Science.gov

Sample records for accelerated storage conditions

  1. Study of sorption behavior, shelf life and colour kinetics of vacuum puffed honey powder at accelerated storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Deepika; Paul, Sanjib Kr; Sahu, Jatindra K

    2016-05-01

    In the study, the storage life of vacuum puffed honey powder at accelerated storage environment (90 % relative humidity and 36 °C) was computed by determining the sticky-point moisture content as the critical parameter of the honey powder. The value of monolayer moisture content in the GAB model was calculated to be 0.081 kg water/kg dry solids by fitting water activity and moisture sorption data. Shelf life of the honey powder was predicted to be 222 days when the powder was packaged in aluminum foil-laminated polyethylene pouches with permeability value of 5.427X10(-8) kg/m(2)//day/Pa. Actual shelf life of honey powder was experimentally determined as 189 days and analysis of mean relative percent derivation modulus (Rd) and root mean square (RMS) established the accuracy and acceptability of the technique for the prediction of shelf life of honey powder. Overall colour deviation pattern followed first order reaction kinetics with rate constant (k1) as 0.037 day(-1). This study revealed overall colour difference of 18.1 till the end of shelf life with drastic change during initial storage period. PMID:27407199

  2. Study of sorption behavior, shelf life and colour kinetics of vacuum puffed honey powder at accelerated storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Deepika; Paul, Sanjib Kr; Sahu, Jatindra K

    2016-05-01

    In the study, the storage life of vacuum puffed honey powder at accelerated storage environment (90 % relative humidity and 36 °C) was computed by determining the sticky-point moisture content as the critical parameter of the honey powder. The value of monolayer moisture content in the GAB model was calculated to be 0.081 kg water/kg dry solids by fitting water activity and moisture sorption data. Shelf life of the honey powder was predicted to be 222 days when the powder was packaged in aluminum foil-laminated polyethylene pouches with permeability value of 5.427X10(-8) kg/m(2)//day/Pa. Actual shelf life of honey powder was experimentally determined as 189 days and analysis of mean relative percent derivation modulus (Rd) and root mean square (RMS) established the accuracy and acceptability of the technique for the prediction of shelf life of honey powder. Overall colour deviation pattern followed first order reaction kinetics with rate constant (k1) as 0.037 day(-1). This study revealed overall colour difference of 18.1 till the end of shelf life with drastic change during initial storage period.

  3. Liquid Methane Conditioning Capabilities Developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Small Multi- Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) for Accelerated Lunar Surface Storage Thermal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamberger, Helmut H.; Robinson, R. Craig; Jurns, John M.; Grasl, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Glenn Research Center s Creek Road Cryogenic Complex, Small Multi-Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) recently completed validation / checkout testing of a new liquid methane delivery system and liquid methane (LCH4) conditioning system. Facility checkout validation was conducted in preparation for a series of passive thermal control technology tests planned at SMiRF in FY10 using a flight-like propellant tank at simulated thermal environments from 140 to 350K. These tests will validate models and provide high quality data to support consideration of LCH4/LO2 propellant combination option for a lunar or planetary ascent stage.An infrastructure has been put in place which will support testing of large amounts of liquid methane at SMiRF. Extensive modifications were made to the test facility s existing liquid hydrogen system for compatibility with liquid methane. Also, a new liquid methane fluid conditioning system will enable liquid methane to be quickly densified (sub-cooled below normal boiling point) and to be quickly reheated to saturation conditions between 92 and 140 K. Fluid temperatures can be quickly adjusted to compress the overall test duration. A detailed trade study was conducted to determine an appropriate technique to liquid conditioning with regard to the SMiRF facility s existing infrastructure. In addition, a completely new roadable dewar has been procured for transportation and temporary storage of liquid methane. A new spherical, flight-representative tank has also been fabricated for integration into the vacuum chamber at SMiRF. The addition of this system to SMiRF marks the first time a large-scale liquid methane propellant test capability has been realized at Glenn.This work supports the Cryogenic Fluid Management Project being conducted under the auspices of the Exploration Technology Development Program, providing focused cryogenic fluid management technology efforts to support NASA s future robotic or human exploration missions.

  4. Accelerated glass reaction under PCT conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Bradley, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Static leach tests similar to PCT (Product Consistency Test) were performed for up to 2 years to assess long-term reaction behavior of high-level nuclear waste glasses similar to those at Defense Waste Processing Facility. These tests show the reaction rate to decrease with the reaction time from an initially high rate to a low rate, but then to accelerate to a higher rate after reaction times of about 1 year, depending on glass surface area/leachant volume ratio used. Solution concentrations of soluble glass components increase as the reaction is accelerated, while release of other glass components into solution is controlled by secondary phases. Net result is that transformation of glass to stable phases is accelerated while the solution becomes enriched in soluble components not effectively contained in secondary phases. Rate becomes linear in time after the acceleration and may be similar to the initial forward rate. A current model of glass reaction predicts that the glass reaction will be accelerated upon the formation of secondary phases which lower the silicic acid solution concentration. These tests show total Si concentration to increase upon reaction acceleration, however, which may be due to the slightly higher pH attained with the acceleration. The sudden change in the reaction rate is likely due to secondary phase formation. 17 refs, 2 tabs, 3 figs.

  5. Accelerated glass reaction under PCT conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, W.L.; Bates, J.K.; Buck, E.C.; Bradley, C.R.

    1992-12-31

    Static leach tests similar to PCT (Product Consistency Test) were performed for up to 2 years to assess long-term reaction behavior of high-level nuclear waste glasses similar to those at Defense Waste Processing Facility. These tests show the reaction rate to decrease with the reaction time from an initially high rate to a low rate, but then to accelerate to a higher rate after reaction times of about 1 year, depending on glass surface area/leachant volume ratio used. Solution concentrations of soluble glass components increase as the reaction is accelerated, while release of other glass components into solution is controlled by secondary phases. Net result is that transformation of glass to stable phases is accelerated while the solution becomes enriched in soluble components not effectively contained in secondary phases. Rate becomes linear in time after the acceleration and may be similar to the initial forward rate. A current model of glass reaction predicts that the glass reaction will be accelerated upon the formation of secondary phases which lower the silicic acid solution concentration. These tests show total Si concentration to increase upon reaction acceleration, however, which may be due to the slightly higher pH attained with the acceleration. The sudden change in the reaction rate is likely due to secondary phase formation. 17 refs, 2 tabs, 3 figs.

  6. 7 CFR 51.1268 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1268 Section 51... Storage Or Transit § 51.1268 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald, or other deterioration which may have developed on pears after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1268 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1268 Section 51... Storage Or Transit § 51.1268 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald, or other deterioration which may have developed on pears after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered...

  8. 7 CFR 51.309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.309... apples after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered as affecting condition and not...

  9. 7 CFR 51.309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.309... apples after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered as affecting condition and not...

  10. 7 CFR 51.309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.309... apples after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered as affecting condition and not...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1268 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1268 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1268 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald, or other deterioration which may have developed on...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1268 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1268 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1268 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald, or other deterioration which may have developed on...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1309 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald or other deterioration which may have developed on pears...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1309 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald or other deterioration which may have developed on pears...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1268 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1268 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1268 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald, or other deterioration which may have developed on...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1309 Section 51... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Winter Pears 1 Condition After Storage Or Transit § 51.1309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald or other deterioration which may have developed on pears...

  17. Spin Motion and Resonances in Accelerators and Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Courant,E.

    2008-01-01

    Some of the basic aspects of the spin dynamics of accelerators and storage rings are reviewed. Since the components of spin parallel and perpendicular to the particle velocity behave differently it is desirable to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a frame of reference that exhibits this difference explicitly. The conventional treatment employs a coordinate system derived from a reference orbit. An alternate coordinate system, based on the actual trajectory of the particle, leads to simplified equations of spin motion but, contrary to a conjecture presented in a previous note, resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical, as pointed out by Kondratenko. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

  18. 7 CFR 51.1309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1309 Section 51... Or Transit § 51.1309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald or other deterioration which may have developed on pears after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Condition after storage or transit. 51.1309 Section 51... Or Transit § 51.1309 Condition after storage or transit. Decay, scald or other deterioration which may have developed on pears after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered...

  20. Can hydromorphic conditions accelerate soil development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringer, Marianna; Kiss, Klaudia; Horváth-Szabó, Kata; Réka Balázs, Brigitta; Németh, Tibor; Sipos, Péter; Szabó, Máté; Jakab, Gergely; Madarász, Balázs; Szalai, Zoltán

    2016-04-01

    The formation and development of waterlogged (hydromorphic) soils are primarily determined by long-term water saturation. The presence of water in the profile can result increasing speed of soil forming processes including the accumulation of organic matter or other components and mineralogical transformations. Original papers refer more than hundreds of years for this kinds of mineral transformations. We suppose that this process could be more rapid. This study focuses on the mineralogical investigation of a sandy meadow soil (calcic, gleyic Phaeozem ferric, arenic) located in a swampy area in Central Hungary. The starting time of the soil formation is a well documented fact: the parent material deposited during an extremely heavy flood event in the 1960s. Therefore, the studied soil profile is the result of the last half century. Our aim was to explore the degree of mineral phase alteration via soil formation during a half-century under hydromorphic conditions. Routine laboratory measurements (selective dissolution methods for the determination of amorphous and crystalline Fe, and Mn content, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy measurements for elemental composition determination, X-ray powder diffraction for mineralogical composition, and particle sizing by laser diffraction) were implemented. Morphological and chemical study of carbonate and iron nodules was carried out by electron microprobe. Simple chemical tests (eg. Fe2+ indication by dipiridil test) and morphological observations were performed on the field. Redox potential (Eh) and pH were measured in 20 cm and 40 cm depths by field monitoring station during the vegetation period. Results show that well developed horizons have emerged during fifty years in the studied soil profile. The most intense mineralogical transformations developed in the zone of the heaviest redox oscillation. Soil formation under hydromorphic conditions proceeds at higher speeds contrariwise to the century time scale reported in

  1. Comparison of the conditioning of high gradient accelerating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degiovanni, Alberto; Wuensch, Walter; Giner Navarro, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MV /m , at very low breakdown rates, have been successfully achieved in numerous prototype CLIC accelerating structures. The conditioning and operational histories of several structures, tested at KEK and CERN, have been compared and there is clear evidence that the conditioning progresses with the number of rf pulses and not with the number of breakdowns. This observation opens the possibility that the optimum conditioning strategy, which minimizes the total number of breakdowns the structure is subject to without increasing conditioning time, may be to never exceed the breakdown rate target for operation. The result is also likely to have a strong impact on efforts to understand the physical mechanism underlying conditioning and may lead to preparation procedures which reduce conditioning time.

  2. Cold water aquifer storage. [air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, D. L.; Davison, R. R.; Harris, W. B.

    1980-01-01

    A working prototype system is described in which water is pumped from an aquifer at 70 F in the winter time, chilled to a temperature of less than 50 F, injected into a ground-water aquifer, stored for a period of several months, pumped back to the surface in the summer time. A total of 8.1 million gallons of chilled water at an average temperature of 48 F were injected. This was followed by a storage period of 100 days. The recovery cycle was completed a year later with a total of 8.1 million gallons recovered. Approximately 20 percent of the chill energy was recovered.

  3. An adaptive cryptographic accelerator for network storage security on dynamically reconfigurable platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Li; Liu, Jing-Ning; Feng, Dan; Tong, Wei

    2008-12-01

    Existing security solutions in network storage environment perform poorly because cryptographic operations (encryption and decryption) implemented in software can dramatically reduce system performance. In this paper we propose a cryptographic hardware accelerator on dynamically reconfigurable platform for the security of high performance network storage system. We employ a dynamic reconfigurable platform based on a FPGA to implement a PowerPCbased embedded system, which executes cryptographic algorithms. To reduce the reconfiguration latency, we apply prefetch scheduling. Moreover, the processing elements could be dynamically configured to support different cryptographic algorithms according to the request received by the accelerator. In the experiment, we have implemented AES (Rijndael) and 3DES cryptographic algorithms in the reconfigurable accelerator. Our proposed reconfigurable cryptographic accelerator could dramatically increase the performance comparing with the traditional software-based network storage systems.

  4. 7 CFR 51.309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Condition After... which may have developed on apples after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered...

  5. 7 CFR 51.309 - Condition after storage or transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Condition After... which may have developed on apples after they have been in storage or transit shall be considered...

  6. ACCELERATED-AGING OF SHIPPING PACKAGE O-RINGS FOR PU STORAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E

    2008-01-10

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is storing surplus plutonium (Pu) materials in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility. The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard. The nested, welded 300 series stainless steel 3013 containers are transported to KAMS in Type B shipping packages and subsequently stored in the same packages. These type B shipping packages consist of double containment vessels sealed with dual O-rings. The O-ring compound is Parker Seals V0835-75, based on Viton{reg_sign} GLT fluoroelastomer. This work evaluates the performance of the V0835-75 O-rings at accelerated-aging conditions. The results will be used to develop a lifetime prediction model for O-rings in KAMS.

  7. Stability of lysozyme in aqueous extremolyte solutions during heat shock and accelerated thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Avanti, Christina; Saluja, Vinay; van Streun, Erwin L P; Frijlink, Henderik W; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of lysozyme in aqueous solutions in the presence of various extremolytes (betaine, hydroxyectoine, trehalose, ectoine, and firoin) under different stress conditions. The stability of lysozyme was determined by Nile red Fluorescence Spectroscopy and a bioactivity assay. During heat shock (10 min at 70°C), betaine, trehalose, ectoin and firoin protected lysozyme against inactivation while hydroxyectoine, did not have a significant effect. During accelerated thermal conditions (4 weeks at 55°C), firoin also acted as a stabilizer. In contrast, betaine, hydroxyectoine, trehalose and ectoine destabilized lysozyme under this condition. These findings surprisingly indicate that some extremolytes can stabilize a protein under certain stress conditions but destabilize the same protein under other stress conditions. Therefore it is suggested that for the screening extremolytes to be used for protein stabilization, an appropriate storage conditions should also be taken into account.

  8. Accelerating CSP with storage in Namibia - Brave or impossible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Grant H.; Mutschler, Margaret

    2016-05-01

    This paper provides the background to, and progress on, the first Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant in Namibia. The paper will provide progress on the work completed in the pre-feasibility study, address some aspects regarding the site selection for the first CSP project, provide an update on the procurement of solar resource data and offer some considerations regarding the potential acceleration of the first CSP plant in Namibia.

  9. Power-conditioning system for the Advanced Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M.A.; Smith, M.E.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, D.R.; Cook, E.G.; Copp, R.L.; Lee, F.D.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers, D.; Speckert, G.C.

    1982-06-01

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a pulsed, linear induction, electron accelerator currently under construction and nearing completion at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 near Livermore, California. The ATA is a 50 MeV, 10 kA machine capable of generating electron beam pulses at a 1 kHz rate in a 10 pulse burst, 5 pps average, with a pulse width of 70 ns FWHM. Ten 18 kV power supplies are used to charge 25 capacitor banks with a total energy storage of 8 megajoules. Energy is transferred from the capacitor banks in 500 microsecond pulses through 25 Command Resonant Charge units (CRC) to 233 Thyratron Switch Chassis. Each Thyratron Switch Chassis contains a 2.5 microfarad capacitor and is charged to 25 kV (780 joules) with voltage regulation of +- .05%. These capacitors are switched into 10:1 step-up resonant transformers to charge 233 Blumleins to 250 kV in 20 microseconds. A magnetic modulator is used instead of a Blumlein to drive the grid of the injector.

  10. Quantitative trait loci associated with longevity of lettuce seeds under conventional and controlled deterioration storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Schwember, Andrés R; Bradford, Kent J

    2010-10-01

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seeds have poor shelf life and exhibit thermoinhibition (fail to germinate) above ∼25°C. Seed priming (controlled hydration followed by drying) alleviates thermoinhibition by increasing the maximum germination temperature, but reduces lettuce seed longevity. Controlled deterioration (CD) or accelerated ageing storage conditions (i.e. elevated temperature and relative humidity) are used to study seed longevity and to predict potential seed lifetimes under conventional storage conditions. Seeds produced in 2002 and 2006 of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas×L. serriola accession UC96US23 were utilized to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with seed longevity under CD and conventional storage conditions. Multiple longevity-associated QTLs were identified under both conventional and CD storage conditions for control (non-primed) and primed seeds. However, seed longevity was poorly correlated between the two storage conditions, suggesting that deterioration processes under CD conditions are not predictive of ageing in conventional storage conditions. Additionally, the same QTLs were not identified when RIL populations were grown in different years, indicating that lettuce seed longevity is strongly affected by production environment. Nonetheless, a major QTL on chromosome 4 [Seed longevity 4.1 (Slg4.1)] was responsible for almost 23% of the phenotypic variation in viability of the conventionally stored control seeds of the 2006 RIL population, with improved longevity conferred by the Salinas allele. QTL analyses may enable identification of mechanisms responsible for the sensitivity of primed seeds to CD conditions and breeding for improved seed longevity.

  11. Transport synthetic acceleration with opposing reflecting boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zika, M.R.; Adams, M.L.

    2000-02-01

    The transport synthetic acceleration (TSA) scheme is extended to problems with opposing reflecting boundary conditions. This synthetic method employs a simplified transport operator as its low-order approximation. A procedure is developed that allows the use of the conjugate gradient (CG) method to solve the resulting low-order system of equations. Several well-known transport iteration algorithms are cast in a linear algebraic form to show their equivalence to standard iterative techniques. Source iteration in the presence of opposing reflecting boundary conditions is shown to be equivalent to a (poorly) preconditioned stationary Richardson iteration, with the preconditioner defined by the method of iterating on the incident fluxes on the reflecting boundaries. The TSA method (and any synthetic method) amounts to a further preconditioning of the Richardson iteration. The presence of opposing reflecting boundary conditions requires special consideration when developing a procedure to realize the CG method for the proposed system of equations. The CG iteration may be applied only to symmetric positive definite matrices; this condition requires the algebraic elimination of the boundary angular corrections from the low-order equations. As a consequence of this elimination, evaluating the action of the resulting matrix on an arbitrary vector involves two transport sweeps and a transmission iteration. Results of applying the acceleration scheme to a simple test problem are presented.

  12. Arrival condition of spent fuel after storage, handling, and transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Pankaskie, P.J.; Langstaff, D.C.; Gilbert, E.R.; Rising, K.H.; Schreiber, R.E.

    1982-11-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to determine the probable arrival condition of spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel after handling and interim storage in spent fuel storage pools and subsequent handling and accident-free transport operations under normal or slightly abnormal conditions. The objective of this study was to provide information on the expected condition of spent LWR fuel upon arrival at interim storage or fuel reprocessing facilities or at disposal facilities if the fuel is declared a waste. Results of a literature survey and data evaluation effort are discussed. Preliminary threshold limits for storing, handling, and transporting unconsolidated spent LWR fuel are presented. The difficulty in trying to anticipate the amount of corrosion products (crud) that may be on spent fuel in future shipments is also discussed, and potential areas for future work are listed. 95 references, 3 figures, 17 tables.

  13. Acceleration of visually cued conditioned fear through the auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Newton, Jessica R; Ellsworth, Charlene; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Tonegawa, Susumu; Sur, Mriganka

    2004-09-01

    Defensive responses elicited by sensory experiences are critical for survival. Mice acquire a conditioned fear response rapidly to an auditory cue but slowly to a visual cue, a difference in learned behavior that is likely to be mediated by direct projections to the lateral amygdala from the auditory thalamus but mainly indirect ones from the visual thalamus. Here, we show that acquisition of visually cued conditioned fear is accelerated in 'rewired' mice that have retinal projections routed to the auditory thalamus. Visual stimuli induce expression of the immediate early gene Fos (also known as c-fos) in the auditory thalamus and the lateral amygdala in rewired mice, similar to the way auditory stimuli do in control mice. Thus, the rewired auditory pathway conveys visual information and mediates rapid activity-dependent plasticity in central structures that influence learned behavior.

  14. Kangaroo rat locomotion: design for elastic energy storage or acceleration?

    PubMed

    Biewener, A A; Blickhan, R

    1988-11-01

    Mechanical stresses (force/cross-sectional area) acting in muscles, tendons and bones of the hindlimbs of kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spectabilis) were calculated during steady-speed hops and vertical jumps. Stresses were determined from both high-speed ciné films (light and X-ray) and force plate recordings, as well as from in vivo tendon force recordings. Stresses in each hindlimb support element during hopping (1.6-3.1 m s-1) were generally only 33% of those acting during jumping (greater than or equal to 40 cm height): ankle extensor muscles, 80 +/- 12 (S.D.) versus 297 +/- 42 kPa; ankle extensor tendons, 7.9 +/- 1.5 versus 32.7 +/- 4.8 MPa; tibia, -29 +/- 5 versus -110 +/- 25 MPa (all values are for hopping versus jumping). The magnitude of stress in each structure during these locomotor activities was similarly matched to the strength of each element, so that a consistent safety factor to failure is achieved for the hindlimb as a whole (1.5-2.0). The large stresses during jumping were correlated with a three-fold increase in ground reaction forces exerted on the ground compared with the fastest steady hopping speeds. We conclude that, for its size, the kangaroo rat has disproportionately large hindlimb muscles, tendons and bones to withstand the large forces associated with rapid acceleration to avoid predation, which limits their ability to store and recover elastic strain energy. Middle ear morphology and behavioural observations of kangaroo rats jumping vertically to avoid predation by owls and rattlesnakes support this view.

  15. Impact of storage condition on fiber quality and color

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of cotton produced in the United States is exported. Baled lint is stored for an average of approximately 18 months before processing in textile mills. The duration and environmental conditions of cotton storage and shipping can impact cotton quality in terms of color and possibly pro...

  16. Behavior of whey protein concentrates under extreme storage conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overseas demand for whey protein concentrates (WPC) has increased steadily in recent years. Emergency aid foods often include WPC, but shelf-life studies of whey proteins under different shipment and storage conditions have not been conducted in the last 50 yr. Microbial quality, compound form...

  17. Storage behavior of mango as affected by post harvest application of plant extracts and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nisha; Jain, S K

    2014-10-01

    The use of plant extracts could be a useful alternative to synthetic fungicides in the post harvest handling of fruits and vegetables. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of extracts obtained from four plants (neem, Pongamia, custard apple leaf and marigold flowers) on the extension of shelf life of mango fruits cv. Dashehri under two storage conditions (Cool store and ambient condition). The fruits were treated with 2 concentrations of each plant extracts (10 % and 20 %) were placed in perforated linear low density poly ethylene bags and stored in storage conditions viz., cool storage and ambient condition, respectively. The treatment of neem leaf extract in combination with cool storage gave encouraging results. Up to the end of the storage study the treatment combination of 20 % neem leaf extract and cool store completely inhibited the pathogens, and no spoilage was observed. There was minimum physiological loss in weight (6.24 %), minimum girth reduction (0.62 %), maximum ascorbic acid content (29.96 mg/ 100 g of pulp), maximum acidity (0.19 %), minimum pH (5.28), maximum total soluble solids (20.96 %), maximum total sugars (12.50 %), reducing sugars (4.12 %) and non- reducing sugars (7.96 %) and best organoleptic score (7.93/10) in this interaction. The inhibitory effect of neem leaf extract was ascribed to the presence of active principle azadirachtin. PMID:25328189

  18. Prediction of the radiation situation during conditioned radioactive waste storage in hangar-type storage facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosnovskii, S. V.; Bulka, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    An original technology for the conditioning of solidified radioactive waste was developed by the Novovoronezh nuclear power plant (NPP) staff. The technology provides for waste placement inside NZK-150-1.5P containers with their further storage at light hangar-type storage facilities. A number of technical solutions were developed that allow for reducing the gamma-radiation dose rate from the package formed. A methodology for prediction of the radiation situation around hangars, depending on the radiation characteristics of irrecoverable shielding containers (ISCs) located in the peripheral row of a storage facility, was developed with the purpose of assuring safe storage. Based on empirical data, the field background gamma-radiation dose rate at an area as a function of the average dose rate at the hangar surface and the average dose rate close packages, placed in the peripheral row of the storage facility, was calculated. The application of the developed methodology made it possible to reduce by ten times the expenditures for the conditioning and holding of solidified radioactive waste (SRW) while unconditionally providing storage safety.

  19. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, C.J.; Fliermans, C.B.; Santo Domingo, J.

    1997-10-30

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign nuclear fuel storage facilities, fourteen different water samples were received from facilities outside the United States that have sent spent nuclear fuel to SRS for wet storage. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate- reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to other foreign samples and to data from the receiving basin for off- site fuel (RBOF) at SRS.

  20. Accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatologic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jison; Maron, David J; Shirai, Tsuyoshi; Weyand, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex inflammatory disease involving aberrant immune and tissue healing responses, which begins with endothelial dysfunction and ends with plaque development, instability and rupture. The increased risk for coronary artery disease in patients with rheumatologic diseases highlights how aberrancy in the innate and adaptive immune system may be central to development of both disease states and that atherosclerosis may be on a spectrum of immune-mediated conditions. Recognition of the tight association between chronic inflammatory disease and complications of atherosclerosis will impact the understanding of underlying pathogenic mechanisms and change diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in patients with rheumatologic syndromes as well as patients with coronary artery disease. In this review, we provide a summary of the role of the immune system in atherosclerosis, discuss the proposed mechanisms of accelerated atherosclerosis seen in association with rheumatologic diseases, evaluate the effect of immunosuppression on atherosclerosis and provide updates on available risk assessment tools, biomarkers and imaging modalities. PMID:27042216

  1. STOCHASTIC ACCELERATION OF SUPRATHERMAL PARTICLES UNDER PRESSURE BALANCE CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Antecki, T.; Schlickeiser, R.; Zhang, M. E-mail: rsch@tp4.rub.de

    2013-02-10

    The acceleration of suprathermal charged particles in the heliosphere under pressure balance conditions including for the first time the radial spatial particle diffusion and convection in the solar wind is investigated. The physical conditions are derived for which the stationary phase space distribution of suprathermal particles approaches the power-law distribution f{proportional_to}p {sup -5}, which is often seen in spacecraft observations. For separable source distributions in momentum and position we analytically solve the stationary particle transport equation for a radially constant solar wind speed V {sub 0} and a momentum-independent radial spatial diffusion coefficient. The resulting stationary solution at any position within the finite heliosphere is the superposition of an infinite sum of power laws in momentum below and above the (assumed mono-momentum) injection momentum p{sub I} . The smallest spatial eigenvalue determines the flattest power law, to which the full stationary solution approaches at large and small enough momenta. Only for the case of a reflecting inner and a free-escape outer spatial boundary, does one small eigenvalue exist, yielding the power-law distribution f{proportional_to}p {sup -5} at sufficiently large momentum values. The other three spatial boundary conditions imply steeper momentum spectra. Momentum spectra and radial profiles of suprathermal particles are calculated by adopting a uniform outer ring spatial source distribution.

  2. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    PubMed Central

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  3. Shelf life and storage stability of spray-dried bovine colostrum powders under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huaning; Zheng, Yuanrong; Li, Yunfei

    2015-02-01

    Spray dried bovine colostrum (SDBC) powders were packaged in aluminium-laminated polyethylene (ALPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) pouches and then stored under different conditions (25 °C and 50 % relative humidity (RH), 4 °C and 40-70 % RH, 50 °C and 20-50 % RH). The shelf life of SDBC powder was evaluated as 425.5 and 86.5 days in ALPE and PET pouches under 25 °C and 50 % RH, respectively. The storage stability of SDBC powder in terms of quality parameters including thiobarbituric acid (TBA), hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), colour change, moisture content and IgG concentration was studied in both packaging materials under different storage conditions. Results showed that ALPE pouches were more suitable for packaging SDBC powder than PET pouches and storage condition of 4 °C and 40-70 % RH was relative suitable for keeping quality of SDBC powder. The glass transition concept was helpful for evaluating the chemical stability of SDBC powder during storage. PMID:25694704

  4. Hamiltonian methods for the study of polarized proton beam dynamics in accelerators and storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Balandin, Vladimir; Golubeva, Nina

    1997-02-01

    The equations of classical spin-orbit motion can be extended to a Hamiltonian system in 9-dimensional phase space by introducing a coupled spin-orbit Poisson bracket and Hamiltonian function. After this extension it becomes possible to apply the methods of the theory of Hamiltonian systems to the study of polarized particles beam dynamics in circular accelerators and storage rings. Some of those methods have been implemented in the computer code FORGET-ME-NOT.

  5. [Cereal bars with peanut and puffed amaranthus: chemical composition and stability in accelerated storage].

    PubMed

    Escobar, B; Estévez, A M; Vásquez, M; Castillo, E; Yañez, E

    1994-03-01

    Three different cereal bars, CM3A-CM3B and CM3C were prepared following the flow sheat of Escobar et al: different amount of oat, wheat germ, and puffed amaranthus were used: to stick them together, natural sweeteners and fats were added. Proximate analysis, were run on raw materials and snack bars. They were evaluated organoleptically to know their quality and acceptability. Bars were kept in accelerated storage at 37 degrees C during 15 days to know their stability. Every 5 days were measured the water activity (Aw), moisture, and peroxides development; also appearance of organoleptic randicity. Acceptability of bar CM3B was 91.67% with 0.0% of rejection; CM3A and CM3C got the same acceptability (66.67%) and 8.33% of rejection. In accelerate storage, Aw and moisture content decreased until reaching a value of 0.48 and 5.9 in the CM3B bar, respectively. Peroxide content of CM3B and CM3C increased gradually up to 12 and 17 meq/kg respectively at 15 days. Rancyd aroma appearance was not the same in the bars, CM3A and CM3B had a decreasing at 15 days, while CM3C showed an increasing at the same time. In brief, CM3B showed the best sensory quality, the higher acceptability and the greater stability in accelerated storage. PMID:7717805

  6. Sample storage conditions significantly influence faecal microbiome profiles

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Jocelyn M; Leong, Lex EX; Rogers, Geraint B

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing-based studies of the human faecal microbiota are increasingly common. Appropriate storage of sample material is essential to avoid the introduction of post-collection bias in microbial community composition. Rapid freezing to −80 °C is commonly considered to be best-practice. However, this is not feasible in many studies, particularly those involving sample collection in participants’ homes. We determined the extent to which a range of stabilisation and storage strategies maintained the composition of faecal microbial community structure relative to freezing to −80 °C. Refrigeration at 4 °C, storage at ambient temperature, and the use of several common preservative buffers (RNAlater, OMNIgene.GUT, Tris-EDTA) were assessed relative to freezing. Following 72 hours of storage, faecal microbial composition was assessed by 16 S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Refrigeration was associated with no significant alteration in faecal microbiota diversity or composition. However, samples stored using other conditions showed substantial divergence compared to −80 °C control samples. Aside from refrigeration, the use of OMNIgene.GUT resulted in the least alteration, while the greatest change was seen in samples stored in Tris-EDTA buffer. The commercially available OMNIgene.GUT kit may provide an important alternative where refrigeration and cold chain transportation is not available. PMID:26572876

  7. Comparative transcriptome and metabolome provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of accelerated senescence in litchi fruit after cold storage

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Ze; Qu, Hongxia; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Zhengke; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Bao; Cheng, Yunjiang; Jiang, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Litchi is a non-climacteric subtropical fruit of high commercial value. The shelf life of litchi fruit under ambient conditions (AC) is approximately 4–6 days. Post-harvest cold storage prolongs the life of litchi fruit for up to 30 days with few changes in pericarp browning and total soluble solids. However, the shelf life of litchi fruits at ambient temperatures after pre-cold storage (PCS) is only 1–2 days. To better understand the mechanisms involved in the rapid fruit senescence induced by pre-cold storage, a transcriptome of litchi pericarp was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. Results suggested that the senescence of harvested litchi fruit was likely to be an oxidative process initiated by ABA, including oxidation of lipids, polyphenols and anthocyanins. After cold storage, PCS fruit exhibited energy deficiency, and respiratory burst was elicited through aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which was regulated specifically by an up-regulated calcium signal, G-protein-coupled receptor signalling pathway and small GTPase-mediated signal transduction. The respiratory burst was largely associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated peroxidase activity and initiation of the lipoxygenase pathway, which were closely related to the accelerated senescence of PCS fruit. PMID:26763309

  8. Comparative transcriptome and metabolome provides new insights into the regulatory mechanisms of accelerated senescence in litchi fruit after cold storage.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ze; Qu, Hongxia; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Feng; Zhang, Zhengke; Duan, Xuewu; Yang, Bao; Cheng, Yunjiang; Jiang, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Litchi is a non-climacteric subtropical fruit of high commercial value. The shelf life of litchi fruit under ambient conditions (AC) is approximately 4-6 days. Post-harvest cold storage prolongs the life of litchi fruit for up to 30 days with few changes in pericarp browning and total soluble solids. However, the shelf life of litchi fruits at ambient temperatures after pre-cold storage (PCS) is only 1-2 days. To better understand the mechanisms involved in the rapid fruit senescence induced by pre-cold storage, a transcriptome of litchi pericarp was constructed to assemble the reference genes, followed by comparative transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses. Results suggested that the senescence of harvested litchi fruit was likely to be an oxidative process initiated by ABA, including oxidation of lipids, polyphenols and anthocyanins. After cold storage, PCS fruit exhibited energy deficiency, and respiratory burst was elicited through aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which was regulated specifically by an up-regulated calcium signal, G-protein-coupled receptor signalling pathway and small GTPase-mediated signal transduction. The respiratory burst was largely associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated peroxidase activity and initiation of the lipoxygenase pathway, which were closely related to the accelerated senescence of PCS fruit. PMID:26763309

  9. Neural network technique for orbit correction in accelerators/storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Bozoki, E.; Friedman, A.

    1995-02-01

    The authors are exploring the use of Neural Networks, using the SNNS simulator, for orbit control in accelerators (primarily circular accelerators) and storage rings. The orbit of the beam in those machines are measured by orbit monitors (input nodes) and controlled by orbit corrector magnets (output nodes). The physical behavior of an accelerator is changing slowly in time. Thus, an adoptive algorithm is necessary. The goal is to have a trained net which will predict the exact corrector strengths which will minimize a measured orbit. The relationship between {open_quotes}kick{close_quotes} from the correctors and {open_quotes}response{close_quotes} from the monitors is in general non-linear and may slowly change during long-term operation of the machine. In the study, several network architectures are examined as well as various training methods for each architecture.

  10. Change in mutagenicity in white rice after accelerated and long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Pahulu, H F; Davidson, R T; Dunn, M L; Ogden, L V; Steele, F M; Pike, O A

    2007-03-01

    Certain reactions that occur in food during storage, such as nonenzymatic browning and lipid oxidation, form compounds that have been shown to be mutagenic. It is possible that over long storage periods, significant amounts of these products could be formed. Although some research has been published concerning the mutagenicity of foods due to processing or cooking, little research has been done regarding mutagenicity of foods stored for an extended time. The objective of this research was to determine the potential mutagenicity of white rice held in accelerated and long-term storage using the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. Fresh long-grain white rice was packaged in foil laminate pouches and held at 60 degrees C for 18 wk. Rice stored for > 25 y in an oxygen-free environment at or below room temperature in size number 10 cans was obtained from residential storage. The standard plate-incorporation method was used to evaluate the mutagenic potential of all treatments using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA102. Samples were plated at 5 dilutions with and without rat liver S9 enzyme. A solvent control was also plated for each strain. Treatments yielding counts at least double the solvent control level were considered mutagenic. Plate counts for all treatments fell well below the required doubling of the solvent control value. White rice held in accelerated and long-term storage appears not to increase in mutagenic compounds as measured by the Ames assay, supporting its use for long-term storage purposes such as emergency preparedness and humanitarian food aid. PMID:17995827

  11. Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Laisuo; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Xie, Fengchao; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates path dependence of lithium ion cells that are stored under static and non-static conditions. In the static storage tests, the levels of temperature and state of charge (SOC) are kept constant. The results of 12 tests from a combination of three temperatures and four SOCs show that, as expected, the cell ages faster at higher temperature and higher SOC. However, the cell aging mode, while consistent for all the evaluated temperatures, is different at 95% SOC from that at lower SOCs. In the non-static storage tests, the levels of temperature and SOC vary with time during the test process. The effect of the sequence of stress levels on cell aging is studied statistically using the statistical method of analysis of variation (ANOVA). It is found that cell capacity fade is path independent of both SOC and temperature, while cell resistance increase is path dependent on SOC and path independent of temperature. Finally, rate-based empirical aging models are adopted to fit the cell aging in the static storage tests. The aging model for capacity fade is demonstrated to be applicable to the non-static tests with errors between -3% and +3% for all the tested conditions over 180 days.

  12. Long-term storage life of light source modules by temperature cycling accelerated life test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningning, Sun; Manqing, Tan; Ping, Li; Jian, Jiao; Xiaofeng, Guo; Wentao, Guo

    2014-05-01

    Light source modules are the most crucial and fragile devices that affect the life and reliability of the interferometric fiber optic gyroscope (IFOG). While the light emitting chips were stable in most cases, the module packaging proved to be less satisfactory. In long-term storage or the working environment, the ambient temperature changes constantly and thus the packaging and coupling performance of light source modules are more likely to degrade slowly due to different materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion in the bonding interface. A constant temperature accelerated life test cannot evaluate the impact of temperature variation on the performance of a module package, so the temperature cycling accelerated life test was studied. The main failure mechanism affecting light source modules is package failure due to solder fatigue failure including a fiber coupling shift, loss of cooling efficiency and thermal resistor degradation, so the Norris-Landzberg model was used to model solder fatigue life and determine the activation energy related to solder fatigue failure mechanism. By analyzing the test data, activation energy was determined and then the mean life of light source modules in different storage environments with a continuously changing temperature was simulated, which has provided direct reference data for the storage life prediction of IFOG.

  13. MICROWAVE-ACCELERATED MULTICOMPONENT REACTIONS UNDER SOLVENT-FREE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of microwave-accelerated solventless synthetic protocols in multicomponent (MCC) reactions will be exemplified by several condensation and cyclization reactions including the rapid one-pot assembly of valuable heterocyclic compounds from in situ generated intermed...

  14. Hamiltonian methods for the study of polarized proton beam dynamics in accelerators and storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Balandin, V. |; Golubeva, N.

    1997-02-01

    The equations of classical spin-orbit motion can be extended to a {bold Hamiltonian system} in 9-dimensional phase space by introducing a coupled spin-orbit {bold Poisson bracket} (3) and {bold Hamiltonian function} (5). After this extension it becomes possible to apply the {bold methods of the theory of Hamiltonian systems} to the study of polarized particles beam dynamics in circular accelerators and storage rings. Some of those methods have been implemented in the computer code {bold FORGET-ME-NOT} [1], [2]. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Data acquisition, storage and control architecture for the SuperNova Acceleration Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Prosser, Alan; Cardoso, Guilherme; Chramowicz, John; Marriner, John; Rivera, Ryan; Turqueti, Marcos; /Fermilab

    2007-05-01

    The SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) instrument is being designed to collect image and spectroscopic data for the study of dark energy in the universe. In this paper, we describe a distributed architecture for the data acquisition system which interfaces to visible light and infrared imaging detectors. The architecture includes the use of NAND flash memory for the storage of exposures in a file system. Also described is an FPGA-based lossless data compression algorithm with a configurable pre-scaler based on a novel square root data compression method to improve compression performance. The required interactions of the distributed elements with an instrument control unit will be described as well.

  16. Cooperative high-performance storage in the accelerated strategic computing initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Mark; Howard, Barry; Louis, Steve; Minuzzo, Kim; Seager, Mark

    1996-01-01

    The use and acceptance of new high-performance, parallel computing platforms will be impeded by the absence of an infrastructure capable of supporting orders-of-magnitude improvement in hierarchical storage and high-speed I/O (Input/Output). The distribution of these high-performance platforms and supporting infrastructures across a wide-area network further compounds this problem. We describe an architectural design and phased implementation plan for a distributed, Cooperative Storage Environment (CSE) to achieve the necessary performance, user transparency, site autonomy, communication, and security features needed to support the Accelerated Strategic Computing Initiative (ASCI). ASCI is a Department of Energy (DOE) program attempting to apply terascale platforms and Problem-Solving Environments (PSEs) toward real-world computational modeling and simulation problems. The ASCI mission must be carried out through a unified, multilaboratory effort, and will require highly secure, efficient access to vast amounts of data. The CSE provides a logically simple, geographically distributed, storage infrastructure of semi-autonomous cooperating sites to meet the strategic ASCI PSE goal of highperformance data storage and access at the user desktop.

  17. The sensitivity of human mesenchymal stem cells to vibration and cold storage conditions representative of cold transportation

    PubMed Central

    Nikolaev, N. I.; Liu, Y.; Hussein, H.; Williams, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    In the current study, the mechanical and hypothermic damage induced by vibration and cold storage on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) stored at 2–8°C was quantified by measuring the total cell number and cell viability after exposure to vibration at 50 Hz (peak acceleration 140 m s−2 and peak displacement 1.4 mm), 25 Hz (peak acceleration 140 m s−2, peak displacement 5.7 mm), 10 Hz (peak acceleration 20 m s−2, peak displacement 5.1 mm) and cold storage for several durations. To quantify the viability of the cells, in addition to the trypan blue exclusion method, the combination of annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide was applied to understand the mode of cell death. Cell granularity and a panel of cell surface markers for stemness, including CD29, CD44, CD105 and CD166, were also evaluated for each condition. It was found that hMSCs were sensitive to vibration at 25 Hz, with moderate effects at 50 Hz and no effects at 10 Hz. Vibration at 25 Hz also increased CD29 and CD44 expression. The study further showed that cold storage alone caused a decrease in cell viability, especially after 48 h, and also increased CD29 and CD44 and attenuated CD105 expressions. Cell death would most likely be the consequence of membrane rupture, owing to necrosis induced by cold storage. The sensitivity of cells to different vibrations within the mechanical system is due to a combined effect of displacement and acceleration, and hMSCs with a longer cold storage duration were more susceptible to vibration damage, indicating a coupling between the effects of vibration and cold storage. PMID:22628214

  18. Ice storage rooftop retrofit for rooftop air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.J.; Jennings, L.W.

    1997-09-01

    A significant fraction of the floor space in commercial and federal buildings is cooled by single-package rooftop air conditioning units. These units are located on flat roofs and usually operate during the day under hot conditions. They are usually less energy efficient than a chiller system for building cooling. Several U.S. companies are developing systems that employ ice storage in conjunction with chillers to replace older, inefficient rooftop units for improved performance and minimal use of on-peak electricity. Although the low evaporator temperatures needed for ice making tend to reduce the efficiency of the chiller, the overall operating costs of the ice storage system may be lower than that of a packaged, conventional rooftop installation. One version of this concept, the Roofberg{reg_sign} System developed by the Calmac Corporation, was evaluated on a small building at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Roofberg system consists of a chiller, an ice storage tank, and one or more rooftop units whose evaporator coils have been adapted to use a glycol solution for cooling. The ice storage component decouples the cooling demand of the building from the operation of the chiller. Therefore, the chiller can operate at night (cooler, more efficient condensing temperatures) to meet a daytime cooling demand. This flexibility permits a smaller chiller to satisfy a larger peak cooling load. Further, the system can be operated to shift the cooling demand to off-peak hours when electricity from the utility is generated more efficiently and at lower cost. This Roofberg system was successfully installed last year on a small one-story office building in Oak Ridge and is currently being operated to cool the building. The building and system were sufficiently instrumented to allow a determination of the performance and efficiency of the Roofberg system. Although the energy efficiency of a simulated Roofberg storage/chiller concept operating in the

  19. Estimation of Attitude and External Acceleration Using Inertial Sensor Measurement During Various Dynamic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Keun; Park, Edward J.; Robinovitch, Stephen N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a Kalman filter-based attitude (i.e., roll and pitch) estimation algorithm using an inertial sensor composed of a triaxial accelerometer and a triaxial gyroscope. In particular, the proposed algorithm has been developed for accurate attitude estimation during dynamic conditions, in which external acceleration is present. Although external acceleration is the main source of the attitude estimation error and despite the need for its accurate estimation in many applications, this problem that can be critical for the attitude estimation has not been addressed explicitly in the literature. Accordingly, this paper addresses the combined estimation problem of the attitude and external acceleration. Experimental tests were conducted to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm in various dynamic condition settings and to provide further insight into the variations in the estimation accuracy. Furthermore, two different approaches for dealing with the estimation problem during dynamic conditions were compared, i.e., threshold-based switching approach versus acceleration model-based approach. Based on an external acceleration model, the proposed algorithm was capable of estimating accurate attitudes and external accelerations for short accelerated periods, showing its high effectiveness during short-term fast dynamic conditions. Contrariwise, when the testing condition involved prolonged high external accelerations, the proposed algorithm exhibited gradually increasing errors. However, as soon as the condition returned to static or quasi-static conditions, the algorithm was able to stabilize the estimation error, regaining its high estimation accuracy. PMID:22977288

  20. Improving protein array performance: focus on washing and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nidhi; Hurst, Robin; Hook, Brad; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Zhao, Kate Q; Nassif, Nadine; Bulleit, Robert F; Storts, Douglas R

    2008-10-01

    For protein microarrays, maintaining protein stability during the slide processing steps of washing, drying, and storage is of major concern. Although several studies have focused on the stability of immobilized antibodies in antibody microarrays, studies on protein-protein interaction arrays and enzyme arrays are lacking. In this paper we used five bait-prey protein interaction pairs and three enzymes to optimize the washing, drying, and storage conditions for protein arrays. The protein arrays for the study were fabricated by combining HaloTag technology and cell-free protein expression. The HaloTag technology, in combination with cell-free expression, allowed rapid expression and immobilization of fusion proteins on hydrogel-coated glass slides directly from cell extracts without any prior purification. Experimental results indicate enzyme captured on glass slides undergoes significant loss of activity when washed and spin-dried using only phosphate buffer, as is typically done with antibody arrays. The impact of washing and spin-drying in phosphate buffer on protein-protein interaction arrays was minimal. However, addition of 5% glycerol to the wash buffer helps retain enzyme activity during washing and drying. We observed significant loss of enzyme activity when slides were stored dry at 4 degrees C, however immobilized enzymes remained active for 30 days when stored at -20 degrees C in 50% glycerol. We also found that cell-free extract containing HaloTag-fused enzymes could undergo multiple freeze/thaw cycles without any adverse impact on enzyme activity. The findings indicate that for large ongoing studies, proteins of interest expressed in cell-free extract can be stored at -70 degrees C and repeatedly used to print small batches of protein array slides to be used over a few weeks.

  1. Analysis of oil content of Jatropha curcas seeds under storage condition.

    PubMed

    Sushma

    2014-05-01

    Jatropha curcas has been recognized as an ideal plant for biodiesel. There are unlimited reasons to consider Jatropha curcas a better tree borne oilseed plants than any other as it grows well on arid soils and entail minimal investment. The present study evaluates the effect of seed storage on quality and quantity of oil content such that it can be used for oil extraction and ensures availability of biodiesel throughout the year. The seeds were collected and stored at four temperatures viz. -5 °C, 0 °C, 5 °C and room temperature (open air condition) for 15 months of storage durations and evaluated at every three months interval. There was a significant decrease in oil content and oil quality with increase in storage duration. Although, the seed stored at temperature 5 °C gave the highest quality and quantity attributes at all durations. The first 3 months of storage account for the least decline as in the initial oil content in Kernel weight basis (54.61%) and seed weight basis (36.12%), there was a only decrease of 4.67% and 4.97% respectively at 5 °C whereas in other temperatures viz. -5 °C, 0 °C and room temperature (open air condition), there was a decline of 18.11, 14.48 and 9.06% in kernel weight basis and 18.36, 15.14 and 9.30% in seed weight basis respectively which accelerated with duration. Similarly, quality parameters viz. moisture content, acid value, iodine value, saponification value, refractive index (30 °C), relative viscosity and specific gravity were initially as 7.59%, 1.42 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 108.61 g l₂ 100 g⁻¹ oil, 189.37 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 1.466, 21.30 and 0.911 respectively which change to 13.71%, 1.74 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 107.95 g l₂ 100 g⁻¹ oil, 191.48 mg KOH g⁻¹ oil, 1.470, 23.45 and 0.918, respectively after 3 months of storage. Hence, change in quality and quantity parameters indicated the importance of proper seed storage on availability of bio-diesel throughout the year and economics in its processing i e

  2. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Spence, H. E.; Green, J. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for electron acceleration to >1 MeV energies in the heart of the outer radiation belt. We also evaluate chorus wave evolution using the superposed epoch analysis for the identified efficient and inefficient acceleration events and find that chorus wave intensity is much stronger and lasts longer during efficient electron acceleration events, supporting the scenario that chorus waves play a key role in MeV electron acceleration.

  3. Effects of Formulation Variables and Storage Conditions on Light Protected Vitamin B12 Mixed Parenteral Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Monajjemzadeh, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this research the effect of vitamin B1 and B6 on cyanocobalamin stability in commercial light protected parenteral formulations and upon adding stabilizing agents will be investigated and best formulation composition and proper storage condition will be introduced. Methods: In this research some additives such as co solvents and tonicity adjusters, surfactants, antioxidants and chelating agents as well as buffer solutions, were used to improve the stability of the parenteral mixed formulations of B12 in the presence of other B vitamins (B1 and B6). Screening tests and accelerated stability tests were performed according to ICH guidelines Q1A (R2). Results: Shelf life evaluation revealed the best formulation and the proper storage condition. The results indicated the first kinetic models for all tested formulations and the optimum pH value was determined to be 5.8. There was no evidence of B12 loss when mixed with B1 and B6 in a medical syringe at room temperature for maximum of 8 hours. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate vitamin B12 mixed parenteral solutions using proper phosphate buffers (pH=5.8) and to indicate “Store in refrigerator” on the mixed parenteral formulations of vitamin B12 with other B vitamins, which has not been expressed on the label of tested Brand formulations at the time of this study. PMID:25436187

  4. A program to accelerate the deployment of CO{sub 2} capture and storage: rational, objectives and cost

    SciTech Connect

    Vello A. Kuuskraa

    2007-10-15

    This White Paper, the first of a series, analyzes one strategy for accelerating the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) by the coal-fueled electricity generation industry. This strategy involves providing reimbursement for the incremental costs of installing and operating CCS systems, with reimbursement provided for retrofitting existing coal-fuelled electricity generation plants with CCS, incorporating CCS into new plants, and launching large-scale demonstrations of geologic storage of carbon. 14 refs., 4 figs., 23 tabs., 3 apps.

  5. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Esa, Norhaizan Mohd; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-05-09

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA). Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation.

  6. The Effectiveness of Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) Extract in Stabilization of Sunflower Oil under Accelerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Winne Sia Chiaw; Ismail, Amin; Mohd. Esa, Norhaizan; Akowuah, Gabriel Akyirem; Wai, Ho Chun; Seng, Yim Hip

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative properties of sunflower oil supplemented with rambutan extract, (crude extract and its fractionated fraction, SF II) in comparison with synthetic antioxidant were investigated. The supplemented sunflower oils were stored under accelerated conditions for 24 days at 60 °C. For every 6-day interval, the oxidative properties of the supplemented sunflower oil were evaluated based on the following tests, namely peroxide value, p-anisidine value, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) assay, iodine value and free fatty acids. The total oxidation (TOTOX) values were also calculated based on the peroxide values and p-anisidine values. Rambutan extract is a potential source of antioxidant. The oxidative activities of the extracts at all concentrations were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control. Generally, the partially fractionated fraction was more effective than the crude extract. With a 2-year storage period at ambient temperature, the fractionated fraction of the extract, SF II at 300 ppm, was observed to work more effectively than the synthetic antioxidant, t-Tocopherol, and it possessed a protective effect comparable with butylatedhydrioxynanisole (BHA). Therefore, rambutan extract could be used as a potential alternative source of antioxidant in the oil industry or other fat-based products to delay lipid oxidation. PMID:26784877

  7. Water depression storage under different tillage conditions: measuring and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez, R.; Campo, M. A.; González-Audicana, M.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Casalí, J.

