanical system is due to a combined effect of displacement and acceleration, and hMSCs with a longer cold storage duration were more susceptible to vibration damage, indicating a coupling between the effects of vibration and cold storage. PMID:22628214

  15. Long-term storage life of light source modules by temperature cycling accelerated life test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningning, Sun; Manqing, Tan; Ping, Li; Jian, Jiao; Xiaofeng, Guo; Wentao, Guo

    2014-05-01

    Light source modules are the most crucial and fragile devices that affect the life and reliability of the interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG). While the light emitting chips were stable in most cases, the module packaging proved to be less satisfactory. In long-term storage or the working environment, the ambient temperature changes constantly and thus the packaging and coupling performance of light source modules are more likely to degrade slowly due to different materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion in the bonding interface. A constant temperature accelerated life test cannot evaluate the impact of temperature variation on the performance of a module package, so the temperature cycling accelerated life test was studied. The main failure mechanism affecting light source modules is package failure due to solder fatigue failure including a fiber coupling shift, loss of cooling efficiency and thermal resistor degradation, so the Norris-Landzberg model was used to model solder fatigue life and determine the activation energy related to solder fatigue failure mechanism. By analyzing the test data, activation energy was determined and then the mean life of light source modules in different storage environments with a continuously changing temperature was simulated, which has provided direct reference data for the storage life prediction of IFOG.

  16. [Impact of storage conditions and time on herb of Lonicera macranthoides].

    PubMed

    Ma, Peng; Li, Long-Yun; Zhang, Ying

    2014-03-01

    To study the effect of different storage conditions and storage time on herb quality of Lonicera macranthoides, different packaging materials including vacuum plastic bags, plastic bags, woven bags, sealed with endometrial bags, paper bags, sack bags were selected for the study under different storage conditions including room temperature, 5 degrees C refrigerator, low temperature of - 20 degrees C refrigerator and desiccator. Twenty-four batches of samples were used for the study, and active ingredients were determined. The experimental results showed that the ingredients in each storage group changed with the storage time, storage conditions (storage environment, packaging). Under the same storage time, the storage environment (temperature, humidity) had effect on the stability of herb quality. Low temperature had less effect on herb quality. The effect of packaging on herb quality was as following: plastic vacuum packaging > woven with endometrial sealed packaging > plastic bag > woven bag > sack bags > paper bags. Under the same storage conditions, with the increase of storage time, caffeic acid content increased slowly, and other five ingredients content decreased gradually. Storage time affected significantly on the intrinsic quality (chemical composition) and appearance of herb. It is suggested that low temperature (5 degrees C), dark and sealed storage are suitable for storage of L. macranthoides herb, the storage time should be not more than 24 months. PMID:24956836

  17. Cooperative high-performance storage in the accelerated strategic computing initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Mark; Howard, Barry; Louis, Steve; Minuzzo, Kim; Seager, Mark

    1996-01-01

    The use and acceptance of new high-performance, parallel computing platforms will be impeded by the absence of an infrastructure capable of supporting orders-of-magnitude improvement in hierarchical storage and high-speed I/O (Input/Output). The distribution of these high-performance platforms and supporting infrastructures across a wide-area network further compounds this problem. We describe an architectural design and phased implementation plan for a distributed, Cooperative Storage Environment (CSE) to achieve the necessary performance, user transparency, site autonomy, communication, and security features needed to support the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). ASCI is a Department of Energy (DOE) program attempting to apply terascale platforms and Problem-Solving Environments (PSEs) toward real-world computational modeling and simulation problems. The ASCI mission must be carried out through a unified, multilaboratory effort, and will require highly secure, efficient access to vast amounts of data. The CSE provides a logically simple, geographically distributed, storage infrastructure of semi-autonomous cooperating sites to meet the strategic ASCI PSE goal of highperformance data storage and access at the user desktop.

  18. Data acquisition, storage and control architecture for the SuperNova Acceleration Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Prosser, Alan; Cardoso, Guilherme; Chramowicz, John; Marriner, John; Rivera, Ryan; Turqueti, Marcos; /Fermilab

    2007-05-01

    The SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) instrument is being designed to collect image and spectroscopic data for the study of dark energy in the universe. In this paper, we describe a distributed architecture for the data acquisition system which interfaces to visible light and infrared imaging detectors. The architecture includes the use of NAND flash memory for the storage of exposures in a file system. Also described is an FPGA-based lossless data compression algorithm with a configurable pre-scaler based on a novel square root data compression method to improve compression performance. The required interactions of the distributed elements with an instrument control unit will be described as well.

  19. Evaluation of Alternaria mycotoxins in strawberries: quantification and storage condition.

    PubMed

    Juan, Cristina; Oueslati, Souheib; Mañes, Jordi

    2016-05-01

    Alternariol (AOH), alternariol methyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) are Alternaria mycotoxins produced by the most common post-harvest pathogens of fruits. The production of these metabolites depends on several environmental factors, mainly temperature, water activity, pH and the technological treatments that have been applied to the product. In this study, the occurrence of AOH, AME and TEN was evaluated in strawberries samples stored at different temperatures ranges (at 22 ± 2 or 6 ± 2°C) and different periods (up to 1 month) simulating the current practice of consumer's storage conditions. Sample extraction was performed using a liquid-liquid extraction method prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. AOH was the most prevalent mycotoxins with a 42% at strawberries stored at (22 ± 2)°C and 37% stored at (6 ± 2)°C. The highest AOH levels were found in samples conserved at (22 ± 2)°C ranging between 26 and 752 ng g(-1). AME levels ranged between 11 and 137 ng g(-)(1), which were found mainly in stored samples at (6 ± 2)°C for more than 28 days. None sample presented levels of TEN in either of the studied conditions. PMID:27103180

  20. Analysis of oil content of Jatropha curcas seeds under storage condition.

    PubMed

    Sushma

    2014-05-01

    Jatropha curcas has been recognized as an ideal plant for biodiesel. There are unlimited reasons to consider Jatropha curcas a better tree borne oilseed plants than any other as it grows well on arid soils and entail minimal investment. The present study evaluates the effect of seed storage on quality and quantity of oil content such that it can be used for oil extraction and ensures availability of biodiesel throughout the year. The seeds were collected and stored at four temperatures viz. -5 °C, 0 °C, 5 °C and room temperature (open air condition) for 15 months of storage durations and evaluated at every three months interval. There was a significant decrease in oil content and oil quality with increase in storage duration. Although, the seed stored at temperature 5 °C gave the highest quality and quantity attributes at all durations. The first 3 months of storage account for the least decline as in the initial oil content in Kernel weight basis (54.61%) and seed weight basis (36.12%), there was a only decrease of 4.67% and 4.97% respectively at 5 °C whereas in other temperatures viz. -5 °C, 0 °C and room temperature (open air condition), there was a decline of 18.11, 14.48 and 9.06% in kernel weight basis and 18.36, 15.14 and 9.30% in seed weight basis respectively which accelerated with duration. Similarly, quality parameters viz. moisture content, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, refractive index (30 °C), relative viscosity and specific gravity were initially as 7.59%, 1.42 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 108.61 g l₂ 100 g⁻¹ oil, 189.37 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 1.466, 21.30 and 0.911 respectively which change to 13.71%, 1.74 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 107.95 g l₂ 100 g⁻¹ oil, 191.48 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 1.470, 23.45 and 0.918, respectively after 3 months of storage. Hence, change in quality and quantity parameters indicated the importance of proper seed storage on availability of bio-diesel throughout the year and economics in its processing i e

  1. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6). Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8) and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study. PMID:25436187

  2. New power-conditioning systems for superconducting magnetic energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Byung Moon

    1992-06-01

    This dissertation presents the development of new power-conditioning systems for superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), which can regulate fast and independently the active and reactive powers demanded in the ac network. Three new power-conditioning systems were developed through a systematic approach to match the requirements of the superconducting coil and the ac power network. Each of these new systems is composed of ten 100-MW modules connected in parallel to handle the large current through the superconducting coil. The first system, which was published in the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, consists of line-commutated 24-pulse converter, a thyristor-switched tap-changing transformer, and a thyristor-switched capacitor bank. The second system, which was accepted for publication in the IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, consists of a 12-pulse GTO (gate turn-off thyristor) converter and a thyristor-switched tap-changing transformer. The third system, which was submitted to the International Journal of Energy System, consists of a dc chopper and a voltage-source PWM (pulse width modulation) converter. The operational concept of each new system is verified through mathematical analyses and computer simulations. The dynamic interaction of each new system with the ac network and the superconducting coil is analyzed using a simulation model with EMTP (electro-magnetic transients program). The analysis results prove that each new system is feasible and realizable. Each system can regulate the active and reactive powers of the utility network rapidly and independently, and each offer a significant reduction of the system rating by reducing the reactive power demand in the converter. Feasible design for each new system was introduced using a modular design approach based on the 1000 MW/5000 MWH plant, incorporating commercially available components and proven technologies.

  3. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Spence, H. E.; Green, J. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for electron acceleration to >1 MeV energies in the heart of the outer radiation belt. We also evaluate chorus wave evolution using the superposed epoch analysis for the identified efficient and inefficient acceleration events and find that chorus wave intensity is much stronger and lasts longer during efficient electron acceleration events, supporting the scenario that chorus waves play a key role in MeV electron acceleration.

  4. Water depression storage under different tillage conditions: measuring and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez, R.; Campo, M. A.; González-Audicana, M.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Casalí, J.

    2012-04-01

    Water storage in surface depressions (DS) is an important process which affects infiltration, runoff and erosion. Since DS is driven by micro relief, in agricultural soils DS is much affected by tillage and by the direction of tillage rows in relation to the main slope. A direct and accurate measurement of DS requires making the soil surface waterproof -soil is very permeable especially under tillage- but preserving all details of the soil roughness including aggregates over the soil surface (micro-roughness). All this is a very laborious and time-consuming task. That is why hydrological and erosion models for DS estimation normally use either empirical relationships based on some roughness index or numerical approaches. The aim of this work was (i) to measure directly in the field the DS of a soil under different tillage conditions and (ii) to assess the performance of existing empirical 2D models and of a numerical 2D algorithm for DS estimation. Three types of tillage classes (mouldbard+roller, roller compacted and chisel) in 2 tillage directions (parallel and perpendicular to the main slope) were assessed in an experimental hillslope (10% slope) which defines then 6 treatments. Experiments were carried out in 12, 1-m2 micro-plots delimited by metal sheets; that is, a pair of repetitions for each treatment. In each plot, soil surface was gently impregnated with a waterproof, white paint but without altering micro-roughness. A known amount of water (stained with a blue dye) was poured all over the surface with a measuring cup. The excess water was captured in a gutter and measured. Soon after finishing the experiment, pictures of the surface was taken in order to analyze water storage pattern (from stained water) by image processing. Besides, longitudinal height profiles were measured using a laser profilemeter. Finally, infiltration rate was measured near the plot using a double ring infiltrometer. For all the treatments, DS ranged from 2 mm to 17 mm. For the

  5. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Approval of Spent Fuel Storage Casks...

  6. Parallelisation of storage cell flood models using OpenMP and accelerator cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, J.; Fewtrell, T.; Trigg, M.; Bates, P.

    2009-04-01

    Recent developments in computer processors have moved away from increasing clock speed towards multi-core approaches. For computationally intensive flood inundation models this development shift will need to be exploited if simulation runtimes are to be reduced in the near future. This work describes the implementation and benchmarking of a parallel version of the LISFLOOD-FP coupled 1D-2D hydraulic model. The motivation behind the study was that reducing model run time through parallelisation would increase the utility of such models by expanding the domains or resolutions over which they can be practically implemented, allowing previously inaccessible scientific questions to be addressed. Of the many parallelisation methods only two were considered here: The first used the shared memory Open Multi Processor (OpenMP) application programming interface (API) to achieved parallelisation on standard CPU's. The second method used Clearspeed accelerator boards to run the computationally intensive 2D floodplain component of the model, whilst the computationally less intensive 1D channel model runs at a longer time step on a standard CPU. Parallel speedup with OpenMP was calculated for 13 models distributed over seven study sites and implemented on one, two, four and eight processor cores. Selected cases were then run on one core with a Clearspeed CSX600 accelerator board. A key advantage of OpenMP, with an explicit rather than implicit model, was the ease of implementation and minimal code changes required to run simulations in parallel. Using the Clearspeed accelerator boards required selected functions to be re-written in the Cn parallel programming language (an extension of the C language) and an interface based on Clearspeeds CSPX Accelerator Interface Library for calling these remote functions from the host code where the rest of the model was running. Preliminary results indicate that both approaches can be used to parallelise storage cell flood inundation models

  7. Benefits of rice seed priming are offset permanently by prolonged storage and the storage conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Saddam; Zheng, Manman; Khan, Fahad; Khaliq, Abdul; Fahad, Shah; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2015-01-01

    Seed priming is a commercially successful practice, but reduced longevity of primed seeds during storage may limit its application. We established a series of experiments on rice to test: (1) whether prolonged storage of primed and non-primed rice seeds for 210 days at 25°C or −4°C would alter their viability, (2) how long primed rice seed would potentially remain viable at 25°C storage, and (3) whether or not post-storage treatments (re-priming or heating) would reinstate the viability of stored primed seeds. Two different rice cultivars and three priming agents were used in all experiments. Prolonged storage of primed seeds at 25°C significantly reduced the germination (>90%) and growth attributes (>80%) of rice compared with un-stored primed seeds. However, such negative effects were not observed in primed seeds stored at −4°C. Beneficial effects of seed priming were maintained only for 15 days of storage at 25°C, beyond which the performance of primed seeds was worse even than non-primed seeds. The deteriorative effects of 25°C storage were related with hampered starch metabolism in primed rice seeds. None of the post-storage treatments could reinstate the lost viability of primed seeds suggesting that seeds become unviable by prolonged post-priming storage at 25°C. PMID:25631923

  8. Benefits of rice seed priming are offset permanently by prolonged storage and the storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Zheng, Manman; Khan, Fahad; Khaliq, Abdul; Fahad, Shah; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2015-01-01

    Seed priming is a commercially successful practice, but reduced longevity of primed seeds during storage may limit its application. We established a series of experiments on rice to test: (1) whether prolonged storage of primed and non-primed rice seeds for 210 days at 25°C or -4°C would alter their viability, (2) how long primed rice seed would potentially remain viable at 25°C storage, and (3) whether or not post-storage treatments (re-priming or heating) would reinstate the viability of stored primed seeds. Two different rice cultivars and three priming agents were used in all experiments. Prolonged storage of primed seeds at 25°C significantly reduced the germination (>90%) and growth attributes (>80%) of rice compared with un-stored primed seeds. However, such negative effects were not observed in primed seeds stored at -4°C. Beneficial effects of seed priming were maintained only for 15 days of storage at 25°C, beyond which the performance of primed seeds was worse even than non-primed seeds. The deteriorative effects of 25°C storage were related with hampered starch metabolism in primed rice seeds. None of the post-storage treatments could reinstate the lost viability of primed seeds suggesting that seeds become unviable by prolonged post-priming storage at 25°C. PMID:25631923

  9. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Mohd. Esa, Norhaizan; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA). Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation. PMID:26784877

  10. A program to accelerate the deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage: rational, objectives and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Vello A. Kuuskraa

    2007-10-15

    This White Paper, the first of a series, analyzes one strategy for accelerating the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) by the coal-fueled electricity generation industry. This strategy involves providing reimbursement for the incremental costs of installing and operating CCS systems, with reimbursement provided for retrofitting existing coal-fuelled electricity generation plants with CCS, incorporating CCS into new plants, and launching large-scale demonstrations of geologic storage of carbon. 14 refs., 4 figs., 23 tabs., 3 apps.

  11. In vitro toxicity of infusion sets depends on their composition, storage time and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Kozlovskaya, Luba; Popilski, Hen; Gorenbein, Pavel; Stepensky, David

    2015-07-15

    Disposable medical devices release toxic leachables during their clinical use. Specifically, the individual parts of the infusion sets (the drip chamber, tube, flashball and injection site) are composed of numerous chemical compounds that can reach the patients' systemic circulation and induce local and systemic toxic effects. We aimed to reveal the relative in vitro toxicity of infusion sets from the leading vendors that are used in Israel, and to determine its dependence on their design and storage time/conditions. We found that leachates of the rubber parts were more toxic than those of the other parts of the infusion sets. The measured toxicity was affected by the experimental settings: the cells, medium composition, exposure duration, and the type of assay applied for toxicity assessment. We recommend to use the capillary endothelium cells for in vitro toxicity testing of the infusion sets, and refrain from the use of the MTT test which is insufficiently reliable, and can lead to artefacts and incorrect conclusions. Further investigation is needed to identify the toxic leachables from the individual parts of the infusion sets, and to reveal the risk of their toxicity during the clinical use of the infusion sets. PMID:25959122

  12. Experimental investigation on performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guiyin; Liu, Xu; Wu, Shuangmao

    2009-11-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is conducted in this paper. The experimental system of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe is set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure and the condensation pressure of refrigeration system, the refrigeration capacity and the COP (coefficient of performance) of the system, the IPF (ice packing factor) and the cool storage capacity in the cool storage tank during charging period, and the cool discharge rate and the cool discharge capacity in the cool storage tank, the outlet water temperature in the cool storage tank and the outlet air temperature in room unit during discharging period are investigated. The experimental results show that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe can stably work during charging and discharging period. This indicates that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is well adapted to cool storage air-conditioning systems in building. (author)

  13. EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON ANTIBODY DETECTION IN BLOOD SAMPLES COLLECTED ON FILTER PAPER.

    PubMed

    Bevins, Sarah; Pappert, Ryan; Young, John; Schmit, Brandon; Kohler, Dennis; Baeten, Laurie

    2016-07-01

    Using filter paper to collect blood from wildlife for antibody analysis can be a powerful technique to simplify the collection, transport, and storage of blood samples. Despite these advantages, there are limited data that detail how long these samples can be stored and how storage conditions affect antibody longevity. We used blood samples collected on filter paper from coyotes experimentally infected with Yersinia pestis to determine optimum sample storage conditions over time. Blood samples collected on filter paper were stored for 454 d or more in four groups: 1) at ambient temperature and at ambient relative humidity, 2) at ambient temperature with desiccant, 3) at 4 C with desiccant, and 4) at -20 C with desiccant. Samples stored at 4 C or -20 C with desiccant had detectable antibody for a longer period of time than the samples stored at room temperature. PMID:27187032

  14. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  15. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  16. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  17. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  18. 40 CFR 266.235 - What waste treatment does the storage and treatment conditional exemption allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What waste treatment does the storage and treatment conditional exemption allow? 266.235 Section 266.235 Protection of Environment...-Level Mixed Waste Storage, Treatment, Transportation and Disposal. Treatment § 266.235 What...

  19. Storage conditions affecting increase in falling number of soft red winter wheat grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Falling number (FN) of wheat grain, a measure of preharvest sprouting, tends to increase during storage; however, grain and storage conditions that impact FN changes are poorly understood. Wheat grain samples of varying FN from several cultivars were obtained by malting, by incubating wheat stalks,...

  20. Sensitivity Analysis of the Off-Normal Conditions of the SPIDER Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Chitarin, G.; Marconato, N.; Pilan, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Cavenago, M.

    2011-09-26

    In the context of the development of the 1 MV neutral beam injector for the ITER tokamak, the study on beam formation and acceleration has considerable importance. This effort includes the ion source and accelerator SPIDER (Source for Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from an Rf plasma) ion source, planned to be built in Padova, and designed to extract and accelerate a 355 A/m{sup 2} current of H{sup -}(or 285 A/m{sup 2} D{sup -}) up to 100 kV. Exhaustive simulations were already carried out during the accelerator optimization leading to the present design. However, as it is expected that the accelerator shall operate also in case of pre-programmed or undesired off-normal conditions, the investigation of a large set of off-normal scenarios is necessary. These analyses will also be useful for the evaluation of the real performances of the machine, and should help in interpreting experimental results, or in identifying dangerous operating conditions.The present contribution offers an overview of the results obtained during the investigation of these off-normal conditions, by means of different modeling tools and codes. The results, showed a good flexibility of the device in different operating conditions. Where the consequences of the abnormalities appeared to be problematic further analysis were addressed.

  1. Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Storage Disorders and Other Neuronopathic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matern, Dietrich; Oglesbee, Devin; Tortorelli, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) is a public health program aimed at identifying treatable conditions in presymptomatic newborns to avoid premature mortality, morbidity, and disabilities. Currently, every newborn in the Unites States is screened for at least 29 conditions where evidence suggests that early detection is possible and beneficial. With new or…

  2. Observation of Electron Cloud Instabilities and Emittance Dilution at the Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring Test Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtzapple, R. L.; Billing, M. G.; Campbell, R. C.; Dugan, G. F.; Flanagan, J.; McArdle, K. E.; Miller, M. I.; Palmer, M. A.; Ramirez, G. A.; Sonnad, K. G.; Totten, M. M.; Tucker, S. L.; Williams, H. A.

    2016-04-01

    Electron cloud related emittance dilution and instabilities of bunch trains limit the performance of high intensity circular colliders. One of the key goals of the Cornell electron-positron storage ring Test Accelerator (CesrTA) research program is to improve our understanding of how the electron cloud alters the dynamics of bunches within the train. Single bunch beam diagnotics have been developed to measure the beam spectra, vertical beam size, two important dynamical effects of beams interacting with the electron cloud, for bunch trains on a turn-by-turn basis. Experiments have been performed at CesrTA to probe the interaction of the electron cloud with stored positron bunch trains. The purpose of these experiments was to characterize the dependence of beam-electron cloud interactions on the machine parameters such as bunch spacing, vertical chromaticity, and bunch current. The beam dynamics of the stored beam, in the presence of the electron cloud, was quantified using: 1) a gated beam position monitor (BPM) and spectrum analyzer to measure the bunch-by-bunch frequency spectrum of the bunch trains; 2) an x-ray beam size monitor to record the bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn vertical size of each bunch within the trains. In this paper we report on the observations from these experiments and analyze the effects of the electron cloud on the stability of bunches in a train under many different operational conditions.

  3. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Spence, H. E.; Green, J. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for electron acceleration to >1 MeV energies in the heart of the outermore » radiation belt. We also evaluate chorus wave evolution using the superposed epoch analysis for the identified efficient and inefficient acceleration events and find that chorus wave intensity is much stronger and lasts longer during efficient electron acceleration events, supporting the scenario that chorus waves play a key role in MeV electron acceleration.« less

  4. Corrosion behavior of modified nano carbon black/epoxy coating in accelerated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Ahmad; Shariatpanahi, Homeira; Neshati, Jaber; Akbarinezhad, Esmaeil

    2015-03-01

    The electrochemical behavior and anticorrosion properties of modified carbon black (CB) nanoparticles in epoxy coatings were investigated in accelerated conditions. Nanoparticles of CB were modified by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. Dispersion of nanoparticles into epoxy was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The accelerated condition was prepared at 65 °C. CB nanoparticles improved corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating. The optimum concentration of CB in the epoxy coating was 0.75 wt%. Results showed that the CB hinder the corrosion due to its barrier properties. CB can decrease the diffusion coefficient of water in the coating with filling the micropores.

  5. Off-normal and failure condition analysis of the MITICA negative-ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitarin, Giuseppe; Agostinetti, Piero; Aprile, Daniele; Marconato, Nicolò; Marcuzzi, Diego; Serianni, Gianluigi; Veltri, Pierluigi; Zaccaria, Pierluigi

    2016-02-01

    The negative-ion accelerator for the MITICA neutral beam injector has been designed and optimized in order to reduce the thermo-mechanical stresses in all components below limits compatible with the required fatigue life. However, deviation from the expected beam performances can be caused by "off-normal" operating conditions of the accelerator. The purpose of the present work is to identify and analyse all the "off-normal" operating conditions, which could possibly become critical in terms of thermo-mechanical stresses or of degradation of the optical performances of the beam.

  6. Off-normal and failure condition analysis of the MITICA negative-ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Chitarin, Giuseppe; Agostinetti, Piero; Aprile, Daniele; Marconato, Nicolò; Marcuzzi, Diego; Serianni, Gianluigi; Veltri, Pierluigi; Zaccaria, Pierluigi

    2016-02-01

    The negative-ion accelerator for the MITICA neutral beam injector has been designed and optimized in order to reduce the thermo-mechanical stresses in all components below limits compatible with the required fatigue life. However, deviation from the expected beam performances can be caused by "off-normal" operating conditions of the accelerator. The purpose of the present work is to identify and analyse all the "off-normal" operating conditions, which could possibly become critical in terms of thermo-mechanical stresses or of degradation of the optical performances of the beam. PMID:26932039

  7. Conditioned Media From Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Accelerates Healing in 3-Dimensional Skin Cultures.

    PubMed

    Collawn, Sherry S; Mobley, James A; Banerjee, N Sanjib; Chow, Louise T

    2016-04-01

    Wound healing involves a number of factors that results in the production of a "closed" wound. Studies have shown, in animal models, acceleration of wound healing with the addition of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSC). The cause for the positive effect which these cells have on wound healing has not been elucidated. We have previously shown that addition of ADSC to the dermal equivalent in 3-dimensional skin cultures accelerates reepithelialization. We now demonstrate that conditioned media (CM) from cultured ADSC produced a similar rate of healing. This result suggests that a feedback from the 3-dimensional epithelial cultures to ADSC was not necessary to effect the accelerated reepithelialization. Mass spectrometry of CM from ADSC and primary human fibroblasts revealed differences in secretomes, some of which might have roles in the accelerating wound healing. Thus, the use of CM has provided some preliminary information on a possible mode of action. PMID:26954733

  8. Persistency of larvicidal effects of plant oil extracts under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Amer, Abdelkrim; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2006-09-01

    The persistency of larvicidal effects of 13 oils (camphor, thyme, amyris, lemon, cedarwood, frankincense, dill, myrtle, juniper, black pepper, verbena, helichrysum, and sandalwood) was examined by storage of 50-ppm solutions under different conditions (open, closed, in the light, and in the dark) for 1 month after the preparation of the solutions. The stored solutions were tested against Aedes aegypti larvae for four times during the storage period. Some oils under some conditions stayed effective until the last test, while some solutions had lost their toxicity during a short time after preparation. Thus, the mode of storage is absolutely important for the larvicidal effects. The fresh preparations were always the best. PMID:16642385

  9. Effect of storage conditions on microbiological and physicochemical quality of shea butter.

    PubMed

    Honfo, Fernande; Hell, Kerstin; Akissoé, Noël; Coulibaly, Ousmane; Fandohan, Pascal; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Storage conditions are key constraints for quality assurance of the shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner) butter. In the Sudan savannah Africa, storage conditions of butter produced by women vary across and among processors, traders and consumers. These conditions could impact the quality of the products and reduced their access to international market. The present study attempted to investigate the effect of storage duration and packaging materials on microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of shea butter under tropical climatic conditions. Five packaging materials traditionally used in shea butter value chain were tested for their efficacy in storing shea butter freshly produced. Total germs, yeasts and mould varied with packaging materials and storage duration. After 2 months of storage, moisture content of butter remained constant (5%) whereas acid value increased from 3.3 to 5.4 mg KOH/g, peroxide value from 8.1 to 10.1 meq O2/kg and iodine value dropped from 48.8 to 46.2 mg I2/100 g in shea butter irrespectively to the storage materials used. The basket papered with jute bag was the less effective in ensuring the quality of butter during storage while plastic containers and plastic bags seemed to be the best packaging materials. PMID:23572746

  10. Effects of flavorings, storage conditions, and storage time on survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese.

    PubMed

    Masatcioğlu, Tuğrul M; Avşar, Yahya K

    2005-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the cumulative effects of flavorings (chili pepper, thyme, mint, cumin, nutmeg, allspice, clove, cinnamon, black pepper, salt, and hot red pepper paste), storage conditions, and storage time on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese and to monitor the associated chemical changes. Sürk cheese, a traditional Turkish cheese, was produced by heating diluted nonfat yogurt and adding flavorings to the resultant acid-heat curd. The cheese was later inoculated with S. aureus, shaped conically, and stored aerobically for mold growth and anaerobically in olive oil for 30 days at room temperature. The moisture content of aerobically stored cheese decreased over time and led to increases in total solids, salt, salt-in-moisture, and ash content during ripening (P < 0.05). The presence or absence of the flavorings had no significant effect, whereas storage conditions and storage duration decreased the survival of S. aureus (P < 0.05). PMID:16013393

  11. Storage quality of shelled green peas under modified atmosphere packaging at different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Anurag, Rahul K; Manjunatha, M; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Kumari, Leena

    2016-03-01

    Storage quality of shelled green peas (Pisum sativum var. sativum L) was investigated under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP: perforated and non perforated) compared to unsealed samples, respectively, at T1 (4 ± 1 °C and 94 ± 2 % RH) and T2 (10 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 2 % RH) for each sample and during period of storage (8, 16 and 24 days). Modified atmosphere (MA) was created using low density polyethylene (LDPE) film packages having 107 μm of film thickness and package size of 0.022 m(2). Quality parameters viz., weight loss (WL), total phenolic content (TPC), instrumental colour, ascorbic acid (AA) and sensory characteristics were evaluated during storage period. Weight loss was in the range of 0.18 to 3.54 (zero perforation at T1), 0.21 to 6.48(unsealed samples at T2) and 0.31 to 9.64 % (zero perforation at T1) after 8, 16 and 24 days of storage, respectively. Total phenolic content significantly increased to 102.47-161.54 mg/100 g from an initial value of 91.53 mg/100 g for all the samples and treatments studied. The MAP non perforated sample stored at T2 recorded maximum Hunter 'L' and '-a' colour values than all other samples. A significant decrease in AA content was observed in all the samples with maximum loss (53.77 %) in unsealed sample stored at T2, whereas MAP (3 perforations) sample stored at T1 retained maximum AA (90.50 %). Sensory quality analysis revealed that MAP (3 perforations) sample stored at T1 was in acceptable quality, with good appearance and overall acceptance. The study shows that shelled green peas can be stored in MAP with 3 perforations (0.4 mm dia) in the temperature range of 4 to 10 °C and 90-94 % RH to extend shelf life with marketable quality for 24 days. PMID:27570289

  12. Key conditions for stable ion radiation pressure acceleration by circularly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, B.; Zepf, M.; Gibbon, P.; Borghesi, M.; Schreiber, J.; Geissler, M.

    2011-05-01

    Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) theoretically may have great potential to revolutionize the study of laserdriven ion accelerators due to its high conversion efficiency and ability to produce high-quality monoenergetic ion beams. However, the instability issue of ion acceleration has been appeared to be a fundamental limitation of the RPA scheme. To solve this issue is very important to the experimental realization and exploitation of this new scheme. In our recent work, we have identified the key condition for efficient and stable ion RPA from thin foils by CP laser pulses, in particular, at currently available moderate laser intensities. That is, the ion beam should remain accompanied with enough co-moving electrons to preserve a local "bunching" electrostatic field during the acceleration. In the realistic LS RPA, the decompression of the co-moving electron layer leads to a change of local electrostatic field from a "bunching" to a "debunching" profile, resulting in premature termination of acceleration. One possible scheme to achieve stable RPA is using a multi-species foil. Two-dimensional PIC simulations show that 100 MeV/u monoenergetic C6+ and/or proton beams are produced by irradiation of a contaminated copper foil with CP lasers at intensities 5 × 1020W/cm2, achievable by current day lasers.

  13. Biogenic amines in pressurized vacuum-packaged cooked sliced ham under different chilled storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Capillas, C; Carballo, J; Jiménez Colmenero, F

    2007-03-01

    This work was undertaken to study how storage conditions (at constant temperatures of 2±1 and 12±1°C and temperature fluctuations at 7±5°C) affect microbial development and the production of biogenic amines in vacuum-packaged cooked sliced ham subjected to high pressure (400MPa/10min/30°C). Initially, the product exhibited low levels of contamination. Microbiological changes during storage depend on the processing (non-pressure and pressure treatment) and the chilled storage conditions. Generally, microbial growth in pressurized samples was similar to that in the non-pressurized samples, although the total viable count and lactic flora were lower and growth was delayed. Processing and storage conditions affected the formation of each amine differently. The most important changes were in tyramine, which formed more quickly in non-pressurized products stored at 12°C and with temperature fluctuations. The formation of biogenic amines in these products can be prevented not only by ensuring good manufacturing practices and applying high pressure but also by ensuring the right chilled storage conditions. PMID:22063795

  14. Age effects in storage and extinction of a naturally acquired conditioned eyeblink response.

    PubMed

    Thürling, M; Galuba, J; Thieme, A; Burciu, R G; Göricke, S; Beck, A; Wondzinski, E; Siebler, M; Gerwig, M; Bracha, V; Timmann, D

    2014-03-01

    Acquisition of conditioned eyeblink responses is known to decline with age, and age-related decline has been related to a reduction of cerebellar size and function. The aim of the present study was to investigate age-related effects on storage-related processes and extinction of visual threat eyeblink responses (VTERs), conditioned responses which are naturally acquired in early childhood. Storage and extinction of VTERs were tested in 34 healthy participants with an age range from 21 to 74 years (mean age 41.6±16.3 years). High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images (MRI) were acquired in all subjects. Conventional volumetric measures and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were performed at the level of the cerebellum. Storage and extinction of VTERs showed a significant age-dependent decline. Likewise, cerebellar volume decreased with age. Storage, but not extinction showed a significant positive correlation with age-dependent reduction of total cerebellar volume. VBM analysis showed that gray matter volume in circumscribed areas of intermediate lobules VI, and Crus I and II bilaterally were positively correlated with VTER storage (p<0.05, FWE corrected). Considering extinction, no significant correlations with gray matter cerebellar volume were observed. The present findings show that reduction of storage of learned eyeblink responses with age is explained at least in part by age-dependent decline of cerebellar function. Future studies need to be performed to better understand which brain areas contribute to age-dependent reduction of extinction. PMID:24365777

  15. Effect of storage conditions on the stability and fermentability of enzymatic lignocellulosic hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Jin, Mingjie; Bothfeld, William; Austin, Samantha; Sato, Trey K; La Reau, Alex; Li, Haibo; Foston, Marcus; Gunawan, Christa; LeDuc, Richard D; Quensen, John F; McGee, Mick; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Higbee, Alan; Ranatunga, Ruwan; Donald, Charles W; Bone, Gwen; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Tiedje, James M; Noguera, Daniel R; Dale, Bruce E; Zhang, Yaoping; Balan, Venkatesh

    2013-11-01

    To minimize the change of lignocellulosic hydrolysate composition during storage, the effects of storage conditions (temperature, pH and time) on the composition and fermentability of hydrolysate prepared from AFEX™ (Ammonia Fiber Expansion - a trademark of MBI, Lansing, MI) pretreated corn stover were investigated. Precipitates formed during hydrolysate storage increased with increasing storage pH and time. The precipitate amount was the least when hydrolysate was stored at 4 °C and pH 4.8, accounting for only 0.02% of the total hydrolysate weight after 3-month storage. No significant changes of NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) spectra and concentrations of sugars, minerals and heavy metals were observed after storage under this condition. When pH was adjusted higher before fermentation, precipitates also formed, consisting of mostly struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) and brushite (CaHPO4·2H2O). Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation studies and yeast cell growth assays showed no significant difference in fermentability between fresh hydrolysate and stored hydrolysate. PMID:23999256

  16. Changes in the Spoilage-Related Microbiota of Beef during Refrigerated Storage under Different Packaging Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ercolini, Danilo; Russo, Federica; Torrieri, Elena; Masi, Paolo; Villani, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    The microbial spoilage of beef was monitored during storage at 5°C under three different conditions of modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP): (i) air (MAP1), (ii) 60% O2 and 40% CO2 (MAP2), and (iii) 20% O2 and 40% CO2 (MAP3). Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria were monitored by viable counts and PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis during 14 days of storage. Moreover, headspace gas composition, weight loss, and beef color change were also determined at each sampling time. Overall, MAP2 was shown to have the best protective effect, keeping the microbial loads and color change to acceptable levels in the first 7 days of refrigerated storage. The microbial colonies from the plate counts of each microbial group were identified by PCR-DGGE of the variable V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Thirteen different genera and at least 17 different species were identified after sequencing of DGGE fragments that showed a wide diversity of spoilage-related bacteria taking turns during beef storage in the function of the packaging conditions. The countable species for each spoilage-related microbial group were different according to packaging conditions and times of storage. In fact, the DGGE profiles displayed significant changes during time and depending on the initial atmosphere used. The spoilage occurred between 7 and 14 days of storage, and the microbial species found in the spoiled meat varied according to the packaging conditions. Rahnella aquatilis, Rahnella spp., Pseudomonas spp., and Carnobacterium divergens were identified as acting during beef storage in air (MAP1). Pseudomonas spp. and Lactobacillus sakei were found in beef stored under MAP conditions with high oxygen content (MAP2), while Rahnella spp. and L. sakei were the main species found during storage using MAP3. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota by molecular methods can help in the effective establishment of storage

  17. Effect of storage conditions on compaction behavior of two grades of spray-dried lactose.

    PubMed

    Atassi, Faraj; Almaya, Ahmad; Aburub, Aktham

    2008-01-01

    In this work we examine the effect of storage conditions (moisture exposure) on the compression behavior of 2 grades of spray-dried lactose (Pharmatose DCL 11 and Pharmatose DCL 14) under 2 different circumstances. The first was to expose powder samples to moisture, then compress them. The second was to expose precompressed tablets to moisture. We clearly show that the effect of moisture exposure and amorphous content crystallization in spray-dried lactoses on compaction behavior depends on whether this moisture exposure takes place before or after compression. In addition, the impact of storage conditions depends on the grade of spray-dried lactose. PMID:18649218

  18. Acceleration of dormant storage effects to address the reliability of silicon surface micromachined Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, James V.; Candelaria, Sam A.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Duesterhaus, Michelle Ann; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Timpe, Shannon J.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Skousen, Troy J.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Parson, Ted Blair

    2006-06-01

    Qualification of microsystems for weapon applications is critically dependent on our ability to build confidence in their performance, by predicting the evolution of their behavior over time in the stockpile. The objective of this work was to accelerate aging mechanisms operative in surface micromachined silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with contacting surfaces that are stored for many years prior to use, to determine the effects of aging on reliability, and relate those effects to changes in the behavior of interfaces. Hence the main focus was on 'dormant' storage effects on the reliability of devices having mechanical contacts, the first time they must move. A large number ({approx}1000) of modules containing prototype devices and diagnostic structures were packaged using the best available processes for simple electromechanical devices. The packaging processes evolved during the project to better protect surfaces from exposure to contaminants and water vapor. Packages were subjected to accelerated aging and stress tests to explore dormancy and operational environment effects on reliability and performance. Functional tests and quantitative measurements of adhesion and friction demonstrated that the main failure mechanism during dormant storage is change in adhesion and friction, precipitated by loss of the fluorinated monolayer applied after fabrication. The data indicate that damage to the monolayer can occur at water vapor concentrations as low as 500 ppm inside the package. The most common type of failure was attributed to surfaces that were in direct contact during aging. The application of quantitative methods for monolayer lubricant analysis showed that even though the coverage of vapor-deposited monolayers is generally very uniform, even on hidden surfaces, locations of intimate contact can be significantly depleted in initial concentration of lubricating molecules. These areas represent defects in the film prone to adsorption of water or

  19. Survivability of integrated PVDF film sensors to accelerated ageing conditions in aeronautical/aerospace structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, E.; Cugnoni, J.; Gmür, T.; Bonhôte, P.; Schorderet, A.

    2013-06-01

    This work validates the use of integrated polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film sensors for dynamic testing, even after being subjected to UV-thermo-hygro-mechanical accelerated ageing conditions. The verification of PVDF sensors’ survivability in these environmental conditions, typically confronted by civil and military aircraft, is the main concern of the study. The evaluation of survivability is made by a comparison of dynamic testing results provided by the PVDF patch sensors subjected to an accelerated ageing protocol, and those provided by neutral non-aged sensors (accelerometers). The available measurements are the time-domain response signals issued from a modal analysis procedure, and the corresponding frequency response functions (FRF). These are in turn used to identify the constitutive properties of the samples by extraction of the modal parameters, in particular the natural frequencies. The composite specimens in this study undergo different accelerated ageing processes. After several weeks of experimentation, the samples exhibit a loss of stiffness, represented by a decrease in the elastic moduli down to 10%. Despite the ageing, the integrated PVDF sensors, subjected to the same ageing conditions, are still capable of providing reliable data to carry out a close followup of these changes. This survivability is a determinant asset in order to use integrated PVDF sensors to perform structural health monitoring (SHM) in the future of full-scale composite aeronautical structures.

  20. [Oxidative and hydrolytic deterioration of palm oil and fat products based on it under various conditions of storage and transportation].

    PubMed

    Bessonov, V V; Zaĭtseva, L V; Stepanova, L I; Baĭkov, V G

    2012-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the effect of storage conditions for refined deodorized palm oil on the quality and safety: in containers made of ferrous metals (mild steel) at unregulated temperature, in sealed plastic bags at the temperature -20 degrees C in stainless steel under stratification of nitrogen at the temperature of 40+/-1 degrees C. The choice of the objects of study determined by the normative documents of the Russian Federation governing the transportation and storage of vegetable oils and fat products based on them. All samples of palm oil with peroxide value of 1,0 to 1,5 meq O2/kg indicated the presence of a weak foreign taste, is not peculiar impersonalfat, the samples with peroxide value above 1,5 meq O2/kg were observed pronounced off-flavors and odors characteristic of stale oil. Rancidity was observed in samples having peroxide value of 2,0 meq O2/kg or more. Free acid value and anizidin value for the studied period changed to a lesser extent, from 0,06 to 0,1 mg KOH/g and from 1,2 to 1,4 respectively. It is proved that, transportation/storage of palm oil at the temperature above 50 degrees C without stratification of nitrogen greatly accelerates the process of oxidative damage. Based on these data we can recommend transportation/storage and management process with the least possible time of contact of melted palm oil with oxygen to produce high-quality final product (within 2-3 hours from the time of melting). PMID:23156046

  1. High pressure treatments accelerate changes in volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wine during bottle storage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mickael C; Nunes, Cláudia; Rocha, M Angélica M; Rodrigues, Ana; Rocha, Sílvia M; Saraiva, Jorge A; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-12-01

    The impact of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wines during bottle storage was studied. For this purpose, white and red wines were produced without sulphur dioxide (SO2) and, at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, the wines were pressurised at 500 MPa and 425 MPa for 5 min. Wine with 40 ppm of SO2 and a wine without a preservation treatment were used as controls. More than 160 volatile compounds, distributed over 12 chemical groups, were identified in the wines by an advanced gas chromatography technique. The pressurised wines contained a higher content of furans, aldehydes, ketones, and acetals, compared with unpressurised wines after 9 months of storage. The changes in the volatile composition indicate that HHP treatments accelerated the Maillard reaction, and alcohol and fatty acid oxidation, leading to wines with a volatile composition similar to those of faster aged and/or thermally treated wines. PMID:26041211

  2. Characterization of electron clouds in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator using TE-wave transmission

    SciTech Connect

    De Santis, S.; Byrd, J. M.; Billing, M.; Palmer, M.; Sikora, J.; Carlson, B.

    2010-01-02

    A relatively new technique for measuring the electron cloud density in storage rings has been developed and successfully demonstrated [S. De Santis, J.M. Byrd, F. Caspers, A. Krasnykh, T. Kroyer, M.T.F. Pivi, and K.G. Sonnad, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 094801 (2008).]. We present the experimental results of a systematic application of this technique at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator. The technique is based on the phase modulation of the TE mode transmitted in a synchrotron beam pipe caused by the periodic variation of the density of electron plasma. Because of the relatively simple hardware requirements, this method has become increasingly popular and has been since successfully implemented in several machines. While the principles of this technique are straightforward, quantitative derivation of the electron cloud density from the measurement requires consideration of several effects, which we address in detail.

  3. Changes in Fungi and Mycotoxins in Pearl Millet Under Controlled Storage Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pearl millet is increasingly being grown for grain in the southern United States, and information concerning the influence of storage conditions on grain mold development is needed for industry. Effects of production year, temperature, relative humidity, atmosphere, and grain moisture content on fun...

  4. Comparisons of seed longevity under simulated aging and genebank storage conditions using brassicaceae seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds survive for years under dry conditions but then viability crashes without warning. Efforts to provide high quality seeds to customers, breed longer-living seeds, or to investigate the underlying causes of deterioration during storage prompt the need for a reliable measure of the longevity phe...

  5. ACCURACY OF PESTICIDE REFERENCE STANDARD SOLUTIONS. PART II. CHEMICAL STABILITY UNDER FOUR STORAGE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was undertaken to assess the long-term chemical stability of dilute standard pesticide solutions of 4 compound classes. The solutions were studied under 4 storage conditions: freezer at -15C; refrigerator at 3C; ambient temperature in the dark; and ambient temperature on ...

  6. GERMINATION OF STYRAX JAPONICUS SEEDS AS INFLUENCED BY STORAGE AND SOWING CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the effect of storage and sowing conditions on seed germination of Styrax japonicus Sieb. et. Zucc, an ornamental tree with seeds that exhibit double dormancy. The germination of freshly harvested seeds was compared with seeds that had been stored dry at 20C for a year before s...

  7. 40 CFR 266.220 - What does a storage and treatment conditional exemption do?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Conditional Exemption for Low-Level Mixed Waste Storage... exemption exempts your low-level mixed waste from the regulatory definition of hazardous waste in 40 CFR...

  8. Reconstruction of Initial Beam Conditions at the Exit of the DARHT II Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, A.C.

    2000-02-18

    We consider a technique of determining the initial beam conditions of the DARHT II accelerator by measuring the beam size under three different magnetic transport settings. This may be time gated to resolve the parameters as a function of time within the 2000 nsec pulse. This technique leads to three equations in three unknowns with solution giving the accelerator exit beam radius, tilt, and emittance. We find that systematic errors cancel and so are not a problem in the initial beam condition unfolding. Random uncorrelated shot to shot errors can be managed by one of three strategies: (1) make the transport system optically de-magnifying; (2) average over many individual shots; or (3) make the random uncorrelated shot to shot errors sufficiently small. The high power of the DARHT II beam requires that the beam transport system leading to a radius measuring apparatus be optically magnifying. This means that the shot to shot random errors must either be made small (less than about 1%) or that we average each of the three beam radius determinations over many individual shots. We find that for the anticipated DARHT II beam parameters that 60 to 120 shots should be sufficient to determine the accelerator beam parameters.

  9. Storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals in hot and humid regions.

    PubMed

    Bott, Rubiana F; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2007-04-01

    A review of the methodology for determination of the storage conditions for stability testing according to Schumacher/Grimm is presented in this paper. The purpose is to provide scientific information useful for the definition of storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals suitable to the region where the product will be dispensed. Special attention is given to stability testing in the new markets located in developing countries with very hot and humid climates. Finally, storage conditions for stability testing in the Brazilian regions were derived and examined comparatively with the guidelines of the world health organization (WHO) and regulatory bodies. The storage conditions were derived from the calculated values of the mean kinetic temperature and the relative humidity (RH). These parameters were estimated from daily values of dry and dew point temperatures of all Brazilian capitals from 1998 to 2002; collected in the morning (9 a.m.), in the afternoon (3 p.m.), and at night (9 p.m.). The Brazilian Center of Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies of the National Institute of Spatial Research (CPTEC/INPE) kindly furnished these data. Significant differences of the mean kinetic temperature (MKT) and relative humidity (RH) for Brazilian regions were observed. These results indicate the existence of a high climatic diversity between the Brazilian regions, making challenging the definition of a single storage condition for the stability testing. Some regions present RH values higher than 80%, giving support to the concerns of the WHO, indicating the necessity of revision of existing guidelines for stability testing mainly for very hot and humid regions. PMID:17523004

  10. Effect of sample storage conditions on Er:YAG laser ablation of enamel, dentin, and bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selting, Wayne J.

    2007-02-01

    Samples of bone, dentin and enamel were stored in distilled water, 10% neutral buffered formalin, 70% ethyl alcohol or 6% sodium hypochlorite solutions for fifteen days. Other samples were stored in the same solutions for 36 hours and then transferred to distilled water for the remainder of the fifteen day period. Finally, samples than had been stored dry for up to 5 years were rehydrated and ablated. All enamel specimens appeared unaffected by the storage conditions. Dentin samples were very significantly affected by all storage methods. Bone samples were affected by most storage conditions. Samples stored in sodium hypochlorite had as much as a 100 percent increase in ablation rate. Surprisingly, dry stored samples that were reconstituted for 36 hours ablated at virtually the same rate as those stored in distilled water. None of the storage conditions studied produced ablation rates that mirrored in vivo ablation. Sterilization by autoclave is the only reliable and safe method studied but cannot be used on teeth with amalgam fillings for safety reasons. Teeth with fillings should be stored in 10% neutral bufferred formalin for a minimum of one week.

  11. Resonant condition for storage ring short wavelength FEL with power exceeding Renieri limit

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Burnham, B.; Wu, Y.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the possibility of operating a storage ring FEL with resonant conditions providing for preservation of electron beam structure on an optical wave scale. We suggest tuning the storage ring betatron and synchrotron tunes on one of the high (N-th) order resonances to compensate dynamic diffusion of optical phase. This mode of operation does not require isochronicity of the ring lattice. In these conditions optical phase will be restored after N turns around the ring and stochastic conditions used in the derivation of Renieri limit are no longer applicable. We discuss the influence of high order terms in electron motion, RF frequency stability, and synchrotron radiation effects on preservation of optical phase.

  12. In-Situ Monitoring of Particle Growth at PEMFC Cathode under Accelerated Cycling Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, Erin L.; Setzler, Brian P.; Juhas, Pavol; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Fuller, Thomas F.

    2012-10-25

    An in-situ method to measure changes in catalyst particle size at the cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is demonstrated. Synchrotron X-rays, 58 keV, were used to measure the pair distribution function on an operating fuel cell and observe the growth of catalyst particles under accelerated degradation conditions. The stability of Pt/C and PtCo/C with different initial particle sizes was monitored over 3000 potential cycles. The increase in particle size was fit to a linear trend as a function of cycles. The most stable electrocatalyst was found to be the alloyed PtCo with the larger initial particle size.

  13. Numerical Simulation of Laser-driven In-Tube Accelerator on Supersonic Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sukyum; Jeung, In-Seuck; Choi, Jeong-Yeol

    2004-03-30

    Recently, several laser propulsion vehicles have been launched successfully. But these vehicles remained in a very low subsonic flight. Laser-driven In-Tube Accelerator (LITA) is developed as unique laser propulsion system at Tohoku University. In this paper, flow characteristics and momentum coupling coefficients are studied numerically in the supersonic condition with the same configuration of LITA. Because of the aerodynamic drag, the coupling coefficient could not get correctly especially at the low energy input. In this study, the coupling coefficient was calculated using the concept of the effective impulse.

  14. Numerical Simulation of Laser-driven In-Tube Accelerator on Supersonic Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sukyum; Jeung, In-Seuck; Choi, Jeong-Yeol

    2004-03-01

    Recently, several laser propulsion vehicles have been launched successfully. But these vehicles remained in a very low subsonic flight. Laser-driven In-Tube Accelerator (LITA) is developed as unique laser propulsion system at Tohoku University. In this paper, flow characteristics and momentum coupling coefficients are studied numerically in the supersonic condition with the same configuration of LITA. Because of the aerodynamic drag, the coupling coefficient could not get correctly especially at the low energy input. In this study, the coupling coefficient was calculated using the concept of the effective impulse.

  15. Accelerated safety analyses - structural analyses Phase I - structural sensitivity evaluation of single- and double-shell waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    Accelerated Safety Analyses - Phase I (ASA-Phase I) have been conducted to assess the appropriateness of existing tank farm operational controls and/or limits as now stipulated in the Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs) and Operating Specification Documents, and to establish a technical basis for the waste tank operating safety envelope. Structural sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the response of the different waste tank configurations to variations in loading conditions, uncertainties in loading parameters, and uncertainties in material characteristics. Extensive documentation of the sensitivity analyses conducted and results obtained are provided in the detailed ASA-Phase I report, Structural Sensitivity Evaluation of Single- and Double-Shell Waste Tanks for Accelerated Safety Analysis - Phase I. This document provides a summary of the accelerated safety analyses sensitivity evaluations and the resulting findings.

  16. NREL Develops Accelerated Sample Activation Process for Hydrogen Storage Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in developing a new sample activation process that reduces the time to prepare samples for measurement of hydrogen storage from several days to five minutes and provides more uniform samples. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center.

  17. Influence of storage condition on properties of MCC II-based pellets with theophylline-monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Cornelia; Thommes, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose II (MCC II(1)) is a polymorph of commonly used MCC I; in 2010 it was introduced as new pelletization aid in wet-extrusion/spheronization leading to fast disintegrating pellets. Previous investigations suggested that the storage of the resulting pellets affect the disintegration behavior, the non-hygroscopic substance chloramphenicol that showed no polymorphism or hydrate formation due to relative humidity was used for the investigations. Therefore, theophylline-monohydrate that can dehydrate during storage, but also during manufacturing and drying was used for this study to confirm the results of the previous study and give a more detailed overview of the influence of recrystallization of theophylline monohydrate on disintegration. Storage recommendations should be derived. MCC II-based pellets were prepared of binary mixtures containing 10%, 20% or 50% MCCII as pelletization aid and theophylline-monohydrate as API. These pellets were stored at different relative humidity (0-97%rH; 20°C); the influence on their disintegration and drug release was investigated. The storage conditions had an impact on pellet disintegration. Low relative humidities (⩽ 40%rH) led to a conversion of the monohydrate to the anhydrous form. Newly grown crystals formed a kind of network around the pellet and inhibited the disintegration. High relative humidity (>80%rh) affected the disintegration caused by changes in the MCCII as already seen in the previous study. Due to the changed disintegration behavior also the drug release and release kinetic changed. Therefore, for theophylline containing pellets a storage humidity of 55%rH to 80%rH (20°C) is recommended. All in all, these investigations substantiate the knowledge of MCCII-based pellets providing a better basis for adequate storage conditions of MCCII based pellets. PMID:24950003

  18. Anthocyanin Concentration of “Assaria” Pomegranate Fruits During Different Cold Storage Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Antunes, Dulce

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of anthocyanins in fruits of “Assaria” pomegranate, a sweet Portuguese cultivar typically grown in Algarve (south Portugal), was monitored during storage under different conditions. The fruits were exposed to cold storage (5°C) after the following treatments: spraying with wax; spraying with 1.5% CaCl2; spraying with wax and 1.5% CaCl2; covering boxes with 25 μc thickness low-density polyethylene film. Untreated fruits were used as a control. The anthocyanin levels were quantified by either comparison with an external standard of cyanidin 3-rutinoside (based on the peak area) or individual calculation from the peak areas based on standard curves of each anthocyanin type. The storage time as well as the fruit treatment prior to storage influenced total anthocyanin content. The highest levels were observed at the end of the first month of storage, except for the fruits treated with CaCl2, where the maximal values were achieved at the end of the second month. The anthocyanin quantification method influenced the final result. When total anthocyanin was calculated as a sum of individual pigments quantified based on standard curves of each anthocyanin type, lower values were obtained. PMID:15577199

  19. Different Storage Conditions Influence Biocompatibility and Physicochemical Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zaloga, Jan; Janko, Christina; Agarwal, Rohit; Nowak, Johannes; Müller, Robert; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have attracted increasing attention in many biomedical fields. In magnetic drug targeting SPIONs are injected into a tumour supplying artery and accumulated inside the tumour with a magnet. The effectiveness of this therapy is thus dependent on magnetic properties, stability and biocompatibility of the particles. A good knowledge of the effect of storage conditions on those parameters is of utmost importance for the translation of the therapy concept into the clinic and for reproducibility in preclinical studies. Here, core shell SPIONs with a hybrid coating consisting of lauric acid and albumin were stored at different temperatures from 4 to 45 °C over twelve weeks and periodically tested for their physicochemical properties over time. Surprisingly, even at the highest storage temperature we did not observe denaturation of the protein or colloidal instability. However, the saturation magnetisation decreased by maximally 28.8% with clear correlation to time and storage temperature. Furthermore, the biocompatibility was clearly affected, as cellular uptake of the SPIONs into human T-lymphoma cells was crucially dependent on the storage conditions. Taken together, the results show that the particle properties undergo significant changes over time depending on the way they are stored. PMID:25918940

  20. Reconstruction of Initial Beam Conditions at the Exit of the DARHT II Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Arthur

    We consider a technique to determine the initial beam conditions of the DARHT II Accelerator by measuring the beam size under three different magnetic transport settings. This may be time gated to resolve the parameters as a function of time within the 2000 nsec pulse. This technique leads to three equations in three unknowns with solution giving the accelerator exit beam radius, tilt and emittance. We find that systematic errors cancel and so are not a problem in unfolding the initial beam conditions. Random uncorrelated shot to shot errors can be managed by one of three strategies: 1) make the transport system optically de-magnifying; 2) average over many individual shots; or 3) make the random uncorrelated shot to shot errors sufficiently small. The high power of the DARHT II beam requires that the beam transport system leading to a radius measuring apparatus be optically magnifying. This means that the shot to shot random errors must either be made small (less than about 1%) or that we average each of the three beam radius determinations over many individual shots.

  1. [THE OPTIMAL CONDITIONS OF STORAGE OF SPERMATOZOA FOR ANALYSIS OF DNA FRAGMENTATION].

    PubMed

    Tataru, D A; Markova, E V; Osadchuk, L V; Sheina, E V; Svetlakov, A V

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons using technique of flow cytometry to evaluate male fertility more and more often begins to be applied in clinical diagnostic. However, development of optimal protocol of storage and preparation of spermatozoons for analysis still is at the stage of experimental elaboration. The studv was carried out to analyse effect of different conditions of preparation of ejaculate for adequate evaluation of index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons using sperm chromatin structure assay technique. The sampling consisted of 20 patients of the Krasnoyarsk center of reproductive medicine. The sperm chromatin structure assay technique was applied to evaluate index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons in fresh native ejaculate and after storage of spermatozoons under different temperature (37, 25 and 4 degrees C) and duration (1-2 and 1-3 days) and conditions of storage (-20 or -70 degrees C) of frozen spermatozoons (as native ejaculate or in TNE-buffer). It is demonstrated that index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons has no significant alterations in ejaculate stored under 4 degrees C during 48 hours. In case of storage of ejaculate under 25 or 37 degrees C index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons significantly increases already after first day of storage. The incubation of ejaculate under 37 degrees C results in increasing of index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons already after first hour. The individual differences are established related to degree of increasing of index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons because of impact of studied temperatures of ejaculate incubation. The storage of spermatozoons under temperature of - 20 and -70 degrees C in native ejaculate or in TNE-buffer has no effect of index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons with measurement during 1-2 hours. Therefore, storage and transportation of native ejaculate under 4 degrees C during 1-2 days or in frozen condition

  2. Capture, acceleration and bunching rf systems for the MEIC booster and storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Haipeng; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    The Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC), proposed by Jefferson Lab, consists of a series of accelerators. The electron collider ring accepts electrons from CEBAF at energies from 3 to 12 GeV. Protons and ions are delivered to a booster and captured in a long bunch before being ramped and transferred to the ion collider ring. The ion collider ring accelerates a small number of long ion bunches to colliding energy before they are re-bunched into a high frequency train of very short bunches for colliding. Two sets of low frequency RF systems are needed for the long ion bunch energy ramping in the booster and ion collider ring. Another two sets of high frequency RF cavities are needed for re-bunching in the ion collider ring and compensating synchrotron radiation energy loss in the electron collider ring. The requirements from energy ramping, ion beam bunching, electron beam energy compensation, collective effects, beam loading and feedback capability, RF power capability, etc. are presented. The preliminary designs of these RF systems are presented. Concepts for the baseline cavity and RF station configurations are described, as well as some options that may allow more flexible injection and acceleration schemes.

  3. Effects of operation of Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage project on Nickajack Reservoir flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.; Price, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The results from a study to determine the effects of Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant operations on flow conditions within Nickajack Reservoir are presented. Computer simulations and field studies have shown that flow reversals occur in Nickajack Reservoir as a result of the power peaking operations of the Nickajack and Chickamauga hydroelectric plants, both situated on the Tennessee River. The primary cause of these reversals is attributable to shutdowns of the Chickamauga turbines. The focus of this study is on flow reversals near the Moccasin Bend sewage treatment plant and near the Tennessee American water treatment plant, both of which are located on the Tennessee River near Chattanooga. Results from the study show that, under normal and extreme operating conditions at Chickamauga and Nickajack Dams, operation of the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant has no appreciable influence on flow reversals at the two plant sites.

  4. Quality and shelf life of cooked buffalo tripe rolls at refrigerated storage under vacuum packaging condition.

    PubMed

    Anandh, M Anna; Venkatachalapathy, R T; Radha, K; Lakshmanan, V

    2014-07-01

    Cooked buffalo tripe rolls prepared from a combination of buffalo tripe and buffalo meat by using mincing and blade tenderization process were stored at 4 ± 1 °C in polyethylene teraphthalate laminated with polythene (PET/PE) pouches under vacuum packaging condition. The samples were evaluated for physico-chemical parameters, microbial quality and sensory attributes at regular intervals of 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. Significant changes were seen in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of BTRs during storage at refrigeration temperature (4 ± 1 °C) under vacuum packaging condition. All microbial counts were well within the acceptable limits and the products did not show any signs of spoilage. Thus, BTRs prepared by mincing or BT can be best stored up to 28 days at 4 ± 1 °C under vacuum packaging. PMID:24966432

  5. Accelerated Weathering of Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation Material Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.

    2007-09-16

    To predict the long-term fate of low- and high-level waste forms in the subsurface over geologic time scales, it is important to understand the behavior of the corroding waste forms under conditions the mimic to the open flow and transport properties of a subsurface repository. Fluidized bed steam reformation (FBSR), a supplemental treatment technology option, is being considered as a waste form for the immobilization of low-activity tank waste. To obtain the fundamental information needed to evaluate the behavior of the FBSR waste form under repository relevant conditions and to monitor the long-term behavior of this material, an accelerated weathering experiment is being conducted with the pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) apparatus. Unlike other accelerated weathering test methods (product consistency test, vapor hydration test, and drip test), PUF experiments are conducted under hydraulically unsaturated conditions. These experiments are unique because they mimic the vadose zone environment and allow the corroding waste form to achieve its final reaction state. Results from this on-going experiment suggest the volumetric water content varied as a function of time and reached steady state after 160 days of testing. Unlike the volumetric water content, periodic excursions in the solution pH and electrical conductivity have been occurring consistently during the test. Release of elements from the column illustrates a general trend of decreasing concentration with increasing reaction time. Normalized concentrations of K, Na, P, Re (a chemical analogue for 99Tc), and S are as much as 1 × 104 times greater than Al, Cr, Si, and Ti. After more than 600 days of testing, the solution chemistry data collected to-date illustrate the importance of understanding the long-term behavior of the FBSR product under conditions that mimic the open flow and transport properties of a subsurface repository.

  6. Performance of tablet disintegrants: impact of storage conditions and relative tablet density.

    PubMed

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration can be influenced by several parameters, such as storage conditions, type and amount of disintegrant, and relative tablet density. Even though these parameters have been mentioned in the literature, the understanding of the disintegration process is limited. In this study, water uptake and force development of disintegrating tablets are analyzed, as they reveal underlying processes and interactions. Measurements were performed on dibasic calcium phosphate tablets containing seven different disintegrants stored at different relative humidities (5-97%), and on tablets containing disintegrants with different mechanisms of action (swelling and shape recovery), compressed to different relative densities. Disintegration times of tablets containing sodium starch glycolate are affected most by storage conditions, which is displayed in decreased water uptake and force development kinetics. Disintegration times of tablets with a swelling disintegrant are only marginally affected by relative tablet density, whereas the shape recovery disintegrant requires high relative densities for quick disintegration. The influence of relative tablet density on the kinetics of water uptake and force development greatly depends on the mechanism of action. Acquired data allows a detailed analysis of the influence of storage conditions and mechanisms of action on disintegration behavior. PMID:24848093

  7. Change in thermoluminescence of irradiated paprika powder during storage under various temperature and humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitai, Satoshi; Furuta, Masakazu

    2009-07-01

    The change in the thermoluminescence (TL) of mineral grains extracted from irradiated paprika powder was monitored for 6 months after irradiation. The samples were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays at doses of 1, 5, and 10 kGy and stored under various temperature and humidity conditions. It was found that 10-kGy irradiation was sufficient to achieve the decontamination level required by the Japanese Food Sanitation Law. A significant decrease in thermoluminescence was observed in the irradiated samples stored at high-temperatures and humidity conditions, conditions similar to real shipping conditions at countries where they are produced. The thermoluminescence method was found to be effective for the identification of samples irradiated with a dose of 10 kGy after 6 months of storage. However, samples irradiated with a dose of 1 kGy and stored under the same conditions could not be identified by this method.

  8. Historic Seismicity, Computed Peak Ground Accelerations, and Seismic Site Conditions for Northeast Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalvo-Arriet, J. C.; Galván-Ramírez, I. N.; Ramos-Zuñiga, L. G.; Navarro de León, I.; Ramírez-Fernández, J. A.; Quintanilla-López, Y.; Cavazos-Tovar, N. P.

    2007-05-01

    In this study we present the historic seismicity, computed peak ground accelerations, and mapping of seismic site conditions for northeast Mexico. We start with a compilation of the regional seismicity in northeast Mexico (24- 31°N, 87-106°W) for the 1787-2006 period. Our study area lies within three morphotectonic provinces: Basin and Range and Rio Grande rift, Sierra Madre Oriental and Gulf Coastal Plain. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) maps were computed for three different scenarios: 1928 Parral, Chihuahua (MW = 6.5); 1931 Valentine, Texas (MW = 6.4); and a hypothetical earthquake located in central Coahuila (MW = 6.5). Ground acceleration values were computed using attenuation relations developed for central and eastern North America and the Basin and Range province. The hypothetical earthquake in central Coahuila is considered a critical scenario for the main cities of northeast Mexico. The damage associated with this hypothetical earthquake could be severe because the majority of the buildings were constructed without allowance for seismic accelerations. The expected PGA values in Monterrey, Saltillo and Monclova range from 30 to 70 cm/s2 (0.03 to 0.07g). This earthquake might also produce or trigger significant landslides and rock falls in the Sierra Madre Oriental, where several cities are located (e.g. suburbs of Monterrey). Additionally, the Vs30 distribution for the state of Nuevo Leon and the cities of Linares and Monterrey are presented. The Vs30 data was obtained using seismic refraction profiling correlated with borehole information. According to NEHRP soil classification, sites classes A, B and C are dominant. Sites with class D occupy minor areas in both cities. Due to the semi-arid conditions in northeast Mexico, we obtained the highest values of Vs30 in Quaternary deposits (alluvium) cemented by caliche. Similar values of Vs30 were obtained in Reno and Las Vegas, Nevada. This work constitutes the first attempt at understanding and

  9. Storage of milk powders under adverse conditions. 2. Influence on the content of water-soluble vitamins.

    PubMed

    Ford, J E; Hurrell, R F; Finot, P A

    1983-05-01

    Storage of milk powder under unfavourable conditions accelerates the normally slow deterioration in nutritional quality. The effects of such storage on the water-soluble vitamin composition were examined. (a) Spray-dried whole milk containing 25 g water/kg was stored at 60 degrees and 70 degrees and sampled weekly to 9 weeks. (b) Spray-dried whole milk and skimmed milk were adjusted to contain 40 and 100 g water/kg and stored at 37 degrees in nitrogen and in oxygen. Samples were taken for analysis at intervals during storage. The samples were analysed for eight B-complex vitamins and ascorbic acid, and also for total lysine, 'reactive lysine' and 'lysine as lactulosyl-lysine'. Storage at 60 degrees caused rapid destruction of folic acid (53% loss at 4 weeks) and slower loss of thiamin, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid (18% at 8 weeks). There was no change in the content of riboflavin, biotin, nicotinic acid and vitamin B12. At 70 degrees the rate of destruction of the four labile vitamins was much increased; 18% or less survived at 4 weeks. At 37 degrees and 40 g water/kg there was little change in total and 'reactive' lysine during storage for 57 d. Lactulosyl-lysine was demonstrably present but at low concentration. There was considerable loss of folate (72%) and ascorbate (91%) during storage for 30 d in O2, but no significant loss in N2. Thiamin fell by approximately 12% in 57 d, equally in O2 and N2. The content of the remaining vitamins was unchanged. At 100 g water/kg there were progressive Maillard changes. During 27 d in N2 the colour changed from cream to pale brown, but in O2 there was no perceptible colour change. Total lysine fell by 20% in 27 d, and 'reactive lysine' by 30%. Folate was stable during 16 d in N2, but largely (94%) destroyed in O2. Ascorbic acid was also destroyed in N2 as in O2. Thiamin fell by 41% in 27 d, equally in O2 and N2. Vitamin B6 was more labile, especially in N2, falling by 71% in 16 d. With skimmed-milk powder containing 100

  10. Conditioning nerve crush accelerates cytoskeletal protein transport in sprouts that form after a subsequent crush

    SciTech Connect

    McQuarrie, I.G.; Jacob, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    To examine the relationship between axonal outgrowth and the delivery of cytoskeletal proteins to the growing axon tip, outgrowth was accelerated by using a conditioning nerve crush. Because slow component b (SCb) of axonal transport is the most rapid vehicle for carrying cytoskeletal proteins to the axon tip, the rate of SCb was measured in conditioned vs. sham-conditioned sprouts. In young Sprague-Dawley rats, the conditioning crush was made to sciatic nerve branches at the knee; 14 days later, the test crush was made where the L4 and L5 spinal nerves join to form the sciatic nerve in the flank. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled in motor neurons by injecting {sup 35}S-methionine into the lumbar spinal cord 7 days before the test crush. The wave of pulse-labeled SCb proteins reached the crush by the time it was made and subsequently entered sprouts. The nerve was removed and sectioned for SDS-PAGE and fluorography 4-12 days after the crush. Tubulins, neurofilament proteins, and representative 'cytomatrix' proteins (actin, calmodulin, and putative microtubule-associated proteins) were removed from gels for liquid scintillation counting. Labeled SCb proteins entered sprouts without first accumulating in parent axon stumps, presumably because sprouts begin to grow within hours after axotomy. The peak of SCb moved 11% faster in conditioned than in sham-conditioned sprouts: 3.0 vs. 2.7 mm/d (p less than 0.05). To confirm that sprouts elongate more rapidly when a test crush is preceded by a conditioning crush, outgrowth distances were measured in a separate group of rats by labeling fast axonal transport with {sup 3}H-proline 24 hours before nerve retrieval.

  11. Effect of various storage conditions on the stability of quinolones in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meixia; Wen, Fang; Wang, Hui; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-01

    Research on the storage stability of antibiotic residues in milk is important for method development or validation, milk quality control and risk assessment during screening, confirmation, qualitative or quantitative analysis. This study was conducted using UPLC-MS/MS to determine the stability of six quinolones - ciprofloxacin (CIP), danofloxacin (DAN), enrofloxacin (ENR), sarafloxacin (SAR), difloxacin (DIF) and flumequine (FLU) - in raw milk stored under various conditions to investigate if quinolones degrade during storage of milk, and finally to determine optimal storage conditions for analysis and scientific risk assessment of quinolone residues in raw milk. The storage conditions included different temperatures and durations (4°C for 4, 8, 24 and 48 h; -20°C for 1, 7 and 30 days; -80°C for 1, 7 and 30 days), thawing temperatures (25, 40 and 60°C), freeze-thaw cycles (1-5), and the addition of different preservatives (sodium thiocyanate, sodium azide, potassium dichromate, bronopol and methanal). Most quinolones exhibited high stability at 4°C for up to 24 h, but began to degrade after 48 h. In addition, no degradation of quinolones was seen when milk samples were stored at -20°C for up to 7 days; however, 30 days of storage at -20°C resulted in a small amount of degradation (about 30%). Similar results were seen when samples were stored at -80°C. Moreover, no losses were observed when frozen milk samples were thawed at 25, 40 or 60°C. All the quinolones of interest, except sarafloxacin, were stable when milk samples were thawed at 40°C once and three times, but unstable after five freeze-thaw cycles. Preservatives affected the stability of quinolones, but the effects differed depending on the preservative and quinolone. The results of this study indicate optimum storage protocols for milk samples, so that residue levels reflect those at the time of initial sample analysis, and should improve surveillance programmes for quinolones in raw milk

  12. Solar/Stellar Granulation as the Key Lower Boundary Condition for Coronal Heating and Wind Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2014-06-01

    Much of the hot plasma that eventually becomes the supersonic solar wind appears to have its origin in small (100 km diameter) magnetic flux tubes that sit in the downflowing lanes between convective granules in the Sun's photosphere. Convective overturning motions jostle these flux tubes and induce kink-mode oscillations that can grow into Alfven waves in the corona. A great deal of recent work has been done to explore how these Alfvenic fluctuations may drive a turbulent cascade, heat the plasma by gradual dissipation, and provide direct acceleration to a wind via wave pressure gradients. This presentation will outline this work and show how an accurate description of granulation is a key input to self-consistent models of coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. These self-consistent models have also been applied successfully to predicting: (1) high-energy emission from accreting T Tauri stars, (2) the mass loss rates of cool dwarfs and red giants, and (3) the combined X-ray, radio, and submillimeter emission from a young nearby M dwarf. In addition, a recent analysis of stellar granulation with Kepler photometry has shown that our understanding of the shallow convection zones of F-type stars still requires additional refinement. In all cases, the combination of multiple types of observational data has been crucial to improving our understanding. For the Sun, the next-generation capabilities of ATST/DKIST are expected to provide much more precise knowledge about this important lower boundary condition to the heliosphere.

  13. Bioreactor Conditioning for Accelerated Remodeling of Fibrin-Based Tissue Engineered Heart Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jillian Beth

    Fibrin is a promising scaffold material for tissue engineered heart valves, as it is completely biological, allows for engineered matrix alignment, and is able to be degraded and replaced with collagen by entrapped cells. However, the initial fibrin matrix is mechanically weak, and extensive in vitro culture is required to create valves with sufficient mechanical strength and stiffness for in vivo function. Culture in bioreactor systems, which provide cyclic stretching and enhance nutrient transport, has been shown to increase collagen production by cells entrapped in a fibrin scaffold, accelerating strengthening of the tissue and reducing the required culture time. In the present work, steps were taken to improve bioreactor culture conditions with the goal of accelerating collagen production in fibrin-based tissue engineered heart valves using two approaches: (i) optimizing the cyclic stretching protocol and (ii) developing a novel bioreactor system that permits transmural and lumenal flow of culture medium for improved nutrient transport. The results indicated that incrementally increasing strain amplitude cyclic stretching with small, frequent increments in strain amplitude was optimal for collagen production in our system. In addition, proof of concept studies were performed in the novel bioreactor system and increased cellularity and collagen deposition near the lumenal surface of the tissue were observed.

  14. A study of 192Ir production conditions at an electron accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dovbnya, A. N.; Rogov, Yu. V.; Shevchenko, V. A.; Shramenko, B. I.; Tenishev, A. Eh.; Torgovkin, A. V.; Uvarov, V. L.

    2014-09-01

    This communication deals with the conditions of 192Ir isotope production under a nonreactor technology via the 193Ir(γ, n)192Ir reaction. It can be carried out by irradiation of a target from natural iridium with the high-energy X-ray of an electron accelerator. The possibility of increasing the photonuclear yield of the target isotope by addition of the 191Ir( n, γ)192Ir reaction induced by moderated photoneutrons has been shown. For this, an X-ray converter and a target were placed inside a neutron moderator. Data on the 192Ir and admixture yields for the techniques using the moderator and without it have been obtained by computer simulation and experimentally.

  15. High rates of carbon storage in old deciduous forests: Emerging mechanisms from the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, C. M.; Nave, L. E.; Hardiman, B. S.; Bohrer, G.; Halperin, A.; Maurer, K.; Le Moine, J.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Vogel, C. S.; Curtis, P.; University Of Michigan Biological Station Forest Ecosystem Study (Umbs-Fest) Team

    2010-12-01

    Deciduous forests of the eastern US are broadly approaching an ecological threshold in which early successional dominant trees are senescing and giving way to later successional species, with unknown consequences for regional carbon (C) cycling. Though recent research demonstrates that forests may accumulate C for centuries, the mechanisms behind sustained rates of C storage in old, particularly deciduous, forests have not been identified. In a regionally representative forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station, we are combining observational and experimental C cycling studies to forecast how forest C storage responds to climate variation, disturbance, and succession. The Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET), in which >6,700 aspen and birch trees (~35 % LAI) were stem girdled within a 39 ha area, is testing the hypothesis that forest production will increase rather than decline with age, due to increases in nitrogen (N) availability, N allocation to the canopy, and the concurrent development of a more biologically and structurally complex canopy. Results thus far support our hypothesis that aging forests in the region may sustain high rates of C storage through shifts in N cycling and increased canopy complexity. Girdling-induced mortality of early successional species reduced soil respiration, accelerated fine root turnover, and prompted the redistribution of N from the foliage of early to later successional species. Nitrogen redistribution increased leaf area index (LAI) production by later successional species, offsetting declines in LAI from senescing early successional species. High rates of net primary production (NPP) were sustained in stands comprising a diverse assemblage of early and later successional species because later successional species, when already present in the canopy, rapidly compensated for declining growth of early successional species. Canopy structural complexity, which increased with forest age, was positively

  16. The Effects of Storage Conditions on the Preservation of Enzymatic Activity in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Cosby, Christi N.; Troiano, Nancy W.; Kacena, Melissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase are two major enzymatic measures of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity, respectively. As a result, the preservation of the enzymes in bone specimens to near in vivo accuracy is essential. Despite standardization of the staining process, several factors related to the storage of blocks and slides before sectioning and staining impact the level of enzymes detected in the tissue. Block condition (intact, faced, or unstained) as well as environment (temperature and length of time in storage) affect alkaline phosphatase preservation while the acid phosphatase enzyme remains unaffected. We conclude that to optimally preserve alkaline phosphatase enzyme, methacrylate-embedded undecalcified murine bones should be stored as intact blocks. After sectioning, the faced blocks should be stored at 4°C for optimal enzyme staining of future sections. Furthermore, it is best to stain sections immediately after sectioning. PMID:20686670

  17. Accelerated wastage of the Monte Perdido Glacier in the Spanish Pyrenees during recent stationary climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Moreno, J. I.; Revuelto, J.; Rico, I.; Chueca-Cía, J.; Julián, A.; Serreta, A.; Serrano, E.; Vicente-Serrano, S. M.; Azorín-Molina, C.; Alonso-González, E.; García-Ruiz, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of the Monte Perdido Glacier, the third largest glacier of the Pyrenees, from 1981 to the present. We assessed the evolution of the glacier's surface area by use of aerial photographs from 1981, 1999, and 2006, and changes in ice volume by geodetic methods with digital elevation models (DEMs) generated from topographic maps (1981 and 1999), airborne LIDAR (2010) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014). We interpreted the changes in the glacier based on climate data from a nearby meteorological station. The results indicate an accelerated degradation of this glacier after 2000, with a rate of ice surface loss that was almost three-times greater from 2000 to 2006 than for earlier periods, and a doubling of the rate of ice volume loss from 1999 to 2010 (the ice depth decreased 8.98 ± 1.8 m, -0.72 ± 0.14 m w.e. yr-1) compared to 1981 to 1999 (the ice depth decreased 8.35 ± 2.12 m, -0.39 ± 0.1 m w.e. yr-1). This loss of glacial ice has continued from 2011 to 2014 (the ice depth decreased 2.1 ± 0.4 m, -0.64 ± 0.36 m w.e. yr-1). Local climatic changes during the study period cannot explain the acceleration in wastage rate of this glacier, because local precipitation and snow accumulation increased slightly, and local air temperature during the ablation period did not significantly increase. The accelerated degradation of this glacier in recent years can be explained by the lack of equilibrium between the glacier and the current climatic conditions. In particular, the average air temperature increased by at least 0.9 °C in this region since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) in the mid-1800s. Thus, this glacier shrinks dramatically during years with low accumulation or high air temperatures during the ablation season, but cannot recover during years with high accumulation or low air temperatures during the ablation season. The most recent TLS data support this interpretation. These data indicated that two

  18. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    PubMed

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site. PMID:23971876

  19. Further study of the effect of the downstream plasma condition on accelerator grid erosion in an ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Xiaohang; Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Keefer, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    Further numerical results are presented of earlier particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo calculations of accelerator grid erosion in an ion thruster. A comparison between numerical and experimental results suggests that the accelerator grid impingement is primarily due to ions created far downstream from the accelerator grid. In particular, for the same experimental conditions as those of Monheiser and Wilbur at Colorado State University, it is found that a downstream plasma density of 2 x 10 exp 14/cu m is required to give the same ratio of accelerator grid impingement current to beam current (5 percent). For this condition, a potential hill is found in the downstream region of 2.5 V.

  20. Temperature conditioning system suitable for use with a solar energy collection and storage apparatus or a low temperature energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Briley, P.B.

    1983-02-22

    A temperature conditioning system employing an ejector-type compressor and a refrigerant selected for operation at the limited operating temperatures of a heat energy collection and storage apparatus. Improved performance may be achieved by employing a two-tank storage system having a control circuit for supplying heat transfer medium from the hotter of the tanks for return to the cooler.

  1. Temperature conditioning system suitable for use with a solar energy collection and storage apparatus or a low temperature energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Briley, P. B.

    1981-02-03

    A temperature conditioning system is disclosed employing an ejector-type compressor and a refrigerant selected for operation at the limited operating temperatures of a heat energy collection and storage apparatus. Improved performance may be achieved by employing a two-tank storage system having a control circuit for supplying heat transfer medium from the hotter of the tanks for return to the cooler.

  2. THE EFFECT OF STORAGE CONDITIONS ON HANDLING AND SO2 REACTIVITY OF CA(OH)2-BASED SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of an investigation of the effect of relative humidity (RH), time, and aeration during calcium hydroxide -- Ca(OH)2--storage for its effect on sorbent handling and reactivity with sulfur dioxide (SO2). nvestigated was the effect of sorbent storage condit...

  3. Accelerated soil carbon turnover under tree plantations limits soil carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangshui; Yang, Yusheng; Yang, Zhijie; Xie, Jinsheng; Guo, Jianfen; Gao, Ren; Yin, Yunfeng; Robinson, David

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of native forests by tree plantations is increasingly common globally, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Improving our understanding of the long-term effects of this replacement on soil organic carbon (SOC) remains paramount for effectively managing ecosystems to mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. Meta-analyses imply that native forest replacement usually reduces SOC stocks and may switch the forest from a net sink to a net source of atmospheric carbon. Using a long-term chronosequence during which areas of subtropical native forest were replaced by Chinese fir, we show by direct measurement that plantations have significantly accelerated SOC turnover compared with native forest, an effect that has persisted for almost a century. The immediate stimulation of SOC decomposition was caused by warmer soil before the closure of the plantation’s canopy. Long-term reductions in SOC mean residence times were coupled to litter inputs. Faster SOC decomposition was associated with lower soil microbial carbon use efficiency, which was due to smaller litter inputs and reduced nutrient availabilities. Our results indicate a previously unelucidated control on long-term SOC dynamics in native forests and demonstrate a potential constraint on climate mitigation when such forests are replaced by plantations.

  4. Accelerated soil carbon turnover under tree plantations limits soil carbon storage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guangshui; Yang, Yusheng; Yang, Zhijie; Xie, Jinsheng; Guo, Jianfen; Gao, Ren; Yin, Yunfeng; Robinson, David

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of native forests by tree plantations is increasingly common globally, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Improving our understanding of the long-term effects of this replacement on soil organic carbon (SOC) remains paramount for effectively managing ecosystems to mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. Meta-analyses imply that native forest replacement usually reduces SOC stocks and may switch the forest from a net sink to a net source of atmospheric carbon. Using a long-term chronosequence during which areas of subtropical native forest were replaced by Chinese fir, we show by direct measurement that plantations have significantly accelerated SOC turnover compared with native forest, an effect that has persisted for almost a century. The immediate stimulation of SOC decomposition was caused by warmer soil before the closure of the plantation's canopy. Long-term reductions in SOC mean residence times were coupled to litter inputs. Faster SOC decomposition was associated with lower soil microbial carbon use efficiency, which was due to smaller litter inputs and reduced nutrient availabilities. Our results indicate a previously unelucidated control on long-term SOC dynamics in native forests and demonstrate a potential constraint on climate mitigation when such forests are replaced by plantations. PMID:26805949

  5. Accelerated soil carbon turnover under tree plantations limits soil carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangshui; Yang, Yusheng; Yang, Zhijie; Xie, Jinsheng; Guo, Jianfen; Gao, Ren; Yin, Yunfeng; Robinson, David

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of native forests by tree plantations is increasingly common globally, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Improving our understanding of the long-term effects of this replacement on soil organic carbon (SOC) remains paramount for effectively managing ecosystems to mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. Meta-analyses imply that native forest replacement usually reduces SOC stocks and may switch the forest from a net sink to a net source of atmospheric carbon. Using a long-term chronosequence during which areas of subtropical native forest were replaced by Chinese fir, we show by direct measurement that plantations have significantly accelerated SOC turnover compared with native forest, an effect that has persisted for almost a century. The immediate stimulation of SOC decomposition was caused by warmer soil before the closure of the plantation’s canopy. Long-term reductions in SOC mean residence times were coupled to litter inputs. Faster SOC decomposition was associated with lower soil microbial carbon use efficiency, which was due to smaller litter inputs and reduced nutrient availabilities. Our results indicate a previously unelucidated control on long-term SOC dynamics in native forests and demonstrate a potential constraint on climate mitigation when such forests are replaced by plantations. PMID:26805949

  6. Effect of age and storage conditions on the volatile organic compound profile of blood.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Shari L; Rust, LaTara; Trebilcock, Kate; Perrault, Katelynn A; McGrath, Laura T

    2014-12-01

    Cadaver-detection dogs are used by the police to locate missing persons, victims of homicide, and human remains following mass disasters. Training is conducted using a variety of training aids including blood which can be hours, weeks or months old and stored under variable conditions. The aim of this study was to chemically profile human blood using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine how the volatile organic compound (VOC) profile changed over time and under variable storage conditions. The VOC profiles of fresh and degraded blood were analyzed as well as blood stored at room temperature, refrigerated, and frozen. Fresh and degraded blood samples produced distinctive VOC patterns with VOC profiles becoming more complex over time. Freezing the blood produced a complex VOC profile that was clearly discriminated from the VOC profile for blood stored at room temperature or in a refrigerator. This study highlights the importance of standardizing the age and storage conditions when using blood as a training aid to ensure cadaver-detection dogs are exposed to an accurate representation of the blood VOCs they may encounter at a scene. PMID:25351882

  7. Impact of storage conditions on metabolite profiles of sputum samples from persons with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiangchao; Evans, Charles R.; Carmody, Lisa A.; LiPuma, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although recent studies have begun to elucidate how airway microbial community structure relates to lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), microbial community activity and the host’s response to changes in this activity are poorly understood. Metabolomic profiling provides a means to investigate microbial and human cell activity within diseased airways. However, variables in sample storage and shipping likely affect downstream analyses and standards for sample handling are lacking. Methods We assessed the impact of sample storage conditions on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of CF sputum samples. Results Significant changes in global metabolomic profiles occurred in samples stored at room temperature or at 4°C for longer than one day. Untargeted metabolomic profiles were stable in sputum samples stored at −20°C or −80°C for at least 28 days. Quorum sensing molecules and phenazines, both considered important to the in vivo activity of Pseudomonas during airway infection, were detected after sample storage at room temperature for five days. Conclusions Sputum samples can be stored at −20°C or −80°C for weeks with minimal effect on global metabolomic profiles. This observation provides guidance in designing metabolomic studies that have the potential to deepen our understanding of how airway microbial communities impact lung disease progression in CF. PMID:25725986

  8. Salmonella survival on pecans as influenced by processing and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, L R; Heaton, E K

    1975-06-01

    Survival of Salmonella senftenberg 775W, S. anatum, and S. typhimurium during exposure to currently practiced, as well as abusive, pecan processing and storage conditions was studied. Thermal treatments normally carried out during the processing of pecans are inadequate to consistently destroy salmonellae in highly contaminated inshell nuts. Pecan nut packing tissue was toxic to salmonellae, thus affording some protection against high initial contamination and subsequent survival of the organisms. Examinations of inoculated inshell pecans stored at -18, -7, 5, and 21 C for up to 32 weeks revealed that the extent of survival was inversely correlated to the storage temperature. S. senftenberg 775W and S. anatum were not detectable on inshell nuts after 16 weeks of storage at 21 C. Little decrease in viable population of the three species was noted on inoculated pecan halves stored at -18, -7, and 5 C for 32 weeks. Due to organoleptic quality deterioration in pecan nutmeats at elevated temperatures, sterilization methods other than thermal treatment appear to be required for the elimination of viable salmonellae from pecan nuts. PMID:1098573

  9. Effects of dehulling and storage conditions on cooking requirements and chemical composition of soybeans.

    PubMed

    Cabral, L C; Serna-Saldivar, S O; Tinsley, A M

    1995-03-01

    Changes in cooking requirements and chemical composition of whole and dehulled soybeans, stored in 2 different environments [25 degrees C /75% R.H. (Environment 1) and 38 degrees C /90% R.H. (Environment 2)], were studied. Rate of water absorption and solid losses during cooking were higher for the dehulled soybeans at both storage conditions. However, cooking requirements to achieve the same degree of texture in the cotyledons were similar for whole and dehulled seeds. Cooking time increased with prolonged storage; the effect was more noticeable in samples stored under Environment 2. Samples kept for 6 months required almost twice as much cooking than control samples. Dehulled soybeans had a lower fiber content, relatively higher amounts of protein and fat, but similar amino acid compositions than whole soybeans. Cooking caused losses of carbohydrates and ash and, therefore, significantly increased levels of protein and fat reflected by losses of solids during soaking and cooking. Among the amino acids, only cysteine suffered substantial decrease as a result of cooking. Cooking and storage inactivated 99% and from 20-35% of the trypsin inhibitors, respectively; the latter effect was more accentuated in samples stored under Environment 2. PMID:8729250

  10. Establishing conditions for the storage and elution of rabies virus RNA using FTA® cards

    PubMed Central

    SAKAI, Takeo; ISHII, Ayako; SEGAWA, Takao; TAKAGI, Yukihiko; KOBAYASHI, Yuki; ITOU, Takuya

    2014-01-01

    The Flinders Technology Associates filter paper cards (FTA® cards) can be used to store nucleic acid from various samples and are easily portable. However, RNA is physicochemically unstable compared with DNA, and appropriate methods have not been established for storage and extraction of RNA from FTA® cards. The present study investigated the optimum conditions for storage and elution of viral RNA (vRNA) using rabies virus (RABV) applied to FTA® cards. When TE buffer was used, the elution rates of vRNA increased with the length of the elution time. When the cards were stored at −80°C or −20°C, vRNA was stable over 3 months. Degradation of vRNAs occurred following storage at 4°C and room temperature, suggesting that RNA should be extracted from cards as soon as possible if no freezer is available. When we tried to amplify vRNA from RABV-infected animal brains applied to FTA® cards and stored at −80°C for 6 months, we did not detect any amplified products with the primer set for 964 bp of RABV N gene. However, we were able to detect amplified products by increasing the elution time of vRNA from FTA® cards from 30 min to 24 hr or by changing the primer sets to amplify 290 bp of N gene. Thus, we recommend extending the elution time for damaged or low concentration samples in FTA® cards. PMID:25648208

  11. Safe operating conditions for NSLS-II Storage Ring Frontends commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Amundsen, C.; Ha, K.; Hussein, A.

    2015-04-02

    The NSLS-II Storage Ring Frontends are designed to safely accept the synchrotron radiation fan produced by respective insertion device when the electron beam orbit through the ID is locked inside the predefined Active Interlock Envelope. The Active Interlock is getting enabled at a particular beam current known as AI safe current limit. Below such current the beam orbit can be anywhere within the limits of the SR beam acceptance. During the FE commissioning the beam orbit is getting intentionally disturbed in the particular ID. In this paper we explore safe operating conditions for the Frontends commissioning.

  12. Accelerated Biodegradation of Agriculture Film Based on Aromatic-Aliphatic Copolyester in Soil under Mesophilic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Šerá, Jana; Stloukal, Petr; Jančová, Petra; Verney, Vincent; Pekařová, Silvie; Koutný, Marek

    2016-07-20

    A study was conducted on the biodegradation of aromatic-aliphatic copolyester-based agricultural film in soil at 25 °C. The polymer is known to be biodegradable under composting conditions although rather recalcitrant under mesophilic conditions. The material investigated comprised of the copolyester filled with approximately 25% of starch containing biodegradable plasticizers, and its behavior was compared to the corresponding material without the filler. Mineralization followed by CO2 production merely reached the point of about 6% after 100 days of incubation in the pure copolyester film, whereas the value of around 53% was recorded for the filled copolyester film, which exceeded the readily biodegradable starch filler content in the material by more than 20% and could be accounted for biodegradation of the copolyester. It was suggested that the accelerated copolyester biodegradation in the starch-filled material was most likely explained by the increase in the active surface area of the material available for the microbial attack after biodegradation of the filler. The results were supported by changes in molecular weight distributions of the copolyester and observations made by several microscopic techniques. These findings encourage further development of biodegradable agricultural films based on this material. PMID:27367168

  13. Measurements in Transitional Boundary Layers Under High Free-Stream Turbulence and Strong Acceleration Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volino, Ralph J.; Simon, Terrence W.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements from transitional, heated boundary layers along a concave-curved test wall are presented and discussed. A boundary layer subject to low free-stream turbulence intensity (FSTI), which contains stationary streamwise (Gortler) vortices, is documented. The low FSTI measurements are followed by measurements in boundary layers subject to high (initially 8%) free-stream turbulence intensity and moderate to strong streamwise acceleration. Conditions were chosen to simulate those present on the downstream half of the pressure side of a gas turbine airfoil. Mean flow characteristics as well as turbulence statistics, including the turbulent shear stress, turbulent heat flux, and turbulent Prandtl number, are documented. A technique called "octant analysis" is introduced and applied to several cases from the literature as well as to data from the present study. Spectral analysis was applied to describe the effects of turbulence scales of different sizes during transition. To the authors'knowledge, this is the first detailed documentation of boundary layer transition under such high free-stream turbulence conditions.

  14. Economic analysis of air-conditioning systems with off-peak chilled-water storage. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McMullen, B.J.; Papaprokopiou, N.D.

    1981-09-01

    This thesis investigates current methods of chilled-water storage for air conditioning applications and the economics of chilled-water storage with time-of-use electric utility rates. Current methods of chilled-water storage are investigated by comparing costs of construction materials for storage tanks and effectiveness and costs of anti-blending systems. The economics of chilled-water storage are analyzed by computing total life cycle costs of alternative air conditioning systems for two different sized buildings. Computer simulation is used to determine electric consumption for the buildings. The simulation of each building contains three options: no chilled-water storage, chiller operated only at night, and a small chiller supplemented by stored chilled-water. A gunite or Styrofoam tank with a moving partition anti-blending system is the least expensive and most effective storage system. The economics of chilled-water storage are sensitive to the size of the building analyzed. Operating the small chiller with supplemental chilled-water is economical in the smaller building. No chilled-water storage is the most economical option in the larger building. Operation of the chiller only at night was never economical.

  15. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and storage conditions on quality characteristics of cucumber.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, M; Anurag, Rahul K

    2014-11-01

    Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) stored in perforated modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) under cold room (4 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 2 % RH) and ambient condition (23-26 °C and 63-66 % RH) were evaluated for firmness, weight loss (WL), colour, chilling injury and sensory characteristics. The firmness of cucumbers was decreased to 0.333 and 0.326 N on 6th and 12th day of storage, respectively from initial value of 0.38 N. After 12 days of storage, the WL was in the range of 1.62-12.89 % whereas the cucumber stored under MAP having 2 perforations at 4 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 2 % RH recorded least WL of 1.62 %. The minimum change in colour (Hunter L, a and b values) was observed in the cucumber samples stored at cold room condition. The increase in 'b' values (yellowness) was more in the sample stored at ambient condition with unsealed sample registered highest 'b' values (35.82). On 12th day of storage, sensory quality evaluation revealed that samples stored under perforated MAP at 4 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 2 % RH were acceptable in condition with sensory score of 7.1 and 7.5. Chilling injury was severe in sample unsealed (4.4 chilling injury score) and slight to moderate chilling injury was observed in 2 and 4 perforated package samples stored under cold room condition. The study revealed that cucumber can be stored under MAP with 2 perforations at 4 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 2 % RH and ambient condition (23-26 °C and 63-66 % RH) for 12 and 6 days, respectively. PMID:26396348

  16. Influence of maturity and storage period on physical and biochemical characteristics of pear during post cold storage at ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Dhillon, W S

    2015-08-01

    The fruits of semi-soft pear (Pyrus communis) cv. Punjab Beauty harvested at three different harvest dates were stored at 0-1(0) C temperature with 90-95 % Relative Humidity for 30, 45, 60 and 75 days to assess the physical and chemical changes during storage. After every storage interval, the fruits were removed and kept at room temperature for 3 and 6 days to study the shelf life of fruits. Immature fruits always had the highest values of flesh firmness; optimum-mature fruits had the next and over-mature fruits the lowest at each corresponding sampling period during storage. The fruits harvested at optimum stage of maturity exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) lower incidence of fruit softening and physiological loss in weight. These fruits retained excellent quality up to 60 days of storage in cool chamber with 3 days shelf life at ambient temperature. The fruits of first harvest date were incapable of developing acceptable flavor and quality upon ripening throughout the storage period. However, the fruits harvested at post-optimum stage recorded maximum physiological loss in weight and lesser firmness thus making them suitable for immediate consumption with no shelf life at ambient temperature storage. PMID:26243965

  17. Influence of storage conditions and shotshell wounding on the hygienic condition of hunted, uneviscerated pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Paulsen, P; Nagy, J; Popelka, P; Ledecky, V; Marcincák, S; Pipová, M; Smulders, F J M; Hofbauer, P; Lazar, P; Dicakova, Z

    2008-01-01

    The effects of shot wounds on the hygienic conditions of pheasants (particularly those in the body cavity) were studied. Slaughtered (n = 33) and hunted pheasants (31 specimens with, and 33 specimens without shots in the body cavity) were stored uneviscerated at 0 and 4 degrees C. Specimens were taken at d 0, 3, 7, and 14. Hunted pheasants differed from slaughtered pheasants with respect to muscular hemorrhages and blood and fecal matter in the body cavity but also with regard to the presence of Escherichia coli in breast and thigh muscles. In addition, a higher thigh muscle pH (P < 0.05) was noted in hunted pheasants, with no significant (P > 0.05) increase observed during storage. Concentrations of biogenic amines in muscle tissue remained below the determination limit of 1 mg/kg for 90% of samples analyzed, with the maximum concentration for the remaining 10% of samples reaching 5.7 mg/kg, indicating a low incidence of contaminant bacteria. The observed changes in pH values and levels of biogenic amines failed to correlate with the presence or absence of shot lesions in the body cavity or abdominal region. Total aerobic counts increased significantly during storage, but the absolute numbers were consistently below 10(6) log(10) cfu/g. Although E. coli were <1 log(10) cfu/g in muscles of hunted pheasants on d 3 at 4 degrees C, counts of up to 3.7 log(10) cfu/g on d 7 at 4 degrees C indicated a loss of hygienic quality. Therefore, it is recommended that hunted, uneviscerated pheasants be stored 3 d at 4 degrees C, but not longer than 7 d after the hunt. PMID:18079470

  18. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, E; Wen, SY; Shi, L; da Silva, AK

    2013-12-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system's dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle's cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle's cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid-air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semianalytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid-air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system experimental data for solidification using paraffin wax as the PCM. Through modeling, we demonstrate the importance of capturing the airside heat exchange impact on system performance, and we investigate system response to dynamic operating conditions, e.g., air recirculation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurements in Transitional Boundary Layers Under High Free-Stream Turbulence and Strong Acceleration Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volino, Ralph John

    1995-01-01

    Measurements from transitional, heated boundary layers along a concave-curved test wall are presented and discussed. A boundary layer subject to low free-stream turbulence intensity (FSTI), which contains stationary streamwise (Gortler) vortices, is documented. The low FSTI measurements are followed by measurements in boundary layers subject to high (initially 8%) free-stream turbulence intensity and moderate to strong (K = {nuover U_sp{infty} {2}}{dUinftyover dx} as high as 9times 10^{ -6}) acceleration. The high FSTI experiments are the main focus of the work. Conditions were chosen to simulate those present on the downstream half of the pressure side of a gas turbine airfoil. The high FSTI boundary layers undergo transition from a strongly disturbed non-turbulent state to a fully-turbulent state. Due to the stabilizing effect of strong acceleration, the transition zones are of extended length in spite of the high FSTI. Transitional values of skin friction coefficients and Stanton numbers drop below flat-plate, low FSTI, turbulent flow correlations, but remain well above laminar flow values. Mean velocity and temperature profiles exhibit clear changes in shape as the flow passes through transition. Turbulence statistics, including the turbulent shear stress, turbulent heat flux, and turbulent Prandtl number, are documented. Turbulent transport is strongly suppressed below values in unaccelerated turbulent boundary layers. A technique called "octant analysis" is introduced and applied to several cases from the literature as well as to data from the present study. Octant analysis shows a fundamental difference between transitional and fully-turbulent boundary layers. Transitional boundary layers are characterized by incomplete mixing compared to fully-turbulent boundary layers. Similar octant analysis results are observed in both low and high FSTI cases. Spectral analysis suggests that the non-turbulent zone of the high FSTI flow is dominated by large scale

  20. Study of photon emission by electron capture during solar nuclei acceleration. 2: Delimitation of conditions for charge transfert establishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    The conditions for establishment of charge transfer during acceleration of nuclei up to Fe, for typical conditions of solar flare regions T = 5 x 10 to the 3rd power to 2.5 x 10 to the 8th power degrees K were explored. Results show that such conditions are widely assorted, depending on the acceleration mechanism, the kind of projections and their velocity, the target elements, the source temperature and consequently on the degree of ionization of matter and the local charge state of the accelerated ions. Nevertheless, in spite of that assorted behavior, there are some general tendencies that can be summarized as follows. In atomic H electron capture is systematically established from thermal energies up to high energies, whatever the element and for both acceleration process. For a given element and fixed temperature (T), the probability and energy domain of electron capture and loss with Fermi are higher than with Betatron acceleration. For a given acceleration process the heavier the ion the higher the probability and the wider the energy range for electron capture and loss. For given acceleration mechanism and fixed element the importance and energy domain of capture and loss increase with T: for those reasons, the energy range of charge equilibrium (illustrated with solid lines on the next figs.) is wider with Fermi and increases with temperature and atomic number of projectiles. For the same reasons, electron loss is smaller while the lighter the element, the lower the temperature and the Betatron process, such that there are conditions for which electron loss is not allowed at low energies, but only electron capture is established.

  1. Effect of storage conditions on handling and SO2 reactivity of CA(OH)2-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Jozewicz, W.; Gullett, B.K.

    1991-01-01

    The article gives results of an investigation of the effect of relative humidity (RH), time, and aeration during calcium hydroxide--Ca(OH)2--storage for its effect on sorbent handling and reactivity with sulfur dioxide (SO2). Investigated was the effect of sorbent storage conditions of time (1-24 hr), RH (zero-90%), silo wall material, and aeration on handling properties of flowability and floodability and their subsequent effect on sorbent/SO2 reactivity. Increased RH in the storage chamber and prolonged storage increased floodability, as predicted by the angle of difference. No significant effect of RH on the flowability of Ca(OH)2, as predicted by the angle of repose, was detected. The importance of silo wall material on proper sorbent discharge pattern has been demonstrated through testing on four common surfaces. The effect of sorbent storage conditions on the reactivity of Ca(OH)2 with SO2 was evaluated in a short time differential reactor (STDR)operated under conditions typical of dry sorbent injection for SO2 control near the preheater. Increased RH and aeration with air during storage resulted in decreased reactivity of Ca(OH)2 with SO2. The effect of storage conditions on handling of novel Ca(OH)2-based sorbents for the removal of SO2 was also evaluated. ADVACATE sorbent appears to have significantly better handling properties than the other sorbents tested.