    2012-04-01

    Water storage in surface depressions (DS) is an important process which affects infiltration, runoff and erosion. Since DS is driven by micro relief, in agricultural soils DS is much affected by tillage and by the direction of tillage rows in relation to the main slope. A direct and accurate measurement of DS requires making the soil surface waterproof -soil is very permeable especially under tillage- but preserving all details of the soil roughness including aggregates over the soil surface (micro-roughness). All this is a very laborious and time-consuming task. That is why hydrological and erosion models for DS estimation normally use either empirical relationships based on some roughness index or numerical approaches. The aim of this work was (i) to measure directly in the field the DS of a soil under different tillage conditions and (ii) to assess the performance of existing empirical 2D models and of a numerical 2D algorithm for DS estimation. Three types of tillage classes (mouldbard+roller, roller compacted and chisel) in 2 tillage directions (parallel and perpendicular to the main slope) were assessed in an experimental hillslope (10% slope) which defines then 6 treatments. Experiments were carried out in 12, 1-m2 micro-plots delimited by metal sheets; that is, a pair of repetitions for each treatment. In each plot, soil surface was gently impregnated with a waterproof, white paint but without altering micro-roughness. A known amount of water (stained with a blue dye) was poured all over the surface with a measuring cup. The excess water was captured in a gutter and measured. Soon after finishing the experiment, pictures of the surface was taken in order to analyze water storage pattern (from stained water) by image processing. Besides, longitudinal height profiles were measured using a laser profilemeter. Finally, infiltration rate was measured near the plot using a double ring infiltrometer. For all the treatments, DS ranged from 2 mm to 17 mm. For the

  8. Impact of storage under ambient conditions on the vitamin content of dehydrated vegetables.

    PubMed

    Peñas, Elena; Sidro, Beatiz; Ullate, Mónica; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción; Frias, Juana

    2013-04-01

    The consumption of dehydrated vegetables, which provides an important source of vitamins, is increasing worldwide. Dehydrated vegetables are located on non-refrigerated shelves in food shops and, therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand the modifications that take place in the content of these labile micronutrients at the ambient conditions currently found in food shops. The present study discusses the effect of storage for 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on the content of thiamin and vitamin C in different commercial and pilot plant dehydrated garlic, onions, potatoes and carrots in darkness at room temperature under vacuum conditions. The content of β-carotene under these conditions was also studied in dehydrated carrots. Thiamin remained stable over the first 3 months of storage (∼90% retention), while long-term storage led to larger losses (retention of 85% in garlic and 45% in commercial carrots after 12 months of storage). The content of vitamin C drastically decreased during the storage period and even disappeared in some dried onions and carrots following 12 months of storage. Storage for 6 months at ambient conditions preserved 80-90% of the β-carotene content in dehydrated vegetables, while long-term storage led to significant β-carotene degradation (retentions between 43 and 81%). These results suggest that vitamins are gradually lost during storage at the practical conditions in food shops and will thus provide relevant information concerning dried vegetables, so manufacturers may calculate shelf life under established storage conditions.

  9. Benefits of rice seed priming are offset permanently by prolonged storage and the storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Zheng, Manman; Khan, Fahad; Khaliq, Abdul; Fahad, Shah; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2015-01-01

    Seed priming is a commercially successful practice, but reduced longevity of primed seeds during storage may limit its application. We established a series of experiments on rice to test: (1) whether prolonged storage of primed and non-primed rice seeds for 210 days at 25°C or -4°C would alter their viability, (2) how long primed rice seed would potentially remain viable at 25°C storage, and (3) whether or not post-storage treatments (re-priming or heating) would reinstate the viability of stored primed seeds. Two different rice cultivars and three priming agents were used in all experiments. Prolonged storage of primed seeds at 25°C significantly reduced the germination (>90%) and growth attributes (>80%) of rice compared with un-stored primed seeds. However, such negative effects were not observed in primed seeds stored at -4°C. Beneficial effects of seed priming were maintained only for 15 days of storage at 25°C, beyond which the performance of primed seeds was worse even than non-primed seeds. The deteriorative effects of 25°C storage were related with hampered starch metabolism in primed rice seeds. None of the post-storage treatments could reinstate the lost viability of primed seeds suggesting that seeds become unviable by prolonged post-priming storage at 25°C.

  10. Effects of flavorings, storage conditions, and storage time on survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese.

    PubMed

    Masatcioğlu, Tuğrul M; Avşar, Yahya K

    2005-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the cumulative effects of flavorings (chili pepper, thyme, mint, cumin, nutmeg, allspice, clove, cinnamon, black pepper, salt, and hot red pepper paste), storage conditions, and storage time on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese and to monitor the associated chemical changes. Sürk cheese, a traditional Turkish cheese, was produced by heating diluted nonfat yogurt and adding flavorings to the resultant acid-heat curd. The cheese was later inoculated with S. aureus, shaped conically, and stored aerobically for mold growth and anaerobically in olive oil for 30 days at room temperature. The moisture content of aerobically stored cheese decreased over time and led to increases in total solids, salt, salt-in-moisture, and ash content during ripening (P < 0.05). The presence or absence of the flavorings had no significant effect, whereas storage conditions and storage duration decreased the survival of S. aureus (P < 0.05).

  11. Influence of boundary conditions on the radiation emitted by an accelerated source

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Danilo T.; Crispino, Luis C. B.; Lima, Marcelo C. de; Higuchi, Atsushi

    2010-03-15

    We analyze how the radiation emitted by an accelerated source minimally coupled to a massless real scalar field is influenced by the boundary conditions imposed on the field. We find that the response rate of the accelerated source in the presence of nearby boundaries parallel to the direction of the source's motion can be suppressed or enhanced depending on whether Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions are imposed on the field. We conclude that the response rate strongly depends on the kind of boundary conditions imposed, just as the sign of the Casimir force depends on the boundary conditions imposed on the field.

  12. Experimental investigation on performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Guiyin; Liu, Xu; Wu, Shuangmao

    2009-11-15

    An experimental study on operation performance of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is conducted in this paper. The experimental system of ice storage air-conditioning system with separate heat pipe is set up. The performance parameters such as the evaporation pressure and the condensation pressure of refrigeration system, the refrigeration capacity and the COP (coefficient of performance) of the system, the IPF (ice packing factor) and the cool storage capacity in the cool storage tank during charging period, and the cool discharge rate and the cool discharge capacity in the cool storage tank, the outlet water temperature in the cool storage tank and the outlet air temperature in room unit during discharging period are investigated. The experimental results show that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe can stably work during charging and discharging period. This indicates that the ice storage air-conditioning system with separate helical heat pipe is well adapted to cool storage air-conditioning systems in building. (author)

  13. Stabilization of soybean oil during accelerated storage by essential oil of ferulago angulata boiss.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ehsan; Mahtabani, Aidin; Etminan, Alireza; Karami, Farahnaz

    2016-02-01

    This study has been considered effect of Ferulago angulata essential oil on stabilizing soybean oil during accelerated storage. The essential oil was extracted by Clevenger-type apparatus. For analysis of the essential oil, GC/MS was used. Main components of the essential oil were monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of F. angulata at four concentrations, i.e. 125 (SBO-125), 250 (SBO-250), 500 (SBO-500) and SBO-Mixture (60 ppm TBHQ +60 ppm essential oil) were added to preheated refined soybean oil. TBHQ was used at 120 ppm as standard besides the control. Antioxidant activity index (AAI), free fatty acid (FFA) content, peroxide value (PV) and p-anisidine value (p-AnV) were served for appreciation of efficacy of F. angulata in stabilization of soybean oil. Results from different tests showed that SBO-mixture had highest effect and followed by SBO-TBHQ, SBO-250, SBO-125, SBO-500 and Ctrl. These results reveal F. angulata is a strong antioxidant and can be used instead of synthetic antioxidant.

  14. Observation of electron cloud instabilities and emittance dilution at the Cornell electron-positron Storage ring Test Accelerator

    DOE PAGES

    Holtzapple, R. L.; Billing, M. G.; Campbell, R. C.; Dugan, G. F.; Flanagan, J.; McArdle, K. E.; Miller, M. I.; Palmer, M. A.; Ramirez, G. A.; Sonnad, K. G.; et al

    2016-04-11

    Electron cloud related emittance dilution and instabilities of bunch trains limit the performance of high intensity circular colliders. One of the key goals of the Cornell electron-positron storage ring Test Accelerator (CesrTA) research program is to improve our understanding of how the electron cloud alters the dynamics of bunches within the train. Single bunch beam diagnostics have been developed to measure the beam spectra, vertical beam size, two important dynamical effects of beams interacting with the electron cloud, for bunch trains on a turn-by-turn basis. Experiments have been performed at CesrTA to probe the interaction of the electron cloud withmore » stored positron bunch trains. The purpose of these experiments was to characterize the dependence of beam-electron cloud interactions on the machine parameters such as bunch spacing, vertical chromaticity, and bunch current. The beam dynamics of the stored beam, in the presence of the electron cloud, was quantified using: 1) a gated beam position monitor (BPM) and spectrum analyzer to measure the bunch-by-bunch frequency spectrum of the bunch trains, 2) an x-ray beam size monitor to record the bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn vertical size of each bunch within the trains. In this study we report on the observations from these experiments and analyze the effects of the electron cloud on the stability of bunches in a train under many different operational conditions.« less

  15. Observation of Electron Cloud Instabilities and Emittance Dilution at the Cornell Electron-Positron Storage Ring Test Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtzapple, R. L.; Billing, M. G.; Campbell, R. C.; Dugan, G. F.; Flanagan, J.; McArdle, K. E.; Miller, M. I.; Palmer, M. A.; Ramirez, G. A.; Sonnad, K. G.; Totten, M. M.; Tucker, S. L.; Williams, H. A.

    2016-04-01

    Electron cloud related emittance dilution and instabilities of bunch trains limit the performance of high intensity circular colliders. One of the key goals of the Cornell electron-positron storage ring Test Accelerator (CesrTA) research program is to improve our understanding of how the electron cloud alters the dynamics of bunches within the train. Single bunch beam diagnotics have been developed to measure the beam spectra, vertical beam size, two important dynamical effects of beams interacting with the electron cloud, for bunch trains on a turn-by-turn basis. Experiments have been performed at CesrTA to probe the interaction of the electron cloud with stored positron bunch trains. The purpose of these experiments was to characterize the dependence of beam-electron cloud interactions on the machine parameters such as bunch spacing, vertical chromaticity, and bunch current. The beam dynamics of the stored beam, in the presence of the electron cloud, was quantified using: 1) a gated beam position monitor (BPM) and spectrum analyzer to measure the bunch-by-bunch frequency spectrum of the bunch trains; 2) an x-ray beam size monitor to record the bunch-by-bunch, turn-by-turn vertical size of each bunch within the trains. In this paper we report on the observations from these experiments and analyze the effects of the electron cloud on the stability of bunches in a train under many different operational conditions.

  16. EFFECT OF STORAGE TIME AND STORAGE CONDITIONS ON ANTIBODY DETECTION IN BLOOD SAMPLES COLLECTED ON FILTER PAPER.

    PubMed

    Bevins, Sarah; Pappert, Ryan; Young, John; Schmit, Brandon; Kohler, Dennis; Baeten, Laurie

    2016-07-01

    Using filter paper to collect blood from wildlife for antibody analysis can be a powerful technique to simplify the collection, transport, and storage of blood samples. Despite these advantages, there are limited data that detail how long these samples can be stored and how storage conditions affect antibody longevity. We used blood samples collected on filter paper from coyotes experimentally infected with Yersinia pestis to determine optimum sample storage conditions over time. Blood samples collected on filter paper were stored for 454 d or more in four groups: 1) at ambient temperature and at ambient relative humidity, 2) at ambient temperature with desiccant, 3) at 4 C with desiccant, and 4) at -20 C with desiccant. Samples stored at 4 C or -20 C with desiccant had detectable antibody for a longer period of time than the samples stored at room temperature. PMID:27187032

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of the Off-Normal Conditions of the SPIDER Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Chitarin, G.; Marconato, N.; Pilan, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Cavenago, M.

    2011-09-26

    In the context of the development of the 1 MV neutral beam injector for the ITER tokamak, the study on beam formation and acceleration has considerable importance. This effort includes the ion source and accelerator SPIDER (Source for Production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from an Rf plasma) ion source, planned to be built in Padova, and designed to extract and accelerate a 355 A/m{sup 2} current of H{sup -}(or 285 A/m{sup 2} D{sup -}) up to 100 kV. Exhaustive simulations were already carried out during the accelerator optimization leading to the present design. However, as it is expected that the accelerator shall operate also in case of pre-programmed or undesired off-normal conditions, the investigation of a large set of off-normal scenarios is necessary. These analyses will also be useful for the evaluation of the real performances of the machine, and should help in interpreting experimental results, or in identifying dangerous operating conditions.The present contribution offers an overview of the results obtained during the investigation of these off-normal conditions, by means of different modeling tools and codes. The results, showed a good flexibility of the device in different operating conditions. Where the consequences of the abnormalities appeared to be problematic further analysis were addressed.

  18. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Spence, H. E.; Green, J. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for electron acceleration to >1 MeV energies in the heart of the outermore » radiation belt. We also evaluate chorus wave evolution using the superposed epoch analysis for the identified efficient and inefficient acceleration events and find that chorus wave intensity is much stronger and lasts longer during efficient electron acceleration events, supporting the scenario that chorus waves play a key role in MeV electron acceleration.« less

  19. Corrosion behavior of modified nano carbon black/epoxy coating in accelerated conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi-Kahrizsangi, Ahmad; Shariatpanahi, Homeira; Neshati, Jaber; Akbarinezhad, Esmaeil

    2015-03-01

    The electrochemical behavior and anticorrosion properties of modified carbon black (CB) nanoparticles in epoxy coatings were investigated in accelerated conditions. Nanoparticles of CB were modified by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as surfactant. Dispersion of nanoparticles into epoxy was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The accelerated condition was prepared at 65 °C. CB nanoparticles improved corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating. The optimum concentration of CB in the epoxy coating was 0.75 wt%. Results showed that the CB hinder the corrosion due to its barrier properties. CB can decrease the diffusion coefficient of water in the coating with filling the micropores.

  20. Off-normal and failure condition analysis of the MITICA negative-ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitarin, Giuseppe; Agostinetti, Piero; Aprile, Daniele; Marconato, Nicolò; Marcuzzi, Diego; Serianni, Gianluigi; Veltri, Pierluigi; Zaccaria, Pierluigi

    2016-02-01

    The negative-ion accelerator for the MITICA neutral beam injector has been designed and optimized in order to reduce the thermo-mechanical stresses in all components below limits compatible with the required fatigue life. However, deviation from the expected beam performances can be caused by "off-normal" operating conditions of the accelerator. The purpose of the present work is to identify and analyse all the "off-normal" operating conditions, which could possibly become critical in terms of thermo-mechanical stresses or of degradation of the optical performances of the beam.

  1. Off-normal and failure condition analysis of the MITICA negative-ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Chitarin, Giuseppe; Agostinetti, Piero; Aprile, Daniele; Marconato, Nicolò; Marcuzzi, Diego; Serianni, Gianluigi; Veltri, Pierluigi; Zaccaria, Pierluigi

    2016-02-01

    The negative-ion accelerator for the MITICA neutral beam injector has been designed and optimized in order to reduce the thermo-mechanical stresses in all components below limits compatible with the required fatigue life. However, deviation from the expected beam performances can be caused by "off-normal" operating conditions of the accelerator. The purpose of the present work is to identify and analyse all the "off-normal" operating conditions, which could possibly become critical in terms of thermo-mechanical stresses or of degradation of the optical performances of the beam. PMID:26932039

  2. On Spin-Statistics and Bogoliubov Transformations in Flat Space-Time with Acceleration Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Michael R. R.

    2013-01-01

    A single real scalar field of spin zero obeying the Klein-Gordon equation in flat space-time under external conditions is considered in the context of the spin-statistics connection. An imposed accelerated boundary on the field is made to become, in the far future, (1) asymptotically inertial and (2) asymptotically noninertial (with an infinite acceleration). The constant acceleration Unruh effect is also considered. The systems involving nontrivial Bogoliubov transformations contain dynamics which point to commutation relations. Particles described by in-modes obey the same statistics as particles described by out-modes. It is found in the nontrivial systems that the spin-statistics connection can be manifest from the acceleration. The equation of motion for the boundary which forever emits thermal radiation is revealed.

  3. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  4. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  5. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  6. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask renewal. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  7. 10 CFR 72.240 - Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions for spent fuel storage cask reapproval. 72.240 Section 72.240 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS...

  8. Storage conditions affecting increase in falling number of soft red winter wheat grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Falling number (FN) of wheat grain, a measure of preharvest sprouting, tends to increase during storage; however, grain and storage conditions that impact FN changes are poorly understood. Wheat grain samples of varying FN from several cultivars were obtained by malting, by incubating wheat stalks,...

  9. Development of an RF Conditioning System for Charged-Particle Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Yoon W; Howlader, Mostofa; Shajedul Hasan, Dr. S. M.

    2008-01-01

    Charged-particle accelerators use various vacuum windows on their accelerating radio-frequency (RF) cavities to throughput very high RF power. Before being placed on the cavities, the windows should be cleaned, baked, and fully RF conditioned to prevent a poor vacuum from outgassing, as well as other forms of contamination. An example is the coaxial fundamental power coupler (FPC) with an annular alumina ceramic window for each of the 81 superconducting RF cavities in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) linear accelerator. The FPCs needed to be tested up to 650-kW peak in a traveling wave and 2.6 MW with standing wave peaks in 1.3 and 60 pulses/s at 805 MHz. In this paper, an Experimental-Physics-and-Industrial-Control-System-based RF conditioning system for the SNS RF test facility is presented. This paper summarizes the hardware and software design strategies, provides the results obtained, and describes the future research scope.

  10. Newborn Screening for Lysosomal Storage Disorders and Other Neuronopathic Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matern, Dietrich; Oglesbee, Devin; Tortorelli, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) is a public health program aimed at identifying treatable conditions in presymptomatic newborns to avoid premature mortality, morbidity, and disabilities. Currently, every newborn in the Unites States is screened for at least 29 conditions where evidence suggests that early detection is possible and beneficial. With new or…

  11. Effect of storage conditions on microbiological and physicochemical quality of shea butter.

    PubMed

    Honfo, Fernande; Hell, Kerstin; Akissoé, Noël; Coulibaly, Ousmane; Fandohan, Pascal; Hounhouigan, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Storage conditions are key constraints for quality assurance of the shea (Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertner) butter. In the Sudan savannah Africa, storage conditions of butter produced by women vary across and among processors, traders and consumers. These conditions could impact the quality of the products and reduced their access to international market. The present study attempted to investigate the effect of storage duration and packaging materials on microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of shea butter under tropical climatic conditions. Five packaging materials traditionally used in shea butter value chain were tested for their efficacy in storing shea butter freshly produced. Total germs, yeasts and mould varied with packaging materials and storage duration. After 2 months of storage, moisture content of butter remained constant (5%) whereas acid value increased from 3.3 to 5.4 mg KOH/g, peroxide value from 8.1 to 10.1 meq O2/kg and iodine value dropped from 48.8 to 46.2 mg I2/100 g in shea butter irrespectively to the storage materials used. The basket papered with jute bag was the less effective in ensuring the quality of butter during storage while plastic containers and plastic bags seemed to be the best packaging materials. PMID:23572746

  12. Effects of flavorings, storage conditions, and storage time on survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese.

    PubMed

    Masatcioğlu, Tuğrul M; Avşar, Yahya K

    2005-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the cumulative effects of flavorings (chili pepper, thyme, mint, cumin, nutmeg, allspice, clove, cinnamon, black pepper, salt, and hot red pepper paste), storage conditions, and storage time on the survival of Staphylococcus aureus in Sürk cheese and to monitor the associated chemical changes. Sürk cheese, a traditional Turkish cheese, was produced by heating diluted nonfat yogurt and adding flavorings to the resultant acid-heat curd. The cheese was later inoculated with S. aureus, shaped conically, and stored aerobically for mold growth and anaerobically in olive oil for 30 days at room temperature. The moisture content of aerobically stored cheese decreased over time and led to increases in total solids, salt, salt-in-moisture, and ash content during ripening (P < 0.05). The presence or absence of the flavorings had no significant effect, whereas storage conditions and storage duration decreased the survival of S. aureus (P < 0.05). PMID:16013393

  13. Storage quality of shelled green peas under modified atmosphere packaging at different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Anurag, Rahul K; Manjunatha, M; Jha, Shyam Narayan; Kumari, Leena

    2016-03-01

    Storage quality of shelled green peas (Pisum sativum var. sativum L) was investigated under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP: perforated and non perforated) compared to unsealed samples, respectively, at T1 (4 ± 1 °C and 94 ± 2 % RH) and T2 (10 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 2 % RH) for each sample and during period of storage (8, 16 and 24 days). Modified atmosphere (MA) was created using low density polyethylene (LDPE) film packages having 107 μm of film thickness and package size of 0.022 m(2). Quality parameters viz., weight loss (WL), total phenolic content (TPC), instrumental colour, ascorbic acid (AA) and sensory characteristics were evaluated during storage period. Weight loss was in the range of 0.18 to 3.54 (zero perforation at T1), 0.21 to 6.48(unsealed samples at T2) and 0.31 to 9.64 % (zero perforation at T1) after 8, 16 and 24 days of storage, respectively. Total phenolic content significantly increased to 102.47-161.54 mg/100 g from an initial value of 91.53 mg/100 g for all the samples and treatments studied. The MAP non perforated sample stored at T2 recorded maximum Hunter 'L' and '-a' colour values than all other samples. A significant decrease in AA content was observed in all the samples with maximum loss (53.77 %) in unsealed sample stored at T2, whereas MAP (3 perforations) sample stored at T1 retained maximum AA (90.50 %). Sensory quality analysis revealed that MAP (3 perforations) sample stored at T1 was in acceptable quality, with good appearance and overall acceptance. The study shows that shelled green peas can be stored in MAP with 3 perforations (0.4 mm dia) in the temperature range of 4 to 10 °C and 90-94 % RH to extend shelf life with marketable quality for 24 days. PMID:27570289

  14. Effect of Pre-treatment and Storage Conditions on the Quality Characteristics of Ginger Paste

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Kyung-A; Kim, Byeong-Sam; Ku, Kyung-Hyung

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of pre-treatment and storage temperature and periods on the quality characteristics of ginger paste. The pH of the ginger paste remained constant during room temperature storage but increased with prolonged refrigerated storage periods. During five months of frozen storage, regardless of pre-treatment, the pH of most of the samples decreased slightly and then remained constant. In the color value of ginger paste stored at room temperature, the samples with and without chemical additives changed in color more prominently than fermented or pasteurized samples. Intriguingly, the color value for samples containing chemical additives changed more dramatically when stored under refrigerated conditions. However, the L, a, and b values of samples stored under frozen storage conditions did not change even after ten months. Most of the samples contained glucose and fructose, except for the fermented samples. The free sugar content of samples slowly decreased with increasing storage periods, while the organic acid content generally decreased also, regardless of sample type. Depending on pre-treatment and storage temperature, the gingerol content of the samples was either retained or decreased with prolonged storage time. PMID:24471062

  15. Cleaning and vacuum conditioning of RF cavities, proton storage rings and synchrotron radiation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathewson, A. G.; Andritschky, M.; Grillot, A.; Gröbner, O.; Strubin, P.; Souchet, R.

    1990-02-01

    The optimization of a chemical cleaning method for Al alloy vacuum chambers using as criteria: surface analysis, thermal outgassing, electron, X-ray and synchrotron radiation induced neutral gas desorption, is described. The results of the vaccuum conditioning of the 128 radio-frequency (RF) accelerating cavities for the CERN LEP e+e- storage ring are presented. The gases desorbed with RF were H2, CH4, CO and CO2 and their decrease with running time recorded. Argon glow discharge cleaning of stainless-steel UHV chambers revealed that up to 77 monolayers of gas—mainly CO—could be desorbed from the surface. Measurements of the so-called roughness factor—the real surface area seen by the adsorbed gas—gave numbers as high as 15 for stainless-steel, thus only about 5 monolayers of gas are desorbed. In a dedicated beam line at the DCI storage ring at the LURE Laboratory, Orsay, France, synchrotron radiation induced neutral gas desorption from baked Al alloy and stainless-steel chambers was measured under controlled conditions. The gases desorbed were H2, CH4, CO and CO2 and with time the H2 and CO desorption descreased as D-1/2 where D is the radiation beam dose in mA hours. A model of gas diffusion from near surface layers and from the bulk to the surface which determined the desorption characteristics was proposed. This model well described the behavior of the desorption for H2. Measurements of the photoelectron currents produced at 11 mrad glancing angle of incidence and also at normal incidence, when compared with calculation, showed differences which could be explained if the photons with energies below about 1.5 keV were reflected at 11 mrad with a reflectivity approaching 1. In a special test chamber equipped with sets of photoelectron probes, it was established that, at glancing angles of incidence of 11, 20 and 40 mrad, up to 20% of the synchrotron radiation is scattered around the vacuum chamber from the point of impact.

  16. Key conditions for stable ion radiation pressure acceleration by circularly polarized laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, B.; Zepf, M.; Gibbon, P.; Borghesi, M.; Schreiber, J.; Geissler, M.

    2011-05-01

    Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) theoretically may have great potential to revolutionize the study of laserdriven ion accelerators due to its high conversion efficiency and ability to produce high-quality monoenergetic ion beams. However, the instability issue of ion acceleration has been appeared to be a fundamental limitation of the RPA scheme. To solve this issue is very important to the experimental realization and exploitation of this new scheme. In our recent work, we have identified the key condition for efficient and stable ion RPA from thin foils by CP laser pulses, in particular, at currently available moderate laser intensities. That is, the ion beam should remain accompanied with enough co-moving electrons to preserve a local "bunching" electrostatic field during the acceleration. In the realistic LS RPA, the decompression of the co-moving electron layer leads to a change of local electrostatic field from a "bunching" to a "debunching" profile, resulting in premature termination of acceleration. One possible scheme to achieve stable RPA is using a multi-species foil. Two-dimensional PIC simulations show that 100 MeV/u monoenergetic C6+ and/or proton beams are produced by irradiation of a contaminated copper foil with CP lasers at intensities 5 × 1020W/cm2, achievable by current day lasers.

  17. Acceleration of dormant storage effects to address the reliability of silicon surface micromachined Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, James V.; Candelaria, Sam A.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Duesterhaus, Michelle Ann; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Timpe, Shannon J.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Skousen, Troy J.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Parson, Ted Blair

    2006-06-01

    Qualification of microsystems for weapon applications is critically dependent on our ability to build confidence in their performance, by predicting the evolution of their behavior over time in the stockpile. The objective of this work was to accelerate aging mechanisms operative in surface micromachined silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with contacting surfaces that are stored for many years prior to use, to determine the effects of aging on reliability, and relate those effects to changes in the behavior of interfaces. Hence the main focus was on 'dormant' storage effects on the reliability of devices having mechanical contacts, the first time they must move. A large number ({approx}1000) of modules containing prototype devices and diagnostic structures were packaged using the best available processes for simple electromechanical devices. The packaging processes evolved during the project to better protect surfaces from exposure to contaminants and water vapor. Packages were subjected to accelerated aging and stress tests to explore dormancy and operational environment effects on reliability and performance. Functional tests and quantitative measurements of adhesion and friction demonstrated that the main failure mechanism during dormant storage is change in adhesion and friction, precipitated by loss of the fluorinated monolayer applied after fabrication. The data indicate that damage to the monolayer can occur at water vapor concentrations as low as 500 ppm inside the package. The most common type of failure was attributed to surfaces that were in direct contact during aging. The application of quantitative methods for monolayer lubricant analysis showed that even though the coverage of vapor-deposited monolayers is generally very uniform, even on hidden surfaces, locations of intimate contact can be significantly depleted in initial concentration of lubricating molecules. These areas represent defects in the film prone to adsorption of water or

  18. Design and demonstration of a storage-assisted air conditioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzuto, J. E.

    1981-03-01

    The system is a peak-shaving system designed to provide a levelized air conditioning load. The system also requires minimum air conditioner and thermal storage capacity. The storage-assisted air conditioning system uses a Glauber's salt-based phase change material in sausage like containers called CHUBS. The CHUBS are two (2) inches in diameter and 20 inches long. They are stacked in modules of 64 CHUBS which are appropriately spaced and oriented in the storage system so that air may pass perpendicular to the long axis of the CHUBS. The phase change material, has a thermal storage capacity in the range of 45 to 50 Btu/lb and a transition temperature of approximately 55 F.

  19. High pressure treatments accelerate changes in volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wine during bottle storage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mickael C; Nunes, Cláudia; Rocha, M Angélica M; Rodrigues, Ana; Rocha, Sílvia M; Saraiva, Jorge A; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-12-01

    The impact of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wines during bottle storage was studied. For this purpose, white and red wines were produced without sulphur dioxide (SO2) and, at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, the wines were pressurised at 500 MPa and 425 MPa for 5 min. Wine with 40 ppm of SO2 and a wine without a preservation treatment were used as controls. More than 160 volatile compounds, distributed over 12 chemical groups, were identified in the wines by an advanced gas chromatography technique. The pressurised wines contained a higher content of furans, aldehydes, ketones, and acetals, compared with unpressurised wines after 9 months of storage. The changes in the volatile composition indicate that HHP treatments accelerated the Maillard reaction, and alcohol and fatty acid oxidation, leading to wines with a volatile composition similar to those of faster aged and/or thermally treated wines.

  20. Linking GRACE-Derived Water Storage Accelerations to Changes in Hydro-Mteorological Fluxes over West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusche, J.; Eicker, A.; Springer, A.; Forootan, E.; Jütten, T.; Diekkrüger, B.

    2015-12-01

    Several researchers have postulated that, under a changing climate, an intensification of the water cycle is under way. This is usually related to increases in hydrological fluxes such as precipitation (P), evapotranspiration (E), and discharge (R). It is under debate, however, whether such observed or reconstructed flux changes are real for West Africa and on what scale. Large-scale increase or decrease of the flux deficit P-E-R, i.e. flux changes that do not compensate, would lead to acceleration or deceleration of water storage potentially visible in GRACE-derived time series. In agreement with earlier studies, we do find accelerations in global maps of gridded GRACE water storage anomalies (Eicker et al., submitted). For sub-Sahel West Africa such accelerations amount up to 7 mm/a2; i.e. statistically significant even seen the short GRACE record. However, W Africa water storage variability is strongly controlled by sea surface temperature and precipitation (Forootan et al., 2014), and interannual/decadal climate variability may mask long-term changes e.g. related to land use change. Yet, here we show that even after isolating and removing a global climate mode in the GRACE data that appears ENSO-related, using a new method, the observed signal over W Africa remains. We can explain this effect only partly with changing surface water levels (Volta reservoir). We then repeat our analysis with flux fields from global atmospheric reanalysis that include land surface models in online (ERA-Interim, CFSR) and off-line (MERRA-Land) mode, and TRMM precipitation data. We find that these fields show surprising skills in reconstructing water storage variability at the monthly timescale when compared to GRACE. In contrast, in particular ERA-Interim falls short in displaying trends that would correspond to GRACE accelerations. We hypothesize this may be due to time-varying biases in the reanalysis-generated fluxes as noticed in other studies. Essentially we conclude that

  1. Electron Acceleration in a Dynamically Evolved Current Sheet Under Solar Coronal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Du, A. M.; Feng, Xueshang; Cao, Xin; Lu, Quanming; Yang, Liping; Chen, Gengxiong; Zhang, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Electron acceleration in a drastically evolved current sheet under solar coronal conditions is investigated via the combined 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and test-particle approaches. Having a high magnetic Reynolds number (105), the long, thin current sheet is torn into a chain of magnetic islands, which grow in size and coalesce with each other. The acceleration of electrons is explored in three typical evolution phases: when several large magnetic islands are formed (phase 1), two of these islands are approaching each other (phase 2), and almost merging into a "monster" magnetic island (phase 3). The results show that for all three phases electrons with an initial Maxwell distribution evolve into a heavy-tailed distribution and more than 20 % of the electrons can be accelerated higher than 200 keV within 0.1 second and some of them can even be energized up to MeV ranges. The lower-energy electrons are located away from the magnetic separatrices and the higher-energy electrons are inside the magnetic islands. The most energetic electrons have a tendency to be around the outer regions of the magnetic islands or to appear in the small secondary magnetic islands. It is the trapping effect of the magnetic islands and the distributions of E p that determine the acceleration and spatial distributions of the energetic electrons.

  2. Influence of storage conditions on the growth of Pseudomonas species in refrigerated raw milk.

    PubMed

    De Jonghe, Valerie; Coorevits, An; Van Hoorde, Koenraad; Messens, Winy; Van Landschoot, Anita; De Vos, Paul; Heyndrickx, Marc

    2011-01-01

    The refrigerated storage of raw milk throughout the dairy chain prior to heat treatment creates selective conditions for growth of psychrotolerant bacteria. These bacteria, mainly belonging to the genus Pseudomonas, are capable of producing thermoresistant extracellular proteases and lipases, which can cause spoilage and structural defects in pasteurized and ultra-high-temperature-treated milk (products). To map the influence of refrigerated storage on the growth of these pseudomonads, milk samples were taken after the first milking turn and incubated laboratory scale at temperatures simulating optimal and suboptimal preprocessing storage conditions. The outgrowth of Pseudomonas members was monitored over time by means of cultivation-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Isolates were identified by a polyphasic approach. These incubations revealed that outgrowth of Pseudomonas members occurred from the beginning of the dairy chain (farm tank) under both optimal and suboptimal storage conditions. An even greater risk for outgrowth, as indicated by a vast increase of about 2 log CFU per ml raw milk, existed downstream in the chain, especially when raw milk was stored under suboptimal conditions. This difference in Pseudomonas outgrowth between optimal and suboptimal storage was already statistically significant within the farm tank. The predominant taxa were identified as Pseudomonas gessardii, Pseudomonas gessardii-like, Pseudomonas fluorescens-like, Pseudomonas lundensis, Pseudomonas fragi, and Pseudomonas fragi-like. Those taxa show an important spoilage potential as determined on elective media for proteolysis and lipolysis. PMID:21115713

  3. Peptide storage: are you getting the best return on your investment? Defining optimal storage conditions for proteomics samples.

    PubMed

    Kraut, Alexandra; Marcellin, Marlène; Adrait, Annie; Kuhn, Lauriane; Louwagie, Mathilde; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Lebert, Dorothée; Masselon, Christophe D; Dupuis, Alain; Bruley, Christophe; Jaquinod, Michel; Garin, Jérôme; Gallagher-Gambarelli, Maighread

    2009-07-01

    To comply with current proteomics guidelines, it is often necessary to analyze the same peptide samples several times. Between analyses, the sample must be stored in such a way as to conserve its intrinsic properties, without losing either peptides or signal intensity. This article describes two studies designed to define the optimal storage conditions for peptide samples between analyses. With the use of a label-free strategy, peptide conservation was compared over a 28-day period in three different recipients: standard plastic tubes, glass tubes, and low-adsorption plastic tubes. The results of this study showed that standard plastic tubes are unsuitable for peptide storage over the period studied. Glass tubes were found to perform better than standard plastic, but optimal peptide recovery was achieved using low-adsorption plastic tubes. The peptides showing poor recovery following storage were mainly hydrophobic in nature. The differences in peptide recovery between glass and low-adsorption plastic tubes were further studied using isotopically labeled proteins. This study allowed accurate comparison of peptide recovery between the two tube types within the same LC-MS run. The results of the label-free study were confirmed. Further, it was possible to demonstrate that peptide recovery in low-adsorption plastic tubes was optimal whatever the peptide concentration stored.

  4. Effect of storage conditions on compaction behavior of two grades of spray-dried lactose.

    PubMed

    Atassi, Faraj; Almaya, Ahmad; Aburub, Aktham

    2008-01-01

    In this work we examine the effect of storage conditions (moisture exposure) on the compression behavior of 2 grades of spray-dried lactose (Pharmatose DCL 11 and Pharmatose DCL 14) under 2 different circumstances. The first was to expose powder samples to moisture, then compress them. The second was to expose precompressed tablets to moisture. We clearly show that the effect of moisture exposure and amorphous content crystallization in spray-dried lactoses on compaction behavior depends on whether this moisture exposure takes place before or after compression. In addition, the impact of storage conditions depends on the grade of spray-dried lactose. PMID:18649218

  5. [Oxidative and hydrolytic deterioration of palm oil and fat products based on it under various conditions of storage and transportation].

    PubMed

    Bessonov, V V; Zaĭtseva, L V; Stepanova, L I; Baĭkov, V G

    2012-01-01

    Studies have been conducted on the effect of storage conditions for refined deodorized palm oil on the quality and safety: in containers made of ferrous metals (mild steel) at unregulated temperature, in sealed plastic bags at the temperature -20 degrees C in stainless steel under stratification of nitrogen at the temperature of 40+/-1 degrees C. The choice of the objects of study determined by the normative documents of the Russian Federation governing the transportation and storage of vegetable oils and fat products based on them. All samples of palm oil with peroxide value of 1,0 to 1,5 meq O2/kg indicated the presence of a weak foreign taste, is not peculiar impersonalfat, the samples with peroxide value above 1,5 meq O2/kg were observed pronounced off-flavors and odors characteristic of stale oil. Rancidity was observed in samples having peroxide value of 2,0 meq O2/kg or more. Free acid value and anizidin value for the studied period changed to a lesser extent, from 0,06 to 0,1 mg KOH/g and from 1,2 to 1,4 respectively. It is proved that, transportation/storage of palm oil at the temperature above 50 degrees C without stratification of nitrogen greatly accelerates the process of oxidative damage. Based on these data we can recommend transportation/storage and management process with the least possible time of contact of melted palm oil with oxygen to produce high-quality final product (within 2-3 hours from the time of melting).

  6. NREL Develops Accelerated Sample Activation Process for Hydrogen Storage Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in developing a new sample activation process that reduces the time to prepare samples for measurement of hydrogen storage from several days to five minutes and provides more uniform samples. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center.

  7. Accelerated safety analyses - structural analyses Phase I - structural sensitivity evaluation of single- and double-shell waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    Accelerated Safety Analyses - Phase I (ASA-Phase I) have been conducted to assess the appropriateness of existing tank farm operational controls and/or limits as now stipulated in the Operational Safety Requirements (OSRs) and Operating Specification Documents, and to establish a technical basis for the waste tank operating safety envelope. Structural sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the response of the different waste tank configurations to variations in loading conditions, uncertainties in loading parameters, and uncertainties in material characteristics. Extensive documentation of the sensitivity analyses conducted and results obtained are provided in the detailed ASA-Phase I report, Structural Sensitivity Evaluation of Single- and Double-Shell Waste Tanks for Accelerated Safety Analysis - Phase I. This document provides a summary of the accelerated safety analyses sensitivity evaluations and the resulting findings.

  8. Effect of storage conditions of skin samples on their optical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Kochubey, V. I.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2009-12-01

    The optical characteristics of skin samples are experimentally studied ex vivo and in vitro at different storage conditions. The experiments are performed on a Cary-2415 spectrophotometer in the spectral range 400-700 nm. Based on the measured diffuse reflectance and total transmittance spectra, the spectra of the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients are calculated in terms of the inverse adding-doubling method. It is shown that the method of storage of samples mainly affects the reduced scattering coefficient of biotissue. Thus, upon storage of skin in an isotonic solution and in its absence, the reduced scattering coefficient increases ˜1.5 and ˜2 times, respectively, compared to the value of this parameter for the intact sample. The differences in the absorption spectra of ex vivo samples and samples stored under different conditions are the most noticeable in the absorption range of blood and are significant above 600 nm.

  9. Comparisons of seed longevity under simulated aging and genebank storage conditions using brassicaceae seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds survive for years under dry conditions but then viability crashes without warning. Efforts to provide high quality seeds to customers, breed longer-living seeds, or to investigate the underlying causes of deterioration during storage prompt the need for a reliable measure of the longevity phe...

  10. 78 FR 19148 - Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing Conditions for Dry Storage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 72 Shielding and Radiation Protection Review Effort and Licensing Conditions for Dry Storage Applications AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff guidance; request for public comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  11. 40 CFR 266.235 - What waste treatment does the storage and treatment conditional exemption allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What waste treatment does the storage and treatment conditional exemption allow? 266.235 Section 266.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES...

  12. 40 CFR 266.235 - What waste treatment does the storage and treatment conditional exemption allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What waste treatment does the storage and treatment conditional exemption allow? 266.235 Section 266.235 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES...

  13. Influence of initial conditions on the flow patterns of a shock-accelerated thin fluid layer

    SciTech Connect

    Budzinski, J.M.; Benjamin, R.F. ); Jacobs, J.W. )

    1994-11-01

    Previous observations of three flow patterns generated by shock acceleration of a thin perturbed, fluid layer are now correlated with asymmetries in the initial conditions. Using a different diagnostic (planar laser Rayleigh scattering) than the previous experiments, upstream mushrooms, downstream mushrooms, and sinuous patterns are still observed. For each experiment the initial perturbation amplitude on one side of the layer can either be larger, smaller, or the same as the amplitude on the other side, as observed with two images per experiment, and these differences lead to the formation of the different patterns.

  14. In-Situ Monitoring of Particle Growth at PEMFC Cathode under Accelerated Cycling Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Billinge S. J.; Redmond, E.L.; Setzler, B.P.; Juhas, P.; Fullera, T.F.

    2012-05-01

    An in-situ method to measure changes in catalyst particle size at the cathode of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is demonstrated. Synchrotron X-rays, 58 keV, were used to measure the pair distribution function on an operating fuel cell and observe the growth of catalyst particles under accelerated degradation conditions. The stability of Pt/C and PtCo/C with different initial particle sizes was monitored over 3000 potential cycles. The increase in particle size was fit to a linear trend as a function of cycles. The most stable electrocatalyst was found to be the alloyed PtCo with the larger initial particle size.

  15. Electron Acceleration in a Dynamically Evolved Current Sheet of Solar Coronal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaohua, Z.; Du, A.; Feng, X.

    2012-12-01

    Electron acceleration in a drastically evolved current sheet of solar coronal conditions is investigated via the combined resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and test particle approaches. With high magnetic Reynolds number, the long-thin current sheet is tearing into a chain of magnetic islands, which grow in size and coalesce together. The acceleration of electrons are explored in three typical evolvement phases: when several large magnetic islands are formed (phase1), two of them are approaching each other (phase2) and almost merging into a "monster" magnetic island (phase3). The results show that for all the three phases electrons with an initially Maxwellian distribution evolve into a heavy-tailed distribution and more than 20% of the electrons can be accelerated higher than 200 keV within 0.1 second and some of them can even be energized up to MeV ranges. Most of the energetic electrons move around the magnetic islands in clockwise direction (anti-parallel to the magnetic field lines), drifting in the -Z direction. The energetic electrons with 10 keV < Ek < 200 keV are located outside the magnetic separatrices, where parallel electric field (Ep) is small. The electrons with 200 keV < Ek < 5000 keV are distributed inside the magnetic islands where Ep is moderate large but have complex structures. The electrons with Ek > 5000 keV are located around the outer regions of the magnetic islands or at the core regions of the magnetic islands. Some of the most energetic electrons even appear in the small secondary magnetic islands that are embedded in the diusion regions in between the magnetic islands. It is the trapping eect of the magnetic islands and the distributions of Ep that determine the acceleration processes and space distribution of the energetic electrons.

  16. Capture, acceleration and bunching rf systems for the MEIC booster and storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shaoheng; Guo, Jiquan; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Rimmer, Robert A.; Wang, Haipeng; Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    The Medium-energy Electron Ion Collider (MEIC), proposed by Jefferson Lab, consists of a series of accelerators. The electron collider ring accepts electrons from CEBAF at energies from 3 to 12 GeV. Protons and ions are delivered to a booster and captured in a long bunch before being ramped and transferred to the ion collider ring. The ion collider ring accelerates a small number of long ion bunches to colliding energy before they are re-bunched into a high frequency train of very short bunches for colliding. Two sets of low frequency RF systems are needed for the long ion bunch energy ramping in the booster and ion collider ring. Another two sets of high frequency RF cavities are needed for re-bunching in the ion collider ring and compensating synchrotron radiation energy loss in the electron collider ring. The requirements from energy ramping, ion beam bunching, electron beam energy compensation, collective effects, beam loading and feedback capability, RF power capability, etc. are presented. The preliminary designs of these RF systems are presented. Concepts for the baseline cavity and RF station configurations are described, as well as some options that may allow more flexible injection and acceleration schemes.

  17. Storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals in hot and humid regions.

    PubMed

    Bott, Rubiana F; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2007-04-01

    A review of the methodology for determination of the storage conditions for stability testing according to Schumacher/Grimm is presented in this paper. The purpose is to provide scientific information useful for the definition of storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals suitable to the region where the product will be dispensed. Special attention is given to stability testing in the new markets located in developing countries with very hot and humid climates. Finally, storage conditions for stability testing in the Brazilian regions were derived and examined comparatively with the guidelines of the world health organization (WHO) and regulatory bodies. The storage conditions were derived from the calculated values of the mean kinetic temperature and the relative humidity (RH). These parameters were estimated from daily values of dry and dew point temperatures of all Brazilian capitals from 1998 to 2002; collected in the morning (9 a.m.), in the afternoon (3 p.m.), and at night (9 p.m.). The Brazilian Center of Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies of the National Institute of Spatial Research (CPTEC/INPE) kindly furnished these data. Significant differences of the mean kinetic temperature (MKT) and relative humidity (RH) for Brazilian regions were observed. These results indicate the existence of a high climatic diversity between the Brazilian regions, making challenging the definition of a single storage condition for the stability testing. Some regions present RH values higher than 80%, giving support to the concerns of the WHO, indicating the necessity of revision of existing guidelines for stability testing mainly for very hot and humid regions.

  18. Storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals in hot and humid regions.

    PubMed

    Bott, Rubiana F; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2007-04-01

    A review of the methodology for determination of the storage conditions for stability testing according to Schumacher/Grimm is presented in this paper. The purpose is to provide scientific information useful for the definition of storage conditions for stability testing of pharmaceuticals suitable to the region where the product will be dispensed. Special attention is given to stability testing in the new markets located in developing countries with very hot and humid climates. Finally, storage conditions for stability testing in the Brazilian regions were derived and examined comparatively with the guidelines of the world health organization (WHO) and regulatory bodies. The storage conditions were derived from the calculated values of the mean kinetic temperature and the relative humidity (RH). These parameters were estimated from daily values of dry and dew point temperatures of all Brazilian capitals from 1998 to 2002; collected in the morning (9 a.m.), in the afternoon (3 p.m.), and at night (9 p.m.). The Brazilian Center of Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies of the National Institute of Spatial Research (CPTEC/INPE) kindly furnished these data. Significant differences of the mean kinetic temperature (MKT) and relative humidity (RH) for Brazilian regions were observed. These results indicate the existence of a high climatic diversity between the Brazilian regions, making challenging the definition of a single storage condition for the stability testing. Some regions present RH values higher than 80%, giving support to the concerns of the WHO, indicating the necessity of revision of existing guidelines for stability testing mainly for very hot and humid regions. PMID:17523004

  19. Effect of sample storage conditions on Er:YAG laser ablation of enamel, dentin, and bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selting, Wayne J.

    2007-02-01

    Samples of bone, dentin and enamel were stored in distilled water, 10% neutral buffered formalin, 70% ethyl alcohol or 6% sodium hypochlorite solutions for fifteen days. Other samples were stored in the same solutions for 36 hours and then transferred to distilled water for the remainder of the fifteen day period. Finally, samples than had been stored dry for up to 5 years were rehydrated and ablated. All enamel specimens appeared unaffected by the storage conditions. Dentin samples were very significantly affected by all storage methods. Bone samples were affected by most storage conditions. Samples stored in sodium hypochlorite had as much as a 100 percent increase in ablation rate. Surprisingly, dry stored samples that were reconstituted for 36 hours ablated at virtually the same rate as those stored in distilled water. None of the storage conditions studied produced ablation rates that mirrored in vivo ablation. Sterilization by autoclave is the only reliable and safe method studied but cannot be used on teeth with amalgam fillings for safety reasons. Teeth with fillings should be stored in 10% neutral bufferred formalin for a minimum of one week.

  20. Degradation of tocopherols during rapeseed storage in simulated conditions of industrial silos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gawrysiak-Witulska, Marzena; Siger, Aleksander; Rusinek, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The investigations consisted in laboratory simulation of conditions prevailing in the real ecosystem in an industrial rapeseed storage facility. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of temperature, moisture, and static pressure on degradation of tocopherols contained in rapeseed. Rapeseed varieties with high oil content were analysed in the investigations. Samples of seeds with 7, 10, 13, and 16% moisture levels were stored at a temperature of 25, 30, and 35°C in specially designed airtight pressure silos for storage in controlled conditions. During the storage, the seeds were subjected to overpressure in the range of 20-60 kPa. The seeds were stored in these conditions for 28 days. It was demonstrated that primarily moisture induced the greatest loss of the total content of tocopherol and its α-T and γ-T homologues, followed by temperature and, to a lesser extent, pressure. In addition, the results obtained showed that, in the case of seeds characterised by higher moisture levels (13 and 16%), an increase in the storage temperature in the range of 25-30°C rather than 30-35°C intensified tocopherol loss more efficiently.

  1. Stability of Paprika without supplementary antioxidants during storage under industrial controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Mínguez-Mosquera, María Isabel

    2009-06-10

    Different quality parameters of paprika samples stored under controlled conditions (temperature 4 degrees C and relative humidity 70%) and without reconstitution of the antioxidant levels were analyzed. These included carotenoid composition, ASTA values (as specified by the American Spice Trade Association), fatty acid composition, and peroxide index, in order to determine the progress of autoxidative reactions and directly correlate the loss of carotenoid fraction with the development of prooxidative processes. Evolution of the carotenoid content indicated that autoxidative reactions minimally took place and that coloring capacity was maintained. Peroxide values were very low (1 mequiv/kg) and reached values of 3 mequiv/kg at the end of the storage period. Control of microbial flora during storage also showed how the storage conditions preserved quality of the paprika, as the flora was kept at levels similar to those of the beginning. Therefore, controlled storage conditions were enough to preserve and keep the overall quality of paprika without reconstitution or addition of antioxidants to the product.

  2. Experimental challenges to theories of classical conditioning: application of an attentional model of storage and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Schmajuk, Nestor A; Larrauri, José A

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have recently challenged the accuracy of traditional models of classical conditioning that account for some experimental data in terms of a storage deficit. Among other results, it has been reported that extinction of the blocking or overshadowing stimulus results in the recovery of the response to the blocked or overshadowed stimulus, backward blocking shows spontaneous recovery, extinction of the training context results in the recovery from latent inhibition, interposing a delay between conditioning and testing in latent inhibition increases latent inhibition, and latent inhibition antagonizes overshadowing. An existing neural network model of classical conditioning (N. A. Schmajuk, Y. Lam, & J. A. Gray, 1996), which includes an attentional mechanism controlling both storage and retrieval of associations, is able to quantitatively describe these results.

  3. Resonant condition for storage ring short wavelength FEL with power exceeding Renieri limit

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Burnham, B.; Wu, Y.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the possibility of operating a storage ring FEL with resonant conditions providing for preservation of electron beam structure on an optical wave scale. We suggest tuning the storage ring betatron and synchrotron tunes on one of the high (N-th) order resonances to compensate dynamic diffusion of optical phase. This mode of operation does not require isochronicity of the ring lattice. In these conditions optical phase will be restored after N turns around the ring and stochastic conditions used in the derivation of Renieri limit are no longer applicable. We discuss the influence of high order terms in electron motion, RF frequency stability, and synchrotron radiation effects on preservation of optical phase.

  4. Promising gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of porous Mg-Pd films under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Xin, Gongbiao; Yuan, Huiping; Jiang, Lijun; Wang, Shumao; Liu, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingguo

    2015-05-28

    In this paper, the gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage properties of 200 nm Mg-Pd thin films with different morphologies have been investigated. The results show that Mg-Pd films become porous with the increase of substrate temperature. Porous Mg-Pd films exhibit superior gaseous and electrochemical hydrogen storage behaviors under mild conditions, including rapid hydrogen sorption kinetics, a large hydrogen storage amount, high electrochemical discharge capacity, and a fast hydrogen diffusion rate. The excellent behaviors of porous Mg-Pd films might be ascribed to the significantly shortened hydrogen diffusion paths and the large contact areas between the hydrogen gas and the solid Mg phases, which are elucidative for the development and applications of thick Mg-Pd films.

  5. Accelerated Weathering of Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation Material Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Eric M.

    2007-09-16

    To predict the long-term fate of low- and high-level waste forms in the subsurface over geologic time scales, it is important to understand the behavior of the corroding waste forms under conditions the mimic to the open flow and transport properties of a subsurface repository. Fluidized bed steam reformation (FBSR), a supplemental treatment technology option, is being considered as a waste form for the immobilization of low-activity tank waste. To obtain the fundamental information needed to evaluate the behavior of the FBSR waste form under repository relevant conditions and to monitor the long-term behavior of this material, an accelerated weathering experiment is being conducted with the pressurized unsaturated flow (PUF) apparatus. Unlike other accelerated weathering test methods (product consistency test, vapor hydration test, and drip test), PUF experiments are conducted under hydraulically unsaturated conditions. These experiments are unique because they mimic the vadose zone environment and allow the corroding waste form to achieve its final reaction state. Results from this on-going experiment suggest the volumetric water content varied as a function of time and reached steady state after 160 days of testing. Unlike the volumetric water content, periodic excursions in the solution pH and electrical conductivity have been occurring consistently during the test. Release of elements from the column illustrates a general trend of decreasing concentration with increasing reaction time. Normalized concentrations of K, Na, P, Re (a chemical analogue for 99Tc), and S are as much as 1 × 104 times greater than Al, Cr, Si, and Ti. After more than 600 days of testing, the solution chemistry data collected to-date illustrate the importance of understanding the long-term behavior of the FBSR product under conditions that mimic the open flow and transport properties of a subsurface repository.

  6. Oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds in human milk: Levels and effects of storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junfang; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Domellöf, Magnus; Zivkovic, Angela M; Nording, Malin L

    2016-01-01

    The presence of fatty acid derived oxylipins, endocannabinoids and related compounds in human milk may be of importance to the infant. Presently, clinically relevant protocols for storing and handling human milk that minimize error and variability in oxylipin and endocannabinoid concentrations are lacking. In this study, we compared the individual and combined effects of the following storage conditions on the stability of these fatty acid metabolites in human milk: state (fresh or frozen), storage temperature (4 °C, -20 °C or -80 °C), and duration (1 day, 1 week or 3 months). Thirteen endocannabinoids and related compounds, as well as 37 oxylipins were analyzed simultaneously by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Twelve endocannabinoids and related compounds (2-111 nM) and 31 oxylipins (1.2 pM-1242 nM) were detected, with highest levels being found for 2-arachidonoylglycerol and 17(R)hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, respectively. The concentrations of most endocannabinoid-related compounds and oxylipins were dependent on storage condition, and especially storage at 4 °C introduced significant variability. Our findings suggest that human milk samples should be analyzed immediately after, or within one day of collection (if stored at 4 °C). Storage at -80 °C is required for long-term preservation, and storage at -20 °C is acceptable for no more than one week. These findings provide a protocol for investigating the oxylipin and endocannabinoid metabolome in human milk, useful for future milk-related clinical studies.

  7. Influence of storage condition on properties of MCC II-based pellets with theophylline-monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Cornelia; Thommes, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose II (MCC II(1)) is a polymorph of commonly used MCC I; in 2010 it was introduced as new pelletization aid in wet-extrusion/spheronization leading to fast disintegrating pellets. Previous investigations suggested that the storage of the resulting pellets affect the disintegration behavior, the non-hygroscopic substance chloramphenicol that showed no polymorphism or hydrate formation due to relative humidity was used for the investigations. Therefore, theophylline-monohydrate that can dehydrate during storage, but also during manufacturing and drying was used for this study to confirm the results of the previous study and give a more detailed overview of the influence of recrystallization of theophylline monohydrate on disintegration. Storage recommendations should be derived. MCC II-based pellets were prepared of binary mixtures containing 10%, 20% or 50% MCCII as pelletization aid and theophylline-monohydrate as API. These pellets were stored at different relative humidity (0-97%rH; 20°C); the influence on their disintegration and drug release was investigated. The storage conditions had an impact on pellet disintegration. Low relative humidities (⩽ 40%rH) led to a conversion of the monohydrate to the anhydrous form. Newly grown crystals formed a kind of network around the pellet and inhibited the disintegration. High relative humidity (>80%rh) affected the disintegration caused by changes in the MCCII as already seen in the previous study. Due to the changed disintegration behavior also the drug release and release kinetic changed. Therefore, for theophylline containing pellets a storage humidity of 55%rH to 80%rH (20°C) is recommended. All in all, these investigations substantiate the knowledge of MCCII-based pellets providing a better basis for adequate storage conditions of MCCII based pellets. PMID:24950003

  8. Influence of storage condition on properties of MCC II-based pellets with theophylline-monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Krueger, Cornelia; Thommes, Markus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Microcrystalline cellulose II (MCC II(1)) is a polymorph of commonly used MCC I; in 2010 it was introduced as new pelletization aid in wet-extrusion/spheronization leading to fast disintegrating pellets. Previous investigations suggested that the storage of the resulting pellets affect the disintegration behavior, the non-hygroscopic substance chloramphenicol that showed no polymorphism or hydrate formation due to relative humidity was used for the investigations. Therefore, theophylline-monohydrate that can dehydrate during storage, but also during manufacturing and drying was used for this study to confirm the results of the previous study and give a more detailed overview of the influence of recrystallization of theophylline monohydrate on disintegration. Storage recommendations should be derived. MCC II-based pellets were prepared of binary mixtures containing 10%, 20% or 50% MCCII as pelletization aid and theophylline-monohydrate as API. These pellets were stored at different relative humidity (0-97%rH; 20°C); the influence on their disintegration and drug release was investigated. The storage conditions had an impact on pellet disintegration. Low relative humidities (⩽ 40%rH) led to a conversion of the monohydrate to the anhydrous form. Newly grown crystals formed a kind of network around the pellet and inhibited the disintegration. High relative humidity (>80%rh) affected the disintegration caused by changes in the MCCII as already seen in the previous study. Due to the changed disintegration behavior also the drug release and release kinetic changed. Therefore, for theophylline containing pellets a storage humidity of 55%rH to 80%rH (20°C) is recommended. All in all, these investigations substantiate the knowledge of MCCII-based pellets providing a better basis for adequate storage conditions of MCCII based pellets.

  9. Historic Seismicity, Computed Peak Ground Accelerations, and Seismic Site Conditions for Northeast Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montalvo-Arriet, J. C.; Galván-Ramírez, I. N.; Ramos-Zuñiga, L. G.; Navarro de León, I.; Ramírez-Fernández, J. A.; Quintanilla-López, Y.; Cavazos-Tovar, N. P.

    2007-05-01

    In this study we present the historic seismicity, computed peak ground accelerations, and mapping of seismic site conditions for northeast Mexico. We start with a compilation of the regional seismicity in northeast Mexico (24- 31°N, 87-106°W) for the 1787-2006 period. Our study area lies within three morphotectonic provinces: Basin and Range and Rio Grande rift, Sierra Madre Oriental and Gulf Coastal Plain. Peak ground acceleration (PGA) maps were computed for three different scenarios: 1928 Parral, Chihuahua (MW = 6.5); 1931 Valentine, Texas (MW = 6.4); and a hypothetical earthquake located in central Coahuila (MW = 6.5). Ground acceleration values were computed using attenuation relations developed for central and eastern North America and the Basin and Range province. The hypothetical earthquake in central Coahuila is considered a critical scenario for the main cities of northeast Mexico. The damage associated with this hypothetical earthquake could be severe because the majority of the buildings were constructed without allowance for seismic accelerations. The expected PGA values in Monterrey, Saltillo and Monclova range from 30 to 70 cm/s2 (0.03 to 0.07g). This earthquake might also produce or trigger significant landslides and rock falls in the Sierra Madre Oriental, where several cities are located (e.g. suburbs of Monterrey). Additionally, the Vs30 distribution for the state of Nuevo Leon and the cities of Linares and Monterrey are presented. The Vs30 data was obtained using seismic refraction profiling correlated with borehole information. According to NEHRP soil classification, sites classes A, B and C are dominant. Sites with class D occupy minor areas in both cities. Due to the semi-arid conditions in northeast Mexico, we obtained the highest values of Vs30 in Quaternary deposits (alluvium) cemented by caliche. Similar values of Vs30 were obtained in Reno and Las Vegas, Nevada. This work constitutes the first attempt at understanding and

  10. In vitro and in vivo development of mice morulae after storage in non-frozen conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interchange of genetically modified (GM) mice between laboratories using embryos provides several advantages. Not only is transport stress avoided, but also the health status of the recipient colony is not compromised. Embryos do not need to be shipped in frozen stage, which requires expensive packaging in addition to a certain degree of expertise in order to freeze and thaw them correctly. The aim of this study was to examine different storage conditions and their effect on embryo viability in order to establish the feasibility of practical, non-frozen conditions for embryo shipment. Methods Mouse morulae developed in vivo (collected from donors 2.5d post coitum) or in vitro (zygotes cultured until morulae stage) were stored, combining two different media (KSOMeq or KSOM-H) and temperatures (4 degrees C, 15 degrees C and 37 degrees C) throughout 24 or 48 hours. After storage in vitro viability was assessed determining percentage of development to blastocyst and total cell number. In vivo viability was determined based on the number of implantations and living fetuses after embryo transfer of stored embryos. The storage effect at the molecular level was assessed by studying a gene pool involved in early development by quantitative RT-PCR. Results In vivo-produced morulae stored for 24 hours did not show differences in development up to the blastocyst stage, regardless of the storage type. Even though a decrease in the total cell number in vivo was observed, embryo development after embryo transfer was not affected. All 24 hour storage conditions tested provided a similar number of implantations and fetuses at day 14 of pregnancy. Morulae obtained from in vitro embryo culture collected at the 1-cell stage showed a decreased ability to develop to blastocyst after 24 hours of storage at 15degrees C both in KSOMeq and KSOM-H. Concomitantly, a significant decrease of embryo implantation rates after transfer to recipients was also found. In order to

  11. Reactivity of Mount Simon sandstone and the Eau Claire shale under CO2 storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Susan A; McNab, Walt W; Dai, Zurong; Torres, Sharon C

    2013-01-01

    The Mount Simon sandstone and Eau Claire shale formations are target storage and cap rock formations for the Illinois Basin-Decatur Geologic Carbon Sequestration Project. We reacted rock samples with brine and supercritical CO(2) at 51 °C and 19.5 MPa to access the reactivity of these formations at storage conditions and to address the applicability of using published kinetic and thermodynamic constants to predict geochemical alteration that may occur during storage by quantifying parameter uncertainty against experimental data. Incongruent dissolution of iron-rich clays and formation of secondary clays and amorphous silica will dominate geochemical alterations at this CO(2) storage site in CO(2)-rich brines. The surrogate iron-rich clay in the model required significant adjustments to its thermodynamic constants and inclusion of incongruent reaction terms to capture the change in solution composition under acid CO(2) conditions. This result emphasizes the need for experiments that constrain the conceptual geochemical model, calibrate mean parameter values, and quantify parameter uncertainty in reactive-transport simulations that will be used to estimate long-term CO(2) trapping mechanisms and changes in porosity and permeability.

  12. Different storage conditions influence biocompatibility and physicochemical properties of iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zaloga, Jan; Janko, Christina; Agarwal, Rohit; Nowak, Johannes; Müller, Robert; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have attracted increasing attention in many biomedical fields. In magnetic drug targeting SPIONs are injected into a tumour supplying artery and accumulated inside the tumour with a magnet. The effectiveness of this therapy is thus dependent on magnetic properties, stability and biocompatibility of the particles. A good knowledge of the effect of storage conditions on those parameters is of utmost importance for the translation of the therapy concept into the clinic and for reproducibility in preclinical studies. Here, core shell SPIONs with a hybrid coating consisting of lauric acid and albumin were stored at different temperatures from 4 to 45 °C over twelve weeks and periodically tested for their physicochemical properties over time. Surprisingly, even at the highest storage temperature we did not observe denaturation of the protein or colloidal instability. However, the saturation magnetisation decreased by maximally 28.8% with clear correlation to time and storage temperature. Furthermore, the biocompatibility was clearly affected, as cellular uptake of the SPIONs into human T-lymphoma cells was crucially dependent on the storage conditions. Taken together, the results show that the particle properties undergo significant changes over time depending on the way they are stored.

  13. Different Storage Conditions Influence Biocompatibility and Physicochemical Properties of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zaloga, Jan; Janko, Christina; Agarwal, Rohit; Nowak, Johannes; Müller, Robert; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have attracted increasing attention in many biomedical fields. In magnetic drug targeting SPIONs are injected into a tumour supplying artery and accumulated inside the tumour with a magnet. The effectiveness of this therapy is thus dependent on magnetic properties, stability and biocompatibility of the particles. A good knowledge of the effect of storage conditions on those parameters is of utmost importance for the translation of the therapy concept into the clinic and for reproducibility in preclinical studies. Here, core shell SPIONs with a hybrid coating consisting of lauric acid and albumin were stored at different temperatures from 4 to 45 °C over twelve weeks and periodically tested for their physicochemical properties over time. Surprisingly, even at the highest storage temperature we did not observe denaturation of the protein or colloidal instability. However, the saturation magnetisation decreased by maximally 28.8% with clear correlation to time and storage temperature. Furthermore, the biocompatibility was clearly affected, as cellular uptake of the SPIONs into human T-lymphoma cells was crucially dependent on the storage conditions. Taken together, the results show that the particle properties undergo significant changes over time depending on the way they are stored. PMID:25918940

  14. Fast, transient cardiac accelerations and decelerations during fear conditioning in rats.

    PubMed

    Knippenberg, J M J; Barry, R J; Kuniecki, M J; van Luijtelaar, G

    2012-02-01

    The current study reports on a number of heart rate responses observed in rats subjected to a discriminatory Pavlovian fear conditioning procedure. Rats learned that a series of six auditory pips was followed by a footshock when presented alone, but not when the pip series was preceded by a visual safety signal. Each auditory pip in the series evoked a fast transient (<1s) cardiac deceleration. This was the case on both trials followed by shock and on trials not followed by shock. The onset of the safety light evoked a similar fast deceleration. We propose that these transient decelerations are similar to the human Evoked Cardiac Response 1 (ECR1), a brief modest deceleration evoked by simple sensory stimuli that is thought to reflect an early process of stimulus registration. Immediately following these pip-evoked decelerations, modest fast accelerations were observed. These accelerations were larger when the pip series was followed by shock than when it was not followed by shock. We propose a potential linkage between these accelerations and the human acceleratory ECR2 component, which is associated with more elaborate processing following stimulus registration; something likely to take place when the pip series predicts an aversive event. Both the ECR1- and ECR2-like responses were embedded within a slow, gradual heart rate increase across the entire pip series. This tonic increase was significantly larger on trials with footshock and is therefore probably associated with anticipatory fear of the upcoming shock. An additional special type of cardiac response was found to the first pip in the series not preceded by the safety signal; here, a much larger and more sustained deceleration was apparent. This response appears relatable to the prolonged deceleration reported in humans in response to aversive picture content. We discuss the cardiac responses found in rats in the current study in the context of heart rate responses known in the human literature.

  15. High rates of carbon storage in old deciduous forests: Emerging mechanisms from the Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, C. M.; Nave, L. E.; Hardiman, B. S.; Bohrer, G.; Halperin, A.; Maurer, K.; Le Moine, J.; Nadelhoffer, K.; Vogel, C. S.; Curtis, P.; University Of Michigan Biological Station Forest Ecosystem Study (Umbs-Fest) Team

    2010-12-01

    Deciduous forests of the eastern US are broadly approaching an ecological threshold in which early successional dominant trees are senescing and giving way to later successional species, with unknown consequences for regional carbon (C) cycling. Though recent research demonstrates that forests may accumulate C for centuries, the mechanisms behind sustained rates of C storage in old, particularly deciduous, forests have not been identified. In a regionally representative forest at the University of Michigan Biological Station, we are combining observational and experimental C cycling studies to forecast how forest C storage responds to climate variation, disturbance, and succession. The Forest Accelerated Succession ExperimenT (FASET), in which >6,700 aspen and birch trees (~35 % LAI) were stem girdled within a 39 ha area, is testing the hypothesis that forest production will increase rather than decline with age, due to increases in nitrogen (N) availability, N allocation to the canopy, and the concurrent development of a more biologically and structurally complex canopy. Results thus far support our hypothesis that aging forests in the region may sustain high rates of C storage through shifts in N cycling and increased canopy complexity. Girdling-induced mortality of early successional species reduced soil respiration, accelerated fine root turnover, and prompted the redistribution of N from the foliage of early to later successional species. Nitrogen redistribution increased leaf area index (LAI) production by later successional species, offsetting declines in LAI from senescing early successional species. High rates of net primary production (NPP) were sustained in stands comprising a diverse assemblage of early and later successional species because later successional species, when already present in the canopy, rapidly compensated for declining growth of early successional species. Canopy structural complexity, which increased with forest age, was positively

  16. Conditioning nerve crush accelerates cytoskeletal protein transport in sprouts that form after a subsequent crush.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, I G; Jacob, J M

    1991-03-01

    To examine the relationship between axonal outgrowth and the delivery of cytoskeletal proteins to the growing axon tip, outgrowth was accelerated by using a conditioning nerve crush. Because slow component b (SCb) of axonal transport is the most rapid vehicle for carrying cytoskeletal proteins to the axon tip, the rate of SCb was measured in conditioned vs. sham-conditioned sprouts. In young Sprague-Dawley rats, the conditioning crush was made to sciatic nerve branches at the knee; 14 days later, the test crush was made where the L4 and L5 spinal nerves join to form the sciatic nerve in the flank. Newly synthesized proteins were labeled in motor neurons by injecting 35S-methionine into the lumbar spinal cord 7 days before the test crush. The wave of pulse-labeled SCb proteins reached the crush by the time it was made and subsequently entered sprouts. The nerve was removed and sectioned for SDS-PAGE and fluorography 4-12 days after the crush. Tubulins, neurofilament proteins, and representative "cytomatrix" proteins (actin, calmodulin, and putative microtubule-associated proteins) were removed from gels for liquid scintillation counting. Labeled SCb proteins entered sprouts without first accumulating in parent axon stumps, presumably because sprouts begin to grow within hours after axotomy. The peak of SCb moved 11% faster in conditioned than in sham-conditioned sprouts: 3.0 vs. 2.7 mm/d (p less than 0.05). To confirm that sprouts elongate more rapidly when a test crush is preceded by a conditioning crush, outgrowth distances were measured in a separate group of rats by labeling fast axonal transport with 3H-proline 24 hours before nerve retrieval.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. [THE OPTIMAL CONDITIONS OF STORAGE OF SPERMATOZOA FOR ANALYSIS OF DNA FRAGMENTATION].

    PubMed

    Tataru, D A; Markova, E V; Osadchuk, L V; Sheina, E V; Svetlakov, A V

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons using technique of flow cytometry to evaluate male fertility more and more often begins to be applied in clinical diagnostic. However, development of optimal protocol of storage and preparation of spermatozoons for analysis still is at the stage of experimental elaboration. The studv was carried out to analyse effect of different conditions of preparation of ejaculate for adequate evaluation of index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons using sperm chromatin structure assay technique. The sampling consisted of 20 patients of the Krasnoyarsk center of reproductive medicine. The sperm chromatin structure assay technique was applied to evaluate index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons in fresh native ejaculate and after storage of spermatozoons under different temperature (37, 25 and 4 degrees C) and duration (1-2 and 1-3 days) and conditions of storage (-20 or -70 degrees C) of frozen spermatozoons (as native ejaculate or in TNE-buffer). It is demonstrated that index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons has no significant alterations in ejaculate stored under 4 degrees C during 48 hours. In case of storage of ejaculate under 25 or 37 degrees C index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons significantly increases already after first day of storage. The incubation of ejaculate under 37 degrees C results in increasing of index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons already after first hour. The individual differences are established related to degree of increasing of index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons because of impact of studied temperatures of ejaculate incubation. The storage of spermatozoons under temperature of - 20 and -70 degrees C in native ejaculate or in TNE-buffer has no effect of index of fragmentation of DNA of spermatozoons with measurement during 1-2 hours. Therefore, storage and transportation of native ejaculate under 4 degrees C during 1-2 days or in frozen condition

  18. Stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates distraction osteogenesis through multiple regenerative mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ando, Yuji; Matsubara, Kohki; Ishikawa, Jun; Fujio, Masahito; Shohara, Ryutaro; Hibi, Hideharu; Ueda, Minoru; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2014-04-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) successfully induces large-scale skeletal tissue regeneration, but it involves an undesirably long treatment period. A high-speed DO mouse model (H-DO) with a distraction speed twice that of a control DO model failed to generate new bone callus in the distraction gap. Here we demonstrate that the local administration of serum-free conditioned medium from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CM) accelerated callus formation in the mouse H-DO model. Secretomic analysis identified factors contained in MSC-CM that recruit murine bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs) and endothelial cells/endothelial progenitor cells (EC/EPCs), inhibit inflammation and apoptosis, and promote osteoblast differentiation, angiogenesis, and cell proliferation. Functional assays identified MCP-1/-3 and IL-3/-6 as essential factors in recruiting mBMSCs and EC/EPCs. IL-3/-6 also enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of mBMSCs. MSC-CM that had been depleted of MCP-1/-3 failed to recruit mBMSCs, and consequently failed to promote callus formation. Taken together, our data suggest that MSCs produce a broad repertoire of trophic factors with tissue-regenerative activities that accelerate healing in the DO process.

  19. Bioreactor Conditioning for Accelerated Remodeling of Fibrin-Based Tissue Engineered Heart Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Jillian Beth

    Fibrin is a promising scaffold material for tissue engineered heart valves, as it is completely biological, allows for engineered matrix alignment, and is able to be degraded and replaced with collagen by entrapped cells. However, the initial fibrin matrix is mechanically weak, and extensive in vitro culture is required to create valves with sufficient mechanical strength and stiffness for in vivo function. Culture in bioreactor systems, which provide cyclic stretching and enhance nutrient transport, has been shown to increase collagen production by cells entrapped in a fibrin scaffold, accelerating strengthening of the tissue and reducing the required culture time. In the present work, steps were taken to improve bioreactor culture conditions with the goal of accelerating collagen production in fibrin-based tissue engineered heart valves using two approaches: (i) optimizing the cyclic stretching protocol and (ii) developing a novel bioreactor system that permits transmural and lumenal flow of culture medium for improved nutrient transport. The results indicated that incrementally increasing strain amplitude cyclic stretching with small, frequent increments in strain amplitude was optimal for collagen production in our system. In addition, proof of concept studies were performed in the novel bioreactor system and increased cellularity and collagen deposition near the lumenal surface of the tissue were observed.

  20. Effects of operation of Raccoon Mountain pumped-storage project on Nickajack Reservoir flow conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, J.; Price, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    The results from a study to determine the effects of Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant operations on flow conditions within Nickajack Reservoir are presented. Computer simulations and field studies have shown that flow reversals occur in Nickajack Reservoir as a result of the power peaking operations of the Nickajack and Chickamauga hydroelectric plants, both situated on the Tennessee River. The primary cause of these reversals is attributable to shutdowns of the Chickamauga turbines. The focus of this study is on flow reversals near the Moccasin Bend sewage treatment plant and near the Tennessee American water treatment plant, both of which are located on the Tennessee River near Chattanooga. Results from the study show that, under normal and extreme operating conditions at Chickamauga and Nickajack Dams, operation of the Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant has no appreciable influence on flow reversals at the two plant sites.

  1. Performance of tablet disintegrants: impact of storage conditions and relative tablet density.

    PubMed

    Quodbach, Julian; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tablet disintegration can be influenced by several parameters, such as storage conditions, type and amount of disintegrant, and relative tablet density. Even though these parameters have been mentioned in the literature, the understanding of the disintegration process is limited. In this study, water uptake and force development of disintegrating tablets are analyzed, as they reveal underlying processes and interactions. Measurements were performed on dibasic calcium phosphate tablets containing seven different disintegrants stored at different relative humidities (5-97%), and on tablets containing disintegrants with different mechanisms of action (swelling and shape recovery), compressed to different relative densities. Disintegration times of tablets containing sodium starch glycolate are affected most by storage conditions, which is displayed in decreased water uptake and force development kinetics. Disintegration times of tablets with a swelling disintegrant are only marginally affected by relative tablet density, whereas the shape recovery disintegrant requires high relative densities for quick disintegration. The influence of relative tablet density on the kinetics of water uptake and force development greatly depends on the mechanism of action. Acquired data allows a detailed analysis of the influence of storage conditions and mechanisms of action on disintegration behavior. PMID:24848093

  2. Accelerated soil carbon turnover under tree plantations limits soil carbon storage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangshui; Yang, Yusheng; Yang, Zhijie; Xie, Jinsheng; Guo, Jianfen; Gao, Ren; Yin, Yunfeng; Robinson, David

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of native forests by tree plantations is increasingly common globally, especially in tropical and subtropical areas. Improving our understanding of the long-term effects of this replacement on soil organic carbon (SOC) remains paramount for effectively managing ecosystems to mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. Meta-analyses imply that native forest replacement usually reduces SOC stocks and may switch the forest from a net sink to a net source of atmospheric carbon. Using a long-term chronosequence during which areas of subtropical native forest were replaced by Chinese fir, we show by direct measurement that plantations have significantly accelerated SOC turnover compared with native forest, an effect that has persisted for almost a century. The immediate stimulation of SOC decomposition was caused by warmer soil before the closure of the plantation’s canopy. Long-term reductions in SOC mean residence times were coupled to litter inputs. Faster SOC decomposition was associated with lower soil microbial carbon use efficiency, which was due to smaller litter inputs and reduced nutrient availabilities. Our results indicate a previously unelucidated control on long-term SOC dynamics in native forests and demonstrate a potential constraint on climate mitigation when such forests are replaced by plantations. PMID:26805949

  3. Presence and stability of B complex vitamins in bee pollen using different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    de Arruda, Vanilda Aparecida Soares; Santos Pereira, Aline Aparecida; Estevinho, Leticia M; de Almeida-Muradian, Ligia Bicudo

    2013-01-01

    This study has the objective of evaluating the stability of B complex vitamins and its vitamers, for a period of 1year of storage. The pollen samples were stored under room temperature (with and without light) and frozen. The vitamins were quantified by HPLC with fluorescence detection. All proposed vitamins were found in the samples and the dehydration process did not interfere in vitamin content. The variations were (dry basis): 0.59-1.09mg/100g (B(1)); 1.73-2.56 (B(2)); 6.43-15.34 (PP) and 0.33-0.68 (B(6)). After 1year of storage, it can be stated that vitamin B(1) concentration remained constant, while for the others, the concentration loss was dependent on time rather than on storage conditions. All samples were considered vitamin B(2) sources. The influence of the storage time in the concentrations of vitamin B(6) and PP was explained mathematically, through linear regression equations of multivariate analysis.

  4. Effect of various storage conditions on the stability of quinolones in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meixia; Wen, Fang; Wang, Hui; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-07-01

    Research on the storage stability of antibiotic residues in milk is important for method development or validation, milk quality control and risk assessment during screening, confirmation, qualitative or quantitative analysis. This study was conducted using UPLC-MS/MS to determine the stability of six quinolones - ciprofloxacin (CIP), danofloxacin (DAN), enrofloxacin (ENR), sarafloxacin (SAR), difloxacin (DIF) and flumequine (FLU) - in raw milk stored under various conditions to investigate if quinolones degrade during storage of milk, and finally to determine optimal storage conditions for analysis and scientific risk assessment of quinolone residues in raw milk. The storage conditions included different temperatures and durations (4°C for 4, 8, 24 and 48 h; -20°C for 1, 7 and 30 days; -80°C for 1, 7 and 30 days), thawing temperatures (25, 40 and 60°C), freeze-thaw cycles (1-5), and the addition of different preservatives (sodium thiocyanate, sodium azide, potassium dichromate, bronopol and methanal). Most quinolones exhibited high stability at 4°C for up to 24 h, but began to degrade after 48 h. In addition, no degradation of quinolones was seen when milk samples were stored at -20°C for up to 7 days; however, 30 days of storage at -20°C resulted in a small amount of degradation (about 30%). Similar results were seen when samples were stored at -80°C. Moreover, no losses were observed when frozen milk samples were thawed at 25, 40 or 60°C. All the quinolones of interest, except sarafloxacin, were stable when milk samples were thawed at 40°C once and three times, but unstable after five freeze-thaw cycles. Preservatives affected the stability of quinolones, but the effects differed depending on the preservative and quinolone. The results of this study indicate optimum storage protocols for milk samples, so that residue levels reflect those at the time of initial sample analysis, and should improve surveillance programmes for quinolones in raw milk

  5. Further study of the effect of the downstream plasma condition on accelerator grid erosion in an ion thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, Xiaohang; Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.; Keefer, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    Further numerical results are presented of earlier particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo calculations of accelerator grid erosion in an ion thruster. A comparison between numerical and experimental results suggests that the accelerator grid impingement is primarily due to ions created far downstream from the accelerator grid. In particular, for the same experimental conditions as those of Monheiser and Wilbur at Colorado State University, it is found that a downstream plasma density of 2 x 10 exp 14/cu m is required to give the same ratio of accelerator grid impingement current to beam current (5 percent). For this condition, a potential hill is found in the downstream region of 2.5 V.

  6. Determination of storage conditions for shrimp extracts: analysis of specific IgE-allergen profiles.

    PubMed

    Piboonpocanun, Surapon; Boonchoo, Siribangon; Pariyaprasert, Wipada; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

    2010-03-01

    The consumption of shrimp is a common cause of food hypersensitivity reactions. Shrimp allergy is diagnosed using a skin prick test (SPT) as well as by food challenges. Due to the lack of a wide variety of commercial shrimp extracts for SPTs, we selected various shrimp species for the preparation of local shrimp extracts. However, optimal storage conditions for the shrimp extracts which also maintains allergenic potency has not yet been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the potency of the shrimp extracts under different storage conditions and durations. Specific IgE-allergen profiles of eight shrimp-allergic patients were investigated by using sera incubated with extracts prepared from lyophilized raw or boiled shrimp, which were stored at 4 degress C or -20 degress C for up to 4 weeks. When stored at -20 degress C, most allergens were preserved after 4 weeks. However, storage at 4 degress C results in few allergens remaining after 2 weeks. Boiled-shrimp extracts stored at 4 degree C and -20 degress C contained higher amounts of IgE-allergen complexes than raw-shrimp extracts. Moreover, in both raw and boiled shrimp extracts, the IgE bound 36-40 kDa allergens constituted the major proteins since they were observed in all IgE-allergen profiles. In conclusion, we recommend that shrimp extracts are stored at -20 degress C for 4 weeks to prevent the loss of allergens.

  7. Constraining the detailed balance condition in Hořava gravity with cosmic accelerating expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Chien-I; Chen, Pisin; Gu, Je-An E-mail: jagu@ntu.edu.tw

    2010-10-01

    In 2009 Hořava proposed a power-counting renormalizable quantum gravity theory. Afterwards a term in the action that softly violates the detailed balance condition has been considered with the attempt of obtaining a more realistic theory in its IR-limit. This term is proportional to ωR{sup (3)}, where ω is a constant parameter and R{sup (3)} is the spatial Ricci scalar. In this paper we derive constraints on this IR-modified Hořava theory using the late-time cosmic accelerating expansion observations. We obtain a lower bound of |ω| that is nontrivial and depends on Λ{sub W}, the cosmological constant of the three dimensional spatial action in the Hořava gravity. We find that to preserve the detailed balance condition, one needs to fine-tune Λ{sub W} such that −2.29 × 10{sup −4} < (c{sup 2}Λ{sub W})/(H{sup 2}{sub 0}Ω{sub DE})−2 < 0, where H{sub 0} and Ω{sub DE} are the Hubble parameter and dark energy density fraction in the present epoch, respectively. On the other hand, if we do not insist on the detailed balance condition, then the valid region for Λ{sub W} is much relaxed to −0.39 < (c{sup 2}Λ{sub W})/(H{sup 2}{sub 0}Ω{sub DE})−2 < 0.12. We find that although the detailed balance condition cannot be ruled out, it is strongly disfavored.

  8. Understanding pharmaceutical polymorphic transformations I: influence of process variables and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Sood, Jatin; Sapra, Bharti; Bhandari, Sameer; Jindal, Manish; Tiwary, Ashok K

    2014-10-01

    The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of a dosage form is affected by number of mechanical and environmental factors which have a tendency to alter its crystalline state. Polymorphic transitions have been observed to occur during various unit operations like granulation, milling and compression. Forces of pressure, shear and temperature have an ability to induce alterations in crystal habit. A conversion in polymorphic form during a unit operation is very likely to affect the handling of API in the subsequent unit operation. Transitions have also been observed during storage of formulations where the relative humidity and temperature play a major role. An increase in temperature during storage can dehydrate or desolvate the crystal and hence produce crystal defects, whilst, high humidity conditions produce higher molecular mobility leading to either crystallization of API or alteration of its crystalline form.

  9. Viability of probiotic bacteria in maple sap products under storage and gastrointestinal conditions.

    PubMed

    Khalf, Moustafa; Dabour, Nassra; Kheadr, Ehab; Fliss, Ismaïl

    2010-10-01

    This study was undertaken to develop new probiotic products based on liquid maple sap or its concentrate. Sap and concentrate, with or without inulin (2%) were inoculated with Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG valio at initial counts of 10⁷-10⁸ CFU/ml. Viability was assessed over four weeks of storage at 4 °C and under in vitro simulated gastrointestinal conditions using dynamic gastrointestinal model known as TIM-1. Viability was maintained throughout the storage period at the same order of 10⁷ to 10⁸ CFU/ml. Inulin significantly enhanced the survivability during passage through the gastrointestinal tract simulator. The developed products could be an excellent alternative for delivering probiotics, especially for individuals suffering from lactose intolerance to dairy products. PMID:20965125

  10. Optimized conditions for the extraction of secondary volatile metabolites in Angelica roots by accelerated solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Cho, S-K; Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, J-H; Kim, M R; Shim, J H

    2007-09-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of three common Angelica species found in Asia: Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels from China, Angelica acutiloba (Sieb. et Zucc.) Kitagawa from Japan, and Angelica gigas Nakai from Korea was investigated. Preliminary experiments, including the selection of the solvent, extraction time, pressure, static cycle and time were investigated to optimize experimental parameters. Kováts indices and mass spectra were used to identify the components in the various fractions. These were then confirmed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 18 compounds were identified, with qualitative differences and similarities observed among the cultivars. From the 18 compounds found in the ASE extract of danggui cultivars, the major components were decursin, decursinol angelate (A. gigas); butylidene dihydrophthalide, 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (A. sinensis); and 9,12-octadecanoic acid in Angelica acutiloba. The optimum ASE operating conditions were n-hexane as extraction solvent, extraction temperature and pressure of 80 degrees C and 1500 atm, respectively, static cycle of 2 min, and static time of 10 min. Under these conditions, the percentages of main analytes were increased.

  11. Accelerated Biodegradation of Agriculture Film Based on Aromatic-Aliphatic Copolyester in Soil under Mesophilic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Šerá, Jana; Stloukal, Petr; Jančová, Petra; Verney, Vincent; Pekařová, Silvie; Koutný, Marek

    2016-07-20

    A study was conducted on the biodegradation of aromatic-aliphatic copolyester-based agricultural film in soil at 25 °C. The polymer is known to be biodegradable under composting conditions although rather recalcitrant under mesophilic conditions. The material investigated comprised of the copolyester filled with approximately 25% of starch containing biodegradable plasticizers, and its behavior was compared to the corresponding material without the filler. Mineralization followed by CO2 production merely reached the point of about 6% after 100 days of incubation in the pure copolyester film, whereas the value of around 53% was recorded for the filled copolyester film, which exceeded the readily biodegradable starch filler content in the material by more than 20% and could be accounted for biodegradation of the copolyester. It was suggested that the accelerated copolyester biodegradation in the starch-filled material was most likely explained by the increase in the active surface area of the material available for the microbial attack after biodegradation of the filler. The results were supported by changes in molecular weight distributions of the copolyester and observations made by several microscopic techniques. These findings encourage further development of biodegradable agricultural films based on this material. PMID:27367168

  12. Measurements in Transitional Boundary Layers Under High Free-Stream Turbulence and Strong Acceleration Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volino, Ralph J.; Simon, Terrence W.

    1995-01-01

    Measurements from transitional, heated boundary layers along a concave-curved test wall are presented and discussed. A boundary layer subject to low free-stream turbulence intensity (FSTI), which contains stationary streamwise (Gortler) vortices, is documented. The low FSTI measurements are followed by measurements in boundary layers subject to high (initially 8%) free-stream turbulence intensity and moderate to strong streamwise acceleration. Conditions were chosen to simulate those present on the downstream half of the pressure side of a gas turbine airfoil. Mean flow characteristics as well as turbulence statistics, including the turbulent shear stress, turbulent heat flux, and turbulent Prandtl number, are documented. A technique called "octant analysis" is introduced and applied to several cases from the literature as well as to data from the present study. Spectral analysis was applied to describe the effects of turbulence scales of different sizes during transition. To the authors'knowledge, this is the first detailed documentation of boundary layer transition under such high free-stream turbulence conditions.

  13. Migration of bisphenol A from can coatings--effects of damage, storage conditions and heating.

    PubMed

    Goodson, A; Robin, H; Summerfield, W; Cooper, I

    2004-10-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important monomer used in the manufacture of epoxy resins for internal food can linings. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different storage conditions and can damage on the migration of BPA to foods. These experiments were conducted in a systematic fashion by filling empty epoxyphenolic coated cans with four foods: soup, minced beef, evaporated milk and carrots and a food simulant (10% ethanol). Filled cans of each food type or simulant were then sealed and processed using appropriate conditions, before storage at three different temperatures: 5 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 40 degrees C. For each of the storage regimes, 50% of the cans were dented to establish if this would lead to increased BPA migration. Cans were removed from these stocks at intervals of 1, 3 and 9 months storage at 5 degrees C and 20 degrees C or 10 days, 1 and 3 months at 40 degrees C. Some initial problems of heterogeneity between samples was overcome by determining the amount of BPA in food as well as in the can lining. It was found that 80-100% of the total BPA present in the coating had migrated to foods directly after can processing by pilot plant filling with food or simulant, sealing and sterilization. This level was not changed by extended storage (up to 9 months) or can damage, indicating most migration was occurring during the can processing step. There was no noticeable difference, in this respect, between the different foods or the food simulant. Analysis of control samples (foods fortified with approximately 0.1 mg kg(-1) BPA and contained in Schott bottles) showed that BPA was stable under both processing and storage. Experiments were also conducted to investigate the potential effects, on the migration of BPA from can coatings, of cooking or heating foods in the can prior to consumption. Food cans were purchased and the food either cooked or heated in the can. BPA was analysed prior to and after the heating/cooking process. It was

  14. Magma storage conditions beneath Dabbahu Volcano (Ethiopia) constrained by petrology, seismicity and satellite geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, L.; Blundy, J.; Brooker, R. A.; Wright, T.; Yirgu, G.

    2012-07-01

    A variety of methods exist to constrain sub-volcanic storage conditions of magmas. Petrological, seismological and satellite geodetic methods are integrated to determine storage conditions of peralkaline magmas beneath Dabbahu Volcano, Afar, Ethiopia. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis of volatile contents in melt inclusions trapped within phenocrysts of alkali feldspar, clinopyroxene and olivine from pantellerite obsidians representing the youngest eruptive phase (<8 ka) show H2O contents ≤5.8 wt.% and CO2 contents generally below 500 ppm, although rarely as high as 1,500 ppm. Volatile saturation pressures (at 679-835°C) are in the range 43-207 MPa, consistent with published experimental data for similar pantellerites, which show that the phenocryst assemblage of alkali feldspar + cpx + aenigmatite ± ilmenite is stable at 100 to 150 MPa. Inferred magma storage depths for these historic eruptions are ~1-5 km below sea-level, consistent with the depths of earthquakes, associated with magma chamber deflation following a dyke intrusion in the period Oct 2005-Apr 2006. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data for the same period reveal a broad ~20 km diameter area of uplift. Modelling of different geometries reveals that a series of stacked sills over a 1-5 km depth range best matches the InSAR data. The consistency of depth estimates based on petrological study of ancient eruptions and the seismicity, inflation and deflation of Dabbahu observed in relation to the dyking event of 2005, suggest a small but vertically extensive and potentially long-lived magma storage region.

  15. Effect of storage conditions on the recrystallization of drugs in solid dispersions with crospovidone.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yusuke; Fujii, Makiko; Suzuki, Ayako; Koizumi, Naoya; Kanada, Ken; Yamada, Masaki; Watanabe, Yoshiteru

    2014-06-01

    The physical stability of amorphous solid dispersions (SDs) is influenced by their storage conditions. The goal of this work was to investigate the factors affecting the recrystallization of drugs in SDs after storage under conditions of high temperature and high humidity. SDs of three drugs (dipyridamole, nifedipine and indomethacin) with different functional groups (amino, carbonyl and hydroxyl) and onset times for crystallization of the amorphous state were prepared using crospovidone (CrosPVP). All of the drugs in the SDs remained in an amorphous state at 25 °C/50% relative humidity (RH) in closed glass bottles for at least six months. Under conditions of high temperature (40 °C/75%RH/closed and 60 °C/open), differences in interactions between the hydrogen bond donors of the drugs and the amide carbonyl group of CrosPVP are essential factors for recrystallization of the drugs in the SDs. On the other hand, under condition of high humidity (40 °C/75%RH/open), in addition to the difference in the interaction between the drug and CrosPVP, the rate of increase in moisture content affects their recrystallization in SDs.

  16. Temperature and current accelerated lifetime conditions and testing of laser diodes for ESA BepiColombo space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumel, Genady; Karni, Yoram; Cohen, Shalom; Rech, Markus; Weidlich, Kai

    2011-03-01

    System designers and end users of diode pumped solid state lasers often require knowledge of the operability limits of QCW laser diode pump sources and their predicted reliability performance as a function of operating conditions. Accelerated ageing at elevated temperatures, duty cycles and/or currents allows extended lifetime testing of diode stacks to be executed on compressed timescales with high confidence. We present a novel, time-efficient technique for the determination of accelerated lifetime test conditions using degradation rate data, rather than the traditionally used failures against time data. To assess the effect of thermally accelerated ageing, 4 groups of 4 stacks each were operated for 60 million pulses at different temperature stress levels by varying the pulse repetition rate from 100Hz to 250Hz. The measured power degradation rates fitted to an Arrhenius type model, result in activation energy of 0.47- 0.74eV, apparently indicating two thermally activated degradation modes with different activation energies. Similarly, for current accelerated ageing, another 4 groups of 4 stacks were tested at operation currents from 120A to 150A. The optical power degradation rates due to current stress follow a power law behavior with a current acceleration factor of 1.7. The obtained acceleration parameters allowed considerable reduction of the lifetime test duration, which would have otherwise taken an unacceptably long time under nominal operating conditions. The successful results of the accelerated lifetime have been a major milestone enabling qualification of SCD stacks as pump sources for the laser altimeter in ESA Bepi-Colombo space mission. The presented reliability analysis allows life test qualification programs to be accelerated for generic QCW stacks and their lifetime to be predicted in various operating environments.

  17. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    PubMed

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site.

  18. Multiwell CO2 injectivity: impact of boundary conditions and brine extraction on geologic CO2 storage efficiency and pressure buildup.

    PubMed

    Heath, Jason E; McKenna, Sean A; Dewers, Thomas A; Roach, Jesse D; Kobos, Peter H

    2014-01-21

    CO2 storage efficiency is a metric that expresses the portion of the pore space of a subsurface geologic formation that is available to store CO2. Estimates of storage efficiency for large-scale geologic CO2 storage depend on a variety of factors including geologic properties and operational design. These factors govern estimates on CO2 storage resources, the longevity of storage sites, and potential pressure buildup in storage reservoirs. This study employs numerical modeling to quantify CO2 injection well numbers, well spacing, and storage efficiency as a function of geologic formation properties, open-versus-closed boundary conditions, and injection with or without brine extraction. The set of modeling runs is important as it allows the comparison of controlling factors on CO2 storage efficiency. Brine extraction in closed domains can result in storage efficiencies that are similar to those of injection in open-boundary domains. Geomechanical constraints on downhole pressure at both injection and extraction wells lower CO2 storage efficiency as compared to the idealized scenario in which the same volumes of CO2 and brine are injected and extracted, respectively. Geomechanical constraints should be taken into account to avoid potential damage to the storage site. PMID:23971876

  19. Identification of key factors in Accelerated Low Water Corrosion through experimental simulation of tidal conditions: influence of stimulated indigenous microbiota.

    PubMed

    Marty, Florence; Gueuné, Hervé; Malard, Emilie; Sánchez-Amaya, José M; Sjögren, Lena; Abbas, Ben; Quillet, Laurent; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Muyzer, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors favoring Accelerated Low Water Corrosion (ALWC) on harbor steel structures remain unclear warranting their study under controlled experimental tidal conditions. Initial stimulation of marine microbial consortia by a pulse of organic matter resulted in localized corrosion and the highest corrosion rates (up to 12-times higher than non-stimulated conditions) in the low water zone, persisting after nine months exposure to natural seawater. Correlations between corrosion severity and the abundance and composition of metabolically active sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) indicated the importance and persistence of specific bacterial populations in accelerated corrosion. One phylotype related to the electrogenic SRB Desulfopila corrodens appeared as the major causative agent of the accelerated corrosion. The similarity of bacterial populations related to sulfur and iron cycles, mineral and tuberculation with those identified in ALWC support the relevance of experimental simulation of tidal conditions in the management of steel corrosion exposed to harbor environments.

  20. Measurements in Transitional Boundary Layers Under High Free-Stream Turbulence and Strong Acceleration Conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volino, Ralph John

    1995-01-01

    Measurements from transitional, heated boundary layers along a concave-curved test wall are presented and discussed. A boundary layer subject to low free-stream turbulence intensity (FSTI), which contains stationary streamwise (Gortler) vortices, is documented. The low FSTI measurements are followed by measurements in boundary layers subject to high (initially 8%) free-stream turbulence intensity and moderate to strong (K = {nuover U_sp{infty} {2}}{dUinftyover dx} as high as 9times 10^{ -6}) acceleration. The high FSTI experiments are the main focus of the work. Conditions were chosen to simulate those present on the downstream half of the pressure side of a gas turbine airfoil. The high FSTI boundary layers undergo transition from a strongly disturbed non-turbulent state to a fully-turbulent state. Due to the stabilizing effect of strong acceleration, the transition zones are of extended length in spite of the high FSTI. Transitional values of skin friction coefficients and Stanton numbers drop below flat-plate, low FSTI, turbulent flow correlations, but remain well above laminar flow values. Mean velocity and temperature profiles exhibit clear changes in shape as the flow passes through transition. Turbulence statistics, including the turbulent shear stress, turbulent heat flux, and turbulent Prandtl number, are documented. Turbulent transport is strongly suppressed below values in unaccelerated turbulent boundary layers. A technique called "octant analysis" is introduced and applied to several cases from the literature as well as to data from the present study. Octant analysis shows a fundamental difference between transitional and fully-turbulent boundary layers. Transitional boundary layers are characterized by incomplete mixing compared to fully-turbulent boundary layers. Similar octant analysis results are observed in both low and high FSTI cases. Spectral analysis suggests that the non-turbulent zone of the high FSTI flow is dominated by large scale

  1. THE EFFECT OF STORAGE CONDITIONS ON HANDLING AND SO2 REACTIVITY OF CA(OH)2-BASED SORBENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article gives results of an investigation of the effect of relative humidity (RH), time, and aeration during calcium hydroxide -- Ca(OH)2--storage for its effect on sorbent handling and reactivity with sulfur dioxide (SO2). nvestigated was the effect of sorbent storage condit...

  2. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On that date your waste is subject to hazardous waste regulation under the relevant sections of 40 CFR...

  3. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On that date your waste is subject to hazardous waste regulation under the relevant sections of 40 CFR...

  4. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On that date your waste is subject to hazardous waste regulation under the relevant sections of 40 CFR...

  5. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On that date your waste is subject to hazardous waste regulation under the relevant sections of 40 CFR...

  6. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On that date your waste is subject to hazardous waste regulation under the relevant sections of 40 CFR...

  7. Study of photon emission by electron capture during solar nuclei acceleration. 2: Delimitation of conditions for charge transfert establishment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Peraza, J.; Alvarez, M.; Gallegos, A.

    1985-01-01

    The conditions for establishment of charge transfer during acceleration of nuclei up to Fe, for typical conditions of solar flare regions T = 5 x 10 to the 3rd power to 2.5 x 10 to the 8th power degrees K were explored. Results show that such conditions are widely assorted, depending on the acceleration mechanism, the kind of projections and their velocity, the target elements, the source temperature and consequently on the degree of ionization of matter and the local charge state of the accelerated ions. Nevertheless, in spite of that assorted behavior, there are some general tendencies that can be summarized as follows. In atomic H electron capture is systematically established from thermal energies up to high energies, whatever the element and for both acceleration process. For a given element and fixed temperature (T), the probability and energy domain of electron capture and loss with Fermi are higher than with Betatron acceleration. For a given acceleration process the heavier the ion the higher the probability and the wider the energy range for electron capture and loss. For given acceleration mechanism and fixed element the importance and energy domain of capture and loss increase with T: for those reasons, the energy range of charge equilibrium (illustrated with solid lines on the next figs.) is wider with Fermi and increases with temperature and atomic number of projectiles. For the same reasons, electron loss is smaller while the lighter the element, the lower the temperature and the Betatron process, such that there are conditions for which electron loss is not allowed at low energies, but only electron capture is established.