  2. Evolution of quality characteristics of minimally processed asparagus during storage in different lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Sanz, S; Olarte, C; Ayala, F; Echávarri, J F

    2009-08-01

    The effect of different types of lighting (white, green, red, and blue light) on minimally processed asparagus during storage at 4 degrees C was studied. The gas concentrations in the packages, pH, mesophilic counts, and weight loss were also determined. Lighting caused an increase in physiological activity. Asparagus stored under lighting achieved atmospheres with higher CO(2) and lower O(2) content than samples kept in the dark. This activity increase explains the greater deterioration experienced by samples stored under lighting, which clearly affected texture and especially color, accelerating the appearance of greenish hues in the tips and reddish-brown hues in the spears. Exposure to light had a negative effect on the quality parameters of the asparagus and it caused a significant reduction in shelf life. Hence, the 11 d shelf life of samples kept in the dark was reduced to only 3 d in samples kept under red and green light, and to 7 d in those kept under white and blue light. However, quality indicators such as the color of the tips and texture showed significantly better behavior under blue light than with white light, which allows us to state that it is better to use this type of light or blue-tinted packaging film for the display of minimally processed asparagus to consumers. PMID:19723236

  3. Technical note: Acceleration of sparse operations for average-information REML analyses with supernodal methods and sparse-storage refinements.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Y; Aguilar, I; Tsuruta, S; Misztal, I

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to remove bottlenecks generally found in a computer program for average-information REML. The refinements included improvements to setting-up mixed-model equations on a hash table with a faster hash function as sparse matrix storage, changing sparse structures in calculation of traces, and replacing a sparse matrix package using traditional methods (FSPAK) with a new package using supernodal methods (YAMS); the latter package quickly processed sparse matrices containing large, dense blocks. Comparisons included 23 models with data sets from broiler, swine, beef, and dairy cattle. Models included single-trait, multiple-trait, maternal, and random regression models with phenotypic data; selected models used genomic information in a single-step approach. Setting-up mixed model equations was completed without abnormal termination in all analyses. Calculations in traces were accelerated with a hash format, especially for models with a genomic relationship matrix, and the maximum speed was 67 times faster. Computations with YAMS were, on average, more than 10 times faster than with FSPAK and had greater advantages for large data and more complicated models including multiple traits, random regressions, and genomic effects. These refinements can be applied to general average-information REML programs. PMID:26523559

  4. Do spawn storage conditions influence the colonization capacity of a wheat-straw-based substrate by Agaricus subrufescens?

    PubMed

    Farnet, Anne-Marie; Qasemian, Leila; Peter-Valence, Frédérique; Ruaudel, Florence; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Roussos, Sevastianos; Gaime-Perraud, Isabelle; Ziarelli, Fabio; Ferré, Élisée

    2014-01-01

    Storage conditions of the spawn of edible fungi are of major importance to facilitate the production of mushrooms. Here, standard storage conditions at 10°C or 15°C were used and the potential of colonization of standard European compost by the tropical species Agaricus subrufescens was assessed during the spawn running phase. Two lignocellulolytic activities, laccase and CMC-cellulase, were enhanced after storage compared to control as well as substrate transformation, as described by the aromaticity ratio and a humification ratio calculated from NMR data. This result indicates that mycelium growth probably occurred during storage at 10 or 15°C, leading to a larger amount of biomass in the inoculum. Moreover, the microbial functional diversity of the substrate was favored, showing that the electivity of the substrate was maintained. Thus, these findings indicate that recommendations for the mushroom producers can be established for A. subrufescens cultivation under European standard conditions. PMID:25103829

  5. Influence of different filling, cooling, and storage conditions on the growth of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA7152 in orange juice.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Ana Cláudia N F; Sant'ana, Anderson S; Rodrigues-Junior, Salatir; Massaguer, Pilar R

    2009-12-01

    The prevention of spoilage by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a current challenge for fruit juice and beverage industries worldwide due to the bacterium's acidothermophilic growth capability, heat resistance, and spoilage potential. This study examined the effect of storage temperature on A. acidoterrestris growth in hot-filled orange juice. The evolution of the A. acidoterrestris population was monitored under six different storage conditions after pasteurization (at 92 degrees C for 10 s), maintenance at 85 degrees C for 150 s, and cooling with water spray to 35 degrees C in about 30 min and using two inoculum levels: <10(1) and 10(1) spores/ml. Final cooling and storage conditions were as follows: treatment 1, 30 degrees C for the bottle cold point and storage at 35 degrees C; treatment 2, 30 degrees C for 48 h and storage at 35 degrees C; treatment 3, 25 degrees C for the bottle cold point and storage at 35 degrees C; treatment 4, 25 degrees C for 48 h and storage at 35 degrees C; treatment 5, storage at 20 degrees C (control); and treatment 6, filling and storage at 25 degrees C. It was found that only in treatment 5 did the population remain inhibited during the 6 months of orange juice shelf life. By examining treatments 1 to 4, it was observed that A. acidoterrestris predicted growth parameters were significantly influenced (P < 0.05) either by inoculum level or cooling and storage conditions. The time required to reach a 10(4) CFU/ml population of A. acidoterrestris was considered to be an adequate parameter to indicate orange juice spoilage by A. acidoterrestris. Therefore, hot-filled orange juice should be stored at or below 20 degrees C to avoid spoilage by this microorganism. This procedure can be considered a safe and inexpensive alternative to other treatments proposed earlier. PMID:19801469

  6. Die another day: Fate of heat-treated Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 spores during storage under growth-preventing conditions.

    PubMed

    Mtimet, Narjes; Trunet, Clément; Mathot, Anne-Gabrielle; Venaille, Laurent; Leguérinel, Ivan; Coroller, Louis; Couvert, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores are recognized as one of the most wet-heat resistant among aerobic spore-forming bacteria and are responsible for 35% of canned food spoilage after incubation at 55 °C. The purpose of this study was to investigate and model the fate of heat-treated survivor spores of G. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 in growth-preventing environment. G. stearothermophilus spores were heat-treated at four different conditions to reach one or two decimal reductions. Heat-treated spores were stored in nutrient broth at different temperatures and pH under growth-preventing conditions. Spore survival during storage was evaluated by count plating over a period of months. Results reveal that G. stearothermophilus spores surviving heat treatment lose their viability during storage under growth-preventing conditions. Two different subpopulations were observed during non-thermal inactivation. They differed according to the level of their resistance to storage stress, and the proportion of each subpopulation can be modulated by heat treatment conditions. Finally, tolerance to storage stress under growth-preventing conditions increases at refrigerated temperature and neutral pH regardless of heat treatment conditions. Such results suggest that spore inactivation due to heat treatment could be completed by storage under growth-preventing conditions. PMID:26919821

  7. Occurrence of gram-negative bacteria in hens' eggs depending on their source and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Stepień-Pyśniak, D

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the qualitative composition of Gram-negative microbes, mainly of the family Enterobacteriaceae, including pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, in the albumens and yolks and on the shells of hens' eggs, depending on their source and on the temperature and duration of their storage. A total of 375 table eggs were studied, from a large-scale poultry farm, a small-scale poultry farm and a supermarket. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups according to the temperature and duration of their storage during the study. Two serotypes of bacteria of the genus Salmonella were identified: S. Enteritidis and S. Arizonae. Strains of Salmonella spp. were also isolated. Apart from Salmonella and Escherichia coli, among the most frequently isolated bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae were Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Citrobacter freundii. Qualitative analysis of the bacterial microflora of the eggs also showed the presence of other Gram negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., Tatumella ptyseos, Providencia stuartii, Serratia liquefaciens, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, Vibrio metschnikovii, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Kluyvera spp., Rahnella aquatilis, Proteus mirabilis, and Achromobacter spp. The study demonstrated that the conditions applied, i.e., the temperature and duration of storage, did not significantly influence the prevalence of particular species of Gram-negative bacteria in the eggs. However, based on the analysis of contamination of eggs with Salmonella depending on their source, it can be concluded that the system in which the hens are housed affects the risk of contamination of eggs with these pathogens. PMID:21033566

  8. Variation in diffusion of gases through PDMS due to plasma surface treatment and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Markov, Dmitry A; Lillie, Elizabeth M; Garbett, Shawn P; McCawley, Lisa J

    2014-02-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a commonly used polymer in the fabrication of microfluidic devices due to such features as transparency, gas permeability, and ease of patterning with soft lithography. The surface characteristics of PDMS can also be easily changed with oxygen or low pressure air plasma converting it from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic state. As part of such a transformation, surface methyl groups are removed and replaced with hydroxyl groups making the exposed surface to resemble silica, a gas impermeable substance. We have utilized Platinum(II)-tetrakis(pentaflourophenyl)porphyrin immobilized within a thin (~1.5 um thick) polystyrene matrix as an oxygen sensor, Stern-Volmer relationship, and Fick's Law of simple diffusion to measure the effects of PDMS composition, treatment, and storage on oxygen diffusion through PDMS. Results indicate that freshly oxidized PDMS showed a significantly smaller diffusion coefficient, indicating that the SiO2 layer formed on the PDMS surface created an impeding barrier. This barrier disappeared after a 3-day storage in air, but remained significant for up to 3 weeks if PDMS was maintained in contact with water. Additionally, higher density PDMS formulation (5:1 ratio) showed similar diffusion characteristics as normal (10:1 ratio) formulation, but showed 60 % smaller diffusion coefficient after plasma treatment that never recovered to pre-treatment levels even after a 3-week storage in air. Understanding how plasma surface treatments contribute to oxygen diffusion will be useful in exploiting the gas permeability of PDMS to establish defined normoxic and hypoxic oxygen conditions within microfluidic bioreactor systems. PMID:24065585

  9. Variation in diffusion of gases through PDMS due to plasma surface treatment and storage conditions

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Dmitry A.; Lillie, Elizabeth M.; Garbett, Shawn P.; McCawley, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a commonly used polymer in the fabrication of microfluidic devices due to such features as transparency, gas permeability, and ease of patterning with soft lithography. The surface characteristics of PDMS can also be easily changed with oxygen or low pressure air converting it from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic state. As part of such a transformation, surface methyl groups are removed and replaced with hydroxyl groups making the exposed surface to resemble silica, a gas impermeable substance. We have utilized Platinum(II)-tetrakis(pentaflourophenyl)porphyrin immobilized within a thin (~1.5 um thick) polystyrene matrix as an oxygen sensor, Stern-Volmer relationship, and Fick's Law of simple diffusion to measure the effects of PDMS composition, treatment, and storage on oxygen diffusion through PDMS. Results show that freshly oxidized PDMS showed a significantly smaller diffusion coefficient, indicating that the SiO2 layer formed on the PDMS surface created an impeding barrier. This barrier disappeared after a three-day storage in air, but remained significant for up to three weeks if PDMS was maintained in contact with water. Additionally, higher density PDMS formulation (5:1 ratio) showed similar diffusion characteristics as normal (10:1 ratio) formulation, but showed 60% smaller diffusion coefficient after plasma treatment that never recovered to pre-treatment levels even after a three-week storage in air. Understanding how plasma surface treatments contribute to oxygen diffusion will be useful in exploiting the gas permeability of PDMS to establish defined normoxic and hypoxic oxygen conditions within microfluidic bioreactor systems. PMID:24065585

  10. Accelerated Aging of the M119 Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bixon, Eric R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the storage requirement, shelf life, and the reliability of M119 Whistling Simulator. Experimental conditions have been determined and the data analysis has been completed for the accelerated testing of the system. A general methodology to evaluate the shelf life of the system as a function of the storage time, temperature, and relative humidity is discussed.

  11. Methane adsorption in nanoporous carbon: the numerical estimation of optimal storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, L.; Kuchta, B.; Firlej, L.; Roth, M. W.; Wexler, C.

    2016-05-01

    The efficient storage and transportation of natural gas is one of the most important enabling technologies for use in energy applications. Adsorption in porous systems, which will allow the transportation of high-density fuel under low pressure, is one of the possible solutions. We present and discuss extensive grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation results of the adsorption of methane into slit-shaped graphitic pores of various widths (between 7 Å and 50 Å), and at pressures P between 0 bar and 360 bar. Our results shed light on the dependence of film structure on pore width and pressure. For large widths, we observe multi-layer adsorption at supercritical conditions, with excess amounts even at large distances from the pore walls originating from the attractive interaction exerted by a very high-density film in the first layer. We are also able to successfully model the experimental adsorption isotherms of heterogeneous activated carbon samples by means of an ensemble average of the pore widths, based exclusively on the pore-size distributions (PSD) calculated from subcritical nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Finally, we propose a new formula, based on the PSD ensemble averages, to calculate the isosteric heat of adsorption of heterogeneous systems from single-pore-width calculations. The methods proposed here will contribute to the rational design and optimization of future adsorption-based storage tanks.

  12. Novel electrical energy storage system based on reversible solid oxide cells: System design and operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, C. H.; Kazempoor, P.; Braun, R. J.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) is an important component of the future electric grid. Given that no other widely available technology meets all the EES requirements, reversible (or regenerative) solid oxide cells (ReSOCs) working in both fuel cell (power producing) and electrolysis (fuel producing) modes are envisioned as a technology capable of providing highly efficient and cost-effective EES. However, there are still many challenges and questions from cell materials development to system level operation of ReSOCs that should be addressed before widespread application. This paper presents a novel system based on ReSOCs that employ a thermal management strategy of promoting exothermic methanation within the ReSOC cell-stack to provide thermal energy for the endothermic steam/CO2 electrolysis reactions during charging mode (fuel producing). This approach also serves to enhance the energy density of the stored gases. Modeling and parametric analysis of an energy storage concept is performed using a physically based ReSOC stack model coupled with thermodynamic system component models. Results indicate that roundtrip efficiencies greater than 70% can be achieved at intermediate stack temperature (680 °C) and elevated stack pressure (20 bar). The optimal operating condition arises from a tradeoff between stack efficiency and auxiliary power requirements from balance of plant hardware.

  13. [Influence of Storage Temperature and Cryopreservation Conditions on the Extent of Human Sperm DNA Fragmentation].

    PubMed

    Simonenko, E Yu; Garmaeva, S B; Yakovenko, S A; Grigorieva, A A; Tverdislov, V A; Mironova, A G; Aprishko, V P

    2016-01-01

    With the direct labeling procedure for detecting DNA fragmentation we explored the influence of the different storage temperature conditions as well as different methods of cryopreservation on the structure of DNA organization in the human sperm. 19 sperm samples obtained from healthy men with normozoospermia (according to the criteria of the World Health Organization) were used for investigation. A significant increase of human sperm DNA-fragmentation was observed after 8 hours of incubation at +39 degrees C (by 76.7%) and at +37 degrees C (by 68.9%). It was found that sperm cooling with the use of a cryoprotectant immediately after thawing did not produce significant differences in the extent of DNA fragmentation, although samples, containing cryoprotectants, showed a sharp increase of DNA fragmentation after 24 hours of incubation, that could suggest cryoprotectant cytotoxicity. PMID:27192834

  14. Shallow-storage conditions for the rhyolite of the 1912 eruption at Novarupta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, M.L.; Gardner, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed contrasting models for the plumbing system that fed the 1912 eruption of Novarupta, Alaska. Here, we investigate the conditions under which the rhyolitic part of the erupted magma last resided in the crust prior to eruption. Geothermometry suggests that the rhyolite was held at ???800-850 ??C, and analyses of melt inclusions suggest that it was fluid saturated and contained ???4 wt% water. Hydrothermal, water-saturated experiments on rhyolite pumice reveal that at those temperatures the rhyolite was stable between 40 and 100 MPa, or a depth of 1.8-4.4 km. These results suggest that pre-eruptive storage and crystal growth of the rhyolite were shallow; if the rhyolite ascended from greater depths, it did so slowly enough for unzoned phenocrysts to grow as it passed through the shallow crust.

  15. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  16. The magmatic conditions, from storage to surface preceding effusive and explosive eruptions at Kelud Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, M.; Helo, C.; Castro, J. M.; Muir, D. D.; Troll, V. R.

    2015-12-01

    Kelud volcano, (Indonesia) has in recent years demonstrated the classical dichotomy of eruptive styles, with an effusive dome eruption in 2007-08 and an explosive Plinian eruption in 2014, causing widespread ash fall and the evacuation of 100,000 people. This study compares both the deep (magma reservoir) and shallow (conduit feeder system) magmatic processes that occurred before both eruptions, using a combination of petrography as well as analytical and experimental petrology. The first results from this study show that despite their significant differences in eruptive style, these eruption products had identical magma compositions, comprising of basaltic andesite. Furthermore, the phenocryst assemblage and mineral compositions of the explosive and effusive products are also similar, pointing towards equivalent pre-eruptive storage conditions. The key difference lies within the microlite populations and matrix glass chemistry. These suggest that the eruptive style is determined by the ascent history, with different P(H2O)-T-t paths leading to either effusive or explosive behavior. Interestingly, some plagioclase phenocrysts preserve progressive capture of small melt inclusions during different stages of crystal growth. Raman spectroscopic analysis of these small melt inclusions from crystal core to rim, provides a unique view of magmatic water contents during magma reservoir evolution. We speculate that water content variations (~0.6 - 2.3%) may exist due to a complex interplay between the fractionating basaltic andesite and fresh mafic injections. This study will also show the preliminary results from the first phase experiments done on Kelud volcanics, constraining the magmatic storage conditions preceding both the 2014 explosive and 2007 effusive eruptions.

  17. Stability of morphine, codeine, and 6-acetylmorphine in blood at different sampling and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Papoutsis, Ioannis; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Pistos, Constantinos; Dona, Artemisia; Stefanidou, Maria; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Athanaselis, Sotirios

    2014-03-01

    The stability of drugs in biological specimens is a major concern during the evaluation of the toxicological results. The stability of morphine, codeine, and 6-acetyl-morphine in blood was studied after different sampling conditions: (i) in glass, polypropylene or polystyrene tubes, (ii) with addition of dipotassium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (K2EDTA) or sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4), and (iii) with or without the addition of sodium fluoride (NaF). Spiked blood samples were stored at two different temperatures (4 and -20°C), analyzed after different storage times and after three freeze–thaw cycles. Opiate concentrations were decreased in all conditions, but the most unstable was 6-acetyl-morphine. The addition of NaF as preservative improved the stability of opiates at all conditions studied, whereas the type of anticoagulant did not affect the stability of opiates. It was concluded that blood samples should be stored at -20°C in glass tubes containing oxalate and NaF for maximum stability. PMID:24745085

  18. Fuel-Free Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous Compressed-Air Energy Storage and Power Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-13

    GRIDS Project: General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES™ system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal and nuclear generation.

  19. Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores in nutritional pellets: effect of storage time and conditions on the trapping ability against Haemonchus contortus larvae.

    PubMed

    Fitz-Aranda, J A; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Liébano-Hernández, E; López-Arellano, M E; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Quiroz-Romero, H

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of storage time and conditions of nutritional pellets (NP) containing Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores on its in vitro trapping ability against Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae. The treated batch (200 NP) contained 4 × 106 chlamydospores of the FTH0-8 strain, whereas the control batch (200 NP) was produced without spores. Both NP batches were exposed to four experimental storage conditions: (T1) shelves (indoors); (T2) refrigeration (4°C); (T3) outdoors under a roof; and (T4) 100% outdoors. Each group comprised 48 NP with spores and 48 NP without spores (control). The ability of D. flagrans spores to trap H. contortus L3 larvae was evaluated for 8 weeks for each storage condition. For that purpose, six randomly selected NP with spores were compared to their respective control NP. Each NP was individually crushed. The crushed material (1 g) was placed on the surface of a 2% water agar plate with 200 H. contortus L3 larvae. Plates were sealed and were incubated at room temperature for 8 days. The whole content of every plate was transferred to a Baermann apparatus to recover the remaining larvae. There was a clear larval reduction in the NP with spores, compared to the respective control NP in the four storage conditions (P< 0.05). The mean reductions ( ± SEM) of the storage conditions were 67 ± 4.9 (T2), 77 ± 6.1 (T1), 81.5 ± 3.8 (T4) and 82.1 ± 2.5 (T3). Larval reductions were similar at all times and were not affected by storage conditions or storage time (R 20.05). The long-term shelf-life of the chlamydospores in the NP suggests that this spore dosage technology is a viable option. PMID:23953994

  20. Control of blue mold (Penicillium expansum) by fludioxonil in apples (cv Empire) under controlled atmosphere and cold storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Errampalli, Deena; Northover, John; Skog, Lisa; Brubacher, Nichole R; Collucci, Cheryl A

    2005-06-01

    A reduced risk fungicide, fludioxonil, was tested for its efficacy against blue mold caused by thiabendazole-resistant and -sensitive Penicillium expansum (Link) Thom in apples under three storage conditions. In a co-treatment, fludioxonil and inoculum were applied together to test the protective activity of the fungicide on wounds that had been aged for 1 or 2 days. The fungicide was also tested for its curative activity in post-inoculation treatment on apples that had been inoculated for 1 or 2 days. Fludioxonil was very effective as co-treatment and as post-inoculation treatment. At a concentration of 300 mg litre(-1), fludioxonil gave complete control of post-harvest blue mold caused by the thiabendazole-resistant and -sensitive P expansum for 105 days in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage at 2 (+/-1) degrees C, for 42 days in common cold storage at 4 (+/-1) degrees C and also in a shelf-life study for 6 days at 20 (+/-1) degrees C. Comparison on the effect of fludioxonil in CA storage and common cold storage showed that higher concentrations of fungicide were needed in cold storage than in CA storage. Fludioxonil at a concentration of 450 mg litre(-1), gave 98 and 92% control of blue mold of apples in the simulated shelf-life studies after CA and common cold storages, respectively. Fludioxonil has a potential to be incorporated in the fungicide resistance management strategies for control of blue mold in apples stored for 105 days. PMID:15662721

  1. Physical conditions for conducting radiobiological experiments in beams of accelerated particles with high linear energy transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kudryashov, Y. I.; Marennyy, A. M.; Popov, V. I.; Aykhorn, K.; Ertsgreber, G.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of an accelerator to conduct radiobiological experiments is reported that uses aluminum filters to control the accelerated ion beam while preserving its stability, and a vacuum chamber to conduct the ion beam with the help of a collector through a lavsan exit port to the target. Depth distribution of the absorbed dose from a monodirectional ion beam is practically completely represented by the change in the energy spectrum of the biological object.

  2. Conditioning of BPM pickup signals for operations of the Duke storage ring with a wide range of single-bunch current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Huang, Sen-Lin; Z. Wu, W.; Hao, H.; P., Wang; K. Wu, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The Duke storage ring is a dedicated driver for the storage ring based oscillator free-electron lasers (FELs), and the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS). It is operated with a beam current ranging from about 1 mA to 100 mA per bunch for various operations and accelerator physics studies. High performance operations of the FEL and γ-ray source require a stable electron beam orbit, which has been realized by the global orbit feedback system. As a critical part of the orbit feedback system, the electron beam position monitors (BPMs) are required to be able to precisely measure the electron beam orbit in a wide range of the single-bunch current. However, the high peak voltage of the BPM pickups associated with high single-bunch current degrades the performance of the BPM electronics, and can potentially damage the BPM electronics. A signal conditioning method using low pass filters is developed to reduce the peak voltage to protect the BPM electronics, and to make the BPMs capable of working with a wide range of single-bunch current. Simulations and electron beam based tests are performed. The results show that the Duke storage ring BPM system is capable of providing precise orbit measurements to ensure highly stable FEL and HIGS operations.

  3. Elevated Plasma Albumin and Apolipoprotein A-I Oxidation under Suboptimal Specimen Storage Conditions*

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Chad R.; Rehder, Douglas S.; Jensen, Sally; Schaab, Matthew R.; Sherma, Nisha D.; Yassine, Hussein; Nikolova, Boriana; Breburda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    S-cysteinylated albumin and methionine-oxidized apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) have been posed as candidate markers of diseases associated with oxidative stress. Here, a dilute-and-shoot form of LC–electrospray ionization–MS requiring half a microliter of blood plasma was employed to simultaneously quantify the relative abundance of these oxidized proteoforms in samples stored at −80 °C, −20 °C, and room temperature and exposed to multiple freeze–thaw cycles and other adverse conditions in order to assess the possibility that protein oxidation may occur as a result of poor sample storage or handling. Samples from a healthy donor and a participant with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes started at the same low level of protein oxidation and behaved similarly; significant increases in albumin oxidation via S-cysteinylation were found to occur within hours at room temperature and days at −20 °C. Methionine oxidation of apoA-I took place on a longer time scale, setting in after albumin oxidation reached a plateau. Freeze–thaw cycles had a minimal effect on protein oxidation. In matched collections, protein oxidation in serum was the same as that in plasma. Albumin and apoA-I oxidation were not affected by sample headspace or the degree to which vials were sealed. ApoA-I, however, was unexpectedly found to oxidize faster in samples with lower surface-area-to-volume ratios. An initial survey of samples from patients with inflammatory conditions normally associated with elevated oxidative stress—including acute myocardial infarction and prostate cancer—demonstrated a lack of detectable apoA-I oxidation. Albumin S-cysteinylation in these samples was consistent with known but relatively brief exposures to temperatures above −30 °C (the freezing point of blood plasma). Given their properties and ease of analysis, these oxidized proteoforms, once fully validated, may represent the first markers of blood plasma specimen integrity based on direct measurement

  4. 40 CFR 266.230 - What conditions must you meet for your LLMW to qualify for and maintain a storage and treatment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Conditional Exemption for Low-Level Mixed Waste Storage, Treatment, Transportation and Disposal. Storage...

  5. Comparison of carbon stripper foils under operational conditions at the Los Alamos proton storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Spickerman, Thomas; Borden, Michael J; Macek, Robert J; Sugai, Isao

    2008-01-01

    At the 39{sup th} ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop HB 2006 and the 23{sup rd} INTDS World Conference we reported on first results of a test of nanocrystalline diamond foils developed at ORNL under operational conditions at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). We have continued these tests during the 2006 and 2007 run cycles and have been able to compare the diamond foils with the foils that are normally in use in PSR, which were originally developed by Sugai at KEK. We have gathered valuable information regarding foil lifetime, foil related beam losses and electron emission at the foil. Additional insight was gained under unusual beam conditions where the foiIs are subjected to higher temperatures. In the 2007 run cycle we also tested a Diamond-like-Carbon foil developed at TRIUMF. A Hybrid-Boron-Carbon foil, also developed by Sugai, is presently in use with the PSR production beam. We will summarize our experience with these different foil types.

  6. Impure CO2 geological storage: Preliminary laboratory experiments at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostrom, M.; Wei, N.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Bonneville, A.

    2011-12-01

    The cost of carbon capture is related to the purity of the CO2 and subsequent removal of the impurities may be costly. For several sites, it is likely to be more cost effective if impure CO2 is injected, although non-condensable impurities may reduce storage capacity and increase the injection pressure. The feasibility of co-sequestration of CO2 with a certain level of impurity has not been experimentally studied in much detail due to severe limitations associated with visualization and sampling at high pressure and temperature conditions. A series of intermediate-scale experiments has been conducted in a 100-cm-long, 20-cm-high, and 5-cm-wide intermediate-scale flow cell studying the effects of N2 and H2S impurities on CO2 transport in initially brine-saturated porous media. Homogeneous and simple layered heterogeneous systems were used to evaluate pH behavior, measure water and gas pressures, and analyze the gas composition at several locations. A multiphase code was used to compare simulation results for equilibrium dissolution conditions with experimental results. Although these preliminary analogue experiments were conducted at ambient pressure and temperature, the provide insight in the behavior of injected multi-component gas in initially saturated porous media.

  7. Effect of dietary supplementation on lipid photooxidation in beef meat, during storage under commercial retail conditions.

    PubMed

    Cardenia, Vladimiro; Massimini, Milena; Poerio, Alba; Venturini, Maria Chiara; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Vecchia, Paola; Lercker, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The effects of feeding composition on the photosensitized oxidation of lipids from beef meat, were evaluated during storage under commercial retail conditions. Feeding was enriched with linseed oil (LO), Dl-α tocopheryl acetate (vE) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) at different doses and provided for diverse periods, resulting in 7 diet groups (A-G). After slaughtering and 2 weeks of holding period, meat slices were packed in vessels with transparent shrink film and exposed to white fluorescent light for 8h at 8 °C. Total cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) level varied from 4.0 to 13.0 μg/g of lipids, which corresponded to 0.1-0.6% oxidized cholesterol. The lowest peroxide value (PV) was found in the diet added with vE and LO for 90 days. Light exposure only had a significant impact on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs). In general, Dl-α tocopheryl acetate supplemented for 90 days improved the oxidative stability of beef meat stored under commercial retail conditions. PMID:25863872

  8. Important Considerations for Methemoglobin Measurement in Fish Blood: Assay Choice and Storage Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, Mel Anton; Rodnick, K. J.; J. A. Lacey

    2002-05-01

    Spectrophotometric assays of methaemoglobin (metHb) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, tilapias Tilapia niloticus and Tilapia zillii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, under baseline conditions, were low (<4%) for each species, and yet higher than human values (<1%). MetHb results for a given fish species varied significantly between assays and two assays were deemed unacceptable for particular animals. For rainbow trout, white sturgeon, and the two species of tilapia, the Dubowski method gave uncharacteristically high estimates of metHb. MetHb could not measured in tilapia blood using the Evelyn & Malloy method due to spectral interference. Only the Horecker & Brackett assay worked well for all species. Storage conditions were extremely important in the quantification of metHb in rainbow trout blood. For consistent values, samples can be stored up to 4 h on ice (0 degrees C) or at least 20 days under liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). Auto-oxidation, however, elevates rainbow trout metHb at -20 and -80 degrees C. It should not be assumed that the blood of fishes and humans perform similarly during assays of metHb.

  9. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG as influenced by storage conditions and product matrixes.

    PubMed

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Williams, Jonathan H; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2012-12-01

    Mortality resulting from diarrhea especially that occurs in children younger than 5 y of age ranks 3rd among all deaths caused by infectious diseases worldwide. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG are clinically shown to effectively reduce the incidence of diarrhea in children. A food substrate is one of the major factors regulating the colonization of microorganisms in human gastrointestinal tracts. Peanut butter is a nutritious, low-moisture food that could be a carrier for probiotics. In this study, we observed the influence of storage conditions and product matrixes on the survival of L. rhamnosus GG. Cells of L. rhamnosus GG were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Inoculated peanut butter was stored at 4, 25, or 37 °C for 48 wk. Samples were drawn periodically to determine the populations of L. rhamnosus GG. Results showed that there was no significant decrease in the viable counts of L. rhamnosus GG in products stored 4 °C. The survivability of L. rhamnosus GG decreased with increasing storage temperature and time. Product matrixes did not significantly affect the survival of L. rhamnosus GG except at 37 °C. Populations of L. rhamnosus GG were preserved at >6 logs in products stored at 4 °C for 48 wk and at 25 °C for 23 to 27 wk. At 37 °C, the 6-log level could not be maintained for even 6 wk. The results suggest that peanut butter stored at 4 and 25 °C could serve as vehicles to deliver probiotics. PMID:23106385

  10. Effects of storage conditions on forensic examinations of blood samples and bloodstains stored for 20 years.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Nakanishi, H; Yoneyama, K; Saito, K; Takada, A

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various storage conditions on blood identification tests, DNA degradation, and short tandem repeat (STR) typing were evaluated. Bloodstains stored at room temperature, 4 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C for 20 years; blood samples stored at -20 °C and -80 °C for 20 years; and fresh blood samples were analyzed. Leuco-malachite-green testing, anti-human hemoglobin (Hb) testing (using immunochromatography), and tests for hemoglobin-beta (HBB) mRNA were performed as blood identification tests. DNA degradation was evaluated by quantifying the ratios of 305 and 129 base pair (bp) fragments to 41 bp fragments. STR typing was performed using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ Plus PCR Amplification Kit. All samples were positive in leuco-malachite-green staining and anti-human Hb assays. HBB was not detected in blood samples stored at -20 °C or -80 °C, although this marker was detected in all bloodstains. As indicated by the ratio of 129:41 bp and 305:41 bp DNA fragments, DNA from bloodstains stored at room temperature or 4 °C were significantly degraded compared to DNA from all other samples. STR typing analyses revealed that a portion of the loci was undetected in bloodstains stored at room temperature. Therefore, to prevent DNA degradation during long-term storage, it is recommended that bloodstains and blood be stored at below -20 °C. In addition, because bloodstains are more suitable for detection of blood-specific mRNAs than blood sample, it is desirable that blood is stored as bloodstain for this method. PMID:26832383

  11. A Flight Evaluation of an Airborne Physiological Instrumentation System, Including Preliminary Results Under Conditions of Varying Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedal, Harald A.; Holden, George R.; Smith, Joseph R., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    A physiological instrumentation system capable of recording the electrocardiogram, pulse rate, respiration rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures during flight has been developed. This instrumentation system was designed for use during control studies at varied levels of acceleration in order to monitor the well-being of the pilot and at the same time to obtain data for study of the relationships between his various physiological functions and his performance capability. Flights, made in a T-33 aircraft, demonstrated the ability of the system to obtain the desired physiological data in flight. The data obtained in these flights, although limited in nature, indicate a slowing of the pulse rate under the subgravity conditions of brief duration. There appeared to be a proportional nearly in-phase relationship between pulse rate and acceleration. A decrease in diastolic blood pressure together with an increase in pulse pressure was noted during subgravity conditions and an elevation of the diastolic pressure together with a decrease in pulse pressure du-ring increased accelerations. No change worthy of note was seen in the records of the systolic blood pressure, the respiration rate, or the electrocardiogram over the range of acceleration studied (0 to 3 g).

  12. MUFITS Code for Modeling Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide at Sub- and Supercritical Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Two-phase models are widely used for simulation of CO2 storage in saline aquifers. These models support gaseous phase mainly saturated with CO2 and liquid phase mainly saturated with H2O (e.g. TOUGH2 code). The models can be applied to analysis of CO2 storage only in relatively deeply-buried reservoirs where pressure exceeds CO2 critical pressure. At these supercritical reservoir conditions only one supercritical CO2-rich phase appears in aquifer due to CO2 injection. In shallow aquifers where reservoir pressure is less than the critical pressure CO2 can split in two different liquid-like and gas-like phases (e.g. Spycher et al., 2003). Thus a region of three-phase flow of water, liquid and gaseous CO2 can appear near the CO2 injection point. Today there is no widely used and generally accepted numerical model capable of the three-phase flows with two CO2-rich phases. In this work we propose a new hydrodynamic simulator MUFITS (Multiphase Filtration Transport Simulator) for multiphase compositional modeling of CO2-H2O mixture flows in porous media at conditions of interest for carbon sequestration. The simulator is effective both for supercritical flows in a wide range of pressure and temperature and for subcritical three-phase flows of water, liquid CO2 and gaseous CO2 in shallow reservoirs. The distinctive feature of the proposed code lies in the methodology for mixture properties determination. Transport equations and Darcy correlation are solved together with calculation of the entropy maximum that is reached in thermodynamic equilibrium and determines the mixture composition. To define and solve the problem only one function - mixture thermodynamic potential - is required. The potential is determined using a three-parametric generalization of Peng-Robinson equation of state fitted to experimental data (Todheide, Takenouchi, Altunin etc.). We apply MUFITS to simple 1D and 2D test problems of CO2 injection in shallow reservoirs subjected to phase changes between

  13. Morphology of U3O8 materials following storage under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tamasi, Alison L.; Cash, Leigh J.; Mullen, William Tyler; Pugmire, Alison L.; Ross, Amy R.; Ruggiero, Christy E.; Scott, Brian L.; Wagner, Gregory L.; Walensky, Justin R.; Wilkerson, Marianne P.

    2016-07-05

    Changes in the visual characteristics of uranium oxide surfaces and morphology following storage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity may provide insight into the history of an unknown sample. Sub-samples of three α-U3O8 materials—one that was phase-pure and two that were phase-impure—were stored under controlled conditions for two years. We used scanning electron microscopy to image the oxides before and after storage, and a morphology lexicon was used to characterize the images. Finally, temporal changes in morphology were observed in some sub-samples, and changes were greatest following exposure to high relative humidity.

  14. Storage of a naturally acquired conditioned response is impaired in patients with cerebellar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Thürling, Markus; Galuba, Julia; Burciu, Roxana G.; Göricke, Sophia; Beck, Andreas; Aurich, Volker; Wondzinski, Elke; Siebler, Mario; Gerwig, Marcus; Bracha, Vlastislav

    2013-01-01

    Previous findings suggested that the human cerebellum is involved in the acquisition but not the long-term storage of motor associations. The finding of preserved retention in cerebellar patients was fundamentally different from animal studies which show that both acquisition and retention depends on the integrity of the cerebellum. The present study investigated whether retention had been preserved because critical regions of the cerebellum were spared. Visual threat eye-blink responses, that is, the anticipatory closure of the eyes to visual threats, have previously been found to be naturally acquired conditioned responses. Because acquisition is known to take place in very early childhood, visual threat eye-blink responses can be used to test retention in patients with adult onset cerebellar disease. Visual threat eye-blink responses were tested in 19 adult patients with cerebellar degeneration, 27 adult patients with focal cerebellar lesions due to stroke, 24 age-matched control subjects, and 31 younger control subjects. High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in patients to perform lesion–symptom mapping. Voxel-based morphometry was performed in patients with cerebellar degeneration, and voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping in patients with focal disease. Visual threat eye-blink responses were found to be significantly reduced in patients with cerebellar degeneration. Visual threat eye-blink responses were also reduced in patients with focal disease, but to a lesser extent. Visual threat eye-blink responses declined with age. In patients with cerebellar degeneration the degree of cerebellar atrophy was positively correlated with the reduction of conditioned responses. Voxel-based morphometry showed that two main regions within the superior and inferior parts of the posterior cerebellar cortex contributed to expression of visual threat eye-blink responses bilaterally. Involvement of the more inferior parts of the posterior lobe was

  15. Storage of a naturally acquired conditioned response is impaired in patients with cerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Andreas; Thürling, Markus; Galuba, Julia; Burciu, Roxana G; Göricke, Sophia; Beck, Andreas; Aurich, Volker; Wondzinski, Elke; Siebler, Mario; Gerwig, Marcus; Bracha, Vlastislav; Timmann, Dagmar

    2013-07-01

    Previous findings suggested that the human cerebellum is involved in the acquisition but not the long-term storage of motor associations. The finding of preserved retention in cerebellar patients was fundamentally different from animal studies which show that both acquisition and retention depends on the integrity of the cerebellum. The present study investigated whether retention had been preserved because critical regions of the cerebellum were spared. Visual threat eye-blink responses, that is, the anticipatory closure of the eyes to visual threats, have previously been found to be naturally acquired conditioned responses. Because acquisition is known to take place in very early childhood, visual threat eye-blink responses can be used to test retention in patients with adult onset cerebellar disease. Visual threat eye-blink responses were tested in 19 adult patients with cerebellar degeneration, 27 adult patients with focal cerebellar lesions due to stroke, 24 age-matched control subjects, and 31 younger control subjects. High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in patients to perform lesion-symptom mapping. Voxel-based morphometry was performed in patients with cerebellar degeneration, and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in patients with focal disease. Visual threat eye-blink responses were found to be significantly reduced in patients with cerebellar degeneration. Visual threat eye-blink responses were also reduced in patients with focal disease, but to a lesser extent. Visual threat eye-blink responses declined with age. In patients with cerebellar degeneration the degree of cerebellar atrophy was positively correlated with the reduction of conditioned responses. Voxel-based morphometry showed that two main regions within the superior and inferior parts of the posterior cerebellar cortex contributed to expression of visual threat eye-blink responses bilaterally. Involvement of the more inferior parts of the posterior lobe was

  16. Visible spectroscopy as a tool for the assessment of storage conditions of fresh pork packaged in modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Christensen, Mette; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Baron, Caroline P

    2016-03-01

    The storage conditions of fresh meat are known to impact its colour and microbial shelf life. In the present study, visible spectroscopy was evaluated as a method to assess meat storage conditions and its optimisation. Fresh pork steaks (longissimus thoracis et lumborum and semimembranosus) were placed in modified atmosphere packaging using gas mixtures containing 0, 40, 50, and 80% oxygen, and stored with or without light for up to 9days. Principal component analysis of visible reflectance spectra (400-700nm) showed that the colour of the different meat cuts was affected by presence of oxygen, illumination, and storage time. Differences in the oxygen levels did not contribute to the observed variance. Predictive models based on partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis exhibited high potency in the classification of the storage parameters of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere. The study demonstrates the applicability of visible spectroscopy as a tool to assess the storage conditions of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere. PMID:26658010

  17. The mechanism of inactivation of glucose oxidase from Penicillium amagasakiense under ambient storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Caves, Michael S; Derham, Barry K; Jezek, Jan; Freedman, Robert B

    2011-06-10

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) from Penicillium amagasakiense has a higher specific activity than the more commonly studied Aspergillus niger enzyme, and may therefore be preferred in many medical and industrial applications. The enzyme rapidly inactivates on storage at pH 7.0-7.6 at temperatures between 30 and 40°C. Results of fluorimetry and circular dichroism spectroscopy indicate that GOx inactivation under these conditions is associated with release of the cofactor FAD and molten globule formation, indicated by major loss of tertiary structure but almost complete retention of secondary structure. Inactivation of GOx at pH<7 leads to precipitation, but at pH ≥ 7 it leads to non-specific formation of small soluble aggregates detectable by PAGE and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Inactivation of P. amagasakiense GOx differs from that of A. niger GOx in displaying complete rather than partial retention of secondary structure and in being promoted rather than prevented by NaCl. The contrasting salt effects may reflect differences in the nature of the interface between subunits in the native dimers and/or the quantity of secondary structure loss upon inactivation. PMID:22112275

  18. Optimal Deployment of Thermal Energy Storage under Diverse Economic and Climate Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    DeForest, Nicolas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2014-04-15

    This paper presents an investigation of the economic benefit of thermal energy storage (TES) for cooling, across a range of economic and climate conditions. Chilled water TES systems are simulated for a large office building in four distinct locations, Miami in the U.S.; Lisbon, Portugal; Shanghai, China; and Mumbai, India. Optimal system size and operating schedules are determined using the optimization model DER-CAM, such that total cost, including electricity and amortized capital costs are minimized. The economic impacts of each optimized TES system is then compared to systems sized using a simple heuristic method, which bases system size as fraction (50percent and 100percent) of total on-peak summer cooling loads. Results indicate that TES systems of all sizes can be effective in reducing annual electricity costs (5percent-15percent) and peak electricity consumption (13percent-33percent). The investigation also indentifies a number of criteria which drive TES investment, including low capital costs, electricity tariffs with high power demand charges and prolonged cooling seasons. In locations where these drivers clearly exist, the heuristically sized systems capture much of the value of optimally sized systems; between 60percent and 100percent in terms of net present value. However, in instances where these drivers are less pronounced, the heuristic tends to oversize systems, and optimization becomes crucial to ensure economically beneficial deployment of TES, increasing the net present value of heuristically sized systems by as much as 10 times in some instances.

  19. Assessment of neutron skyshine near unmodified Accumulator Debuncher storage rings under Mu2e operational conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary plans for providing the proton beam needed by the proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will require the transport of 8 GeV protons to the Accumulator/Debuncher where they be processed into an intensity and time structure useful for the experiment. The intensities involved are far greater that those encountered with antiprotons of the same kinetic energy in the same beam enclosures under Tevatron Collider operational conditions, the operating parameters for which the physical facilities of the Antiproton Source were designed. This note explores some important ramifications of the proposed operation for radiation safety and demonstrates the need for extensive modifications of significant portions of the shielding of the Accumulator Debuncher storage rings; notably that underneath the AP Service Buildings AP10, AP30, and AP50. While existing shielding is adequate for the current operating mode of the Accumulator/Debuncher as part of the Antiproton Source used in the Tevatron Collider program, without significant modifications of the shielding configuration in the Accumulator/Debuncher region and/or beam loss control systems far more effective than seen in most applications at Fermilab, the proposed operational mode for Mu2e is not viable for the following reasons: 1. Due to skyshine alone, under normal operational conditions large areas of the Fermilab site would be exposed to unacceptable levels of radiation where most of the Laboratory workforce and some members of the general public who regularly visit Fermilab would receive measurable doses annually, contrary to workforce, public, and DOE expectations concerning the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. 2. Under normal operational conditions, a sizeable region of the Fermilab site would also require fencing due to skyshine. The size of the areas involved would likely invite public inquiry about the significant and visible enlargement of Fermilab's posted radiological areas. 3. There would

  20. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers subject to various loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-05-01

    The structural and functional requirements of the Plutonium Oxide/Metal Storage Containers are specified in the Report ``Complex 21 Plutonium Storage Facility Material Containment Team Technical Data Report`` [Complex 21, 1993]. There are no existing storage containers designed for long term storage of plutonium and current codes, standards or regulations do not adequately cover this case. As there is no extensive experience with the long term (50+ years) storage of plutonium, the design of high integrity storage containers must address many technical considerations. This analysis discusses a few potential natural phenomena that could theoretically adversely affect the container integrity over time. The plutonium oxide/metal storage container consists of a primary containment vessel (the outer container), a bagless transfer can (the inner container), two vertical plates on top of the primary containment vessel, a circular plate (the flange) supported by the two plates, tube for gas sampling operations mounted at the center of the primary containment vessel top and a spring system being inserted in the cavity between the primary containment vessel and the cap of the bagless transfer can. The dimensions of the plutonium oxide/metal storage container assembly can be found in Figure 2-1. The primary container, the bagless transfer can, and all the attached components are made of Type 304L stainless steel.

  1. Impact of storage conditions and variety on quality attributes and aroma volatiles of pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pitahaya are increasing in popularity but knowledge on the effects of storage and the potential impact of variety on subsequent quality following storage is incomplete, particularly in terms of the potential effects on sensory acceptability. In this study six varieties of pitahaya, having white, pin...

  2. Study of fatigue durability of advanced composite materials under conditions of accelerated loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, H. M.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the tension-tension fatigue life of the T300/5208 graphite/epoxy angle-ply laminate system was investigated in an effort to develop an acceptable and reliable method of accelerated loading. Typical S log sub 10 N curves were determined experimentally at 25 C, 75 C, and 115 C. The time-temperature superposition principle was employed to find the shift factors of uniaxial fatigue strength, and a general linear equation of S log sub 10 N for shifting purpose was established. The combined techniques of cyclic creep measurements and optical microscopy upon fatigue failure allow some assessment of the possible physical basis of S log 10 N curve shifting. Before fatigue, the laminates at all test temperatures and stress levels undergo a unique damage mechanism during fatigue loading. It is concluded that an accelerated loading method is feasible.

  3. Influence of storage conditions on chemical composition and sensory properties of citrus honey.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vázquez, L; Díaz-Maroto, M C; González-Viñas, M A; de la Fuente, E; Pérez-Coello, M S

    2008-03-26

    Fresh citrus honey was stored at 10, 20, and 40 degrees C for 12 months. The effect of storage on the quality of honey was evaluated using physicochemical parameters, volatile compounds, mono-, di-, and trisaccharides, and sensory analysis. Diastase activity and HMF were out of the legal limit in honey stored 12 months at 40 degrees C. Volatile compounds (especially terpenes and terpene derivatives), monosaccharides, and disaccharides presented important losses during honey storage at any temperature. Honey storage at 10 or 20 degrees C maintained their floral, fresh, citric, and fresh fruit aroma, while the intensities of these attributes were diminished. Storage at 40 degrees C during 12 months resulted in the appearance of attributes such as "medicinal, smoked, toasted, cooked vegetable, and ripened fruit", associated with compounds formed during the Maillard reaction or through degradation of sugars such as volatile pyrroles, furanones, pyranones, and pyrazines, which appeared or increased in concentration during honey storage mainly at high temperature. PMID:18303839

  4. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption? 266.255 Section 266.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES...

  5. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption? 266.255 Section 266.255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES...

  6. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and coated on one side of the film. T...

  7. Descriptive texture analyses of cooked broiler breast fillets with the wooden condition after fresh and frozen storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the wooden breast condition on the texture of cooked broiler breast fillets (Pectoralis major) after fresh and frozen storage. Texture characteristics of normal (NORM) and severe wooden breast (WB) fillets were studied by both sensory descr...

  8. Operation of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system under conditions of stochastic change of wind energy.

    PubMed

    Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level. PMID:25215326

  9. Operation of a Wind Turbine-Flywheel Energy Storage System under Conditions of Stochastic Change of Wind Energy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level. PMID:25215326

  10. Simplified models of transport and reactions in conditions of CO2 storage in saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchodolska, Katarzyna; Labus, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Simple hydrogeochemical models may serve as tools of preliminary assessment of CO2 injection and sequestraton impact on the aquifer and cap-rocks. In order to create models of reaction and transport in conditions of CO2 injection and storage, the TOUGHREACT simulator, and the Geochemist's Workbench software were applied. The chemical composition of waters for kinetic transport models based on the water - rock equilibrium calculations. Analyses of reaction and transport of substances during CO2 injection and storage period were carried out in three scenarios: one-dimensional radial model, and two-dimensional model of CO2 injection and sequestration, and one-dimensional model of aquifer - cap-rock interface. Modeling was performed in two stages. The first one simulated the immediate changes in the aquifer and insulating rocks impacted by CO2 injection (100 days in case of reaction model and 30 years in transport and reaction model), the second - enabled assessment of long-term effects of sequestration (20000 years). Reactions' quality and progress were monitored and their effects on formation porosity and sequestration capacity in form of mineral, residual and free phase of CO2 were calculated. Calibration of numerical models (including precipitation of secondary minerals, and correction of kinetics parameters) describing the initial stage of injection, was based on the experimental results. Modeling allowed to evaluate the pore space saturation with gas, changes in the composition and pH of pore waters, relationships between porosity and permeability changes and crystallization or dissolution minerals. We assessed the temporal and spatial extent of crystallization processes, and the amount of carbonates trapping. CO2 in mineral form. The calculated sequestration capacity of analyzed formations reached n·100 kg/m3 for the: dissolved phase - CO(aq), gas phase - CO2(g) and mineral phase, but as much as 101 kg/m3 for the supercritical phase - SCCO2. Processes of gas

  11. The effect of storage conditions on microbial community composition and biomethane potential in a biogas starter culture.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Live Heldal; Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Pope, Phillip B; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2015-07-01

    A new biogas process is initiated by adding a microbial community, typically in the form of a sample collected from a functional biogas plant. This inoculum has considerable impact on the initial performance of a biogas reactor, affecting parameters such as stability, biogas production yields and the overall efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, we have analyzed changes in the microbial composition and performance of an inoculum during storage using barcoded pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and determination of the biomethane potential, respectively. The inoculum was stored at room temperature, 4 and -20 °C for up to 11 months and cellulose was used as a standard substrate to test the biomethane potential. Storage up to 1 month resulted in similar final methane yields, but the rate of methane production was reduced by storage at -20 °C. Longer storage times resulted in reduced methane yields and slower production kinetics for all storage conditions, with room temperature and frozen samples consistently giving the best and worst performance, respectively. Both storage time and temperature affected the microbial community composition and methanogenic activity. In particular, fluctuations in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes were observed. Interestingly, a shift from hydrogenotrophic methanogens to methanogens with the capacity to perform acetoclastic methanogensis was observed upon prolonged storage. In conclusion, this study suggests that biogas inocula may be stored up to 1 month with low loss of methanogenic activity, and identifies bacterial and archaeal species that are affected by the storage. PMID:25947246

  12. Under Pressure: New Geobarometer Developed to Determine Crystallization Conditions and Storage Depths of Intermediate Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, L.; Gualda, G. A. R.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Cowlyn, J.

    2015-12-01

    A new phase equilibria geobarometer successfully determines pressures of magma storage in plagioclase+orthopyroxene+clinopyroxene (POC) bearing intermediate magmas. The geobarometer utilizes rhyolite-MELTS to determine crystallization conditions utilizing the glass compositions coexisting with the POC assemblage in natural samples. POC stability is strongly affected by water content and oxygen fugacity (fO2). We tested fO2 values ranging from +1 to +4 delta-QFM, which spans the fO2 range of intermediate magmas. Water content was tested from water-saturated to 4 wt% below saturation. The geobarometer was applied to two intermediate POC-bearing systems - Mount Ruapehu in the southern Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, and the Palmas unit of the Serra Geral Formation in the Paraná Volcanics, Brazil. Both systems were tested from 25 MPa to 400 MPa and from 700 ºC to 1200 ºC. Ruapehu is an active, structurally well-understood volcano in the Taupo Volcanic Zone; it serves as a methodological testing ground for the geobarometer. POC-bearing pumice clasts show a bimodal distribution of crystallization pressures for different eruptions, with modes of ~90 MPa and 130 MPa, consistent with field interpretations of different eruptive styles based on juvenile clast textures and previous knowledge of the magma plumbing system. The bimodal distribution indicates that the magma batches were tapped at different pressures (and depths). Ruapehu magmas are water saturated and have fO2 of delta-QFM equal to ~+1. The model substantiates these conditions, as rhyolite-MELTS calculations with lower water contents and different fO2 values do not produce the observed POC mineral assemblage. Preliminary results from the Paraná Volcanics suggest juvenile, fiamme-like blob structures equilibrated at ~50 MPa, were water saturated, and had an fO2 between delta-QFM +1 and +1.5. The geobarometer has potential to unravel crystallization conditions of shallow, glass-bearing andesites to dacites.

  13. Innovative Conditioning Procedures for the Generation of Radioactive Waste Products which are Stable for Intermediate Storage or Repository-Independent in Final Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, H.J.; Heimbach, H.; Odoj, R.; Pruesse, R.; Wartenberg, W.