  8. The Effects of Storage Conditions on the Stability of House Dust Mite Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Choi, Soo-Young; Han, In-Soo; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Joo-Shil; Hong, Chein-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Allergen extracts from the house dust mite (HDM, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) are widely utilized for diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. It is known that allergen extracts degrade and lose potency when stored over time. Methods This study aimed to determine the optimal conditions for stability of allergen extracts. This study was undertaken to investigate the optimal storage conditions for HDM extracts, the effects of adding 0.03% human serum albumin (HSA) and 50% glycerol were evaluated at -20℃, 4℃, and room temperature (RT). Changes in protein and group 1 major allergen (Der p 1) concentration, as well as allergenicity were measured over a 1 year period using the Bradford assay, two-site ELISA, and ELISA inhibition. Results Protein concentrations decreased by 86%, 51%, and 6% at RT, 4℃, and -20℃, respectively, when stored in distilled water. Overall allergenicity remained high (89.9%) when the extracts was reconstituted in 50% glycerol solution, and was 93.1% when reconstituted in 50% glycerol and 0.03% HSA at RT. Allergenicity was decreased to 36.6% and 33.3%, however, reconstitution in DW or 0.03% HSA solution at RT, respectively. Allergenicity was remained high as 92.0%-97.0% when stored at 4℃ regardless of the buffer conditions. Conclusions Storage temperature is the most important factor in preserving allergenicity of HDM extracts, which is ideal at 4℃. The addition of 50% glycerol to the storage buffer was also found to play an important role in increasing the shelf-life of HDM extracts at RT. PMID:24179687

  9. Salmonella survival on pecans as influenced by processing and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Beuchat, L R; Heaton, E K

    1975-06-01

    Survival of Salmonella senftenberg 775W, S. anatum, and S. typhimurium during exposure to currently practiced, as well as abusive, pecan processing and storage conditions was studied. Thermal treatments normally carried out during the processing of pecans are inadequate to consistently destroy salmonellae in highly contaminated inshell nuts. Pecan nut packing tissue was toxic to salmonellae, thus affording some protection against high initial contamination and subsequent survival of the organisms. Examinations of inoculated inshell pecans stored at -18, -7, 5, and 21 C for up to 32 weeks revealed that the extent of survival was inversely correlated to the storage temperature. S. senftenberg 775W and S. anatum were not detectable on inshell nuts after 16 weeks of storage at 21 C. Little decrease in viable population of the three species was noted on inoculated pecan halves stored at -18, -7, and 5 C for 32 weeks. Due to organoleptic quality deterioration in pecan nutmeats at elevated temperatures, sterilization methods other than thermal treatment appear to be required for the elimination of viable salmonellae from pecan nuts. PMID:1098573

  10. Occurrence of gram-negative bacteria in hens' eggs depending on their source and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Stepień-Pyśniak, D

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the qualitative composition of Gram-negative microbes, mainly of the family Enterobacteriaceae, including pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, in the albumens and yolks and on the shells of hens' eggs, depending on their source and on the temperature and duration of their storage. A total of 375 table eggs were studied, from a large-scale poultry farm, a small-scale poultry farm and a supermarket. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups according to the temperature and duration of their storage during the study. Two serotypes of bacteria of the genus Salmonella were identified: S. Enteritidis and S. Arizonae. Strains of Salmonella spp. were also isolated. Apart from Salmonella and Escherichia coli, among the most frequently isolated bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae were Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Citrobacter freundii. Qualitative analysis of the bacterial microflora of the eggs also showed the presence of other Gram negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., Tatumella ptyseos, Providencia stuartii, Serratia liquefaciens, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, Vibrio metschnikovii, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Kluyvera spp., Rahnella aquatilis, Proteus mirabilis, and Achromobacter spp. The study demonstrated that the conditions applied, i.e., the temperature and duration of storage, did not significantly influence the prevalence of particular species of Gram-negative bacteria in the eggs. However, based on the analysis of contamination of eggs with Salmonella depending on their source, it can be concluded that the system in which the hens are housed affects the risk of contamination of eggs with these pathogens.

  11. Impact of storage conditions on metabolite profiles of sputum samples from persons with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiangchao; Evans, Charles R.; Carmody, Lisa A.; LiPuma, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although recent studies have begun to elucidate how airway microbial community structure relates to lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF), microbial community activity and the host’s response to changes in this activity are poorly understood. Metabolomic profiling provides a means to investigate microbial and human cell activity within diseased airways. However, variables in sample storage and shipping likely affect downstream analyses and standards for sample handling are lacking. Methods We assessed the impact of sample storage conditions on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis of CF sputum samples. Results Significant changes in global metabolomic profiles occurred in samples stored at room temperature or at 4°C for longer than one day. Untargeted metabolomic profiles were stable in sputum samples stored at −20°C or −80°C for at least 28 days. Quorum sensing molecules and phenazines, both considered important to the in vivo activity of Pseudomonas during airway infection, were detected after sample storage at room temperature for five days. Conclusions Sputum samples can be stored at −20°C or −80°C for weeks with minimal effect on global metabolomic profiles. This observation provides guidance in designing metabolomic studies that have the potential to deepen our understanding of how airway microbial communities impact lung disease progression in CF. PMID:25725986

  12. Safe operating conditions for NSLS-II Storage Ring Frontends commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Seletskiy, S.; Amundsen, C.; Ha, K.; Hussein, A.

    2015-04-02

    The NSLS-II Storage Ring Frontends are designed to safely accept the synchrotron radiation fan produced by respective insertion device when the electron beam orbit through the ID is locked inside the predefined Active Interlock Envelope. The Active Interlock is getting enabled at a particular beam current known as AI safe current limit. Below such current the beam orbit can be anywhere within the limits of the SR beam acceptance. During the FE commissioning the beam orbit is getting intentionally disturbed in the particular ID. In this paper we explore safe operating conditions for the Frontends commissioning.

  13. Chemical and Physical Reactions of Wellbore Cement under CO2 Storage Conditions: Effects of Cement Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutchko, B. G.; Strazisar, B. R.; Huerta, N.; Lowry, G. V.; Dzombak, D. A.; Thaulow, N.

    2008-12-01

    Sequestration of CO2 into geologic formations requires long-term storage and low leakage rates to be effective. Active and abandoned wells in candidate storage formations must be evaluated as potential leakage points. Wellbore integrity is an important part of an overall integrated assessment program being developed at NETL to assess potential risks at CO2 storage sites. Such a program is needed for ongoing policy and regulatory decisions for geologic carbon sequestration. The permeability and integrity of the cement in the well is a primary factor affecting its ability to prevent leakage. Cement must be able to maintain low permeability over lengthy exposure to reservoir conditions in a CO2 injection and storage scenario. Although it is known that cement may be altered by exposure to CO2, the results of ongoing research indicate that cement curing conditions, fluid properties, and cement additives play a significant role in the rate of alteration and reaction. The objective of this study is to improve understanding of the factors affecting wellbore cement integrity for large-scale geologic carbon sequestration projects. Due to the high frequency use of additives (pozzolan) in wellbore cement, it is also essential to understand the reaction of these cement-pozzolan systems upon exposure to CO2 under sequestration conditions (15.5 MPa and 50°C). Laboratory experiments were performed to determine the physical and chemical changes, as well as the rate of alteration of commonly used pozzolan-cement systems under simulated sequestration reservoir conditions, including both supercritical CO2 and CO2-saturated brine. The rate of alteration of the cement-pozzolan systems is considerably faster than with neat cement. However, the alteration of physical properties is much less significant with the pozzolanic blends. Permeability of a carbonated pozzolanic cement paste remains sufficiently small to block significant vertical migration of CO2 in a wellbore. All of the

  14. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Weili; Liu, Linshu; Jin, Tony Z

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and used to coat one side of the film. The films were subjected to different storage conditions (storage time, storage temperature, and packed or unpacked) and handling conditions (washing, abrasion, and air blowing), and the antimicrobial activity of the films against Salmonella Stanley in tryptic soy broth was determined. The films (8.16 μl of AIT per cm(2) of surface area) significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the growth of Salmonella during 24 h of incubation at 22°C, while the populations of Salmonella in controls increased from ca. 4 to over 8 log CFU/ml, indicating a minimum inactivation of 4 log CFU/ml on films in comparison to the growth on controls. Statistical analyses indicated that storage time, storage temperature, and surface abrasion affected the antimicrobial activity of the films significantly (P < 0.05). However, the differences in microbial reduction between those conditions were less than 0.5 log cycle. The results suggest that the films' antimicrobial properties are stable under practical storage and handling conditions and that these antimicrobial films have potential applications in food packaging.

  15. Economic analysis of air-conditioning systems with off-peak chilled-water storage. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    McMullen, B.J.; Papaprokopiou, N.D.

    1981-09-01

    This thesis investigates current methods of chilled-water storage for air conditioning applications and the economics of chilled-water storage with time-of-use electric utility rates. Current methods of chilled-water storage are investigated by comparing costs of construction materials for storage tanks and effectiveness and costs of anti-blending systems. The economics of chilled-water storage are analyzed by computing total life cycle costs of alternative air conditioning systems for two different sized buildings. Computer simulation is used to determine electric consumption for the buildings. The simulation of each building contains three options: no chilled-water storage, chiller operated only at night, and a small chiller supplemented by stored chilled-water. A gunite or Styrofoam tank with a moving partition anti-blending system is the least expensive and most effective storage system. The economics of chilled-water storage are sensitive to the size of the building analyzed. Operating the small chiller with supplemental chilled-water is economical in the smaller building. No chilled-water storage is the most economical option in the larger building. Operation of the chiller only at night was never economical.

  16. Accelerated Aging of the M119 Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bixon, Eric R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the storage requirement, shelf life, and the reliability of M119 Whistling Simulator. Experimental conditions have been determined and the data analysis has been completed for the accelerated testing of the system. A general methodology to evaluate the shelf life of the system as a function of the storage time, temperature, and relative humidity is discussed.

  17. Effect of modified atmosphere packaging and storage conditions on quality characteristics of cucumber.

    PubMed

    Manjunatha, M; Anurag, Rahul K

    2014-11-01

    Cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) stored in perforated modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) under cold room (4 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 2 % RH) and ambient condition (23-26 °C and 63-66 % RH) were evaluated for firmness, weight loss (WL), colour, chilling injury and sensory characteristics. The firmness of cucumbers was decreased to 0.333 and 0.326 N on 6th and 12th day of storage, respectively from initial value of 0.38 N. After 12 days of storage, the WL was in the range of 1.62-12.89 % whereas the cucumber stored under MAP having 2 perforations at 4 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 2 % RH recorded least WL of 1.62 %. The minimum change in colour (Hunter L, a and b values) was observed in the cucumber samples stored at cold room condition. The increase in 'b' values (yellowness) was more in the sample stored at ambient condition with unsealed sample registered highest 'b' values (35.82). On 12th day of storage, sensory quality evaluation revealed that samples stored under perforated MAP at 4 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 2 % RH were acceptable in condition with sensory score of 7.1 and 7.5. Chilling injury was severe in sample unsealed (4.4 chilling injury score) and slight to moderate chilling injury was observed in 2 and 4 perforated package samples stored under cold room condition. The study revealed that cucumber can be stored under MAP with 2 perforations at 4 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 2 % RH and ambient condition (23-26 °C and 63-66 % RH) for 12 and 6 days, respectively. PMID:26396348

  18. Influence of storage conditions and shotshell wounding on the hygienic condition of hunted, uneviscerated pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Paulsen, P; Nagy, J; Popelka, P; Ledecky, V; Marcincák, S; Pipová, M; Smulders, F J M; Hofbauer, P; Lazar, P; Dicakova, Z

    2008-01-01

    The effects of shot wounds on the hygienic conditions of pheasants (particularly those in the body cavity) were studied. Slaughtered (n = 33) and hunted pheasants (31 specimens with, and 33 specimens without shots in the body cavity) were stored uneviscerated at 0 and 4 degrees C. Specimens were taken at d 0, 3, 7, and 14. Hunted pheasants differed from slaughtered pheasants with respect to muscular hemorrhages and blood and fecal matter in the body cavity but also with regard to the presence of Escherichia coli in breast and thigh muscles. In addition, a higher thigh muscle pH (P < 0.05) was noted in hunted pheasants, with no significant (P > 0.05) increase observed during storage. Concentrations of biogenic amines in muscle tissue remained below the determination limit of 1 mg/kg for 90% of samples analyzed, with the maximum concentration for the remaining 10% of samples reaching 5.7 mg/kg, indicating a low incidence of contaminant bacteria. The observed changes in pH values and levels of biogenic amines failed to correlate with the presence or absence of shot lesions in the body cavity or abdominal region. Total aerobic counts increased significantly during storage, but the absolute numbers were consistently below 10(6) log(10) cfu/g. Although E. coli were <1 log(10) cfu/g in muscles of hunted pheasants on d 3 at 4 degrees C, counts of up to 3.7 log(10) cfu/g on d 7 at 4 degrees C indicated a loss of hygienic quality. Therefore, it is recommended that hunted, uneviscerated pheasants be stored 3 d at 4 degrees C, but not longer than 7 d after the hunt.

  19. Thermodynamic model of a thermal storage air conditioning system with dynamic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, E; Wen, SY; Shi, L; da Silva, AK

    2013-12-01

    A thermodynamic model was developed to predict transient behavior of a thermal storage system, using phase change materials (PCMs), for a novel electric vehicle climate conditioning application. The main objectives of the paper are to consider the system's dynamic behavior, such as a dynamic air flow rate into the vehicle's cabin, and to characterize the transient heat transfer process between the thermal storage unit and the vehicle's cabin, while still maintaining accurate solution to the complex phase change heat transfer. The system studied consists of a heat transfer fluid circulating between either of the on-board hot and cold thermal storage units, which we refer to as thermal batteries, and a liquid-air heat exchanger that provides heat exchange with the incoming air to the vehicle cabin. Each thermal battery is a shell-and-tube configuration where a heat transfer fluid flows through parallel tubes, which are surrounded by PCM within a larger shell. The system model incorporates computationally inexpensive semianalytic solution to the conjugated laminar forced convection and phase change problem within the battery and accounts for airside heat exchange using the Number of Transfer Units (NTUs) method for the liquid-air heat exchanger. Using this approach, we are able to obtain an accurate solution to the complex heat transfer problem within the battery while also incorporating the impact of the airside heat transfer on the overall system performance. The implemented model was benchmarked against a numerical study for a melting process and against full system experimental data for solidification using paraffin wax as the PCM. Through modeling, we demonstrate the importance of capturing the airside heat exchange impact on system performance, and we investigate system response to dynamic operating conditions, e.g., air recirculation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the pharmaceutical characteristics of various enteric-coated aspirin tablets under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Abe, Toshihide; Yanagihara, Yoshitsugu; Uchino, Tomonobu; Oriyama, Toyohito; Komatsu, Mamoru; Nakajima, Katsuyoshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The formulation characteristics of 6 brands of enteric-coated aspirin tablets under unpackaged conditions at 40°C and 60°C for 4 weeks were analyzed. Appearance, salicylic acid content, dissolution rates, and surface properties (by Raman microscopy) were evaluated to determine stability data, taking into account the clinical use of generic drugs. No change in appearance, decomposition, or dissolution rates was observed in unpackaged aspirin tablets stored at 40°C for 4 weeks. However, when stored at 60°C, tablets of 5 of the 6 brands showed whiskers on their surfaces along with an increase in salicylic acid content and a decrease in dissolution rate. Results of Raman mapping on the surface and cross sectional surface of the tablets with whiskers showed a salicylic acid peak associated with storage at 60°C for 4 weeks. However, for tablets from 1 of the 6 brands, no salicylic acid peaks were observed. For this tablet, Raman microscopy revealed 2 layers of film coating, and talc, which greatly affected the stability of the acetylsalicylic acid, was found only in the outer layer film. These results indicated that the protection of compatibility with talc is one of the important factors in enhancement of aspirin tablet stability in this tablet. We concluded that certification of the characteristics associated with stability and formulation is essential for generic drugs, which are not required to undergo stability testing under extreme storage conditions.

  1. Conditioning and long-term storage of spent radium sources in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Osmanlioglu, Ahmet Erdal

    2006-06-30

    Conditioning of radium sources is required before long-term interim storage to avoid the release of radioactive material and to limit radiation exposure. In this study, containment of the radium sources was achieved by high integrity encapsulation designed to control the radon emanation problem. The capsules were made of Type 316 austenitic stainless steel with dimensions of 22mm diameter and 160mm height. The gas pressures which was caused by encapsulation of different amounts of (226)Ra were determined. The maximum gas pressure found 10atm for 900mCi of (226)Ra in one capsule at 20 degrees C. A lead shielding device was designed to limit radiation exposure. A 200l drum was used as a conditioned waste package for the radium sources and represents a Type A package under the IAEA transport regulations. PMID:16386365

  2. Evolution of quality characteristics of minimally processed asparagus during storage in different lighting conditions.

    PubMed

    Sanz, S; Olarte, C; Ayala, F; Echávarri, J F

    2009-08-01

    The effect of different types of lighting (white, green, red, and blue light) on minimally processed asparagus during storage at 4 degrees C was studied. The gas concentrations in the packages, pH, mesophilic counts, and weight loss were also determined. Lighting caused an increase in physiological activity. Asparagus stored under lighting achieved atmospheres with higher CO(2) and lower O(2) content than samples kept in the dark. This activity increase explains the greater deterioration experienced by samples stored under lighting, which clearly affected texture and especially color, accelerating the appearance of greenish hues in the tips and reddish-brown hues in the spears. Exposure to light had a negative effect on the quality parameters of the asparagus and it caused a significant reduction in shelf life. Hence, the 11 d shelf life of samples kept in the dark was reduced to only 3 d in samples kept under red and green light, and to 7 d in those kept under white and blue light. However, quality indicators such as the color of the tips and texture showed significantly better behavior under blue light than with white light, which allows us to state that it is better to use this type of light or blue-tinted packaging film for the display of minimally processed asparagus to consumers.

  3. Influence of different filling, cooling, and storage conditions on the growth of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris CRA7152 in orange juice.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Ana Cláudia N F; Sant'ana, Anderson S; Rodrigues-Junior, Salatir; Massaguer, Pilar R

    2009-12-01

    The prevention of spoilage by Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a current challenge for fruit juice and beverage industries worldwide due to the bacterium's acidothermophilic growth capability, heat resistance, and spoilage potential. This study examined the effect of storage temperature on A. acidoterrestris growth in hot-filled orange juice. The evolution of the A. acidoterrestris population was monitored under six different storage conditions after pasteurization (at 92 degrees C for 10 s), maintenance at 85 degrees C for 150 s, and cooling with water spray to 35 degrees C in about 30 min and using two inoculum levels: <10(1) and 10(1) spores/ml. Final cooling and storage conditions were as follows: treatment 1, 30 degrees C for the bottle cold point and storage at 35 degrees C; treatment 2, 30 degrees C for 48 h and storage at 35 degrees C; treatment 3, 25 degrees C for the bottle cold point and storage at 35 degrees C; treatment 4, 25 degrees C for 48 h and storage at 35 degrees C; treatment 5, storage at 20 degrees C (control); and treatment 6, filling and storage at 25 degrees C. It was found that only in treatment 5 did the population remain inhibited during the 6 months of orange juice shelf life. By examining treatments 1 to 4, it was observed that A. acidoterrestris predicted growth parameters were significantly influenced (P < 0.05) either by inoculum level or cooling and storage conditions. The time required to reach a 10(4) CFU/ml population of A. acidoterrestris was considered to be an adequate parameter to indicate orange juice spoilage by A. acidoterrestris. Therefore, hot-filled orange juice should be stored at or below 20 degrees C to avoid spoilage by this microorganism. This procedure can be considered a safe and inexpensive alternative to other treatments proposed earlier.

  4. Estradiol accelerates extinction of lithium chloride-induced conditioned taste aversions through its illness-associated properties.

    PubMed

    Yuan, D L; Chambers, K C

    1999-12-01

    Estradiol accelerates extinction of LiCl-induced conditioned taste aversions when it is present during a period that starts 2-3 days after acquisition and extends throughout extinction (before and during extinction). It has been suggested that estradiol acts before, not during, extinction and that its effect on extinction is associated with its illness-inducing properties. This hypothesis is based on previous work which shows an attenuation of conditioned taste aversion learning when rats are exposed to illness-inducing agents during a period that starts 2 days after acquisition and ends 2 days before extinction trials are initiated. Four experiments were designed to test elements of this hypothesis. The first two experiments demonstrated that if an estradiol-filled Silastic capsule is implanted before extinction of a LiCl-induced aversion, when the conditioned taste is not present, it accelerates extinction, but if it is implanted during extinction, when the conditioned taste is present, it prolongs extinction. The third experiment showed that the same dose of estradiol that accelerates extinction of a LiCl-induced aversion was effective in producing a conditioned taste aversion when it was present for 18 h after consumption of a novel sucrose solution. The fourth experiment indicated that serum levels of estradiol were elevated during the 18 h. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the acceleration of extinction by estradiol is associated with its illness-inducing properties. It is suggested that estradiol acts on neural areas that mediate illness information and that one of these areas, the area postrema is necessary for estradiol to accelerate extinction of a LiCl-induced aversion.

  5. Die another day: Fate of heat-treated Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 spores during storage under growth-preventing conditions.

    PubMed

    Mtimet, Narjes; Trunet, Clément; Mathot, Anne-Gabrielle; Venaille, Laurent; Leguérinel, Ivan; Coroller, Louis; Couvert, Olivier

    2016-06-01

    Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores are recognized as one of the most wet-heat resistant among aerobic spore-forming bacteria and are responsible for 35% of canned food spoilage after incubation at 55 °C. The purpose of this study was to investigate and model the fate of heat-treated survivor spores of G. stearothermophilus ATCC 12980 in growth-preventing environment. G. stearothermophilus spores were heat-treated at four different conditions to reach one or two decimal reductions. Heat-treated spores were stored in nutrient broth at different temperatures and pH under growth-preventing conditions. Spore survival during storage was evaluated by count plating over a period of months. Results reveal that G. stearothermophilus spores surviving heat treatment lose their viability during storage under growth-preventing conditions. Two different subpopulations were observed during non-thermal inactivation. They differed according to the level of their resistance to storage stress, and the proportion of each subpopulation can be modulated by heat treatment conditions. Finally, tolerance to storage stress under growth-preventing conditions increases at refrigerated temperature and neutral pH regardless of heat treatment conditions. Such results suggest that spore inactivation due to heat treatment could be completed by storage under growth-preventing conditions. PMID:26919821

  6. Variation in diffusion of gases through PDMS due to plasma surface treatment and storage conditions

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Dmitry A.; Lillie, Elizabeth M.; Garbett, Shawn P.; McCawley, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a commonly used polymer in the fabrication of microfluidic devices due to such features as transparency, gas permeability, and ease of patterning with soft lithography. The surface characteristics of PDMS can also be easily changed with oxygen or low pressure air converting it from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic state. As part of such a transformation, surface methyl groups are removed and replaced with hydroxyl groups making the exposed surface to resemble silica, a gas impermeable substance. We have utilized Platinum(II)-tetrakis(pentaflourophenyl)porphyrin immobilized within a thin (~1.5 um thick) polystyrene matrix as an oxygen sensor, Stern-Volmer relationship, and Fick's Law of simple diffusion to measure the effects of PDMS composition, treatment, and storage on oxygen diffusion through PDMS. Results show that freshly oxidized PDMS showed a significantly smaller diffusion coefficient, indicating that the SiO2 layer formed on the PDMS surface created an impeding barrier. This barrier disappeared after a three-day storage in air, but remained significant for up to three weeks if PDMS was maintained in contact with water. Additionally, higher density PDMS formulation (5:1 ratio) showed similar diffusion characteristics as normal (10:1 ratio) formulation, but showed 60% smaller diffusion coefficient after plasma treatment that never recovered to pre-treatment levels even after a three-week storage in air. Understanding how plasma surface treatments contribute to oxygen diffusion will be useful in exploiting the gas permeability of PDMS to establish defined normoxic and hypoxic oxygen conditions within microfluidic bioreactor systems. PMID:24065585

  7. Occurrence of gram-negative bacteria in hens' eggs depending on their source and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Stepień-Pyśniak, D

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the qualitative composition of Gram-negative microbes, mainly of the family Enterobacteriaceae, including pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella, in the albumens and yolks and on the shells of hens' eggs, depending on their source and on the temperature and duration of their storage. A total of 375 table eggs were studied, from a large-scale poultry farm, a small-scale poultry farm and a supermarket. Each group was divided into 5 subgroups according to the temperature and duration of their storage during the study. Two serotypes of bacteria of the genus Salmonella were identified: S. Enteritidis and S. Arizonae. Strains of Salmonella spp. were also isolated. Apart from Salmonella and Escherichia coli, among the most frequently isolated bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae were Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp. and Citrobacter freundii. Qualitative analysis of the bacterial microflora of the eggs also showed the presence of other Gram negative bacteria, including Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., Tatumella ptyseos, Providencia stuartii, Serratia liquefaciens, Flavimonas oryzihabitans, Vibrio metschnikovii, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Kluyvera spp., Rahnella aquatilis, Proteus mirabilis, and Achromobacter spp. The study demonstrated that the conditions applied, i.e., the temperature and duration of storage, did not significantly influence the prevalence of particular species of Gram-negative bacteria in the eggs. However, based on the analysis of contamination of eggs with Salmonella depending on their source, it can be concluded that the system in which the hens are housed affects the risk of contamination of eggs with these pathogens. PMID:21033566

  8. Variation in diffusion of gases through PDMS due to plasma surface treatment and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Markov, Dmitry A; Lillie, Elizabeth M; Garbett, Shawn P; McCawley, Lisa J

    2014-02-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a commonly used polymer in the fabrication of microfluidic devices due to such features as transparency, gas permeability, and ease of patterning with soft lithography. The surface characteristics of PDMS can also be easily changed with oxygen or low pressure air plasma converting it from a hydrophobic to a hydrophilic state. As part of such a transformation, surface methyl groups are removed and replaced with hydroxyl groups making the exposed surface to resemble silica, a gas impermeable substance. We have utilized Platinum(II)-tetrakis(pentaflourophenyl)porphyrin immobilized within a thin (~1.5 um thick) polystyrene matrix as an oxygen sensor, Stern-Volmer relationship, and Fick's Law of simple diffusion to measure the effects of PDMS composition, treatment, and storage on oxygen diffusion through PDMS. Results indicate that freshly oxidized PDMS showed a significantly smaller diffusion coefficient, indicating that the SiO2 layer formed on the PDMS surface created an impeding barrier. This barrier disappeared after a 3-day storage in air, but remained significant for up to 3 weeks if PDMS was maintained in contact with water. Additionally, higher density PDMS formulation (5:1 ratio) showed similar diffusion characteristics as normal (10:1 ratio) formulation, but showed 60 % smaller diffusion coefficient after plasma treatment that never recovered to pre-treatment levels even after a 3-week storage in air. Understanding how plasma surface treatments contribute to oxygen diffusion will be useful in exploiting the gas permeability of PDMS to establish defined normoxic and hypoxic oxygen conditions within microfluidic bioreactor systems. PMID:24065585

  9. Novel electrical energy storage system based on reversible solid oxide cells: System design and operating conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, C. H.; Kazempoor, P.; Braun, R. J.

    2015-02-01

    Electrical energy storage (EES) is an important component of the future electric grid. Given that no other widely available technology meets all the EES requirements, reversible (or regenerative) solid oxide cells (ReSOCs) working in both fuel cell (power producing) and electrolysis (fuel producing) modes are envisioned as a technology capable of providing highly efficient and cost-effective EES. However, there are still many challenges and questions from cell materials development to system level operation of ReSOCs that should be addressed before widespread application. This paper presents a novel system based on ReSOCs that employ a thermal management strategy of promoting exothermic methanation within the ReSOC cell-stack to provide thermal energy for the endothermic steam/CO2 electrolysis reactions during charging mode (fuel producing). This approach also serves to enhance the energy density of the stored gases. Modeling and parametric analysis of an energy storage concept is performed using a physically based ReSOC stack model coupled with thermodynamic system component models. Results indicate that roundtrip efficiencies greater than 70% can be achieved at intermediate stack temperature (680 °C) and elevated stack pressure (20 bar). The optimal operating condition arises from a tradeoff between stack efficiency and auxiliary power requirements from balance of plant hardware.

  10. Methane adsorption in nanoporous carbon: the numerical estimation of optimal storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, L.; Kuchta, B.; Firlej, L.; Roth, M. W.; Wexler, C.

    2016-05-01

    The efficient storage and transportation of natural gas is one of the most important enabling technologies for use in energy applications. Adsorption in porous systems, which will allow the transportation of high-density fuel under low pressure, is one of the possible solutions. We present and discuss extensive grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulation results of the adsorption of methane into slit-shaped graphitic pores of various widths (between 7 Å and 50 Å), and at pressures P between 0 bar and 360 bar. Our results shed light on the dependence of film structure on pore width and pressure. For large widths, we observe multi-layer adsorption at supercritical conditions, with excess amounts even at large distances from the pore walls originating from the attractive interaction exerted by a very high-density film in the first layer. We are also able to successfully model the experimental adsorption isotherms of heterogeneous activated carbon samples by means of an ensemble average of the pore widths, based exclusively on the pore-size distributions (PSD) calculated from subcritical nitrogen adsorption isotherms. Finally, we propose a new formula, based on the PSD ensemble averages, to calculate the isosteric heat of adsorption of heterogeneous systems from single-pore-width calculations. The methods proposed here will contribute to the rational design and optimization of future adsorption-based storage tanks.

  11. Human synthetic sebum formulation and stability under conditions of use and storage.

    PubMed

    Wertz, P W

    2009-02-01

    The human skin surface and hair are generally coated with a thin film of liquid phase sebaceous lipids. This surface lipid film contributes to the cosmetic properties of the skin. Synthetic sebum has been used for studies on properties of skin and hair. However, there has been no standardized formulation of synthetic sebum and many of the synthetic sebum formulations that have been used do not closely resemble actual sebum. In this study, a formulation for a standardized and inexpensive synthetic sebum is proposed, and the chemical stability of this lipid mixture is demonstrated under conditions of use and storage. The proposed synthetic sebum consists of 17% fatty acid, 44.7% triglyceride, 25% wax monoester (jojoba oil) and 12.4% squalene. This lipid mixture takes up approximately 6% of its weight in water when equilibrated in an atmosphere saturated with water vapour. It is stable on exposure to the atmosphere at 32 degrees C for at least 48 h, and it is also stable on storage at 4 or -20 degrees C, either dry or in chloroform : methanol solution for at least 6 months. This synthetic sebum could be useful in studies on cosmetic properties of the skin surface or hair, on penetration of chemicals into the skin or in development of standardized tests of laundry detergent performance.

  12. Influence of low concentrations of an acid preservative on sponge cakes under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, P; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

    2009-03-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated the efficiency of an acid test preservative at concentrations higher than 10 g/kg of product. The aim of the current study has been to assay, in a pilot plant, a preservative at lower and different doses than tested in the aforementioned study, in contrast with different storage temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions and to check the possibilities of the growth of molds with a toxigenic capacity. The effect of the test preservative is not demonstrable at very low concentrations, as occurs in batch 2. In this case, the influence of the other storage parameters, temperature and RH, has a mixed effect, which makes it difficult to draw conclusions about the convenience of the preservative. In our opinion, the minimal concentration of the test preservative to reach readable results is 4 g/kg, but it is not enough to guarantee a longer shelf life. Regarding the mycotoxigenic study, the majority of molds obtained in the isolations from the cakes after their macroscopic identification corresponded to the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. Only 5 turned out to be mycotoxigenic, with citrinin and viridicatumtoxin being detected.

  13. Shallow-storage conditions for the rhyolite of the 1912 eruption at Novarupta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, M.L.; Gardner, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies have proposed contrasting models for the plumbing system that fed the 1912 eruption of Novarupta, Alaska. Here, we investigate the conditions under which the rhyolitic part of the erupted magma last resided in the crust prior to eruption. Geothermometry suggests that the rhyolite was held at ???800-850 ??C, and analyses of melt inclusions suggest that it was fluid saturated and contained ???4 wt% water. Hydrothermal, water-saturated experiments on rhyolite pumice reveal that at those temperatures the rhyolite was stable between 40 and 100 MPa, or a depth of 1.8-4.4 km. These results suggest that pre-eruptive storage and crystal growth of the rhyolite were shallow; if the rhyolite ascended from greater depths, it did so slowly enough for unzoned phenocrysts to grow as it passed through the shallow crust.

  14. Sampling and storage conditions of rainbow trout liver affects monooxygenase and conjugation enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lindström-Seppä, P; Hänninen, O

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of storage conditions of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) liver on monooxygenase and conjugation enzyme activities was studied. Fish livers or whole fish were frozen and stored for various periods of time at -4, -20 or -80 degrees C. 2. Freezing the whole fish at -20 degrees C affected the biotransformation enzyme activities dramatically. The loss of monooxygenase activity exceeded up to one-tenth of the initial rate in 17 days. UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase activity increased 50%. Glutathione S-transferase appeared to be the most durable enzyme. 3. When the whole fish were stored in an ice-bath at -4 degrees C for up to 24 hr the activities measured decreased only half of that when frozen for 3 days. 4. When it is impossible to freeze the tissues studied in liquid nitrogen the activities are best preserved when whole, decapitated, bled fish are kept in an ice-bath for less than 24 hr. PMID:2899000

  15. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  16. Validation of scale-4 for LWR (Light Water Reactor) fuel in transportation and storage cask conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V. ); Bierman, S.R. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of criticality calculations performed to validate the recently released SCALE-4 modular code system for light water reactor (LWR) fuel under various conditions typical of transportation and storage casks. The modifications in SCALE-4 include NITAWL-II, an updated version of the NITAWL code that performs resonance self-shielding calculations using the Nordeim Integral Treatment. In order to validate SCALE-4 with the new resonance self-shielding treatment, the CSAS4 control module was used to calculate the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) via the BONAMI{sup 3}, NITAWL-II, and KENO V.a{sup 4} codes. The cross section library used was the 27 group ENDF/B-IV library, which has been updated for use with NITAWL-II. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  17. Fuel-Free Compressed-Air Energy Storage: Fuel-Free, Ubiquitous Compressed-Air Energy Storage and Power Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-13

    GRIDS Project: General Compression has developed a transformative, near-isothermal compressed air energy storage system (GCAES) that prevents air from heating up during compression and cooling down during expansion. When integrated with renewable generation, such as a wind farm, intermittent energy can be stored in compressed air in salt caverns or pressurized tanks. When electricity is needed, the process is reversed and the compressed air is expanded to produce electricity. Unlike conventional compressed air energy storage (CAES) projects, no gas is burned to convert the stored high-pressure air back into electricity. The result of this breakthrough is an ultra-efficient, fully shapeable, 100% renewable and carbon-free power product. The GCAES™ system can provide high quality electricity and ancillary services by effectively integrating renewables onto the grid at a cost that is competitive with gas, coal and nuclear generation.

  18. The magmatic conditions, from storage to surface preceding effusive and explosive eruptions at Kelud Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, M.; Helo, C.; Castro, J. M.; Muir, D. D.; Troll, V. R.

    2015-12-01

    Kelud volcano, (Indonesia) has in recent years demonstrated the classical dichotomy of eruptive styles, with an effusive dome eruption in 2007-08 and an explosive Plinian eruption in 2014, causing widespread ash fall and the evacuation of 100,000 people. This study compares both the deep (magma reservoir) and shallow (conduit feeder system) magmatic processes that occurred before both eruptions, using a combination of petrography as well as analytical and experimental petrology. The first results from this study show that despite their significant differences in eruptive style, these eruption products had identical magma compositions, comprising of basaltic andesite. Furthermore, the phenocryst assemblage and mineral compositions of the explosive and effusive products are also similar, pointing towards equivalent pre-eruptive storage conditions. The key difference lies within the microlite populations and matrix glass chemistry. These suggest that the eruptive style is determined by the ascent history, with different P(H2O)-T-t paths leading to either effusive or explosive behavior. Interestingly, some plagioclase phenocrysts preserve progressive capture of small melt inclusions during different stages of crystal growth. Raman spectroscopic analysis of these small melt inclusions from crystal core to rim, provides a unique view of magmatic water contents during magma reservoir evolution. We speculate that water content variations (~0.6 - 2.3%) may exist due to a complex interplay between the fractionating basaltic andesite and fresh mafic injections. This study will also show the preliminary results from the first phase experiments done on Kelud volcanics, constraining the magmatic storage conditions preceding both the 2014 explosive and 2007 effusive eruptions.

  19. Conditioning of BPM pickup signals for operations of the Duke storage ring with a wide range of single-bunch current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Huang, Sen-Lin; Z. Wu, W.; Hao, H.; P., Wang; K. Wu, Y.

    2014-10-01

    The Duke storage ring is a dedicated driver for the storage ring based oscillator free-electron lasers (FELs), and the High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIGS). It is operated with a beam current ranging from about 1 mA to 100 mA per bunch for various operations and accelerator physics studies. High performance operations of the FEL and γ-ray source require a stable electron beam orbit, which has been realized by the global orbit feedback system. As a critical part of the orbit feedback system, the electron beam position monitors (BPMs) are required to be able to precisely measure the electron beam orbit in a wide range of the single-bunch current. However, the high peak voltage of the BPM pickups associated with high single-bunch current degrades the performance of the BPM electronics, and can potentially damage the BPM electronics. A signal conditioning method using low pass filters is developed to reduce the peak voltage to protect the BPM electronics, and to make the BPMs capable of working with a wide range of single-bunch current. Simulations and electron beam based tests are performed. The results show that the Duke storage ring BPM system is capable of providing precise orbit measurements to ensure highly stable FEL and HIGS operations.

  20. Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores in nutritional pellets: effect of storage time and conditions on the trapping ability against Haemonchus contortus larvae.

    PubMed

    Fitz-Aranda, J A; Mendoza-de-Gives, P; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Liébano-Hernández, E; López-Arellano, M E; Sandoval-Castro, C A; Quiroz-Romero, H

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated the effect of storage time and conditions of nutritional pellets (NP) containing Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores on its in vitro trapping ability against Haemonchus contortus L3 larvae. The treated batch (200 NP) contained 4 × 106 chlamydospores of the FTH0-8 strain, whereas the control batch (200 NP) was produced without spores. Both NP batches were exposed to four experimental storage conditions: (T1) shelves (indoors); (T2) refrigeration (4°C); (T3) outdoors under a roof; and (T4) 100% outdoors. Each group comprised 48 NP with spores and 48 NP without spores (control). The ability of D. flagrans spores to trap H. contortus L3 larvae was evaluated for 8 weeks for each storage condition. For that purpose, six randomly selected NP with spores were compared to their respective control NP. Each NP was individually crushed. The crushed material (1 g) was placed on the surface of a 2% water agar plate with 200 H. contortus L3 larvae. Plates were sealed and were incubated at room temperature for 8 days. The whole content of every plate was transferred to a Baermann apparatus to recover the remaining larvae. There was a clear larval reduction in the NP with spores, compared to the respective control NP in the four storage conditions (P< 0.05). The mean reductions ( ± SEM) of the storage conditions were 67 ± 4.9 (T2), 77 ± 6.1 (T1), 81.5 ± 3.8 (T4) and 82.1 ± 2.5 (T3). Larval reductions were similar at all times and were not affected by storage conditions or storage time (R 20.05). The long-term shelf-life of the chlamydospores in the NP suggests that this spore dosage technology is a viable option. PMID:23953994

  1. A Flight Evaluation of an Airborne Physiological Instrumentation System, Including Preliminary Results Under Conditions of Varying Accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smedal, Harald A.; Holden, George R.; Smith, Joseph R., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    A physiological instrumentation system capable of recording the electrocardiogram, pulse rate, respiration rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures during flight has been developed. This instrumentation system was designed for use during control studies at varied levels of acceleration in order to monitor the well-being of the pilot and at the same time to obtain data for study of the relationships between his various physiological functions and his performance capability. Flights, made in a T-33 aircraft, demonstrated the ability of the system to obtain the desired physiological data in flight. The data obtained in these flights, although limited in nature, indicate a slowing of the pulse rate under the subgravity conditions of brief duration. There appeared to be a proportional nearly in-phase relationship between pulse rate and acceleration. A decrease in diastolic blood pressure together with an increase in pulse pressure was noted during subgravity conditions and an elevation of the diastolic pressure together with a decrease in pulse pressure du-ring increased accelerations. No change worthy of note was seen in the records of the systolic blood pressure, the respiration rate, or the electrocardiogram over the range of acceleration studied (0 to 3 g).

  2. Effects of storage conditions on forensic examinations of blood samples and bloodstains stored for 20 years.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Nakanishi, H; Yoneyama, K; Saito, K; Takada, A

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various storage conditions on blood identification tests, DNA degradation, and short tandem repeat (STR) typing were evaluated. Bloodstains stored at room temperature, 4 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C for 20 years; blood samples stored at -20 °C and -80 °C for 20 years; and fresh blood samples were analyzed. Leuco-malachite-green testing, anti-human hemoglobin (Hb) testing (using immunochromatography), and tests for hemoglobin-beta (HBB) mRNA were performed as blood identification tests. DNA degradation was evaluated by quantifying the ratios of 305 and 129 base pair (bp) fragments to 41 bp fragments. STR typing was performed using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ Plus PCR Amplification Kit. All samples were positive in leuco-malachite-green staining and anti-human Hb assays. HBB was not detected in blood samples stored at -20 °C or -80 °C, although this marker was detected in all bloodstains. As indicated by the ratio of 129:41 bp and 305:41 bp DNA fragments, DNA from bloodstains stored at room temperature or 4 °C were significantly degraded compared to DNA from all other samples. STR typing analyses revealed that a portion of the loci was undetected in bloodstains stored at room temperature. Therefore, to prevent DNA degradation during long-term storage, it is recommended that bloodstains and blood be stored at below -20 °C. In addition, because bloodstains are more suitable for detection of blood-specific mRNAs than blood sample, it is desirable that blood is stored as bloodstain for this method.

  3. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG as influenced by storage conditions and product matrixes.

    PubMed

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Williams, Jonathan H; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2012-12-01

    Mortality resulting from diarrhea especially that occurs in children younger than 5 y of age ranks 3rd among all deaths caused by infectious diseases worldwide. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG are clinically shown to effectively reduce the incidence of diarrhea in children. A food substrate is one of the major factors regulating the colonization of microorganisms in human gastrointestinal tracts. Peanut butter is a nutritious, low-moisture food that could be a carrier for probiotics. In this study, we observed the influence of storage conditions and product matrixes on the survival of L. rhamnosus GG. Cells of L. rhamnosus GG were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Inoculated peanut butter was stored at 4, 25, or 37 °C for 48 wk. Samples were drawn periodically to determine the populations of L. rhamnosus GG. Results showed that there was no significant decrease in the viable counts of L. rhamnosus GG in products stored 4 °C. The survivability of L. rhamnosus GG decreased with increasing storage temperature and time. Product matrixes did not significantly affect the survival of L. rhamnosus GG except at 37 °C. Populations of L. rhamnosus GG were preserved at >6 logs in products stored at 4 °C for 48 wk and at 25 °C for 23 to 27 wk. At 37 °C, the 6-log level could not be maintained for even 6 wk. The results suggest that peanut butter stored at 4 and 25 °C could serve as vehicles to deliver probiotics.

  4. Survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG as influenced by storage conditions and product matrixes.

    PubMed

    Klu, Yaa Asantewaa Kafui; Williams, Jonathan H; Phillips, Robert D; Chen, Jinru

    2012-12-01

    Mortality resulting from diarrhea especially that occurs in children younger than 5 y of age ranks 3rd among all deaths caused by infectious diseases worldwide. Probiotics such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG are clinically shown to effectively reduce the incidence of diarrhea in children. A food substrate is one of the major factors regulating the colonization of microorganisms in human gastrointestinal tracts. Peanut butter is a nutritious, low-moisture food that could be a carrier for probiotics. In this study, we observed the influence of storage conditions and product matrixes on the survival of L. rhamnosus GG. Cells of L. rhamnosus GG were inoculated into full fat or reduced fat peanut butter at 10(7) CFU/g. Inoculated peanut butter was stored at 4, 25, or 37 °C for 48 wk. Samples were drawn periodically to determine the populations of L. rhamnosus GG. Results showed that there was no significant decrease in the viable counts of L. rhamnosus GG in products stored 4 °C. The survivability of L. rhamnosus GG decreased with increasing storage temperature and time. Product matrixes did not significantly affect the survival of L. rhamnosus GG except at 37 °C. Populations of L. rhamnosus GG were preserved at >6 logs in products stored at 4 °C for 48 wk and at 25 °C for 23 to 27 wk. At 37 °C, the 6-log level could not be maintained for even 6 wk. The results suggest that peanut butter stored at 4 and 25 °C could serve as vehicles to deliver probiotics. PMID:23106385

  5. Effects of storage conditions on forensic examinations of blood samples and bloodstains stored for 20 years.

    PubMed

    Hara, M; Nakanishi, H; Yoneyama, K; Saito, K; Takada, A

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various storage conditions on blood identification tests, DNA degradation, and short tandem repeat (STR) typing were evaluated. Bloodstains stored at room temperature, 4 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C for 20 years; blood samples stored at -20 °C and -80 °C for 20 years; and fresh blood samples were analyzed. Leuco-malachite-green testing, anti-human hemoglobin (Hb) testing (using immunochromatography), and tests for hemoglobin-beta (HBB) mRNA were performed as blood identification tests. DNA degradation was evaluated by quantifying the ratios of 305 and 129 base pair (bp) fragments to 41 bp fragments. STR typing was performed using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ Plus PCR Amplification Kit. All samples were positive in leuco-malachite-green staining and anti-human Hb assays. HBB was not detected in blood samples stored at -20 °C or -80 °C, although this marker was detected in all bloodstains. As indicated by the ratio of 129:41 bp and 305:41 bp DNA fragments, DNA from bloodstains stored at room temperature or 4 °C were significantly degraded compared to DNA from all other samples. STR typing analyses revealed that a portion of the loci was undetected in bloodstains stored at room temperature. Therefore, to prevent DNA degradation during long-term storage, it is recommended that bloodstains and blood be stored at below -20 °C. In addition, because bloodstains are more suitable for detection of blood-specific mRNAs than blood sample, it is desirable that blood is stored as bloodstain for this method. PMID:26832383

  6. Chloride and organic chlorine in forest soils: storage, residence times, and influence of ecological conditions.

    PubMed

    Redon, Paul-Olivier; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Bastviken, David; Cecchini, Sébastien; Nicolas, Manuel; Thiry, Yves

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that extensive chlorination of natural organic matter significantly affects chlorine (Cl) residence time in soils. This natural biogeochemical process must be considered when developing the conceptual models used as the basis for safety assessments regarding the potential health impacts of 36-chlorine released from present and planned radioactive waste disposal facilities. In this study, we surveyed 51 French forested areas to determine the variability in chlorine speciation and storage in soils. Concentrations of total chlorine (Cl(tot)) and organic chlorine (Cl(org)) were determined in litterfall, forest floor and mineral soil samples. Cl(org) constituted 11-100% of Cl(tot), with the highest concentrations being found in the humus layer (34-689 mg Cl(org) kg(-1)). In terms of areal storage (53 - 400 kg Cl(org) ha(-1)) the mineral soil dominated due to its greater thickness (40 cm). Cl(org) concentrations and estimated retention of organochlorine in the humus layer were correlated with Cl input, total Cl concentration, organic carbon content, soil pH and the dominant tree species. Cl(org) concentration in mineral soil was not significantly influenced by the studied environmental factors, however increasing Cl:C ratios with depth could indicate selective preservation of chlorinated organic molecules. Litterfall contributions of Cl were significant but generally minor compared to other fluxes and stocks. Assuming steady-state conditions, known annual wet deposition and measured inventories in soil, the theoretical average residence time calculated for total chlorine (inorganic (Cl(in)) and organic) was 5-fold higher than that estimated for Cl(in) alone. Consideration of the Cl(org) pool is therefore clearly important in studies of overall Cl cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. PMID:21761932

  7. Comparison of carbon stripper foils under operational conditions at the Los Alamos proton storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Spickerman, Thomas; Borden, Michael J; Macek, Robert J; Sugai, Isao

    2008-01-01

    At the 39{sup th} ICFA Advanced Beam Dynamics Workshop HB 2006 and the 23{sup rd} INTDS World Conference we reported on first results of a test of nanocrystalline diamond foils developed at ORNL under operational conditions at the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). We have continued these tests during the 2006 and 2007 run cycles and have been able to compare the diamond foils with the foils that are normally in use in PSR, which were originally developed by Sugai at KEK. We have gathered valuable information regarding foil lifetime, foil related beam losses and electron emission at the foil. Additional insight was gained under unusual beam conditions where the foiIs are subjected to higher temperatures. In the 2007 run cycle we also tested a Diamond-like-Carbon foil developed at TRIUMF. A Hybrid-Boron-Carbon foil, also developed by Sugai, is presently in use with the PSR production beam. We will summarize our experience with these different foil types.

  8. Important Considerations for Methemoglobin Measurement in Fish Blood: Assay Choice and Storage Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntz, Mel Anton; Rodnick, K. J.; J. A. Lacey

    2002-05-01

    Spectrophotometric assays of methaemoglobin (metHb) in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, tilapias Tilapia niloticus and Tilapia zillii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, under baseline conditions, were low (<4%) for each species, and yet higher than human values (<1%). MetHb results for a given fish species varied significantly between assays and two assays were deemed unacceptable for particular animals. For rainbow trout, white sturgeon, and the two species of tilapia, the Dubowski method gave uncharacteristically high estimates of metHb. MetHb could not measured in tilapia blood using the Evelyn & Malloy method due to spectral interference. Only the Horecker & Brackett assay worked well for all species. Storage conditions were extremely important in the quantification of metHb in rainbow trout blood. For consistent values, samples can be stored up to 4 h on ice (0 degrees C) or at least 20 days under liquid nitrogen (-196 degrees C). Auto-oxidation, however, elevates rainbow trout metHb at -20 and -80 degrees C. It should not be assumed that the blood of fishes and humans perform similarly during assays of metHb.

  9. Impure CO2 geological storage: Preliminary laboratory experiments at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostrom, M.; Wei, N.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Bonneville, A.

    2011-12-01

    The cost of carbon capture is related to the purity of the CO2 and subsequent removal of the impurities may be costly. For several sites, it is likely to be more cost effective if impure CO2 is injected, although non-condensable impurities may reduce storage capacity and increase the injection pressure. The feasibility of co-sequestration of CO2 with a certain level of impurity has not been experimentally studied in much detail due to severe limitations associated with visualization and sampling at high pressure and temperature conditions. A series of intermediate-scale experiments has been conducted in a 100-cm-long, 20-cm-high, and 5-cm-wide intermediate-scale flow cell studying the effects of N2 and H2S impurities on CO2 transport in initially brine-saturated porous media. Homogeneous and simple layered heterogeneous systems were used to evaluate pH behavior, measure water and gas pressures, and analyze the gas composition at several locations. A multiphase code was used to compare simulation results for equilibrium dissolution conditions with experimental results. Although these preliminary analogue experiments were conducted at ambient pressure and temperature, the provide insight in the behavior of injected multi-component gas in initially saturated porous media.

  10. Effect of dietary supplementation on lipid photooxidation in beef meat, during storage under commercial retail conditions.

    PubMed

    Cardenia, Vladimiro; Massimini, Milena; Poerio, Alba; Venturini, Maria Chiara; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Vecchia, Paola; Lercker, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    The effects of feeding composition on the photosensitized oxidation of lipids from beef meat, were evaluated during storage under commercial retail conditions. Feeding was enriched with linseed oil (LO), Dl-α tocopheryl acetate (vE) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) at different doses and provided for diverse periods, resulting in 7 diet groups (A-G). After slaughtering and 2 weeks of holding period, meat slices were packed in vessels with transparent shrink film and exposed to white fluorescent light for 8h at 8 °C. Total cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) level varied from 4.0 to 13.0 μg/g of lipids, which corresponded to 0.1-0.6% oxidized cholesterol. The lowest peroxide value (PV) was found in the diet added with vE and LO for 90 days. Light exposure only had a significant impact on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs). In general, Dl-α tocopheryl acetate supplemented for 90 days improved the oxidative stability of beef meat stored under commercial retail conditions.

  11. Morphology of U3O8 materials following storage under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity

    DOE PAGES

    Tamasi, Alison L.; Cash, Leigh J.; Mullen, William Tyler; Pugmire, Alison L.; Ross, Amy R.; Ruggiero, Christy E.; Scott, Brian L.; Wagner, Gregory L.; Walensky, Justin R.; Wilkerson, Marianne P.

    2016-07-05

    Changes in the visual characteristics of uranium oxide surfaces and morphology following storage under different conditions of temperature and relative humidity may provide insight into the history of an unknown sample. Sub-samples of three α-U3O8 materials—one that was phase-pure and two that were phase-impure—were stored under controlled conditions for two years. We used scanning electron microscopy to image the oxides before and after storage, and a morphology lexicon was used to characterize the images. Finally, temporal changes in morphology were observed in some sub-samples, and changes were greatest following exposure to high relative humidity.

  12. MUFITS Code for Modeling Geological Storage of Carbon Dioxide at Sub- and Supercritical Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, A.

    2012-12-01

    Two-phase models are widely used for simulation of CO2 storage in saline aquifers. These models support gaseous phase mainly saturated with CO2 and liquid phase mainly saturated with H2O (e.g. TOUGH2 code). The models can be applied to analysis of CO2 storage only in relatively deeply-buried reservoirs where pressure exceeds CO2 critical pressure. At these supercritical reservoir conditions only one supercritical CO2-rich phase appears in aquifer due to CO2 injection. In shallow aquifers where reservoir pressure is less than the critical pressure CO2 can split in two different liquid-like and gas-like phases (e.g. Spycher et al., 2003). Thus a region of three-phase flow of water, liquid and gaseous CO2 can appear near the CO2 injection point. Today there is no widely used and generally accepted numerical model capable of the three-phase flows with two CO2-rich phases. In this work we propose a new hydrodynamic simulator MUFITS (Multiphase Filtration Transport Simulator) for multiphase compositional modeling of CO2-H2O mixture flows in porous media at conditions of interest for carbon sequestration. The simulator is effective both for supercritical flows in a wide range of pressure and temperature and for subcritical three-phase flows of water, liquid CO2 and gaseous CO2 in shallow reservoirs. The distinctive feature of the proposed code lies in the methodology for mixture properties determination. Transport equations and Darcy correlation are solved together with calculation of the entropy maximum that is reached in thermodynamic equilibrium and determines the mixture composition. To define and solve the problem only one function - mixture thermodynamic potential - is required. The potential is determined using a three-parametric generalization of Peng-Robinson equation of state fitted to experimental data (Todheide, Takenouchi, Altunin etc.). We apply MUFITS to simple 1D and 2D test problems of CO2 injection in shallow reservoirs subjected to phase changes between

  13. Thermal stability of acrylic bone cement powder under shelf storage conditions: an isothermal microcalorimetric study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gladius; Son, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Heat-conduction isothermal microcalorimetry was used to measure the exothermic heat flow rate (Q) from the powder of a widely used commercially-available acrylic bone cement, Palacos R, when it interacted with ambient laboratory air, as a function of time, t, in the calorimeter, for up to 200 h. Four variants of the powder were used, these being unsterilized, sterilized using ethylene oxide gas, gamma-irradiated, in ambient air, with a minimum dosage of 2.5 Mrad, and gamma-irradiated, in ambient air, with a minimum dosage of 4.5 Mrad. In each case, the powder variant was tested after being stored on the shelf, under ambient conditions, for 2 days, 3 weeks and 9 months immediately following sterilization. Best-fit correlations between Q and t for each powder variant were determined. Then, this relationship was integrated over the period 14 h< or =t< or =200 h to give an estimate of the "effective" heat flow, Q(eff). For powder variants tested 2 days after being sterilized, the difference in their thermal stabilities (Qeff ranged from 0.19+/-0.01 to 0.62+/-0.03 microJ/g, respectively) was significant in the case of some pairs and not for others. However, for powders tested either 3 weeks or 9 months following sterilization, there was no significant difference between the means of Qeff (they ranged from 0.18+/-0.01 to 0.31+/-0.07 microJ/g) for any pair. These results suggest that an acrylic bone cement in which the powder is EtO-sterilized may be mixed with the liquid monomer for use in cemented arthroplasties after any length of time of shelf storage of the powder, under ambient conditions, whereas, for powders that are gamma-irradiated and then stored under the same conditions, at least 3 weeks should elapse before they are used in these procedures. PMID:18408259

  14. Storage of a naturally acquired conditioned response is impaired in patients with cerebellar degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Thürling, Markus; Galuba, Julia; Burciu, Roxana G.; Göricke, Sophia; Beck, Andreas; Aurich, Volker; Wondzinski, Elke; Siebler, Mario; Gerwig, Marcus; Bracha, Vlastislav

    2013-01-01

    Previous findings suggested that the human cerebellum is involved in the acquisition but not the long-term storage of motor associations. The finding of preserved retention in cerebellar patients was fundamentally different from animal studies which show that both acquisition and retention depends on the integrity of the cerebellum. The present study investigated whether retention had been preserved because critical regions of the cerebellum were spared. Visual threat eye-blink responses, that is, the anticipatory closure of the eyes to visual threats, have previously been found to be naturally acquired conditioned responses. Because acquisition is known to take place in very early childhood, visual threat eye-blink responses can be used to test retention in patients with adult onset cerebellar disease. Visual threat eye-blink responses were tested in 19 adult patients with cerebellar degeneration, 27 adult patients with focal cerebellar lesions due to stroke, 24 age-matched control subjects, and 31 younger control subjects. High-resolution structural magnetic resonance images were acquired in patients to perform lesion–symptom mapping. Voxel-based morphometry was performed in patients with cerebellar degeneration, and voxel-based lesion–symptom mapping in patients with focal disease. Visual threat eye-blink responses were found to be significantly reduced in patients with cerebellar degeneration. Visual threat eye-blink responses were also reduced in patients with focal disease, but to a lesser extent. Visual threat eye-blink responses declined with age. In patients with cerebellar degeneration the degree of cerebellar atrophy was positively correlated with the reduction of conditioned responses. Voxel-based morphometry showed that two main regions within the superior and inferior parts of the posterior cerebellar cortex contributed to expression of visual threat eye-blink responses bilaterally. Involvement of the more inferior parts of the posterior lobe was

  15. Visible spectroscopy as a tool for the assessment of storage conditions of fresh pork packaged in modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Christensen, Mette; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Baron, Caroline P

    2016-03-01

    The storage conditions of fresh meat are known to impact its colour and microbial shelf life. In the present study, visible spectroscopy was evaluated as a method to assess meat storage conditions and its optimisation. Fresh pork steaks (longissimus thoracis et lumborum and semimembranosus) were placed in modified atmosphere packaging using gas mixtures containing 0, 40, 50, and 80% oxygen, and stored with or without light for up to 9days. Principal component analysis of visible reflectance spectra (400-700nm) showed that the colour of the different meat cuts was affected by presence of oxygen, illumination, and storage time. Differences in the oxygen levels did not contribute to the observed variance. Predictive models based on partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis exhibited high potency in the classification of the storage parameters of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere. The study demonstrates the applicability of visible spectroscopy as a tool to assess the storage conditions of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere. PMID:26658010

  16. Visible spectroscopy as a tool for the assessment of storage conditions of fresh pork packaged in modified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Christensen, Mette; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Baron, Caroline P

    2016-03-01

    The storage conditions of fresh meat are known to impact its colour and microbial shelf life. In the present study, visible spectroscopy was evaluated as a method to assess meat storage conditions and its optimisation. Fresh pork steaks (longissimus thoracis et lumborum and semimembranosus) were placed in modified atmosphere packaging using gas mixtures containing 0, 40, 50, and 80% oxygen, and stored with or without light for up to 9days. Principal component analysis of visible reflectance spectra (400-700nm) showed that the colour of the different meat cuts was affected by presence of oxygen, illumination, and storage time. Differences in the oxygen levels did not contribute to the observed variance. Predictive models based on partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis exhibited high potency in the classification of the storage parameters of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere. The study demonstrates the applicability of visible spectroscopy as a tool to assess the storage conditions of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere.

  17. Development of a methodology to accelerate a spontaneous grass colonization in a tailings storage facility under semiarid mediterranean climate type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginocchio, Rosanna; Arellano, Eduardo; Morales-Ladron de Guevara, Arturo

    2016-04-01

    Phytostabilization of massive mine tailings (>400 he) under semiarid environments is challenging, particularly when no organic amendments are locally available and no irrigation is possible. Increasing tendency for reprocessing old tailings to recover valued metals further pioneer the need for simple but effective plant covers. The choice of plant species and form of management are thus very important. CODELCO-Chile chose the Cauquenes post-operational tailings storage facility (TFS; 700 ha), that will be reprocessed for copper and other elements in the near future, to evaluate efficacy of the phytostabilization technology under semiarid conditions in central Chile. Surface application of a polymer (Soiltac TM) has been used for wind control of tailings but phytostabilization is considered as a best cost-effective alternative. A field study was performed to define a management program to improve the establishment and cover of an annual native grass (Vulpia myuros var. megalura), a spontaneous colonizer of the TSF. Considered management factors were control of macro herbivores (with and without fence), macronutrient improvement (with and without application of N-rich foliar fertilizer), and improvement of seed retention in the substrate (with and without small-scale rugosity; with and without lived wind-breakers; with and without mechanical wind-breakers). Each treatment was replicated three times and established in 2 m x 2 m quadrats. Plant response variables were monitored after 1 and 2 grass growing seasons. Application of N-rich foliar fertilizer and any wind control mechanism for seed retention in the substrate were effective for significantly improving both grass cover and biomass production in time, irrespective of macro-herbivore control. Seed production was significantly improved when macro herbivores were excluded and was positively and significantly correlated to vegetative biomass production. When applying this management program for tailings

  18. Polar 5 - An electron accelerator experiment within an aurora. I - Instrumentation and geophysical conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maehlum, B. N.; Grandal, B.; Jacobsen, T. A.; Maseide, K.; Egeland, A.; Holtet, J.; Soraas, F.; Aarsnes, K.; Stadsnes, J.; Maynard, N. C.

    1980-01-01

    A mother-daughter rocket was launched over two auroral structures, which included a 10 keV electron accelerator and a series of diagnostic instruments for monitoring optical and wave effects generated through beam-atmospheric interactions and production of secondary electrons. The instrumentation, the ground and rocket background measurements obtained, and some of the beam effects on various geophysical parameters are presented. Attention is given to the rocket geometry, capacitance probe, particle counters, photometers, and the bremsstrahlung X-ray detector. Observations on the plasma environment, auroral particle precipitation, d.c. electric field, optical emissions, and auroral background HF and VLF emissions are also discussed.

  19. Optimal Deployment of Thermal Energy Storage under Diverse Economic and Climate Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    DeForest, Nicolas; Mendes, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Feng, Wei; Lai, Judy; Marnay, Chris

    2014-04-15

    This paper presents an investigation of the economic benefit of thermal energy storage (TES) for cooling, across a range of economic and climate conditions. Chilled water TES systems are simulated for a large office building in four distinct locations, Miami in the U.S.; Lisbon, Portugal; Shanghai, China; and Mumbai, India. Optimal system size and operating schedules are determined using the optimization model DER-CAM, such that total cost, including electricity and amortized capital costs are minimized. The economic impacts of each optimized TES system is then compared to systems sized using a simple heuristic method, which bases system size as fraction (50percent and 100percent) of total on-peak summer cooling loads. Results indicate that TES systems of all sizes can be effective in reducing annual electricity costs (5percent-15percent) and peak electricity consumption (13percent-33percent). The investigation also indentifies a number of criteria which drive TES investment, including low capital costs, electricity tariffs with high power demand charges and prolonged cooling seasons. In locations where these drivers clearly exist, the heuristically sized systems capture much of the value of optimally sized systems; between 60percent and 100percent in terms of net present value. However, in instances where these drivers are less pronounced, the heuristic tends to oversize systems, and optimization becomes crucial to ensure economically beneficial deployment of TES, increasing the net present value of heuristically sized systems by as much as 10 times in some instances.

  20. Redefining Metabolic Syndrome as a Fat Storage Condition Based on Studies of Comparative Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Richard J; Stenvinkel, Peter; Martin, Sandra L.; Jani, Alkesh; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Hill, James O; Lanaspa, Miguel A

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome refers to a constellation of signs including abdominal obesity, elevated serum triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, elevated blood pressure and insulin resistance. Today approximately one third of the adult population has the metabolic syndrome. While there is little doubt that the signs constituting the metabolic syndrome frequently cluster, much controversy exists over the definition, pathogenesis, or clinical utility. Here we present evidence from the field of comparative physiology that the metabolic syndrome is similar to the biological process that animals engage to store fat in preparation for periods of food shortage. We propose that the metabolic syndrome be changed to fat storage condition to more clearly align with its etiology. Obesity in humans is likely the consequences of both genetic predisposition (driven in part by thrifty genes) and environment. Recent studies suggest that the loss of the uricase gene may be one factor that predisposes humans to obesity today. Understanding the process animals engage to switch from a lean insulin-sensitive to an obese insulin-resistant state may provide novel insights into the cause of obesity and diabetes in humans, and unique opportunities for reversing their pathology. PMID:23401356

  1. Thermoluminescence response of calcic bentonite subjected to conditions of high nuclear waste underground storage.

    PubMed

    Dies, J; Miralles, L; Tarrasa, F; Pueyo, J J; de las Cuevas, C

    2002-01-01

    Bentonite is regarded as a backfilling material for underground storage facilities of highly radioactive nuclear waste built on granite formations. In these facilities, bentonite will be subjected to a gradient of temperature and dose rate, achieving a very high integrated dose and, therefore, changes in its structure and physical properties may take place. Two experiments to discriminate between the thermal and the irradiation effect were performed. In the first (named BIC 2A), samples were subjected to temperature while in the second (named BIC-2B) the combined effect of temperature and irradiation was studied. The experimental conditions were: a thermal gradient between 130 degrees C and 90 degrees C, a maximum dose rate of 3.5 kGy.h(-1) and a gradient of the integrated dose between 1.75 MGy and 10 MGy. Both experiments lasted a total of 124 days. An irradiation source of 60Co with an activity close to 300,000 Ci, and bentonite samples of 200 mm in length and 50 mm in diameter were used. After the experiment, the samples were ground and two fractions were obtained: a fine fraction (<2 microm) enriched in montmorillonite clay mineral and a coarse fraction (>80 microm). The results are described of thermoluminescence analyses on the two fractions obtained which showed that the coarse fraction can be 100 times more sensitive to radiation than the fine fraction. On the other hand, the heated and irradiated samples showed a thermoluminescence response around 50 times greater than the samples that were only heated. In addition to this, the temperature and dose rate conditions are relevant parameters in the generation and stabilisation of radiation induced defects. Finally, the response of samples heated and irradiated for two months was quite similar to that obtained on samples heated and irradiated for four months, indicating a saturation phenomenon.

  2. Impact of storage conditions and variety on quality attributes and aroma volatiles of pitahaya (Hylocereus spp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pitahaya are increasing in popularity but knowledge on the effects of storage and the potential impact of variety on subsequent quality following storage is incomplete, particularly in terms of the potential effects on sensory acceptability. In this study six varieties of pitahaya, having white, pin...

  3. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers subject to various loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-05-01

    The structural and functional requirements of the Plutonium Oxide/Metal Storage Containers are specified in the Report ``Complex 21 Plutonium Storage Facility Material Containment Team Technical Data Report`` [Complex 21, 1993]. There are no existing storage containers designed for long term storage of plutonium and current codes, standards or regulations do not adequately cover this case. As there is no extensive experience with the long term (50+ years) storage of plutonium, the design of high integrity storage containers must address many technical considerations. This analysis discusses a few potential natural phenomena that could theoretically adversely affect the container integrity over time. The plutonium oxide/metal storage container consists of a primary containment vessel (the outer container), a bagless transfer can (the inner container), two vertical plates on top of the primary containment vessel, a circular plate (the flange) supported by the two plates, tube for gas sampling operations mounted at the center of the primary containment vessel top and a spring system being inserted in the cavity between the primary containment vessel and the cap of the bagless transfer can. The dimensions of the plutonium oxide/metal storage container assembly can be found in Figure 2-1. The primary container, the bagless transfer can, and all the attached components are made of Type 304L stainless steel.

  4. Assessment of neutron skyshine near unmodified Accumulator Debuncher storage rings under Mu2e operational conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary plans for providing the proton beam needed by the proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will require the transport of 8 GeV protons to the Accumulator/Debuncher where they be processed into an intensity and time structure useful for the experiment. The intensities involved are far greater that those encountered with antiprotons of the same kinetic energy in the same beam enclosures under Tevatron Collider operational conditions, the operating parameters for which the physical facilities of the Antiproton Source were designed. This note explores some important ramifications of the proposed operation for radiation safety and demonstrates the need for extensive modifications of significant portions of the shielding of the Accumulator Debuncher storage rings; notably that underneath the AP Service Buildings AP10, AP30, and AP50. While existing shielding is adequate for the current operating mode of the Accumulator/Debuncher as part of the Antiproton Source used in the Tevatron Collider program, without significant modifications of the shielding configuration in the Accumulator/Debuncher region and/or beam loss control systems far more effective than seen in most applications at Fermilab, the proposed operational mode for Mu2e is not viable for the following reasons: 1. Due to skyshine alone, under normal operational conditions large areas of the Fermilab site would be exposed to unacceptable levels of radiation where most of the Laboratory workforce and some members of the general public who regularly visit Fermilab would receive measurable doses annually, contrary to workforce, public, and DOE expectations concerning the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. 2. Under normal operational conditions, a sizeable region of the Fermilab site would also require fencing due to skyshine. The size of the areas involved would likely invite public inquiry about the significant and visible enlargement of Fermilab's posted radiological areas. 3. There would

  5. Operation of a Wind Turbine-Flywheel Energy Storage System under Conditions of Stochastic Change of Wind Energy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level. PMID:25215326

  6. Operation of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system under conditions of stochastic change of wind energy.

    PubMed

    Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level. PMID:25215326

  7. Operation of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system under conditions of stochastic change of wind energy.

    PubMed

    Tomczewski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the issues of a wind turbine-flywheel energy storage system (WT-FESS) operation under real conditions. Stochastic changes of wind energy in time cause significant fluctuations of the system output power and as a result have a negative impact on the quality of the generated electrical energy. In the author's opinion it is possible to reduce the aforementioned effects by using an energy storage of an appropriate type and capacity. It was assumed that based on the technical parameters of a wind turbine-energy storage system and its geographical location one can determine the boundary capacity of the storage, which helps prevent power cuts to the grid at the assumed probability. Flywheel energy storage was selected due to its characteristics and technical parameters. The storage capacity was determined based on an empirical relationship using the results of the proposed statistical and energetic analysis of the measured wind velocity courses. A detailed algorithm of the WT-FESS with the power grid system was developed, eliminating short-term breaks in the turbine operation and periods when the wind turbine power was below the assumed level.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of allyl isothiocyanate used to coat biodegradable composite films as affected by storage and handling conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the effects of storage and handling conditions on the antimicrobial activity of biodegradable composite films (polylactic acid and sugar beet pulp) coated with allyl isothiocyanate (AIT). Polylactic acid (PLA) and chitosan were incorporated with AIT and coated on one side of the film. T...

  9. Descriptive texture analyses of cooked broiler breast fillets with the wooden condition after fresh and frozen storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the wooden breast condition on the texture of cooked broiler breast fillets (Pectoralis major) after fresh and frozen storage. Texture characteristics of normal (NORM) and severe wooden breast (WB) fillets were studied by both sensory descr...

  10. Promising hydrogen storage properties and potential applications of Mg-Al-Pd trilayer films under mild conditions.

    PubMed

    Xin, Gongbiao; Yang, Junzhi; Zhang, Guoqing; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo

    2012-10-14

    We prepared a series of nano-sized Mg-Al-Pd trilayer films and investigated their hydrogen storage properties under mild conditions. Results showed that Al 1 nm sample had the best absorption kinetics and excellent optical properties at room temperature, making it a promising candidate for hydrogen sensors and smart windows. PMID:22692459

  11. The effect of storage conditions on microbial community composition and biomethane potential in a biogas starter culture.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Live Heldal; Vivekanand, Vivekanand; Pope, Phillip B; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Horn, Svein J

    2015-07-01

    A new biogas process is initiated by adding a microbial community, typically in the form of a sample collected from a functional biogas plant. This inoculum has considerable impact on the initial performance of a biogas reactor, affecting parameters such as stability, biogas production yields and the overall efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, we have analyzed changes in the microbial composition and performance of an inoculum during storage using barcoded pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, and determination of the biomethane potential, respectively. The inoculum was stored at room temperature, 4 and -20 °C for up to 11 months and cellulose was used as a standard substrate to test the biomethane potential. Storage up to 1 month resulted in similar final methane yields, but the rate of methane production was reduced by storage at -20 °C. Longer storage times resulted in reduced methane yields and slower production kinetics for all storage conditions, with room temperature and frozen samples consistently giving the best and worst performance, respectively. Both storage time and temperature affected the microbial community composition and methanogenic activity. In particular, fluctuations in the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes were observed. Interestingly, a shift from hydrogenotrophic methanogens to methanogens with the capacity to perform acetoclastic methanogensis was observed upon prolonged storage. In conclusion, this study suggests that biogas inocula may be stored up to 1 month with low loss of methanogenic activity, and identifies bacterial and archaeal species that are affected by the storage.

  12. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni in bottled purified drinking water under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Qadiri, Hamzah M; Lu, Xiaonan; Al-Alami, Nivin I; Rasco, Barbara A

    2011-02-01

    Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni that were separately inoculated into bottled purified drinking water was investigated during storage at 22, 4, and -18 °C for 5, 7, and 2 days, respectively. Two inoculation levels were used, 1 and 10 CFU/ml (10(2) and 10(3) CFU/100 ml). In samples inoculated with 10(2) CFU/100 ml, C. jejuni was not detectable (>2-log reduction) after storage under the conditions specified above. E. coli O157:H7 was detected on nonselective and selective media at log reductions of 1.08 to 1.25 after storage at 22 °C, 1.19 to 1.56 after storage at 4 °C, and 1.54 to 1.98 after storage at -18 °C. When the higher inoculation level of 10(3) CFU/100 ml was used, C. jejuni was able to survive at 22 and 4 °C, with 2.25- and 2.17-log reductions, respectively, observed on nonselective media. At these higher inoculation levels, E. coli O157:H7 was detectable at 22, 4, and -18 °C, with log reductions of 0.76, 0.97, and 1.21, respectively, achieved on nonselective media. Additionally, E. coli O157:H7 showed significant differences in culturability (P<0.05) on the nonselective and selective culture media under the different storage conditions, with storage at -18 °C for 2 days being the treatment most inhibiting. The percentage of sublethal injury of E. coli O157:H7 ranged from ∼33 to 75%, indicating that microbial examination of bottled water must be done carefully, otherwise false-negative results or underestimation of bacterial numbers could pose a health risk when low levels of pathogens are present.

  13. Simplified models of transport and reactions in conditions of CO2 storage in saline aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchodolska, Katarzyna; Labus, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    Simple hydrogeochemical models may serve as tools of preliminary assessment of CO2 injection and sequestraton impact on the aquifer and cap-rocks. In order to create models of reaction and transport in conditions of CO2 injection and storage, the TOUGHREACT simulator, and the Geochemist's Workbench software were applied. The chemical composition of waters for kinetic transport models based on the water - rock equilibrium calculations. Analyses of reaction and transport of substances during CO2 injection and storage period were carried out in three scenarios: one-dimensional radial model, and two-dimensional model of CO2 injection and sequestration, and one-dimensional model of aquifer - cap-rock interface. Modeling was performed in two stages. The first one simulated the immediate changes in the aquifer and insulating rocks impacted by CO2 injection (100 days in case of reaction model and 30 years in transport and reaction model), the second - enabled assessment of long-term effects of sequestration (20000 years). Reactions' quality and progress were monitored and their effects on formation porosity and sequestration capacity in form of mineral, residual and free phase of CO2 were calculated. Calibration of numerical models (including precipitation of secondary minerals, and correction of kinetics parameters) describing the initial stage of injection, was based on the experimental results. Modeling allowed to evaluate the pore space saturation with gas, changes in the composition and pH of pore waters, relationships between porosity and permeability changes and crystallization or dissolution minerals. We assessed the temporal and spatial extent of crystallization processes, and the amount of carbonates trapping. CO2 in mineral form. The calculated sequestration capacity of analyzed formations reached n·100 kg/m3 for the: dissolved phase - CO(aq), gas phase - CO2(g) and mineral phase, but as much as 101 kg/m3 for the supercritical phase - SCCO2. Processes of gas

  14. Under Pressure: New Geobarometer Developed to Determine Crystallization Conditions and Storage Depths of Intermediate Magmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, L.; Gualda, G. A. R.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Cowlyn, J.

    2015-12-01

    A new phase equilibria geobarometer successfully determines pressures of magma storage in plagioclase+orthopyroxene+clinopyroxene (POC) bearing intermediate magmas. The geobarometer utilizes rhyolite-MELTS to determine crystallization conditions utilizing the glass compositions coexisting with the POC assemblage in natural samples. POC stability is strongly affected by water content and oxygen fugacity (fO2). We tested fO2 values ranging from +1 to +4 delta-QFM, which spans the fO2 range of intermediate magmas. Water content was tested from water-saturated to 4 wt% below saturation. The geobarometer was applied to two intermediate POC-bearing systems - Mount Ruapehu in the southern Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, and the Palmas unit of the Serra Geral Formation in the Paraná Volcanics, Brazil. Both systems were tested from 25 MPa to 400 MPa and from 700 ºC to 1200 ºC. Ruapehu is an active, structurally well-understood volcano in the Taupo Volcanic Zone; it serves as a methodological testing ground for the geobarometer. POC-bearing pumice clasts show a bimodal distribution of crystallization pressures for different eruptions, with modes of ~90 MPa and 130 MPa, consistent with field interpretations of different eruptive styles based on juvenile clast textures and previous knowledge of the magma plumbing system. The bimodal distribution indicates that the magma batches were tapped at different pressures (and depths). Ruapehu magmas are water saturated and have fO2 of delta-QFM equal to ~+1. The model substantiates these conditions, as rhyolite-MELTS calculations with lower water contents and different fO2 values do not produce the observed POC mineral assemblage. Preliminary results from the Paraná Volcanics suggest juvenile, fiamme-like blob structures equilibrated at ~50 MPa, were water saturated, and had an fO2 between delta-QFM +1 and +1.5. The geobarometer has potential to unravel crystallization conditions of shallow, glass-bearing andesites to dacites.

  15. Innovative Conditioning Procedures for the Generation of Radioactive Waste Products which are Stable for Intermediate Storage or Repository-Independent in Final Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmetz, H.J.; Heimbach, H.; Odoj, R.; Pruesse, R.; Wartenberg, W.

    2006-07-01

    The German Federal Government aims at a future final storage site for all kinds of radioactive waste within 30 years. Existing and newly-produced radioactive waste therefore has to be stored in interim storage facilities over very long periods of time. At present, most German radioactive waste or waste packages are produced and qualified according to the acceptance criteria of the projected final repository KONRAD. [1] Nevertheless, conditioning strategies for crude radioactive waste have to take into account the open question of the future repository site as well as requirements for long-term interim storage. The Quality Control Group for Radioactive Waste (in German: Produktkontrollstelle fuer radioaktive Abfaelle - PKS) works as an independent expert organisation for the quality checking of radioactive waste packages as well as evaluating conditioning procedures for waste containers suitable for final storage on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (in German: Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz - BfS). The Institute for Safety Research and Reactor Technology (in German: Institut fuer Sicherheitsforschung and Reaktortechnik - ISR) of the Research Centre Juelich investigates scientific/technical problems of nuclear disposal, especially in the field of waste treatment. In this context, ISR and PKS investigated and/or evaluated innovative procedures, by means of which radioactive waste flows may be minimized and rendered inert. QSA Global (formerly: AEA Technology QSA) conditions radioactive waste of German users from the fields of medicine, research and industry as well as from its own radioactive source production and operates an intermediate storage facility for radioactive waste containers. This poster deals with the characteristics and possible applications of new waste fixation media on the basis of organic and inorganic mineral polymers; with the approach of producing inherently safe waste forms for various geological formations. Plasma technology

  16. Conditioned Observation of Books and Accelerated Acquisition of Textual Responding by Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Hshin-hui; Greer, R. Douglas

    2006-01-01

    We report an experiment investigating the effects of conditioning books as reinforcers for observing responses on the learning of textual responses by pre-school children. The independent variable was the acquisition of conditioned reinforcement of observing responses and choice of book stimuli in free play settings where children could choose to…

  17. Effect of High Temperature Storage in Vacuum, Air, and Humid Conditions on Degradation of Gold/Aluminum Wire Bonds in PEMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Microcircuits encapsulated in three plastic package styles were stored in different environments at temperatures varying from 130 C to 225 C for up to 4,000 hours in some cases. To assess the effect of oxygen, the parts were aged at high temperatures in air and in vacuum chambers. The effect of humidity was evaluated during long-term highly accelerated temperature and humidity stress testing (HAST) at temperatures of 130 C and 150 C. High temperature storage testing of decapsulated microcircuits in air, vacuum, and HAST chambers was carried out to evaluate the role of molding compounds in the environmentally-induced degradation and failure of wire bonds (WB). This paper reports on accelerating factors of environment and molding compound on WB failures. It has been shown that all environments, including oxygen, moisture, and the presence of molding compounds reduce time-to-failures compared to unencapsulated devices in vacuum conditions. The mechanism of the environmental effect on KB degradation is discussed.

  18. Influence of Accelerated Cooling Condition on Welding Thermal Cycle, Residual Stress, and Deformation in SM490A Steel ESW Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Dean; Sun, Jiamin; Dai, Deping; Jiang, Xiaohua

    2015-09-01

    Electro-slag welding (ESW) has been widely used to join the box column because of high productivity. The heat input of ESW is far larger than those of other fusion welding processes, so ESW usually results in a long holding time over certain elevated temperature (∆ t H time), a long cooling time from 800 to 500 °C (∆ t 8/5 time), and a wide heat-affected zone (HAZ). It can be foreseen that the mechanical properties especially fracture toughness of the fusion zone and HAZ will be inferior to those of base metal. As a fundamental research, a computational approach based on MSC.Marc code was developed to simulate the thermo-mechanical behaviors in a typical SM490A steel ESW joint under different cooling conditions. Meanwhile, the thermal cycles computed by numerical model were compared with the experimental measurements. Moreover, the influence of accelerated cooling methods on welding residual stress and deformation was examined numerically. Simulation results show that accelerated cooling methods not only can largely shorten ∆ t H time as well as ∆ t 8/5 time and reduce the size of HAZ, but also can affect the residual stress distribution and deformation. It is believed that the accelerated cooling methods proposed by this study potentially improve the mechanical properties of ESW joint.

  19. Food matrices and cell conditions influence survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG under heat stresses and during storage.

    PubMed

    Endo, Akihito; Teräsjärvi, Johanna; Salminen, Seppo

    2014-03-17

    The present study evaluated impact of moisture content and cell conditions on survival of probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, under lethal heat stresses and during long-term storage using freeze-dried cells and oils as matrices. Viable cell counts of freeze-dried L. rhamnosus GG cells suspended in oils had only 1-log-reduction after 5min at 80°C and approximately 3-log-reduction after 20min, while no or very few viable cells were recorded for freeze dried cells suspended in buffer and cultured cells in oils. Surprisingly, freeze-dried cells suspended in oils still contained 4.3 to 6.7logCFU/ml after 5min at 95°C. Long-term storage study indicated that freeze-dried cells suspended in oils kept viable conditions for 4months, and a loss of the viability was only 0.3 to 0.6logCFU/ml. Viable cell counts of cultured cells suspended in oils were not present after 3days to 3months. These results clearly indicate that moisture and cell conditions have a great impact on survival of probiotics under severe heat stress in processing and during long-term storage. Combination of freeze-dried cells and oils as carrier provides beneficial options to preserve viability of probiotics in food processes and storage.

  20. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (I kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect

    Unterzuber, R.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.0 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a representative stainless steel spent fuel canister, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD as well as for four constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  1. Studying the effect of storage conditions on the metabolite content of red wine using HILIC LC-MS based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Corte, Anna Della; Gika, Helen; Narduzzi, Luca; Mattivi, Fulvio; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2016-04-15

    The main aim of this work was to develop an untargeted normal phase LC-MS method, starting from a targeted method already validated for the analysis of 135 polar metabolites. Since the LC instrument and column were the same, most of the chromatographic conditions remained identical, while the adaptations focused on maintaining the ionic strength of the eluents constant. The sample preparation was simplified and the effectiveness of LC-MS for long batches was evaluated, in order to record the maximum number of metabolites with good chromatographic resolution and the best MS stability and accuracy. The method was applied to study the influence of storage conditions on wine composition. Slightly sub-optimum storage conditions had a major impact on the polar metabolite fingerprint of the red wines analysed and the markers revealed included phenolics, vitamins and metabolites indentified in wine for the first time (4-amino-heptanedioic acid and its ethyl ester).

  2. Studying the effect of storage conditions on the metabolite content of red wine using HILIC LC-MS based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Corte, Anna Della; Gika, Helen; Narduzzi, Luca; Mattivi, Fulvio; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2016-04-15

    The main aim of this work was to develop an untargeted normal phase LC-MS method, starting from a targeted method already validated for the analysis of 135 polar metabolites. Since the LC instrument and column were the same, most of the chromatographic conditions remained identical, while the adaptations focused on maintaining the ionic strength of the eluents constant. The sample preparation was simplified and the effectiveness of LC-MS for long batches was evaluated, in order to record the maximum number of metabolites with good chromatographic resolution and the best MS stability and accuracy. The method was applied to study the influence of storage conditions on wine composition. Slightly sub-optimum storage conditions had a major impact on the polar metabolite fingerprint of the red wines analysed and the markers revealed included phenolics, vitamins and metabolites indentified in wine for the first time (4-amino-heptanedioic acid and its ethyl ester). PMID:26675875

  3. Exposure to estradiol before but not during acquisition of LiCl-induced conditioned taste avoidance accelerates extinction.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Kathleen C; Hayes, Unja L

    2002-05-01

    Estradiol accelerates extinction of LiCl-induced conditioned taste avoidance when it is present continuously before and during acquisition. We have suggested that the effect of estradiol on extinction is due to its illness-associated, rather than learning-associated, properties. If this were the case, then one would expect estradiol to act before but not during acquisition. This expectation is based on previous work showing attenuation of learned taste avoidance when rats are given distal preexposure (greater than 24 h before conditioning) or proximal preexposure (less than 24 h before conditioning) to the illness-inducing agent LiCl before acquisition of a LiCl-induced conditioned taste avoidance. In three separate experiments, estradiol was administered during three different time periods via subcutaneous implantation of a 10-mm estradiol-filled capsule. In each experiment, the extinction of estradiol-treated females was compared to that of females implanted with empty capsules. In the first experiment, female rats were given distal exposure to estradiol before acquisition. Capsules were implanted 11 days before acquisition and were removed 2 days before acquisition. In the second experiment, female rats were given proximal exposure to estradiol before acquisition. Capsules were implanted 2.5 h before LiCl was paired with a sucrose solution and were removed 16.5 h later. In the third experiment, female rats were given exposure to estradiol during acquisition. Capsules were implanted at the same time as LiCl administration and were removed 18 h later. The only estradiol-treated females to show accelerated extinction were those given distal preexposure to estradiol in Experiment 1. These data do not support a learning-associated hypothesis and only partially support an illness-associated hypothesis. The failure to find accelerated extinction following proximal preexposure may reflect an inappropriate choice of the parameters used in the experiment or a difference

  4. Shelf life of donkey milk subjected to different treatment and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Bardasi, Lia; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Morbarigazzi, Michele; Federici, Simone; Piva, Silvia; Serraino, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different treatment conditions on microbiological indicators of donkey milk hygiene and their evolution during shelf life at 4 and 12°C from 3 to 30d, simulating a farm-scale pasteurization and packing system. Four treatment conditions were tested: no treatment (raw milk), pasteurization (65°C × 30 min), high-pressure processing (HPP), and pasteurization plus HPP. The microbiological quality of the raw donkey milk investigated was not optimal; our results highlight the importance of raw milk management with the need for animal hygiene management and good dairy farming practices on donkey farms to improve handling procedures. The raw milk treated with HPP alone showed visible alterations with flocks, making the milk unfit for sale. The microbiological risk posed by consumption of raw donkey milk was significantly reduced by heat treatment but farm-scale packing systems cannot guarantee an extended shelf life. In contrast, the pasteurization plus HPP treatment was the most effective method to maintain microbiological milk quality. Microflora growth had little effect on pH in donkey milk: pH values were significantly different only between raw milk and pasteurized and pasteurized plus HPP milk stored at 12°C for 3d. Alkaline phosphatase activity and furosine could be used as indicators of proper pasteurization and thermal processing in donkey milk. Moreover, the presence and growth of Bacillus cereus in the case of thermal abuse hamper the wide-scale marketing of donkey milk due to the potential consequences for sensitive consumers and therefore further tests with time/temperature/high-pressure protocols associated with B. cereus are needed. Finally, our study shows that an HPP treatment of pasteurized milk after packing extends the shelf life of donkey milk and assures its microbial criteria up to 30d if properly stored at 4°C until opening; therefore, combined heat treatment and storage strategies are

  5. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the “Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products” by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese. PMID:26760945

  6. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the "Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products" by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese.

  7. Effect of oxygen stress on growth and survival of Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter jejuni, and Listeria monocytogenes under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Qadiri, Hamzah; Sablani, Shyam S; Ovissipour, Mahmoudreza; Al-Alami, Nivin; Govindan, Byju; Rasco, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the growth and survival of three foodborne pathogens (Clostridium perfringens, Campylobacter jejuni, and Listeria monocytogenes) in beef (7% fat) and nutrient broth under different oxygen levels. Samples were tested under anoxic (<0.5%), microoxic (6 to 8%), and oxic (20%) conditions during storage at 7 °C for 14 days and at 22 °C for 5 days. Two initial inoculum concentrations were used (1 and 2 log CFU per g of beef or per ml of broth). The results show that C. perfringens could grow in beef at 22 °C, with an increase of approximately 5 log under anoxic conditions and a 1-log increase under microoxic conditions. However, C. perfringens could not survive in beef held at 7 °C under microoxic and oxic storage conditions after 14 days. In an anoxic environment, C. perfringens survived in beef samples held at 7 °C, with a 1-log reduction. A cell decline was observed at 2 log under these conditions, with no surviving cells at the 1-log level. However, the results show that C. jejuni under microoxic conditions survived with declining cell numbers. Significant increases in L. monocytogenes (5 to 7 log) were observed in beef held at 22 °C for 5 days, with the lowest levels recovered under anoxic conditions. L. monocytogenes in refrigerated storage increased by a factor of 2 to 4 log. It showed the greatest growth under oxic conditions, with significant growth under anoxic conditions. These findings can be used to enhance food safety in vacuum-packed and modified atmosphere-packaged food products.

  8. A QR accelerated volume-to-surface boundary condition for finite element solution of eddy current problems

    SciTech Connect

    White, D; Fasenfest, B; Rieben, R; Stowell, M

    2006-09-08

    We are concerned with the solution of time-dependent electromagnetic eddy current problems using a finite element formulation on three-dimensional unstructured meshes. We allow for multiple conducting regions, and our goal is to develop an efficient computational method that does not require a computational mesh of the air/vacuum regions. This requires a sophisticated global boundary condition specifying the total fields on the conductor boundaries. We propose a Biot-Savart law based volume-to-surface boundary condition to meet this requirement. This Biot-Savart approach is demonstrated to be very accurate. In addition, this approach can be accelerated via a low-rank QR approximation of the discretized Biot-Savart law.

  9. Unsteady heat dissipation in accelerator superconducting coils insulated with porous ceramic insulation in normal and supercritical helium conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrowicz, S.; Four, A.; Baudouy, B.; Kimura, N.; Yamamoto, A.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the unsteady heat dissipation in accelerator superconducting coils insulated with porous ceramic insulation, two experimental mock-ups reproducing the thermal and the mechanical conditions of a superconducting coils were produced. The mock-ups with compressive load of 10 MPa and 20 MPa were tested at normal (T = 4.23 K and p = 1 bar) and supercritical helium conditions (T = 4.23 K and p = 2.0 to 3.75 bar) during unsteady heat dissipation. The paper presents the experimental results of temperature rise in both superconducting coils as a function of time for a wide range of a localized heat load varying from 0.1 kJ/m3 up to 12.8 MJ m-3 per pulse. A numerical model of the transient process in these coils has been developed and the computations are compared with the experimental results.

  10. Human mononuclear cell function after 4 degrees C storage during 1-G and microgravity conditions of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, R.; Taylor, G.; Lionetti, F.; Neale, L.; Curren, T.

    1989-01-01

    Future space missions of long duration may require that autologous leukocytes be stored in flight for infusion to restore normal immune competence in crewmembers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), as leukocyte concentrates in autologous plasma and 2% dextrose, were stored in the microgravity conditions provided by the U.S. Space Shuttle Columbia (Mission 61-C). Activity of PBMNC after space flight was compared with that from a series of preflight ground control experiments, which demonstrated in culture a progressive daily loss in mitogen-stimulated protein synthesis at 24 h and thymidine uptake at 72 h after storage for 7 d at 4 degrees C. Post-storage viabilities were at least 90% as determined by trypan dye exclusion. A progressive reduction in the percentage of PBMNC expressing cell-surface phenotype markers, which was similar for monocytes, B cells, and T-cell subsets, also occurred after storage. The ability of PBMNC, stored for 8 d in Columbia's middeck, to become activated and proliferate in vitro was similar to that of cells that remained in identical flight lockers on the ground as 1-G controls, thus indicating that PBMNCs were not adversely affected by storage under microgravity conditions.

  11. Hippocampal ripple-contingent training accelerates trace eyeblink conditioning and retards extinction in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Nokia, Miriam S; Penttonen, Markku; Wikgren, Jan

    2010-08-25

    There are at least two distinct oscillatory states of the hippocampus that are related to distinct behavioral patterns. Theta (4-12 Hz) oscillation has been suggested to indicate selective attention during which the animal concentrates on some features of the environment while suppressing reactivity to others. In contrast, sharp-wave ripples ( approximately 200 Hz) can be seen in a state in which the hippocampus is at its most responsive to any kind of afferent stimulation. In addition, external stimulation tends to evoke and reset theta oscillation, the phase of which has been shown to modulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Theoretically, training on a hippocampus-dependent learning task contingent upon ripples could enhance learning rate due to elevated responsiveness and enhanced phase locking of the theta oscillation. We used a brain-computer interface to detect hippocampal ripples in rabbits to deliver trace eyeblink conditioning and extinction trials selectively contingent upon them. A yoked control group was trained regardless of their ongoing neural state. Ripple-contingent training expedited acquisition of the conditioned response early in training and evoked stronger theta-band phase locking to the conditioned stimulus. Surprisingly, ripple-contingent training also resulted in slower extinction in well trained animals. We suggest that the ongoing oscillatory activity in the hippocampus determines the extent to which a stimulus can induce a phase reset of the theta oscillation, which in turn is the determining factor of learning rate in trace eyeblink conditioning.

  12. Pacific whiting frozen fillets as affected by postharvest processing and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinhwan; Park, Jae W

    2016-06-15

    Whole fish and H&G (headed and gutted) fish were stored under refrigeration (<4 °C) for 0, 2, and 5 days and subsequently filleted and frozen at -18 °C and -80 °C. Frozen fillets were analyzed during 24 weeks of storage. The activity of trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase (TMAOase) decreased more quickly at -18 °C than -80 °C. TMAOase reduction was distinctively noted at -18 °C storage. Formaldehyde (FA) induced by TMAOase increased at all treatments at -18 °C as frozen storage extended to 24 weeks, but it was near zero at -80 °C up to 12 weeks of storage. Textural toughening, low water retention ability, and low salt soluble protein resulted from the denaturation function of FA. A sudden decrease in surface hydrophobicity at 24 weeks, when stored at -18 °C, resulted from FA-induced unfolding and subsequent aggregation. FA concentration appeared to affect protein aggregations and textual toughening of fillets during frozen storage.

  13. Liquid-phase chemical hydrogen storage: catalytic hydrogen generation under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Long; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Yan, Jun-Min; Zhang, Xin-Bo; Xu, Qiang

    2010-05-25

    There is a demand for a sufficient and sustainable energy supply. Hence, the search for applicable hydrogen storage materials is extremely important owing to the diversified merits of hydrogen energy. Lithium and sodium borohydride, ammonia borane, hydrazine, and formic acid have been extensively investigated as promising hydrogen storage materials based on their relatively high hydrogen content. Significant advances, such as hydrogen generation temperatures and reaction kinetics, have been made in the catalytic hydrolysis of aqueous lithium and sodium borohydride and ammonia borane as well as in the catalytic decomposition of hydrous hydrazine and formic acid. In this Minireview we briefly survey the research progresses in catalytic hydrogen generation from these liquid-phase chemical hydrogen storage materials.

  14. Effects of water sample preservation and storage conditions on nitrate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.C.; Alva, A.K.; Calvert, D.V.; Zhang, M. |

    1995-12-31

    USEPA method 300 requires water samples should be stored at 4 C immediately after collection and NO{sub 3}-N concentration analyzed within 48 hr of sample collection. Many research and commercial laboratories find it is difficult to meet this holding time. Water samples are often stored for several days at 4 C or {minus}20 C until analysis. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of groundwater sample pretreatment, storage temperatures, and holding times on concentrations of NO{sub 3}-N. The storage of samples at 25 C decreased concentrations of NO{sub 3}-N by 1.7% and 12.5% for 48 hr and 50 days, respectively. No significant changes were observed during the 50 days storage at 4 C or {minus}20 C. Acidification of water samples at 4 C had no significant effect on NO{sub 3}-N concentration up to 50-day holding time.

  15. Accelerated decolorization of reactive azo dyes under saline conditions by bacteria isolated from Arabian seawater sediment.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Azeem; Kausar, Farzana; Arshad, Muhammad; Mahmood, Tariq; Ahmed, Iftikhar

    2012-12-01

    Presence of huge amount of salts in the wastewater of textile dyeing industry is one of the major limiting factors in the development of an effective biotreatment system for the removal of azo dyes from textile effluents. Bacterial spp. capable of thriving under high salt conditions could be employed for the treatment of saline dyecontaminated textile wastewaters. The present study was aimed at isolating the most efficient bacterial strains capable of decolorizing azo dyes under high saline conditions. Fiftyeight bacterial strains were isolated from seawater, seawater sediment, and saline soil, using mineral salt medium enriched with 100 mg l−1 Reactive Black-5 azo dye and 50 g NaCl l−1 salt concentration. Bacterial strains KS23 (Psychrobacter alimentarius) and KS26 (Staphylococcus equorum) isolated from seawater sediment were able to decolorize three reactive dyes including Reactive Black 5, Reactive Golden Ovifix, and Reactive Blue BRS very efficiently in liquid medium over a wide range of salt concentration (0-100 g NaCl l)⁻¹. Time required for complete decolorization of 100 mg dye l ⁻¹ varied with the type of dye and salt concentration. In general, there was an inverse linear relationship between the velocity of the decolorization reaction (V) and salt concentration. This study suggested that bacteria isolated from saline conditions such as seawater sediment could be used in designing a bioreactor for the treatment of textile effluent containing high concentration of salts.

  16. Failure analysis for the dual input quad NAND gate CD4011 under dormant storage conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2007-05-01

    Several groups of plastic molded CD4011s were electrically tested as part of an Army dormant storage program. These parts had been in storage in missile containers for 4.5 years, and were electrically tested annually. Eight of the parts (out of 1200) failed the electrical tests and were subsequently analyzed to determine the cause of the failures. The root cause was found to be corrosion of the unpassivated Al bondpads. No significant attack of the passivated Al traces was found. Seven of the eight failures occurred in parts stored on a pre-position ship (the Jeb Stuart), suggesting a link between the external environment and observed corrosion.

  17. Failure analysis for the dual input quad NAND fate CD4011 under dormant storage conditions.

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2004-11-01

    Several groups of plastic molded CD4011 were electrically tested as part of an Army dormant storage program. For this test, parts had been in storage in missile containers for 4.5 years. Eight of the parts (out of 1200) failed the electrical tests and were subsequently analyzed to determine the cause of the failures. The root cause was found to be corrosion of the unpassivated Al bondpads. No significant attack of the passivated Al traces was found. Seven of the eight failures occurred in parts stored on a preposition ship (Jeb Stuart), suggesting a link between the external environment and observed corrosion.

  18. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions.

  19. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling. PMID:25916229

  20. From producer to consumer: greenhouse tomato quality as affected by variety, maturity stage at harvest, transport conditions, and supermarket storage.

    PubMed

    Verheul, Michèl J; Slimestad, Rune; Tjøstheim, Irene Holta

    2015-05-27

    Possible causes for differences in quality traits at the time of buying were studied in two widely different red tomato types. Three maturity stages were harvested from commercial greenhouses and transferred immediately to controlled environments simulating different storage, transport, and supermarket conditions. Results show significant differences in development of color, fruit firmness, contents of soluble solids (SSC), titratable acids (TTA), phenolics, and carotenoids from harvest to sale, as related to postharvest conditions. Fruit firmness, SSC, and TTA of vine-ripened red cherry tomatoes was 30, 55 and 11% higher than for those harvested at breakers and ripened to red. Temperature, light, UVC radiation, or ethylene during 4 days transport affected tomato quality traits, and differences persisted during 3 weeks of supermarket storage. Ethylene exposure gave a 3.7-fold increase in lycopene content in cherry tomatoes, whereas UVC hormesis revealed a 6-fold increase compared with the control. Results can be used to update recommendations concerning optimal handling.

  1. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions. PMID:27542493

  2. Formulation of boundary conditions for the multigrid acceleration of the Euler and Navier Stokes equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jentink, Thomas Neil; Usab, William J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    An explicit, Multigrid algorithm was written to solve the Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with special consideration given to the coarse mesh boundary conditions. These are formulated in a manner consistent with the interior solution, utilizing forcing terms to prevent coarse-mesh truncation error from affecting the fine-mesh solution. A 4-Stage Hybrid Runge-Kutta Scheme is used to advance the solution in time, and Multigrid convergence is further enhanced by using local time-stepping and implicit residual smoothing. Details of the algorithm are presented along with a description of Jameson's standard Multigrid method and a new approach to formulating the Multigrid equations.