    2006-07-01

    The German Federal Government aims at a future final storage site for all kinds of radioactive waste within 30 years. Existing and newly-produced radioactive waste therefore has to be stored in interim storage facilities over very long periods of time. At present, most German radioactive waste or waste packages are produced and qualified according to the acceptance criteria of the projected final repository KONRAD. [1] Nevertheless, conditioning strategies for crude radioactive waste have to take into account the open question of the future repository site as well as requirements for long-term interim storage. The Quality Control Group for Radioactive Waste (in German: Produktkontrollstelle fuer radioaktive Abfaelle - PKS) works as an independent expert organisation for the quality checking of radioactive waste packages as well as evaluating conditioning procedures for waste containers suitable for final storage on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (in German: Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS). The Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology (in German: Institut fuer Sicherheitsforschung and Reaktortechnik - ISR) of the Research Centre Juelich investigates scientific/technical problems of nuclear disposal, especially in the field of waste treatment. In this context, ISR and PKS investigated and/or evaluated innovative procedures, by means of which radioactive waste flows may be minimized and rendered inert. QSA Global (formerly: AEA Technology QSA) conditions radioactive waste of German users from the fields of medicine, research and industry as well as from its own radioactive source production and operates an intermediate storage facility for radioactive waste containers. This poster deals with the characteristics and possible applications of new waste fixation media on the basis of organic and inorganic mineral polymers; with the approach of producing inherently safe waste forms for various geological formations. Plasma technology

  14. Polar 5 - An electron accelerator experiment within an aurora. I - Instrumentation and geophysical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maehlum, B. N.; Grandal, B.; Jacobsen, T. A.; Maseide, K.; Egeland, A.; Holtet, J.; Soraas, F.; Aarsnes, K.; Stadsnes, J.; Maynard, N. C.

    1980-01-01

    A mother-daughter rocket was launched over two auroral structures, which included a 10 keV electron accelerator and a series of diagnostic instruments for monitoring optical and wave effects generated through beam-atmospheric interactions and production of secondary electrons. The instrumentation, the ground and rocket background measurements obtained, and some of the beam effects on various geophysical parameters are presented. Attention is given to the rocket geometry, capacitance probe, particle counters, photometers, and the bremsstrahlung X-ray detector. Observations on the plasma environment, auroral particle precipitation, d.c. electric field, optical emissions, and auroral background HF and VLF emissions are also discussed.

  15. Effect of High Temperature Storage in Vacuum, Air, and Humid Conditions on Degradation of Gold/Aluminum Wire Bonds in PEMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Microcircuits encapsulated in three plastic package styles were stored in different environments at temperatures varying from 130 C to 225 C for up to 4,000 hours in some cases. To assess the effect of oxygen, the parts were aged at high temperatures in air and in vacuum chambers. The effect of humidity was evaluated during long-term highly accelerated temperature and humidity stress testing (HAST) at temperatures of 130 C and 150 C. High temperature storage testing of decapsulated microcircuits in air, vacuum, and HAST chambers was carried out to evaluate the role of molding compounds in the environmentally-induced degradation and failure of wire bonds (WB). This paper reports on accelerating factors of environment and molding compound on WB failures. It has been shown that all environments, including oxygen, moisture, and the presence of molding compounds reduce time-to-failures compared to unencapsulated devices in vacuum conditions. The mechanism of the environmental effect on KB degradation is discussed.

  16. Food matrices and cell conditions influence survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG under heat stresses and during storage.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Teräsjärvi, Johanna; Salminen, Seppo

    2014-03-17

    The present study evaluated impact of moisture content and cell conditions on survival of probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, under lethal heat stresses and during long-term storage using freeze-dried cells and oils as matrices. Viable cell counts of freeze-dried L. rhamnosus GG cells suspended in oils had only 1-log-reduction after 5min at 80°C and approximately 3-log-reduction after 20min, while no or very few viable cells were recorded for freeze dried cells suspended in buffer and cultured cells in oils. Surprisingly, freeze-dried cells suspended in oils still contained 4.3 to 6.7logCFU/ml after 5min at 95°C. Long-term storage study indicated that freeze-dried cells suspended in oils kept viable conditions for 4months, and a loss of the viability was only 0.3 to 0.6logCFU/ml. Viable cell counts of cultured cells suspended in oils were not present after 3days to 3months. These results clearly indicate that moisture and cell conditions have a great impact on survival of probiotics under severe heat stress in processing and during long-term storage. Combination of freeze-dried cells and oils as carrier provides beneficial options to preserve viability of probiotics in food processes and storage. PMID:24480189

  17. Experimental reduction of aqueous sulphate by hydrogen under hydrothermal conditions: Implication for the nuclear waste storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truche, Laurent; Berger, Gilles; Destrigneville, Christine; Pages, Alain; Guillaume, Damien; Giffaut, Eric; Jacquot, Emmanuel

    2009-08-01

    Sulphate reduction by hydrogen, likely to occur in deep geological nuclear waste storage sites, was studied experimentally in a two-phase system (water + gas) at 250-300 °C and under 4-16 bars H 2 partial pressure in hydrothermal-vessels. The calculated activation energy is 131 kJ/mol and the half-life of aqueous sulphate in the presence of hydrogen and elemental sulphur ranges from 210,000 to 2.7 × 10 9 years at respective temperatures of 90 °C, the thermal peak in the site and 25 °C, the ambient temperature far from the site. The features and rate of the sulphate reduction by H 2 are close to those established for TSR in oil fields. The experiments also show that the rate of sulphate reduction is not significantly affected in the H 2 pressure range of 4-16 bars and in the pH range of 2-5, whereas a strong increase is measured at pH below 2. We suggest that the condition for the reaction to occur is the speciation of sulphate dominated by non symmetric species ( HSO4- at low pH), and we propose a three steps reaction, one for each intermediate-valence sulphur species, the first one requiring H 2S as electron donor rather than H 2. We distinguish two possible reaction pathways for the first step, depending on pH: reduction of sulphate into sulphur dioxide below pH 2 or into thiosulphate or sulphite + elemental sulphur in the pH range 2-5.

  18. Development of a methodology to accelerate a spontaneous grass colonization in a tailings storage facility under semiarid mediterranean climate type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginocchio, Rosanna; Arellano, Eduardo; Morales-Ladron de Guevara, Arturo

    2016-04-01

    Phytostabilization of massive mine tailings (>400 he) under semiarid environments is challenging, particularly when no organic amendments are locally available and no irrigation is possible. Increasing tendency for reprocessing old tailings to recover valued metals further pioneer the need for simple but effective plant covers. The choice of plant species and form of management are thus very important. CODELCO-Chile chose the Cauquenes post-operational tailings storage facility (TFS; 700 ha), that will be reprocessed for copper and other elements in the near future, to evaluate efficacy of the phytostabilization technology under semiarid conditions in central Chile. Surface application of a polymer (Soiltac TM) has been used for wind control of tailings but phytostabilization is considered as a best cost-effective alternative. A field study was performed to define a management program to improve the establishment and cover of an annual native grass (Vulpia myuros var. megalura), a spontaneous colonizer of the TSF. Considered management factors were control of macro herbivores (with and without fence), macronutrient improvement (with and without application of N-rich foliar fertilizer), and improvement of seed retention in the substrate (with and without small-scale rugosity; with and without lived wind-breakers; with and without mechanical wind-breakers). Each treatment was replicated three times and established in 2 m x 2 m quadrats. Plant response variables were monitored after 1 and 2 grass growing seasons. Application of N-rich foliar fertilizer and any wind control mechanism for seed retention in the substrate were effective for significantly improving both grass cover and biomass production in time, irrespective of macro-herbivore control. Seed production was significantly improved when macro herbivores were excluded and was positively and significantly correlated to vegetative biomass production. When applying this management program for tailings

  19. Studying the effect of storage conditions on the metabolite content of red wine using HILIC LC-MS based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Corte, Anna Della; Gika, Helen; Narduzzi, Luca; Mattivi, Fulvio; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2016-04-15

    The main aim of this work was to develop an untargeted normal phase LC-MS method, starting from a targeted method already validated for the analysis of 135 polar metabolites. Since the LC instrument and column were the same, most of the chromatographic conditions remained identical, while the adaptations focused on maintaining the ionic strength of the eluents constant. The sample preparation was simplified and the effectiveness of LC-MS for long batches was evaluated, in order to record the maximum number of metabolites with good chromatographic resolution and the best MS stability and accuracy. The method was applied to study the influence of storage conditions on wine composition. Slightly sub-optimum storage conditions had a major impact on the polar metabolite fingerprint of the red wines analysed and the markers revealed included phenolics, vitamins and metabolites indentified in wine for the first time (4-amino-heptanedioic acid and its ethyl ester). PMID:26675875

  20. Magma storage conditions and leucite stability in the 79 AD Vesuvius "white pumice" phonolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, J. F.; Shea, T.; Gurioli, L.

    2007-12-01

    This study focuses on constraining the pressure and temperature stability curve of leucites and other phases that crystallized in the phonolitic magmas from the 79 AD Vesuvius Pompei eruption, using pumice from the EU1 and EU2 pumice fall layers as starting material. The experiments were conducted under H2O saturated conditions at PH2O between 25 and 200 MPa, temperatures between 800 and 1000 °C, and fO2 equaling Ni-NiO plus 0.5 log unit, using Rene-style, Waspaloy cold-seal and TZM alloy pressure vessels. The powdered pumice samples were loaded into 4 or 5 mm diameter Ag or Au capsules with 10 wt. % de-ionized water, equilibrated under isobaric and isothermal conditions for 100 to 200 hours, and quenched either by submerging the vessel in cold water or by flipping the TZM vessel to allow the capsule to rapidly quench against the water-cooled pressure seal. Both EU1 and EU2 compositions crystallized plagioclase, brown mica, pyroxene (and possibly amphibole), garnet, sanidine, and leucite in approximate order from highest equilibration PH2O and T to the lowest. The stability fields of leucite in both compositions are similar, crystallizing at approximately 125 MPa at 800 °C and 75 MPa at 880 °C. Anorthitic plagioclase and possibly pyroxene appear on the liquidus at 150 MPa and 950 °C. Plagioclase is replaced by sanidine at lower temperatures, as seen by an increase in sanidine abundance below ~880 °C and evidence for sanidine intergrown with anorthite crystals in some experiments. Previous studies have estimated the location of the 79 AD Vesuvius magma chamber to be between 3 and 6 km depth, based on the metamorphic stratigraphy and melt inclusion volatile contents . Our preliminary results are in good agreement, predicting storage pressures between 100 to 150 MPa (roughly 3 to 6 km) assuming a lithostatic pressure gradient. Refinement of the phase diagrams and additional experiments will allow for a more detailed comparison between the EU1 and EU2 magmas, as

  1. Shelf life of donkey milk subjected to different treatment and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Bardasi, Lia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Morbarigazzi, Michele; Federici, Simone; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatment conditions on microbiological indicators of donkey milk hygiene and their evolution during shelf life at 4 and 12°C from 3 to 30d, simulating a farm-scale pasteurization and packing system. Four treatment conditions were tested: no treatment (raw milk), pasteurization (65°C × 30 min), high-pressure processing (HPP), and pasteurization plus HPP. The microbiological quality of the raw donkey milk investigated was not optimal; our results highlight the importance of raw milk management with the need for animal hygiene management and good dairy farming practices on donkey farms to improve handling procedures. The raw milk treated with HPP alone showed visible alterations with flocks, making the milk unfit for sale. The microbiological risk posed by consumption of raw donkey milk was significantly reduced by heat treatment but farm-scale packing systems cannot guarantee an extended shelf life. In contrast, the pasteurization plus HPP treatment was the most effective method to maintain microbiological milk quality. Microflora growth had little effect on pH in donkey milk: pH values were significantly different only between raw milk and pasteurized and pasteurized plus HPP milk stored at 12°C for 3d. Alkaline phosphatase activity and furosine could be used as indicators of proper pasteurization and thermal processing in donkey milk. Moreover, the presence and growth of Bacillus cereus in the case of thermal abuse hamper the wide-scale marketing of donkey milk due to the potential consequences for sensitive consumers and therefore further tests with time/temperature/high-pressure protocols associated with B. cereus are needed. Finally, our study shows that an HPP treatment of pasteurized milk after packing extends the shelf life of donkey milk and assures its microbial criteria up to 30d if properly stored at 4°C until opening; therefore, combined heat treatment and storage strategies are

  2. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (I kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect

    Unterzuber, R.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.0 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a representative stainless steel spent fuel canister, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD as well as for four constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  3. Determining the effect of storage conditions on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen concentration in rat plasma samples.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Vinod Kumar; Kakade, Somesh; Pandey, Santosh Kumar; Gothi, Anil Kalidas; Nirogi, Ramakrishna

    2015-10-01

    Coagulation parameters are usually included in clinical and preclinical safety studies to evaluate the effect of xenobiotics on the extrinsic or intrinsic pathways of coagulation. The analysis is generally performed at the time of terminal sacrifice where many activities are scheduled. Chances of delay in analysis are likely particularly when blood is collected for coagulation via the abdominal vena cava. This experiment was planned to assess the variations in coagulation parameters caused by delay in analysis as well as by storage conditions. Blood was collected from the posterior vena cava under isoflurane anesthesia, and the plasma was separated immediately. Coagulation parameters were evaluated at 0, 6, 24 and 48 h from the plasma stored at room temperature, as well as plasma stored under refrigerated and freezing conditions. Stability of the analytes in blood was also evaluated under refrigerated conditions for 6 h. All parameters were analyzed using a semi-automated coagulometer. Prothrombin time (PT) was stable under all three storage conditions for up to 6 h. Although statistically significant differences were observed for activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at room and refrigeration temperatures for up to 6 h, the difference was clinically non-relevant. Fibrinogen was found to be the most stable parameter that showed consistency in results even up to 48 h under all three storage conditions. Plasma for PT can be stored and analyzed without any significant changes for up to 6 h from the actual blood collection, while fibrinogen level testing can be extended for up to 48 h after collection under any storage condition. For reliable APTT results, plasma samples should be run immediately after collection. PMID:26206586

  4. Effect of oxygen stress on growth and survival of Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter jejuni, and Listeria monocytogenes under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Qadiri, Hamzah; Sablani, Shyam S; Ovissipour, Mahmoudreza; Al-Alami, Nivin; Govindan, Byju; Rasco, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the growth and survival of three foodborne pathogens (Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter jejuni, and Listeria monocytogenes) in beef (7% fat) and nutrient broth under different oxygen levels. Samples were tested under anoxic (<0.5%), microoxic (6 to 8%), and oxic (20%) conditions during storage at 7 °C for 14 days and at 22 °C for 5 days. Two initial inoculum concentrations were used (1 and 2 log CFU per g of beef or per ml of broth). The results show that C. perfringens could grow in beef at 22 °C, with an increase of approximately 5 log under anoxic conditions and a 1-log increase under microoxic conditions. However, C. perfringens could not survive in beef held at 7 °C under microoxic and oxic storage conditions after 14 days. In an anoxic environment, C. perfringens survived in beef samples held at 7 °C, with a 1-log reduction. A cell decline was observed at 2 log under these conditions, with no surviving cells at the 1-log level. However, the results show that C. jejuni under microoxic conditions survived with declining cell numbers. Significant increases in L. monocytogenes (5 to 7 log) were observed in beef held at 22 °C for 5 days, with the lowest levels recovered under anoxic conditions. L. monocytogenes in refrigerated storage increased by a factor of 2 to 4 log. It showed the greatest growth under oxic conditions, with significant growth under anoxic conditions. These findings can be used to enhance food safety in vacuum-packed and modified atmosphere-packaged food products. PMID:25836393

  5. Histone acetylation rescues contextual fear conditioning in nNOS KO mice and accelerates extinction of cued fear conditioning in wild type mice.

    PubMed

    Itzhak, Yossef; Anderson, Karen L; Kelley, Jonathan B; Petkov, Martin

    2012-05-01

    Epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure is an essential molecular mechanism that contributes to the formation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory (LTM). An important regulatory process of chromatin structure is acetylation and deacetylation of histone proteins. Inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) increases acetylation of histone proteins and facilitate learning and memory. Nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway has a role in synaptic plasticity, LTM and regulation of histone acetylation. We have previously shown that NO signaling pathway is required for contextual fear conditioning. The present study investigated the effects of systemic administration of the HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaB) on fear conditioning in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice. The effect of single administration of NaB on total H3 and H4 histone acetylation in hippocampus and amygdala was also investigated. A single administration of NaB prior to fear conditioning (a) rescued contextual fear conditioning of nNOS KO mice and (b) had long-term (weeks) facilitatory effect on the extinction of cued fear memory of WT mice. The facilitatory effect of NaB on extinction of cued fear memory of WT mice was confirmed in a study whereupon NaB was administered during extinction. Results suggest that (a) the rescue of contextual fear conditioning in nNOS KO mice is associated with NaB-induced increase in H3 histone acetylation and (b) the accelerated extinction of cued fear memory in WT mice is associated with NaB-induced increase in H4 histone acetylation. Hence, a single administration of HDAC inhibitor may rescue NO-dependent cognitive deficits and afford a long-term accelerating effect on extinction of fear memory of WT mice. PMID:22452925

  6. Calculation for optimization of the experimental conditions for RBS analysis at the HUS 5SDH-2 tandem accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phong, Le Hong Khiem Ho, Vi; Nghia, Nguyen The

    2015-06-01

    The dependences of the depth and mass resolutions of analysis using Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) on some experimental conditions (such as the beam energy, the target tilting angle, etc.) have been investigated. A computer program for simulating the RBS spectra and for calculating the depth and mass resolution under different experimental conditions was developed. The results of calculation were experimentally checked by using some reference samples. The good agreements between calculated and experimental values have been found. The optimum analysis conditions over a wide range of RBS applications based on our calculation can be chosen. This investigation was conducted by using the RBS system at HUS 5SDH-2 Tandem accelerator at the Hanoi University of Science.

  7. Conditioned Observation of Books and Accelerated Acquisition of Textual Responding by Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Hshin-hui; Greer, R. Douglas

    2006-01-01

    We report an experiment investigating the effects of conditioning books as reinforcers for observing responses on the learning of textual responses by pre-school children. The independent variable was the acquisition of conditioned reinforcement of observing responses and choice of book stimuli in free play settings where children could choose to…

  8. DNA Storage under High Temperature Conditions Does Not Affect Performance in Human Leukocyte Antigen Genotyping via Next-Generation Sequencing (DNA Integrity Maintained in Extreme Conditions)

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Shana L; Hogan, Michael E; Pappas, Derek J; Wong, Lily Y

    2014-01-01

    Background: Stable dry-state storage of DNA is desirable to minimize required storage space and to reduce electrical and shipping costs. DNA purified from various commercially available dry-state stabilization matrices has been used successfully in downstream molecular applications (e.g., quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR], microarray, and sequence-based genotyping). However, standard DNA storage conditions still include freezing of DNA eluted in aqueous buffers or nuclease-free water. Broad implementation of dry-state, long-term DNA storage requires enhancement of such dry-state DNA stabilization products to control for temperature fluctuations at specimen collection, transit, and storage. This study tested the integrity of genomic DNA subjected to long-term storage on GenTegra™ DNA stabilization matrices (GenTegra LLC, Pleasanton, CA) at extreme conditions, as defined by a 4-year storage period at ambient temperature with an initial incubation for 7 months at 37°C, 56°C, or ambient temperature. Subsequently, purified DNA performance and integrity were measured by qPCR and next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based human leokocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping. Results: High molecular weight genomic DNA samples were recovered from the GenTegra product matrix and exhibited integrity comparable to a highly characterized commercial standard under assessment by qPCR. Samples were genotyped for classical HLA loci using next generation sequencing-based methodolgy on the Roche 454 GS Junior instrument. Amplification efficiency, sequence coverage, and sequence quality were all comparable with those produced from a cell line DNA sequenced as a control. No significant differences were observed in the mean, median, or mode quality scores between samples and controls (p≥0.4). Conclusions: Next generation HLA genotyping was chosen to test the integrity of GenTegra-treated genomic DNA due to the requirment for long sequence reads to genotype the highly polymorphic

  9. Influence of Accelerated Cooling Condition on Welding Thermal Cycle, Residual Stress, and Deformation in SM490A Steel ESW Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Dean; Sun, Jiamin; Dai, Deping; Jiang, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Electro-slag welding (ESW) has been widely used to join the box column because of high productivity. The heat input of ESW is far larger than those of other fusion welding processes, so ESW usually results in a long holding time over certain elevated temperature (∆ t H time), a long cooling time from 800 to 500 °C (∆ t 8/5 time), and a wide heat-affected zone (HAZ). It can be foreseen that the mechanical properties especially fracture toughness of the fusion zone and HAZ will be inferior to those of base metal. As a fundamental research, a computational approach based on MSC.Marc code was developed to simulate the thermo-mechanical behaviors in a typical SM490A steel ESW joint under different cooling conditions. Meanwhile, the thermal cycles computed by numerical model were compared with the experimental measurements. Moreover, the influence of accelerated cooling methods on welding residual stress and deformation was examined numerically. Simulation results show that accelerated cooling methods not only can largely shorten ∆ t H time as well as ∆ t 8/5 time and reduce the size of HAZ, but also can affect the residual stress distribution and deformation. It is believed that the accelerated cooling methods proposed by this study potentially improve the mechanical properties of ESW joint.

  10. Human mononuclear cell function after 4 degrees C storage during 1-G and microgravity conditions of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, R.; Taylor, G.; Lionetti, F.; Neale, L.; Curren, T.

    1989-01-01

    Future space missions of long duration may require that autologous leukocytes be stored in flight for infusion to restore normal immune competence in crewmembers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), as leukocyte concentrates in autologous plasma and 2% dextrose, were stored in the microgravity conditions provided by the U.S. Space Shuttle Columbia (Mission 61-C). Activity of PBMNC after space flight was compared with that from a series of preflight ground control experiments, which demonstrated in culture a progressive daily loss in mitogen-stimulated protein synthesis at 24 h and thymidine uptake at 72 h after storage for 7 d at 4 degrees C. Post-storage viabilities were at least 90% as determined by trypan dye exclusion. A progressive reduction in the percentage of PBMNC expressing cell-surface phenotype markers, which was similar for monocytes, B cells, and T-cell subsets, also occurred after storage. The ability of PBMNC, stored for 8 d in Columbia's middeck, to become activated and proliferate in vitro was similar to that of cells that remained in identical flight lockers on the ground as 1-G controls, thus indicating that PBMNCs were not adversely affected by storage under microgravity conditions.

  11. Pacific whiting frozen fillets as affected by postharvest processing and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinhwan; Park, Jae W

    2016-06-15

    Whole fish and H&G (headed and gutted) fish were stored under refrigeration (<4 °C) for 0, 2, and 5 days and subsequently filleted and frozen at -18 °C and -80 °C. Frozen fillets were analyzed during 24 weeks of storage. The activity of trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase (TMAOase) decreased more quickly at -18 °C than -80 °C. TMAOase reduction was distinctively noted at -18 °C storage. Formaldehyde (FA) induced by TMAOase increased at all treatments at -18 °C as frozen storage extended to 24 weeks, but it was near zero at -80 °C up to 12 weeks of storage. Textural toughening, low water retention ability, and low salt soluble protein resulted from the denaturation function of FA. A sudden decrease in surface hydrophobicity at 24 weeks, when stored at -18 °C, resulted from FA-induced unfolding and subsequent aggregation. FA concentration appeared to affect protein aggregations and textual toughening of fillets during frozen storage. PMID:26868563

  12. The effect of storage conditions on the hygiene and sensory status of wild boar meat.

    PubMed

    Borilova, G; Hulankova, R; Svobodova, I; Jezek, F; Hutarova, Z; Vecerek, V; Steinhauserova, I

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare hygiene status of wild boar meat (shoulder and leg) stored up to 21days at 0°C, 7°C or 15°C. The microbial counts increased gradually in the expected sequence of increasing storage temperatures, with TVC at the end of storage ranging from approx. 2logCFU/g (0°C) to 5logCFU/g (15°C). The lactic acid bacteria and psychrotrophic microflora didn't exceed 2logCFU/g and 2.5logCFU/g, respectively. Whereas odor of the meat stored at 0°C and 7°C was still acceptable at the end of storage, the odor of the meat stored at 15°C was barely acceptable after only 7d of storage and also the content of ammonia was significantly higher. Game meat obtained from animals hunted in the correct way and stored at low temperatures had good microbiological and hygiene status which could be maintained for more than 15days of storage. PMID:27057754

  13. Effects of water sample preservation and storage conditions on nitrate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.C.; Alva, A.K.; Calvert, D.V.; Zhang, M. |

    1995-12-31

    USEPA method 300 requires water samples should be stored at 4 C immediately after collection and NO{sub 3}-N concentration analyzed within 48 hr of sample collection. Many research and commercial laboratories find it is difficult to meet this holding time. Water samples are often stored for several days at 4 C or {minus}20 C until analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of groundwater sample pretreatment, storage temperatures, and holding times on concentrations of NO{sub 3}-N. The storage of samples at 25 C decreased concentrations of NO{sub 3}-N by 1.7% and 12.5% for 48 hr and 50 days, respectively. No significant changes were observed during the 50 days storage at 4 C or {minus}20 C. Acidification of water samples at 4 C had no significant effect on NO{sub 3}-N concentration up to 50-day holding time.

  14. Influence of Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei extracts on the prevention of oxidation and retention of tocopherols in soybean oil in an accelerated storage test.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Ana Carolina; Jorge, Neuza

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the methanol extracts of mushrooms Lentinus edodes and Agaricus blazei on the retention of tocopherols in soybean oil, when subjected to an accelerated storage test. The following treatments were subjected to an accelerated storage test in an oven at 60 °C for 15 days: Control (soybean oil without antioxidants), TBHQ (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of TBHQ), BHT (soybean oil + 100 mg/kg of BHT), L. edodes (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of L. edodes extract) and A. blazei (soybean oil + 3,500 mg/kg of A. blazei extract). The samples were analyzed for tocopherols naturally present in soybean oil and mass gain. The results showed, the time required to reach a 0.5% increase in mass was 13 days for TBHQ and 15 days for A. blazei. The content of tocopherols for TBHQ was 457.50 mg/kg and the A. blazei, 477.20 mg/kg. PMID:24876658

  15. Failure analysis for the dual input quad NAND gate CD4011 under dormant storage conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2007-05-01

    Several groups of plastic molded CD4011s were electrically tested as part of an Army dormant storage program. These parts had been in storage in missile containers for 4.5 years, and were electrically tested annually. Eight of the parts (out of 1200) failed the electrical tests and were subsequently analyzed to determine the cause of the failures. The root cause was found to be corrosion of the unpassivated Al bondpads. No significant attack of the passivated Al traces was found. Seven of the eight failures occurred in parts stored on a pre-position ship (the Jeb Stuart), suggesting a link between the external environment and observed corrosion.

  16. Failure analysis for the dual input quad NAND fate CD4011 under dormant storage conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2004-11-01

    Several groups of plastic molded CD4011 were electrically tested as part of an Army dormant storage program. For this test, parts had been in storage in missile containers for 4.5 years. Eight of the parts (out of 1200) failed the electrical tests and were subsequently analyzed to determine the cause of the failures. The root cause was found to be corrosion of the unpassivated Al bondpads. No significant attack of the passivated Al traces was found. Seven of the eight failures occurred in parts stored on a preposition ship (Jeb Stuart), suggesting a link between the external environment and observed corrosion.

  17. Creep deformation of an unirradiated zircaloy nuclear fuel cladding tube under dry storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayuzumi, Masami; Onchi, Takeo

    1990-05-01

    Measurements of creep deformation were made on an internally gas pressurized tubular Zircaloy-4 specimen with plugs welded to its ends. Creep tests were conducted at temperatures between 577 and 693 K for holding times of up to 26640 ks, to formulate the creep equation needed for predicting creep strain during dry storage of spent fuel. Discussion was also given to the difference of creep behaviour between irradiated and unirradiated fuel cladding, indicating that the equation derived is applicable for predicting creep strain of spent fuel cladding during dry storage.

  18. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling. PMID:25916229

  19. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions. PMID:27542493

  20. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the “Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products” by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese. PMID:26760945

  1. Short communication: The effect of storage conditions over time on bovine colostral immunoglobulin G concentration, bacteria, and pH.

    PubMed

    Cummins, C; Lorenz, I; Kennedy, E

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to measure the effect of storing colostrum in different conditions for varying amounts of time on IgG concentration, bacteria, and pH. In experiment 1, colostrum from 12 Holstein-Friesian cows (6 primiparous and 6 multiparous) was collected within 3h of calving, and colostrum from another 12 multiparous cows was collected within 3h of calving (6 cows) and >9h postpartum (6 cows). Aliquots were refrigerated or stored at room temperature for up to 72h, depending on treatment. In experiment 2, colostrum was collected from 6 multiparous cows within 9h of calving, and aliquots were stored for up to 72h in temperature-controlled units set at 4, 13, and 20°C. All colostrum samples were analyzed for IgG concentration, total bacteria count, and pH after 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72h of storage. Storage conditions did not affect the IgG concentration of colostrum. Bacterial growth was most rapid in the first 6h of storage, reducing thereafter, but bacteria multiplied at a significantly greater rate when stored in warmer conditions (i.e., >4°C). The pH of colostrum was not significantly altered when stored at temperatures <13°C, but when stored at 20°C the pH significantly decreased after 24h of storage. Storing colostrum in warmer conditions significantly alters both total bacteria count and pH; consequently, colostrum should be stored at ≤4°C. PMID:26995126

  2. Effects of storage conditions on the stability of serum CD163, NGAL, HMGB1 and MIP2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Zhu, Hai Hong; Xue, Ji Hua; Wu, Shan Shan; Chen, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several cytokines have been involved in the diagnosis and prognosis for the pathogenesis and severity of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) such as cluster of differentiation 163 (CD163), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2). Nevertheless, the stability and reliability of these cytokines can be greatly influenced by handling and storage processes. Methods: In this study, potential utility of serum samples of a CHB cohort was evaluated to investigate several processes that might impact cytokine profiles such as temperature, storage time and number of freeze-thaw cycles. Blood samples collected from 100 patients with CHB were separated immediately and divided into two groups. In one group, samples (n=50) stored at -80°C were subject to 1-3 freeze-thaw cycles. In the other group, samples (n=50) were stored at 4°C and 25°C for 3 h, 9 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 7 d time points, respectively. To assess the influence of different storage conditions on cytokines, the levels of CD163, NGAL, HMGB1 and MIP-2 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) kits. Results: No significant differences of these four cytokines after 1-3 repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Significant differences of NAGL levels were seen between 9 h and 7 d (P<0.05), and also in HMGB1 at 25°C, while the other cytokines were relatively stable at the two storage temperatures over the various time points. Conclusion: This study indicated that these four cytokines remained stable within three freeze-thaw cycles and 7 d at 4°C. No perceptible effects on CD163 and MIP-2 levels were presented under the storage condition of 7 d at room temperature, whereas the degradation of NGAL and HMGB1 were notable. PMID:26097598

  3. Effects of catchment, first-flush, storage conditions, and time on microbial quality in rainwater harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Amin, M T; Kim, Tschung-il; Amin, M N; Han, M Y

    2013-12-01

    Rainwater collected from a rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system is typically not considered suitable for potable uses, primarily because of poor microbial quality. The quality of stored rainwater, however, can be improved through basic design and maintenance practices during the construction and operation of an RWH system. This paper presents the microbial analysis of rainwater in two RWH systems installed at the Seoul National University Campus in South Korea. Rainwater samples were collected at different locations within each system and analyzed for total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. Within their storage tanks, water quality improved horizontally from inlet to outlet points, and higher quality was observed at the supply point (located about 0.5 m from the base of the tank) than at the surface or bottom of the tank. First-flush rainwater was found to be highly contaminated but rainwater quality improved following about 1 mm of precipitation. The catchment surface also had a significant effect on the quality of rainwater; samples collected from a rooftop exhibited better microbial quality than from a terrace catchment. Better water quality in underground tanks (dark storage conditions) compared to open weirs/ filters (exposed to natural light) demonstrated the importance of storage conditions. Water quality also improved with longer storage, and a decrease of 70% to 90% in microbial concentrations was observed after about 1 week of storage time. The findings of this study demonstrate that the microbial quality of harvested rainwater can be improved significantly by the adoption of proper design and maintenance guidelines such as those discussed in this paper. PMID:24597047

  4. Gas Exchanges and Dehydration in Different Intensities of Conditioning in Tifton 85 Bermudagrass: Nutritional Value during Hay Storage

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualotto, M.; Neres, M. A.; Guimarães, V. F.; Klein, J.; Inagaki, A. M.; Ducati, C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the intensity of Tifton 85 conditioning using a mower conditioner with free-swinging flail fingers and storage times on dehydration curve, fungi presence, nutritional value and in vitro digestibility of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay dry matter (DM). The dehydration curve was determined in the whole plant for ten times until the baling. The zero time corresponded to the plant before cutting, which occurred at 11:00 and the other collections were carried out at 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 16:00. The experimental design was randomised blocks with two intensities of conditioning (high and low) and ten sampling times, with five replications. The high and low intensities related to adjusting the deflector plate of the free iron fingers (8 and 18 cm). In order to determine gas exchanges during Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration, there were evaluations of mature leaves, which were placed in the upper middle third of each branch before the cutting, at every hour for 4 hours. A portable gas analyser was used by an infrared IRGA (6400xt). The analysed variables were photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration (T), water use efficiency (WUE), and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi). In the second part of this study, the nutritional value of Tifton 85 hay was evaluated, so randomised blocks were designed in a split plot through time, with two treatments placed in the following plots: high and low intensity of cutting and five different time points as subplots: cutting (additional treatment), baling and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. Subsequently, fungi that were in green plants as well as hay were determined and samples were collected from the grass at the cutting period, during baling, and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. It was observed that Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration occurred within 49 hours, so this was considered the best time for drying hay. Gas exchanges were more

  5. Effect of freezing technology and storage conditions on folate content in selected vegetables.

    PubMed

    Czarnowska, Marta; Gujska, Elzbieta

    2012-12-01

    Folates (B vitamins) are essential for the proper function of many bodily processes. Although a rich natural source are vegetables, the literature lacks data on the effect of the pre-treatment and freezing technologies used in vegetable processing and frozen storage time on the folate content in these materials. Moreover, since folates are very unstable nutrients, the amount available in processed and stored foods can be significantly lower than in raw products. In tested vegetables (green beans, yellow beans, peas, cauliflower, broccoli and spinach), one folate form was identified, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH₃-H₄folate). It was observed that pre-treatment and freezing technology significantly (p < 0.05) decreased 5-CH₃-H₄folate content only in vegetables with the largest degree of fragmentation (cut and briquetted spinach) and the smallest size (peas). In all analyzed samples, the 5-CH₃-H₄folate content decreased with the time of frozen storage. In frozen cauliflower, the 5-CH₃-H₄folate loss exceeded 95 % compared to the fresh product just after the third month of frozen storage. Meanwhile, in green and yellow beans, significant 5-CH₃-H₄folate losses (at the level of 75 % and 95 %, respectively) were observed no earlier than after the 9th month of frozen storage. PMID:22983767

  6. FURY: ROBOTIC IN-SITU INSPECTION/CONDITION ASSESSMENT SYSTEM FOR UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 280-281) required all underground storage tanks (USTs) containing petroleum products to be brought into compliance to prevent environmental contamination through leakage. Replacing all older USTs can, in some cases, be prohibitively expensi...

  7. Storage conditions affect speed of germination in Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae conidia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The retention of high viability during storage is essential for effectiveness and thus market acceptance of fungus-based biopesticides. The length of adequate shelf-lives for mycoinsecticides is controversial, with proposed requirements varying from a few weeks to 18 months. Shelf-life determination...

  8. Growth and activity of reservoir microorganisms under carbon capture and storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakoczy, Jana; Gniese, Claudia; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage is a technology to decelerate global warming by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. To ensure safe long-term storage of CO2 in the underground a number of factors need to be considered. One of them is microbial activity in storage reservoirs, which can lead to the formation of acidic metabolites, H2S or carbonates which then might affect injectivity, permeability, pressure build-up and long-term operability. Our research focused on the effect of high CO2 concentrations on growth and activity of selected thermophilic fermenting and sulphate-reducing bacteria isolated from deep reservoirs. Experiments with supercritical carbon dioxide at 100 bar completely inhibited growth of freshly inoculated cultures and also caused a rapid decrease of growth of a pre-grown culture. This demonstrated that supercritical carbon dioxide had a certain sterilizing effect on cells. This effect was not observed in control cultures with 100 bar of hydrostatic pressure. However, when provided with a surface for attachment, CO2-inhibited cells restarted growth after CO2 release. The same was observed for organisms able to form spores. Further experiments will examine physiological and molecular properties of the model organism allowing for prediction of its sensitivity and/or adaptability to carbon dioxide in potential future storage sites.

  9. Unsteady heat dissipation in accelerator superconducting coils insulated with porous ceramic insulation in normal and supercritical helium conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrowicz, S.; Four, A.; Baudouy, B.; Kimura, N.; Yamamoto, A.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the unsteady heat dissipation in accelerator superconducting coils insulated with porous ceramic insulation, two experimental mock-ups reproducing the thermal and the mechanical conditions of a superconducting coils were produced. The mock-ups with compressive load of 10 MPa and 20 MPa were tested at normal (T = 4.23 K and p = 1 bar) and supercritical helium conditions (T = 4.23 K and p = 2.0 to 3.75 bar) during unsteady heat dissipation. The paper presents the experimental results of temperature rise in both superconducting coils as a function of time for a wide range of a localized heat load varying from 0.1 kJ/m3 up to 12.8 MJ m-3 per pulse. A numerical model of the transient process in these coils has been developed and the computations are compared with the experimental results.

  10. Unsteady heat dissipation in accelerator superconducting coils insulated with porous ceramic insulation in normal and supercritical helium conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrowicz, S.; Four, A.; Baudouy, B.

    2014-01-29

    To investigate the unsteady heat dissipation in accelerator superconducting coils insulated with porous ceramic insulation, two experimental mock-ups reproducing the thermal and the mechanical conditions of a superconducting coils were produced. The mock-ups with compressive load of 10 MPa and 20 MPa were tested at normal (T = 4.23 K and p = 1 bar) and supercritical helium conditions (T = 4.23 K and p = 2.0 to 3.75 bar) during unsteady heat dissipation. The paper presents the experimental results of temperature rise in both superconducting coils as a function of time for a wide range of a localized heat load varying from 0.1 kJ/m{sup 3} up to 12.8 MJ m{sup −3} per pulse. A numerical model of the transient process in these coils has been developed and the computations are compared with the experimental results.

  11. A QR accelerated volume-to-surface boundary condition for finite element solution of eddy current problems

    SciTech Connect

    White, D; Fasenfest, B; Rieben, R; Stowell, M

    2006-09-08

    We are concerned with the solution of time-dependent electromagnetic eddy current problems using a finite element formulation on three-dimensional unstructured meshes. We allow for multiple conducting regions, and our goal is to develop an efficient computational method that does not require a computational mesh of the air/vacuum regions. This requires a sophisticated global boundary condition specifying the total fields on the conductor boundaries. We propose a Biot-Savart law based volume-to-surface boundary condition to meet this requirement. This Biot-Savart approach is demonstrated to be very accurate. In addition, this approach can be accelerated via a low-rank QR approximation of the discretized Biot-Savart law.

  12. Ductile-to-brittle transition temperature for high-burnup cladding alloys exposed to simulated drying-storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billone, M. C.; Burtseva, T. A.; Einziger, R. E.

    2013-02-01

    Structural analyses of dry casks containing high-burnup fuel require cladding mechanical properties and failure limits to assess fuel behavior. Pre-storage drying-transfer operations and early stage storage subject cladding to higher temperatures and much higher pressure-induced tensile hoop stresses relative to in-reactor operation and pool storage. Under these conditions, radial hydrides may precipitate during slow cooling and provide an additional embrittlement mechanism as the cladding temperature decreases below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT). A test procedure was developed to simulate the effects of drying-storage temperature histories. Following drying-storage simulation, samples were subjected to ring-compression test (RCT) loading, which was used as a ductility screening test and to simulate pinch-type loading that may occur during cask transport. RCT samples with <2% offset strain prior to >50% wall cracking were assessed as brittle. Prior to testing high-burnup cladding, many tests were conducted with pre-hydrided Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) and ZIRLO™ to determine target 400 °C hoop stresses for high-burnup rodlets. Zry-4 cladding segments, from a 67-GWd/MTU fuel rod, with 520-620 wppm hydrogen and ZIRLO™ cladding segments from a 70-GWd/MTU fuel rod, with 350-650 wppm hydrogen were defueled and tested. Following drying-storage simulation, the extent of radial-hydride precipitation was characterized by the radial-hydride continuity factor. It was found that the DBTT was dependent on: cladding material, irradiation conditions, and drying-storage histories (stress at maximum temperature). High-burnup ZIRLO™ exhibited higher susceptible to radial-hydride formation and embrittlement than high-burnup Zry-4. It was also observed that uniformly pre-hydrided, non-irradiated cladding was not a good surrogate for high-burnup cladding because of the high density of circumferential hydrides across the wall and the high metal-matrix ductility for

  13. Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.

    2011-01-01

    positron beams. Storage rings have instrumentation to monitor the electrical and mechanical systems, and the beam quality. Computers are used to control the operation. Large storage rings have millions of control points from all systems. The time dependent beam intensity I(t) can often be approximated by an exponential function I(t) = I(0) exp(-t/{tau}) (1) where the decay time {tau} and, correspondingly, the store time ranges from a few turns to 10 days (ISR). {tau} can be dominated by a variety of effects including lattice nonlinearities, beam-beam, space charge, intrabeam and Touschek scattering, interaction with the residual gas or target, or the lifetime of the stored particle. In this case, the beam lifetime measurement itself can be the purpose of a storage ring experiment. The main consideration in the design of a storage ring is the preservation of the beam quality over the store length. The beam size and momentum spread can be reduced through cooling, often leading to an increase in the store time. For long store times vacuum considerations are important since the interaction rate of the stored particles with the residual gas molecules is proportional to the pressure, and an ultra-high vacuum system may be needed. Distributed pumping with warm activated NEG surfaces or cold surfaces in machines with superconducting magnets are ways to provide large pumping speeds and achieve low pressures even under conditions with dynamic gas loads. The largest application of storage rings today are synchrotron light sources, of which about 50 exist world wide. In experiments where the beam collides with an internal target or another beam, a storage ring allows to re-use the accelerated beam many times if the interaction with the target is sufficiently small. In hadron collider and ion storage rings store times of many hours or even days are realized, corresponding to up to 1011 turns and thereby target passages. Ref. [3] is the first proposal for a collider storage ring. A

  14. The Effect of Different Storage Conditions on the Physical Properties of Pigmented Medical Grade I Silicone Maxillofacial Material

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dharrab, Ayman A.; Tayel, Seham B.; Abodaya, Mona H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different storage solutions that simulate acidic, alkaline, and sebum conditiions on the physical properties of pigmented (colorant elastomer) cosmesil M511 maxillofacial prosthetic material. Materials and Methods. Sixty specimens were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions and were tested before and after immersion of different storage conditions for six months at 37 °C. The following tests were performed: color changes (group I), solution absorption (group II), surface roughness (group III), and scanning electron microscopy (group IV). Results. There were no significant changes observed in the color and solution absorption tests while surface roughness revealed significant difference between control group and other testing storage medium groups, and this result was supported by SEM analysis that revealed limited surface changes. Conclusions. Cosmaseil material is an acceptable cross-linked formulation that withstands storage in different solutions with variable pH. The addition of pigment cannot vary the physical properties of these materials. Surface roughness test as well as SEM microscopic study showed moderate changes indicating a limited effect on the surface of the material. PMID:23606978

  15. Human mononuclear cell function after 4 C storage during 1-G and microgravity conditions of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, Richard; Taylor, Gerald; Lionetti, Fabian; Neale, Laurie; Curren, Tim

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of restoring immune competence of crewmembers during a prolonged spaceflight by infusions of autologous blood components, the effect of storage at 4 C aboard Space Shuttle Columbia (Mission 61-c) on the activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), stored as leukocyte concentrates in autologous plasa, was investigated. The results of preflight storage at 4 C demonstrated a progressive daily loss in mitogen-stimulated protein synthesis, and thymidine uptake, as well as a progressive reduction in the percentage of PBMNCs expressing cell-surface phenotype markers. The ability of PBMNCs stored at 4 C for 8 d in Columbia's middeck, to become activated and proliferate in vitro was similar to that of cells that remained for 7 d on ground.

  16. Implications of storage and handling conditions on glass transition and potential devitrification of oocytes and embryos.

    PubMed

    Sansinena, M; Santos, M V; Taminelli, G; Zaritky, N

    2014-08-01

    Devitrification, the process of crystallization of a formerly crystal-free, amorphous glass state, can lead to damage during the warming of cells. The objective of this study was to determine the glass transition temperature of a cryopreservation solution typically used in the vitrification, storage, and warming of mammalian oocytes and embryos using differential scanning calorimetry. A numerical model of the heat transfer process to analyze warming and devitrification thresholds for a common vitrification carrier (open-pulled straw) was conducted. The implications on specimen handling and storage inside the dewar in contact with nitrogen vapor phase at different temperatures were determined. The time required for initiation of devitrification of a vitrified sample was determined by mathematical modeling and compared with measured temperatures in the vapor phase of liquid nitrogen cryogenic dewars. Results indicated the glass transition ranged from -126 °C to -121 °C, and devitrification was initiated at -109 °C. Interestingly, samples entered rubbery state at -121 °C and therefore could potentially initiate devitrification above this value, with the consequent damaging effects to cell survival. Devitrification times were calculated considering an initial temperature of material immersed in liquid nitrogen (-196 °C), and two temperatures of liquid nitrogen vapors within the dewar (-50 °C and -70 °C) to which the sample could be exposed for a period of time, either during storage or upon its removal. The mathematical model indicated samples could reach glass transition temperatures and undergo devitrification in 30 seconds. Results of the present study indicate storage of vitrified oocytes and embryos in the liquid nitrogen vapor phase (as opposed to completely immersed in liquid nitrogen) poses the potential risk of devitrification. Because of the reduced time-handling period before samples reach critical rubbery and devitrification values, caution should be

  17. Power conditioning electronics for a 500 Wh inertial energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eakin, Vickie J.; Rodriguez, G. Ernest; Paulkovich, John

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of a pulse-width-modulated buck-boost converter designed to interface a 500 Wh inertial energy storage system operating from 70 to 140 VDC to a constant bus of 150 VDC. Implementation of hysteresis feedback control provides excellent voltage regulation. The design is based on a 300-Wh, 94 percent Wh efficient prototype and is currently being optimized to yield 97 percent overall watt-hour efficiency.

  18. New potent accelerator of neurite outgrowth from Lawsonia inermis flower under non-fasting condition.

    PubMed

    Oda, Yoshimi; Nakashima, Souichi; Nakamura, Seikou; Yano, Mamiko; Akiyama, Masanori; Imai, Kayo; Kimura, Tomohito; Nakata, Akiko; Tani, Miyuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    The methanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis L. (henna) showed accelerative effects on nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells under non-fasting conditions. To elucidate the active constituents responsible for the neuronal differentiation, we conducted a search of the constituents and examined their accelerative effects on neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. We isolated a new acetophenone glycoside, inermioside A, which exerted a significant accelerative effect on neurite outgrowth. We also confirmed the activities of nine known compounds, including quercetin and lalioside. In addition, we found that quercetin, one of the active constituents, increased Vav3 mRNA expression. PMID:26936787

  19. Formulation of boundary conditions for the multigrid acceleration of the Euler and Navier Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jentink, Thomas Neil; Usab, William J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An explicit, Multigrid algorithm was written to solve the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with special consideration given to the coarse mesh boundary conditions. These are formulated in a manner consistent with the interior solution, utilizing forcing terms to prevent coarse-mesh truncation error from affecting the fine-mesh solution. A 4-Stage Hybrid Runge-Kutta Scheme is used to advance the solution in time, and Multigrid convergence is further enhanced by using local time-stepping and implicit residual smoothing. Details of the algorithm are presented along with a description of Jameson's standard Multigrid method and a new approach to formulating the Multigrid equations.

  20. Effects of packaging and storage conditions on volatile compounds in gas-packed poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Eilamo, M; Kinnunen, A; Latva-Kala, K; Ahvenainen, R

    1998-01-01

    Volatile compounds released by raw chicken legs packed in modified atmosphere packages were determined in order to develop a spoilage indicator for monitoring the shelf-life of raw chicken. Internal spoilage indicators would react with compounds released during chemical, enzymatic and/or microbial spoilage reactions. The effects of four packaging factors (headspace volume, oxygen transmission rate of the package, residual oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration) and three storage factors (temperature, illumination and storage time) on the amounts of volatile compounds in the headspace of gas packages containing two chicken legs were studied. Statistical experimental design was applied and a linear screening design comprising 18 experiments (fractional factorial) was utilized. Volatile compounds in package headspace were determined by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry using the dynamic headspace technique. The results were compared with the results of sensory evaluation and microbial determinations. The head-space of stored packages was dominated by the following compounds: butene, ethanol, acetone, pentane, dimethylsulphide, carbon disulphide and dimethyl disulphide. In modelling, some interaction terms and squared terms were needed in addition to linear terms. The main factors affecting the amounts of ethanol, dimethyl sulphide, carbon disulphide and dimethyl disulphide were storage time and temperature. Other factors had only minor importance, carbon dioxide concentration and headspace volume being the most significant package parameters. The same four factors also had the greatest effects on the odour of chicken legs. PMID:9602929

  1. Pore-scale imaging of geological carbon dioxide storage under in situ conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, Matthew; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.

    2013-08-01

    While geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage could contribute to reducing global emissions, it must be designed such that the CO2 cannot escape from the porous rock into which it is injected. An important mechanism to immobilize the CO2, preventing escape, is capillary trapping, where CO2 is stranded as disconnected pore-scale droplets (ganglia) in the rock, surrounded by water. We used X-Ray microtomography to image, at a resolution of 6.4 µm, the pore-scale arrangement and distribution of trapped CO2 clusters in a limestone. We applied high pressures and temperatures typical of a storage formation, while maintaining chemical equilibrium between the CO2, brine, and rock. Substantial amounts of CO2 were trapped, with an average saturation of 0.18. The cluster sizes obeyed a power law distribution, with an exponent of approximately -2.1, consistent with predictions from percolation theory. This work confirms that residual trapping could aid storage security in carbonate aquifers.

  2. Geological conditions of safe long-term storage and disposal of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Velichkin, V. I.; Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Tagirov, B. R.

    2010-08-01

    The production of enriched uranium used in nuclear weapons and fuel for atomic power plants is accompanied by the formation of depleted uranium (DU), the amount of which annually increases by 35-40 kt. To date, more than 1.6 Mt DU has accumulated in the world. The main DU mass is stored as environ-mentally hazardous uranium hexafluoride (UF6), which is highly volatile and soluble in water with the formation of hydrofluoric acid. To ensure safe UF6 storage, it is necessary to convert this compound in chemically stable phases. The industrial reprocessing of UF6 into U3O8 and HF implemented in France is highly expensive. We substantiate the expediency of long-term storage of depleted uranium hexafluoride in underground repositories localized in limestone. On the basis of geochemical data and thermodynamic calculations, we show that interaction in the steel container-UF6-limestone-groundwater system gives rise to the development of a slightly alkaline reductive medium favorable for chemical reaction with formation of uraninite (UO2) and fluorite (CaF2). The proposed engineering solution not only ensures safe DU storage but also makes it possible to produce uraninite, which can be utilized, if necessary, in fast-neutron reactors. In the course of further investigations aimed at safe maintenance of DU, it is necessary to study the kinetics of conversion of UF6 into stable phases, involving laboratory and field experiments.