  3. Effects of catchment, first-flush, storage conditions, and time on microbial quality in rainwater harvesting systems.

    PubMed

    Amin, M T; Kim, Tschung-il; Amin, M N; Han, M Y

    2013-12-01

    Rainwater collected from a rooftop rainwater harvesting (RWH) system is typically not considered suitable for potable uses, primarily because of poor microbial quality. The quality of stored rainwater, however, can be improved through basic design and maintenance practices during the construction and operation of an RWH system. This paper presents the microbial analysis of rainwater in two RWH systems installed at the Seoul National University Campus in South Korea. Rainwater samples were collected at different locations within each system and analyzed for total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. Within their storage tanks, water quality improved horizontally from inlet to outlet points, and higher quality was observed at the supply point (located about 0.5 m from the base of the tank) than at the surface or bottom of the tank. First-flush rainwater was found to be highly contaminated but rainwater quality improved following about 1 mm of precipitation. The catchment surface also had a significant effect on the quality of rainwater; samples collected from a rooftop exhibited better microbial quality than from a terrace catchment. Better water quality in underground tanks (dark storage conditions) compared to open weirs/ filters (exposed to natural light) demonstrated the importance of storage conditions. Water quality also improved with longer storage, and a decrease of 70% to 90% in microbial concentrations was observed after about 1 week of storage time. The findings of this study demonstrate that the microbial quality of harvested rainwater can be improved significantly by the adoption of proper design and maintenance guidelines such as those discussed in this paper.

  4. Gas Exchanges and Dehydration in Different Intensities of Conditioning in Tifton 85 Bermudagrass: Nutritional Value during Hay Storage

    PubMed Central

    Pasqualotto, M.; Neres, M. A.; Guimarães, V. F.; Klein, J.; Inagaki, A. M.; Ducati, C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the intensity of Tifton 85 conditioning using a mower conditioner with free-swinging flail fingers and storage times on dehydration curve, fungi presence, nutritional value and in vitro digestibility of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay dry matter (DM). The dehydration curve was determined in the whole plant for ten times until the baling. The zero time corresponded to the plant before cutting, which occurred at 11:00 and the other collections were carried out at 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 16:00. The experimental design was randomised blocks with two intensities of conditioning (high and low) and ten sampling times, with five replications. The high and low intensities related to adjusting the deflector plate of the free iron fingers (8 and 18 cm). In order to determine gas exchanges during Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration, there were evaluations of mature leaves, which were placed in the upper middle third of each branch before the cutting, at every hour for 4 hours. A portable gas analyser was used by an infrared IRGA (6400xt). The analysed variables were photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration (T), water use efficiency (WUE), and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi). In the second part of this study, the nutritional value of Tifton 85 hay was evaluated, so randomised blocks were designed in a split plot through time, with two treatments placed in the following plots: high and low intensity of cutting and five different time points as subplots: cutting (additional treatment), baling and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. Subsequently, fungi that were in green plants as well as hay were determined and samples were collected from the grass at the cutting period, during baling, and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. It was observed that Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration occurred within 49 hours, so this was considered the best time for drying hay. Gas exchanges were more

  5. Gas Exchanges and Dehydration in Different Intensities of Conditioning in Tifton 85 Bermudagrass: Nutritional Value during Hay Storage.

    PubMed

    Pasqualotto, M; Neres, M A; Guimarães, V F; Klein, J; Inagaki, A M; Ducati, C

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the intensity of Tifton 85 conditioning using a mower conditioner with free-swinging flail fingers and storage times on dehydration curve, fungi presence, nutritional value and in vitro digestibility of Tifton 85 bermudagrass hay dry matter (DM). The dehydration curve was determined in the whole plant for ten times until the baling. The zero time corresponded to the plant before cutting, which occurred at 11:00 and the other collections were carried out at 8:00, 10:00, 14:00, and 16:00. The experimental design was randomised blocks with two intensities of conditioning (high and low) and ten sampling times, with five replications. The high and low intensities related to adjusting the deflector plate of the free iron fingers (8 and 18 cm). In order to determine gas exchanges during Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration, there were evaluations of mature leaves, which were placed in the upper middle third of each branch before the cutting, at every hour for 4 hours. A portable gas analyser was used by an infrared IRGA (6400xt). The analysed variables were photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs), internal CO2 concentration (Ci), transpiration (T), water use efficiency (WUE), and intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi). In the second part of this study, the nutritional value of Tifton 85 hay was evaluated, so randomised blocks were designed in a split plot through time, with two treatments placed in the following plots: high and low intensity of cutting and five different time points as subplots: cutting (additional treatment), baling and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. Subsequently, fungi that were in green plants as well as hay were determined and samples were collected from the grass at the cutting period, during baling, and after 30, 60, and 90 days of storage. It was observed that Tifton 85 bermudagrass dehydration occurred within 49 hours, so this was considered the best time for drying hay. Gas exchanges were more

  6. Mechanical properties of the rat colon: the effect of age, sex and different conditions of storage.

    PubMed

    Watters, D A; Smith, A N; Eastwood, M A; Anderson, K C; Elton, R A

    1985-01-01

    The mechanical properties of the rat colon were studied in old and young Sprague-Dawley rats which were also grouped by sex. Different storage media were used. Rings of colonic tissue were submitted to pulls on an Instron 1026 tensiometer. Gender did not affect the properties of the young rat colon. The rat colon has a tensile strength of around 50 g/mm2 (which places it between the dog and the cat). It increased in strength from proximal to distal, though the rectum was weaker than the colon. The pre-strain of the rat colon was 10% and it was capable of stretching to 200% of its original dimensions. The strength and ability to stretch fell with age, although it initially increased, in the first year of life. Physiological saline at 4 degrees C preserved the burst strength, percentage elongation, hysteresis and Young's modulus between 25 and 100 g stress for up to 1 week. Young's modulus between 125 and 200 g fell progressively with each day of storage. Stress relaxation rose in the first 24 h and thereafter remained constant. Salt appeared to be a good long-term storage medium. Irradiation of the colons before storage did not affect the mechanical properties.

  7. Growth and activity of reservoir microorganisms under carbon capture and storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakoczy, Jana; Gniese, Claudia; Krüger, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage is a technology to decelerate global warming by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. To ensure safe long-term storage of CO2 in the underground a number of factors need to be considered. One of them is microbial activity in storage reservoirs, which can lead to the formation of acidic metabolites, H2S or carbonates which then might affect injectivity, permeability, pressure build-up and long-term operability. Our research focused on the effect of high CO2 concentrations on growth and activity of selected thermophilic fermenting and sulphate-reducing bacteria isolated from deep reservoirs. Experiments with supercritical carbon dioxide at 100 bar completely inhibited growth of freshly inoculated cultures and also caused a rapid decrease of growth of a pre-grown culture. This demonstrated that supercritical carbon dioxide had a certain sterilizing effect on cells. This effect was not observed in control cultures with 100 bar of hydrostatic pressure. However, when provided with a surface for attachment, CO2-inhibited cells restarted growth after CO2 release. The same was observed for organisms able to form spores. Further experiments will examine physiological and molecular properties of the model organism allowing for prediction of its sensitivity and/or adaptability to carbon dioxide in potential future storage sites.

  8. Effect of freezing technology and storage conditions on folate content in selected vegetables.

    PubMed

    Czarnowska, Marta; Gujska, Elzbieta

    2012-12-01

    Folates (B vitamins) are essential for the proper function of many bodily processes. Although a rich natural source are vegetables, the literature lacks data on the effect of the pre-treatment and freezing technologies used in vegetable processing and frozen storage time on the folate content in these materials. Moreover, since folates are very unstable nutrients, the amount available in processed and stored foods can be significantly lower than in raw products. In tested vegetables (green beans, yellow beans, peas, cauliflower, broccoli and spinach), one folate form was identified, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH₃-H₄folate). It was observed that pre-treatment and freezing technology significantly (p < 0.05) decreased 5-CH₃-H₄folate content only in vegetables with the largest degree of fragmentation (cut and briquetted spinach) and the smallest size (peas). In all analyzed samples, the 5-CH₃-H₄folate content decreased with the time of frozen storage. In frozen cauliflower, the 5-CH₃-H₄folate loss exceeded 95 % compared to the fresh product just after the third month of frozen storage. Meanwhile, in green and yellow beans, significant 5-CH₃-H₄folate losses (at the level of 75 % and 95 %, respectively) were observed no earlier than after the 9th month of frozen storage.

  9. The Conversion and operation of the Cornell electron storage ring as a test accelerator (cesrta) for damping rings research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.A.; Alexander, J.; Byrd, J.; Celata, C.M.; Corlett, J.; De Santis, S.; Furman, M.; Jackson, A.; Kraft, R.; Munson, D.; Penn, G.; Plate, D.; Rawlins, A.; Venturini, M.; Zisman, M.; Billing, M.; Calvey, J.; Chapman, S.; Codner, G.; Conolly, C.; Crittenden, J.; Dobbins, J.; Dugan, G.; Fontes, E.; Forster, M.; Gallagher, R.; Gray, S.; Greenwald, S.; Hartill, D.; Hopkins, W.; Kandaswamy, J.; Kreinick, D.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Livezey, J.; Lyndaker, A.; Medjidzade, V.; Meller, R.; Peck, S.; Peterson, D.; Rendina, M.; Revesz, P.; Rice, D.; Rider, N.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Savino, J.; Seeley, R.; Sexton, J.; Shanks, J.; Sikora, J.; Smolenski, K.; Strohman, C.; Temnykh, A.; tigner, M.; Whitney, W.; Williams, H.; Vishniakou, S.; Wilkens, T.; Harkay, K.; Holtzapple, R.; Smith, E.; Jones, J.; Wolski, A.; He, Y.; Ross, M.; Tan, C.Y.; Zwaska, R.; Flanagan, J.; Jain, P.; Kanazawa, K.; Ohmi, K.; Sakai, H.; Shibata, K.; Suetsugu, Y.; Kharakh, D.; Pivi, M.; Wang, L.

    2009-05-01

    In March of 2008, the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) concluded twenty eight years of colliding beam operations for the CLEO high energy physics experiment. We have reconfigured CESR as an ultra low emittance damping ring for use as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for International Linear Collider (ILC) damping ring R&D. The primary goals of the CesrTA program are to achieve a beam emittance approaching that of the ILC Damping Rings with a positron beam, to investigate the interaction of the electron cloud with both low emittance positron and electron beams, to explore methods to suppress the electron cloud, and to develop suitable advanced instrumentation required for these experimental studies (in particular a fast x-ray beam size monitor capable of single pass measurements of individual bunches). We report on progress with the CESR conversion activities, the status and schedule for the experimental program, and the first experimental results that have been obtained.

  10. The Effect of Different Storage Conditions on the Physical Properties of Pigmented Medical Grade I Silicone Maxillofacial Material

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dharrab, Ayman A.; Tayel, Seham B.; Abodaya, Mona H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different storage solutions that simulate acidic, alkaline, and sebum conditiions on the physical properties of pigmented (colorant elastomer) cosmesil M511 maxillofacial prosthetic material. Materials and Methods. Sixty specimens were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions and were tested before and after immersion of different storage conditions for six months at 37 °C. The following tests were performed: color changes (group I), solution absorption (group II), surface roughness (group III), and scanning electron microscopy (group IV). Results. There were no significant changes observed in the color and solution absorption tests while surface roughness revealed significant difference between control group and other testing storage medium groups, and this result was supported by SEM analysis that revealed limited surface changes. Conclusions. Cosmaseil material is an acceptable cross-linked formulation that withstands storage in different solutions with variable pH. The addition of pigment cannot vary the physical properties of these materials. Surface roughness test as well as SEM microscopic study showed moderate changes indicating a limited effect on the surface of the material. PMID:23606978

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor in breast cancer: storage conditions affecting measurement, and relationship to steroid receptors.

    PubMed

    McLeay, W R; Horsfall, D J; Seshadri, R; Morrison, D A; Saccone, G T

    1992-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of freezing and storage of tissue and subcellular fractions on the measurement of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-r); compares competition binding and single saturating dose assays (SSD) for quantitating EGF-r levels; investigates several tissues as potential quality control; and examines the relationship between EGF-r and hormone receptor expression in human breast cancers. Mouse and calf uterine cell membranes were preferred sources of quality control tissue with similar levels of high affinity EGF-r to human breast cancer tissue (less than 150-200 fmol/mg membrane protein). Studies using pooled mouse uterine tissues indicated a loss of 40% in EGF-r activity following a single-20 degrees C freeze/thaw cycle, while a breast cancer tissue showed a 75% loss, independent of storage temperature (liquid nitrogen, -70 degrees C, -20 degrees C). A single freeze/thaw cycle of mouse uterine broken cell pellets (nuclei plus membrane fraction) again indicated a loss of EGF-r irrespective of storage temperature (43% loss at -70 degrees C, 52% loss at -20 degrees C). In most cases irrespective of the tissue type or tissue fraction being stored, the length of storage had little impact on the extent of the loss in activity. A second freeze/thaw cycle of intact tissue, or freezing of broken cell pellets from a previously-frozen tissue, led to a further major or total loss of the remaining EGF-r. Overall these results are commensurate with the published effects of freezing and storage on estrogen receptor measurement. In addition, our studies suggest that the most suitable procedure for assaying frozen breast cancer specimens for EGF-r levels in conjunction with steroid receptor quantitation is to prepare and assay both cytosol and membrane fractions for their respective receptor content without further storage. A concordance of 86% was found in 44 breast cancers assayed for EGF-4 by saturation analysis and SSD. Statistically significant

  12. Accelerated aging phenotype in mice with conditional deficiency for mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in the connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Treiber, Nicolai; Maity, Pallab; Singh, Karmveer; Kohn, Matthias; Keist, Alexander F; Ferchiu, Florentina; Sante, Lea; Frese, Sebastian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Kreppel, Florian; Kochanek, Stefan; Sindrilaru, Anca; Iben, Sebastian; Högel, Josef; Ohnmacht, Michael; Claes, Lutz E; Ignatius, Anita; Chung, Jin H; Lee, Min J; Kamenisch, York; Berneburg, Mark; Nikolaus, Thorsten; Braunstein, Kerstin; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Ludolph, Albert C; Briviba, Karlis; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Florin, Lore; Angel, Peter; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2011-04-01

    The free radical theory of aging postulates that the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is the major determinant of aging and lifespan. Its role in aging of the connective tissue has not yet been established, even though the incidence of aging-related disorders in connective tissue-rich organs is high, causing major disability in the elderly. We have now addressed this question experimentally by creating mice with conditional deficiency of the mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase in fibroblasts and other mesenchyme-derived cells of connective tissues in all organs. Here, we have shown for the first time that the connective tissue-specific lack of superoxide anion detoxification in the mitochondria results in reduced lifespan and premature onset of aging-related phenotypes such as weight loss, skin atrophy, kyphosis (curvature of the spine), osteoporosis and muscle degeneration in mutant mice. Increase in p16(INK4a) , a robust in vivo marker for fibroblast aging, may contribute to the observed phenotype. This novel model is particularly suited to decipher the underlying mechanisms and to develop hopefully novel connective tissue-specific anti-aging strategies.

  13. Ubiquitous Transgene Expression of the Glucosylceramide-Synthesizing Enzyme Accelerates Glucosylceramide Accumulation and Storage Cells in a Gaucher Disease Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Sonya; Xu, You-Hai; Zhang, Wujuan; Liou, Benjamin; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Bao, Liming; Grabowski, Gregory A.; Sun, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease is a lysosomal storage disease caused by defective activity of acid β-glucosidase (GCase), which leads to the accumulation of its major substrates, glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and glucosylsphingosine (GlcSph) in many cells. To modulate cellular substrate concentration in viable mouse models of Gaucher disease (Gba1 mutants), a novel mouse model was created with enhanced glycosphingolipid biosynthesis. This was accomplished by cross-breeding Gba1 mutant mice with mice expressing a transgene (GCStg) containing the mouse glucosylceramide synthase (GCS, Ugcg) cDNA driven by the ROSA promoter, yielding GCStg/Gba1 mice. The GCStg rescued Ugcg null mice from embryonic lethality. GCStg/Gba1 mice showed 2–3 fold increases in tissue GCS activity as well as accelerated GlcCer accumulation and the appearance of lipid-laden CD68 positive macrophages in visceral organs. Although GlcCer/GlcSph concentrations were elevated in the brain, there was no neurodegenerative phenotype up to 1 yr of age conceivably due to the greater residual GCase hydrolytic activity in the brains than in the visceral tissues of 9V/null mice. These studies provide ‘proof of principle’ for threshold substrate flux that modifies phenotypic development in Gaucher disease and other lysosomal storage diseases. PMID:25551612

  14. Human mononuclear cell function after 4 C storage during 1-G and microgravity conditions of spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meehan, Richard; Taylor, Gerald; Lionetti, Fabian; Neale, Laurie; Curren, Tim

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of restoring immune competence of crewmembers during a prolonged spaceflight by infusions of autologous blood components, the effect of storage at 4 C aboard Space Shuttle Columbia (Mission 61-c) on the activity of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), stored as leukocyte concentrates in autologous plasa, was investigated. The results of preflight storage at 4 C demonstrated a progressive daily loss in mitogen-stimulated protein synthesis, and thymidine uptake, as well as a progressive reduction in the percentage of PBMNCs expressing cell-surface phenotype markers. The ability of PBMNCs stored at 4 C for 8 d in Columbia's middeck, to become activated and proliferate in vitro was similar to that of cells that remained for 7 d on ground.

  15. Mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium accelerates skin wound healing: An in vitro study of fibroblast and keratinocyte scratch assays

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.N.M.; Wright, K.T.; Fuller, H.R.; MacNeil, S.; Johnson, W.E.B.

    2010-04-15

    We have used in vitro scratch assays to examine the relative contribution of dermal fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the wound repair process and to test the influence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) secreted factors on both skin cell types. Scratch assays were established using single cell and co-cultures of L929 fibroblasts and HaCaT keratinocytes, with wound closure monitored via time-lapse microscopy. Both in serum supplemented and serum free conditions, wound closure was faster in L929 fibroblast than HaCaT keratinocyte scratch assays, and in co-culture the L929 fibroblasts lead the way in closing the scratches. MSC-CM generated under serum free conditions significantly enhanced the wound closure rate of both skin cell types separately and in co-culture, whereas conditioned medium from L929 or HaCaT cultures had no significant effect. This enhancement of wound closure in the presence of MSC-CM was due to accelerated cell migration rather than increased cell proliferation. A number of wound healing mediators were identified in MSC-CM, including TGF-{beta}1, the chemokines IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and RANTES, and collagen type I, fibronectin, SPARC and IGFBP-7. This study suggests that the trophic activity of MSC may play a role in skin wound closure by affecting both dermal fibroblast and keratinocyte migration, along with a contribution to the formation of extracellular matrix.

  16. Power conditioning electronics for a 500 Wh inertial energy storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eakin, Vickie J.; Rodriguez, G. Ernest; Paulkovich, John

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of a pulse-width-modulated buck-boost converter designed to interface a 500 Wh inertial energy storage system operating from 70 to 140 VDC to a constant bus of 150 VDC. Implementation of hysteresis feedback control provides excellent voltage regulation. The design is based on a 300-Wh, 94 percent Wh efficient prototype and is currently being optimized to yield 97 percent overall watt-hour efficiency.

  17. Non-thermal electron acceleration in low Mach number collisionless shocks. II. Firehose-mediated Fermi acceleration and its dependence on pre-shock conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Xinyi; Narayan, Ramesh; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2014-12-10

    Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies is known to occur in low Mach number (M{sub s} ≲ 5) shocks in galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulations, we showed in Paper I that electrons are efficiently accelerated in low Mach number (M{sub s} = 3) quasi-perpendicular shocks via a Fermi-like process. The electrons bounce between the upstream region and the shock front, with each reflection at the shock resulting in energy gain via shock drift acceleration. The upstream scattering is provided by oblique magnetic waves that are self-generated by the electrons escaping ahead of the shock. In the present work, we employ additional 2D PIC simulations to address the nature of the upstream oblique waves. We find that the waves are generated by the shock-reflected electrons via the firehose instability, which is driven by an anisotropy in the electron velocity distribution. We systematically explore how the efficiency of wave generation and of electron acceleration depend on the magnetic field obliquity, the flow magnetization (or equivalently, the plasma beta), and the upstream electron temperature. We find that the mechanism works for shocks with high plasma beta (≳ 20) at nearly all magnetic field obliquities, and for electron temperatures in the range relevant for galaxy clusters. Our findings offer a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.

  18. Non-thermal Electron Acceleration in Low Mach Number Collisionless Shocks. II. Firehose-mediated Fermi Acceleration and its Dependence on Pre-shock Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xinyi; Sironi, Lorenzo; Narayan, Ramesh

    2014-12-01

    Electron acceleration to non-thermal energies is known to occur in low Mach number (Ms <~ 5) shocks in galaxy clusters and solar flares, but the electron acceleration mechanism remains poorly understood. Using two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulations, we showed in Paper I that electrons are efficiently accelerated in low Mach number (Ms = 3) quasi-perpendicular shocks via a Fermi-like process. The electrons bounce between the upstream region and the shock front, with each reflection at the shock resulting in energy gain via shock drift acceleration. The upstream scattering is provided by oblique magnetic waves that are self-generated by the electrons escaping ahead of the shock. In the present work, we employ additional 2D PIC simulations to address the nature of the upstream oblique waves. We find that the waves are generated by the shock-reflected electrons via the firehose instability, which is driven by an anisotropy in the electron velocity distribution. We systematically explore how the efficiency of wave generation and of electron acceleration depend on the magnetic field obliquity, the flow magnetization (or equivalently, the plasma beta), and the upstream electron temperature. We find that the mechanism works for shocks with high plasma beta (gsim 20) at nearly all magnetic field obliquities, and for electron temperatures in the range relevant for galaxy clusters. Our findings offer a natural solution to the conflict between the bright radio synchrotron emission observed from the outskirts of galaxy clusters and the low electron acceleration efficiency usually expected in low Mach number shocks.

  19. Antifungal starter culture for packed bread: influence of two storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Gerez, Carla L; Fornaguera, María J; Obregozo, Mariano D; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Torino, María I

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the conservation of a semi-liquid bio-preserver (SL778) developed with Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778, a lactic acid bacterium (LAB) having antifungal activity. The characteristics of the SL778 starter remained stable during a 14-day storage at 4°C. At -20°C, cell viability and organic acid concentration showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease after 7 days. These differences observed between the storage temperatures tested were reflected in the acidification activity of SL778 during dough fermentation. However, SL778 maintained its antifungal efficacy up to a 14-day storage at both temperatures. Sensory attributes (acidic and spicy tastes and acidic smell) of breads manufactured with starter SL778 (stored at 4 or -20°C) were evaluated. No undesirable difference was detected with respect to bread control without SL778 and bread manufactured with SL778 (stored at 4 or -20°C). In conclusion, the SL778 semi-liquid bio-preserver can be stored at 4 or -20°C without modifying its antifungal activity during 14 days. PMID:25896466

  20. Antifungal starter culture for packed bread: influence of two storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Gerez, Carla L; Fornaguera, María J; Obregozo, Mariano D; Font de Valdez, Graciela; Torino, María I

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the conservation of a semi-liquid bio-preserver (SL778) developed with Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778, a lactic acid bacterium (LAB) having antifungal activity. The characteristics of the SL778 starter remained stable during a 14-day storage at 4°C. At -20°C, cell viability and organic acid concentration showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease after 7 days. These differences observed between the storage temperatures tested were reflected in the acidification activity of SL778 during dough fermentation. However, SL778 maintained its antifungal efficacy up to a 14-day storage at both temperatures. Sensory attributes (acidic and spicy tastes and acidic smell) of breads manufactured with starter SL778 (stored at 4 or -20°C) were evaluated. No undesirable difference was detected with respect to bread control without SL778 and bread manufactured with SL778 (stored at 4 or -20°C). In conclusion, the SL778 semi-liquid bio-preserver can be stored at 4 or -20°C without modifying its antifungal activity during 14 days.

  1. Environmental conditions in water storage drums and influences on Aedes aegypti in Trinidad, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Hemme, Ryan R; Tank, Jennifer L; Chadee, Dave D; Severson, David W

    2009-10-01

    Water storage drums are often a primary breeding site for Aedes aegypti in developing countries. Habitat characteristics can impact both adult and larval fitness and survival, which may potentially influence arbovirus transmission. Our objective was to compare fundamental environmental differences in water drums based on the presence or absence of larvae in Trinidad. Drums were categorized according to the larval status, and if the drum was constructed of steel or plastic. Water samples were analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP). Continuous surface water temperatures were also recorded. Nutrient concentrations were considerably lower than those reported for other container breeding mosquitoes. No nutrient measured differed in concentration between drums positive compared to those that were negative for the presence of A. aegypti larvae. Levels of SRP and ammonium in steel drums were significantly lower than in plastic water drums. Both maximum and minimum surface temperatures were significantly lower in drums positive for the presence of larvae than in drums without larvae. Water temperatures in March and May were warmer than during October sampling periods. Larval presence is likely dependent upon the interaction among multiple biotic and abiotic factors. Despite appearance, not all water storage drums are equally suitable for A. aegypti development. Exposing water storage drums to direct sunlight or increased heat may be used in conjunction with sealing containers to reduce production of A. aegypti when draining and chemical treatment are impractical.

  2. Geological conditions of safe long-term storage and disposal of depleted uranium hexafluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Velichkin, V. I.; Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Yudintsev, S. V.; Tagirov, B. R.

    2010-08-01

    The production of enriched uranium used in nuclear weapons and fuel for atomic power plants is accompanied by the formation of depleted uranium (DU), the amount of which annually increases by 35-40 kt. To date, more than 1.6 Mt DU has accumulated in the world. The main DU mass is stored as environ-mentally hazardous uranium hexafluoride (UF6), which is highly volatile and soluble in water with the formation of hydrofluoric acid. To ensure safe UF6 storage, it is necessary to convert this compound in chemically stable phases. The industrial reprocessing of UF6 into U3O8 and HF implemented in France is highly expensive. We substantiate the expediency of long-term storage of depleted uranium hexafluoride in underground repositories localized in limestone. On the basis of geochemical data and thermodynamic calculations, we show that interaction in the steel container-UF6-limestone-groundwater system gives rise to the development of a slightly alkaline reductive medium favorable for chemical reaction with formation of uraninite (UO2) and fluorite (CaF2). The proposed engineering solution not only ensures safe DU storage but also makes it possible to produce uraninite, which can be utilized, if necessary, in fast-neutron reactors. In the course of further investigations aimed at safe maintenance of DU, it is necessary to study the kinetics of conversion of UF6 into stable phases, involving laboratory and field experiments.

  3. Stability of monosodium glutamate in green table olives and pickled cucumbers as a function of packing conditions and storage time.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Antonio; Sánchez, Antonio Higinio; Beato, Víctor Manuel; Casado, Francisco Javier; Montaño, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different packing conditions and storage times on the stability of monosodium glutamate (MSG) added to two different fermented vegetables (Spanish-type green table olives and pickled cucumbers) were studied. Factors such as packaging material (glass bottle versus plastic pouch), heat treatment (pasteurisation versus non-pasteurisation), and the presence or not of a preservative compound (potassium sorbate) were considered. The MSG content of pickled cucumbers was stable for up to 1 year of storage in all packing conditions studied. The MSG content also remained stable in pasteurised green table olives. On the contrary, MSG was extensively degraded (>75% degradation) after 54 weeks of storage in unpasteurised green olives with a higher degradation rate in glass bottles compared with plastic pouches. In the presence of potassium sorbate, MSG was also considerably degraded in olives packed in plastic pouches (>50% degradation), but hardly degraded in glass bottles. The results indicate that MSG degradation in olives is due to the action of both lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, with the formation of γ-aminobutyric acid as the major end-product. PMID:24720705

  4. Impact of Cooking, Storage, and Reheating Conditions on the Formation of Cholesterol Oxidation Products in Pork Loin.

    PubMed

    Min, Joong-Seok; Khan, Muhammad I; Lee, Sang-Ok; Yim, Dong Gyun; Seol, Kuk Hwan; Lee, Mooha; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating conditions on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in pork loin. Samples of pork loin procured 24 h postmortem were initially processed and assessed for total fat and cholesterol content. The cooking methods evaluated were pan roasting, steaming, oven grilling, and microwaving. Cooked pork loin samples were stored at 4℃ and reheated after 3 and 6 d of storage using the original method of preparation or alternately, microwaving. Fat content increased significantly with cooking as a result of the loss in moisture but cholesterol content remained unchanged. Pan roasting and microwave cooking caused a significantly higher production of COPs, as with the process of reheating using microwave, pan roasting, and oven grilling methods. The major COPs found in pork loin were cholestanetriol, 20-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol, whose concentrations varied according to the different cooking and reheating methods used. Moreover, the aerobic storage of cooked pork loin under a refrigerated condition also increased the formation of cholesterol oxides on reheating. PMID:27499660

  5. Impact of Cooking, Storage, and Reheating Conditions on the Formation of Cholesterol Oxidation Products in Pork Loin

    PubMed Central

    Min, Joong-Seok; Khan, Muhammad I.; Lee, Sang-Ok; Yim, Dong Gyun; Seol, Kuk Hwan; Lee, Mooha; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of cooking, storage, and reheating conditions on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in pork loin. Samples of pork loin procured 24 h postmortem were initially processed and assessed for total fat and cholesterol content. The cooking methods evaluated were pan roasting, steaming, oven grilling, and microwaving. Cooked pork loin samples were stored at 4℃ and reheated after 3 and 6 d of storage using the original method of preparation or alternately, microwaving. Fat content increased significantly with cooking as a result of the loss in moisture but cholesterol content remained unchanged. Pan roasting and microwave cooking caused a significantly higher production of COPs, as with the process of reheating using microwave, pan roasting, and oven grilling methods. The major COPs found in pork loin were cholestanetriol, 20-hydroxycholesterol, and 25-hydroxycholesterol, whose concentrations varied according to the different cooking and reheating methods used. Moreover, the aerobic storage of cooked pork loin under a refrigerated condition also increased the formation of cholesterol oxides on reheating. PMID:27499660

  6. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations.

  7. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. PMID:25236229

  8. Chemically Accelerated Carbon Mineralization: Chemical and Biological Catalytic Enhancement of Weathering of Silicate Minerals as Novel Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    IMPACCT Project: Columbia University is developing a process to pull CO2 out of the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants and turn it into a solid that can be easily and safely transported, stored above ground, or integrated into value-added products (e.g. paper filler, plastic filler, construction materials, etc.). In nature, the reaction of CO2 with various minerals over long periods of time will yield a solid carbonate—this process is known as carbon mineralization. The use of carbon mineralization as a CO2 capture and storage method is limited by the speeds at which these minerals can be dissolved and CO2 can be hydrated. To facilitate this, Columbia University is using a unique process and a combination of chemical catalysts which increase the mineral dissolution rate, and the enzymatic catalyst carbonic anhydrase which speeds up the hydration of CO2.

  9. Formation and physical properties of uranium hydride under conditions relevant to metallic fuel and nuclear waste storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, Robin; Godfrey, Hugh; Broan, Chris; Goddard, Dave; Woodhouse, Guy; Durham, Peter; Diggle, Andrew; Bradshaw, John

    2016-08-01

    The formation of uranium hydride is recognised as a hazard during the storage of uranium metal owing to its potentially pyrophoric properties. This study has assessed the influence of water vapour on the potential for uranium hydride to form at low temperatures and shows that it increases the duration of the induction period but does not necessarily prevent uranium hydride formation and also does not significantly change the reaction rate with hydrogen. It is further shown that the α-UH3 fraction in the uranium hydride gradually increases at decreasing temperatures and is likely to be the dominant phase formed under typical storage conditions. Particle morphology and specific surface area of uranium hydride prepared between 30 °C and 200 °C have also been characterised but show only modest variation compared with the phase composition.

  10. Aflatoxins and safe storage

    PubMed Central

    Villers, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post-harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb) before vs. after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice, and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field vs. after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post-harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide, or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described. PMID:24782846

  11. Microbiological spoilage and investigation of volatile profile during storage of sea bream fillets under various conditions.

    PubMed

    Parlapani, Foteini F; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Haroutounian, Serkos A; Boziaris, Ioannis S

    2014-10-17

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) profile was determined during storage of sea bream (Sparus aurata) fillets under air and Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP - CO2/O2/N2: 60/10/30) at 0, 5 and 15°C. Microbiological, TVB-N (Total Volatile Base Nitrogen) and sensory changes were also monitored. Shelf-life of sea bream fillets stored under air was 14, 5 and 2days (d) at 0, 5 and 15°C respectively, while under MAP was 18, 8, and 2d at 0, 5 and 15°C respectively. At the end of shelf life, the total microbial population ranged from 7.5 to 8.5logcfu/g. Pseudomonas spp. were among the dominant spoilage microorganisms in all cases, however growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) were favoured under MAP compared to air. TVB-N production was favoured at higher temperatures and under air compared to lower temperatures and MAP. TVB-N increased substantially from the middle of storage and its value never reached concentrations higher than 30-35mgN/100g, which is the legislation limit, making it a poor chemical spoilage index (CSI). A lot of alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and ethyl esters that were detected in the present study have been reported as bacterial metabolites, others as products of chemical oxidation while others as aroma constituents. VOCs such as 3-methylbutanal, acetic acid, ethanol, ethyl esters of isovaleric and 2-methylbutyric acids, 1-penten-3-ol, 1-octen-3-ol and cis-4-heptenal appeared from the early or middle stages and increased until the end of storage. From those only 3-methylbutanal, acetic acid, ethanol and the ethyl esters have been reported as microbial origin, making them potential CSI candidates of sea bream fillets.

  12. Storage Conditions of Conjugated Reagents Can Impact Results of Immunogenicity Assays.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Robert J; Lee, Nancy; Zhu, Yuan; Franch, William R; Levitskaya, Sophia V; Krishnan, Surekha R; Abraham, Varghese; Akufongwe, Peter F; Larkin, Christopher J; White, Wendy I

    2016-01-01

    Consistent performance of anti-drug antibody (ADA) assays through all stages of clinical development is critical for the assessment of immunogenicity and interpretation of PK, PD, safety, and efficacy. The electrochemiluminescent assays commonly employed for ADA measurement use drug conjugated with ruthenium and biotin to bind ADA in samples. Here we report an association between high nonspecific ADA responses in certain drug-naïve individuals and the storage buffer of the conjugated reagents used in a monoclonal antibody ADA assay. Ruthenylated reagents stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer had increased levels of aggregate and produced variable and high baseline responses in some subjects. Reagents stored in a histidine-sucrose buffer (HSB) had lower aggregate levels and produced low sample responses. In contrast to PBS, conjugated reagents formulated in HSB remained low in aggregate content and in sample response variability after 5 freeze/thaw cycles. A reagent monitoring control (RMC) serum was prepared for the real-time evaluation of conjugated reagent quality. Using appropriate buffers for storage of conjugated reagents together with RMCs capable of monitoring of reagent aggregation status can help ensure consistent, long-term performance of ADA methods. PMID:27478855

  13. Storage Conditions of Conjugated Reagents Can Impact Results of Immunogenicity Assays

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nancy; Zhu, Yuan; Franch, William R.; Levitskaya, Sophia V.; Krishnan, Surekha R.; Abraham, Varghese; Akufongwe, Peter F.; Larkin, Christopher J.; White, Wendy I.

    2016-01-01

    Consistent performance of anti-drug antibody (ADA) assays through all stages of clinical development is critical for the assessment of immunogenicity and interpretation of PK, PD, safety, and efficacy. The electrochemiluminescent assays commonly employed for ADA measurement use drug conjugated with ruthenium and biotin to bind ADA in samples. Here we report an association between high nonspecific ADA responses in certain drug-naïve individuals and the storage buffer of the conjugated reagents used in a monoclonal antibody ADA assay. Ruthenylated reagents stored in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) buffer had increased levels of aggregate and produced variable and high baseline responses in some subjects. Reagents stored in a histidine-sucrose buffer (HSB) had lower aggregate levels and produced low sample responses. In contrast to PBS, conjugated reagents formulated in HSB remained low in aggregate content and in sample response variability after 5 freeze/thaw cycles. A reagent monitoring control (RMC) serum was prepared for the real-time evaluation of conjugated reagent quality. Using appropriate buffers for storage of conjugated reagents together with RMCs capable of monitoring of reagent aggregation status can help ensure consistent, long-term performance of ADA methods. PMID:27478855

  14. Impact of packaging atmosphere, storage and processing conditions on the generation of phytoprostanes as quality processing compounds in almond kernels.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Del Amor, Ana María; Aguayo, Encarna; Collado-González, Jacinta; Guy, Alexandre; Galano, Jean-Marie; Durand, Thierry; Gil-Izquierdo, Ángel

    2016-11-15

    The thermal processing of almond kernels implies the use of techniques that produce chemical changes such as oxidation. Phytoprostanes (PhytoPs) are considered biomarkers of the oxidative stress in plants. We studied the PhytoP profile in kernels of almond cultivars under different conditions, in relation to packaging, temperature and time of storage and processing. The most abundant PhytoP was the F1t series. The PhytoP levels increased significantly with the time of storage (3 and 6months) and the total PhytoP concentration was higher under air than in a vacuum packaging atmosphere. Storage at 24°C raised the concentrations of individual PhytoPs and the total sum of PhytoPs. The frying and roasting processes led to a strong reduction of the original concentration of most PhytoPs and promoted the synthesis of specific PhytoPs that were not detected in raw kernels and thus could be biomarkers of the degree of oxidative degradation of almonds. PMID:27283707

  15. Understanding hydrogen sulfide storage: probing conditions for sulfide release from hydrodisulfides.

    PubMed

    Bailey, T Spencer; Zakharov, Lev N; Pluth, Michael D

    2014-07-30

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important biological signaling agent that exerts action on numerous (patho)physiological processes. Once generated, H2S can be oxidized to generate reductant-labile sulfane sulfur pools, which include hydrodisulfides/persulfides. Despite the importance of hydrodisulfides in H2S storage and signaling, little is known about the physical properties or chemical reactivity of these compounds. We report here the synthesis, isolation, and characterization (NMR, IR, Raman, HRMS, X-ray) of a small-molecule hydrodisulfide and highlight its reactivity with reductants, nucleophiles, electrophiles, acids, and bases. Our experimental results establish that hydrodisulfides release H2S upon reduction and that deprotonation results in disproportionation to the parent thiol and S(0), thus providing a mechanism for transsulfuration in the sulfane sulfur pool. PMID:25010540

  16. Data on the changes of the mussels׳ metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cosentino, Sofia; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-06-01

    One of the main problems of seafood marketing is the ease with which fish and shellfish undergo deterioration after death. (1)H NMR spectroscopy and microbiological analysis were applied to get in depth insight into the effects of cold storage (4 °C and 0 °C) on the spoilage of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This data article provides information on the average distribution of the microbial loads in mussels׳ specimens and on the acquisition, processing, and multivariate analysis of the (1)H NMR spectra from the hydrosoluble phase of stored mussels. This data article is referred to the research article entitled "Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels' freshness" (Aru et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27081673

  17. Separation efficiency and particle size distribution in relation to manure type and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Møller, H B; Sommer, S G; Ahring, B K

    2002-11-01

    Mechanical separation of liquid animal manure can be an effective technique for production of a liquid and a nutrient-rich solid fraction. The efficiency of separators depends on the physical and chemical composition of the animal manure. Therefore, the particle size composition was measured for different types of manure before treatment with a decanting centrifuge and a screw press. Storage of pig manure reduces the total dry matter content, and the content of small particles (< 0.0016 mm) is reduced more than the content of large particles. In consequence, the proportion of large particles will increase, while the portion of small particles will decrease. The separation efficiency of the screw press was found to be low, as this separator only retains particles > 1 mm. The decanter centrifuge retained all the particles > 0.02 mm and was therefore much more efficient than the screw press. Separation efficiency was also found to be highly dependent on the type of manure used.

  18. Data on the changes of the mussels׳ metabolic profile under different cold storage conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aru, Violetta; Pisano, Maria Barbara; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cosentino, Sofia; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-01-01

    One of the main problems of seafood marketing is the ease with which fish and shellfish undergo deterioration after death. 1H NMR spectroscopy and microbiological analysis were applied to get in depth insight into the effects of cold storage (4 °C and 0 °C) on the spoilage of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. This data article provides information on the average distribution of the microbial loads in mussels׳ specimens and on the acquisition, processing, and multivariate analysis of the 1H NMR spectra from the hydrosoluble phase of stored mussels. This data article is referred to the research article entitled “Metabolomics analysis of shucked mussels’ freshness” (Aru et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27081673

  19. Evaluating the efficacy of distributed detention structures to reduce downstream flooding under variable rainfall, antecedent soil, and structural storage conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicholas W.; Arenas Amado, Antonio; Schilling, Keith E.; Weber, Larry J.

    2016-10-01

    This research systematically analyzed the influence of antecedent soil wetness, rainfall depth, and the subsequent impact on peak flows in a 45 km2 watershed. Peak flows increased with increasing antecedent wetness and rainfall depth, with the highest peak flows occurring under intense precipitation on wet soils. Flood mitigation structures were included and investigated under full and empty initial storage conditions. Peak flows were reduced at the outlet of the watershed by 3-17%. The highest peak flow reductions occurred in scenarios with dry soil, empty project storage, and low rainfall depths. These analyses showed that with increased rainfall depth, antecedent moisture conditions became increasingly less impactful. Scaling invariance of peak discharges were shown to hold true within this basin and were fit through ordinary least squares regression for each design scenario. Scale-invariance relationships were extrapolated beyond the outlet of the analyzed basin to the point of intersection of with and without structure scenarios. In each scenario extrapolated peak discharge benefits depreciated at a drainage area of approximately 100 km2. The associated drainage area translated to roughly 2 km downstream of the Beaver Creek watershed outlet. This work provides an example of internal watershed benefits of structural flood mitigation efforts, and the impact the may exert outside of the basin. Additionally, the influence of 1.8 million in flood reduction tools was not sufficient to routinely address downstream flood concerns, shedding light on the additional investment required to alter peak flows in large basins.

  20. Influence of storage conditions on the structure, thermal behavior, and formation of enzyme-resistant starch in extruded starches.

    PubMed

    Chanvrier, Hélène; Uthayakumaran, Surjani; Appelqvist, Ingrid A M; Gidley, Michael J; Gilbert, Elliot P; López-Rubio, Amparo

    2007-11-28

    Starch structures from an extrusion process were stored at different temperatures to allow for molecular rearrangement (retrogradation); their thermal characteristics (DSC) and resistance to amylase digestion were measured and compared. The structure of four native and processed starches containing different amylose/amylopectin compositions (3.5, 30.8, 32, and 80% amylose content, respectively) before and after digestion was studied with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Rearrangement of the amylose molecules was observed for each storage condition as measured by the DSC endotherm at around 145 degrees C. The crystalline organization of the starches after processing and storage was qualitatively different to that of the native starches. However, there was no direct correlation between the initial crystallinity and the amount of enzyme-resistant starch (ERS) measured after in vitro digestion, and only in the case of high-amylose starch did the postprocess conditioning used lead to a small increase in the amount of starch remaining after the enzymatic treatment. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that retrograded amylose is not directly correlated with ERS and alternative mechanisms must be responsible for ERS formation.

  1. Seed storage conditions change the germination pattern of clonal growth plants in Mediterranean salt marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Espinar, J.L.; Garcia, L.V.; Clemente, L.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of salinity level and extended exposure to different salinity and flooding conditions on germination patterns of three saltmarsh clonal growth plants (Juncus subulatus, Scirpus litoralis, and S. maritimus) was studied. Seed exposure to extended flooding and saline conditions significantly affected the outcome of the germination process in a different, though predictable, way for each species, after favorable conditions for germination were restored. Tolerance of the germination process was related to the average salinity level measured during the growth/germination season at sites where established individuals of each species dominated the species cover. No relationship was found between salinity tolerance of the germination process and seed response to extended exposure to flooding and salinity conditions. The salinity response was significantly related to the conditions prevailing in the habitats of the respective species during the unfavorable (nongrowth/nongermination) season. Our results indicate that changes in salinity and hydrology while seeds are dormant affect the outcome of the seed-bank response, even when conditions at germination are identical. Because these environmental-history-dependent responses differentially affect seed germination, seedling density, and probably sexual recruitment in the studied and related species, these influences should be considered for wetland restoration and management.

  2. Seed storage conditions change the germination pattern of clonal growth plants in Mediterranean salt marshes.

    PubMed

    Espinar, José L; García, Luis V; Clemente, Luis

    2005-07-01

    The effect of salinity level and extended exposure to different salinity and flooding conditions on germination patterns of three salt-marsh clonal growth plants (Juncus subulatus, Scirpus litoralis, and S. maritimus) was studied. Seed exposure to extended flooding and saline conditions significantly affected the outcome of the germination process in a different, though predictable, way for each species, after favorable conditions for germination were restored. Tolerance of the germination process was related to the average salinity level measured during the growth/germination season at sites where established individuals of each species dominated the species cover. No relationship was found between salinity tolerance of the germination process and seed response to extended exposure to flooding and salinity conditions. The salinity response was significantly related to the conditions prevailing in the habitats of the respective species during the unfavorable (nongrowth/nongermination) season. Our results indicate that changes in salinity and hydrology while seeds are dormant affect the outcome of the seed-bank response, even when conditions at germination are identical. Because these environmental-history-dependent responses differentially affect seed germination, seedling density, and probably sexual recruitment in the studied and related species, these influences should be considered for wetland restoration and management. PMID:21646131

  3. Changes in magma storage conditions following caldera collapse at Okataina Volcanic Center, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Allison; Cooper, Kari M.; Leever, Marissa; Wimpenny, Josh; Deering, Chad; Rooney, Tyrone; Gravley, Darren; Yin, Qing-zhu

    2016-01-01

    Large silicic volcanic centers produce both small rhyolitic eruptions and catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions. Although changes in trace element and isotopic compositions within eruptions following caldera collapse have been observed at rhyolitic volcanic centers such as Yellowstone and Long Valley, much still remains unknown about the ways in which magma reservoirs are affected by caldera collapse. We present 238U-230Th age, trace element, and Hf isotopic data from individual zircon crystals from four eruptions from the Okataina Volcanic Center, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand, in order to assess changes in trace element and isotopic composition of the reservoir following the 45-ka caldera-forming Rotoiti eruption. Our data indicate that (1) mixing of magmas derived from crustal melts and mantle melts takes place within the shallow reservoir; (2) while the basic processes of melt generation likely did not change significantly between pre- and post-caldera rhyolites, post-caldera zircons show increased trace element and isotopic heterogeneity that suggests a decrease in the degree of interconnectedness of the liquid within the reservoir following collapse; and (3) post-caldera eruptions from different vents indicate different storage times of the amalgamated melt prior to eruption. These data further suggest that the timescales needed to generate large volumes of eruptible melt may depend on the timescales needed to increase interconnectedness and achieve widespread homogenization throughout the reservoir.

  4. The stability of carboplatin, diamorphine, 5-fluorouracil and mitozantrone infusions in an ambulatory pump under storage and prolonged 'in-use' conditions.

    PubMed

    Northcott, M; Allsopp, M A; Powell, H; Sewell, G J

    1991-04-01

    Drug infusions can be exposed for prolonged periods to 'in-use' conditions where the temperature of an infusion in a holster-worn infusion pump may reach 37 degrees C. In this study, the stability of three cytotoxic drug infusions (carboplatin, 5-fluorouracil and mitozantrone) and one analgesic infusion (diamorphine HCl) was determined in Parker Micropump medication reservoirs under refrigerated storage and prolonged in-use conditions. The stability of the three cytotoxic drug infusions was unaffected by 14 days storage at either 4 or 37 degrees C. The diamorphine HCl infusion was stable over 14 days storage at 4 degrees C but under in-use conditions at 37 degrees C, drug degradation became significant (greater than 5%) if storage exceeded 7 days.

  5. Red blood cell engineering in stroma and serum/plasma-free conditions and long term storage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ok; Baek, Eun Jung

    2012-01-01

    In vitro generation of artificial red blood cells (RBCs) is very important to overcome insufficient and unsafe blood supply. Despite recent progresses in RBCs engineering from several stem cell sources, none of them could succeed in generation of functional RBCs in the absence of serum/plasma and feeder cells. Without the elimination of serum and plasma, human RBC engineering in a large scale is impossible, especially for the future bioreactor system. Using an appropriate combination of cost-effective and safe reagents, the present study demonstrated the terminal maturation of hematopoietic stem cells into enucleated RBCs, which were functional comparable to donated human RBCs. Surprisingly, the viability of erythroid cells was higher in our serum- and feeder-free culture condition than in the previous serum-added condition. This was possible by supplementation with vitamin C in media and hypothermic conditions. Also, our report firstly presents the storability of artificial RBCs, which possibility is essential for clinical application. In summary, our report demonstrates engineering of human applicable RBCs with a dramatically enhanced viability and shelf-life in both serum- and stroma-free conditions. This innovative culture technology could contribute to the realization of the large-scale pharming of human RBCs using bioreactor systems.

  6. RHEOLOGY AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF QUESO BLANCO AS AFFFECTED BY PRESSING PROCEDURE AND STORAGE CONDITIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Queso Blanco, a popular Hispanic-style cheese, was pressed using either a vertical press or a compression molder, and then stored under different conditions to determine if its rheological characteristics, and thus its consumer acceptance, would be affected. Texture profile analysis, torsion testin...

  7. Red blood cell engineering in stroma and serum/plasma-free conditions and long term storage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ok; Baek, Eun Jung

    2012-01-01

    In vitro generation of artificial red blood cells (RBCs) is very important to overcome insufficient and unsafe blood supply. Despite recent progresses in RBCs engineering from several stem cell sources, none of them could succeed in generation of functional RBCs in the absence of serum/plasma and feeder cells. Without the elimination of serum and plasma, human RBC engineering in a large scale is impossible, especially for the future bioreactor system. Using an appropriate combination of cost-effective and safe reagents, the present study demonstrated the terminal maturation of hematopoietic stem cells into enucleated RBCs, which were functional comparable to donated human RBCs. Surprisingly, the viability of erythroid cells was higher in our serum- and feeder-free culture condition than in the previous serum-added condition. This was possible by supplementation with vitamin C in media and hypothermic conditions. Also, our report firstly presents the storability of artificial RBCs, which possibility is essential for clinical application. In summary, our report demonstrates engineering of human applicable RBCs with a dramatically enhanced viability and shelf-life in both serum- and stroma-free conditions. This innovative culture technology could contribute to the realization of the large-scale pharming of human RBCs using bioreactor systems. PMID:21902543

  8. Effect of the storage conditions on mechanical properties and microstructure of biodegradabel baked starch foams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Baked foam films were prepared from four sources of starch: corn, potato, tapioca and chayotextle, and stored at relative moisture conditions of 0 to 75% and at temperatures of 4 and 65 °C. Then, the structural and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated. The results showed that the source...

  9. Purification, storage, and pathogenicity assay of rice false smut fungus under controlled environmental conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice false smut, caused by Ustilaginoidea virens, is serious disease that affects grain yield and quality. In the present study, a method to purify, store, and evaluate pathogenicity of U. virens under controlled environmental conditions was developed. Yellow chlamydospores were collected from fresh...

  10. Type curve and numerical solutions for estimation of Transmissivity and Storage coefficient with variable discharge condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guowei

    2013-01-01

    SummaryMost of the coal mines of China are mining under the ground, so the artesian test which is one of the aquifer tests is conducted normally several hundred of meters below the earth surface. And the target aquifer is with very high hydraulic pressure, sometimes more than 3 MPa. Because of the high hydraulic pressure, it is most difficult to control the rate of flow out of the artesian well. Moreover, the velocity of flow out of the well cannot descend rapidly to zero, thus the analytical solution of Jacob and Lohman type curve for the artesian test will not be applicable. It is more reasonable if analyzing this test as a pumping test but with variable discharge. It is considered to rebuild that hydrogeological conceptual model in this paper. This conceptual model is similar with Theis model but with the variable discharge merely. And a general equation for any discharge variability is given. Its application for the linearly decreasing discharge is presented subsequently, and a type curve of this equation with linearly decreasing discharge will be given as well. Then a simple numerical model using FEFLOW will be built to simulate the linearly decreasing discharge from giving several different groups of the values of Transmissivity (T) and Storage coefficient (S). Both of them are much important hydrogeological parameters, and will be evaluated by using the type curve developed for this linear decreasing discharge well. The error between the given values of T and S in FEFLOW and the values of those calculated by matching point are much small. The solution gives really satisfactory values of these hydrogeological parameters.

  11. Influence of a test preservative on sponge cakes under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    De La Rosa, Pilar; Cordoba, Guía; Martín, A; Jordano, R; Medina, L M

    2005-11-01

    A study was performed on 240 samples, divided into four batches, of sponge cakes baked following their industrial recipe to which different concentrations of a test preservative, mainly lactic acid and propylene glycol, were added. Each batch was submitted to three different temperature and relative humidity conditions. The counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, enterobacteria, enterococci, staphylococci, clostridia, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts were less than 1 log CFU/g in all the batches studied and throughout the 120 days of study. Depending on batches and conditions, the mold counts were between less than 1 and 6.40 log CFU/g. Aspergillus, Eurotium, Penicillium, and Wallemia were detected and were potentially toxigenic in two cases. The test preservative added at 18 g/kg produced the greatest preserving effect, prolonging the product's shelf life by more than 4 months and showing itself to be effective at the other concentrations, especially at 15 degrees C and at 80 and 51% relative humidity.

  12. Evaluation of survival of murine norovirus-1 during sauerkraut fermentation and storage under standard and low-sodium conditions.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Marie-Josée; Barrette, Julie; Savard, Tony; Brassard, Julie

    2015-12-01

    Sodium reduction strategies have raised a few concerns in regards to possible outbreaks in unpasteurised raw fermented vegetables. Among potential outbreak agents, foodborne viruses are recognized as an important cause of food-borne illnesses. As most of them are acid-resistant, evaluation of the efficacy of lactic fermentation in inactivating enteric viruses must be considered to ensure the safety of these foods. In particular with the sodium reduction trend which could impair adequate fermentation in vegetables, we have challenged sauerkraut fermentation at a final concentration of 4 log TCID50/mL with the murine norovirus (MNV-1). Three sodium chloride concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%) were evaluated in spontaneous and starter fermentation of sauerkraut and were followed during fermentation and over a storage phase of 90 days. Detection of MNV-1 genetic material was carried out by real-time RT-PCR and the infectivity on cell culture. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that viral RNA was still detected after 90 day in sauerkraut under all the different conditions. Furthermore, MNV-1 viral particles were able to infect RAW cells after 90 days of storage with a non-significant viral charge reduction. Sodium reduction has a significant impact on the fermentation processing of sauerkraut but no influence on the destruction of norovirus particles or on their survival.

  13. Evaluation of survival of murine norovirus-1 during sauerkraut fermentation and storage under standard and low-sodium conditions.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Marie-Josée; Barrette, Julie; Savard, Tony; Brassard, Julie

    2015-12-01

    Sodium reduction strategies have raised a few concerns in regards to possible outbreaks in unpasteurised raw fermented vegetables. Among potential outbreak agents, foodborne viruses are recognized as an important cause of food-borne illnesses. As most of them are acid-resistant, evaluation of the efficacy of lactic fermentation in inactivating enteric viruses must be considered to ensure the safety of these foods. In particular with the sodium reduction trend which could impair adequate fermentation in vegetables, we have challenged sauerkraut fermentation at a final concentration of 4 log TCID50/mL with the murine norovirus (MNV-1). Three sodium chloride concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%) were evaluated in spontaneous and starter fermentation of sauerkraut and were followed during fermentation and over a storage phase of 90 days. Detection of MNV-1 genetic material was carried out by real-time RT-PCR and the infectivity on cell culture. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that viral RNA was still detected after 90 day in sauerkraut under all the different conditions. Furthermore, MNV-1 viral particles were able to infect RAW cells after 90 days of storage with a non-significant viral charge reduction. Sodium reduction has a significant impact on the fermentation processing of sauerkraut but no influence on the destruction of norovirus particles or on their survival. PMID:26338124

  14. Operational conditions of storages for products of decontamination of the territories of Belarus after the accident at Chernobyl NPP and evaluation of their radioecological state

    SciTech Connect

    Skurat, V.V.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Gvozdev, A.A.; Serebryanyi, G.Z.; Myshkina, N.K.; Starobinets, S.E.; Kotovich, V.V.

    1995-12-31

    As a result of carrying out the measures on decontamination of the territory of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident, the storages for radioactive products of decontamination have been arranged in the Republic. Up to now, 69 storage sites for radioactive products of decontamination have been examined and registered. Six of them, the most typical, with the highest activity, are under constant control with the help of the network of the hydrogeological observation holes. The analysis of the field conditions of the storage sites at the territory of Belarus has shown that there is the violation of requirements for safe storage practically for all storages. The evaluation of protection of the ground water against radioactive contamination has shown, that in 10--100 years, the contamination of the ground water with caesium-137 is possible in concentrations lower than the Republican permissible levels and with strontium in concentrations significantly exceeding the specified values.

  15. Potential behavior of depleted uranium penetrators under shipping and bulk storage accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, J.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Scherpelz, R.I.

    1985-03-01

    An investigation of the potential hazard from airborne releases of depleted uranium (DU) from the Army's M829 munitions was conducted at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The study included: (1) assessing the characteristics of DU oxide from an April 1983 burn test, (2) postulating conditions of specific accident situations, and (3) reviewing laboratory and theoretical studies of oxidation and airborne transport of DU from accidents. Results of the experimental measurements of the DU oxides were combined with atmospheric transport models and lung and kidney exposure data to help establish reasonable exclusion boundaries to protect personnel and the public at an accident site. 121 references, 44 figures, 30 tables.

  16. Latent Heat storage characteristics of solid-liquid phase change Heat Storage Microcapsule Slurry by Boiling Heat Transfer under a Vacuum Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Hideo; Horibe, Akihiko; Haruki, Naoto; Katayama, Masatoshi; Manabe, Ken

    Recently, the new heat transfer medium, which fulfills both functions of heat storage and heat transportation, has been developed in ah eat storage field. Solid-liquid latent heat microcapsule slurry would correspond to the topical medium, so-called functionally thermal fluid. The preset study has clarified the latent heat storage characteristics of microcapsule slurry by making heat transfer enlargement with the help of slurry water pool boiling phenomenon. The paraffin wax at a melting point of 62°C was used as a phase change material which was packed into the microcapsule. The heating surface temperature and concentration of paraffin in the microcapsule slurry was selected as experimental parameters. As a result, the non-dimensional correlation equations of heat storage completion time and heat transfer were derived in terms of non-dimensional parameters.

  17. A tissue culture technique for rapid clonal propagation and storage under minimal growth conditions of Musa (Banana and plantain).

    PubMed

    Banerjee, N; de Langhe, E

    1985-12-01

    A tissue culture technique for rapid clonal propagation and storage under minimal growth conditions is presented in this paper. Shoot-tip cultures of Musa cultivars (both banana and plantain) are induced by culturing small excised shoot apices on modified MS semisolid medium supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of auxins and cytokinins. The effects of cytokinin concentration in the medium as well as the genotypic configuration of the cultivars on the rate of shoot-bud proliferation have been tested. The established shoot-tip cultures grown on modified MS semisolid medium supplemented with IAA (0.18 mg/l) and BA (2.30 mg/l) have been successfully stored at 15°C with 1000 lux light intensity up to 13-17 months depending on the cultivar. The cultivars tested in the present investigation seem to vary in their ability to withstand minimal growth temperature.

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 481: Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-11-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 481 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Area 12 T-Tunnel Conditional Release Storage Yard. CAU 481 is located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 12-42-05, Housekeeping Waste. CAU 481 closure activities were conducted by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency from August 2007 through July 2008 according to the FFACO and Revision 3 of the Sectored Clean-up Work Plan for Housekeeping Category Waste Sites. Closure activities included removal and disposal of construction debris and low-level waste. Drained fluids, steel, and lead was recycled as appropriate. Waste generated during closure activities was appropriately managed and disposed.

  19. Depression storage and infiltration effects on overland flow depth-velocity-friction at desert conditions: field plot results and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, M. J.; Ares, J. O.

    2012-09-01

    Water infiltration and overland flow are relevant in considering water partition among plant life forms, the sustainability of vegetation and the design of sustainable hydrological models and management. In arid and semi-arid regions, these processes present characteristic trends imposed by the prevailing physical conditions of the upper soil as evolved under water-limited climate. A set of plot-scale field experiments at the semi-arid Patagonian Monte (Argentina) were performed in order to estimate the effect of depression storage areas and infiltration rates on depths, velocities and friction of overland flows. The micro-relief of undisturbed field plots was characterized at z-scale 1 mm through close-range stereo-photogrammetry and geo-statistical tools. The overland flow areas produced by controlled water inflows were video-recorded and the flow velocities were measured with image processing software. Antecedent and post-inflow moisture were measured, and texture, bulk density and physical properties of the upper soil were estimated based on soil core analyses. Field data were used to calibrate a physically-based, mass balanced, time explicit model of infiltration and overland flows. Modelling results reproduced the time series of observed flow areas, velocities and infiltration depths. Estimates of hydrodynamic parameters of overland flow (Reynolds-Froude numbers) are informed. To our knowledge, the study here presented is novel in combining several aspects that previous studies do not address simultaneously: (1) overland flow and infiltration parameters were obtained in undisturbed field conditions; (2) field measurements of overland flow movement were coupled to a detailed analysis of soil microtopography at 1 mm depth scale; (3) the effect of depression storage areas in infiltration rates and depth-velocity friction of overland flows is addressed. Relevance of the results to other similar desert areas is justified by the accompanying biogeography analysis

  20. [Physico-chemical characteristics of meglumine antimoniate in different storage conditions].

    PubMed

    Romero, G A; de Oliveira, M R; Correia, D; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    During the period October 1992 to July 1995 we measured the osmolarity and pH of ampoules of meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) from lot 9206L-004 (manufactured by Rhodia Farma Ltd, of São Paulo, SP, Brazil) maintained in three temperature conditions namely 4 degrees C, 37 degrees C and ambiental. Although we observed statistically significant differences in osmolarity between samples, the limited number of measurements and the variation of this property in ampoules maintained at the same temperature were obstacles to obtain definitive conclusions. Such a variation was not found with pH. Assuming these parameters could reflect structural changes in the pentavalent antimony molecule, clearly further better controlled experiments are indicated.

  1. Pre-eruptive storage conditions of the Holocene dacite erupted from Kizimen Volcano, Kamchatka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browne, B.; Izbekov, P.; Eichelberger, J.; Churikova, T.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes an investigation of the pre-eruptive conditions (T, P and fO2) of dacite magma erupted during the KZI cycle (12,000-8400 years ago) of Kizimen Volcano, Kamchatka, the earliest, most voluminous and most explosive eruption cycle in the Kizimen record. Hydrothermal, water-saturated experiments on KZI dacite pumice coupled with titanomagnetite-ilmenite geothermometry calculations require that the KZI dacite existed at a temperature of 823 ?? 20??C and pressures of 125-150 MPa immediately prior to eruption. This estimate corresponds to a lithologic contact between Miocene volcaniclastic rocks and Pliocene-Pleistocene volcanic rocks located at a depth of 5-6 km beneath the Kizimen edifice, which may have facilitated the accumulation of atypically large volumes of gas-rich dacite during the KZI cycle.

  2. Pre-eruptive storage conditions and eruption dynamics of a small rhyolite dome: Douglas Knob, Yellowstone volcanic field, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, Kenneth S.; Zinke, Robert W.; Jordan, Jacob S.; Manga, Michael; Gardner, James E.

    2014-03-01

    The properties and processes that control the size, duration, and style of eruption of rhyolite magma are poorly constrained because of a paucity of direct observations. Here, we investigate the small-volume, nonexplosive end-member. In particular, we determine the pre-eruptive storage conditions and eruption dynamics of Douglas Knob, a 0.011-km3 obsidian dome that erupted from a 500-m-long fissure in the Yellowstone volcanic system. To determine pre-eruptive storage conditions, we analyzed compositions of phenocrysts, matrix glass, and quartz-hosted glass inclusions by electron microprobe and Fourier-transform infrared analyses. The pre-eruptive melt is a high-silica rhyolite (˜75 wt.% SiO2) and was stored at 760 ± 30 °C and 50 ± 25 MPa prior to eruption, assuming vapor saturation at depth. To investigate emplacement dynamics and kinematics, we measured number densities and orientations of microlites at various locations across the lava dome. Microlites in samples closest to the inferred fissure vent are the most aligned. Alignment does not increase with distance traveled away from the vent, suggesting microlites record conduit processes. Strains of <5 accumulated in the conduit during ascent after microlite formation, imparted by a combination of pure and simple shear. Average microlite number density in samples varies from 104.9 to 105.7 mm-3. Using the magma ascent model of Toramaru et al. (J Volcanol Geotherm Res 175:156-157, 2008), microlite number densities imply decompression rates ranging from 0.03 to 0.11 MPa h-1 (˜0.4-1.3 mm s-1 ascent rates). Such slow ascent would allow time for passive degassing at depth in the conduit, thus resulting in an effusive eruption. Using calculated melt viscosity, we infer that the dike that fed the eruption was 4-8 m in width. Magma flux through this dike, assuming fissure dimensions at the surface represent its geometry at depth, implies an eruption duration of 17-210 days. That duration is also consistent with the

  3. Cell viability of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis under freeze-drying, storage and gastrointestinal tract simulation conditions.

    PubMed

    Shamekhi, Fatemeh; Shuhaimi, Mustafa; Ariff, Arbakariya; Manap, Yazid A

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 10140 during freeze-drying process by microencapsulation, using a special pediatric prebiotics mixture (galactooligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides). Probiotic microorganisms were encapsulated with a coat combination of prebiotics-calcium-alginate prior to freeze-drying. Both encapsulated and free cells were then freeze-dried in their optimized combinations of skim milk and prebiotics. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to produce a coating combination as well as drying medium with the highest cell viability during freeze-drying. The optimum encapsulation composition was found to be 2.1 % Na-alginate, 2.9 % prebiotic, and 21.7 % glycerol. Maximum survival predicted by the model was 81.2 %. No significant (p > 0.05) difference between the predicted and experimental values verified the adequacy of final reduced models. The protection ability of encapsulation was then examined over 120 days of storage at 4 and 25 °C and exposure to a sequential model of infantile GIT conditions including both gastric conditions (pH 3.0 and 4.0, 90 min, 37 °C) and intestinal conditions (pH 7.5, 5 h, 37 °C). Significantly improved cell viability showed that microencapsulation of B. lactis 10140 with the prebiotics was successful in producing a stable symbiotic powdery nutraceutical.

  4. Phase relations in trachytes: implication for magma storage conditions in the Chaîne des Puys (French Massif Central)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, C.; Champallier, R.; Prouteau, G.; Pichavant, M.; Arbaret, L.; Balcone-Boissard, H.; Boudon, G.; Boivin, P.; Bourdier, J. L.; Scaillet, B.

    2012-04-01

    Trachytes from the Chaîne des Puys, French Massif Central, have been studied by performing phase equilibria in order to (i) constrain the storage conditions of the trachytic magmas that lead to explosive eruptions (either dome destructions as concentrated or diluted pyroclastic density currents or highly explosive events) and (ii) provide phase relationships and compositions for differentiated alkaline magmas. Phase assemblage, proportion, and compositions have been determined on six trachytes (62-69 wt % SiO2 and 10.5-12.0 wt % alkali) mostly coming from the actual domes dated from 9.2 to 15 Ka and aligned along a 10-km distance in the Chaîne des Puys. All samples contain ~23-30 % of phenocrysts, mainly consisting of plagioclase (15-17 % and K-feldspars for the two SiO2-richest samples), biotites (2-6 % except in the SiO2-poorest sample, where it is absent), and Fe-Ti oxides (1-3 %). The three SiO2-poorest samples also contain ~2 % of amphibole and the SiO2-richest one has 1 % of clinopyroxene. All samples have apatite and zircon as minor phases and sphene for the SiO2-richest one. Glasses (melt inclusions and residual glasses) analysed in pumices resulting from highly explosive events, show trachytic to rhyolitic compositions (65-73 wt % SiO2 and 10.5-13.0 wt % alkali). Analyses of melt inclusions (EMP by-difference method) and the biotite+K-feldspar+magnetite hygrobarometer both suggest pre-eruptive H2O contents up to 7-8 wt %, which are so far the highest contents ever reported for alkaline liquids. The melt inclusions also contain ~3400 ppm chlorine, ~700 ppm fluorine, and ~300 ppm sulphur (EMP analyses). Phase equilibria of six representative trachytes have been performed between 200 and 400 MPa, 700-900°C, H2O saturation, and oxygen fugacity from NNO-1 to NNO+1. The comparison between the natural and experimental products suggests magma storage conditions at pressures of 300-350 MPa, temperatures increasing from 700 to 825°C with decreasing bulk SiO2

  5. The Role of Dynamic Storage in the Response to Snowmelt Conditions in the Southwestern United States: Flux Hysteresis at the Catchment Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, J. M.; Meixner, T.; Ferré, T. P. A.; Williams, M. W.; Sickman, J. O.; Molotch, N. P.; Jepsen, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    variability. The larger storage capacity of GL4 allows for a greater range of physical and chemical response to input conditions. The limited storage capacity of ELW shows greater vulnerability of physical response to changes in snowmelt conditions, though chemical response remains constant regardless of snowmelt conditions.

  6. Experimental determination of trace element mobility in UK North Sea sandstones under conditions of geological CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, Kit; Wilkinson, Mark; Butler, Ian B.

    2016-04-01

    . (1979) and Wigley et al. (2013), to suit the North Sea sandstones used previously in the batch experiments. The extraction method targeted water soluble elements, elements leached through desorption from mineral surfaces, and elements released through the dissolution of carbonates, oxides, sulphides and silicates. From this experimental technique, trace element concentrations were classed as 'mobile' or 'immobile' under weak acid conditions of CO2 storage. The majority of elements were classified as largely immobile. Using the batch experiment results we determined that dissolution of carbonate and feldspar minerals was responsible for much of the observed mobilised concentrations, although the abundance of these minerals was not a predictor for absolute or relative concentrations. References: Tessier, A., Campbell, P. G. C., & Bisson, M. (1979). Sequential Extraction Procedure for the Speciation of Particulate Trace Metals. Analytical Chemistry, 51(7), 844-851. Wigley, M., Kampman, N., Chapman, H. J., Dubacq, B., & Bickle, M. J. (2013). In situ redeposition of trace metals mobilized by CO2-charged brines. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 14(5), 1321-1332. doi:10.1002/ggge.20104

  7. Changes in sources and storage in a karst aquifer during a transition from drought to wet conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, C.I.; Mahler, B.J.; Musgrove, M.; Banner, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sources and processes that control groundwater compositions and the timing and magnitude of groundwater vulnerability to potential surface-water contamination under varying meteorologic conditions is critical to informing groundwater protection policies and practices. This is especially true in karst terrains, where infiltrating surface water can rapidly affect groundwater quality. We analyzed the evolution of groundwater compositions (major ions and Sr isotopes) during the transition from extreme drought to wetconditions, and used inverse geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) to constrain controls on groundwater compositions during this evolution. Spring water and groundwater from two wells dominantly receiving diffuse and conduit flow (termed diffuse site and conduit site, respectively) in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer (central Texas, USA) and surface water from losing streams that recharge the aquifer were sampled every 3–4 weeks during November 2008–March 2010. During this period, water compositions at the spring and conduit sites changed rapidly but there was no change at the diffuse site, illustrating the dual nature (i.e., diffuse vs. conduit) of flow in this karst system. Geochemical modeling demonstrated that, within a month of the onset of wetconditions, the majority of spring water and groundwater at the conduit site was composed of surface water, providing quantitative information on the timing and magnitude of the vulnerability of groundwater to potential surface-water contamination. The temporal pattern of increasing spring discharge and changing pattern of covariation between spring discharge and surface-water (steam) recharge indicates that that there were two modes of aquifer response—one with a small amount of storage and a second that accommodates more storage.

  8. Phase equilibria constraints on pre-eruptive magma storage conditions for the 1956 eruption of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Vasily D.; Neill, Owen K.; Izbekov, Pavel E.; Plechov, Pavel Yu.

    2013-08-01

    Phase equilibria experiments were performed on andesites from the catastrophic 1956 eruption of Bezymianny Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, to determine pre-eruptive magma storage conditions. Fifteen experiments were conducted under water-saturated conditions, with oxygen fugacity equal to the Ni-NiO oxygen buffer, at temperatures between 775 and 1100 °C and pressures between 50 and 200 MPa. Simultaneous amphibole and plagioclase crystallization is reproduced at ≤ 850 °C and ≥ 200 MPa. The simultaneous crystallization temperature range of the plagioclase-clinopyroxene-orthopyroxene-Fe-Ti oxide assemblage increases with decreasing pressure, from 840 to 940 °C at 150 MPa to 940-1020 °C at 50 MPa. Melt inclusion compositions in plagioclase phenocrysts and matrix glass match experimental melt compositions reproduced at 50-100 MPa and ≤ 50 MPa, respectively. Presence of the silica phase in groundmass and mature amphibole breakdown rims suggests that magma has been stored at ca. 3 km depth prior to the final ascent for at least 40 days. Syn-eruptive ascent led to decompression-driven crystallization, which caused a temperature increase from 850-900 °C to 950-1000 °C.

  9. Static and dynamic mooring analysis - Stability of floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) risers for extreme environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rho, Yu-Ho; Kim, Kookhyun; Jo, Chul-Hee; Kim, Do-Youb

    2013-06-01

    Floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) facilities are used at most of the offshore oil fields worldwide. FPSO usage is expected to grow as oil fields move to deeper water, thus requiring the reliability and stability of mooring wires and risers in extreme environmental conditions. Except for the case of predictable attack angles of external loadings, FPSO facilities with turret single point mooring (SPM) systems are in general use. There are two types of turret systems: permanent systems and disconnectable turret mooring systems. Extreme environment criteria for permanent moorings are usually based on a 100-year return period event. It is common to use two or three environments including the 100-year wave with associated wind and current, and the 100-year wind with associated waves and current. When fitted with a disconnectable turret mooring system, FPSOs can be used in areas where it is desirable to remove the production unit from the field temporarily to prevent exposure to extreme events such as cyclones or large icebergs. Static and dynamic mooring analyses were performed to evaluate the stability of a spider buoy after disconnection from a turret during cyclone environmental conditions

  10. Characterization of the Enterobacteriaceae community that developed during storage of minced beef under aerobic or modified atmosphere packaging conditions.

    PubMed

    Doulgeraki, Agapi I; Paramithiotis, Spiros; Nychas, George-John E

    2011-01-31

    The whole cell protein and macrorestriction analysis of DNA of Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from minced beef stored at 0, 5, 10 and 15 °C aerobically and under modified atmosphere packaging consisting of 40% CO(2)-30% O(2)-30% N(2) in the presence (MAP+) and absence (MAP-) of oregano essential oil were studied. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles obtained from whole cell protein analysis of the Enterobacteriaceae isolates revealed seven groups. Moreover, application of a modified PFGE protocol with XbaI restriction, resulted into 19 different fingerprints. The Enterobacteriaceae community of fresh meat consisted of Serratia liquefaciens and Serratia proteamaculans. S. liquefaciens strain VK23 was the dominant isolate of Enterobacteriaceae for the most conditions adopted, except 10 °C and 15 °C under MAP + and 10 °C under MAP-. In the latter cases, Hafnia alvei represented the dominant fingerprint. Citrobacter freundii was recovered from minced beef stored aerobically, while H. alvei and Proteus vulgaris were recovered under MAP. Storage conditions affected the Enterobacteriaceae community; modified atmosphere packaging increased both species and strain diversity. PMID:21216482

  11. Wheel running can accelerate or delay extinction of conditioned place preference for cocaine in male C57BL/6J mice, depending on timing of wheel access.

    PubMed

    Mustroph, Martina L; Stobaugh, Derrick J; Miller, Daniel S; DeYoung, Erin K; Rhodes, Justin S

    2011-10-01

    Aerobic exercise may represent a useful intervention for drug abuse in predisposed individuals. Exercise increases plasticity in the brain that could be used to reverse learned drug associations. Previous studies have reported that exposing mice to a complex environment including running wheels after drug conditioning abolishes conditioned place preference (CPP) for cocaine, whereas running can enhance CPP when administered before conditioning. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that timing of exercise relative to conditioning has opposing effects on cocaine CPP. Male C57BL/6J mice experienced 30 days of running or sedentary treatments either before or after cocaine conditioning. Control animals always received saline and never cocaine, but otherwise underwent the same conditioning and exercise treatments. Animals were given bromodeoxyuridine injections at the onset of conditioning or exercise, and euthanized at the end of the study to quantify survival of new neurons in the hippocampus as a marker of plasticity. Wheel running accelerated extinction of CPP when running occurred entirely after drug conditioning, whereas running delayed extinction when administered before conditioning. A single conditioning day after running was sufficient to abolish the accelerated extinction observed when all conditioning preceded running. Running approximately doubled adult hippocampal neurogenesis, whereas cocaine had no effect. These results suggest that exercise-induced plasticity can facilitate learning that context is no longer associated with drug. However, if drug exposure occurs after exercise, running-induced plasticity may strengthen drug associations. The results provide insights into the interaction between exercise and drug conditioning that could have implications for drug abuse treatments.

  12. Coupling catchment hydrology and transient storage to model the fate of solutes during low-flow conditions of an upland river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trévisan, D.; Periáñez, R.

    2016-03-01

    The residence time of solutes in catchments is longer during low-flow conditions, due to the lengthening of transport routes and the decrease in transfer velocities. In rivers, transient storage depends largely on exchanges with channel storage and the hyporheic zone and reflects the capacity of the river to buffer pollutant loads before they enter the aquatic environment of final receptors. Our objective was to evaluate the fate of solutes along a typical confined river of upland catchments. First, we calculate lateral inflows using a variable-source hydrology approach. Then, water motion and quality in the river channel are predicted by combining hydrodynamics and exchanges with channel storage and the hyporheic zone. The model is mainly parametrized from literature data during baseflow conditions to mimic the fate of adsorptive and non-persistent pollutants. Residence time in surface water, channel storage and the hyporheic zone were found to be sensitive to lateral inflows from groundwater seepage. Channel storage is the main process controlling residence time in upstream conditions, where the riverbed is mainly composed of stones and bedrock. Downstream, along with the formation of sediment deposits and riffle-pool units, hyporheic exchanges also control the lag time in the transfer of solutes. By integrating physically-based processes, the number of parameters is small, but the model still requires a detailed description of stream geometry and morphology. It can be used to evaluate stream restoration or catchment-river management when detailed data of stream geometry and morphology are available.

  13. Impact of elevated carbon dioxide on soil heat storage and heat flux under unheated low-tunnels conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Kayssi, A W; Mustafa, S H

    2016-11-01

    Suboptimal regimes of air and soil temperature usually occur under unheated low-tunnels during winter crop cycles. CO2 is one of the most important gases linked to climate change and posing challenge to the current agricultural productivity. Field experiment was conducted in unheated low-tunnels (10.0 m long, 1.5 m wide and 1.0 m high) during winter and spring periods to evaluate the increasing CO2 concentration (352, 709, 1063, 1407, and 1761 ppm) on net radiation budget, soil-air thermal regime and pepper plants growth development and yield. CO2 was injected into each hollow space of the tunnel double-layer transparent polyethylene covers. Recorded integral net longwave radiation increased from 524.81 to 1111.84 Wm(-2) on January when CO2 concentration increased from 352 to 1761 ppm. A similar trend was recorded on February. Moreover, minimum soil surface and air temperatures were markedly increased from -1.3 and -6.8 °C to 3.4 and 0.6 °C, when CO2 concentration increased from 352 to 1761 ppm. Additionally, soil heat flux as well as soil heat storage increased with increasing CO2 concentrations accordingly. Increasing the tunnel minimum air and soil temperatures with the CO2 concentration treatments 1063, 1407 and 1761 ppm reflected in a significant pepper yield (3.19, 5.06 and 6.13 kg m(-2)) due to the modification of the surrounding plants microenvironment and prevented pepper plants from freezing and the accelerated the plant growth. On the contrary, the drop of minimum air and soil temperatures to freezing levels with the CO2 concentration treatments 352 and 709 ppm resulted in the deterioration of pepper plants development during the early growth stages on January. PMID:27472054

  14. Development of a conditioning system for the dual-purpose transport and storage cask for spent nuclear fuel from decommissioned Russian submarines

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.S.; Barnes, E.; Snipes, R.L.; Guskov, V.; Makarchuk, T.

    2007-07-01

    Russia, stores large quantities of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from submarine and ice-breaker nuclear powered naval vessels. This high-level radioactive material presents a significant threat to the Arctic and marine environments. Much of the SNF from decommissioned Russian nuclear submarines is stored either onboard the submarines or in floating storage vessels in Northwest and Far East Russia. Some of the SNF is damaged, stored in an unstable condition, or of a type that cannot currently be reprocessed. In many cases, the existing Russian transport infrastructure and reprocessing facilities cannot meet the requirements for moving and reprocessing all of this fuel from remote locations. Additional transport and storage options are required. Some of the existing storage facilities being used in Russia do not meet health and safety and physical security requirements. The U.S. has assisted Russia in the development of a new dual-purpose metal-concrete transport and storage cask (TUK-108/1) for their military SNF and assisted them in building several new facilities for off-loading submarine SNF and storing these TUK-108/1 casks. These efforts have reduced the technical, ecological, and security challenges for removal, handling, interim storage, and shipment of this submarine fuel. Currently, Russian licensing limits the storage period of the TUK-108/1 casks to no more than two years before the fuel must be shipped for reprocessing. In order to extend this licensed storage period, a system is required to condition the casks by removing residual water and creating an inert storage environment by backfilling the internal canisters with a noble gas such as argon. The U.S. has assisted Russia in the development of a mobile cask conditioning system for the TUK-108/1 cask. This new conditioning system allows the TUK 108/1 casks to be stored for up to five years after which the license may be considered for renewal for an additional five years or the fuel will be shipped to

  15. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in commercial ham, formulated with or without antimicrobials, under conditions simulating contamination in the processing or retail environment and during home storage.

    PubMed

    Lianou, Alexandra; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Kendall, Patricia A; Belk, Keith E; Scanga, John A; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2007-02-01

    Commercial cured ham formulated with or without potassium lactate and sodium diacetate was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and stored to simulate conditions of processing, retail, and home storage. The ham was sliced, inoculated with a 10-strain composite of L. monocytogenes (1 to 2 log CFU/cm2), vacuum packaged, and stored at 4 degrees C to simulate contamination following lethality treatment at processing (first shelf life). After 10, 20, 35, and 60 days of storage, packages were opened, samples were tested, and bags with remaining slices were reclosed with rubber bands. At the same times, portions of original product (stored at 4 degrees C in original processing bags) were sliced, inoculated, and packaged in delicatessen bags to simulate contamination during slicing at retail (second shelf life). Aerobic storage of both sets of packages at 7 degrees C for 12 days was used to reflect domestic storage conditions (home storage). L. monocytogenes populations were lower (P < 0.05) during storage in ham formulated with lactate-diacetate than in product without antimicrobials under both contamination scenarios. Inoculation of ham without lactate-diacetate allowed prolific growth of L. monocytogenes in vacuum packages during the first shelf life and was the worst case contamination scenario with respect to pathogen numbers encountered during home storage. Under the second shelf life contamination scenario, mean growth rates of the organism during home storage ranged from 0.32 to 0.45 and from 0.18 to 0.25 log CFU/cm2/day for ham without and with lactate-diacetate, respectively, and significant increases in pathogen numbers (P < 0.05) were generally observed after 4 and 8 days of storage, respectively. Regardless of contamination scenario, 12-day home storage of product without lactate-diacetate resulted in similar pathogen populations (6.0 to 6.9 log CFU/cm2) (P > 0.05). In ham containing lactate-diacetate, similar counts were found during the home storage

  16. The effect of cell design and storage conditions on the cycle life performance silver-zinc cells

    SciTech Connect

    Perrone, D.E.; Klekotka, M.; Stefano, S. Di

    1996-12-31

    The Mars Pathfinder spacecraft is expected to utilize a single eighteen cell, forty ampere-hour, silver-zinc battery. The calendar life clock for the battery begins with the addition of KOH electrolyte to the constituent cells by the vendor. A period of battery inactivity begins with shipment of the battery to JPL and then on to Florida. This inactivity continues while the battery is inverted for four months prior to launch. Following launch, the battery will be inactive for 7 months except for several shallow discharges associated with trajectory correction maneuvers. The battery is expected to deliver forty ampere-hours during entry, descent and landing at Mars. Thirty shallow depth of discharge cycles are planned during Mars surface operations. A study was undertaken to examine the impact of various cell design and storage conditions on the cycle life performance of silver-zinc cells. Eight 4 cell groups were assembled and tested. Variations in the number of separator layers, operating temperature, and state of charge were examined. As expected, a greater number of separator layers, lower states of charge, and lower temperatures tend to yield better cycle life performance following eleven months of inactivity. This study was undertaken with off the shelf cells purchased from Eagle Picher Inc., of Joplin, Missouri.

  17. Effect of storage conditions on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen concentration on canine plasma samples

    PubMed Central

    Casella, Stefania; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    The present study was to assess the effect of storage conditions on prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen concentration in blood samples of healthy dogs. Thirty-five dogs of various breeds were included in the study. Citrated blood samples were obtained and plasma was divided into four aliquots to assess selected clotting parameters by means of a coagulometer. The first aliquot was analysed within 1 h after collection, while the remaining 3 were stored at 8℃ for 4, 8 and 24 h, respectively. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance documented a significant decreasing effect on PT at 24 h compared to 8 h and on fibrinogen concentration after 8 and 24 h compared to sampling time and at 4 and 24 h compared to 8 h post sampling. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that only fibrinogen appears prone to significant decrease. In fact, aPTT is not substantially affected by refrigeration for at least 24 h post sampling and PT showed a statistical difference that does not necessary indicate biological significance as the results obtained were within reference intervals for the dog. PMID:20458152

  18. Storage conditions and temporal signals for the Tara supervolcanic magma system; insights from geothermobarometry and quartz chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocke, S.; de Silva, S. L.; Cottrell, E.; Andrews, B. J.; Lindsay, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Microanalysis of the high-K calcalkaline suite of dacite to rhyolite Tara pyroclastic deposits (>800 km3 DRE) erupted from the Guacha Caldera in SW Bolivia at 3.49 Ma provides insights into the storage conditions and timescales of mineral crystallization leading up to a supervolcanic eruption. Data from amphibole, plagioclase and Fe-Ti oxides, in conjunction with quartz chemistry and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, reveal the following pre-eruptive conditions: temperature (650 - 850 °C), pressure (<200 MPa), and H2O content (4 - 6 wt%). Preliminary results from CL zoning show that cores and rims of quartz phenocrysts erupted in the Tara supereruption exhibit a distinct difference in CL emission intensity, with bright rims encompassing rounded, resorbed, and darker cores. Bright rims contain, on average, ~60 ppm Ti whereas dark cores contain ~30 ppm Ti. Calculating TiO2 activity using oxide pairs allows us to apply the TitaniQ thermometer to our samples. The rimward increase of Ti content suggests that the crystals record heating of the Tara magma from ~650°C to 750°C. The sharp discontinuity between high-Ti (bright-CL) rims and low-Ti (dark) cores, the presence of resorbed, rounded cores, as well as the absence of oscillatory zoning are suggestive of a single recharge event immediately prior to eruption. Based on Ti diffusion in quartz, we estimate that this recharge event occurred within <30,000 years of eruption and may signal the timescale of the thermal stimulation of the system leading to eruption.

  19. Transient Auditory Storage of Acoustic Details Is Associated with Release of Speech from Informational Masking in Reverberant Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Ying; Huang, Qiang; Chen, Xun; Wu, Xihong; Li, Liang

    2009-01-01

    Perceptual integration of the sound directly emanating from the source with reflections needs both temporal storage and correlation computation of acoustic details. We examined whether the temporal storage is frequency dependent and associated with speech unmasking. In Experiment 1, a break in correlation (BIC) between interaurally correlated…

  20. Quality assessment of wild Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) semen under conditions of short-term storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-term storage trials were conducted with Atlantic sturgeon semen collected from a total of nine wild males during the 2008 and 2009 spawning seasons on the Hudson River. Semen samples were kept refrigerated (4 plus or minus 1 degree C) and stored in different gaseous atmospheres and storage ext...

  1. Storage conditions for stability of offline measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide after collection for epidemiologic research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The measurement of fractional concentration of nitric oxide in exhaled air (FeNO) is valuable for the assessment of airway inflammation. Offline measurement of FeNO has been used in some epidemiologic studies. However, the time course of the changes in FeNO after collection has not been fully clarified. In this study, the effects of storage conditions on the stability of FeNO measurement in exhaled air after collection for epidemiologic research were examined. Methods Exhaled air samples were collected from 48 healthy adults (mean age 43.4 ± 12.1 years) in Mylar bags. FeNO levels in the bags were measured immediately after collection. The bags were then stored at 4°C or room temperature to measure FeNO levels repeatedly for up to 168 hours. Results In the bags stored at room temperature after collection, FeNO levels were stable for 9 hours, but increased starting at 24 hours. FeNO levels remained stable for a long time at 4°C, and they were 99.7% ± 7.7% and 101.3% ± 15.0% relative to the baseline values at 24 and 96 hours, respectively. When the samples were stored at 4°C, FeNO levels gradually decreased with time among the subjects with FeNO ≥ 51 ppb immediately after collection, although there were almost no changes among the other subjects. FeNO levels among current smokers increased even at 4°C, although the values among ex-smokers decreased gradually, and those among nonsmokers remained stable. The rate of increase was significantly higher among current smokers than among nonsmokers and ex-smokers from 9 hours after collection onwards. Conclusions Storage at 4°C could prolong the stability of FeNO levels after collection. This result suggests that valid measurements can be performed within several days if the samples are stored at 4°C. However, the time course of the changes in FeNO levels differed in relation to initial FeNO values and cigarette smoking. PMID:23116255

  2. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  3. Postharvest stilbenes and flavonoids enrichment of table grape cv Redglobe (Vitis vinifera L.) as affected by interactive UV-C exposure and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Crupi, Pasquale; Pichierri, Arianna; Basile, Teodora; Antonacci, Donato

    2013-11-15

    Flavonoids and stilbenes are secondary metabolites produced in plants that can play an important health-promoting role. The biosynthesis of these compounds generally increases as a response to biotic or abiotic stress; therefore, in order to achieve as high phenolic accumulation as possible, the interactive effects of storage conditions (temperature and time) and UV-C radiation on polyphenols content in postharvest Redglobe table grape variety were investigated. During a storage time longer than 48h, both cold storage (4°C) and UV-C exposure of almost 3min (2.4kJm(-2)) positively enhanced the content of cis- and trans-piceid (34 and 90μgg(-1) of skin, respectively) together with quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (15 and 140μgg(-1) of skin, respectively) up to three fold respect to control grape samples. Conversely, catechin was not significantly affected by irradiation and storage treatments. With regard anthocyanins, the highest concentrations of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-Oglucoside were observed in Redglobe, stored at both room temperature and 4°C, after 5min (4.1kJm(-2)) of UV-C treatment and 24h of storage. Gathered findings showed that combined postharvest treatments can lead to possible "functional" grapes, within normal conditions of market commercialization, responding to the rising consumers demand to have foods that support and promote health.

  4. Magma storage conditions of historic Plinian eruptions of Volcán de Colima, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, J.; Arce, J.; Sosa, G.; Gardner, J. E.; Saucedo, R.

    2013-12-01

    Volcán de Colima has a historical record with major explosive eruptions occurring every ~100 years (1606, 1690, 1818, and 1913) followed by intra-Plinian effusive activity. The 1818 and 1913 Plinian eruptions erupted andesitic magmas (Pl > Opx > Cpx >> Hbl + Fe-Ti oxides + Ap and rare resorbed Ol) with homogeneous bulk compositions (1913; 58.3 × 0.5 wt.% SiO2, 1818; 58.9 × 0.2 wt.% SiO2; Saucedo et al., 2010). Instead, intra-Plinian magmas are devoid of hornblende and have compositions of 59-61 wt. % in silica (Savov et al., 2008). Pre-eruptive temperatures of oxide Fe-Ti pairs in 1818 and 1913 products yielded temperatures of 830×20°C colder than intra-Plinian magmas usually >970°C (Luhr et al., 2002) depending on the mineral phase analyzed. Amphibole in 1818 and 1913 products consists of two populations: a) large xenocrysts, with plag-px-Fe-Ti oxide rims with equilibrium pressures and temperatures of 380 MPa and 950 °C (Ridolfi et al., 2010), and b) microphenocryst with equilibrium pressures and temperatures of 190-280 MPa and 870-910 °C, respectively. Some phenocrysts in the 1818 magma have a high pressure core overgrowth by a low pressure rim. In order to understand the storage conditions of Colima explosive magmas we carried out a set of hydrothermal experiments with a 1818 pumice sample. Experiments were water oversaturated and close to the oxygen fugacity of the NNO buffer. Experiments show that amphibole is stable at pressures greater than 75 MPa at 850°C, and greater than 100 MPa at 925°C. For the same range of temperature, plagioclase is stable at pressures below ~210 MPa and 100 MPa, respectively. Experimental plagioclase and experimental glass were analyzed and compared to those from the natural sample, yielding an approximate storage pressure of 210 MPa. This pressure is confirmed by the chemical equilibrium of microphenocrystic amphibole of the natural sample. Given the nearly equivalent composition of the most recent Plinain magmas is

  5. Impact of Denture Cleaning Method and Overnight Storage Condition on Denture Biofilm Mass and Composition: A Cross-Over Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Duyck, Joke; Vandamme, Katleen; Krausch-Hofmann, Stefanie; Boon, Lies; De Keersmaecker, Katrien; Jalon, Eline; Teughels, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background Appropriate oral hygiene is required to maintain oral health in denture wearers. This study aims to compare the role of denture cleaning methods in combination with overnight storage conditions on biofilm mass and composition on acrylic removable dentures. Methods In a cross-over randomized controlled trial in 13 older people, 4 conditions with 2 different mechanical cleaning methods and 2 overnight storage conditions were considered: (i) brushing and immersion in water without a cleansing tablet, (ii) brushing and immersion in water with a cleansing tablet, (iii) ultrasonic cleaning and immersion in water without a cleansing tablet, and (iv) ultrasonic cleaning and immersion in water with a cleansing tablet. Each test condition was performed for 5 consecutive days, preceded by a 2-days wash-out period. Biofilm samples were taken at baseline (control) and at the end of each test period from a standardized region. Total and individual levels of selected oral bacteria (n = 20), and of Candida albicans were identified using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) technique. Denture biofilm coverage was scored using an analogue denture plaque score. Paired t-tests and Wilcoxon-signed rank tests were used to compare the test conditions. The level of significance was set at α< 5%. Results Overnight denture storage in water with a cleansing tablet significantly reduced the total bacterial count (p<0.01). The difference in total bacterial level between the two mechanical cleaning methods was not statistically significant. No significant effect was observed on the amount of Candida albicans nor on the analogue plaque scores. Conclusions The use of cleansing tablets during overnight denture storage in addition to mechanical denture cleaning did not affect Candida albicans count, but reduced the total bacterial count on acrylic removable dentures compared to overnight storage in water. This effect was more pronounced when combined with ultrasonic cleaning compared to

  6. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOEpatents

    Springfield, Ray M.; Wheat, Jr., Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  7. Characterization of carbonate reservoir property changes due to dissolution for far-field conditions of CO2 storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangane, P. O.; Gouze, P.; Luquot, L.

    2012-12-01

    Geological storage of CO2 in reservoir pore fluid (e.g. deep saline aquifers), is one of the diverse technologies being explored for deacreasing atmospheric CO2 concentration. After injecting the CO2 as a supercritical fluid at depth, it will slowly dissolve into the pore water producing low pH fluids with a high capacity for dissolving carbonates and consequently changing irreversibly the hydrodynamical properties of the reservoir. Characterizing these changes is essential for modelling flow and CO2 transport during and after the CO2 injection. Here we report experimental results from the injection of the CO2-saturated brine into two distinct limestone cores (a bioclastic carbonate and an oolitic carbonate) of 9 mm diameter, 18 mm length. 3D high-resolution X-ray microtomography (XRMT) of the rock sample have been performed before and after the experiments. The experiments were performed using in-situ sequestration conditions (P = 12MPa and T = 100°C), and notably, under chemical conditions given at the position far away from the well injection site (i.e area where the volume of dissolved CO2 into the brine is low, due to CO2 consumption by the dissolution processes occured during its transport from the well injection site). Permeability k is calculated from the pressure drop across the sample and porosity Φ is deduced from chemical concentration of the outlet fluid. The change of the pore structure is analysed in terms of connectivity, tortuosity and fluid-rock interface from processing the XRMT images. These experiments show that far from the well injection site, dissolution processes are characterized by slow mass tranfer including, in the case of carbonate rock, transport of fine particles, which locally clog the porous space. Then, that leads to the damage of the carbonate reservoir both in terms of connectivity of the porous space and CO2 hydrodynamical storage capacity. In fact, the results of the two experiments show that the porosity decreased locally

  8. Storage conditions and eruptive dynamics of central versus flank eruptions in volcanic islands: The case of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andújar, Joan; Costa, Fidel; Scaillet, Bruno

    2013-06-01

    We report the results of phase equilibrium experiments on a phonolite produced during one of the most voluminous flank eruptions (ca. 1 km3) of the Teide-Pico Viejo complex (Tenerife Island). Combined with previous experimental and volcanological data we address the factors that control the structure of the phonolitic plumbing system of Teide-Pico Viejo stratovolcanoes. The Roques Blancos phonolite erupted ca 1800 BP and contains ~ 14 wt.% phenocrysts, mainly anorthoclase, biotite, magnetite, diopside and lesser amounts of ilmenite. Crystallization experiments were performed at temperatures of 900 °C, 850 °C and 800 °C, in the pressure range 200 MPa to 50 MPa. The oxygen fugacity (fO2) was varied between NNO + 0.3 (0.3 log units above to the Ni-NiO solid buffer) to NNO-2, whilst dissolved water contents varied from 7 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%. The comparison between natural and experimental phase proportions and compositions, including glass, indicates that the phonolite magma was stored prior to eruption at 900 ± 15 °C, 50 ± 15 MPa, with about 2.2 wt.% H2O dissolved in the melt, at an oxygen fugacity of NNO-0.5 (± 0.5). The difference in composition between the rim and the cores of the natural anorthoclase phenocrysts suggests that the phonolite was heated by about 50 °C before the eruption, upon intrusion of a hotter tephriphonolitic magma. The comparison between the storage conditions of Roques Blancos and those inferred for other phonolites of the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex shows that flank eruptions are fed by reservoirs located at relatively shallow depths (1-2 km) compared to those feeding Teide central eruptions (5 km).

  9. Prior storage conditions influence the destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during heating of apple cider and juice.

    PubMed

    Ingham, S C; Uljas, H E

    1998-04-01

    In apple beverage manufacture, cider and juice may be stored for a short time prior to pasteurization. Storage time and temperature may affect the subsequent thermotolerance of bacteria in these beverages. This study examined whether prior storage in pH 3.4 apple cider or apple juice affected the thermotolerance of two Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains in the same beverages at 61 degrees C. Both strains exhibited biphasic survivor curves. Strain ATCC 43894 was consistently more thermotolerant than strain ATCC 43889, with 33 to 153% greater D values derived from the linear portion of each survivor curve. Prior storage at 21 degrees C for 2 or 6 h hastened thermal destruction of both strains in apple cider, but not to a statistically significant extent. In apple juice, prior storage at 21 degrees C for 2 h significantly decreased thermotolerance of strain ATCC 43889, but not of strain ATCC 43894. During 6 h of storage in 21 degrees C apple juice, populations of strains ATCC 43889 and 43894 decreased by 2.1 and 0.5 log10 CFU/ml, respectively, and died rapidly during subsequent heating. Prior storage in apple juice at 4 degrees C for 24 h significantly decreased thermotolerance of both strains, but this effect was not seen after 2 h of storage at 4 degrees C. Experiments with filtered apple cider showed that presence of filterable pulp enhanced the thermotolerance of both strains. These results show that short-term (< or = 6h) room temperature storage of pH 3.4 apple cider and apple juice may enhance the lethality of subsequent pasteurization.

  10. The effect of milk components and storage conditions on the virulence of Listeria monocytogenes as determined by a Caco-2 cell assay.

    PubMed

    Pricope-Ciolacu, Luminita; Nicolau, Anca Ioana; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin

    2013-08-16

    Nearly all cases of human listeriosis have been associated with consumption of contaminated food, therefore the investigation of the virulence of Listeria (L.) monocytogenes after exposure to environmental conditions in food matrices is critical in order to understand and control its impact on public health. As milk and dairy products have been implicated in more than half of the listeriosis outbreaks, we investigated the in vitro virulence of L. monocytogenes incubated in different milk types at various storage conditions. Incubation in pasteurized milk at refrigeration conditions (4°C) revealed a higher invasion and intracellular proliferation of four different L. monocytogenes strains compared to raw milk using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. Furthermore the period of storage, which increased L. monocytogenes cell numbers, decreased in vitro virulence. However, L. monocytogenes stored for 3weeks at 4°C in milk are still able to invade and proliferate into the host cell. Interestingly abused storage temperatures (25°C and 30°C) for a short time period (2h) revealed an attenuated impact on the in vitro virulence of L. monocytogenes compared to the storage temperature of 4°C. Regarding the major milk compounds, the level of milk fat significantly affected the in vitro virulence of L. monocytogenes. Pre-incubation in milk with high fat content (3.6%) resulted in a lower invasion capability compared to milk with low fat content. In contrast casein and lactose did not influence the invasiveness of L. monocytogenes into the host cell. In conclusion our study shows that the milk environment and different storage conditions influence the in vitro virulence of L. monocytogenes, both of which have to be considered in the risk assessment of contaminated food.

  11. An improved method of microencapsulation of probiotic bacteria for their stability in acidic and bile conditions during storage.