  3. Antifungal starter culture for packed bread: influence of two storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Gerez, Carla L; Fornaguera, María J; Obregozo, Mariano D; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Torino, María I

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the conservation of a semi-liquid bio-preserver (SL778) developed with Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778, a lactic acid bacterium (LAB) having antifungal activity. The characteristics of the SL778 starter remained stable during a 14-day storage at 4°C. At -20°C, cell viability and organic acid concentration showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease after 7 days. These differences observed between the storage temperatures tested were reflected in the acidification activity of SL778 during dough fermentation. However, SL778 maintained its antifungal efficacy up to a 14-day storage at both temperatures. Sensory attributes (acidic and spicy tastes and acidic smell) of breads manufactured with starter SL778 (stored at 4 or -20°C) were evaluated. No undesirable difference was detected with respect to bread control without SL778 and bread manufactured with SL778 (stored at 4 or -20°C). In conclusion, the SL778 semi-liquid bio-preserver can be stored at 4 or -20°C without modifying its antifungal activity during 14 days. PMID:25896466

  4. Impact of Cooking, Storage, and Reheating Conditions on the Formation of Cholesterol Oxidation Products in Pork Loin.

    PubMed

    Min, Joong-Seok; Khan, Muhammad I; Lee, Sang-Ok; Yim, Dong Gyun; Seol, Kuk Hwan; Lee, Mooha; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating conditions on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in pork loin. Samples of pork loin procured 24 h postmortem were initially processed and assessed for total fat and cholesterol content. The cooking methods evaluated were pan roasting, steaming, oven grilling, and microwaving. Cooked pork loin samples were stored at 4℃ and reheated after 3 and 6 d of storage using the original method of preparation or alternately, microwaving. Fat content increased significantly with cooking as a result of the loss in moisture but cholesterol content remained unchanged. Pan roasting and microwave cooking caused a significantly higher production of COPs, as with the process of reheating using microwave, pan roasting, and oven grilling methods. The major COPs found in pork loin were cholestanetriol, 20-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol, whose concentrations varied according to the different cooking and reheating methods used. Moreover, the aerobic storage of cooked pork loin under a refrigerated condition also increased the formation of cholesterol oxides on reheating. PMID:27499660

  5. Impact of Cooking, Storage, and Reheating Conditions on the Formation of Cholesterol Oxidation Products in Pork Loin

    PubMed Central

    Min, Joong-Seok; Khan, Muhammad I.; Lee, Sang-Ok; Yim, Dong Gyun; Seol, Kuk Hwan; Lee, Mooha; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating conditions on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in pork loin. Samples of pork loin procured 24 h postmortem were initially processed and assessed for total fat and cholesterol content. The cooking methods evaluated were pan roasting, steaming, oven grilling, and microwaving. Cooked pork loin samples were stored at 4℃ and reheated after 3 and 6 d of storage using the original method of preparation or alternately, microwaving. Fat content increased significantly with cooking as a result of the loss in moisture but cholesterol content remained unchanged. Pan roasting and microwave cooking caused a significantly higher production of COPs, as with the process of reheating using microwave, pan roasting, and oven grilling methods. The major COPs found in pork loin were cholestanetriol, 20-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol, whose concentrations varied according to the different cooking and reheating methods used. Moreover, the aerobic storage of cooked pork loin under a refrigerated condition also increased the formation of cholesterol oxides on reheating. PMID:27499660

  6. Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status

    PubMed Central

    Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at −20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Conclusion. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions. PMID:23865070

  7. Stability of monosodium glutamate in green table olives and pickled cucumbers as a function of packing conditions and storage time.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; Beato, Víctor Manuel; Casado, Francisco Javier; Montaño, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different packing conditions and storage times on the stability of monosodium glutamate (MSG) added to two different fermented vegetables (Spanish-type green table olives and pickled cucumbers) were studied. Factors such as packaging material (glass bottle versus plastic pouch), heat treatment (pasteurisation versus non-pasteurisation), and the presence or not of a preservative compound (potassium sorbate) were considered. The MSG content of pickled cucumbers was stable for up to 1 year of storage in all packing conditions studied. The MSG content also remained stable in pasteurised green table olives. On the contrary, MSG was extensively degraded (>75% degradation) after 54 weeks of storage in unpasteurised green olives with a higher degradation rate in glass bottles compared with plastic pouches. In the presence of potassium sorbate, MSG was also considerably degraded in olives packed in plastic pouches (>50% degradation), but hardly degraded in glass bottles. The results indicate that MSG degradation in olives is due to the action of both lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, with the formation of γ-aminobutyric acid as the major end-product. PMID:24720705

  8. Systolic Peak Detection in Acceleration Photoplethysmograms Measured from Emergency Responders in Tropical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Elgendi, Mohamed; Norton, Ian; Brearley, Matt; Abbott, Derek; Schuurmans, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Photoplethysmogram (PPG) monitoring is not only essential for critically ill patients in hospitals or at home, but also for those undergoing exercise testing. However, processing PPG signals measured after exercise is challenging, especially if the environment is hot and humid. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm that can detect systolic peaks under challenging conditions, as in the case of emergency responders in tropical conditions. Accurate systolic-peak detection is an important first step for the analysis of heart rate variability. Algorithms based on local maxima-minima, first-derivative, and slope sum are evaluated, and a new algorithm is introduced to improve the detection rate. With 40 healthy subjects, the new algorithm demonstrates the highest overall detection accuracy (99.84% sensitivity, 99.89% positive predictivity). Existing algorithms, such as Billauer's, Li's and Zong's, have comparable although lower accuracy. However, the proposed algorithm presents an advantage for real-time applications by avoiding human intervention in threshold determination. For best performance, we show that a combination of two event-related moving averages with an offset threshold has an advantage in detecting systolic peaks, even in heat-stressed PPG signals. PMID:24167546

  9. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. PMID:25236229

  10. Formation and physical properties of uranium hydride under conditions relevant to metallic fuel and nuclear waste storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Robin; Godfrey, Hugh; Broan, Chris; Goddard, Dave; Woodhouse, Guy; Durham, Peter; Diggle, Andrew; Bradshaw, John

    2016-08-01

    The formation of uranium hydride is recognised as a hazard during the storage of uranium metal owing to its potentially pyrophoric properties. This study has assessed the influence of water vapour on the potential for uranium hydride to form at low temperatures and shows that it increases the duration of the induction period but does not necessarily prevent uranium hydride formation and also does not significantly change the reaction rate with hydrogen. It is further shown that the α-UH3 fraction in the uranium hydride gradually increases at decreasing temperatures and is likely to be the dominant phase formed under typical storage conditions. Particle morphology and specific surface area of uranium hydride prepared between 30 °C and 200 °C have also been characterised but show only modest variation compared with the phase composition.

  11. Influence of storage conditions in the evolution of phytochemicals in nutraceutical products applying high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    López-Gutiérrez, Noelia; Romero-González, Roberto; Vidal, José Luis Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2016-06-15

    An adequate knowledge about possible transformation of bioactive compounds in nutraceutical products during long storage is important in order to know potential modifications of this type of compounds. In this study, one year monitoring was performed in different types of nutraceutical products based on natural extracts (green tea, soy, royal jelly and grapes) observing the appearance of new bioactive compounds, which were not detected at the initial conditions, as well as the decrease of some of the detected compounds. To determine these transformation products, an analytical procedure based on high resolution mass spectrometry (Exactive-Orbitrap analyzer) was applied. It was noted that transformation products were detected after 3 months of storage in green tea and soy products, while 6 months were necessary to observe transformation products in royal jelly. PMID:26868548

  12. Accelerated mRNA decay in conditional mutants of yeast mRNA capping enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Schwer, B; Mao, X; Shuman, S

    1998-01-01

    Current models of mRNA decay in yeast posit that 3' deadenylation precedes enzymatic removal of the 5' cap, which then exposes the naked end to 5' exonuclease action. Here, we analyzed gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells bearing conditional mutations of Ceg1 (capping enzyme), a 52 kDa protein that transfers GMP from GTP to the 5' end of mRNA to form the GpppN cap structure. Shift of ceg1 mutants to restrictive temperature elicited a rapid decline in the rate of protein synthesis, which correlated with a sharp reduction in the steady-state levels of multiple individual mRNAs. ceg1 mutations prevented the accumulation of SSA1 and SSA4 mRNAs that were newly synthesized at the restrictive temperature. Uncapped poly(A)+ SSA4 mRNA accumulated in cells lacking the 5' exoribonuclease Xrn1. These findings provide genetic evidence for the long-held idea that the cap guanylate is critical for mRNA stability. The deadenylation-decapping-degradation pathway appears to be short-circuited when Ceg1 is inactivated. PMID:9547258

  13. Dorsal light response and changes of its responses under varying acceleration conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, S.; Takabayashi, A.; Takagi, S.; von Baumgarten, R.; Wetzig, J.

    In order to improve our understanding about functions of the gravity sensors, we have conducted four experiments in goldfish: 1) To define the effect of visual information influx on the static labyrinthine response, the dorsal light response (DLR) which had been proposed by von Holst as a model for postural adjustment in fish was reexamined with a newly designed, rotatory illumination device. The fish responded to illumination from the upper half of the visual field and a narrow range around 180 degrees of the lower half visual field. The maximal tilting angle of normal fish was about 40 degrees under horizontal illumination. 2) Under the changes of the gravito-inertial force level produced by a linear sled, the threshold of the gravity sensors was determined from postural adjustment responses. 3) Under hypogravic conditions during the parabolic flight of an airplane, the light-dependent behavior was investigated in intact and labyrinthectomized goldfish. 4) As one of the most likely candidates of the neural centers for the DLR, the valvula cerebelli, which receives its visual information not through the optic tectum but through the pretectal areas, is confirmed by the brain lesion experiments.

  14. The Conversion and operation of the Cornell electron storage ring as a test accelerator (cesrta) for damping rings research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.A.; Alexander, J.; Byrd, J.; Celata, C.M.; Corlett, J.; De Santis, S.; Furman, M.; Jackson, A.; Kraft, R.; Munson, D.; Penn, G.; Plate, D.; Rawlins, A.; Venturini, M.; Zisman, M.; Billing, M.; Calvey, J.; Chapman, S.; Codner, G.; Conolly, C.; Crittenden, J.; Dobbins, J.; Dugan, G.; Fontes, E.; Forster, M.; Gallagher, R.; Gray, S.; Greenwald, S.; Hartill, D.; Hopkins, W.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Livezey, J.; Lyndaker, A.; Medjidzade, V.; Meller, R.; Peck, S.; Peterson, D.; Rendina, M.; Revesz, P.; Rice, D.; Rider, N.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Savino, J.; Seeley, R.; Sexton, J.; Shanks, J.; Sikora, J.; Smolenski, K.; Strohman, C.; Temnykh, A.; tigner, M.; Whitney, W.; Williams, H.; Vishniakou, S.; Wilkens, T.; Harkay, K.; Holtzapple, R.; Smith, E.; Jones, J.; Wolski, A.; He, Y.; Ross, M.; Tan, C.Y.; Zwaska, R.; Flanagan, J.; Jain, P.; Kanazawa, K.; Ohmi, K.; Sakai, H.; Shibata, K.; Suetsugu, Y.; Kharakh, D.; Pivi, M.; Wang, L.

    2009-05-01

    In March of 2008, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) concluded twenty eight years of colliding beam operations for the CLEO high energy physics experiment. We have reconfigured CESR as an ultra low emittance damping ring for use as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring R&D. The primary goals of the CesrTA program are to achieve a beam emittance approaching that of the ILC Damping Rings with a positron beam, to investigate the interaction of the electron cloud with both low emittance positron and electron beams, to explore methods to suppress the electron cloud, and to develop suitable advanced instrumentation required for these experimental studies (in particular a fast x-ray beam size monitor capable of single pass measurements of individual bunches). We report on progress with the CESR conversion activities, the status and schedule for the experimental program, and the first experimental results that have been obtained.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates skin wound healing: An in vitro study of fibroblast and keratinocyte scratch assays

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.N.M.; Wright, K.T.; Fuller, H.R.; MacNeil, S.; Johnson, W.E.B.

    2010-04-15

    We have used in vitro scratch assays to examine the relative contribution of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the wound repair process and to test the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) secreted factors on both skin cell types. Scratch assays were established using single cell and co-cultures of L929 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes, with wound closure monitored via time-lapse microscopy. Both in serum supplemented and serum free conditions, wound closure was faster in L929 fibroblast than HaCaT keratinocyte scratch assays, and in co-culture the L929 fibroblasts lead the way in closing the scratches. MSC-CM generated under serum free conditions significantly enhanced the wound closure rate of both skin cell types separately and in co-culture, whereas conditioned medium from L929 or HaCaT cultures had no significant effect. This enhancement of wound closure in the presence of MSC-CM was due to accelerated cell migration rather than increased cell proliferation. A number of wound healing mediators were identified in MSC-CM, including TGF-{beta}1, the chemokines IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES, and collagen type I, fibronectin, SPARC and IGFBP-7. This study suggests that the trophic activity of MSC may play a role in skin wound closure by affecting both dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte migration, along with a contribution to the formation of extracellular matrix.

  16. LEPTON ACCELERATORS AND COLLIDERS: Linear optics calibration and nonlinear optimization during the commissioning of the SSRF storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shun-Qiang; Zhang, Wen-Zhi; Li, Hao-Hu; Zhang, Man-Zhou; Hou, Jie; Zhou, Xue-Mei; Liu, Gui-Min

    2009-06-01

    Phase I commissioning of the SSRF storage ring on 3.0 GeV beam energy was started at the end of December 2007. A lot of encouraging results have been obtained so far. In this paper, calibrations of the linear optics during the commissioning are discussed, and some measured results about the nonlinearity given. Calibration procedure emphasizes correcting quadrupole magnetic coefficients with the Linear Optics from Closed Orbit (LOCO) technique. After fitting the closed orbit response matrix, the linear optics of the four test modes is substantially corrected, and the measured physical parameters agree well with the designed ones.

  17. Modulation of flavanone and furocoumarin levels in grapefruits (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) by production and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Chebrolu, Kranthi K; Jifon, J; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2016-04-01

    Grapefruits grown under organic or conventional systems were analyzed for 6,7-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB) and flavanones using HPLC, and DPPH activity and ORAC using a micro-plate reader. Grapefruits harvested in November 2008 (E-1) and February 2010 (E-2) were stored at room temperature (RT) and 9 °C for four weeks. Higher levels of DHB were observed in conventional grapefruits during the second (4.7 ± 0.2 μg/g), third (1.5 ± 0.2 μg/g) and fourth (2.5 ± 0.2 μg/g) week of storage at room temperature in E2. Among flavonoids analyzed, narirutin (666.7 ± 33.9 μg/g), neohesperidin (17.5 ± 1.3 μg/g), didymin (75.5 ± 5.6 μg/g) and poncirin (130.8 ± 10.4 μg/g) levels were significantly higher (P⩽0.05) in organic grapefruits over conventional grapefruits at harvest and storage in E-1. Although DPPH levels were moderately correlated with grapefruit flavanone content, variability in the individual flavanone activity was pronounced, resulting in non-significant differences in antioxidant activity between organic and conventional grapefruits. PMID:26593504

  18. Storage Conditions of Conjugated Reagents Can Impact Results of Immunogenicity Assays

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy; Zhu, Yuan; Franch, William R.; Levitskaya, Sophia V.; Krishnan, Surekha R.; Abraham, Varghese; Akufongwe, Peter F.; Larkin, Christopher J.; White, Wendy I.

    2016-01-01

    Consistent performance of anti-drug antibody (ADA) assays through all stages of clinical development is critical for the assessment of immunogenicity and interpretation of PK, PD, safety, and efficacy. The electrochemiluminescent assays commonly employed for ADA measurement use drug conjugated with ruthenium and biotin to bind ADA in samples. Here we report an association between high nonspecific ADA responses in certain drug-naïve individuals and the storage buffer of the conjugated reagents used in a monoclonal antibody ADA assay. Ruthenylated reagents stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer had increased levels of aggregate and produced variable and high baseline responses in some subjects. Reagents stored in a histidine-sucrose buffer (HSB) had lower aggregate levels and produced low sample responses. In contrast to PBS, conjugated reagents formulated in HSB remained low in aggregate content and in sample response variability after 5 freeze/thaw cycles. A reagent monitoring control (RMC) serum was prepared for the real-time evaluation of conjugated reagent quality. Using appropriate buffers for storage of conjugated reagents together with RMCs capable of monitoring of reagent aggregation status can help ensure consistent, long-term performance of ADA methods. PMID:27478855

  19. Impact of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Volatile Sulfur Compounds in Sampling Bags.

    PubMed

    Le, Hung V; Sivret, Eric C; Parcsi, Gavin; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-09-01

    Odorous emissions from agricultural and waste management operations can cause annoyance to local populations. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are dominant odorants that are often lost during collection using sample bags. The degree of VSC losses depends on factors such as storage time, bag materials, temperature, sample relative humidity (RH), light exposure, and the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To assess the impact of those factors on the stability of 10 VSCs (hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, ethanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, tert-butanethiol, ethyl methyl sulfide, 1-butanethiol, dimethyl disulfide, diethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide), laboratory-based experiments were conducted according to a factorial experimental design. Linear mixed-effects models were constructed for loss predictions. The estimated recovery of HS in Tedlar bag was 8 to 10% higher than in Mylar and Nalophan between 6 and 30 h. At ≤20°C and without being exposed to light, at least 75% relative recovery of the 10 VSCs in Tedlar bags can be achieved after 18 h, whereas, a maximum of 12 h of storage should not be exceeded to ensure a minimum of 74% relative recovery of the VSCs in Mylar and Nalophan bags. PMID:26436269

  20. Storage conditions do not have detrimental effect on allograft collagen or scaffold performance.

    PubMed

    Abreu, E L; Palmer, M P; Murray, M M

    2009-11-01

    Musculoskeletal allografts are a valuable alternative to autograft tissue in orthopaedic surgeries. However, the effects of the allografts' storage history on the collagen and subsequent allograft scaffold properties are unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that freezing and refrigeration of allografts for 1 week would alter the biologic performance and mechanical properties of the allograft collagen. Allograft collagen was characterized by SDS-PAGE migration pattern, amino acid profile and measured denaturation. Scaffolds made from allograft collagen were evaluated for fibroblast proliferation, platelet activation and scaffold retraction. Collagen gelation kinetics (elastic and inelastic moduli and the viscous-elastic transition point) were also evaluated. Fibroblast proliferation, platelet activation and scaffold retraction results showed only minor, though statistically significant, differences between the storage groups. In addition, there were no significant differences in rheological properties or collagen biochemistry. In conclusion, this study suggests that freezing or refrigeration for 1 week does not appear to have any detrimental effect on the mechanical properties and biologic performance of the collagen within allografts. PMID:19507051

  1. Storage Conditions of Conjugated Reagents Can Impact Results of Immunogenicity Assays.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Robert J; Lee, Nancy; Zhu, Yuan; Franch, William R; Levitskaya, Sophia V; Krishnan, Surekha R; Abraham, Varghese; Akufongwe, Peter F; Larkin, Christopher J; White, Wendy I

    2016-01-01

    Consistent performance of anti-drug antibody (ADA) assays through all stages of clinical development is critical for the assessment of immunogenicity and interpretation of PK, PD, safety, and efficacy. The electrochemiluminescent assays commonly employed for ADA measurement use drug conjugated with ruthenium and biotin to bind ADA in samples. Here we report an association between high nonspecific ADA responses in certain drug-naïve individuals and the storage buffer of the conjugated reagents used in a monoclonal antibody ADA assay. Ruthenylated reagents stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer had increased levels of aggregate and produced variable and high baseline responses in some subjects. Reagents stored in a histidine-sucrose buffer (HSB) had lower aggregate levels and produced low sample responses. In contrast to PBS, conjugated reagents formulated in HSB remained low in aggregate content and in sample response variability after 5 freeze/thaw cycles. A reagent monitoring control (RMC) serum was prepared for the real-time evaluation of conjugated reagent quality. Using appropriate buffers for storage of conjugated reagents together with RMCs capable of monitoring of reagent aggregation status can help ensure consistent, long-term performance of ADA methods. PMID:27478855

  2. Aflatoxins and safe storage.

    PubMed

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  3. Ductility Evaluation of As-Hydrided and Hydride Reoriented Zircaloy-4 Cladding under Simulated Dry-Storage Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yong; Plummer, Lee K; Ray, Holly B; Cook, Tyler S; Bilheux, Hassina Z

    2014-01-01

    Pre-storage drying-transfer operations and early stage storage expose cladding to higher temperatures and much higher pressure-induced tensile hoop stresses relative to normal operation in-reactor and pool storage under these conditions. Radial hydrides could precipitate during slow cooling and provide an additional embrittlement mechanism as the cladding temperature decreases below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. As a means of simulating this behavior, unirradiated hydrided Zircaloy-4 samples were fabricated by a gas charging method to levels that encompass the range of hydrogen concentrations observed in current used fuel. Mechanical testing was carried out by the ring compression test (RCT) method at various temperatures to evaluate the sample s ductility for both as-hydrided and post-hydride reorientation treated specimens. As-hydrided samples with higher hydrogen concentration (>800 ppm) resulted in lower strain before fracture and reduced maximum load. Increasing RCT temperatures resulted in increased ductility of the as-hydrided cladding. A systematic radial hydride treatment was conducted at various pressures and temperatures for the hydrided samples with H content around 200 ppm. Following the radial hydride treatment, RCTs on the hydride reoriented samples were conducted and exhibited lower ductility compared to as-hydrided samples.

  4. Impact of packaging atmosphere, storage and processing conditions on the generation of phytoprostanes as quality processing compounds in almond kernels.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Del Amor, Ana María; Aguayo, Encarna; Collado-González, Jacinta; Guy, Alexandre; Galano, Jean-Marie; Durand, Thierry; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2016-11-15

    The thermal processing of almond kernels implies the use of techniques that produce chemical changes such as oxidation. Phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) are considered biomarkers of the oxidative stress in plants. We studied the PhytoP profile in kernels of almond cultivars under different conditions, in relation to packaging, temperature and time of storage and processing. The most abundant PhytoP was the F1t series. The PhytoP levels increased significantly with the time of storage (3 and 6months) and the total PhytoP concentration was higher under air than in a vacuum packaging atmosphere. Storage at 24°C raised the concentrations of individual PhytoPs and the total sum of PhytoPs. The frying and roasting processes led to a strong reduction of the original concentration of most PhytoPs and promoted the synthesis of specific PhytoPs that were not detected in raw kernels and thus could be biomarkers of the degree of oxidative degradation of almonds. PMID:27283707

  5. Non-thermal electron acceleration in low Mach number collisionless shocks. II. Firehose-mediated Fermi acceleration and its dependence on pre-shock conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2014-12-10

    Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies is known to occur in low Mach number (M{sub s} ≲ 5) shocks in galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulations, we showed in Paper I that electrons are efficiently accelerated in low Mach number (M{sub s} = 3) quasi-perpendicular shocks via a Fermi-like process. The electrons bounce between the upstream region and the shock front, with each reflection at the shock resulting in energy gain via shock drift acceleration. The upstream scattering is provided by oblique magnetic waves that are self-generated by the electrons escaping ahead of the shock. In the present work, we employ additional 2D PIC simulations to address the nature of the upstream oblique waves. We find that the waves are generated by the shock-reflected electrons via the firehose instability, which is driven by an anisotropy in the electron velocity distribution. We systematically explore how the efficiency of wave generation and of electron acceleration depend on the magnetic field obliquity, the flow magnetization (or equivalently, the plasma beta), and the upstream electron temperature. We find that the mechanism works for shocks with high plasma beta (≳ 20) at nearly all magnetic field obliquities, and for electron temperatures in the range relevant for galaxy clusters. Our findings offer a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.

  6. Effects of thawing, refreezing and storage conditions of tissue samples and protein extracts on 2-DE spot intensity.

    PubMed

    Weist, Stephanie; Brunkau, Cindy; Wittke, Janosch; Eravci, Murat; Broedel, Oliver; Krause, Eberhard; Stephanowitz, Heike; Eravci, Selda; Baumgartner, Andreas

    2010-04-01

    We report that reliable quantitative proteome analyses can be performed with tissue samples stored at -80 degrees C for up to 10 years. However, storing protein extracts at 4 degrees C for 24 h and freezing protein extracts at -80 degrees C and thawing them significantly altered 41.6 and 17.5% of all spot intensities on 2-DE gels, respectively. Fortunately, these storing effects did not impair the reliability of quantifying 2-DE experiments. Nonetheless, the results show that freezing and storage conditions should be carefully controlled in proteomic experiments. PMID:20127687

  7. Data on the changes of the mussels׳ metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cosentino, Sofia; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-06-01

    One of the main problems of seafood marketing is the ease with which fish and shellfish undergo deterioration after death. (1)H NMR spectroscopy and microbiological analysis were applied to get in depth insight into the effects of cold storage (4 °C and 0 °C) on the spoilage of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This data article provides information on the average distribution of the microbial loads in mussels׳ specimens and on the acquisition, processing, and multivariate analysis of the (1)H NMR spectra from the hydrosoluble phase of stored mussels. This data article is referred to the research article entitled "Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels' freshness" (Aru et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27081673

  8. Data on the changes of the mussels׳ metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cosentino, Sofia; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    One of the main problems of seafood marketing is the ease with which fish and shellfish undergo deterioration after death. 1H NMR spectroscopy and microbiological analysis were applied to get in depth insight into the effects of cold storage (4 °C and 0 °C) on the spoilage of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This data article provides information on the average distribution of the microbial loads in mussels׳ specimens and on the acquisition, processing, and multivariate analysis of the 1H NMR spectra from the hydrosoluble phase of stored mussels. This data article is referred to the research article entitled “Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels’ freshness” (Aru et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27081673

  9. Understanding hydrogen sulfide storage: probing conditions for sulfide release from hydrodisulfides.

    PubMed

    Bailey, T Spencer; Zakharov, Lev N; Pluth, Michael D

    2014-07-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important biological signaling agent that exerts action on numerous (patho)physiological processes. Once generated, H2S can be oxidized to generate reductant-labile sulfane sulfur pools, which include hydrodisulfides/persulfides. Despite the importance of hydrodisulfides in H2S storage and signaling, little is known about the physical properties or chemical reactivity of these compounds. We report here the synthesis, isolation, and characterization (NMR, IR, Raman, HRMS, X-ray) of a small-molecule hydrodisulfide and highlight its reactivity with reductants, nucleophiles, electrophiles, acids, and bases. Our experimental results establish that hydrodisulfides release H2S upon reduction and that deprotonation results in disproportionation to the parent thiol and S(0), thus providing a mechanism for transsulfuration in the sulfane sulfur pool. PMID:25010540

  10. Concept of a modified flywheel for megajoule storage and pulse conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, T.T. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of a flywheel with a variable moment of inertia for electromagnetic launch (EML). A flywheel is among the best energy density storage devices. The modified flywheel will further improve upon the energy density and efficiency. Coupled to a pulse-duty generator, it could produce a near-square pulse or other desirable pulse shapes. The mount of energy, its rate, and its switching all could be controlled prior to electric energy conversion. The modified flywheel is structured with masses movable along radial paths. Potential energy is stored with respect to mass position and kinetic energy with respect to spin. This mass positioning provides a means to control the rate of energy discharge. Control with spring-loaded weight--the design presented here--would have near constant spin output.

  11. 40 CFR 266.245 - If you lose the storage and treatment conditional exemption for your LLMW, can the exemption be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Conditional Exemption for Low-Level Mixed Waste Storage, Treatment, Transportation and Disposal. Loss of...

  12. Chemically Accelerated Carbon Mineralization: Chemical and Biological Catalytic Enhancement of Weathering of Silicate Minerals as Novel Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Columbia University is developing a process to pull CO2 out of the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants and turn it into a solid that can be easily and safely transported, stored above ground, or integrated into value-added products (e.g. paper filler, plastic filler, construction materials, etc.). In nature, the reaction of CO2 with various minerals over long periods of time will yield a solid carbonate—this process is known as carbon mineralization. The use of carbon mineralization as a CO2 capture and storage method is limited by the speeds at which these minerals can be dissolved and CO2 can be hydrated. To facilitate this, Columbia University is using a unique process and a combination of chemical catalysts which increase the mineral dissolution rate, and the enzymatic catalyst carbonic anhydrase which speeds up the hydration of CO2.

  13. Stability of ready-to-use temsirolimus infusion solution (100mg/L) in polypropylene containers under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Poujol, S; Bressolle, F; Solassol, I; Pinguet, F

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the stability of ready-to-use temsirolimus infusion solutions under different storage conditions. Solutions were prepared in polypropylene containers by adding temsirolimus injection to 0.9% sodium chloride infusion to reach a final concentration of 100mg/L. The following storage conditions were tested: (i) 4(o)C in the refrigerator; (ii) 20(o)C under room light exposure and light protection; and (iii) outdoor temperature with sunlight exposure. Moreover, stress testing was performed on drug substance at 20(o)C under ultraviolet (UV) radiation (365 nm). A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection was developed for this analysis. Precision was below 4% and accuracy ranged from 97 to 102%. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.1mg/L. The degradation products produced after UV light exposure were detected upon further analysis by mass spectrometry detection. The stability of temsirolimus is light and temperature dependent. After storage at 20(o)C with room light exposure, the rate of degradation was around 0.25%/h; after 1 day, 92.5% of the initial temsirolimus concentration was recovered. When protected from light, at 4 and 20(o)C, losses were decelerated; the decrease in drug concentration was 1.0 and 1.56% per day, respectively. Under daylight exposure, a substantial decrease in drug concentration was observed; after 1h, losses were higher than 10%. Exposed to UV light, half of the drug was lost after 45 min. In conclusion, temsirolimus 100mg/L in infusion polypropylene bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride was chemically stable when protected from light for 4 and 3 days at 4 and 20(o)C, respectively. PMID:22655583

  14. Seed storage conditions change the germination pattern of clonal growth plants in Mediterranean salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Espinar, José L; García, Luis V; Clemente, Luis

    2005-07-01

    The effect of salinity level and extended exposure to different salinity and flooding conditions on germination patterns of three salt-marsh clonal growth plants (Juncus subulatus, Scirpus litoralis, and S. maritimus) was studied. Seed exposure to extended flooding and saline conditions significantly affected the outcome of the germination process in a different, though predictable, way for each species, after favorable conditions for germination were restored. Tolerance of the germination process was related to the average salinity level measured during the growth/germination season at sites where established individuals of each species dominated the species cover. No relationship was found between salinity tolerance of the germination process and seed response to extended exposure to flooding and salinity conditions. The salinity response was significantly related to the conditions prevailing in the habitats of the respective species during the unfavorable (nongrowth/nongermination) season. Our results indicate that changes in salinity and hydrology while seeds are dormant affect the outcome of the seed-bank response, even when conditions at germination are identical. Because these environmental-history-dependent responses differentially affect seed germination, seedling density, and probably sexual recruitment in the studied and related species, these influences should be considered for wetland restoration and management. PMID:21646131

  15. Seed storage conditions change the germination pattern of clonal growth plants in Mediterranean salt marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Espinar, J.L.; Garcia, L.V.; Clemente, L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of salinity level and extended exposure to different salinity and flooding conditions on germination patterns of three saltmarsh clonal growth plants (Juncus subulatus, Scirpus litoralis, and S. maritimus) was studied. Seed exposure to extended flooding and saline conditions significantly affected the outcome of the germination process in a different, though predictable, way for each species, after favorable conditions for germination were restored. Tolerance of the germination process was related to the average salinity level measured during the growth/germination season at sites where established individuals of each species dominated the species cover. No relationship was found between salinity tolerance of the germination process and seed response to extended exposure to flooding and salinity conditions. The salinity response was significantly related to the conditions prevailing in the habitats of the respective species during the unfavorable (nongrowth/nongermination) season. Our results indicate that changes in salinity and hydrology while seeds are dormant affect the outcome of the seed-bank response, even when conditions at germination are identical. Because these environmental-history-dependent responses differentially affect seed germination, seedling density, and probably sexual recruitment in the studied and related species, these influences should be considered for wetland restoration and management.

  16. Which is the best anticoagulant for whole blood aggregometry platelet function testing? Comparison of six anticoagulants and diverse storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Andreas Friedrich Christoph; Neubauer, Horst; Franken, Cora Christina; Krüger, Jan-Christoph; Mügge, Andreas; Meves, Saskia Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Major hindrances of impedance aggregometry are caused by limited storage time and the requirement of ex vivo anticoagulation. Data on the influence of different anticoagulants and storage conditions are rare and incomplete. This study has systematically examined the influence of six different anticoagulants (sodium and lithium heparin, 20 µg/mL and 45 µg/mL r-hirudin, benzylsulfonyl-D-Arg-Pro-4-amidinobenzylamide (BAPA), and citrate) on the results of Adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) and arachidonic acid (AA) induced measurements using multiple-electrode impedance aggregometer (MEA). Measurements were carried out in a time frame of 0 min up to 48 h after blood withdrawal. In addition, the influence of storage temperatures of 4°C and 37°C was evaluated. Results of ADP-induced tests significantly varied within the first 30 min in all tested anticoagulants, in citrated blood even within the first 60 min. They remained stable up to 2 h in 20 µg/mL r-hirudin and BAPA, 4 h in citrate, 8 h in 45 µg/mL r-hirudin, and lithium heparin and up to a maximum of 12 h in sodium heparin anticoagulated blood. The analysis of AA-induced tests revealed no significantly different results up to 6 h when BAPA was used, 8 h in lithium heparin, 20 µg/mL r-hirudin and citrate, 12 h in 45 µg/mL r-hirudin, and even 24 h in sodium heparin-anticoagulated samples. A storage temperature of either 4°C or 37°C in contrast to room temperature had a negative influence on the stability of results. In conclusion, sodium heparin and 45 µg/mL r-hirudin as anticoagulants guarantee the longest storage time for impedance aggregometry. PMID:21999185

  17. Changes in magma storage conditions following caldera collapse at Okataina Volcanic Center, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Allison; Cooper, Kari M.; Leever, Marissa; Wimpenny, Josh; Deering, Chad; Rooney, Tyrone; Gravley, Darren; Yin, Qing-zhu

    2016-01-01

    Large silicic volcanic centers produce both small rhyolitic eruptions and catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions. Although changes in trace element and isotopic compositions within eruptions following caldera collapse have been observed at rhyolitic volcanic centers such as Yellowstone and Long Valley, much still remains unknown about the ways in which magma reservoirs are affected by caldera collapse. We present 238U-230Th age, trace element, and Hf isotopic data from individual zircon crystals from four eruptions from the Okataina Volcanic Center, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, in order to assess changes in trace element and isotopic composition of the reservoir following the 45-ka caldera-forming Rotoiti eruption. Our data indicate that (1) mixing of magmas derived from crustal melts and mantle melts takes place within the shallow reservoir; (2) while the basic processes of melt generation likely did not change significantly between pre- and post-caldera rhyolites, post-caldera zircons show increased trace element and isotopic heterogeneity that suggests a decrease in the degree of interconnectedness of the liquid within the reservoir following collapse; and (3) post-caldera eruptions from different vents indicate different storage times of the amalgamated melt prior to eruption. These data further suggest that the timescales needed to generate large volumes of eruptible melt may depend on the timescales needed to increase interconnectedness and achieve widespread homogenization throughout the reservoir.

  18. Storage and degradation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in activated sludge under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Dircks, K; Henze, M; van Loosdrecht, M C; Mosbaek, H; Aspegren, H

    2001-06-01

    This research analyses the accumulation and degradation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) in experiments with pulse addition of acetate to samples of activated sludge from pilot-plant and full-scale wastewater treatment plants. The experiments are divided into two periods: a feast period defined as the time when acetate is consumed and a famine period when the added acetate has been exhausted. In the feast period the significant process occurring is the production of PHB from acetate. The produced PHB is utilised in the famine period for production of glycogen and biomass. According to modelling results approximately 90% of the total potential growth occurs in the famine period utilising the stored PHB. The degradation rate for PHB in the famine period is found to be dependent on the level of PHB obtained at the end of the feast period. It was found that multiple order kinetics gives a good description of the rate of PHB degradation. The examined sludge of low SRT origin is found to degrade PHB faster than long SRT sludge at high fractions of PHB. The observed yield of glycogen on PHB in the famine period is in the range of 0.22-0.33 g COD/g COD depending on the SRT. The storage pool of glycogen in the examined sludge is more slowly degraded than PHB (COD/COD/h). PMID:11358308

  19. High temperature postirradiation materials performance of spent pressurized water reactor fuel rods under dry storage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R.E.; Atkin, S.D.; Pasupathi, V.; Stellrecht, D.E.

    1982-04-01

    Postirradiation studies on failure mechanisms of well-characterized pressurized water reactor rods were conducted for up to a year at 482, 510, and 571/sup 0/C in limited air and inert gas atmospheres. No cladding breaches occurred even though the tests operated many orders of magnitude longer in time than the lifetime predicted by Blackburn's analyses. The extended lifetime is due to significant creep strain of the Zircaloy cladding, which decreases the internal rod pressure. The cladding creep also contributes to radial cracks, through the external oxide and internal fuel-cladding chemical interaction layers, which propagated into and arrested in an oxygen stabilized alpha-Zircaloy layer. There were no signs of either additional cladding hydriding, stress corrosion cracking, or fuel pellet degradation. If irradiation hardening does not reduce the stress rupture properties of Zircaloy, a conservative maximum storage temperature of 400/sup 0/C based on a stress-rupture mechanism is recommended to ensure a 1000-yr cladding lifetime.

  20. 78 FR 19148 - Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing Conditions for Dry Storage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 72 Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and...-ISG-26A), Revision 0, ``Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing Conditions for... to NRC staff when reviewing the shielding and radiation protection portions of applications...

  1. EFFECTS OF PRESSING PROCEDURE AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON THE RHEOLOGY AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF QUESO BLANCO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Queso Blanco, a popular Hispanic-style cheese, was pressed using two methods and then stored under different conditions to determine if its rheological characteristics, and thus its consumer acceptance, would be affected. Texture profile analysis, torsion testing, and small amplitude oscillatory sh...

  2. Purification, storage, and pathogenicity assay of rice false smut fungus under controlled environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice false smut, caused by Ustilaginoidea virens, is serious disease that affects grain yield and quality. In the present study, a method to purify, store, and evaluate pathogenicity of U. virens under controlled environmental conditions was developed. Yellow chlamydospores were collected from fresh...

  3. RHEOLOGY AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF QUESO BLANCO AS AFFFECTED BY PRESSING PROCEDURE AND STORAGE CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Queso Blanco, a popular Hispanic-style cheese, was pressed using either a vertical press or a compression molder, and then stored under different conditions to determine if its rheological characteristics, and thus its consumer acceptance, would be affected. Texture profile analysis, torsion testin...

  4. 40 CFR 266.225 - What wastes are eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Conditional Exemption for Low... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What wastes are eligible for...

  5. 40 CFR 266.235 - What waste treatment does the storage and treatment conditional exemption allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Conditional Exemption for Low... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What waste treatment does the...

  6. Type curve and numerical solutions for estimation of Transmissivity and Storage coefficient with variable discharge condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guowei

    2013-01-01

    SummaryMost of the coal mines of China are mining under the ground, so the artesian test which is one of the aquifer tests is conducted normally several hundred of meters below the earth surface. And the target aquifer is with very high hydraulic pressure, sometimes more than 3 MPa. Because of the high hydraulic pressure, it is most difficult to control the rate of flow out of the artesian well. Moreover, the velocity of flow out of the well cannot descend rapidly to zero, thus the analytical solution of Jacob and Lohman type curve for the artesian test will not be applicable. It is more reasonable if analyzing this test as a pumping test but with variable discharge. It is considered to rebuild that hydrogeological conceptual model in this paper. This conceptual model is similar with Theis model but with the variable discharge merely. And a general equation for any discharge variability is given. Its application for the linearly decreasing discharge is presented subsequently, and a type curve of this equation with linearly decreasing discharge will be given as well. Then a simple numerical model using FEFLOW will be built to simulate the linearly decreasing discharge from giving several different groups of the values of Transmissivity (T) and Storage coefficient (S). Both of them are much important hydrogeological parameters, and will be evaluated by using the type curve developed for this linear decreasing discharge well. The error between the given values of T and S in FEFLOW and the values of those calculated by matching point are much small. The solution gives really satisfactory values of these hydrogeological parameters.

  7. Influence of next-generation sequencing and storage conditions on miRNA patterns generated from PAXgene blood.

    PubMed

    Backes, Christina; Leidinger, Petra; Altmann, Gabriela; Wuerstle, Maximilian; Meder, Benjamin; Galata, Valentina; Mueller, Sabine C; Sickert, Daniel; Stähler, Cord; Meese, Eckart; Keller, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Whole blood derived miRNA signatures determined by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) offer themselves as future minimally invasive biomarkers for various human diseases. The PAXgene system is a commonly used blood storage system for miRNA analysis. Central to all miRNA analyses that aim to identify disease specific miRNA signatures, is the question of stability and variability of the miRNA profiles that are generated by NGS. We characterized the influence of five different conditions on the genome wide miRNA expression pattern of human blood isolated in PAXgene RNA tubes. In detail, we analyzed 15 miRNomes from three individuals. The blood was subjected to different numbers of freeze/thaw cycles and analyzed for the influence of storage at -80 or 8 °C. We also determined the influence of blood collection and NGS preparations on the miRNA pattern isolated from a single individual, which has been sequenced 10 times. Here, five PAXGene tubes were consecutively collected that have been split in two replicates, representing two experimental batches. All samples were analyzed by Illumina NGS. For each sample, approximately 20 million NGS reads have been generated. Hierarchical clustering and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed an influence of the different conditions on the miRNA patterns. The effects of the different conditions on miRNA abundance are, however, smaller than the differences that are due to interindividual variability. We also found evidence for an influence of the NGS measurement on the miRNA pattern. Specifically, hsa-miR-1271-5p and hsa-miR-182-5p showed coefficients of variation above 100% indicating a strong influence of the NGS protocol on the abundance of these miRNAs. PMID:26207298

  8. Evaluation of survival of murine norovirus-1 during sauerkraut fermentation and storage under standard and low-sodium conditions.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Marie-Josée; Barrette, Julie; Savard, Tony; Brassard, Julie

    2015-12-01

    Sodium reduction strategies have raised a few concerns in regards to possible outbreaks in unpasteurised raw fermented vegetables. Among potential outbreak agents, foodborne viruses are recognized as an important cause of food-borne illnesses. As most of them are acid-resistant, evaluation of the efficacy of lactic fermentation in inactivating enteric viruses must be considered to ensure the safety of these foods. In particular with the sodium reduction trend which could impair adequate fermentation in vegetables, we have challenged sauerkraut fermentation at a final concentration of 4 log TCID50/mL with the murine norovirus (MNV-1). Three sodium chloride concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%) were evaluated in spontaneous and starter fermentation of sauerkraut and were followed during fermentation and over a storage phase of 90 days. Detection of MNV-1 genetic material was carried out by real-time RT-PCR and the infectivity on cell culture. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that viral RNA was still detected after 90 day in sauerkraut under all the different conditions. Furthermore, MNV-1 viral particles were able to infect RAW cells after 90 days of storage with a non-significant viral charge reduction. Sodium reduction has a significant impact on the fermentation processing of sauerkraut but no influence on the destruction of norovirus particles or on their survival. PMID:26338124

  9. Potential behavior of depleted uranium penetrators under shipping and bulk storage accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, J.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Scherpelz, R.I.

    1985-03-01

    An investigation of the potential hazard from airborne releases of depleted uranium (DU) from the Army's M829 munitions was conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The study included: (1) assessing the characteristics of DU oxide from an April 1983 burn test, (2) postulating conditions of specific accident situations, and (3) reviewing laboratory and theoretical studies of oxidation and airborne transport of DU from accidents. Results of the experimental measurements of the DU oxides were combined with atmospheric transport models and lung and kidney exposure data to help establish reasonable exclusion boundaries to protect personnel and the public at an accident site. 121 references, 44 figures, 30 tables.

  10. Conditions of Magma Storage, Degassing and Ascent at Stromboli: the Effect of CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metrich, N.; Bertagnini, A.; di Muro, A.

    2009-12-01

    Stromboli is known for its persistent degassing and rythmic strombolian activity occasionally broken off by paroxysmal eruptions of variable energy. The basaltic pumice and scoria emitted, respectively, during paroxysms and strombolian activity differ in their textures, crystal contents and glass matrix compositions that testify to distinct conditions of crystallization, degassing and magma ascent. We report the most exhaustive data set so far on major elements and volatiles (CO2, H2O, S and Cl) in olivine-hosted melt inclusions and embayments from pyroclasts emplaced during explosive eruptions of variable magnitude. In particular, H2O was extensively analyzed using microRAMAN. Magma saturation pressures were assessed from the dissolved amounts of H2O and CO2 taking into account the melt composition evolution [1]. Our new data confirm the presence of a ponding zone, lying at 7-10 km in depth, refilled by deeper originated Ca-basalt and its gas phase. The later magma evolves, via crystal fractionation, in the same depth range towards the basalt that sustains Stromboli activity. Modeling of the pressure-related CO2 and H2O behaviors indicates that under closed-system conditions of ascent and decompression this basaltic magma, coexisting with 2.4-3 wt% CO2 gas, generates paroxysmal eruptions and basaltic pumice deposits. Under such conditions, crystallization during magma ascent is negligible, sulfur exsolution starts at ≤170 MPa whereas Cl remains dissolved in the melt until low pressure. As a whole more than 90% of S and only 16% of Cl are lost. In steady state conditions (i.e. strombolian activity, puffing, persistent degassing) bubbly basalt blobs enter the shallow plumbing system with a variable proportion of CO2 able to promote H2O loss, drive the magma into the domain of plagioclase crystallization and generate the crystal-rich, degassed basalt residing between 2 and 4 km in depth. We argue that this transition between basalts with a low and high crystal

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 481: Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-11-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 481 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard. CAU 481 is located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 12-42-05, Housekeeping Waste. CAU 481 closure activities were conducted by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency from August 2007 through July 2008 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites. Closure activities included removal and disposal of construction debris and low-level waste. Drained fluids, steel, and lead was recycled as appropriate. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed.

  12. Depression storage and infiltration effects on overland flow depth-velocity-friction at desert conditions: field plot results and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, M. J.; Ares, J. O.

    2012-09-01

    Water infiltration and overland flow are relevant in considering water partition among plant life forms, the sustainability of vegetation and the design of sustainable hydrological models and management. In arid and semi-arid regions, these processes present characteristic trends imposed by the prevailing physical conditions of the upper soil as evolved under water-limited climate. A set of plot-scale field experiments at the semi-arid Patagonian Monte (Argentina) were performed in order to estimate the effect of depression storage areas and infiltration rates on depths, velocities and friction of overland flows. The micro-relief of undisturbed field plots was characterized at z-scale 1 mm through close-range stereo-photogrammetry and geo-statistical tools. The overland flow areas produced by controlled water inflows were video-recorded and the flow velocities were measured with image processing software. Antecedent and post-inflow moisture were measured, and texture, bulk density and physical properties of the upper soil were estimated based on soil core analyses. Field data were used to calibrate a physically-based, mass balanced, time explicit model of infiltration and overland flows. Modelling results reproduced the time series of observed flow areas, velocities and infiltration depths. Estimates of hydrodynamic parameters of overland flow (Reynolds-Froude numbers) are informed. To our knowledge, the study here presented is novel in combining several aspects that previous studies do not address simultaneously: (1) overland flow and infiltration parameters were obtained in undisturbed field conditions; (2) field measurements of overland flow movement were coupled to a detailed analysis of soil microtopography at 1 mm depth scale; (3) the effect of depression storage areas in infiltration rates and depth-velocity friction of overland flows is addressed. Relevance of the results to other similar desert areas is justified by the accompanying biogeography analysis

  13. Pre-eruptive storage conditions and eruption dynamics of a small rhyolite dome: Douglas Knob, Yellowstone volcanic field, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, Kenneth S.; Zinke, Robert W.; Jordan, Jacob S.; Manga, Michael; Gardner, James E.

    2014-03-01

    The properties and processes that control the size, duration, and style of eruption of rhyolite magma are poorly constrained because of a paucity of direct observations. Here, we investigate the small-volume, nonexplosive end-member. In particular, we determine the pre-eruptive storage conditions and eruption dynamics of Douglas Knob, a 0.011-km3 obsidian dome that erupted from a 500-m-long fissure in the Yellowstone volcanic system. To determine pre-eruptive storage conditions, we analyzed compositions of phenocrysts, matrix glass, and quartz-hosted glass inclusions by electron microprobe and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. The pre-eruptive melt is a high-silica rhyolite (˜75 wt.% SiO2) and was stored at 760 ± 30 °C and 50 ± 25 MPa prior to eruption, assuming vapor saturation at depth. To investigate emplacement dynamics and kinematics, we measured number densities and orientations of microlites at various locations across the lava dome. Microlites in samples closest to the inferred fissure vent are the most aligned. Alignment does not increase with distance traveled away from the vent, suggesting microlites record conduit processes. Strains of <5 accumulated in the conduit during ascent after microlite formation, imparted by a combination of pure and simple shear. Average microlite number density in samples varies from 104.9 to 105.7 mm-3. Using the magma ascent model of Toramaru et al. (J Volcanol Geotherm Res 175:156-157, 2008), microlite number densities imply decompression rates ranging from 0.03 to 0.11 MPa h-1 (˜0.4-1.3 mm s-1 ascent rates). Such slow ascent would allow time for passive degassing at depth in the conduit, thus resulting in an effusive eruption. Using calculated melt viscosity, we infer that the dike that fed the eruption was 4-8 m in width. Magma flux through this dike, assuming fissure dimensions at the surface represent its geometry at depth, implies an eruption duration of 17-210 days. That duration is also consistent with the

  14. Concept of a modified flywheel for megajoule storage and pulse conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Ted T.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of a flywheel with a variable moment of inertia for electromagnetic launch (EML) is introduced to improve the energy density and efficiency. Coupled to a pulse-duty generator, it could produce a near-square pulse or other desirable pulse shapes. The amount of energy, its rate, and its switching all could be controlled prior to electric energy conversion. The modified flywheel is structured with masses movable along radial paths. Potential energy is stored with respect to mass position and kinetic energy with respect to spin. This mass positioning provides a means to control the rate of energy discharge. Control with spring-loaded weight would have near constant spin output. A servomechanism scheme can, however, provide the precise inward-moving positioning control of masses, and hence the other desirable output pulse conditioning. In the conventional flywheel, energy is always discharged in an exponential decay. In an EML system, a flywheel is the rotor of the pulse-duty generator, such as in the homopolar generator, compulsator, or the disk alternator.

  15. Experimental determination of trace element mobility in UK North Sea sandstones under conditions of geological CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    . (1979) and Wigley et al. (2013), to suit the North Sea sandstones used previously in the batch experiments. The extraction method targeted water soluble elements, elements leached through desorption from mineral surfaces, and elements released through the dissolution of carbonates, oxides, sulphides and silicates. From this experimental technique, trace element concentrations were classed as 'mobile' or 'immobile' under weak acid conditions of CO2 storage. The majority of elements were classified as largely immobile. Using the batch experiment results we determined that dissolution of carbonate and feldspar minerals was responsible for much of the observed mobilised concentrations, although the abundance of these minerals was not a predictor for absolute or relative concentrations. References: Tessier, A., Campbell, P. G. C., & Bisson, M. (1979). Sequential Extraction Procedure for the Speciation of Particulate Trace Metals. Analytical Chemistry, 51(7), 844-851. Wigley, M., Kampman, N., Chapman, H. J., Dubacq, B., & Bickle, M. J. (2013). In situ redeposition of trace metals mobilized by CO2-charged brines. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 14(5), 1321-1332. doi:10.1002/ggge.20104

  16. The Role of Dynamic Storage in the Response to Snowmelt Conditions in the Southwestern United States: Flux Hysteresis at the Catchment Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, J. M.; Meixner, T.; Ferré, T. P. A.; Williams, M. W.; Sickman, J. O.; Molotch, N. P.; Jepsen, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    variability. The larger storage capacity of GL4 allows for a greater range of physical and chemical response to input conditions. The limited storage capacity of ELW shows greater vulnerability of physical response to changes in snowmelt conditions, though chemical response remains constant regardless of snowmelt conditions.

  17. Changes in sources and storage in a karst aquifer during a transition from drought to wet conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, C.I.; Mahler, B.J.; Musgrove, M.; Banner, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sources and processes that control groundwater compositions and the timing and magnitude of groundwater vulnerability to potential surface-water contamination under varying meteorologic conditions is critical to informing groundwater protection policies and practices. This is especially true in karst terrains, where infiltrating surface water can rapidly affect groundwater quality. We analyzed the evolution of groundwater compositions (major ions and Sr isotopes) during the transition from extreme drought to wetconditions, and used inverse geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) to constrain controls on groundwater compositions during this evolution. Spring water and groundwater from two wells dominantly receiving diffuse and conduit flow (termed diffuse site and conduit site, respectively) in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer (central Texas, USA) and surface water from losing streams that recharge the aquifer were sampled every 3–4 weeks during November 2008–March 2010. During this period, water compositions at the spring and conduit sites changed rapidly but there was no change at the diffuse site, illustrating the dual nature (i.e., diffuse vs. conduit) of flow in this karst system. Geochemical modeling demonstrated that, within a month of the onset of wetconditions, the majority of spring water and groundwater at the conduit site was composed of surface water, providing quantitative information on the timing and magnitude of the vulnerability of groundwater to potential surface-water contamination. The temporal pattern of increasing spring discharge and changing pattern of covariation between spring discharge and surface-water (steam) recharge indicates that that there were two modes of aquifer response—one with a small amount of storage and a second that accommodates more storage.

  18. Magmatic storage conditions, decompression rate, and incipient caldera collapse of the 1902 eruption of Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Benjamin J.

    2014-08-01

    Phase equilibria experiments and analysis of natural pumice and phenocryst compositions indicate the 1902 Santa Maria dacite was stored at ~ 140-170 MPa and 840-850 °C prior to eruption. H2O-saturated, cold-seal experiments conducted in vessels with an intrinsic log fO2 of NNO + 1 ± 0.5 show that the natural phase assemblage (melt + plagioclase + amphibole + orthopyroxene + Fe-Ti oxides + apatite) is stable from approximately 115-140 MPa at temperatures below ~ 825 °C, to ~ 840-860 °C at 150 MPa, to > 850 and < 875 °C at 200 MPa. Natural plagioclase phenocrysts have rim compositions that range from An40-An45; this range of compositions defines a ~ 20 °C band that intersects the stable phase assemblage at ~ 150 MPa and 850 °C. Plagioclase hosted melt inclusions were analyzed using FTIR and commonly contain < 5 wt.% H2O, which corresponds to a pressure of ~ 170 MPa at 850 °C, under pure H2O saturated conditions. Amphibole geothermobarometry (Ridolfi et al., 2010) applied to experimental samples suggest two populations of amphiboles, phenocrysts grown during the experiments and inherited xenocrysts, but the pressure-temperature conditions returned by the geothermobarometer are routinely > 50 MPa and > 50 °C greater than experimental run conditions; precise estimates of magmatic conditions based solely upon amphibole composition are likely inaccurate. The experimental results and analysis of natural crystals suggest that although the natural amphiboles likely record a broad range of magmatic conditions, only the lower bounds of that range reflect pre-eruptive storage conditions. Comparison of Santa Maria microlite abundances with decompression experiments examining other silicic systems from the literature suggests that the 1902 dacite decompressed at the rate of ~ 0.005 to 0.01 MPa/s during the eruption. Applying the decompression rate with the previously described eruption rate of approximately 2-3 × 108 kg/s (Williams and Self, 1983; Carey and Sparks, 1986

  19. Coupling catchment hydrology and transient storage to model the fate of solutes during low-flow conditions of an upland river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trévisan, D.; Periáñez, R.

    2016-03-01

    The residence time of solutes in catchments is longer during low-flow conditions, due to the lengthening of transport routes and the decrease in transfer velocities. In rivers, transient storage depends largely on exchanges with channel storage and the hyporheic zone and reflects the capacity of the river to buffer pollutant loads before they enter the aquatic environment of final receptors. Our objective was to evaluate the fate of solutes along a typical confined river of upland catchments. First, we calculate lateral inflows using a variable-source hydrology approach. Then, water motion and quality in the river channel are predicted by combining hydrodynamics and exchanges with channel storage and the hyporheic zone. The model is mainly parametrized from literature data during baseflow conditions to mimic the fate of adsorptive and non-persistent pollutants. Residence time in surface water, channel storage and the hyporheic zone were found to be sensitive to lateral inflows from groundwater seepage. Channel storage is the main process controlling residence time in upstream conditions, where the riverbed is mainly composed of stones and bedrock. Downstream, along with the formation of sediment deposits and riffle-pool units, hyporheic exchanges also control the lag time in the transfer of solutes. By integrating physically-based processes, the number of parameters is small, but the model still requires a detailed description of stream geometry and morphology. It can be used to evaluate stream restoration or catchment-river management when detailed data of stream geometry and morphology are available.

  20. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide on soil heat storage and heat flux under unheated low-tunnels conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Kayssi, A W; Mustafa, S H

    2016-11-01

    Suboptimal regimes of air and soil temperature usually occur under unheated low-tunnels during winter crop cycles. CO2 is one of the most important gases linked to climate change and posing challenge to the current agricultural productivity. Field experiment was conducted in unheated low-tunnels (10.0 m long, 1.5 m wide and 1.0 m high) during winter and spring periods to evaluate the increasing CO2 concentration (352, 709, 1063, 1407, and 1761 ppm) on net radiation budget, soil-air thermal regime and pepper plants growth development and yield. CO2 was injected into each hollow space of the tunnel double-layer transparent polyethylene covers. Recorded integral net longwave radiation increased from 524.81 to 1111.84 Wm(-2) on January when CO2 concentration increased from 352 to 1761 ppm. A similar trend was recorded on February. Moreover, minimum soil surface and air temperatures were markedly increased from -1.3 and -6.8 °C to 3.4 and 0.6 °C, when CO2 concentration increased from 352 to 1761 ppm. Additionally, soil heat flux as well as soil heat storage increased with increasing CO2 concentrations accordingly. Increasing the tunnel minimum air and soil temperatures with the CO2 concentration treatments 1063, 1407 and 1761 ppm reflected in a significant pepper yield (3.19, 5.06 and 6.13 kg m(-2)) due to the modification of the surrounding plants microenvironment and prevented pepper plants from freezing and the accelerated the plant growth. On the contrary, the drop of minimum air and soil temperatures to freezing levels with the CO2 concentration treatments 352 and 709 ppm resulted in the deterioration of pepper plants development during the early growth stages on January. PMID:27472054

  1. Development of a conditioning system for the dual-purpose transport and storage cask for spent nuclear fuel from decommissioned Russian submarines

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Barnes, E.; Snipes, R.L.; Guskov, V.; Makarchuk, T.

    2007-07-01

    Russia, stores large quantities of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from submarine and ice-breaker nuclear powered naval vessels. This high-level radioactive material presents a significant threat to the Arctic and marine environments. Much of the SNF from decommissioned Russian nuclear submarines is stored either onboard the submarines or in floating storage vessels in Northwest and Far East Russia. Some of the SNF is damaged, stored in an unstable condition, or of a type that cannot currently be reprocessed. In many cases, the existing Russian transport infrastructure and reprocessing facilities cannot meet the requirements for moving and reprocessing all of this fuel from remote locations. Additional transport and storage options are required. Some of the existing storage facilities being used in Russia do not meet health and safety and physical security requirements. The U.S. has assisted Russia in the development of a new dual-purpose metal-concrete transport and storage cask (TUK-108/1) for their military SNF and assisted them in building several new facilities for off-loading submarine SNF and storing these TUK-108/1 casks. These efforts have reduced the technical, ecological, and security challenges for removal, handling, interim storage, and shipment of this submarine fuel. Currently, Russian licensing limits the storage period of the TUK-108/1 casks to no more than two years before the fuel must be shipped for reprocessing. In order to extend this licensed storage period, a system is required to condition the casks by removing residual water and creating an inert storage environment by backfilling the internal canisters with a noble gas such as argon. The U.S. has assisted Russia in the development of a mobile cask conditioning system for the TUK-108/1 cask. This new conditioning system allows the TUK 108/1 casks to be stored for up to five years after which the license may be considered for renewal for an additional five years or the fuel will be shipped to

  2. Terminal cool-down temperature-dependent hydride reorientations in Zr-Nb Alloy claddings under dry storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Su-Jeong; Won, Ju-Jin; Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2014-05-01

    In order to simulate high-burnup fuel cladding degradation under various interim dry storage conditions, 250 ppm and 500 ppm hydrogen-charged Zr-Nb alloy cladding tubes were used to investigate the effect of terminal cool-down temperature on hydride reorientations and subsequent mechanical property degradations under a tensile hoop stress of 150 MPa with two cooling rates of 2.0 and 7.0 °C/min from a peak temperature of 400 °C to three respective terminal cool-down temperatures of 300, 200 and 25 °C. The cool-down tests showed that the slower cooling rate, the lower terminal cool-down temperature and the higher hydrogen content generated the larger fraction of radial hydrides precipitated during the cool-down. This may be explained by hydrogen solid solubilities for precipitation at the respective terminal cool-down temperatures, by cooling rate-dependent residence times at a relatively high temperature during the cool-down and by remaining circumferential hydrides prior to the cool-down. Ultimate tensile strengths, plastic strains and fracture modes for the tensile-tested specimens are found to be well correlated to the amount of the radial and circumferential hydrides and hydride morphologies.

  3. Storage conditions and temporal signals for the Tara supervolcanic magma system; insights from geothermobarometry and quartz chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocke, S.; de Silva, S. L.; Cottrell, E.; Andrews, B. J.; Lindsay, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Microanalysis of the high-K calcalkaline suite of dacite to rhyolite Tara pyroclastic deposits (>800 km3 DRE) erupted from the Guacha Caldera in SW Bolivia at 3.49 Ma provides insights into the storage conditions and timescales of mineral crystallization leading up to a supervolcanic eruption. Data from amphibole, plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxides, in conjunction with quartz chemistry and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, reveal the following pre-eruptive conditions: temperature (650 - 850 °C), pressure (<200 MPa), and H2O content (4 - 6 wt%). Preliminary results from CL zoning show that cores and rims of quartz phenocrysts erupted in the Tara supereruption exhibit a distinct difference in CL emission intensity, with bright rims encompassing rounded, resorbed, and darker cores. Bright rims contain, on average, ~60 ppm Ti whereas dark cores contain ~30 ppm Ti. Calculating TiO2 activity using oxide pairs allows us to apply the TitaniQ thermometer to our samples. The rimward increase of Ti content suggests that the crystals record heating of the Tara magma from ~650°C to 750°C. The sharp discontinuity between high-Ti (bright-CL) rims and low-Ti (dark) cores, the presence of resorbed, rounded cores, as well as the absence of oscillatory zoning are suggestive of a single recharge event immediately prior to eruption. Based on Ti diffusion in quartz, we estimate that this recharge event occurred within <30,000 years of eruption and may signal the timescale of the thermal stimulation of the system leading to eruption.

  4. Quality assessment of wild Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) semen under conditions of short-term storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-term storage trials were conducted with Atlantic sturgeon semen collected from a total of nine wild males during the 2008 and 2009 spawning seasons on the Hudson River. Semen samples were kept refrigerated (4 plus or minus 1 degree C) and stored in different gaseous atmospheres and storage ext...

  5. 36 CFR 1232.12 - Under what conditions may Federal records be stored in records storage facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meets the provisions of 36 CFR part 1234. (b) Unscheduled records (1) Any storage facility that meets the provisions of 36 CFR part 1234. (2) Also requires prior notification to NARA (see § 1232.14(b... provisions of 36 CFR part 1234. (d) Vital records Storage facility must meet the provisions of 36 CFR...

  6. Transient Auditory Storage of Acoustic Details Is Associated with Release of Speech from Informational Masking in Reverberant Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ying; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Xun; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual integration of the sound directly emanating from the source with reflections needs both temporal storage and correlation computation of acoustic details. We examined whether the temporal storage is frequency dependent and associated with speech unmasking. In Experiment 1, a break in correlation (BIC) between interaurally correlated…

  7. Storage conditions for stability of offline measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide after collection for epidemiologic research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The measurement of fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) is valuable for the assessment of airway inflammation. Offline measurement of FeNO has been used in some epidemiologic studies. However, the time course of the changes in FeNO after collection has not been fully clarified. In this study, the effects of storage conditions on the stability of FeNO measurement in exhaled air after collection for epidemiologic research were examined. Methods Exhaled air samples were collected from 48 healthy adults (mean age 43.4 ± 12.1 years) in Mylar bags. FeNO levels in the bags were measured immediately after collection. The bags were then stored at 4°C or room temperature to measure FeNO levels repeatedly for up to 168 hours. Results In the bags stored at room temperature after collection, FeNO levels were stable for 9 hours, but increased starting at 24 hours. FeNO levels remained stable for a long time at 4°C, and they were 99.7% ± 7.7% and 101.3% ± 15.0% relative to the baseline values at 24 and 96 hours, respectively. When the samples were stored at 4°C, FeNO levels gradually decreased with time among the subjects with FeNO ≥ 51 ppb immediately after collection, although there were almost no changes among the other subjects. FeNO levels among current smokers increased even at 4°C, although the values among ex-smokers decreased gradually, and those among nonsmokers remained stable. The rate of increase was significantly higher among current smokers than among nonsmokers and ex-smokers from 9 hours after collection onwards. Conclusions Storage at 4°C could prolong the stability of FeNO levels after collection. This result suggests that valid measurements can be performed within several days if the samples are stored at 4°C. However, the time course of the changes in FeNO levels differed in relation to initial FeNO values and cigarette smoking. PMID:23116255

  8. Effects of storage conditions before or after high-hydrostatic pressure on inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in oysters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of storage conditions on subsequent high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oyster meat was investigated. Live oysters were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus to ca. 7-8 log MPN/g by feeding and stored at different conditi...

  9. Survival and growth of Salmonella Enteritidis in membrane processed liquid egg white with pH, temperature and storage conditions as controlling factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was undertaken to determine the effect of variation in solution pH and process temperature on the removal and regrowth of Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid egg white (LEW) by microfiltration (MF) membrane process. Influence of various storage conditions on growth of Salmonella in membrane sep...

  10. 40 CFR 266.230 - What conditions must you meet for your LLMW to qualify for and maintain a storage and treatment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What conditions must you meet for your LLMW to qualify for and maintain a storage and treatment exemption? 266.230 Section 266.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES...

  11. Optimization of conditions for thermal treatment of rice bran using an accelerator including an organo-iron compound.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Hikari; Tachibana, Naoya; Fukushima, Masami

    2011-02-01

    A method for thermal conversion of raw organic waste (ROW) to a compost-like material (CLM) with higher levels of unsaturated carbohydrates, nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds was developed, in which rice bran and an organo-iron compound were employed as a model ROW and the accelerator, respectively. To evaluate the qualities of CLMs, organic substances of an acid insoluble fraction of alkaline extracts (AIAEs) from a CLM were structurally characterized by elemental analysis, pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FT-IR. The levels of unsaturated carbohydrates, and nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds in the CLM samples were increased by long-term treatment (60°C for 5 days, 170°C for 3 days). In particular, the high lipid content of the AIAEs, which was indicative of inadequate digestion of CLM components, was dramatically reduced in the presence of the accelerator. PMID:21044838

  12. Impact of Denture Cleaning Method and Overnight Storage Condition on Denture Biofilm Mass and Composition: A Cross-Over Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Duyck, Joke; Vandamme, Katleen; Krausch-Hofmann, Stefanie; Boon, Lies; De Keersmaecker, Katrien; Jalon, Eline; Teughels, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background Appropriate oral hygiene is required to maintain oral health in denture wearers. This study aims to compare the role of denture cleaning methods in combination with overnight storage conditions on biofilm mass and composition on acrylic removable dentures. Methods In a cross-over randomized controlled trial in 13 older people, 4 conditions with 2 different mechanical cleaning methods and 2 overnight storage conditions were considered: (i) brushing and immersion in water without a cleansing tablet, (ii) brushing and immersion in water with a cleansing tablet, (iii) ultrasonic cleaning and immersion in water without a cleansing tablet, and (iv) ultrasonic cleaning and immersion in water with a cleansing tablet. Each test condition was performed for 5 consecutive days, preceded by a 2-days wash-out period. Biofilm samples were taken at baseline (control) and at the end of each test period from a standardized region. Total and individual levels of selected oral bacteria (n = 20), and of Candida albicans were identified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Denture biofilm coverage was scored using an analogue denture plaque score. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon-signed rank tests were used to compare the test conditions. The level of significance was set at α< 5%. Results Overnight denture storage in water with a cleansing tablet significantly reduced the total bacterial count (p<0.01). The difference in total bacterial level between the two mechanical cleaning methods was not statistically significant. No significant effect was observed on the amount of Candida albicans nor on the analogue plaque scores. Conclusions The use of cleansing tablets during overnight denture storage in addition to mechanical denture cleaning did not affect Candida albicans count, but reduced the total bacterial count on acrylic removable dentures compared to overnight storage in water. This effect was more pronounced when combined with ultrasonic cleaning compared to

  13. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Springfield, Ray M.; Wheat, Jr., Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  14. Characterization of carbonate reservoir property changes due to dissolution for far-field conditions of CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangane, P. O.; Gouze, P.; Luquot, L.

    2012-12-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in reservoir pore fluid (e.g. deep saline aquifers), is one of the diverse technologies being explored for deacreasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. After injecting the CO2 as a supercritical fluid at depth, it will slowly dissolve into the pore water producing low pH fluids with a high capacity for dissolving carbonates and consequently changing irreversibly the hydrodynamical properties of the reservoir. Characterizing these changes is essential for modelling flow and CO2 transport during and after the CO2 injection. Here we report experimental results from the injection of the CO2-saturated brine into two distinct limestone cores (a bioclastic carbonate and an oolitic carbonate) of 9 mm diameter, 18 mm length. 3D high-resolution X-ray microtomography (XRMT) of the rock sample have been performed before and after the experiments. The experiments were performed using in-situ sequestration conditions (P = 12MPa and T = 100°C), and notably, under chemical conditions given at the position far away from the well injection site (i.e area where the volume of dissolved CO2 into the brine is low, due to CO2 consumption by the dissolution processes occured during its transport from the well injection site). Permeability k is calculated from the pressure drop across the sample and porosity Φ is deduced from chemical concentration of the outlet fluid. The change of the pore structure is analysed in terms of connectivity, tortuosity and fluid-rock interface from processing the XRMT images. These experiments show that far from the well injection site, dissolution processes are characterized by slow mass tranfer including, in the case of carbonate rock, transport of fine particles, which locally clog the porous space. Then, that leads to the damage of the carbonate reservoir both in terms of connectivity of the porous space and CO2 hydrodynamical storage capacity. In fact, the results of the two experiments show that the porosity decreased locally

  15. Storage conditions and eruptive dynamics of central versus flank eruptions in volcanic islands: The case of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andújar, Joan; Costa, Fidel; Scaillet, Bruno

    2013-06-01

    We report the results of phase equilibrium experiments on a phonolite produced during one of the most voluminous flank eruptions (ca. 1 km3) of the Teide-Pico Viejo complex (Tenerife Island). Combined with previous experimental and volcanological data we address the factors that control the structure of the phonolitic plumbing system of Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes. The Roques Blancos phonolite erupted ca 1800 BP and contains ~ 14 wt.% phenocrysts, mainly anorthoclase, biotite, magnetite, diopside and lesser amounts of ilmenite. Crystallization experiments were performed at temperatures of 900 °C, 850 °C and 800 °C, in the pressure range 200 MPa to 50 MPa. The oxygen fugacity (fO2) was varied between NNO + 0.3 (0.3 log units above to the Ni-NiO solid buffer) to NNO-2, whilst dissolved water contents varied from 7 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%. The comparison between natural and experimental phase proportions and compositions, including glass, indicates that the phonolite magma was stored prior to eruption at 900 ± 15 °C, 50 ± 15 MPa, with about 2.2 wt.% H2O dissolved in the melt, at an oxygen fugacity of NNO-0.5 (± 0.5). The difference in composition between the rim and the cores of the natural anorthoclase phenocrysts suggests that the phonolite was heated by about 50 °C before the eruption, upon intrusion of a hotter tephriphonolitic magma. The comparison between the storage conditions of Roques Blancos and those inferred for other phonolites of the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex shows that flank eruptions are fed by reservoirs located at relatively shallow depths (1-2 km) compared to those feeding Teide central eruptions (5 km).

  16. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  17. Ripening and storage conditions of Chétoui and Arbequina olives: Part I. Effect on olive oils volatiles profile.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; Gargouri, Mohamed; Msallem, Monji; Vichi, Stefania

    2016-07-15

    The distinctive aroma of virgin olive oil is mainly attributed to its volatile profile including components responsible for positive attributes and others for sensory defects resulting from chemical oxidation and exogenous enzymes. For this reason, the evolution of volatile compounds from Chétoui and Arbequina virgin olive oils during olive ripening and storage (at 4 and 25 °C during 4 weeks) was investigated. The profile of volatile phenols during olive storage was also studied. Quantitative differences in the volatile compounds during olive storage at 4 and 25 °C according to olive cultivar was determined. Concerning the volatile phenols, the Arbequina olives were the most affected by high storage temperature, as the formation of these compounds, especially 4-ethyl and 4-vinyl derivatives of phenol and guaiacol were more noticeable in Arbequina oils extracted from stored fruits at 25 °C. PMID:26948650

  18. The effect of milk components and storage conditions on the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes as determined by a Caco-2 cell assay.

    PubMed

    Pricope-Ciolacu, Luminita; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin

    2013-08-16

    Nearly all cases of human listeriosis have been associated with consumption of contaminated food, therefore the investigation of the virulence of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes after exposure to environmental conditions in food matrices is critical in order to understand and control its impact on public health. As milk and dairy products have been implicated in more than half of the listeriosis outbreaks, we investigated the in vitro virulence of L. monocytogenes incubated in different milk types at various storage conditions. Incubation in pasteurized milk at refrigeration conditions (4°C) revealed a higher invasion and intracellular proliferation of four different L. monocytogenes strains compared to raw milk using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Furthermore the period of storage, which increased L. monocytogenes cell numbers, decreased in vitro virulence. However, L. monocytogenes stored for 3weeks at 4°C in milk are still able to invade and proliferate into the host cell. Interestingly abused storage temperatures (25°C and 30°C) for a short time period (2h) revealed an attenuated impact on the in vitro virulence of L. monocytogenes compared to the storage temperature of 4°C. Regarding the major milk compounds, the level of milk fat significantly affected the in vitro virulence of L. monocytogenes. Pre-incubation in milk with high fat content (3.6%) resulted in a lower invasion capability compared to milk with low fat content. In contrast casein and lactose did not influence the invasiveness of L. monocytogenes into the host cell. In conclusion our study shows that the milk environment and different storage conditions influence the in vitro virulence of L. monocytogenes, both of which have to be considered in the risk assessment of contaminated food. PMID:23831732

  19. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress. PMID:27045670

  20. The effect of ripening and storage conditions on the distribution of tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine in Edam-cheese.

    PubMed

    Bunková, Leona; Bunka, Frantisek; Mantlová, Gabriela; Cablová, Andrea; Sedlácek, Ivo; Svec, Pavel; Pachlová, Vendula; Krácmar, Stanislav

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the work was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine) in 4 layers of Dutch-type cheese (Edam-cheese) depending on 3 ripening/storage regimes during a 98-day period. Biogenic amines were analysed by means of ion-exchange chromatography. A further goal was to identify microbial sources of biogenic amines in the material analysed. Phenotype characterization and repetitive sequence-based PCR fingerprinting were used to identify the isolated bacteria. The highest content of tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine was determined in cheeses stored in a ripening cellar at a temperature of 10 degrees C during the whole observation period. Lower biogenic amines content was determined in samples which were moved into a cold storage device (5 degrees C) after 38 days of storage in a ripening cellar (10 degrees C). The lowest concentrations of biogenic amines were detected in cheeses which were moved into a cold storage device (5 degrees C) after 23 days of storage in a ripening cellar (10 degrees C). During the 98-day period, histamine was not detected in any of the regimes. Within the cheeses analysed, non-starter lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum were detected as the main producers of the biogenic amines tested. In starter bacteria Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris the decarboxylase activity tested was not detected. PMID:20688229

  1. Effects of pre- or post-processing storage conditions on high-hydrostatic pressure inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in oysters.

    PubMed

    Ye, Mu; Huang, Yaoxin; Gurtler, Joshua B; Niemira, Brendan A; Sites, Joseph E; Chen, Haiqiang

    2013-05-15

    The effects of storage conditions on subsequent high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus in oysters were investigated. Live oysters were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus to ca. 7-8 log MPN/g by feeding and stored at varying conditions (i.e., 21 or 35 °C for 5h, 4 or 10 °C for 1 and 2 days and -18 °C for 2 weeks). Oyster meats were then treated at 225-300 MPa for 2 min at 4, 21 or 35 °C. HHP at 300 MPa for 2 min achieved a >5-log MPN/g reduction of V. parahaemolyticus, completely inactivating V. vulnificus (negative by enrichment) in oysters. Treatment temperatures of 4, 21 and 35 °C did not significantly affect pressure inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus (P>0.05). Cold storage at -18, 4 and 10 °C, prior to HHP, decreased V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus populations by 1.5-3.0 log MPN/g, but did not increase their sensitivity to subsequent HHP treatments. The effects of cold storage after HHP on inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters were also determined. Oysters were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus and stored at 21 °C for 5h or 4 °C for 1 day. Oyster meats were then treated at 250-300 MPa for 2 min at 21 or 35 °C and stored for 15 days in ice or in a freezer. V. parahaemolyticus populations in HHP-treated oysters gradually decreased during post-HHP ice or frozen storage. A validation study using whole-shell oysters was conducted to determine whether the presence of oyster shells influenced HHP inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus. No appreciable differences in inactivation between shucked oyster meat and whole-shell oysters were observed. HPP at 300 MPa for 2 min at 21 °C, followed by 5-day ice storage or 7-day frozen storage, and HPP at 250 MPa for 2 min at 21 °C, followed by 10-day ice or 7-day frozen storage, completely inactivated V. parahaemolyticus in whole-shell oysters (>7 log reductions). The combination of HHP at a relatively low pressure

  2. Conditions for efficient and stable ion acceleration by moderate circularly polarized laser pulses at intensities of 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, B.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Dromey, B.; Kar, S.; Geissler, M.; Gibbon, P.; Schreiber, J.

    2011-04-15

    Conditions for efficient and stable ion radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) from thin foils by circularly polarized laser pulses at moderate intensities are theoretically and numerically investigated. It is found that the unavoidable decompression of the co-moving electron layer in Light-Sail RPA leads to a change of the local electrostatic field from a ''bunching'' to a ''debunching'' profile, ultimately resulting in premature termination of ion acceleration. One way to overcome this instability is the use of a multispecies foil where the high-Z ions act as a sacrificial species to supply excess co-moving electrons for preserving stable acceleration of the lower-Z ion species. It is shown by 2D particle-in-cell simulations that 100 MeV/u monoenergetic C{sup 6+} ion beams are produced by irradiation of a Cu-C-mixed foil with laser pulses at intensities 5 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}, which can be easily achieved by current day lasers.

  3. Effect of solution and solid-phase conditions on the Fe(II)-accelerated transformation of ferrihydrite to lepidocrocite and goethite.

    PubMed

    Boland, Daniel D; Collins, Richard N; Miller, Christopher J; Glover, Chris J; Waite, T David

    2014-05-20

    Aqueous ferrous iron (Fe(II)) accelerates the transformation of ferrihydrite into secondary, more crystalline minerals however the factors controlling the rate and, indeed, the underlying mechanism of this transformation process remain unclear. Here, we present the first detailed study of the kinetics of the Fe(II)-accelerated transformation of ferrihydrite to goethite, via lepidocrocite, for a range of pH and Fe(II) concentrations and, from the results obtained, provide insight into the factors controlling the transformation rate and the processes responsible for transformation. A reaction scheme for the Fe(II)-accelerated secondary mineralization of ferrihydrite is developed in which an Fe(II) atom attaches to the ferrihydrite surface where it is immediately oxidized to Fe(III) with the resultant electron transferred, sequentially, to other iron oxyhydroxide Fe(III) atoms before release to solution as Fe(II). This freshly precipitated Fe(III) forms the nuclei for the formation of secondary minerals and also facilitates the ongoing uptake of Fe(II) from solution by creation of fresh surface sites. The concentration of solid-associated Fe(II) and the rate of transport of Fe(II) to the oxyhydroxide surface appear to determine which particular secondary minerals form and their rates of formation. Lepidocrocite growth is enhanced at lower solid-associated Fe(II) concentrations while conditions leading to more rapid uptake of Fe(II) from solution lead to higher goethite growth rates. PMID:24724707

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN

    SciTech Connect

    J.H. Frantz; K.E. Brown

    2003-02-01

    There are four primary goals of contract DE-FG26-99FT40703: (1) We seek to better understand how and why two damage mechanisms--(1) inorganic precipitants, and (2) hydrocarbons and organic residues, occur at the reservoir/wellbore interface in gas storage wells. (2) We plan on testing potential prevention and remediation strategies related to these two damage mechanisms in the laboratory. (3) We expect to demonstrate in the field, cost-effective prevention and remediation strategies that laboratory testing deems viable. (4) We will investigate new technology for the gas storage industry that will provide operators with a cost effective method to reduce non-darcy turbulent flow effects on flow rate. For the above damage mechanisms, our research efforts will demonstrate the diagnostic technique for determining the damage mechanisms associated with lost deliverability as well as demonstrate and evaluate the remedial techniques in the laboratory setting and in actual gas storage reservoirs. We plan on accomplishing the above goals by performing extensive lab analyses of rotary sidewall cores taken from at least two wells, testing potential remediation strategies in the lab, and demonstrating in the field the applicability of the proposed remediation treatments. The benefits from this work will be quantified from this study and extrapolated to the entire storage industry. The technology and project results will be transferred to the industry through DOE dissemination and through the industry service companies that work on gas storage wells. Achieving these goals will enable the underground gas storage industry to more cost-effectively mitigate declining deliverability in their storage fields. Work completed to date includes the following: (1) Solicited potential participants from the gas storage industry; (2) Selected one participant experiencing damage from inorganic precipitates; (3) Developed laboratory testing procedures; (4) Collected cores from National Fuel Gas

  5. MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS USING γ-2CaO.SiO2 UNDER THE SEVERAL CONDITIONS IN ACCELERATED CARBONATION CURING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kenzo; Yokozeki, Kosuke; Torichigai, Takeshi; Sakai, Etsuo

    The experiments have been conducted in order to investigate the mechanical and chemical properties of mortar with three different binders under the several conditions in accelerated carbonation curing. As the results, the depth of carbonation varied among each mix proportion. It is proven that by increasing CO2 density in the mortar having γ-2CaO.SiO2, the CaCO3 production will increase, which leads to the increase of filling ability in the pore of mortar. Furthermore, as a result from the calculation of Tritium permeation, it shows that the permeation decreases with an increase of CO2 density.

  6. Pre-eruptive storage conditions and continuous decompression relations of rhyodacite magma erupted from Chaos Crags, Lassen Volcanic Center, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, E. T.; Andrews, B. J.; Schwab, B. E.; Clynne, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    temperatures ≥825°C, within the investigated range. FTIR analysis of quartz-hosted melt inclusions contain 4.0-5.0 wt. % H2O (average 4.3 wt. %), suggesting saturation pressures of 100-110 MPa (calculated using model of Papale et al., 2006). Comparison of the natural samples with the experimentally determined phase diagram and melt inclusions, suggests pre-eruptive storage conditions of 110-125 MPa and 775°C; given FeTi-oxide temperatures of 850 °C, magma may have been heated by as much as 75-100°C immediately prior to eruption. Ongoing work includes EPMA analysis of plagioclase feldspars and amphiboles to further constrain An-stability and hornblende-cummingtonite relations , respectively, and analysis of titanomagnetite-ilmenite pairs. Continuous decompression experiments are underway with rates ranging from 0.3 MPa/hr to 7.5 MPa/hr, corresponding to total decompression times of 16 hours to 18 days.

  7. A minimally invasive method of piscine tissue collection and an analysis of long-term field-storage conditions for samples

    PubMed Central

    Campanella, James J; Smalley, John V

    2006-01-01

    Background The acquisition of high-quality DNA for use in phylogenetic and molecular population genetic studies is a primary concern for evolutionary and genetic researchers. Many non-destructive DNA sampling methods have been developed and are used with a variety of taxa in applications ranging from genetic stock assessment to molecular forensics. Results The authors have developed a field sampling method for obtaining high-quality DNA from sunfish (Lepomis) and other freshwater fish that employs a variation on the buccal swab method and results in the collection of DNA suitable for PCR amplification and polymorphism analysis. Additionally, since the circumstances of storage are always a concern for field biologists, the authors have tested the potential storage conditions of swabbed samples and whether those conditions affect DNA extraction and PCR amplification. It was found that samples stored at room temperature in the dark for over 200 days could still yield DNA suitable for PCR amplification and polymorphism detection. Conclusion These findings suggest that valuable molecular genetic data may be obtained from tissues that have not been treated or stored under optimal field conditions. Furthermore, it is clear that the lack of adequately low temperatures during transport and long term storage should not be a barrier to anyone wishing to engage in field-based molecular genetic research. PMID:16734898

  8. Effects of Storage Conditions on the Forage Quality Characteristics and Ergovaline Content of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout the southern Ozark Highlands, endophyte-infected tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] hay often is stored outdoors, without cover. At two research sites (Fayetteville and Batesville, AR), the effects of unprotected storage were assessed for large-round bales of tall fescue...

  9. Brown and green sugarcane leaves as potential biomass: How they deteriorate under dry and wet storage conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current trends to (1) investigate sugarcane leaves as a sustainable biomass feedstock for the production of biofuels and bioproducts and (2) delivery of more leaves to factories for processing with stalks, have made information on how it deteriorates on storage during dry and wet environmental c...

  10. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... date your waste is subject to hazardous waste regulation under the relevant sections of 40 CFR parts 260 through 271, and the time period for accumulation of a hazardous waste as specified in 40 CFR 262... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can...

  11. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... date your waste is subject to hazardous waste regulation under the relevant sections of 40 CFR parts 260 through 271, and the time period for accumulation of a hazardous waste as specified in 40 CFR 262... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can...

  12. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... date your waste is subject to hazardous waste regulation under the relevant sections of 40 CFR parts 260 through 271, and the time period for accumulation of a hazardous waste as specified in 40 CFR 262... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can...

  13. Marine High Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Storage DE-EE0003640 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Hoffmann, PhD; Aspinall, Rik

    2012-12-10

    Design, Development, and test of the three-port power converter for marine hydrokinetic power transmission. Converter provides ports for AC/DC conversion of hydrokinetic power, battery storage, and a low voltage to high voltage DC port for HVDC transmission to shore. The report covers the design, development, implementation, and testing of a prototype built by PPS.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN

    SciTech Connect

    J.H. Frantz Jr; K.G. Brown; W.K. Sawyer; P.A. Zyglowicz; P.M. Halleck; J.P. Spivey

    2004-12-01

    The underground gas storage (UGS) industry uses over 400 reservoirs and 17,000 wells to store and withdrawal gas. As such, it is a significant contributor to gas supply in the United States. It has been demonstrated that many UGS wells show a loss of deliverability each year due to numerous damage mechanisms. Previous studies estimate that up to one hundred million dollars are spent each year to recover or replace a deliverability loss of approximately 3.2 Bscf/D per year in the storage industry. Clearly, there is a great potential for developing technology to prevent, mitigate, or eliminate the damage causing deliverability losses in UGS wells. Prior studies have also identified the presence of several potential damage mechanisms in storage wells, developed damage diagnostic procedures, and discussed, in general terms, the possible reactions that need to occur to create the damage. However, few studies address how to prevent or mitigate specific damage types, and/or how to eliminate the damage from occurring in the future. This study seeks to increase our understanding of two specific damage mechanisms, inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite), and non-darcy damage, and thus serves to expand prior efforts as well as complement ongoing gas storage projects. Specifically, this study has resulted in: (1) An effective lab protocol designed to assess the extent of damage due to inorganic precipitates; (2) An increased understanding of how inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite) develop; (3) Identification of potential sources of chemical components necessary for siderite formation; (4) A remediation technique that has successfully restored deliverability to storage wells damaged by the inorganic precipitate siderite (one well had nearly a tenfold increase in deliverability); (5) Identification of the types of treatments that have historically been successful at reducing the amount of non-darcy pressure drop in a well, and (6) Development of a tool that can

  15. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic flow of a micropolar fluid due to constant accelerated disk with no slip conditions in a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, F.; Hayat, T.

    2012-05-01

    The unsteady MHD flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid have been considered. The fluid is filling the semi-infinite space z>0 which is in contact with an infinite porous rotating disk at z = 0. The common angular velocity of the disk and fluid at infinity is Ω. The fluid is electrically conducting in presence of an applied constant magnetic field B0. Initially the disk and the fluid are rotating about the z/-axis and at time t = 0, suddenly the disk starts rotating about the z-axis and moving with uniform acceleration, while the fluid at infinity continue to rotate about z/-axis with same angular velocity Ω. The axes of rotation of both the disk and that of the fluid at infinity are assumed to be in the plane x = 0, and distance between axes is l. The governing problem is solved numerically using Newton's method. Numerical results explaining the effects of various parameters associated with the flow are discussed graphically.

  16. Deriving appropriate boundary conditions, and accelerating position-jump simulations, of diffusion using non-local jumping.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P R; Baker, R E; Yates, C A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore lattice-based position-jump models of diffusion, and the implications of introducing non-local jumping; particles can jump to a range of nearby boxes rather than only to their nearest neighbours. We begin by deriving conditions for equivalence with traditional local jumping models in the continuum limit. We then generalize a previously postulated implementation of the Robin boundary condition for a non-local process of arbitrary maximum jump length, and present a novel implementation of flux boundary conditions, again generalized for a non-local process of arbitrary maximum jump length. In both these cases we validate our results using stochastic simulation. We then proceed to consider two variations on the basic diffusion model: a hybrid local/non-local scheme suitable for models involving sharp concentration gradients, and the implementation of biased jumping. In all cases we show that non-local jumping can deliver substantial time savings for stochastic simulations. PMID:25514045

  17. Deriving appropriate boundary conditions, and accelerating position-jump simulations, of diffusion using non-local jumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, P. R.; Baker, R. E.; Yates, C. A.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we explore lattice-based position-jump models of diffusion, and the implications of introducing non-local jumping; particles can jump to a range of nearby boxes rather than only to their nearest neighbours. We begin by deriving conditions for equivalence with traditional local jumping models in the continuum limit. We then generalize a previously postulated implementation of the Robin boundary condition for a non-local process of arbitrary maximum jump length, and present a novel implementation of flux boundary conditions, again generalized for a non-local process of arbitrary maximum jump length. In both these cases we validate our results using stochastic simulation. We then proceed to consider two variations on the basic diffusion model: a hybrid local/non-local scheme suitable for models involving sharp concentration gradients, and the implementation of biased jumping. In all cases we show that non-local jumping can deliver substantial time savings for stochastic simulations.

  18. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures. PMID:25952846

  19. Outgrowth of Salmonellae and the physical property of albumen and vitelline membrane as influenced by egg storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinru; Shallo Thesmar, Hilary; Kerr, William L

    2005-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the influence of storage time and temperature on the volume, weight, and pH of egg albumen, the physical strength of vitelline membrane, and the fate of Salmonella Enteritidis artificially inoculated into egg albumen. A fiber-optic probe was used for inoculation with Salmonella Enteritidis at 10(2), 10(4), or 10(6) cells per egg. Both fresh and inoculated eggs were stored at 4, 10, and 22 degrees C for 6 weeks. Five fresh uninoculated eggs from each storage group were collected each week, and the weight, volume, and pH of the egg albumen were measured. The forces, energies, and degrees of membrane deformation required to rupture the vitelline membranes also were determined from either albumen-free yolks or yolks surrounded by albumen. In separate experiments, five inoculated eggs were evaluated each week for populations of Salmonella Enteritidis. When the eggs were stored at 4 degrees C, the albumen retained significantly more volume and weight and had a relatively lower pH. The vitelline membranes from eggs stored at 4 and 10 degrees C required more force and energy for rupture. Salmonellae flourished at 22 degrees C, even in the albumen with the lowest initial population, 10(2) cells per egg. Storage at 4 and 10 degrees C inhibited the growth of salmonellae in the albumen of eggs with initial populations of 10(2), 10(4), or 10(6) cells per egg. In eggs with initial Salmonella populations of 10(6) cells per egg that were stored at 22 degrees C, the populations of reached as high as 10(10) cells per egg after 4 weeks of storage. Storage at 4 and perhaps 10 degrees C postponed the aging process of chicken eggs, preserved the antimicrobial agents of the albumen, and maintained the integrity of vitelline membrane. Low-temperature storage therefore had a significant impact on the safety and overall quality of the eggs. PMID:16355825

  20. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. 13C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using 3H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  1. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-07-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. (13)C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using (3)H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  2. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  3. Effects of sodium caseinate concentration and storage conditions on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions.

    PubMed

    O' Dwyer, Sandra P; O' Beirne, David; Eidhin, Deirdre Ní; O' Kennedy, Brendan T

    2013-06-01

    The oxidative stability of various oils (sunflower, camelina and fish) and 20% oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions, were examined. The mean particle size decreased from 1179 to 325 nm as sodium caseinate (emulsifier) concentration was increased from 0.25% to 3% in O/W emulsions (P<0.05). Increasing the microfluidisation pressure from 21 to 138 MPa, resulted in a particle size decrease from 289 to 194 nm (P<0.05). Emulsified oils had lower detectable lipid hydroperoxide and p-Anisidine values than their corresponding bulk oils (P<0.05). The lipid hydroperoxide and p-Anisidine values of emulsions generally decreased as sodium caseinate concentration increased, and similarly decreased as microfluidisation pressure increased (P<0.05). Increasing storage temperature of the emulsions from 5 to 60°C, resulted in lower detectable lipid oxidation products during storage (P<0.05). PMID:23411225

  4. Influence of Platen Temperatures and Storage Conditions on the Survival of Freeze-dried Salmonella typhimurium1

    PubMed Central

    Sinskey, T. J.; Silverman, G. J.; Goldblith, S. A.

    1967-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium survived freeze-drying at a platen temperature of 120 F (48.9 C) and also, though to a much lesser degree, at 160 F (82.6 C). The extent of the survival at these temperatures was dependent on the composition of the model system employed. The incidence of damage immediately after freeze-drying was greater for cells dried at the higher platen temperature and was influenced by the composition of the menstruum in which the cells were dried. In model systems having protein-dominant isotherms, survival during subsequent storage depended greatly on relative humidity, with recovery highest at relative humidities below those corresponding to moisture contents at which a monomolecular layer is formed. In menstrua having a higher sugar content, survival was best at low relative humidities corresponding to a very low equilibrium moisture content in the model system used. Damage during storage tended to be a function of the composition of the gels in which the organisms were freeze-dried, and also depended greatly on the presence of air and on the relative humidity. The maximal percentage of damage usually occurred at the low relative humidities as storage time increased. PMID:5340168

  5. Fatty acid composition in double and multilayered microcapsules of ω-3 as affected by storage conditions and type of emulsions.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Martín, Estefanía; Antequera Rojas, Teresa; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad

    2016-03-01

    Spray-dried microcapsules from double (DM) and multilayered (MM) fish oil emulsions were produced to evaluate the effect of type of emulsion on the fatty acid composition during the microencapsulation process and after one month of storage at refrigeration (4°C) and room (20°C) temperature. Encapsulation efficiency, loading and loading efficiency were significantly higher in MM than in DM. C20:5 n-3 (EPA) and C22:6 n-3 (DHA) showed higher proportions in MM than in DM. Some differences in microstructural features were detected, with DM showing cracks and pores. The influence of the storage was significant, decreasing the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in both MM and DM, above all at 20°C. This decrease was more notable in DM. Multilayered emulsions are more suitable to encapsulate fish oil in terms of quantity of encapsulated oil, microstructure of the microcapsules and protection of fatty acids, especially EPA and DHA, during storage. PMID:26471582

  6. Study of the degradation of butyltin compounds in surface water samples under different storage conditions using multiple isotope tracers and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cea, Andrés; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    The degradation of butyltin compounds in surface water samples under different storage conditions has been studied. A triple spike solution, containing monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT) labelled with a different tin isotope, was added to the sample to calculate the extent of the interconversion reactions among butyltin compounds. Real surface water samples (river water) were collected and stored in glass, polypropylene or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) containers. The presence of light, addition of acetic acid, storage temperature (22, 4 or -18 °C), and the influence of a filtration step were evaluated. Moreover, Milli-Q water with and without the addition of a high concentration of humic acids was prepared in parallel and the results compared to those obtained from the real samples. The water samples were analysed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode at two different storage times (2 weeks and 4 months after its preparation) to carry out both a short- and a long-term stability study. The lowest butyltin degradation was obtained when the samples were stored at -18 °C in the dark. Under these conditions, both TBT and DBT showed negligible dealkylation factors after 2 weeks. After 4 months, DBT dealkylation to MBT increased up to 19 % but TBT degradation was not observed. PMID:26545890

  7. [Facilitation of the retention and acceleration of operant conditioning extinction after cingulate cortex lesions in BALB/c mice].

    PubMed

    Destrade, C; Gauthier, M

    1981-12-21

    One week after receiving bilateral electrolytic lesions of the cingulate cortex, BALB/c Mice underwent acquisition, retention and extinction of an appetitive operant-conditioning task in a Skinner box. There was no significant difference between lesioned and control animals in acquisition; however, lesioned mice exhibited improved retention and faster extinction. These results suggest a possible involvement of the cingulate cortex in memory processes. PMID:6804021

  8. A 72% error reduction scheme based on temperature acceleration for long-term data storage applications: Cold flash and millennium memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Senju; Iwasaki, Tomoko Ogura; Hachiya, Shogo; Takahashi, Tomonori; Takeuchi, Ken

    2016-07-01

    A solid-state drive (SSD) with 1Xnm triple-level cell (TLC) NAND flash is proposed for low cost data storage applications with long-term data-retention requirements. Specifically, cold data storage requires 20 years data-retention with 100 write/erase (W/E) cycles, whereas digital archive storage requires 1000 years retention time with 1 W/E cycle. To achieve these requirements, a flexible-nLC scheme is proposed to improve the reliability of 1Xnm TLC NAND flash (Yamazaki et al., 2015). The proposed scheme combines two schemes, n-out-of-8 level cell (nLC) (Tanakamaru et al., 2014) and asymmetric coding (AC) (Tanakamaru et al., 2012) with the addition of a vertical flag. By measuring 1Xnm TLC NAND flash memory, the proposed scheme reduces errors by 72% and 69% for digital archive and cold flash respectively, compared to the conventional nLC scheme.

  9. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  10. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  11. Growth of clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria on agar media: effects of media composition, storage conditions, and reduction under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, P R

    1978-01-01

    The quantitative growth, the colony size, and the rate of growth of 47 clinical anaerobic isolates were compared on five different media, namely Brucella agar, brain heart infusion agar, Columbia agar, Schaedler agar, and tryptic soy agar. There was no significant difference in the quantitative growth of the anaerobes inoculated onto the five media. Although no single medium was superior for the growth of all isolates, 12 of 22 isolates, inoculated onto media stored for 4 weeks or less, grew best on Schaedler agar. The effects of supplementation of the media with reducing agents and reduction of the media before use were also analyzed and were found to be affected by the composition and length of storage of the media, as well as the bacteria tested. PMID:744801

  12. Presentation on a Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Theodore L.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) project is to provide an acceleration measurement system capable of serving a wide variety of space experiments. The design of the system being developed under this project takes into consideration requirements for experiments located in the middeck, in the orbiter bay, and in Spacelab. In addition to measuring, conditioning, and recording accelerations, the system will be capable of performing complex calculations and interactive control. The main components consist of a remote triaxial optical storage device. In operation, the triaxial sensor head produces output signals in response to acceleration inputs. These signals are preamplified, filtered and converted into digital data which is then transferred to optical memory. The system design is modular, facilitating both software and hardware upgrading as technology advances. Two complete acceleration measurement flight systems will be build and tested under this project.

  13. Magma Storage Conditions, Eruption Initiation and Magma Evolution Over Time: Investigating the Eruptions of Organ Caldera, Southern NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lente, J. L.; Johnson, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Organ caldera in southern New Mexico formed ~36 Ma from a series of three explosive, voluminous eruptions. The volcanic deposits are now exposed in the Organ Mountains and have a combined thickness of nearly 3 km and an estimated volume between 500 and1000 km3 (Seager & McCurry, 1988). This research uses analyses of quartz-hosted melt inclusions from the first- and last-erupted units to study the storage and differentiation of the magma body prior-to and during the initial eruption, as well as changes in the magma chamber over time as the eruptions progressed and ultimately ceased. Previous work suggests the Organ magma chamber was compositionally stratified (Seager, 1981) erupting top-down and tapping less-evolved magmas over time. However, preliminary results suggest a more complex system; possibly a convecting, homogenized magma chamber or a series of dykes and sills. Results obtained using FTIR analyses of H2O and CO2 in melt inclusions have shown variable volatile contents from the first erupted unit (~2.3 to 6.8 weight percent H2O, 0-118 ppm CO2). Using these values, saturation pressures of 45 to 266 MPa were calculated, indicating a minimum pressure at which the melt inclusion was trapped. These pressures suggest magma storage depths for the first erupted magmas of ~2 to 9 km (with most inclusions trapped between 4 and 8 km) which is inconsistent with the initial eruption coming from the top of a normally stratified chamber. The large variation in volatile contents and storage depths can have many explanations, such as degassing and shallow crystallization during ascent, or perhaps a more complex, elongate magma storage system. These possibilities, and whether or not magma mixing/rejuvenation triggered the initial eruption, will be explored with the acquisition of major and trace element compositions of melt inclusions. Additionally, analyses of melt inclusions from the last erupted ignimbrite, which erupted ~0.5 Ma after the first eruption, will enable

  14. Examination of Ion Beam Acceleration and Self-Bias Effect in the Modified MadHeX Plasma Source with Conducting and Insulating Upstream Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Yung-Ta; Devinney, Michael; Scharer, John

    2013-10-01

    The MadHeX experiment consists of a Pyrex tube connected to a stainless steel magnetic field expansion chamber (expansion ratio RE = 4.5) has been upgraded with an axial magnetic mirror field and an additional magnet in the transition region. This configuration enhances electron temperature and ionization fraction and minimizes neutral reflux. A half-turn double-helix antenna is used to excite electrostatic or inductive regime waves in the source. An ion beam of energy, E = 160 eV at 500 W RF power, has been observed in a low pressure (0.3 mtorr) argon plasma formed in the expansion region with a 340 G magnetic field with a R = 1.4 nozzle. The effects of upstream end plate boundary conditions on the plasma self-bias and ion beam acceleration are discussed. The effect of lower flow rates and pressures, higher RF powers (500 W-8 kW) and magnetic field strength dependence on the ion beam acceleration, plasma potential, electron density and temperature are explored. The axial ion velocity distribution function and temperatures at higher powers are observed by argon 668 nm laser induced fluorescence with density measurements obtained by mm wave interferometry. The EEDF and non-Maxwellian tail are examined using optical emission spectroscopy. Research supported by the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  15. Influence of different processing and storage conditions on in vitro bioaccessibility of polyphenols in black carrot jams and marmalades.

    PubMed

    Kamiloglu, Senem; Pasli, Ayca Ayfer; Ozcelik, Beraat; Van Camp, John; Capanoglu, Esra

    2015-11-01

    Black carrot is indicated to play an important role in nutrition, as it comprises a variety of health-promoting components, including polyphenols. The objective of the present study was to monitor the stability of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids in black carrot jams and marmalades after processing, storage and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined using spectrophotometric methods, whereas phenolic acids were identified using HPLC-PDA. Jam and marmalade processing significantly decreased total phenolics (89.2-90.5%), antioxidant capacity (83.3-91.3%) and phenolic acids (49.5-96.7%) (p < 0.05). After 20 weeks of storage, the percent decrease in total phenolics in samples stored at 25 °C (26.4-48.0%) was slightly higher than the samples stored at 4 °C (21.0-42.5%). In addition, jam and marmalade processing led to increases in the percent recovery of bioaccessible total phenolics (7.2-12.6%) and phenolic acids (4.7-31.5%), as well as antioxidant capacity (1.4-8.1%). In conclusion, current study highlighted black carrot jams and marmalades as good sources of polyphenols, with high bioaccessibility levels. PMID:25976794

  16. Storage life of power switching transistors based on performance degradation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haochun, Qi; Xiaoling, Zhang; Xuesong, Xie; Changzhi, Lü; Chengju, Chen; Li, Zhao

    2014-04-01

    NPN-type small and medium power switching transistors in 3DK series are used to conduct analyses and studies of accelerating degradation. Through three group studies of accelerating degradation in different temperature-humidity constant stresses, the failure sensitive parameters of transistors are identified and the lifetime of samples is extrapolated from the performance degradation data. Average lifetimes in three common distributions are given, when, combined with the Hallberg-Peck temperature-humidity model, the storage lifetime of transistor samples in the natural storage condition is extrapolated between 105-107 h. According to its definition, the accelerating factor is 1462 in 100°C/100% relative humidity (RH) stress condition, and 25°C/25% RH stress condition. Finally, the degradation causes of performance parameters of the test samples are analyzed. The findings can provide certain references for the storage reliability of domestic transistors.

  17. Investigation of Sn Whisker Growth in Electroplated Sn and Sn-Ag as a Function of Plating Variables and Storage Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jaewon; Kang, Sung K.; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Keun-Soo; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2014-01-01

    Sn whiskers are becoming a serious reliability issue in Pb-free electronic packaging applications. Among the numerous Sn whisker mitigation strategies, minor alloying additions to Sn have been proven effective. In this study, several commercial Sn and Sn-Ag baths of low-whisker formulations are evaluated to develop optimum mitigation strategies for electroplated Sn and Sn-Ag. The effects of plating variables and storage conditions, including plating thickness and current density, on Sn whisker growth are investigated for matte Sn, matte Sn-Ag, and bright Sn-Ag electroplated on a Si substrate. Two different storage conditions are applied: an ambient condition (30°C, dry air) and a high-temperature/high-humidity condition (55°C, 85% relative humidity). Scanning electron microscopy is employed to record the Sn whisker growth history of each sample up to 4000 h. Transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and focused ion beam techniques are used to understand the microstructure, the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs), oxidation, the Sn whisker growth mechanism, and other features. In this study, it is found that whiskers are observed only under ambient conditions for both thin and thick samples regardless of the current density variations for matte Sn. However, whiskers are not observed on Sn-Ag-plated surfaces due to the equiaxed grains and fine Ag3Sn IMCs located at grain boundaries. In addition, Sn whiskers can be suppressed under the high-temperature/high-humidity conditions due to the random growth of IMCs and the formation of thick oxide layers.

  18. The EPQ model under conditions of two levels of trade credit and limited storage capacity in supply chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2013-09-01

    An inventory problem involves a lot of factors influencing inventory decisions. To understand it, the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ) model plays rather important role for inventory analysis. Although the traditional EPQ models are still widely used in industry, practitioners frequently question validities of assumptions of these models such that their use encounters challenges and difficulties. So, this article tries to present a new inventory model by considering two levels of trade credit, finite replenishment rate and limited storage capacity together to relax the basic assumptions of the traditional EPQ model to improve the environment of the use of it. Keeping in mind cost-minimisation strategy, four easy-to-use theorems are developed to characterise the optimal solution. Finally, the sensitivity analyses are executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and the annual total relevant costs of the inventory system.

  19. High temperature post-irradiation performance of spent pressurized-water-reactor fuel rods under dry-storage conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Einziger, R.E.; Atkin, S.D.; Stellrecht, D.E.; Pasupathi, V.

    1981-06-01

    Post-irradiation studies on failure mechanisms of well characterized PWR rods were conducted for up to a year at 482, 510 and 571/sup 0/C in unlimited air and inert gas atmospheres. No cladding breaches occurred even though the tests operated many orders of magnitude longer in time than the lifetime predicted by Blackburn's analyses. The extended lifetime is due to significant creep strain of the Zircaloy cladding which decreases the internal rod pressures. The cladding creep also contributes to radial cracks, through the external oxide and internal FCCI layers, which propagated into and arrested in an oxygen stabilized ..cap alpha..-Zircaloy layer. There were no signs of either additional cladding hydriding, stress-corrosion cracking or fuel pellet degradation. Using the Larson-Miller formulization, a conservative maximum storage temperature of 400/sup 0/C is recommended to ensure a 1000-year cladding lifetime. This accounts for crack propagation and assumes annealing of the irradiation-hardened cladding.

  20. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  1. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Teng, L.C.

    1960-01-19

    ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

  2. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. PMID:25287794

  3. Ion mobility spectrometry versus classical physico-chemical analysis for assessing the shelf life of extra virgin olive oil according to container type and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocío; Dobao-Prieto, M Mar; Arce, Lourdes; Aguilar, Joaquín; Cumplido, José L; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the stability of a single-variety (Arbequina) extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) as a function of container type and storage conditions over a period of 11 months. EVOO quality was assessed by using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), which provides increased simplicity, expeditiousness, and relative economy. The results were compared with the ones obtained by using the official method based on classical physico-chemical analysis. Bag-in-box, metal, dark glass, clear glass, and polyethylene terephthalate containers holding EVOO were opened on a periodic basis for sampling to simulate domestic use; in parallel, other containers were kept closed until analysis to simulate the storage conditions on market shelves. The results of the physico-chemical and instrumental analyses led to similar conclusions. Thus, samples packaged in bag-in-box containers preserved oil quality for 11 months, better than other container types. The HS-GC-IMS results confirm that 2-heptenal and 1-penten-3-one are two accurate markers of EVOO quality. PMID:25645180

  4. Salt-stressed fresh cut leek accelerates CO₂ and C₂H₄ production and enhances the development of quality characteristics of traditional Greek sausages during storage.

    PubMed

    Madentzidou, Eleftheria; Gerasopoulos, Dimitrios; Siomos, Anastasios; Bloukas, Ioannis

    2012-12-01

    Fresh cut leek was mixed with salt for 0.5 (IM) and 5 (LM) min or remained untreated (control) and stored alone or mixed with minced meat and seasonings, cased and stored at 15 °C for 7 days. The fresh cut leek and sausage metabolics and sausage microbiological and physicochemical traits were measured during storage. Sausages with LM leek had significantly higher counts of lactic acid bacteria, faster rates of pH drop and dehydration and increased red color compared with the other treatments. Sausage to fresh cut leek peaks of CO₂ or C₂H₄ production was 5 or 2 fold higher in LM than the other treatments indicating that the sausage flora was the source of both. The use of salt-stressed fresh cut leek before manufacture of sausages enhances microbial activity as well as its stability and shortens the necessary storage time needed for the development of the quality characteristics of Greek traditional sausages. PMID:22840357

  5. Reductive off-odors in wines: Formation and release of H₂S and methanethiol during the accelerated anoxic storage of wines.

    PubMed

    Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-05-15

    In order to better understand the processes involved in the development of H2S and methanethiol (MeSH) along anoxic storage of wines, 24 wines were stored in strict anoxia at 50°C for 3weeks. Free and total forms of H2S and MeSH were measured at different times. Results showed that: (1) all wines contain relevant proportions of bonded forms of H2S and MeSH (93% and 47% on average); (2) such % decreases with age; (3) levels of total forms are related to wine metal composition; (4) anoxic storage brings about an increase of free forms, a strong decrease in the percentage of bonded forms, and except for H2S in red wines, an increase in total forms. Both de novo formation and release contribute to reductive off-odors. Release is predominant for reds and H2S, while at 50°C, de novo formation dominates for whites and rosés and MeSH. PMID:26775942

  6. Evaluation under commercial conditions of the application of continuous, low concentrations of ozone during the cold storage of table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis cinerea causes gray mold, a postharvest disease of table grapes. The ability of ozone (O3) in air to inhibit gray mold in stored grapes was reported in chamber studies, but O3 needed evaluation under commercial conditions. Ozone merits attention because it is pesticide-residue free and all...

  7. Storage Conditions of Large Silicic Magmatic Systems: Gauging Melt Evolution from Melt Inclusions Hosted in Different Phenocryst Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocke, S. B.; de Silva, S. L.; Wallace, P. J.; Kent, A. J.; Hervig, R. L.; Andrews, B. J.; Cottrell, E.

    2014-12-01

    Quartz- and sanidine-hosted melt inclusions from the 3.49 Ma rhyolitic Tara pumice fall deposit erupted from the Guacha II Caldera in SW Bolivia provide new insights into the melt evolution preceding a supereruption. Melt inclusions were analyzed for volatile contents using two different techniques, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and ion microprobe (SIMS). Data from FTIR on quartz-hosted melt inclusions reveal pre-eruptive CO2 concentrations (maximum ~ 300 ppm), and H2O contents (average = 4.3 wt.%) that are similar to H2O contents derived from SIMS on the same inclusions (average = 4.2 wt.%). Melt inclusions in sanidine yield higher CO2 concentrations (maximum ~ 400 ppm) than those hosted in quartz, yet yield much lower H2O contents (average = 2.5 wt.% via FTIR; average = 2.7 wt.% via SIMS). The higher CO2 trapped in sanidine-hosted melt inclusions may suggest higher trapping pressures than are recorded by quartz, whereas the low H2O recorded by sanidine may signify preferential H loss from sanidine. SIMS and Laser-Ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) trace element analyses of melt inclusions define a continuous liquid line of descent from sanidine-hosted inclusions that record high Sr and increasing Ba with crystallization, to quartz-hosted inclusions that record low Sr and decreasing Ba with crystallization. In the case of the Tara magmatic system, sanidine-hosted inclusions seem to record an earlier, deeper stage of the melt's history. Assessing melt inclusions within multiple phenocryst hosts may provide insights into different stages of a melt's history from storage to ascent and eruption.

  8. Boundary conditions of an active West Antarctic subglacial lake: implications for storage of water beneath the ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, M. J.; Ross, N.; Corr, H.; Smith, B.; Jordan, T.; Bingham, R. G.; Ferraccioli, F.; Rippin, D. M.; Le Brocq, A.

    2014-01-01

    Repeat-pass ICESat altimetry has revealed 124 discrete surface height changes across the Antarctic Ice Sheet, interpreted to be caused by subglacial lake discharges (surface lowering) and inputs (surface uplift). Few of these active lakes have been confirmed by radio-echo sounding (RES) despite several attempts (notable exceptions are Lake Whillans and three in the Adventure Subglacial Trench). Here we present targeted RES and radar altimeter data from an "active lake" location within the upstream Institute Ice Stream, into which at least 0.12 km3 of water was previously calculated to have flowed between October 2003 and February 2008. We use a series of transects to establish an accurate depiction of the influences of bed topography and ice surface elevation on water storage potential. The location of surface height change is downstream of a subglacial hill on the flank of a distinct topographic hollow, where RES reveals no obvious evidence for deep (> 10 m) water. The regional hydropotential reveals a sink coincident with the surface change, however. Governed by the location of the hydrological sink, basal water will likely "drape" over topography in a manner dissimilar to subglacial lakes where flat strong specular RES reflections are measured. The inability of RES to detect the active lake means that more of the Antarctic ice sheet bed may contain stored water than is currently appreciated. Variation in ice surface elevation data sets leads to significant alteration in calculations of the local flow of basal water indicating the value of, and need for, high-resolution altimetry data in both space and time to establish and characterise subglacial hydrological processes.

  9. Boundary conditions of an active West Antarctic subglacial lake: implications for storage of water beneath the ice sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegert, M. J.; Ross, N.; Corr, H.; Smith, B.; Jordan, T.; Bingham, R.; Ferraccioli, F.; Rippin, D.; Le Brocq, A.

    2013-06-01

    Repeat-pass IceSat altimetry has revealed 124 discrete surface height changes across the Antarctic Ice Sheet, interpreted to be caused by subglacial lake discharges (surface lowering) and inputs (surface uplift). Few of these active lakes have been confirmed by radio-echo sounding (RES) despite several attempts (notable exceptions are Lake Whillans and three in the Adventure Subglacial Trench). Here we present targeted RES and radar altimeter data from an "active lake" location within the upstream Institute Ice Stream, into which 0.12 km3 of water is calculated to have flowed between October 2003 and February 2008. We use a series of transects to establish an accurate appreciation of the influences of bed topography and ice-surface elevation on water storage potential. The location of surface height change is over the downslope flank of a distinct topographic hollow, where RES reveals no obvious evidence for deep (> 10 m) water. The regional hydropotential reveals a sink coincident with the surface change, however. Governed by the location of the hydrological sink, basal water will likely "drape" over existing topography in a manner dissimilar to subglacial lakes where flat strong specular RES reflections are measured. The inability of RES to detect the active lake means that more of the Antarctic ice sheet bed may contain stored water than is currently appreciated. Variation in ice surface elevation datasets leads to significant alteration in calculations of the local flow of basal water indicating the value of, and need for, high resolution RES datasets in both space and time to establish and characterise subglacial hydrological processes.

  10. Stability of microsomal monooxygenases in murine liver S9 fractions derived from phenobarbital and beta-naphthoflavone induced animals under various long-term conditions of storage.

    PubMed

    Bauer, C; Corsi, C; Paolini, M

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to define the long-term stability of metabolizing enzymes in activating preparations for short-term genotoxicity bioassays under various storage conditions. Expressions of cytochrome P450 content, NADPH-cytochrome (P450) c-reductase activity, and of the several monooxygenases, such as aminopyrine N-demethylase (class IIIA P450), p-nitroanisole O-demethylase (mixed), dinemorphan N-demethylase (IIB1), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (IA1), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (mixed), and pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (IIB1), were examined in S9 fractions derived from Na-phenobarbital (PB) plus beta-naphthoflavone (beta-NF) induced male and female mice, stored at -80 degrees C, or lyophilized and stored at -20 degrees C. Lipid peroxidation was also determined. Cytochrome P450 and the associated activities were decreased by 30-82% within 9 months of storage. The pattern and degree of relative stabilities were different for the various isoforms. The IA1-like activity, for example, was much more stable (approximately 49% loss) than IIB1-like activities (up to 82% loss). In general, lyophilized enzymes were less stable than directly frozen preparations. In addition, immediately after freeze-drying (lyophilization), a marked decrease in activity of up to 35% was observed. On the contrary, demethylation of aminopyrine and p-nitroanisole remains almost constant over 6 months storage at -196 degrees C. The results obtained indicate that either fresh, daily made S9 fractions or, alternatively, fractions stored in liquid nitrogen (up to 6 months) are recommended for mutagenesis studies. PMID:7910416

  11. Effects of Hydrated Potato Starch on the Quality of Low-fat Ttoekgalbi (Korean Traditional Patty) Packaged in Modified Atmosphere Conditions during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin, S. M. Kang; Choi, W. H.; Lee, K. T.; Cheong, S. H.; Lee, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of hydrated potato starch on the quality of low-fat ttoekgalbi (Korean traditional patty) packaged in modified atmosphere conditions during storage. The ttoekgalbi was prepared from 53.2% lean beef, 13.9% lean pork, 9.3% pork fat, and 23.6% other ingredients. Two low-fat ttoekgalbi treatments were prepared by substituting pork fat with hydrated potato starch; either by 50% fat replacement (50% FR) or 100% fat replacement (100% FR). Both 50% and 100% FR increased the moisture, crude protein, and decreased fat content, cooking loss, and hardness. For MAP studies, 200 g of ttoekgalbi were placed on the tray and filled with gas composed of 70% O2: 30% CO2 (70% O2-MAP) and 30% CO2: 70% N2 (70% N2-MAP), and were stored at 5°C for 12 d. During the storage time, both 50% and 100% FR showed higher protein deterioration, while no differences were found in CIE a*, CIE L*, lipid oxidation, and bacterial counts in comparison to control. The ttoekgalbi with 70% O2-MAP was more red, lighter in color, and showed higher TBARS values compared with 70% N2-MAP. The meat with 70% N2-MAP showed lower aerobic bacterial counts in control than those with 70% O2-MAP. The lower anaerobic bacterial counts were observed only in 50% FR and 100% FR packed with 70% N2-MAP in comparison with 70% O2-MAP. In conclusion, the fat replacement with hydrated potato starch showed no negative effects on the quality of low fat ttoekgalbi during storage and 70% N2-MAP was better than 70% O2-MAP for low-fat ttoekgalbi packaging. PMID:25049619

  12. Impact of packaging material and storage conditions on polyphenol stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (prunus cerasus var. Marasca).

    PubMed

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Ježek, Damir; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging materials and storage conditions on polyphenols stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Marasca). Freeze-dried sour cherries were packed in high barrier metalized polypropylene and aluminium packaging (PET/PPmet/PE and PET/Al/PE) for up to 12 months at 4, 20 and 37 °C. Characterisation of polyphenol compounds was done by HPLC UV/Vis PDA and in all samples individual anthocyanins (ANTs), flavonol-glycosides (FGs) and hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) were determined. Polyphenol content was not markedly affected by freeze-drying and decreases were amounted 1.5-5 %. Furthermore, obtained results indicated that minimal loss of polyphenol content in freeze dried sour cherries were achieved at 4 °C and 3 months of storage. Regardless of the type of packaging materials, samples stored at lower temperature during 12 months, retained the higher content of FGs (quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-rutinoside) and HCAs (neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acid) than ANTs (cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside). The same trend was confirmed with kinetic parameters, also. Sour cherry products packed in both type of laminate and stored at lower temperature retained characteristic dark red colour and sensory properties. This study showed that freeze-dried cherry products have pleasant sensory and very good nutritional properties, and storage in both type of laminates at 4 and 20 °C up to 6 months ensured good product quality. PMID:27162405

  13. Space Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This training video, presented by the Lewis Research Center's Space Experiments Division, gives a background and detailed instructions for preparing the space acceleration measurement system (SAMS) for use. The SAMS measures, conditions, and records forces of low gravity accelerations, and is used to determine the effect of these forces on various experiments performed in microgravity. Inertial sensors are used to measure positive and negative acceleration over a specified frequency range. The video documents the SAMS' uses in different configurations during shuttle missions.

  14. Hatching response of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) eggs at low temperatures: effects of hatching media and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Byttebier, B; De Majo, M S; De Majo, M S; Fischer, S

    2014-01-01

    In temperate regions, Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) populations remain in the egg stage during the cold season. To ensure the start of a new breeding season, eggs should hatch at the beginning of a favorable period. The aim of the current study was to investigate the hatching response of two Ae. aegypti egg batches collected and stored for 3 mo under different conditions, to different low immersion temperatures. Two different hatching media (water and yeast solution) were used for the first batch and only one (water) for the second egg batch. Eggs were immersed for 8 d, during which the number of hatched eggs was recorded daily. The proportion of hatched eggs, delay of the hatching response, proportion of dead larvae, and proportion of remaining eggs within the first egg batch were compared between the two hatching media at each temperature. These parameters also were compared between the two batches immersed in water. Hatching rates were higher and faster in the yeast solution. The hatching response was lower at lower immersion temperatures and among eggs stored under field conditions at colder temperatures (second batch). Among the eggs stored in the laboratory (first batch), older eggs exhibited lower hatching response. The proportion of dead larvae was higher in the yeast solution and in the eggs stored in the laboratory. The conditions that triggered a lower hatching response led to higher proportions of remaining eggs, allowing the population to maintain an egg bank for future favorable opportunities. PMID:24605458

  15. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  16. Effects of ovarian storage condition on in vitro maturation of Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tulake, Kuerban; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Katagiri, Seiji; Higaki, Shogo; Koyama, Keisuke; Wang, Xuguang; Li, Heping

    2014-11-01

    The effects of different preservation conditions (temperature 20-25 or 10-15 degrees C; duration 12 or 24 h) for ovaries of Cervus nippon yesoensis on in vitro maturation of oocytes were examined. When ovaries were kept for 12 h at 20-25 degrees C, maturation rate of oocytes was highest (71%); however, it declined when the preservation time was extended to 24 h (31%). When the preservation temperature decreased to 10-15 degrees C, the maturation rate after 12 h preservation decreased (51%) but it remained in same level even though preservation time is prolonged to 24 h (55%). PMID:25597189

  17. Real-time PCR evaluation of cell-free DNA subjected to various storage and shipping conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Cai, Y; Brady, P; Vermeesch, J R

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we attempted to explore the factors affecting the yield of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) obtained from maternal blood samples, including the use of different types of collection tubes, the interval between sample processing, and sample shipping under extreme weather conditions. Blood samples were drawn into K3EDTA tubes and cell-stabilizing tubes (Streck blood collection tube, BCT) from women pregnant with male fetuses. Real time PCR was used to amplify a β-actin gene fragment to measure the total plasma cell-free DNA concentration, while an SRY gene fragment was used to quantify the cffDNA. The samples in the K3EDTA tubes revealed a decreased quantity of SRY after 5 days of transportation, with a median of 25.9 copies/mL (P < 0.01); however, the value remained stable at 33.4 copies/mL in the BCT tubes. We observed a statistically significant increase in stability of the amount of total DNA in the blood samples stored in K3EDTA tubes (P < 0.01) and transportated under extreme outdoor temperatures (-20°-0°C) than that of the control values. These results indicate that it could be possible to avoid the presence of excess maternal DNA in samples shipped under extreme weather conditions for no more than 2 days, by collecting the blood samples in BCT tubes. PMID:26505430

  18. Multianalyte determination of 24 cytostatics and metabolites by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry and study of their stability and optimum storage conditions in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Negreira, Noelia; Mastroianni, Nicola; López de Alda, Miren; Barceló, Damià

    2013-11-15

    A multianalyte liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) method for determination of 19 cytostatics and 5 metabolites, from 6 different therapeutic families, has been developed, and the structures of the main characteristic fragment ions have been proposed. Instrumental limits of detection and quantification are in the range 0.1-10.3 and 1.0-34.3 ng mL(-1), respectively. Moreover, the stability of the compounds in aqueous solution was investigated in order to establish the best conditions for preparation and storage of both calibration standards and water samples. Dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) was selected as solvent for preparation of the stock solutions. At room temperature (25 °C), 11 of the 24 target compounds were shown to be unstable in water (percentage of organic solvent 4%), with concentration losses greater than 20% in less than 24 h. At 4 °C (typical storage temperature for water samples) all compounds, except MTIC and chlorambucil, were stable for 24h, but the number of stable compounds decreased to 10 after 9 days. Freezing of the aqueous solutions improved considerably the stability of various compounds: after 3 months of storage at -20 °C, 10 compounds, namely, 5-fluorouracil, carboplatin, gemcitabine, temozolomide, vincristine, vinorelbine, ifosfamide, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, and capecitabine, remained stable (in contrast to only carboplatin and capecitabine at 4 °C). The addition of acid improved the stability of methotrexate and its metabolite hydroxy-methotrexate but not that of the rest of compounds. The addition of organic solvent (50% methanol or DMSO) prevented the degradation at 4 °C of the otherwise unstable compounds oxaliplatin, methotrexate, erlotinib, doxorubicin, tamoxifen, and paclitaxel. To the authors' knowledge, five of the analytes investigated have never been searched for in the aquatic environment (imatinib, 6α-hydroxypaclitaxel, endoxifen, (Z)4-hydroxytamoxifen, and temozolomide), and for

  19. Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    2011-05-15

    Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative

  20. Acceleration in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    The origin of cosmic rays and applicable laboratory experiments are discussed. Some of the problems of shock acceleration for the production of cosmic rays are discussed in the context of astrophysical conditions. These are: The presumed unique explanation of the power law spectrum is shown instead to be a universal property of all lossy accelerators; the extraordinary isotropy of cosmic rays and the limited diffusion distances implied by supernova induced shock acceleration requires a more frequent and space-filling source than supernovae; the near perfect adiabaticity of strong hydromagnetic turbulence necessary for reflecting the accelerated particles each doubling in energy roughly 10{sup 5} to {sup 6} scatterings with negligible energy loss seems most unlikely; the evidence for acceleration due to quasi-parallel heliosphere shocks is weak. There is small evidence for the expected strong hydromagnetic turbulence, and instead, only a small number of particles accelerate after only a few shock traversals; the acceleration of electrons in the same collisionless shock that accelerates ions is difficult to reconcile with the theoretical picture of strong hydromagnetic turbulence that reflects the ions. The hydromagnetic turbulence will appear adiabatic to the electrons at their much higher Larmor frequency and so the electrons should not be scattered incoherently as they must be for acceleration. Therefore the electrons must be accelerated by a different mechanism. This is unsatisfactory, because wherever electrons are accelerated these sites, observed in radio emission, may accelerate ions more favorably. The acceleration is coherent provided the reconnection is coherent, in which case the total flux, as for example of collimated radio sources, predicts single charge accelerated energies much greater than observed.

  1. Plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ruth, R.D.; Chen, P.

    1986-03-01

    In this paper we discuss plasma accelerators which might provide high gradient accelerating fields suitable for TeV linear colliders. In particular we discuss two types of plasma accelerators which have been proposed, the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator. We show that the electric fields in the plasma for both schemes are very similar, and thus the dynamics of the driven beams are very similar. The differences appear in the parameters associated with the driving beams. In particular to obtain a given accelerating gradient, the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator has a higher efficiency and a lower total energy for the driving beam. Finally, we show for the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator that one can accelerate high quality low emittance beams and, in principle, obtain efficiencies and energy spreads comparable to those obtained with conventional techniques.

  2. Petrological insights into the storage conditions, and magmatic processes that yielded the centennial 2010 Merapi explosive eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Fidel; Andreastuti, Supriyati; Bouvet de Maisonneuve, Caroline; Pallister, John S.

    2013-07-01

    To understand the processes that made the 2010 eruption of Merapi much larger and more explosive than most dome-forming eruptions of the past century, we investigated the geochemistry, petrology, and pre-eruptive conditions of magmas erupted in 2006 and 2010. The juvenile rocks of 2010 are plagioclase, two-pyroxene basaltic andesites with seriate textures and minor amounts of reaction-free amphibole, Fe-Ti oxides, and rare crystals of olivine and biotite. The bulk-rock composition, mineral paragenesis, and textures are similar to those of juvenile blocks from the much less explosive eruption of 2006. One of the key differences is that most amphiboles in 2010 don't have breakdown reaction rims, whereas those of 2006 are largely reacted. We acquired > 80 X-ray distribution maps of major and minor elements of large areas (> 1 cm2) and single crystals, backscattered electron images, electron microprobe analyse, and compositional traverses across crystals. The data reveal that both the 2006 and 2010 samples are heterogeneous at various spatial scales, with numerous reaction textures between pyroxenes and amphiboles, dissolution textures, and large variations of crystal sizes, morphologies, and compositions. These features record open-system magmatic processes involving the assimilation of carbonate rocks, and interactions between various parts of Merapi's plumbing system, including a degassed shallow magma system and deep hotter and more volatile rich magma intrusions. The petrological complexity of the samples makes unraveling the pre-eruptive conditions of Merapi magmas a petrological puzzle. We applied five different geothermobarometers and performed thermodynamic modeling with the MELTS algorithm, and we propose that there are at least three crystallization zones or environments below Merapi. A deep reservoir at about 30 (+/- 3) km depth is suggested by some amphiboles and high-Al clinopyroxenes. Here is where the high-Al basaltic andesites from Merapi are generated

  3. Propane Clathrate Hydrate Formation Accelerated by Methanol.

    PubMed

    Amtawong, Jaruwan; Guo, Jin; Hale, Jared S; Sengupta, Suvrajit; Fleischer, Everly B; Martin, Rachel W; Janda, Kenneth C

    2016-07-01

    The role of methanol as both an inhibitor and a catalyst for the formation of clathrate hydrates (CHs) has been a topic of intense study. We report a new quantitative study of the kinetics of propane CH formation at 253 K from the reaction of propane gas with <75 μm ice particles that have been doped with varying amounts of methanol. We find that methanol significantly accelerates the formation reaction with quite small doping quantities. Even for only 1 methanol molecule per 10 000 water molecules, the maximum uptake rate of propane into CHs is enhanced and the initiation pressure is reduced. These results enable more efficient production of CHs for gas storage. This remarkable acceleration of the CH formation reaction by small quantities of methanol may place constraints on the mechanism of the inhibition effect observed under other conditions, usually employing much larger quantities of methanol. PMID:27275862

  4. Determining Carbon and Oxygen Stable Isotope Systematics in Brines at Elevated p/T Conditions to Enhance Monitoring of CO2 Induced Processes in Carbon Storage Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, V.; Myrttinen, A.; Mayer, B.; Barth, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) are a powerful tool for inferring carbon sources and mixing ratios of injected and baseline CO2 in storage reservoirs. Furthermore, CO2 releasing and consuming processes can be deduced if the isotopic compositions of end-members are known. At low CO2 pressures (pCO2), oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of CO2 usually assume the δ18O of the water plus a temperature-dependent isotope fractionation factor. However, at very high CO2 pressures as they occur in CO2 storage reservoirs, the δ18O of the injected CO2 may in fact change the δ18O of the reservoir brine. Hence, changing δ18O of brine constitutes an additional tracer for reservoir-internal carbon dynamics and allows the determination of the amount of free phase CO2 present in the reservoir (Johnson et al. 2011). Further systematic research to quantify carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation between the involved inorganic carbon species (CO2, H2CO3, HCO3-, CO32-, carbonate minerals) and kinetic and equilibrium isotope effects during gas-water-rock interactions is necessary because p/T conditions and salinities in CO2 storage reservoirs may exceed the boundary conditions of typical environmental isotope applications, thereby limiting the accuracy of stable isotope monitoring approaches in deep saline formations (Becker et al. 2011). In doing so, it is crucial to compare isotopic patterns observed in laboratory experiments with artificial brines to similar experiments with original fluids from representative field sites to account for reactions of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with minor brine components. In the CO2ISO-LABEL project, funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research, multiple series of laboratory experiments are conducted to determine the influence of pressure, temperature and brine composition on the δ13C of DIC and the δ18O of brines in water-CO2-rock reactions with special focus placed on kinetics and stable oxygen and carbon isotope fractionation

  5. High capacity multicomponent hydrogen storage materials: Investigation of the effect of stoichiometry and decomposition conditions on the cycling behaviour of LiBH 4-MgH 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Gavin S.; Grant, David M.; Price, Tobias C.; Yu, Xuebin; Legrand, Vincent

    LiBH 4-MgH 2 is an attractive reversible hydrogen storage system, it combines two high capacity hydrides (18.3 and 7.6 wt.%, respectively) and the concerted dehydrogenation reaction has a smaller enthalpy change than either species on its own. The latter effect leads to a destabilisation of the hydrided products and results in a lowering of the dehydrogenation temperature. In situ neutron diffraction experiments have been undertaken to characterise the mechanism of decomposition of the LiBD 4-MgD 2 system, with an emphasis on investigating the synergistic effects of the components during cycling under various conditions. This study compares the effect of stoichiometry of the multicomponent system on the cycling mechanism. Results show that LiBD 4-MgD 2 in a 2:1 molar ratio can be reversibly dehydrogenated under low pressures of hydrogen or under vacuum, contrary to earlier reports in the literature, although the reaction was only partially reversed for the 2:1 mixture decomposed under vacuum. This work shows that the reaction pathway was affected by dehydrogenation conditions, but the stoichiometry of the multicomponent system played a minor role.

  6. Using New Theory and Experimental Methods to Understand the Relative Controls of Storage, Antecedent Conditions and Precipitation Intensity on Transit Time Distributions through a Sloping Soil Lysimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Pangle, L. A.; Cardoso, C.; Lora, M.; Wang, Y.; Harman, C. J.; Troch, P. A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Transit time distributions (TTD) are an efficient way of characterizing transport through the complex flow dynamics of a hydrologic system, and can serve as a basis for spatially-integrated solute transport modeling. Recently there has been progress in the development of a theory of time-variable TTDs that captures the effect of temporal variability in the timing of fluxes as well as changes in flow pathways. Furthermore, a new formulation of this theory allows the essential transport properties of a system to be parameterized by a physically meaningful time-variable probability distribution, the Ω function. This distribution determines how the age distribution of water in storage is sampled by the outflow. The form of the Ω function varies if the flow pathways change, but is not determined by the timing of fluxes (unlike the TTD). In this study, we use this theory to characterize transport by transient flows through a homogeneously packed 1 m3 sloping soil lysimeter. The transit time distribution associated with each of four irrigation periods (repeated daily for 24 days) are compared to examine the significance of changes in the Ω function due to variations in total storage, antecedent conditions, and precipitation intensity. We observe both the time-variable TTD and the Ω function experimentally by applying the PERTH method (Harman and Kim, 2014, GRL, 41, 1567-1575). The method allows us to observe multiple overlapping time-variable TTD in controlled experiments using only two conservative tracers. We hypothesize that both the TTD and the Ω function will vary in time, even in this small scale, because water will take different flow pathways depending on the initial state of the lysimeter and irrigation intensity. However, based on primarily modeling, we conjecture that major variability in the Ω function will be limited to a period during and immediately after each irrigation. We anticipate the Ω function is almost time-invariant (or scales simply with

  7. Influence of storage conditions on in vitro stability of atrial natriuretic peptide and of anesthesia on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration in cats.

    PubMed

    Heishima, Yasuhiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hoshi, Fumio; Itoh, Naoyuki

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the in vitro stability of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in plasma samples under various storage conditions and the influence of anesthesia on plasma ANP concentration in cats. ANIMALS 1 cat with congestive heart failure and 5 healthy adult mixed-breed cats. PROCEDURES A plasma sample from the cat with heart failure was serially diluted, and dilutional parallelism of ANP concentration was evaluated. Plasma samples containing aprotinin or serum samples from the 5 healthy cats were kept at room temperature (27°C) for ≤ 12 hours. Plasma samples from the same healthy cats were stored at -70°, -20°, or 4°C for ≤ 14 days. Plasma samples were obtained from the healthy cats before and during isoflurane anesthesia. Plasma ANP concentrations were measured at a commercial laboratory by use of a human ANP chemiluminescence assay. RESULTS Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 1.5% and 2.5%, respectively, and dilutional parallelism was established. Although ANP concentration decreased by 82.4 ± 13.6% (mean ± SD) after sample storage for 12 hours at room temperature, this decrease was prevented by aprotinin. Plasma ANP concentrations were stable for 7 days at -20°C and for 14 days at -70°C. However, concentrations decreased markedly to 57.6 ± 6.9% at -20°C and to 18.0 ± 3.0% at 4°C after 14 days. Plasma ANP concentration decreased significantly in cats during anesthesia and was correlated with blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that aprotinin should be added routinely in preparation of plasma samples from cats for measurement of ANP concentration, and those samples, if stored, should be frozen immediately at ≤ -20°C. General anesthesia or systemic blood pressure may affect plasma ANP concentration in cats. PMID:27463548

  8. Storage conditions of blood samples and primer selection affect the yield of cDNA polymerase chain reaction products of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed Central

    Cuypers, H T; Bresters, D; Winkel, I N; Reesink, H W; Weiner, A J; Houghton, M; van der Poel, C L; Lelie, P N

    1992-01-01

    We have noticed that suboptimal specimen processing and storage conditions may cause false-negative results in the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in plasma or serum. To establish the influence of specimen handling in a serological laboratory on the rate of detection of HCV RNA by the cDNA polymerase chain reaction (cDNA-PCR), we tested routine serum samples and fresh-frozen plasma samples from the same bleeding from confirmed anti-HCV-positive blood donors. When primers from the NS3/NS4 region were used, HCV RNA was detected in fresh-frozen plasma from 67% of the donors, whereas positive results were obtained with only 50% of the serum samples that had been subjected to routine serological procedures. Analysis of the same samples with primers from the highly conserved 5'-terminal region (5'-TR) revealed an HCV RNA detection rate of 92% for both the routine and the fresh-frozen samples. However, the yield of the amplification product in routine samples was strongly reduced compared with that in fresh-frozen plasma. Comparison of both primer sets for cDNA-PCR showed that the 5'-TR primer set was 10- to 100-fold more effective in detecting HCV RNA. We also analyzed the effect of storage of whole EDTA-blood and serum at room temperature and at 4 degrees C on the yield of the amplification product. A rapid decline in detectable HCV RNA of 3 to 4 log units was observed within 14 days when whole blood and serum were stored at room temperature. By contrast, no perceptible reduction in the cDNA-PCR signal was found in freshly prepared serum stored at 4 degrees C. Images PMID:1333489

  9. Accelerator simulation using computers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Zambre, Y.; Corbett, W.

    1992-01-01

    Every accelerator or storage ring system consists of a charged particle beam propagating through a beam line. Although a number of computer programs exits that simulate the propagation of a beam in a given beam line, only a few provide the capabilities for designing, commissioning and operating the beam line. This paper shows how a multi-track'' simulation and analysis code can be used for these applications.

  10. Accelerator simulation using computers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.; Zambre, Y.; Corbett, W.

    1992-01-01

    Every accelerator or storage ring system consists of a charged particle beam propagating through a beam line. Although a number of computer programs exits that simulate the propagation of a beam in a given beam line, only a few provide the capabilities for designing, commissioning and operating the beam line. This paper shows how a ``multi-track`` simulation and analysis code can be used for these applications.

  11. Linear induction accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  12. A New Storage-Ring Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Alex

    2015-07-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  13. A New Storage-Ring Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Alex

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  14. A new storage-ring light source

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alex

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  15. Evaluation of Final Radiological Conditions at Areas of the Niagara Falls Storage Site Remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program -12184

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Christopher; Kothari, Vijendra; Starr, Ken; Widdop, Michael; Gillespie, Joey

    2012-02-26

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) methods and protocols allow evaluation of remediation and final site conditions to determine if remediated sites remain protective. Two case studies are presented that involve the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and associated vicinity properties (VPs), which are being remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are a part of the former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works (LOOW). In response to stakeholders concerns about whether certain remediated NFSS VPs were putting them at risk, DOE met with stakeholders and agreed to evaluate protectiveness. Documentation in the DOE records collection adequately described assessed and final radiological conditions at the completed VPs. All FUSRAP wastes at the completed sites were cleaned up to meet DOE guidelines for unrestricted use. DOE compiled the results of the investigation in a report that was released for public comment. In conducting the review of site conditions, DOE found that stakeholders were also concerned about waste from the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) that was handled at LOOW. DOE agreed to determine if SPRU waste remained at that needed to be remediated. DOE reviewed records of waste characterization, historical handling locations and methods, and assessment and remediation data. DOE concluded that the SPRU waste was remediated on the LOOW to levels that pose no unacceptable risk and allow unrestricted use and unlimited exposure. This work confirms the following points as tenets of an effective long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) program:  Stakeholder interaction must be open and transparent, and DOE must respond promptly to stakeholder concerns.  DOE, as the long-term custodian, must collect and preserve site records in order to demonstrate that remediated sites pose no unacceptable risk.  DOE must continue to maintain constructive relationships

  16. OH solubility in olivine in the peridotite-COH system under reducing conditions and implications for water storage and hydrous melting in the reducing upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaozhi

    2015-12-01

    Experimental studies of OH solubility in peridotite minerals are of crucial importance for understanding some key geochemical, geophysical and geodynamical properties of the upper mantle. In reducing depths of the upper mantle, C-O-H fluids are dominated by CH4 and H2O. However, available experimental H-annealing of olivine concerning water storage capacity in the reducing upper mantle has been exclusively carried out by equilibrating olivine with H2O only. In this study, OH solubility in olivine has been investigated by annealing natural olivine crystals under peridotite-bearing and CH4-H2O-present conditions with piston cylinder and multi-anvil apparatus. Experiments were performed at 1-7 GPa and 1100-1350 °C and with oxygen fugacity controlled by Fe-FeO buffer, and OH solubilities were measured from polarized infrared spectra. The olivines show no change in chemical composition during the experiments. The infrared spectra of all the annealed olivines show OH bands in the range 3650-3000 cm-1, at both high (>3450 cm-1) and low (<3450 cm-1) frequency, and the bands at ˜3400-3300 cm-1 are greatly enhanced above ˜3 GPa and 1300 °C. The determined H2O solubility is ˜90-385 ppm for the olivine coexisting with H2O (1-7 GPa and 1100 °C), and is ˜40-380 ppm for the olivine coexisting with CH4-H2O (1-7 GPa and 1100-1350 °C). When CH4 is present in the equilibrium fluid, the H2O solubility is reduced by a factor of ˜2.3 under otherwise identical conditions, indicating a strong effect of CH4 on the partitioning of water between olivine and coexisting fluid. The storage capacity of water in the reducing upper mantle is, modeled with the measured solubility of olivine and available partition coefficients of water between coexisting minerals, up to ˜2 orders of magnitude lower than some previous estimates. Considering the temperature along the geotherm in the reducing oceanic upper mantle, the required H2O concentration to trigger hydrous melting is 250 and 535 ppm

  17. Pre-eruptive storage conditions of the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff from quartz-hosted melt inclusions in the initial fall deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, M.; Wallace, P. J.; Wilson, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field is one of the Earth's largest young silicic volcanic systems, erupting over 6,000 cubic kilometers of rhyolite in the Quaternary. The two most voluminous eruptions, the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff (HRT) (2.06 Ma, ~2500 km3) and the Lava Creek Tuff (0.62 Ma, ~1000 km3) are amongst the largest Quaternary eruptions on Earth. Geochemical studies of these deposits can reveal information on the accumulation and storage of silicic magma in this voluminous system and may also be useful for comparisons for current monitoring efforts. We have analyzed volatiles (H2O, CO2, F, Cl) and major elements in quartz-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from near the top of the HRT fall deposit (the most coarse-grained part), which was deposited before eruption of the three major HRT ignimbrite units. We have combined these data with cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging on the host quartz crystals to obtain information on the evolution of the magmatic system before such a voluminous eruption. The major element compositions of the MIs indicate an evolved and homogeneous melt composition, with SiO2 ranging from 75.0-77.0 wt.% on an anhydrous basis. The MIs fall into two different populations based on color. Clear MIs have H2O concentrations of 0.5-1.5 wt.%, with CO2 >400 ppm, whereas brown MIs have H2O values falling mostly between 2.0-3.5 wt.%, with lower CO2 (100-300 ppm). These two MI populations, however, do not appear to show any other compositional distinction, with similar Cl (1100-1700 ppm) and F (1500-5500 ppm) ranges, as well as indistinguishable major element compositions. Both populations give similar vapor saturation pressure ranges (1000-1300 bars), implying pre-eruptive storage at similar depths. CL imaging distinguishes at least three populations of quartz crystals that also appear to be independent of MI composition. These populations include: (a) crystals with fine-scale oscillatory zoning, (b) crystals with broader zones separated by diffuse

  18. Deficient vesicular storage: A common theme in catecholaminergic neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David S; Holmes, Courtney; Sullivan, Patti; Mash, Deborah C; Sidransky, Ellen; Stefani, Alessandro; Kopin, Irwin J; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2015-09-01

    Several neurodegenerative diseases involve loss of catecholamine neurons--Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prototypical example. Catecholamine neurons are rare in the nervous system, and why they are lost has been mysterious. Accumulating evidence supports the concept of "autotoxicity"--inherent cytotoxicity caused by catecholamine metabolites. Since vesicular sequestration limits the buildup of toxic products of enzymatic and spontaneous oxidation of catecholamines, a vesicular storage defect could play a pathogenic role in the death of catecholaminergic neurons in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. In putamen, deficient vesicular storage is revealed in vivo by accelerated loss of (18)F-DOPA-derived radioactivity and post-mortem by decreased tissue dopamine (DA):DOPA ratios; in myocardium in vivo by accelerated loss of (18)F-dopamine-derived radioactivity and post-mortem by increased 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol:norepinephrine (DHPG:NE) ratios; and in sympathetic noradrenergic nerves overall in vivo by increased plasma F-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (F-DOPAC):DHPG ratios. We retrospectively analyzed data from 20 conditions with decreased or intact catecholaminergic innervation, involving different etiologies, pathogenetic mechanisms, and lesion locations. All conditions involving parkinsonism had accelerated loss of putamen (18)F-DOPA-derived radioactivity; in those with post-mortem data there were also decreased putamen DA:DOPA ratios. All conditions involving cardiac sympathetic denervation had accelerated loss of myocardial (18)F-dopamine-derived radioactivity; in those with post-mortem data there were increased myocardial DHPG:NE ratios. All conditions involving localized loss of catecholaminergic innervation had evidence of decreased vesicular storage specifically in the denervated regions. Thus, across neurodegenerative diseases, loss of catecholaminergic neurons seems to be associated with decreased vesicular storage in the residual neurons. PMID:26255205

  19. Human eye movements during various forms of linear acceleration and weightlessness. [electronystagmographic recordings of human and fish responses to gravitoinertial conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbaumgarten, R. J.; Thumler, R.; Shillinger, G. L., Jr.; Baldrighi, G.

    1973-01-01

    Eye movements of human subjects were recorded electronystagmographically in complete darkness during rectilinear horizontal accelerations as achieved in cars on the ground and also during aircraft parabolic flight. The results were compared to the movements of blinded goldfish subjected to similar changes of gravitoinertial forces. The results indicate that there is a human correlation with the gravity reference response of fish. During horizontal forward accelerations on the ground the human eyes turn downward and during horizontal backward acceleration the eyes turn upward. The human eye response to g-loads below 1 g and to weightlessness is the reverse of the tilt of the fish. While fish dive down during low g, or loop forward during weightlessness, the eyes of subjects sitting upright in an aircraft which flies at 0 g move upward.

  20. Optimization of storage condition for maintaining long-term viability of nematophagous fungus Esteya vermicola as biocontrol agent against pinewood nematode.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jian Jie; Hou, Jin Gang; Zhang, Yong An; Wang, Chun Yan; Wang, Zhen; Yu, Jiao Jiao; Wang, Yun Bo; Wang, Yu Zhu; Wang, Qing Hua; Sung, Chang Keun

    2014-11-01

    The fungus, Esteya vermicola has been proposed as biocontrol agent against pine wilting disease caused by Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. In this study, we reported the effects of temperature and different additives on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of E. vermicola formulated by alginate-clay. The viability of the E. vermicola formulation was determined for six consecutive months at temperature ranged from -70 to 25 °C. The fresh conidia without any treatment were used as control. Under the optimal storage conditions with E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation, the results suggested that E. vermicola alginate-clay formulation with a long shelf life could be a non-vacuum-packed formulation that contains 2 % sodium alginate and 5 % clay at 4 °C. Three conidial formulations prepared with additives of 15 % glycerol, 0.5 % yeast extract and 0.5 % herbal extraction, respectively significantly improved the shelf life. In addition, these tested formulations retained the same biocontrol efficacy as the fresh conidial against pinewood nematode. This study provided a tractable and low-cost method to preserve the shelf life of E. vermicola. PMID:25070159

  1. SPEAR3 Accelerator Physics Update

    SciTech Connect

    Safranek, James A.; Corbett, W.Jeff; Gierman, S.; Hettel, R.O.; Huang, X.; Nosochkov, Yuri; Sebek, Jim; Terebilo, Andrei; /SLAC

    2007-11-02

    The SPEAR3 storage ring at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has been delivering photon beams for three years. We will give an overview of recent and ongoing accelerator physics activities, including 500 mA fills, work toward top-off injection, long-term orbit stability characterization and improvement, fast orbit feedback, new chicane optics, low alpha optics & short bunches, low emittance optics, and MATLAB software. The accelerator physics group has a strong program to characterize and improve SPEAR3 performance

  2. Short term storage conditions for transport and farm delivery of the stink bug Perillus bioculatus for the biological control of the Colorado potato beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second instar of the predaceous pentatomid, Perillus bioculatus, was found to be a suitable developmental stage for short-term storage associated with release efforts to control field populations of pests, such as the Colorado potato beetle. Storage temperature, within the range of 9degC to 15d...

  3. Understanding Magma Storage Conditions that Produce Highly Explosive Monogenetic Basaltic Eruptions Using Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions from Sunset Crater, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, C. M.; Roggensack, K.; Clarke, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    To investigate mechanisms of explosive basaltic volcanism, we studied the ca. 1085 AD Sunset Crater eruption in the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF) of northern Arizona. This eruption, the youngest in the SFVF, first featured fissure eruptions (explosive phases 1-2) and a small lava flow, and then activity narrowed to a central vent producing explosive phases 3-8 and two additional lava flows. While the first two phases were Strombolian-style explosions, middle phases (3-5) were subplinian in character and produced an anomalously large tephra deposit. The final phases (6-8) are poorly characterized at this stage. The total erupted volume of lava and tephra is >0.7 km3 DRE of alkali olivine basalt with a large proportion of crystal-free glass and low phenocryst content. We studied 82 primary melt inclusions (MIs) in the largest tephra units (explosive phases 3, 4) to investigate magma volatiles and storage conditions. To prioritize primary volatile contents, we picked rapidly quenched free olivine crystals (Fo 81-85; 0.5-2 mm) and selected large volume MIs (50-180 μm) located near crystal cores for analysis. We observed vapor bubbles in all MIs and also noted rare occurrences of CO2-rich gas inclusions. MIs show little major element variability suggesting little crystal fractionation (K2O 0.8-1.1 wt.%). Post-entrapment crystallization is also minor (2-9%). The MI compositions from the two phases largely overlap, with phase 4 skewed to slightly higher K2O. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the MIs are relatively dry and CO2-rich. Water abundances vary 0.8-1.6 wt.% with a median of 1.25 wt.%, while most MIs have CO2 abundances 1,600-3,400 ppm. Phases 3 and 4 are essentially identical in water content. CO2 contents of phases 3 and 4 show considerable overlap, however the phase 4 MIs are skewed toward high CO2 (>2,500 ppm). These results require a minimum MI entrapment depth of ~11 km from fluid saturation constraints. Overall, the MIs indicate a largely homogeneous

  4. Project acceleration : making the leap from pilot to commercialization.

    SciTech Connect

    Borneo, Daniel R.

    2010-05-01

    Since the energy storage technology market is in a relatively emergent phase, narrowing the gap between pilot project status and commercialization is fundamental to the accelerating of this innovative market space. This session will explore regional market design factors to facilitate the storage enterprise. You will also hear about: quantifying transmission and generation efficiency enhancements; resource planning for storage; and assessing market mechanisms to accelerate storage adoption regionally.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: sialic acid storage disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions sialic acid storage disease sialic acid storage disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Sialic acid storage disease is an inherited disorder that primarily ...

  6. The effects of antioxidants and shelf life conditions on oxidation markers in a sunflower oil salad dressing emulsion (SOSDE).

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Jeanine; Grypa, Roman; Ellingworth, John; Duodu, Kwaku G; De Kock, Henriëtta L

    2016-12-15

    The effects of levels of antioxidant [gallic acid or ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA)] in a sunflower oil salad dressing emulsion (SOSDE) and shelf life affecting conditions on aroma, anisidine values (AV) and peroxide values (PV) were determined. Aroma differences between products with different concentrations of antioxidants were more apparent for ambient than accelerated stored SOSDEs. Aroma differences were more noted between SOSDEs with different antioxidants than antioxidant concentrations per se. PV differences between accelerated stored SOSDEs with high and low EDTA concentrations were found. AV differences existed between SOSDEs with different gallic acid concentrations for both storage conditions, and for accelerated stored SOSDEs with different EDTA concentrations. The accelerated storage model is more suitable for SOSDEs with metal chelator antioxidants e.g. EDTA, than free radical scavenging antioxidants e.g. gallic acid. PV, AV and aroma of accelerated stored SOSDEs do not clearly predict ambient shelf life. PMID:27451176

  7. Accelerated Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of Accelerated Reader, a system of computerized testing and record-keeping that supplements the regular classroom reading program. Accelerated Reader's primary goal is to increase literature-based reading practice. The program offers a computer-aided reading comprehension and management program intended to motivate…

  8. Using Gamma-Ray and Neutron Emission to Determine Solar Flare Accelerated Particle Spectra and Composition and the Conditions within the Flare Magnetic Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, R. J.; Kozlovsky, Benzion; Share, G. H.; Hua, X.-M.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    2007-01-01

    The measurable quantities associated with γ-ray and neutron observations of solar flares are nuclear-deexcitation line shapes, shifts, fluences, and time histories; neutron capture and annihilation line fluences and time histories; and energy-dependent escaping neutron fluence and time history. A comprehensive understanding of these quantities requires a model for ion acceleration, transport, and interaction. In this paper we address transport and interaction using a magnetic loop model that includes energy losses due to Coulomb collisions, removal by nuclear reactions, magnetic mirroring in the convergent flux tube, and MHD pitch-angle scattering in the corona. The accelerated ions are assumed to have a given kinetic energy spectrum and composition. Each measurable quantity depends to varying degree on the parameters of the loop model and of the accelerated ions. We explore these dependences in detail and construct a self-consistent approach to the analysis of high-energy flare data that provides an optimum set of parameters with meaningful uncertainties. To illustrate this approach, the calculations are applied in a comprehensive analysis of the γ-ray and neutron observations of the 1991 June 4 solar flare obtained with OSSE on CGRO. We find that the loop model can account for these observations with physically reasonable values for the parameters. In addition, our analysis of the neutron data shows that the accelerated ion spectrum for this flare was not an unbroken power law but had to steepen sharply above ~125 MeV nucleon-1. The paper also provides yields and yield ratios calculated with assumed abundances and spectral forms currently considered appropriate for solar flares. They can be used by other researchers analyzing high-energy solar flare data.

  9. The autophagy-related protein LC3 is processed in stallion spermatozoa during short-and long-term storage and the related stressful conditions.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, I M; Martin Muñoz, P; Salido, G M; Peña, F J; Tapia, J A

    2016-07-01

    Use of cooled and frozen semen is becoming increasingly prevalent in the equine industry. However, these procedures cause harmful effects in the sperm cell resulting in reduced cell lifespan and fertility rates. Apoptosis and necrosis-related events are increased during semen cryopreservation. However, a third type of cell death, named autophagy, has not been studied during equine semen storage. Light chain (LC)3 protein is a key component of the autophagy pathway. Under autophagy activation, LC3-I is lipidated and converted to LC3-II. The ratio of LC3-II/LC3-I is widely used as a marker of autophagy activation. The main objective of this study was to investigate whether LC3 is processed during cooling, freezing and the stressful conditions associated with these technologies. A secondary objective was to determine if LC3 processing can be modulated and if that may improve the quality of cryopreserved semen. LC3 processing was studied by Western blot with a specific antibody that recognized both LC3-I and LC3-II. Viability was assessed by flow cytometry. Modulation of LC3-I to LC3-II was studied with known autophagy activators (STF-62247 and rapamycin) or inhibitors (chloroquine and 3-MA) used in somatic cells. The results showed that conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II increased significantly during cooling at 4°C, freezing/thawing and each of the stressful conditions tested (UV radiation, oxidative stress, osmotic stress and changes in temperature). STF-62247 and rapamycin increased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and decreased the viability of equine sperm, whereas chloroquine and 3-MA inhibited LC3 processing and maintained the percentage of viable cells after 2 h of incubation at 37°C. Finally, refrigeration at 4°C for 96 h and freezing at -196°C in the presence of chloroquine and 3-MA resulted in higher percentages of viable cells. In conclusion, results showed that an 'autophagy-like' mechanism may be involved in the regulation of sperm viability during equine semen

  10. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  11. Influence of storage conditions on MALDI-TOF MS profiling of gingival crevicular fluid: Implications on the role of S100A8 and S100A9 for clinical and proteomic based diagnostic investigations.

    PubMed

    Preianò, Mariaimmacolata; Maggisano, Giuseppina; Lombardo, Nicola; Montalcini, Tiziana; Paduano, Sergio; Pelaia, Girolamo; Savino, Rocco; Terracciano, Rosa

    2016-03-01

    Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) may be a source of diagnostic biomarkers of periodontitis/gingivitis. However, peptide fingerprints may change, depending on GCF collection, handling and storage. We evaluated how storage conditions affect the quality and the reproducibility of MALDI-TOF profiles of this fluid. GCF was collected on paper strips from four subjects with healthy gingiva. Our findings demonstrated that sample storage conditions significantly affect GCF peptide pattern over time. Specifically, the storage of GCF immediately extracted from paper strips generates less variations in molecular profiles compared to the extraction performed after the storage. Significant spectral changes were detected for GCF samples stored at -20°C directly on the paper strips and extracted after three months, in comparison to the freshly extracted control. Noteworthy, a significant decrease in the peak area of HNP-3, S100A8, full-length S100A9 and its truncated form were detected after 3 months at -80°C. The alterations found in the "stored GCF" profile not only may affect the pattern-based biomarker discovery but also make its use not adequate for in vitro diagnostic test targeting S100A8, S100A9 proposed as potential diagnostic biomarkers for periodontal disease. In summary, this study shows that the best preserved signatures were obtained for the GCF samples eluted in trifluoroacetic acid and then immediately stored at -80°C for 1 month. The wealth of information gained from our data on protein/patterns stability after storage might be helpful in defining new protocols which enable optimal preservation of GCF specimen. PMID:26711623

  12. Geochemical changes and microbial activities during CO2 storage - Long-term experiments under in situ conditions within the frame of CO2SINK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandrey, Maren; Scherf, Ann-Kathrin; Vieth, Andrea; Zettlitzer, Michael; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the frame of the CO2SINK project, CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer of the Stuttgart formation (Triassic, Middle Keuper) at a depth of about 640 m below surface near Ketzin (Northeast German Basin, about 40 km west of Berlin) (Schilling et al., 2009). The injection of CO2 may induce a variety of geochemical changes in the reservoir system. Inorganic components may be dissolved from mineral phases (Wigand et al., 2008) and mineral precipitation from fluid components (Ketzer et al., 2009) may occur. In addition, organic molecules may be relocated, since supercritical CO2 is an excellent solvent for organic components. These geochemical shifts probably affect the microbial community composition and activity. The dissolution and precipitation of minerals, as well as corresponding microbial processes (Bennet et al., 2001) can affect reservoir permeability. In order to detect and quantify changes in geochemical characteristics and microbial processes during CO2storage and to estimate their impact on storage efficiency long-term experiments under in situ P-T conditions are performed. Freshly drilled sandstone sections from the target reservoir at Ketzin from a depth of about 630 m were incubated together with synthetic brine (20 % lower total dissolved solids than the Ketzin reservoir fluid) in high pressure vessels at 5.5 MPa and 40 ° C since September 2007. Since outer core sections were contaminated with drilling mud, as shown with fluorescein tracer detection (Wandrey et al., 2010), only clean inner core sections were used for long-term experiments to avoid contamination with microorganisms, as well as organic and inorganic mud components. After 15, 21 and 24 month fluid and rock samples were taken for chemical, microbial, mineralogical and petrophysical analyses. In fluid samples the concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ were found to exceed those of the Ketzin reservoir fluid. Assuming chemical equilibrium between mineral and formation brine, observed

  13. Geochemical changes and microbial activities during CO2 storage - Long-term experiments under in situ conditions within the frame of CO2SINK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandrey, Maren; Scherf, Ann-Kathrin; Vieth, Andrea; Zettlitzer, Michael; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the frame of the CO2SINK project, CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer of the Stuttgart formation (Triassic, Middle Keuper) at a depth of about 640 m below surface near Ketzin (Northeast German Basin, about 40 km west of Berlin) (Schilling et al., 2009). The injection of CO2 may induce a variety of geochemical changes in the reservoir system. Inorganic components may be dissolved from mineral phases (Wigand et al., 2008) and mineral precipitation from fluid components (Ketzer et al., 2009) may occur. In addition, organic molecules may be relocated, since supercritical CO2 is an excellent solvent for organic components. These geochemical shifts probably affect the microbial community composition and activity. The dissolution and precipitation of minerals, as well as corresponding microbial processes (Bennet et al., 2001) can affect reservoir permeability. In order to detect and quantify changes in geochemical characteristics and microbial processes during CO2storage and to estimate their impact on storage efficiency long-term experiments under in situ P-T conditions are performed. Freshly drilled sandstone sections from the target reservoir at Ketzin from a depth of about 630 m were incubated together with synthetic brine (20 % lower total dissolved solids than the Ketzin reservoir fluid) in high pressure vessels at 5.5 MPa and 40 ° C since September 2007. Since outer core sections were contaminated with drilling mud, as shown with fluorescein tracer detection (Wandrey et al., 2010), only clean inner core sections were used for long-term experiments to avoid contamination with microorganisms, as well as organic and inorganic mud components. After 15, 21 and 24 month fluid and rock samples were taken for chemical, microbial, mineralogical and petrophysical analyses. In fluid samples the concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ were found to exceed those of the Ketzin reservoir fluid. Assuming chemical equilibrium between mineral and formation brine, observed

  14. Thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.J. ); Kannberg, L.D. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper discusses how thermal energy storage (TES) can aid in the efficient use and provision of thermal energy, wherever there is a mismatch between energy generation and use. Three fundamental types of thermal energy storage processes (sensible, latent, and thermochemical) can be used, and many different media are available within each type. Various subsets of these processes are being researched and developed to accelerate TES implementation, focusing on applications in building heating and cooling, industrial energy efficiency, and utility and space power systems. TES can contribute significantly to meeting society's needs for more efficient, environmentally benign energy use in these and other sectors.

  15. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  16. Storage Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Toru; Nambara, Eiji; Yamagishi, Kazutoshi; Goto, Derek B.; Naito, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Plants accumulate storage substances such as starch, lipids and proteins in certain phases of development. Storage proteins accumulate in both vegetative and reproductive tissues and serve as a reservoir to be used in later stages of plant development. The accumulation of storage protein is thus beneficial for the survival of plants. Storage proteins are also an important source of dietary plant proteins. Here, we summarize the genome organization and regulation of gene expression of storage protein genes in Arabidopsis. PMID:22303197

  17. 14 CFR 25.349 - Rolling conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., conditions corresponding to maximum angular acceleration must be investigated for airplanes with engines or other weight concentrations outboard of the fuselage. For the angular acceleration conditions,...

  18. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 5, Structural/seismic investigation. Section A report, existing conditions calculations/supporting information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. Based upon US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations (DOE/Al) Office and LANL projections, storage space limitations/restrictions will begin to affect LANL`s ability to meet its missions between 1998 and 2002.

  19. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  20. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  1. ION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Bell, J.S.

    1959-09-15

    An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.

  2. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  3. Review of ion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.

    1990-06-01

    The field of ion acceleration to higher energies has grown rapidly in the last years. Many new facilities as well as substantial upgrades of existing facilities have extended the mass and energy range of available beams. Perhaps more significant for the long-term development of the field has been the expansion in the applications of these beams, and the building of facilities dedicated to areas outside of nuclear physics. This review will cover many of these new developments. Emphasis will be placed on accelerators with final energies above 50 MeV/amu. Facilities such as superconducting cyclotrons and storage rings are adequately covered in other review papers, and so will not be covered here.

  4. Nylon 6.6 accelerated aging studies : thermal-oxidative degradation and its interaction with hydrolysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Robert; Derzon, Dora Kay; Gillen, Kenneth T.

    2004-06-01

    Accelerated aging of Nylon 6.6 fibers used in parachutes has been conducted by following the tensile strength loss under both thermal-oxidative and 100% relative humidity conditions. Thermal-oxidative studies (air circulating ovens) were performed for time periods of weeks to years at temperatures ranging from 37 C to 138 C. Accelerated aging humidity experiments (100% RH) were performed under both an argon atmosphere to examine the 'pure' hydrolysis pathway, and under an oxygen atmosphere (oxygen partial pressure close to that occurring in air) to mimic true aging conditions. As expected the results indicated that degradation caused by humidity is much more important than thermal-oxidative degradation. Surprisingly when both oxygen and humidity were present the rate of degradation was dramatically enhanced relative to humidity aging in the absence of oxygen. This significant and previously unknown phenomena underscores the importance of careful accelerated aging that truly mimics real world storage conditions.

  5. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  6. The Los Alamos accelerator code group

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, F.L.; Billen, J.H.; Ryne, R.D.; Takeda, Harunori; Young, L.M.

    1995-05-01

    The Los Alamos Accelerator Code Group (LAACG) is a national resource for members of the accelerator community who use and/or develop software for the design and analysis of particle accelerators, beam transport systems, light sources, storage rings, and components of these systems. Below the authors describe the LAACG`s activities in high performance computing, maintenance and enhancement of POISSON/SUPERFISH and related codes and the dissemination of information on the INTERNET.

  7. Evaluation of Final Radiological Conditions at Areas of the Niagara Falls Storage Site Remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program - 12184

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Christopher; Kothari, Vijendra; Starr, Ken; Widdop, Michael; Gillespie, Joey

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) methods and protocols allow evaluation of remediation and final site conditions to determine if remediated sites remain protective. Two case studies are presented that involve the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and associated vicinity properties (VPs), which are being remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are a part of the former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works (LOOW). In response to stakeholders concerns about whether certain remediated NFSS VPs were putting them at risk, DOE met with stakeholders and agreed to evaluate protectiveness. Documentation in the DOE records collection adequately described assessed and final radiological conditions at the completed VPs. All FUSRAP wastes at the completed sites were cleaned up to meet DOE guidelines for unrestricted use. DOE compiled the results of the investigation in a report that was released for public comment. In conducting the review of site conditions, DOE found that stakeholders were also concerned about waste from the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) that was handled at LOOW. DOE agreed to determine if SPRU waste remained at that needed to be remediated. DOE reviewed records of waste characterization, historical handling locations and methods, and assessment and remediation data. DOE concluded that the SPRU waste was remediated on the LOOW to levels that pose no unacceptable risk and allow unrestricted use and unlimited exposure. This work confirms the following points as tenets of an effective long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS and M) program: - Stakeholder interaction must be open and transparent, and DOE must respond promptly to stakeholder concerns. - DOE, as the long-term custodian, must collect and preserve site records in order to demonstrate that remediated sites pose no unacceptable risk. - DOE must continue to maintain constructive relationships with

  8. The porcine ear skin as a model system for the human integument: influence of storage conditions on basic features of epidermis structure and function--a histological and histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, W; Zschemisch, N H; Godynicki, S

    2003-01-01

    Based on careful tissue processing, detailed structural analysis, and histochemical as well as cytophotometrical evaluation of the epidermis, the study presents data with respect to changes of tissue integrity during two storing modes (room temperature and 4 degrees C) and various storage times of the porcine auricle. Structural degeneration was first noted in the barrier region of the epidermis from where such changes spread, independent of storage conditions, from small horizontal necrotic islands and continuously with increasing storage time. The histochemical results corroborated these observations, emphasizing, however, that the lower epidermal layers seemed intact for a longer time period than the upper layers. Cytophotometrical evaluation of histochemical stainings showed, with regard to the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase, that oxidative metabolism was negatively affected in the early stages of storage, whereas epidermal lipids (neutral fats, glycolipids) remained relatively stable, even during storage at room temperature. In conclusion, it was obvious that the barrier region is the most sensitive element of the porcine ear epidermis. Taking into consideration that this part of the epidermis is most important for permeation studies, it seems reasonable to avoid any storage of porcine auricles at room temperature, and to use only auricles that have been stored at 4 degrees C for not more than 4 to 6 hours, immediately after delivery from the slaughter-house. In this way better tissue preservation can be achieved, whereby the use of shinkage-free water-soluble plastic embedding would generally improve the histological control of structural integrity, and the application of an easy to handle enzyme histochemical procedure (e.g. succinate dehydrogenase demonstration) to unfixed fresh-frozen sections would help to control basic aspects of tissue functions. The results are discussed in relation to the use of porcine integument as a model in human dermatological

  9. Progress in advanced accelerator concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Sessler, A.M.

    1994-08-01

    A review is given of recent progress in this field, drawing heavily upon material presented at the Workshop on Advanced Accelerator Concepts, The Abbey, June 12--18, 1994. Attention is addressed to (1) plasma based concepts, (2) photo-cathodes, (3) radio frequency sources and Two-Beam Accelerators, (4) near and far-field schemes (including collective accelerators), (5) beam handling and conditioning, and (6) exotic collider concepts (such as photon colliders and muon colliders).

  10. Hypoxic Conditioned Medium from Human Amniotic Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Accelerates Skin Wound Healing through TGF-β/SMAD2 and PI3K/Akt Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Eun Kyoung; Zhang, Qiankun; Yoon, Byung Sun; Moon, Jai-Hee; Lee, Gilju; Park, Gyuman; Kang, Phil Jun; Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Areee; You, Seungkwon

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, we isolated human amniotic fluid (AF)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) and utilized normoxic conditioned medium (AF-MSC-norCM) which has been shown to accelerate cutaneous wound healing. Because hypoxia enhances the wound healing function of mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (MSC-CM), it is interesting to explore the mechanism responsible for the enhancement of wound healing function. In this work, hypoxia not only increased the proliferation of AF-MSCs but also maintained their constitutive characteristics (surface marker expression and differentiation potentials). Notably, more paracrine factors, VEGF and TGF-β1, were secreted into hypoxic conditioned medium from AF-MSCs (AF-MSC-hypoCM) compared to AF-MSC-norCM. Moreover, AF-MSC-hypoCM enhanced the proliferation and migration of human dermal fibroblasts in vitro, and wound closure in a skin injury model, as compared to AF-MSC-norCM. However, the enhancement of migration of fibroblasts accelerated by AF-MSC-hypoCM was inhibited by SB505124 and LY294002, inhibitors of TGF-β/SMAD2 and PI3K/AKT, suggesting that AF-MSC-hypoCM-enhanced wound healing is mediated by the activation of TGF-β/SMAD2 and PI3K/AKT. Therefore, AF-MSC-hypoCM enhances wound healing through the increase of hypoxia-induced paracrine factors via activation of TGF-β/SMAD2 and PI3K/AKT pathways. PMID:24398984

  11. A multipole accelerated desingularized method for computing nonlinear wave forces on bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Scorpio, S.M.; Beck, R.F.

    1996-12-31

    Nonlinear wave forces on offshore structures are investigated. The fluid motion is computed using an Euler-Lagrange time domain approach. Nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are stepped forward in time using an accurate and stable integration technique. The field equation with mixed boundary conditions that result at each time step are solved at N nodes using a desingularized boundary integral method with multipole acceleration. Multipole accelerated solutions require O(N) computational effort and computer storage while conventional solvers require O(N{sup 2}) effort and storage for an iterative solution and O(N{sup 3}) effort for direct inversion of the influence matrix. These methods are applied to the three dimensional problem of wave diffraction by a vertical cylinder.

  12. FPGA Verification Accelerator (FVAX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, Jane; Burke, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Is Verification Acceleration Possible? - Increasing the visibility of the internal nodes of the FPGA results in much faster debug time - Forcing internal signals directly allows a problem condition to be setup very quickly center dot Is this all? - No, this is part of a comprehensive effort to improve the JPL FPGA design and V&V process.

  13. Energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  14. Acceleration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work to support the NASA MSFC Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) was performed. Four tasks (analysis development, analysis research, analysis documentation, and acceleration analysis) were addressed by parallel projects. Work concentrated on preparation for and implementation of near real-time SAMS data analysis during the USMP-1 mission. User support documents and case specific software documentation and tutorials were developed. Information and results were presented to microgravity users. ACAP computer facilities need to be fully implemented and networked, data resources must be cataloged and accessible, future microgravity missions must be coordinated, and continued Orbiter characterization is necessary.

  15. Ripening and storage conditions of Chétoui and Arbequina olives: Part II. Effect on olive endogenous enzymes and virgin olive oil secoiridoid profile determined by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; Cortes-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Gargouri, Mohamed; Vichi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Several factors affect virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic profile. The aim of this study was to monitor olive hydrolytic (β-glucosidase) and oxidative (peroxydase, POX, and polyphenoloxydase, PPO) enzymes during olive ripening and storage and to determine their capacity to shape VOO phenolic profile. To this end, olives from the cultivars Chétoui and Arbequina were stored at 4°C or 25°C for 4weeks and their enzymatic activities and oil phenolic profiles were compared to those of ripening olives. We observed different trends in enzymes activities according to cultivar and storage temperature. Secoiridoid compounds, determined by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and their deacetoxylated, oxygenated, and deacetoxy-oxygenated derivatives were identified and their contents differed between the cultivars according to olive ripening degree and storage conditions. These differences could be due to β-glucosidase, POX and PPO activities changes during olive ripening and storage. Results also show that oxidised phenolic compounds could be a marker of VOO ''freshness". PMID:27211691

  16. Allergen Quantification by Use of Electrostatic Dust Collectors (EDCs): Influence of Deployment Time, Extraction Buffer, and Storage Conditions on the Results.

    PubMed

    Sander, Ingrid; Lotz, Anne; Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2016-08-01

    Sampling of endotoxin, beta-glucan, or allergens on electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) is a convenient method for exposure assessment. However, especially for allergens few experiments on validation of this method concerning deployment time or storage and extraction procedure have been performed. The aim of study was to optimize the EDC procedure for sampling of allergens in indoor environments. EDCs were placed in households or day-care centers and after extraction, allergens were quantified by six immunoassays detecting mite antigens (Domestic mites DM, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Dp, Tyrophagus putrescentiae Tp) or the main allergens from cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and mouse (Mus m 1). For 20 EDC holders, deployment times of cloths were varied between 7 and 28 days, 36 EDCs were used to test reproducibility, and for 28 EDCs extraction buffers were varied (with or without 0.05% Tween 20, borate, or phosphate buffer). The influence of storage of cloths at room temperature (2-629 days) or extracts at -80°C (7-639 days), and variation of extract storage temperature (-20°C and -80°C) for long time storage (1.5 years) on the outcome of allergen quantification were tested for about 150 EDCs. The allergens on EDC cloths increased proportionally with deployment time, and allergen loads on parallel sampled tissues were significantly correlated (P < 0.0001, Pearson of log-transformed values 0.91-0.99). Extraction without Tween reduced all results (P < 0.0001, -51% DM, -85% Dp, -60% Tp, -99% Fel d 1, -86% Can f 1, -52% Mus m 1), and borate buffer resulted in lower yields of Mus m 1 (-53%), DP (-45%), and Tp (-27%) than phosphate buffer. Storage of cloths at room temperature significantly decreased Can f 1 levels (P < 0.0001, -4.8% loss for every 30 days), whereas storage of extracts at -80°C decreased DM results (P < 0.0001, -1.2% loss for every 30 days). Extracts stored at -20°C gave at mean 12% higher DM results compared to extracts stored at -80°C for 1

  17. Si-rich layer formation on olivine surfaces during reaction with water and supercritical carbon dioxide under conditions relevant for geologic carbon storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. C.; Jackson, A.; Maher, K.; Bird, D. K.; Brown, G. E.

    2013-12-01

    The reaction of Mg-silicate minerals (i.e. olivine) with carbon dioxide (CO2) is a promising method for secure, long-term, geologic carbon storage. Several technical challenges must be overcome before implementing mineral carbonation technology on a large scale, one of which is slow reaction kinetics. This study probes surface reaction limitations of olivine carbonation, specifically the formation of a passivating, Si-rich layer on olivine surfaces upon exposure to water and CO2 under sequestration conditions (elevated temperature and pressure). A series of batch reactions were performed at 60°C and 100 bar CO2 pressure in Dickson-style rocker bombs, varying the length of reaction and the amount of mixing (rocking). The initial aqueous phase was spiked with 29Si. Fluid samples were taken periodically and analyzed for cation content, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon. At the end of each experiment, the solid products were analyzed with a Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe Reverse Geometry (SHRIMP-RG) in order to measure the amount of 29Si incorporated into the Si-rich layer on reacted olivine grains. We also cut cross sections of reacted grains from each experiment using a Focused Ion Beam (FIB) which were thinned to <100nm and imaged using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). SHRIMP-RG results show incorporation of 29Si on olivine grain surfaces reacted for 19 days with no mixing, and TEM images of olivine grains from the same experiment show an amorphous, Si-rich layer that is 30nm thick. Similarly, SHRIMP-RG results for olivine grains reacted for 19 days with mixing indicate 29SiO2 precipitation and TEM images reveal a Si-rich layer 60nm thick. In both experiments, EDS (energy dispersive spectroscopy) data show a step change in composition from the bulk rock to the surface layer in addition to the sharp crystalline/amorphous interface visible in the TEM images. Olivine from the unmixed experiment also has a slow decrease in Mg relative to Si

  18. Mixture of differentially tagged Tol2 transposons accelerates conditional disruption of a broad spectrum of genes in mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Mayasari, N. Ika; Mukougawa, Keiko; Shigeoka, Toshiaki; Kawakami, Koichi; Kawaichi, Masashi; Ishida, Yasumasa

    2012-01-01

    Among the insertional mutagenesis techniques used in the current international knockout mouse project (KOMP) on the inactivation of all mouse genes in embryonic stem (ES) cells, random gene trapping has been playing a major role. Gene-targeting experiments have also been performed to individually and conditionally knockout the remaining ‘difficult-to-trap’ genes. Here, we show that transcriptionally silent genes in ES cells are severely underrepresented among the randomly trapped genes in KOMP. Our conditional poly(A)-trapping vector with a common retroviral backbone also has a strong bias to be integrated into constitutively transcribed genome loci. Most importantly, conditional gene disruption could not be successfully accomplished by using the retrovirus vector because of the frequent development of intra-vector deletions/rearrangements. We found that one of the cut and paste-type DNA transposons, Tol2, can serve as an ideal platform for gene-trap vectors that ensures identification and conditional disruption of a broad spectrum of genes in ES cells. We also solved a long-standing problem associated with multiple vector integration into the genome of a single cell by incorporating a mixture of differentially tagged Tol2 transposons. We believe our strategy indicates a straightforward approach to mass-production of conditionally disrupted alleles for genes in the target cells. PMID:22447447

  19. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  20. Accelerated Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

  1. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

    DOEpatents

    Pope, K.E.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

  2. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  3. Effects of different storage conditions, the farm and the stage of lactation on renneting parameters of goat milk investigated using the Formagraph method.

    PubMed

    Pazzola, Michele; Balia, Filippo; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Mura, Maria Consuelo; Carcangiu, Vincenzo; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of storage on renneting properties of goat milk investigated using the Formagraph method. Milk samples from 169 goats in three farms (F1, F2 and F3) were analysed during an entire lactation (45, 75, 105, 135 and 165 days in milking DIM), to obtain renneting parameters, both from fresh milk and after storage with Bronopol and freezing at -20°C and -80°C. As regards fresh milk, mean values of clotting time were between 12·51 (45 DIM) and 13·29 min (105 DIM and F2), the curd firming time between 1·77 (45 DIM) and 2·15 min (F1) and curd firmness between 42·09 (165 DIM) and 49·55 mm (45 DIM). No statistical difference was recorded after storage. After regression analysis, all prediction models showed significance value at P<0·001 with the highest R2 value for clotting time, 0·710 (fresh vs. frozen milk at -20°C), and the lowest for clot firmness, 0·281 (fresh vs. frozen milk at -80°C). Results demonstrated that assessment of goat milk coagulation properties using the Formagraph method is also achievable after freezing or Bronopol addition. PMID:21774860

  4. Introduction to Particle Acceleration in the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Horwitz, J. L.; Perez, J.; Quenby, J.

    2005-01-01

    Accelerated charged particles have been used on Earth since 1930 to explore the very essence of matter, for industrial applications, and for medical treatments. Throughout the universe nature employs a dizzying array of acceleration processes to produce particles spanning twenty orders of magnitude in energy range, while shaping our cosmic environment. Here, we introduce and review the basic physical processes causing particle acceleration, in astrophysical plasmas from geospace to the outer reaches of the cosmos. These processes are chiefly divided into four categories: adiabatic and other forms of non-stochastic acceleration, magnetic energy storage and stochastic acceleration, shock acceleration, and plasma wave and turbulent acceleration. The purpose of this introduction is to set the stage and context for the individual papers comprising this monograph.

  5. REG3A accelerates pancreatic cancer cell growth under IL-6-associated inflammatory condition: Involvement of a REG3A-JAK2/STAT3 positive feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiulan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hongjie; Yin, Guoxiao; Liu, Yang; Lei, Xiang; Xiang, Ming

    2015-06-28

    Regenerating gene protein (REG) 3A is a 19 kD secretory pancreas protein with pro-growth function. Previously we demonstrated that overexpression of REG3A, acting as a key molecule for up-regulation of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway, contributed to inflammation-related pancreatic cancer (PaC) development. However the exact network associated with REG3A signaling still remains unclear. Here we determined that exposure of human PaC cells to cytokine IL-6 activated the oncogenic JAK2/STAT3 pathway, which directly upregulated REG3A expression, accelerated cell cycle progression by promoting CyclinD1 expression, and enhancing the expression of the anti-apoptosis Bcl family. Importantly, the activation of REG3A would instead enhance the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to constitute a REG3A-JAK2/STAT3 positive feedback loop, which leads to the amplification of the oncogenic effects of IL-6/JAK2/STAT3, a classic pathway linking to inflammation-related tumorigenesis, ultimately resulting in PaC cell over-proliferation and tumor formation both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, EGFR was found to mediate the REG3A signal for PaC cell growth and JAK2/STAT3 activation, thus functioning as a REG3A receptor. Collectively, our results provide the first evidence for the presence of the synergistic effect of REG3A and IL-6 on PaC development via a REG3A-JAK2/STAT3 positive feedback loop. PMID:25779676

  6. Magnetic Insulation for Electrostatic Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Grisham, L. R.

    2011-09-26

    The voltage gradient which can be sustained between electrodes without electrical breakdowns is usually one of the most important parameters in determining the performance which can be obtained in an electrostatic accelerator. We have recently proposed a technique which might permit reliable operation of electrostatic accelerators at higher electric field gradients, perhaps also with less time required for the conditioning process in such accelerators. The idea is to run an electric current through each accelerator stage so as to produce a magnetic field which envelopes each electrode and its electrically conducting support structures. Having the magnetic field everywhere parallel to the conducting surfaces in the accelerator should impede the emission of electrons, and inhibit their ability to acquire energy from the electric field, thus reducing the chance that local electron emission will initiate an arc. A relatively simple experiment to assess this technique is being planned. If successful, this technique might eventually find applicability in electrostatic accelerators for fusion and other applications.

  7. Accelerator simulation of astrophysical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombrello, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    Phenomena that involve accelerated ions in stellar processes that can be simulated with laboratory accelerators are described. Stellar evolutionary phases, such as the CNO cycle, have been partially explored with accelerators, up to the consumption of He by alpha particle radiative capture reactions. Further experimentation is indicated on reactions featuring N-13(p,gamma)O-14, O-15(alpha, gamma)Ne-19, and O-14(alpha,p)F-17. Accelerated beams interacting with thin foils produce reaction products that permit a determination of possible elemental abundances in stellar objects. Additionally, isotopic ratios observed in chondrites can be duplicated with accelerator beam interactions and thus constraints can be set on the conditions producing the meteorites. Data from isotopic fractionation from sputtering, i.e., blasting surface atoms from a material using a low energy ion beam, leads to possible models for processes occurring in supernova explosions. Finally, molecules can be synthesized with accelerators and compared with spectroscopic observations of stellar winds.

  8. Cosmic Plasma Wakefield Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pisin; Tajima, Toshiki; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki

    2002-10-01

    A cosmic acceleration mechanism is introduced which is based on the wakefields excited by the Alfven shocks in a relativistically flowing plasma. We show that there exists a threshold condition for transparency below which the accelerating particle is collision-free and suffers little energy loss in the plasma medium. The stochastic encounters of the random accelerating-decelerating phases results in a power-law energy spectrum: f([epsilon]) [is proportional to] 1/[epsilon]2. As an example, we discuss the possible production of super-GZK ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) in the atmosphere of gamma ray bursts. The estimated event rate in our model agrees with that from UHECR observations. [copyright] 2002 American Institute of Physics

  9. Stability and Degradation of Caffeoylquinic Acids under Different Storage Conditions Studied by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Photo Diode Array Detection and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ionization Collision-Induced Dissociation Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xue, Meng; Shi, Hang; Zhang, Jiao; Liu, Qing-Quan; Guan, Jun; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Ma, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) are main constituents in many herbal medicines with various biological and pharmacological effects. However, CQAs will degrade or isomerize when affected by temperature, pH, light, etc. In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was utilized to study the stability and degradation of CQAs (three mono-acyl CQAs and four di-acyl CQAs) under various ordinary storage conditions (involving different temperatures, solvents, and light irradiation). The results indicated that the stability of CQAs was mainly affected by temperature and light irradiation, while solvents did not affect it in any obvious way under the conditions studied. Mono-acyl CQAs were generally much more stable than di-acyl CQAs under the same conditions. Meanwhile, the chemical structures of 30 degradation products were also characterized by HPLC-MS(n), inferring that isomerization, methylation, and hydrolysis were three major degradation pathways. The result provides a meaningful clue for the storage conditions of CQAs standard substances and samples. PMID:27455213

  10. Beam by design: Laser manipulation of electrons in modern accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsing, Erik; Stupakov, Gennady; Xiang, Dao; Zholents, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    Accelerator-based light sources such as storage rings and free-electron lasers use relativistic electron beams to produce intense radiation over a wide spectral range for fundamental research in physics, chemistry, materials science, biology, and medicine. More than a dozen such sources operate worldwide, and new sources are being built to deliver radiation that meets with the ever-increasing sophistication and depth of new research. Even so, conventional accelerator techniques often cannot keep pace with new demands and, thus, new approaches continue to emerge. In this article, a variety of recently developed and promising techniques that rely on lasers to manipulate and rearrange the electron distribution in order to tailor the properties of the radiation are reviewed. Basic theories of electron-laser interactions, techniques to create microstructures and nanostructures in electron beams, and techniques to produce radiation with customizable waveforms are reviewed. An overview of laser-based techniques for the generation of fully coherent x rays, mode-locked x-ray pulse trains, light with orbital angular momentum, and attosecond or even zeptosecond long coherent pulses in free-electron lasers is presented. Several methods to generate femtosecond pulses in storage rings are also discussed. Additionally, various schemes designed to enhance the performance of light sources through precision beam preparation including beam conditioning, laser heating, emittance exchange, and various laser-based diagnostics are described. Together these techniques represent a new emerging concept of "beam by design" in modern accelerators, which is the primary focus of this article.

  11. Analytical validation of accelerator mass spectrometry for pharmaceutical development

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Bradly D; Ognibene, Ted; Vogel, John S

    2011-01-01

    The validation parameters for pharmaceutical analyses were examined for the accelerator mass spectrometry measurement of 14C/C ratio, independent of chemical separation procedures. The isotope ratio measurement was specific (owing to the 14C label), stable across samples storage conditions for at least 1 year, linear over four orders of magnitude with an analytical range from 0.1 Modern to at least 2000 Modern (instrument specific). Furthermore, accuracy was excellent (between 1 and 3%), while precision expressed as coefficient of variation was between 1 and 6% determined primarily by radiocarbon content and the time spent analyzing a sample. Sensitivity, expressed as LOD and LLOQ was 1 and 10 attomoles of 14C, respectively (which can be expressed as compound equivalents) and for a typical small molecule labeled at 10% incorporated with 14C corresponds to 30 fg equivalents. Accelerator mass spectrometry provides a sensitive, accurate and precise method of measuring drug compounds in biological matrices. PMID:21083256

  12. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1989-01-01

    The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass. The goal of the present program is to demonstrate feasibility of the EPA thruster concept through experimental and theoretical investigations of the EPA acceleration mechanism and discharge chamber performance. Experimental investigations will include operating the test bed ion (TBI) engine as an EPA thruster and parametrically varying the thruster geometry and operating conditions to quantify the electrostatic plasma acceleration effect. The theoretical investigations will include the development of a discharge chamber model which describes the relationships between the engine size, plasma properties, and overall performance. For the EPA thruster to be a viable propulsion concept, overall thruster efficiencies approaching 30% with specific impulses approaching 1000 s must be achieved.

  13. Thermal storage for electric utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swet, C. J.; Masica, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of the thermal energy storage (TES) principle (storage of sensible heat or latent heat, or heat storage in reversible chemical reactions) in power systems are evaluated. Load leveling behind the meter, load following at conventional thermal power plants, solar thermal power generation, and waste heat utilization are the principal TES applications considered. Specific TES examples discussed include: storage heaters for electric-resistance space heating, air conditioning TES in the form of chilled water or eutectic salt baths, hot water TES, and trans-seasonal storage in heated water in confined aquifers.

  14. Compact accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  15. Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2013-11-15

    A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

  16. Stochastic modeling of Lagrangian accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Andy

    2002-11-01

    It is shown how Sawford's second-order Lagrangian stochastic model (Phys. Fluids A 3, 1577-1586, 1991) for fluid-particle accelerations can be combined with a model for the evolution of the dissipation rate (Pope and Chen, Phys. Fluids A 2, 1437-1449, 1990) to produce a Lagrangian stochastic model that is consistent with both the measured distribution of Lagrangian accelerations (La Porta et al., Nature 409, 1017-1019, 2001) and Kolmogorov's similarity theory. The later condition is found not to be satisfied when a constant dissipation rate is employed and consistency with prescribed acceleration statistics is enforced through fulfilment of a well-mixed condition.

  17. An update on corrosion monitoring in cylinder storage yards

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Frazier, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium, from US uranium isotope enrichment activities, is stored in the form of solid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in A285 and A516 steel cylinders designed and manufactured to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria. In general, storage facilities are open areas adjacent to the enrichment plants where the cylinders are exposed to weather. This paper describes the Oak Ridge program to determine the general corrosion behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders, to determine cylinder yard conditions which are likely to affect long term storage of this material, and to assess cylinder storage yards against these criteria. This program is targeted at conditions specific to the Oak Ridge cylinder yards. Based on (a) determination of the current cylinder yard conditions, (b) determination of rusting behavior in regions of the cylinders showing accelerated attack, (c) monitoring of corrosion rates through periodic measurement of test coupons placed within the cylinder yards, and (d) establishment of a computer base to incorporate and retain these data, the technical division is working with the enrichment sites to implement an upgraded system for storage of this material until such time as it is used or converted.

  18. STATUS OF THE NIF POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P; Hulsey, S; Ullery, G; Petersen, D; Pendleton, D; Ollis, C; Newton, M

    2007-07-26

    The NIF Power Conditioning System provides the pulsed excitation required to drive flashlamps in the laser's optical amplifiers. Modular in design, each of the 192 Main Energy Storage Modules (MESMs) storage up to 2.2 MJ of electrical energy in its capacitor bank before delivering the energy to 20 pairs of flashlamps in a 400 {micro}s pulse (10% power points). The peak current of each MESM discharge is 0.5 MA. Production, installation, commissioning and operation of the NIF Power Conditioning continue to progress rapidly, with the goals of completing accelerated production in late 2007 and finishing commissioning by early 2008, all the while maintaining an aggressive operations schedule. To date, more than 80% of the required modules have been assembled, shipped and installed in the facility, representing more that 240 MJ of stored energy available for driving NIF flashlamps. The MESMs have displayed outstanding reliability during daily, multiple-shift operations.

  19. BICEP's acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2014-10-01

    The recent Bicep2 [1] detection of, what is claimed to be primordial B-modes, opens up the possibility of constraining not only the energy scale of inflation but also the detailed acceleration history that occurred during inflation. In turn this can be used to determine the shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) for the first time — if a single, scalar inflaton is assumed to be driving the acceleration. We carry out a Monte Carlo exploration of inflationary trajectories given the current data. Using this method we obtain a posterior distribution of possible acceleration profiles ε(N) as a function of e-fold N and derived posterior distributions of the primordial power spectrum P(k) and potential V(φ). We find that the Bicep2 result, in combination with Planck measurements of total intensity Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, induces a significant feature in the scalar primordial spectrum at scales k∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc {sup -1}. This is in agreement with a previous detection of a suppression in the scalar power [2].

  20. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu Salama, Amgad

    2014-08-01

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (ε, σ) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

  1. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  2. Determination of Nonanthocyanin Phenolic Compounds Using High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS/MS) and Impact of Storage Conditions in a Beverage Made from Strawberry by Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Fernández, M Antonia; Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Cerezo, Ana B; Troncoso, Ana M; García-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2016-02-17

    Overproduction of strawberry leads to food waste, as it is very perishable. Therefore, strategies to transform it into new products are appreciated. This research focuses on characterization of the nonanthocyanin phenolic content of a beverage obtained from strawberry by gluconic and acetic fermentation and subsequently monitored for 90 days of storage, at two temperatures. Sixty-four nonanthocyanin (poly)phenols were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC coupled with linear trap quadrupole and Orbitrap mass analyzer) and, for the first time, four compounds were reported in beverages fermented from strawberry: aromadendrin hexoside, phloretin 2'-O-xylosyl glucoside, dihydroferulic acid 4-O-glucuronide, and kaempferol hexosyl hexoside. During the storage time the increase in protocatechuic acid content was 13 times and condensed tannins diminished, especially procyanidin trimer. Statistical analysis showed that the composition remains unchanged until day 15 of storage at room temperature (27-30 °C) and until day 30 under refrigerated conditions (4 °C). PMID:26803927

  3. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  4. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  5. Vertical hydraulic conductivity of a clayey-silt aquitard: accelerated fluid flow in a centrifuge permeameter compared with in situ conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timms, W. A.; Crane, R.; Anderson, D. J.; Bouzalakos, S.; Whelan, M.; McGeeney, D.; Rahman, P. F.; Guinea, A.; Acworth, R. I.

    2014-03-01

    Evaluating the possibility of leakage through low permeability geological strata is critically important for sustainable water supplies, extraction of fuels from strata such as coal beds, and confinement of waste within the earth. Characterizing low or negligible flow rates and transport of solutes can require impractically long periods of field or laboratory testing, but is necessary for evaluations over regional areas and over multi-decadal timescales. The current work reports a custom designed centrifuge permeameter (CP) system, which can provide relatively rapid and reliable hydraulic conductivity (K) measurement compared to column permeameter tests at standard gravity (1g). Linear fluid velocity through a low K porous sample is linearly related to g-level during a CP flight unless consolidation or geochemical reactions occur. The CP module is designed to fit within a standard 2 m diameter, geotechnical centrifuge with a capacity for sample dimensions of 30 to 100 mm diameter and 30 to 200 mm in length. At maximum RPM the resultant centrifugal force is equivalent to 550g at base of sample or a total stress of ~2 MPa. K is calculated by measuring influent and effluent volumes. A custom designed mounting system allows minimal disturbance of drill core samples and a centrifugal force that represents realistic in situ stress conditions is applied. Formation fluids were used as influent to limit any shrink-swell phenomena which may alter the resultant K value. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) results from CP testing of core from the sites in the same clayey silt formation varied (10-7 to 10-9 m s-1, n = 14) but higher than 1g column permeameter tests of adjacent core using deionized water (10-9 to 10-11 m s-1, n = 7). Results at one site were similar to in situ Kv values (3 × 10-9 m s-1) from pore pressure responses within a 30 m clayey sequence in a homogenous area of the formation. Kv sensitivity to sample heterogeneity was observed, and anomalous flow via

  6. Effect of bacterial biofilm on corrosion of galvanically coupled aluminum and stainless steel alloys under conditions simulating wet storage of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.J.; Dirk, W.J.; Geesey, G.G.

    1999-10-01

    Galvanic corrosion is a concern during wet storage of spent nuclear fuels when aluminum alloys used as cladding for nuclear fuel rods become coupled to stainless steel alloys used as materials for construction of fuel rod hangers and containment equipment. A larger galvanic current density was observed between coupled UNS A96061 and UNS S30400 electrodes submerged in autoclave-sterilized makeup water. The differences were attributed to the development of a discontinuous bacterial biofilm on the couples submerged in as-received makeup water, which was not evident on the control couples that contained several orders of magnitude lower densities of bacteria. While pitting corrosion was observed on the UNS A96061 electrodes containing high or low densities of bacteria, maximum pit depth on the electrodes with high bacterial densities was twice that measured on electrodes with low bacterial densities.

  7. Lectures in accelerator theory

    SciTech Connect

    Month, M

    1980-01-01

    Lecture I deals with the behavior of particles in the nonlinear field arising from the electromagnetic interaction of colliding beams. The case treated, that of counter-rotating proton beams crossing each other at a non-zero angle, has the simple feature that the force between the beam is one dimensional. In lecture II, an analysis of the development of traveling waves on particle beams is presented. The situation studied is that of a uniform beam current in a circular accelerator and the excitation for the coherent motion is induced by the resistivity of the vacuum chamber wall. Finally, in lecture III, a description of the current accumulation process used at the proton storage rings at CERN (The ISR) is given. Particle pulses of rather low average current are injected and stored along the length and width of the vacuum chamber. The efficiency is very high and large currents (over 40 amperes) have been achieved.

  8. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type VII

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions glycogen storage disease type VII glycogen storage disease type VII Enable Javascript to view the ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glycogen storage disease type VII (GSDVII) is an inherited disorder ...

  10. Behavior and Inactivation of Enterotoxin-Positive Clostridium perfringens in Pork Picadillo and Tamales Filled with Pork Picadillo under Different Cooking, Storage, and Reheating Conditions.

    PubMed

    Villarruel-López, A; Ruíz-Quezada, S L; Castro-Rosas, J; Gomez-Aldapa, C A; Olea-Rodríguez, M A; Nuño, K; Navarro-Hidalgo, V; Torres-Vitela, M R

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the behavior of Clostridium perfringens in individual ingredients and tamales containing different pathogen concentrations upon exposure to different temperatures and methods of cooking, storage, and reheating. In ground pork, C. perfringens cells were inactivated when exposed to 95°C for 30 min. Three lots of picadillo inoculated with 0, 3, and 5 log CFU/g C. perfringens cells, respectively, were exposed to different storage temperatures. At 20°C, cell counts increased 1 log in all lots, whereas at 8°C, counts decreased by 2 log. Four lots of tamales prepared with picadillo inoculated with 0, 2, 3, and 7 log CFU/g prior to the final cooking step exhibited no surviving cells (91°C for 90, 45, or 35 min). Four lots of tamales were inoculated after cooking with concentrations of 0, 0.6, 4, and 6 log CFU/g of the pathogen and then stored at different temperatures. In these preparations, after 24 h at 20°C, the count increased by 1.4, 1.7, and 1.8 log in the tamales inoculated with 0.6, 4, and 6 log inoculum, respectively. When they were stored at 8°C for 24 h, enumerations decreased to <1, 2.5, and 1.9 log in the tamales inoculated with 0.6, 4, and 6 log of C. perfringens cells, respectively. However, when the lots were exposed to 20°C and then 8°C, 0.8, 1.8, and 2.4 log changes were observed for the tamales inoculated with 0.6, 4, and 6 log, respectively. Microwaving, steaming, and frying to reheat tamales inoculated with 6 log CFU/g C. perfringens cells showed that the pathogen was inactivated after 2 min of exposure in the microwave and after 5 min of exposure to steam. In contrast, no inactivation was observed after 5 min of frying. The tamales inoculated with spores (7 log most probable number [MPN]/g) showed a decrease of 2 log after steaming or frying, and no survival was observed after microwaving. Tamales inoculated with spores (7 log MPN/g) after cooking were susceptible to microwaves, but 2.4 and 255 MPN/g remained after frying

  11. Neural networks and orbit control in accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bozoki, E.; Friedman, A.

    1994-07-01

    An overview of the architecture, workings and training of Neural Networks is given. We stress the aspects which are important for the use of Neural Networks for orbit control in accelerators and storage rings, especially its ability to cope with the nonlinear behavior of the orbit response to `kicks` and the slow drift in the orbit response during long-term operation. Results obtained for the two NSLS storage rings with several network architectures and various training methods for each architecture are given.

  12. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  13. Attention's Accelerator.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Robert M G; McClenahan, Laura J; Woodman, Geoffrey F

    2016-06-01

    How do people get attention to operate at peak efficiency in high-pressure situations? We tested the hypothesis that the general mechanism that allows this is the maintenance of multiple target representations in working and long-term memory. We recorded subjects' event-related potentials (ERPs) indexing the working memory and long-term memory representations used to control attention while performing visual search. We found that subjects used both types of memories to control attention when they performed the visual search task with a large reward at stake, or when they were cued to respond as fast as possible. However, under normal circumstances, one type of target memory was sufficient for slower task performance. The use of multiple types of memory representations appears to provide converging top-down control of attention, allowing people to step on the attentional accelerator in a variety of high-pressure situations. PMID:27056975

  14. Space Acceleration Measurement System for Free Flyers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kacpura, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    Experimenters from the fluids, combustion, materials, and life science disciplines all use the microgravity environment of space to enhance their understanding of fundamental physical phenomena caused by disturbances from events such as spacecraft maneuvers, equipment operations, atmospheric drag, and (for manned flights) crew movement. Space conditions reduce gravity but do not eliminate it. To quantify the level of these disturbances, NASA developed the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) series to collect data characterizing the acceleration environment on the space shuttles. This information is provided to investigators so that they can evaluate how the microgravity environment affects their experiments. Knowledge of the microgravity environment also helps investigators to plan future experiments. The original SAMS system flew 20 missions on the shuttle as well as on the Russian space station Mir. Presently, Lewis is developing SAMS-II for the International Space Station; it will be a distributed system using digital output sensor heads. The latest operational version of SAMS, SAMS-FF, was originally designed for free flyer spacecraft and unmanned areas. SAMS-FF is a flexible, modular system, housed in a lightweight package, and it uses advances in technology to improve performance. The hardware package consists of a control and data acquisition module, three different types of sensors, data storage devices, and ground support equipment interfaces. Three different types of sensors are incorporated to measure both high- and low-frequency accelerations and the roll rate velocity. Small, low-power triaxial sensor heads (TSH's) offer high resolution and selectable bandwidth, and a special low-frequency accelerometer is available for high-resolution, low-frequency applications. A state-of-the-art, triaxial fiberoptic gyroscope that measures extremely low roll rates is housed in a compact package. The versatility of the SAMS-FF system is shown in the three

  15. Spectroscopic evaluation of a freeze-dried vaccine during an accelerated stability study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Laurent; Van Renterghem, Jeroen; Daoussi, Rim; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    This research evaluates a freeze-dried live, attenuated virus vaccine during an accelerated stability study using Near Infrared (NIR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in addition to the traditional quality tests (i.e., potency assay and residual moisture analysis) and Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC). Therefore, freeze-dried live, attenuated virus vaccines were stored during four weeks at 4°C (i.e., recommended storage condition) and at 37°C (i.e., accelerated storage condition) and weekly analyzed using these techniques. The potency assay showed that the virus titer decreased in two phases when the samples were stored at 37°C. The highest titer loss occurred during the first week storage at 37°C after which the degradation rate decreased. Both the residual moisture content and the relaxation enthalpy also increased according to this two-phase pattern during storage at 37°C. In order to evaluate the virus and its interaction with the amorphous stabilizer in the formulation (trehalose), the NIR spectra were analyzed via principal component analysis (PCA) using the amide A/II band (5029-4690cm(-1)). The FTIR spectra were also analyzed via PCA using the amide III spectral range (1350-1200cm(-1)). Analysis of the amide A/II band in the NIR spectra revealed that the titer decrease during storage was probably linked to a change of the hydrogen bonds (i.e., interaction) between the virus proteins and the amorphous trehalose. Analyzing the amide III band (FTIR spectra) showed that the virus destabilization was coupled to a decrease of the coated proteins β turn and an increase of α helix. During storage at 4°C, the titer remained constant, no enthalpic relaxation was observed and neither the Amide A/II band (NIR spectra) nor the Amide III band (FTIR spectra) varied. PMID:27102305

  16. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron yield analysis of Al and Cu samples exposed to an accelerator environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, R. A.; McDowell, M. W.; Ma, Q.; Harkay, K. C.; XFD; APS-USR; ASD

    2003-09-01

    It is well known that exposure to an accelerator environment can cause ''conditioning'' of the vacuum chamber surfaces. In order to understand the manner in which the surface structure might influence the production of gases and electrons in the accelerator, such surfaces should be studied both before and after exposure to accelerator conditions. Numerous studies have been performed on representative materials prior to being inserted into an accelerator, but very little has been done on materials that have ''lived'' in the accelerator for extended periods. In the present work, we mounted Al and Cu coupons at different positions in a section of the Advanced Photon Source storage ring and removed them following exposures ranging from 6 to 18 months. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of the surface was performed before and after exposure. Changes were observed that depended on the location and whether the coupon was facing the chamber interior or chamber wall. These results will be presented and compared to XPS and secondary electron yield data obtained from laboratory measurements meant to simulate the accelerator conditions.

  17. A system approach to archival storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction and viewgraphs of a discussion on a system approach to archival storage presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. The use of D-2 iron particles for archival storage is discussed along with how acceleration factors relating short-term tests to archival life times can be justified. Ampex Recording Systems is transferring D-2 video technology to data storage applications, and encountering concerns about corrosion. To protect the D-2 standard, Battelle tests were done on all four tapes in the Class 2 environment. Error rates were measured before and after the test on both exposed and control groups.

  18. Acceleration modules in linear induction accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shao-Heng; Deng, Jian-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) is a unique type of accelerator that is capable of accelerating kilo-Ampere charged particle current to tens of MeV energy. The present development of LIA in MHz bursting mode and the successful application into a synchrotron have broadened LIA's usage scope. Although the transformer model is widely used to explain the acceleration mechanism of LIAs, it is not appropriate to consider the induction electric field as the field which accelerates charged particles for many modern LIAs. We have examined the transition of the magnetic cores' functions during the LIA acceleration modules' evolution, distinguished transformer type and transmission line type LIA acceleration modules, and re-considered several related issues based on transmission line type LIA acceleration module. This clarified understanding should help in the further development and design of LIA acceleration modules.

  19. Amphibole as an archivist of magmatic crystallization conditions: problems, potential, and implications for inferring magma storage prior to the paroxysmal 2010 eruption of Mount Merapi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Saskia; Martel, Caroline; Pichavant, Michel; Kushnir, Alexandra

    2014-06-01

    Amphibole is widely employed to calculate crystallization temperature and pressure, although its potential as a geobarometer has always been debated. Recently, Ridolfi et al. (Contrib Mineral Petrol 160:45-66, 2010) and Ridolfi and Renzulli (Contrib Mineral Petrol 163:877-895, 2012) have presented calibrations for calculating temperature, pressure, fO2, melt H2O, and melt major and minor oxide composition from amphibole with a large compositional range. Using their calibrations, we have (i) calculated crystallization conditions for amphibole from eleven published experimental studies to examine the problems and the potential of the new calibrations; and (ii) calculated crystallization conditions for amphibole from basaltic-andesitic pyroclasts erupted during the paroxysmal 2010 eruption of Mount Merapi in Java, Indonesia, to infer pre-eruptive conditions. Our comparison of experimental and calculated values shows that calculated crystallization temperatures are reasonable estimates. Calculated fO2 and melt SiO2 content yields potentially useful estimates at moderately reduced to moderately oxidized conditions and intermediate to felsic melt compositions. However, calculated crystallization pressure and melt H2O content are untenable estimates that largely reflect compositional variation in the crystallizing magmas and crystallization temperature and not the calculated parameters. Amphibole from Merapi's pyroclasts yields calculated conditions of ~200-800 MPa, ~900-1,050 °C, ~NNO + 0.3-NNO + 1.1, ~3.7-7.2 wt% melt H2O, and ~58-71 wt% melt SiO2. We interpret the variations in calculated temperature, fO2, and melt SiO2 content as reasonable estimates, but conclude that the large calculated pressure variation for amphibole from Merapi and many other arc volcanoes is evidence for thorough mixing of mafic to felsic magmas and not necessarily evidence for crystallization over a large depth range. In contrast, bimodal pressure estimates obtained for other arc magmas

  20. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.