    PubMed

    Ding, W K; Shah, N P

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for applying an extra coating of palm oil and poly-L-lysine (POPL) to alginate (ALG) microcapsules to enhance the survival of probiotic bacteria. Eight strains of probiotic bacteria including Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum, L. salivarius, L. plantarum, L. acidophilus, L. paracasei, B. lactis type Bl-O4, and B. lactis type Bi-07 were encapsulated using alginate alone or alginate with POPL. Electron microscopy was used to measure the size of the microcapsules and to determine their surface texture. To assess if the addition of POPL improved the viability of probiotic bacteria in acidic conditions, both ALG and POPL microcapsules were inoculated into pH 2.0 MRS broths and their viability was assessed over a 2-h incubation period. Two bile salts including oxgall bile salt and taurocholic acid were used to test the bile tolerance of probiotic bacteria entrapped in ALG and POPL microcapsules. To assess the porosity and the ability of the microcapsule to hold small molecules in an aqueous environment a water-soluble fluorescent dye, 6-carboxyflourescin (6 FAM), was encapsulated and its release was monitored using a UV spectrophotometer. The results indicated that coating the microcapsules with POPL increased the overall size of the capsules by an average of 3 microm +/- 0.67. However, microcapsules with added POPL had a much smoother surface texture when examined under an electron microscope. The results also indicated that the addition of POPL to microcapsules improved the average viability of probiotic bacteria by > 1 log CFU/mL when compared to ALG microcapsules at 2 h of exposure to acidic conditions. However, similar plate counts were observed between ALG and POPL microcapsules when exposed to bile salts. This suggests that an extra coating of POPL could be readily broken down by bile salts that are commonly found in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Upon testing the porosity of the

  12. Effect of solution and solid-phase conditions on the Fe(II)-accelerated transformation of ferrihydrite to lepidocrocite and goethite.

    PubMed

    Boland, Daniel D; Collins, Richard N; Miller, Christopher J; Glover, Chris J; Waite, T David

    2014-05-20

    Aqueous ferrous iron (Fe(II)) accelerates the transformation of ferrihydrite into secondary, more crystalline minerals however the factors controlling the rate and, indeed, the underlying mechanism of this transformation process remain unclear. Here, we present the first detailed study of the kinetics of the Fe(II)-accelerated transformation of ferrihydrite to goethite, via lepidocrocite, for a range of pH and Fe(II) concentrations and, from the results obtained, provide insight into the factors controlling the transformation rate and the processes responsible for transformation. A reaction scheme for the Fe(II)-accelerated secondary mineralization of ferrihydrite is developed in which an Fe(II) atom attaches to the ferrihydrite surface where it is immediately oxidized to Fe(III) with the resultant electron transferred, sequentially, to other iron oxyhydroxide Fe(III) atoms before release to solution as Fe(II). This freshly precipitated Fe(III) forms the nuclei for the formation of secondary minerals and also facilitates the ongoing uptake of Fe(II) from solution by creation of fresh surface sites. The concentration of solid-associated Fe(II) and the rate of transport of Fe(II) to the oxyhydroxide surface appear to determine which particular secondary minerals form and their rates of formation. Lepidocrocite growth is enhanced at lower solid-associated Fe(II) concentrations while conditions leading to more rapid uptake of Fe(II) from solution lead to higher goethite growth rates.

  13. Conditions for efficient and stable ion acceleration by moderate circularly polarized laser pulses at intensities of 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Qiao, B.; Zepf, M.; Borghesi, M.; Dromey, B.; Kar, S.; Geissler, M.; Gibbon, P.; Schreiber, J.

    2011-04-15

    Conditions for efficient and stable ion radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) from thin foils by circularly polarized laser pulses at moderate intensities are theoretically and numerically investigated. It is found that the unavoidable decompression of the co-moving electron layer in Light-Sail RPA leads to a change of the local electrostatic field from a ''bunching'' to a ''debunching'' profile, ultimately resulting in premature termination of ion acceleration. One way to overcome this instability is the use of a multispecies foil where the high-Z ions act as a sacrificial species to supply excess co-moving electrons for preserving stable acceleration of the lower-Z ion species. It is shown by 2D particle-in-cell simulations that 100 MeV/u monoenergetic C{sup 6+} ion beams are produced by irradiation of a Cu-C-mixed foil with laser pulses at intensities 5 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}, which can be easily achieved by current day lasers.

  14. MECHANICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CEMENTITIOUS MATERIALS USING γ-2CaO.SiO2 UNDER THE SEVERAL CONDITIONS IN ACCELERATED CARBONATION CURING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kenzo; Yokozeki, Kosuke; Torichigai, Takeshi; Sakai, Etsuo

    The experiments have been conducted in order to investigate the mechanical and chemical properties of mortar with three different binders under the several conditions in accelerated carbonation curing. As the results, the depth of carbonation varied among each mix proportion. It is proven that by increasing CO2 density in the mortar having γ-2CaO.SiO2, the CaCO3 production will increase, which leads to the increase of filling ability in the pore of mortar. Furthermore, as a result from the calculation of Tritium permeation, it shows that the permeation decreases with an increase of CO2 density.

  15. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress. PMID:27045670

  16. Gender and chronological age affect erythrocyte membrane oxidative indices in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) blood bank storage condition.

    PubMed

    Erman, Hayriye; Aksu, Uğur; Belce, Ahmet; Atukeren, Pınar; Uzun, Duygu; Cebe, Tamer; Kansu, Ahmet D; Gelişgen, Remisa; Uslu, Ezel; Aydın, Seval; Çakatay, Ufuk

    2016-07-01

    It is well known that in vitro storage lesions lead to membrane dysfunction and decreased number of functional erythrocytes. As erythrocytes get older, in storage media as well as in peripheral circulation, they undergo a variety of biochemical changes. In our study, the erythrocytes with different age groups in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-formula 1 (CPDA-1) storage solution were used in order to investigate the possible effect of gender factor on oxidative damage. Oxidative damage biomarkers in erythrocyte membranes such as ferric reducing antioxidant power, pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance, protein-bound advance glycation end products, and sialic acid were analyzed. Current study reveals that change in membrane redox status during blood-bank storage condition also depends on both gender depended homeostatic factors and the presence of CPDA-1. During the storage period in CPDA-1, erythrocytes from the male donors are mostly affected by free radical-mediated oxidative stress but erythrocytes obtained from females are severely affected by glyoxidative stress.

  17. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  18. Cut off values of laser fluorescence for different storage methods at different time intervals in comparison to frozen condition: A 1 year in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Kaul, Rudra; Kaul, Vibhuti; Farooq, Riyaz; Wazir, Nikhil Dev; Khateeb, Shafayat Ullah; Malik, Altaf H; Masoodi, Ajaz Amin

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the following study is to evaluate the change in laser fluorescence (LF) values for extracted teeth stored in different solutions over 1 year period, to give cut-off values for different storage media at different time intervals to get them at par with the in vivo conditions and to see which medium gives best results with the least change in LF values and while enhancing the validity of DIAGNOdent in research. Materials and Methods: Ninety extracted teeth selected, from a pool of frozen teeth, were divided into nine groups of 10 each. Specimens in Groups 1-8 were stored in 1% chloramine, 10% formalin, 10% buffered formalin, 0.02% thymol, 0.12% chlorhexidine, 3% sodium hypochlorite, a commercially available saliva substitute-Wet Mouth (ICPA Pharmaceuticals) and normal saline respectively at 4°C. The last group was stored under frozen condition at −20°C without contact with any storage solution. DIAGNOdent was used to measure the change the LF values at day 30, 45, 60, 160 and 365. Statistical Analysis Used: The mean change in LF values in different storage mediums at different time intervals were compared using two-way ANOVA. Results: At the end of 1 year, significant decrease in fluorescence (P < 0.05) was observed in Groups 1-8. Maximum drop in LF values occurred between day 1 and 30. Group 9 (frozen specimens) did not significantly change their fluorescence response. Conclusions: An inevitable change in LF takes place due to various storage media commonly used in dental research at different time intervals. The values obtained from our study can remove the bias caused by the storage media and the values of LF thus obtained can hence be conveniently extrapolated to the in vivo condition. PMID:24778506

  19. Low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry in hake (Merluccius merluccius, L.) muscle after different freezing and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Alonso, Isabel; Moreno, Pilar; Careche, Mercedes

    2014-06-15

    Low field NMR T2 transverse relaxation measurements were performed on muscle samples from sixty hake (Merluccius merluccius, L.). Fish fillets from hake stored in ice for 3 and 14 days were subjected to different freezing methods (air blast, liquid nitrogen or walk-in freezer) and storage conditions (-20 and -10°C for 5 days, 8 and 18 weeks). Distribution analysis of T2 data of unfrozen muscle displayed a major band (T21), accounting for 90-92% of the total signal, with a relaxation time centred at 47-60 ms and a broad band with protons of higher mobility between 300 and 800 ms, accounting for 3-5% of the signal. Upon freezing, T21 became wider and an extra band appeared within the range 120-360 ms. Whereas no changes were detected at -20°C, the T21 time constant decreased during frozen storage at -10°C in a similar way for all three freezing methods. The relative abundance of T21 declined with storage time but differences were found as a function of freezing. Results are discussed in the light of morphological alterations and protein denaturation, and it is concluded that LF NMR relaxometry is sensitive to different freezing and frozen storage conditions which can have important implications for the quality of fish muscle.

  20. The effect of ripening and storage conditions on the distribution of tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine in Edam-cheese.

    PubMed

    Bunková, Leona; Bunka, Frantisek; Mantlová, Gabriela; Cablová, Andrea; Sedlácek, Ivo; Svec, Pavel; Pachlová, Vendula; Krácmar, Stanislav

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the work was to describe the development of selected biogenic amines (histamine, tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine) in 4 layers of Dutch-type cheese (Edam-cheese) depending on 3 ripening/storage regimes during a 98-day period. Biogenic amines were analysed by means of ion-exchange chromatography. A further goal was to identify microbial sources of biogenic amines in the material analysed. Phenotype characterization and repetitive sequence-based PCR fingerprinting were used to identify the isolated bacteria. The highest content of tyramine, putrescine and cadaverine was determined in cheeses stored in a ripening cellar at a temperature of 10 degrees C during the whole observation period. Lower biogenic amines content was determined in samples which were moved into a cold storage device (5 degrees C) after 38 days of storage in a ripening cellar (10 degrees C). The lowest concentrations of biogenic amines were detected in cheeses which were moved into a cold storage device (5 degrees C) after 23 days of storage in a ripening cellar (10 degrees C). During the 98-day period, histamine was not detected in any of the regimes. Within the cheeses analysed, non-starter lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei and Lactobacillus plantarum were detected as the main producers of the biogenic amines tested. In starter bacteria Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris the decarboxylase activity tested was not detected. PMID:20688229

  1. Unsteady magnetohydrodynamic flow of a micropolar fluid due to constant accelerated disk with no slip conditions in a porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzad, F.; Hayat, T.

    2012-05-01

    The unsteady MHD flow of an incompressible micropolar fluid have been considered. The fluid is filling the semi-infinite space z>0 which is in contact with an infinite porous rotating disk at z = 0. The common angular velocity of the disk and fluid at infinity is Ω. The fluid is electrically conducting in presence of an applied constant magnetic field B0. Initially the disk and the fluid are rotating about the z/-axis and at time t = 0, suddenly the disk starts rotating about the z-axis and moving with uniform acceleration, while the fluid at infinity continue to rotate about z/-axis with same angular velocity Ω. The axes of rotation of both the disk and that of the fluid at infinity are assumed to be in the plane x = 0, and distance between axes is l. The governing problem is solved numerically using Newton's method. Numerical results explaining the effects of various parameters associated with the flow are discussed graphically.

  2. A 72% error reduction scheme based on temperature acceleration for long-term data storage applications: Cold flash and millennium memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Senju; Iwasaki, Tomoko Ogura; Hachiya, Shogo; Takahashi, Tomonori; Takeuchi, Ken

    2016-07-01

    A solid-state drive (SSD) with 1Xnm triple-level cell (TLC) NAND flash is proposed for low cost data storage applications with long-term data-retention requirements. Specifically, cold data storage requires 20 years data-retention with 100 write/erase (W/E) cycles, whereas digital archive storage requires 1000 years retention time with 1 W/E cycle. To achieve these requirements, a flexible-nLC scheme is proposed to improve the reliability of 1Xnm TLC NAND flash (Yamazaki et al., 2015). The proposed scheme combines two schemes, n-out-of-8 level cell (nLC) (Tanakamaru et al., 2014) and asymmetric coding (AC) (Tanakamaru et al., 2012) with the addition of a vertical flag. By measuring 1Xnm TLC NAND flash memory, the proposed scheme reduces errors by 72% and 69% for digital archive and cold flash respectively, compared to the conventional nLC scheme.

  3. Presentation on a Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Theodore L.

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) project is to provide an acceleration measurement system capable of serving a wide variety of space experiments. The design of the system being developed under this project takes into consideration requirements for experiments located in the middeck, in the orbiter bay, and in Spacelab. In addition to measuring, conditioning, and recording accelerations, the system will be capable of performing complex calculations and interactive control. The main components consist of a remote triaxial optical storage device. In operation, the triaxial sensor head produces output signals in response to acceleration inputs. These signals are preamplified, filtered and converted into digital data which is then transferred to optical memory. The system design is modular, facilitating both software and hardware upgrading as technology advances. Two complete acceleration measurement flight systems will be build and tested under this project.

  4. Pre-eruptive storage conditions and continuous decompression relations of rhyodacite magma erupted from Chaos Crags, Lassen Volcanic Center, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, E. T.; Andrews, B. J.; Schwab, B. E.; Clynne, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    temperatures ≥825°C, within the investigated range. FTIR analysis of quartz-hosted melt inclusions contain 4.0-5.0 wt. % H2O (average 4.3 wt. %), suggesting saturation pressures of 100-110 MPa (calculated using model of Papale et al., 2006). Comparison of the natural samples with the experimentally determined phase diagram and melt inclusions, suggests pre-eruptive storage conditions of 110-125 MPa and 775°C; given FeTi-oxide temperatures of 850 °C, magma may have been heated by as much as 75-100°C immediately prior to eruption. Ongoing work includes EPMA analysis of plagioclase feldspars and amphiboles to further constrain An-stability and hornblende-cummingtonite relations , respectively, and analysis of titanomagnetite-ilmenite pairs. Continuous decompression experiments are underway with rates ranging from 0.3 MPa/hr to 7.5 MPa/hr, corresponding to total decompression times of 16 hours to 18 days.

  5. Reaction and transport in wellbore interfaces under CO2 storage conditions: Experiments simulating debonded cement-casing interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolterbeek, T. K.; Peach, C. J.; Spiers, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    Debonding-defects at the interfaces between wellbore casing and cement are widely recognized as providing potential pathways for CO2 escape from geological storage systems. This study addresses how chemical reaction between CO2, cement and steel may affect the transport properties of such defects under near-static conditions, representative for early stages in leakage pathway development, prior to the formation of a fully connected defect network. Debonded cement-steel interfaces were simulated by constructing composite samples, containing a spacer-imposed gap. These were reacted with CO2 and water, brine or a solution pre-saturated with cement. Each sample was subjected to 7 sequential batch reaction runs, namely 6 runs of 5 days duration, followed by a single extended run, of 42 days, to study long-term effects. The reaction runs were conducted at 80°C and 14 MPa applied CO2-pressure. Permeability was measured after each run and microstructural analyses were performed after completion of the experiment. We investigated two ranges in gap-width, namely 50-120 μm (denoted SA samples) and 270-350 μm (LA samples). Reaction-induced permeability changes were limited and less than 1 order in all samples, and occurred in the early stage of testing. Corrosion product or scale (mainly Fe-carbonates, with minor Fe-hydroxides) formed extensively within the open gap, on the surfaces of both the casing steel and cement. Lack of calcium carbonates in these areas suggests the corrosion scale which formed on the cement surface produced a significant reduction in cement carbonation rate, similar to the decrease in corrosion rate observed when these precipitates create a protective film on steel surfaces only. CaCO3 precipitation occurred extensively on the cement side at locations beneath the spacers used to create the gap between the cement and steel plates, where corrosion scale did not form. Our results imply that healing of debonding defects at casing-cement interfaces in

  6. Marine High Voltage Power Conditioning and Transmission System with Integrated Storage DE-EE0003640 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Frank Hoffmann, PhD; Aspinall, Rik

    2012-12-10

    Design, Development, and test of the three-port power converter for marine hydrokinetic power transmission. Converter provides ports for AC/DC conversion of hydrokinetic power, battery storage, and a low voltage to high voltage DC port for HVDC transmission to shore. The report covers the design, development, implementation, and testing of a prototype built by PPS.

  7. Brown and green sugarcane leaves as potential biomass: How they deteriorate under dry and wet storage conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current trends to (1) investigate sugarcane leaves as a sustainable biomass feedstock for the production of biofuels and bioproducts and (2) delivery of more leaves to factories for processing with stalks, have made information on how it deteriorates on storage during dry and wet environmental c...

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF CONDITIONS OF NATURAL GAS STORAGE RESERVOIRS AND DESIGN AND DEMONSTRATION OF REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES FOR DAMAGE MECHANISMS FOUND THEREIN

    SciTech Connect

    J.H. Frantz Jr; K.G. Brown; W.K. Sawyer; P.A. Zyglowicz; P.M. Halleck; J.P. Spivey

    2004-12-01

    The underground gas storage (UGS) industry uses over 400 reservoirs and 17,000 wells to store and withdrawal gas. As such, it is a significant contributor to gas supply in the United States. It has been demonstrated that many UGS wells show a loss of deliverability each year due to numerous damage mechanisms. Previous studies estimate that up to one hundred million dollars are spent each year to recover or replace a deliverability loss of approximately 3.2 Bscf/D per year in the storage industry. Clearly, there is a great potential for developing technology to prevent, mitigate, or eliminate the damage causing deliverability losses in UGS wells. Prior studies have also identified the presence of several potential damage mechanisms in storage wells, developed damage diagnostic procedures, and discussed, in general terms, the possible reactions that need to occur to create the damage. However, few studies address how to prevent or mitigate specific damage types, and/or how to eliminate the damage from occurring in the future. This study seeks to increase our understanding of two specific damage mechanisms, inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite), and non-darcy damage, and thus serves to expand prior efforts as well as complement ongoing gas storage projects. Specifically, this study has resulted in: (1) An effective lab protocol designed to assess the extent of damage due to inorganic precipitates; (2) An increased understanding of how inorganic precipitates (specifically siderite) develop; (3) Identification of potential sources of chemical components necessary for siderite formation; (4) A remediation technique that has successfully restored deliverability to storage wells damaged by the inorganic precipitate siderite (one well had nearly a tenfold increase in deliverability); (5) Identification of the types of treatments that have historically been successful at reducing the amount of non-darcy pressure drop in a well, and (6) Development of a tool that can

  9. The Potential for Increased Atmospheric CO2 Emissions and Accelerated Consumption of Deep Geologic CO2 Storage Resources Resulting from the Large-Scale Deployment of a CCS-Enabled Unconventional Fossil Fuels Industry in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.; Davidson, Casie L.

    2009-11-02

    in an accelerated rate of utilization of the nation’s CO2 storage resource, leaving less high-quality storage capacity for other carbon-producing industries including electric power generation.

  10. Initial blood storage experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, Douglas MACN.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of conducting experiments with the formed elements of the blood under conditions of microgravity opens up important opportunities to improve the understanding of basic formed element physiology, as well as, contribution to improved preservation of the formed elements for use in transfusion. The physiological, biochemical, and physical changes of the membrane of the erythrocyte, platelet, and leukocyte was studied during storage under two specific conditions: standard blood bank conditions and microgravity, utilizing three FDA approved plastic bags. Storage lesions; red cell storage on Earth; platelet storage on Earth; and leukocyte storage Earth were examined. The interaction of biomaterials and blood cells was studied during storage.

  11. Effects of sprouting and postharvest storage under cool temperature conditions on starch content and antioxidant capacity of green pea, lentil and young mung bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2015-10-15

    The effects of germination of selected legumes and further storage of sprouts under cool conditions on the phenolics, antioxidant activity and starch content and their potential bioaccessibility were elucidated. In green pea and mung bean sprouts a slight increase of chemically extractable phenolics (including flavonoids) during the first 4 days of sprouting was observed. Digestion in vitro released phenolics; however, flavonoids were poorly bioaccessible. Storage of green pea sprouts decreased reducing power and increased the antiradical ability. Reducing potential of potentially bioaccessible fraction of stored lentil sprouts was elevated of 40%, 31% and 23% in 3-, 4- and 5-day-old sprouts, respectively. Postharvest storage significantly increases the starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index (eGI)--the highest eGIs were determined for 5-day-old stored sprouts; 75.17-green pea, 83.18-lentil and 89.87-mung bean. Bioactivity and nutritional quality of legumes is affected by sprouting and further storage at low temperatures.

  12. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  13. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-10

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ)[1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  14. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. 13C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using 3H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  15. Intracellular Accumulation of Glycine in Polyphosphate-Accumulating Organisms in Activated Sludge, a Novel Storage Mechanism under Dynamic Anaerobic-Aerobic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hien Thi Thu; Kristiansen, Rikke; Vestergaard, Mette; Wimmer, Reinhard; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-07-01

    Dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions are applied to wastewater treatment plants to select polyphosphate-accumulating organisms to carry out enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Acetate is a well-known substrate to stimulate this process, and here we show that different amino acids also are suitable substrates, with glycine as the most promising. (13)C-labeled glycine and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were applied to investigate uptake and potential storage products when activated sludge was fed with glycine under anaerobic conditions. Glycine was consumed by the biomass, and the majority was stored intracellularly as free glycine and fermentation products. Subsequently, in the aerobic phase without addition of external substrate, the stored glycine was consumed. The uptake of glycine and oxidation of intracellular metabolites took place along with a release and uptake of orthophosphate, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization combined with microautoradiography using (3)H-labeled glycine revealed uncultured actinobacterial Tetrasphaera as a dominant glycine consumer. Experiments with Tetrasphaera elongata as representative of uncultured Tetrasphaera showed that under anaerobic conditions it was able to take up labeled glycine and accumulate this and other labeled metabolites to an intracellular concentration of approximately 4 mM. All components were consumed under subsequent aerobic conditions. Intracellular accumulation of amino acids seems to be a novel storage strategy for polyphosphate-accumulating bacteria under dynamic anaerobic-aerobic feast-famine conditions. PMID:25956769

  16. Examination of Ion Beam Acceleration and Self-Bias Effect in the Modified MadHeX Plasma Source with Conducting and Insulating Upstream Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Yung-Ta; Devinney, Michael; Scharer, John

    2013-10-01

    The MadHeX experiment consists of a Pyrex tube connected to a stainless steel magnetic field expansion chamber (expansion ratio RE = 4.5) has been upgraded with an axial magnetic mirror field and an additional magnet in the transition region. This configuration enhances electron temperature and ionization fraction and minimizes neutral reflux. A half-turn double-helix antenna is used to excite electrostatic or inductive regime waves in the source. An ion beam of energy, E = 160 eV at 500 W RF power, has been observed in a low pressure (0.3 mtorr) argon plasma formed in the expansion region with a 340 G magnetic field with a R = 1.4 nozzle. The effects of upstream end plate boundary conditions on the plasma self-bias and ion beam acceleration are discussed. The effect of lower flow rates and pressures, higher RF powers (500 W-8 kW) and magnetic field strength dependence on the ion beam acceleration, plasma potential, electron density and temperature are explored. The axial ion velocity distribution function and temperatures at higher powers are observed by argon 668 nm laser induced fluorescence with density measurements obtained by mm wave interferometry. The EEDF and non-Maxwellian tail are examined using optical emission spectroscopy. Research supported by the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

  17. Quantitative analysis of genomic DNA degradation in whole blood under various storage conditions for molecular diagnostic testing.

    PubMed

    Permenter, Jessalyn; Ishwar, Arjun; Rounsavall, Angie; Smith, Maddie; Faske, Jennifer; Sailey, Charles J; Alfaro, Maria P

    2015-12-01

    Proper storage of whole blood is crucial for isolating nucleic acids from leukocytes and to ensure adequate performance of downstream assays in the molecular diagnostic laboratory. Short-term and long-term storage recommendations are lacking for successful isolation of genomic DNA (gDNA). Container type (EDTA or heparin), temperature (4 °C and room temperature) and time (1-130 days) were assessed as criterion for sample acceptance policies. The percentage of integrated area (%Ti) between 150 and 10,000 bp from the 2200 TapeStation electropherogram was calculated to measure gDNA degradation. Refrigerated EDTA samples yielded gDNA with low %Ti (high quality). Heparinized samples stored at room temperature yielded gDNA of worst quality. Downstream analysis demonstrated that the quality of the gDNA correlated with the quality of the data; samples with high %Ti generated significantly lower levels of high molecular weight amplicons. Recommendations from these analyses include storing blood samples intended for nucleic acid isolation in EDTA tubes at 4 °C for long term storage (>10 days). gDNA should be extracted within 3 days when blood is stored at room temperature regardless of the container. Finally, refrigerated heparinized samples should not be stored longer than 9 days if expecting high quality gDNA isolates. Laboratories should consider many factors, in addition to the results obtained herein, to update their policies for sample acceptance for gDNA extraction intended for molecular genetic testing.

  18. Fatty acid composition in double and multilayered microcapsules of ω-3 as affected by storage conditions and type of emulsions.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Martín, Estefanía; Antequera Rojas, Teresa; Gharsallaoui, Adem; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad

    2016-03-01

    Spray-dried microcapsules from double (DM) and multilayered (MM) fish oil emulsions were produced to evaluate the effect of type of emulsion on the fatty acid composition during the microencapsulation process and after one month of storage at refrigeration (4°C) and room (20°C) temperature. Encapsulation efficiency, loading and loading efficiency were significantly higher in MM than in DM. C20:5 n-3 (EPA) and C22:6 n-3 (DHA) showed higher proportions in MM than in DM. Some differences in microstructural features were detected, with DM showing cracks and pores. The influence of the storage was significant, decreasing the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in both MM and DM, above all at 20°C. This decrease was more notable in DM. Multilayered emulsions are more suitable to encapsulate fish oil in terms of quantity of encapsulated oil, microstructure of the microcapsules and protection of fatty acids, especially EPA and DHA, during storage. PMID:26471582

  19. Study of the degradation of butyltin compounds in surface water samples under different storage conditions using multiple isotope tracers and GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cea, Andrés; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio

    2016-03-01

    The degradation of butyltin compounds in surface water samples under different storage conditions has been studied. A triple spike solution, containing monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and tributyltin (TBT) labelled with a different tin isotope, was added to the sample to calculate the extent of the interconversion reactions among butyltin compounds. Real surface water samples (river water) were collected and stored in glass, polypropylene or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) containers. The presence of light, addition of acetic acid, storage temperature (22, 4 or -18 °C), and the influence of a filtration step were evaluated. Moreover, Milli-Q water with and without the addition of a high concentration of humic acids was prepared in parallel and the results compared to those obtained from the real samples. The water samples were analysed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode at two different storage times (2 weeks and 4 months after its preparation) to carry out both a short- and a long-term stability study. The lowest butyltin degradation was obtained when the samples were stored at -18 °C in the dark. Under these conditions, both TBT and DBT showed negligible dealkylation factors after 2 weeks. After 4 months, DBT dealkylation to MBT increased up to 19 % but TBT degradation was not observed.

  20. Influence of cultivar, harvest time, storage conditions, and peeling on the antioxidant capacity and phenolic and ascorbic acid contents of apples and pears.

    PubMed

    Kevers, Claire; Pincemail, Joël; Tabart, Jessica; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier; Dommes, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    Apple and pear fruits are important sources of secondary plant metabolites and one of the major sources of dietary phenolics consumed all year round. The aim of this work was to identify the main variables influencing phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in apples. Higher phenolic and antioxidant contents were observed in some varieties (such as the Delbar Estival apple and Durondeau pear). Storage conditions were important. Our results also showed that fruits should be consumed rapidly after purchase and with their peel. After one week of domestic storage, the ascorbic acid content was found to decrease by 75%. Peeling led to a more than 25% decrease in total phenolics and ascorbic acid. The harvest time (at normal ripeness) had only a limited impact, but significant year-to-year variations were observed. In conclusion, well-chosen and well-stored apples and pears may contribute to an antioxidant-rich diet if consumed rapidly and with their peel.

  1. Storage life of power switching transistors based on performance degradation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haochun, Qi; Xiaoling, Zhang; Xuesong, Xie; Changzhi, Lü; Chengju, Chen; Li, Zhao

    2014-04-01

    NPN-type small and medium power switching transistors in 3DK series are used to conduct analyses and studies of accelerating degradation. Through three group studies of accelerating degradation in different temperature-humidity constant stresses, the failure sensitive parameters of transistors are identified and the lifetime of samples is extrapolated from the performance degradation data. Average lifetimes in three common distributions are given, when, combined with the Hallberg-Peck temperature-humidity model, the storage lifetime of transistor samples in the natural storage condition is extrapolated between 105-107 h. According to its definition, the accelerating factor is 1462 in 100°C/100% relative humidity (RH) stress condition, and 25°C/25% RH stress condition. Finally, the degradation causes of performance parameters of the test samples are analyzed. The findings can provide certain references for the storage reliability of domestic transistors.

  2. Current Fragmentation and Particle Acceleration in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cargill, P. J.; Vlahos, L.; Baumann, G.; Drake, J. F.; Nordlund, Å.

    2012-11-01

    Particle acceleration in solar flares remains an outstanding problem in plasma physics and space science. While the observed particle energies and timescales can perhaps be understood in terms of acceleration at a simple current sheet or turbulence site, the vast number of accelerated particles, and the fraction of flare energy in them, defies any simple explanation. The nature of energy storage and dissipation in the global coronal magnetic field is essential for understanding flare acceleration. Scenarios where the coronal field is stressed by complex photospheric motions lead to the formation of multiple current sheets, rather than the single monolithic current sheet proposed by some. The currents sheets in turn can fragment into multiple, smaller dissipation sites. MHD, kinetic and cellular automata models are used to demonstrate this feature. Particle acceleration in this environment thus involves interaction with many distributed accelerators. A series of examples demonstrate how acceleration works in such an environment. As required, acceleration is fast, and relativistic energies are readily attained. It is also shown that accelerated particles do indeed interact with multiple acceleration sites. Test particle models also demonstrate that a large number of particles can be accelerated, with a significant fraction of the flare energy associated with them. However, in the absence of feedback, and with limited numerical resolution, these results need to be viewed with caution. Particle in cell models can incorporate feedback and in one scenario suggest that acceleration can be limited by the energetic particles reaching the condition for firehose marginal stability. Contemporary issues such as footpoint particle acceleration are also discussed. It is also noted that the idea of a "standard flare model" is ill-conceived when the entire distribution of flare energies is considered.

  3. Magma Storage Conditions, Eruption Initiation and Magma Evolution Over Time: Investigating the Eruptions of Organ Caldera, Southern NM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lente, J. L.; Johnson, E. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Organ caldera in southern New Mexico formed ~36 Ma from a series of three explosive, voluminous eruptions. The volcanic deposits are now exposed in the Organ Mountains and have a combined thickness of nearly 3 km and an estimated volume between 500 and1000 km3 (Seager & McCurry, 1988). This research uses analyses of quartz-hosted melt inclusions from the first- and last-erupted units to study the storage and differentiation of the magma body prior-to and during the initial eruption, as well as changes in the magma chamber over time as the eruptions progressed and ultimately ceased. Previous work suggests the Organ magma chamber was compositionally stratified (Seager, 1981) erupting top-down and tapping less-evolved magmas over time. However, preliminary results suggest a more complex system; possibly a convecting, homogenized magma chamber or a series of dykes and sills. Results obtained using FTIR analyses of H2O and CO2 in melt inclusions have shown variable volatile contents from the first erupted unit (~2.3 to 6.8 weight percent H2O, 0-118 ppm CO2). Using these values, saturation pressures of 45 to 266 MPa were calculated, indicating a minimum pressure at which the melt inclusion was trapped. These pressures suggest magma storage depths for the first erupted magmas of ~2 to 9 km (with most inclusions trapped between 4 and 8 km) which is inconsistent with the initial eruption coming from the top of a normally stratified chamber. The large variation in volatile contents and storage depths can have many explanations, such as degassing and shallow crystallization during ascent, or perhaps a more complex, elongate magma storage system. These possibilities, and whether or not magma mixing/rejuvenation triggered the initial eruption, will be explored with the acquisition of major and trace element compositions of melt inclusions. Additionally, analyses of melt inclusions from the last erupted ignimbrite, which erupted ~0.5 Ma after the first eruption, will enable

  4. Comparison of extractable DNA from bone following six-month exposure to outdoor conditions, garden loam, mold contamination or room storage.

    PubMed

    Startari, Loïc; Benoit, Jean-Noël; Quatrehomme, Gérald; Carle, Georges; Pognonec, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Femur bone sections from a single donor were exposed for six months to (i) outdoor conditions (exposure to sun, rain, etc.); (ii) water-vapour saturated environment favourable to mould proliferation and (iii) humic-garden soil. Following these treatments, DNA was extracted and yields were compared with that of a control bone fragment kept under optimal laboratory storage conditions. Our results demonstrate that both mould and soil are very detrimental to bone DNA conservation since more than 97% of the bone DNA was lost in these samples as compared with the control condition. Outdoor exposure gives an intermediate result with 30% of the DNA still present in the bone. Thus, environments favourable to microorganisms proliferation appear detrimental to bone DNA conservation and are a bad prognostic should bone remains be used for genetic identification purpose. Comparatively, open-air exposure is much more favourable to bone DNA analysis. PMID:22941520

  5. Influence of different processing and storage conditions on in vitro bioaccessibility of polyphenols in black carrot jams and marmalades.

    PubMed

    Kamiloglu, Senem; Pasli, Ayca Ayfer; Ozcelik, Beraat; Van Camp, John; Capanoglu, Esra

    2015-11-01

    Black carrot is indicated to play an important role in nutrition, as it comprises a variety of health-promoting components, including polyphenols. The objective of the present study was to monitor the stability of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids in black carrot jams and marmalades after processing, storage and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined using spectrophotometric methods, whereas phenolic acids were identified using HPLC-PDA. Jam and marmalade processing significantly decreased total phenolics (89.2-90.5%), antioxidant capacity (83.3-91.3%) and phenolic acids (49.5-96.7%) (p < 0.05). After 20 weeks of storage, the percent decrease in total phenolics in samples stored at 25 °C (26.4-48.0%) was slightly higher than the samples stored at 4 °C (21.0-42.5%). In addition, jam and marmalade processing led to increases in the percent recovery of bioaccessible total phenolics (7.2-12.6%) and phenolic acids (4.7-31.5%), as well as antioxidant capacity (1.4-8.1%). In conclusion, current study highlighted black carrot jams and marmalades as good sources of polyphenols, with high bioaccessibility levels.

  6. Effect of storage conditions on the microbial ecology and biochemical stability of cell wall components in brewers' spent grain.

    PubMed

    Robertson, James A; I'Anson, Kerry J A; Brocklehurst, Tim F; Faulds, Craig B; Waldron, Keith W

    2010-06-23

    The composition of brewers' spent grain (BSG) makes it susceptible to microbial attack and chemical deterioration. This can constrain its appeal as an industrial feedstock. The current study has monitored the effects of BSG storage as fresh material (20 degrees C), refrigerated and autoclaved, measured against frozen material in relation to microbial proliferation and modification to plant cell wall polysaccharides and component phenolic acids. At 20 degrees C there was a rapid colonization by microbes and an associated loss of components from BSG. Refrigeration gave a similar but lower level response. When stored frozen, BSG showed no changes in composition but autoclaving resulted in a solubilization of polysaccharides and associated phenolics. Changes were associated with the temperature profile determined during autoclaving and were also partially due to the breakdown of residual starch. Losses of highly branched arabinoxylan (AX) and the related decrease in ferulic acid cross-linking were also found. The results confirm the need for storage stabilization of BSG and demonstrate that the methods selected for stabilization can themselves lead to a substantial modification to BSG.

  7. Influence of different processing and storage conditions on in vitro bioaccessibility of polyphenols in black carrot jams and marmalades.

    PubMed

    Kamiloglu, Senem; Pasli, Ayca Ayfer; Ozcelik, Beraat; Van Camp, John; Capanoglu, Esra

    2015-11-01

    Black carrot is indicated to play an important role in nutrition, as it comprises a variety of health-promoting components, including polyphenols. The objective of the present study was to monitor the stability of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity and phenolic acids in black carrot jams and marmalades after processing, storage and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined using spectrophotometric methods, whereas phenolic acids were identified using HPLC-PDA. Jam and marmalade processing significantly decreased total phenolics (89.2-90.5%), antioxidant capacity (83.3-91.3%) and phenolic acids (49.5-96.7%) (p < 0.05). After 20 weeks of storage, the percent decrease in total phenolics in samples stored at 25 °C (26.4-48.0%) was slightly higher than the samples stored at 4 °C (21.0-42.5%). In addition, jam and marmalade processing led to increases in the percent recovery of bioaccessible total phenolics (7.2-12.6%) and phenolic acids (4.7-31.5%), as well as antioxidant capacity (1.4-8.1%). In conclusion, current study highlighted black carrot jams and marmalades as good sources of polyphenols, with high bioaccessibility levels. PMID:25976794

  8. Reductive off-odors in wines: Formation and release of H₂S and methanethiol during the accelerated anoxic storage of wines.

    PubMed

    Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-05-15

    In order to better understand the processes involved in the development of H2S and methanethiol (MeSH) along anoxic storage of wines, 24 wines were stored in strict anoxia at 50°C for 3weeks. Free and total forms of H2S and MeSH were measured at different times. Results showed that: (1) all wines contain relevant proportions of bonded forms of H2S and MeSH (93% and 47% on average); (2) such % decreases with age; (3) levels of total forms are related to wine metal composition; (4) anoxic storage brings about an increase of free forms, a strong decrease in the percentage of bonded forms, and except for H2S in red wines, an increase in total forms. Both de novo formation and release contribute to reductive off-odors. Release is predominant for reds and H2S, while at 50°C, de novo formation dominates for whites and rosés and MeSH.

  9. Salt-stressed fresh cut leek accelerates CO₂ and C₂H₄ production and enhances the development of quality characteristics of traditional Greek sausages during storage.

    PubMed

    Madentzidou, Eleftheria; Gerasopoulos, Dimitrios; Siomos, Anastasios; Bloukas, Ioannis

    2012-12-01

    Fresh cut leek was mixed with salt for 0.5 (IM) and 5 (LM) min or remained untreated (control) and stored alone or mixed with minced meat and seasonings, cased and stored at 15 °C for 7 days. The fresh cut leek and sausage metabolics and sausage microbiological and physicochemical traits were measured during storage. Sausages with LM leek had significantly higher counts of lactic acid bacteria, faster rates of pH drop and dehydration and increased red color compared with the other treatments. Sausage to fresh cut leek peaks of CO₂ or C₂H₄ production was 5 or 2 fold higher in LM than the other treatments indicating that the sausage flora was the source of both. The use of salt-stressed fresh cut leek before manufacture of sausages enhances microbial activity as well as its stability and shortens the necessary storage time needed for the development of the quality characteristics of Greek traditional sausages. PMID:22840357

  10. Residual gas analysis (RGA) and shear strength characteristics of a silver-filled epoxy and polyimide under long-term, high-temperature storage conditions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1994-04-01

    Introduction of organic materials into hermetically sealed electronic packages increases the risk of failure due to contamination. The contaminants of concern are moisture and ionics. This combination can lead to unwanted electrical pathways and/or corrosion. To minimize sealed-in moisture, packages are vacuum-baked for 16 hours at 200 C and Au/Sn solder-sealed i a glove box purged with dry nitrogen. Even following this procedure, the package plating and organic adhesive can still outgas moisture during high-temperature storage. Long-term aging characteristics for a silver-filled epoxy and a silver-filled polyimide were investigated. Leadless chip carriers (LCCs) containing die attached with epoxy or polyimide were aged at 25 C, 100 C, 150 C, and 200 C for up to six months. Residual gas analysis (RGA) and die shear testing were performed on each package. Results indicate that the epoxy can withstand storage at 150 C with no increase in internal moisture. The polyimide could only be stored at 100 C. No loss in shear strength for epoxy or polyimide was noted at any storage condition.

  11. The EPQ model under conditions of two levels of trade credit and limited storage capacity in supply chain management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Kun-Jen

    2013-09-01

    An inventory problem involves a lot of factors influencing inventory decisions. To understand it, the traditional economic production quantity (EPQ) model plays rather important role for inventory analysis. Although the traditional EPQ models are still widely used in industry, practitioners frequently question validities of assumptions of these models such that their use encounters challenges and difficulties. So, this article tries to present a new inventory model by considering two levels of trade credit, finite replenishment rate and limited storage capacity together to relax the basic assumptions of the traditional EPQ model to improve the environment of the use of it. Keeping in mind cost-minimisation strategy, four easy-to-use theorems are developed to characterise the optimal solution. Finally, the sensitivity analyses are executed to investigate the effects of the various parameters on ordering policies and the annual total relevant costs of the inventory system.

  12. Evolution under different storage conditions of anomalous blue coloration of Mozzarella cheese intentionally contaminated with a pigment-producing strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Cenci-Goga, B T; Karama, M; Sechi, P; Iulietto, M F; Novelli, S; Mattei, S

    2014-11-01

    Several widespread occurrences of anomalous blue coloration of Mozzarella cheese have been recorded in the United States and some European countries. Official laboratory analysis and health authorities have linked the occurrences to contamination of the processing water with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, although several experts questioned how to unequivocally link the blue color to the presence of the microorganism. To establish a method to determine whether a given Pseudomonas spp. strain is responsible for the defect and study the evolution of the coloration under different storage conditions, we developed an in vitro system for the evaluation of blue coloration of Mozzarella cheese intentionally contaminated with strains of P. fluorescens. The purpose of the system was to determine whether P.fluorescens strains, isolated from Mozzarella cheese with anomalous blue coloration, were able to reproduce the blue coloration under controlled experimental conditions. Thirty-six trials of experimental inoculation of Mozzarella cheese in different preservation liquids were conducted using various suspensions of P.fluorescens (P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, P.fluorescens CFBP 3150, and P. fluorescens 349 field strain isolated from blue-colored Mozzarella cheese) at different concentrations and incubated at different temperatures. Growth curves of all tested P.fluorescens strains demonstrated that after 3 d of incubation the concentration was generally >10(6) cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in either tryptic soy broth (control) or conditioning brine. Prolonged incubation for 5 d at either 20 °C or 8 °C led to concentrations up to 10(9) cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in tryptic soy broth and up to 10(8) cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in preservation liquid. All Mozzarella cheeses inoculated with the field strain of P. fluorescens, except those opened 1h after packaging and stored at 8 °C, showed the characteristic anomalous blue coloration, which

  13. Study of the stability of packaging and storage conditions of human mesenchymal stem cell for intra-arterial clinical application in patient with critical limb ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gálvez-Martín, Patricia; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Soria, Bernat; Calpena-Campmany, Ana C; Clares-Naveros, Beatriz

    2014-04-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study, we developed and characterized an intra-arterial cell suspension containing human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) for the treatment of CLI. Equally, the stability of cells was studied in order to evaluate the optimal conditions of storage that guarantee the viability from cell processing to the administration phase. Effects of various factors, including excipients, storage temperature and time were evaluated to analyze the survival of hMSCs in the finished medicinal product. The viability of hMSCs in different packaging media was studied for 60 h at 4 °C. The best medium to maintain hMSCs viability was then selected to test storage conditions (4, 8, 25 and 37 °C; 60 h). The results showed that at 4 °C the viability was maintained above 80% for 48 h, at 8 °C decreased slightly, whereas at room temperature and 37 °C decreased drastically. Its biocompatibility was assessed by cell morphology and cell viability assays. During stability study, the stored cells did not show any change in their phenotypic or genotypic characteristics and physicochemical properties remained constant, the ability to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes and sterility requirements were also unaltered. Finally, our paper proposes a packing media composed of albumin 20%, glucose 5% and Ringer's lactate at a concentration of 1×10(6) cells/mL, which must be stored at 4 °C as the most suitable to maintain cell viability (>80%) and without altering their characteristics for more than 48 h.

  14. Ion mobility spectrometry versus classical physico-chemical analysis for assessing the shelf life of extra virgin olive oil according to container type and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocío; Dobao-Prieto, M Mar; Arce, Lourdes; Aguilar, Joaquín; Cumplido, José L; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the stability of a single-variety (Arbequina) extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) as a function of container type and storage conditions over a period of 11 months. EVOO quality was assessed by using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), which provides increased simplicity, expeditiousness, and relative economy. The results were compared with the ones obtained by using the official method based on classical physico-chemical analysis. Bag-in-box, metal, dark glass, clear glass, and polyethylene terephthalate containers holding EVOO were opened on a periodic basis for sampling to simulate domestic use; in parallel, other containers were kept closed until analysis to simulate the storage conditions on market shelves. The results of the physico-chemical and instrumental analyses led to similar conclusions. Thus, samples packaged in bag-in-box containers preserved oil quality for 11 months, better than other container types. The HS-GC-IMS results confirm that 2-heptenal and 1-penten-3-one are two accurate markers of EVOO quality.

  15. Study of the conditions of activation and stabilization of Shigella sonnei 47 DNA methylases in the process of fractionation, purification, and during storage

    SciTech Connect

    Suchkov, S.V.; Lopatina, N.G.; Arutyunyan, E.E.; Nikol'skaya, I.I.; Debov, S.S.

    1987-02-20

    A comparative investigation was made of the factors of activation and conditions of stabilization of partially purified and individual fractions of DNA methylases of the strain Shigella sonnei 47. The influence of the temperature system, glycerin, albumin, protease inhibitors, divalent metal ions, as well as the conditions of storage at the value of the isoelectric point of the protein on the activity of the enzymes of methylation was studied. It was shown that the effects of activating factors and levels of stabilization differ appreciably, depending on the degree of purification and the composition of the enzyme preparations. It was established that glycerin is ineffective as a stabilizing agent. It was shown that of all the divalent cations studied the only activator universal for the methylases of Shigella sonnei 47 is Ca/sup 2 +/ ions. A pronounced stabilizing effect of albumin on the activity of these DNA methylases was demonstrated. With the exception of one enzymatic fraction, the protease inhibitors have virtually no effect on the level of methylating activity of the preparations. The phenomenon of spontaneous fluctuations of the methylating activity of Shigella sonnei 47 enzyme preparations during storage is described.

  16. Ion mobility spectrometry versus classical physico-chemical analysis for assessing the shelf life of extra virgin olive oil according to container type and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Delgado, Rocío; Dobao-Prieto, M Mar; Arce, Lourdes; Aguilar, Joaquín; Cumplido, José L; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the stability of a single-variety (Arbequina) extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) as a function of container type and storage conditions over a period of 11 months. EVOO quality was assessed by using ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), which provides increased simplicity, expeditiousness, and relative economy. The results were compared with the ones obtained by using the official method based on classical physico-chemical analysis. Bag-in-box, metal, dark glass, clear glass, and polyethylene terephthalate containers holding EVOO were opened on a periodic basis for sampling to simulate domestic use; in parallel, other containers were kept closed until analysis to simulate the storage conditions on market shelves. The results of the physico-chemical and instrumental analyses led to similar conclusions. Thus, samples packaged in bag-in-box containers preserved oil quality for 11 months, better than other container types. The HS-GC-IMS results confirm that 2-heptenal and 1-penten-3-one are two accurate markers of EVOO quality. PMID:25645180

  17. Acceleration in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    The origin of cosmic rays and applicable laboratory experiments are discussed. Some of the problems of shock acceleration for the production of cosmic rays are discussed in the context of astrophysical conditions. These are: The presumed unique explanation of the power law spectrum is shown instead to be a universal property of all lossy accelerators; the extraordinary isotropy of cosmic rays and the limited diffusion distances implied by supernova induced shock acceleration requires a more frequent and space-filling source than supernovae; the near perfect adiabaticity of strong hydromagnetic turbulence necessary for reflecting the accelerated particles each doubling in energy roughly 10{sup 5} to {sup 6} scatterings with negligible energy loss seems most unlikely; the evidence for acceleration due to quasi-parallel heliosphere shocks is weak. There is small evidence for the expected strong hydromagnetic turbulence, and instead, only a small number of particles accelerate after only a few shock traversals; the acceleration of electrons in the same collisionless shock that accelerates ions is difficult to reconcile with the theoretical picture of strong hydromagnetic turbulence that reflects the ions. The hydromagnetic turbulence will appear adiabatic to the electrons at their much higher Larmor frequency and so the electrons should not be scattered incoherently as they must be for acceleration. Therefore the electrons must be accelerated by a different mechanism. This is unsatisfactory, because wherever electrons are accelerated these sites, observed in radio emission, may accelerate ions more favorably. The acceleration is coherent provided the reconnection is coherent, in which case the total flux, as for example of collimated radio sources, predicts single charge accelerated energies much greater than observed.

  18. Energy Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  19. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  20. Storage Conditions of Large Silicic Magmatic Systems: Gauging Melt Evolution from Melt Inclusions Hosted in Different Phenocryst Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grocke, S. B.; de Silva, S. L.; Wallace, P. J.; Kent, A. J.; Hervig, R. L.; Andrews, B. J.; Cottrell, E.

    2014-12-01

    Quartz- and sanidine-hosted melt inclusions from the 3.49 Ma rhyolitic Tara pumice fall deposit erupted from the Guacha II Caldera in SW Bolivia provide new insights into the melt evolution preceding a supereruption. Melt inclusions were analyzed for volatile contents using two different techniques, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and ion microprobe (SIMS). Data from FTIR on quartz-hosted melt inclusions reveal pre-eruptive CO2 concentrations (maximum ~ 300 ppm), and H2O contents (average = 4.3 wt.%) that are similar to H2O contents derived from SIMS on the same inclusions (average = 4.2 wt.%). Melt inclusions in sanidine yield higher CO2 concentrations (maximum ~ 400 ppm) than those hosted in quartz, yet yield much lower H2O contents (average = 2.5 wt.% via FTIR; average = 2.7 wt.% via SIMS). The higher CO2 trapped in sanidine-hosted melt inclusions may suggest higher trapping pressures than are recorded by quartz, whereas the low H2O recorded by sanidine may signify preferential H loss from sanidine. SIMS and Laser-Ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) trace element analyses of melt inclusions define a continuous liquid line of descent from sanidine-hosted inclusions that record high Sr and increasing Ba with crystallization, to quartz-hosted inclusions that record low Sr and decreasing Ba with crystallization. In the case of the Tara magmatic system, sanidine-hosted inclusions seem to record an earlier, deeper stage of the melt's history. Assessing melt inclusions within multiple phenocryst hosts may provide insights into different stages of a melt's history from storage to ascent and eruption.

  1. Effects of Hydrated Potato Starch on the Quality of Low-fat Ttoekgalbi (Korean Traditional Patty) Packaged in Modified Atmosphere Conditions during Storage

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin, S. M. Kang; Choi, W. H.; Lee, K. T.; Cheong, S. H.; Lee, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of hydrated potato starch on the quality of low-fat ttoekgalbi (Korean traditional patty) packaged in modified atmosphere conditions during storage. The ttoekgalbi was prepared from 53.2% lean beef, 13.9% lean pork, 9.3% pork fat, and 23.6% other ingredients. Two low-fat ttoekgalbi treatments were prepared by substituting pork fat with hydrated potato starch; either by 50% fat replacement (50% FR) or 100% fat replacement (100% FR). Both 50% and 100% FR increased the moisture, crude protein, and decreased fat content, cooking loss, and hardness. For MAP studies, 200 g of ttoekgalbi were placed on the tray and filled with gas composed of 70% O2: 30% CO2 (70% O2-MAP) and 30% CO2: 70% N2 (70% N2-MAP), and were stored at 5°C for 12 d. During the storage time, both 50% and 100% FR showed higher protein deterioration, while no differences were found in CIE a*, CIE L*, lipid oxidation, and bacterial counts in comparison to control. The ttoekgalbi with 70% O2-MAP was more red, lighter in color, and showed higher TBARS values compared with 70% N2-MAP. The meat with 70% N2-MAP showed lower aerobic bacterial counts in control than those with 70% O2-MAP. The lower anaerobic bacterial counts were observed only in 50% FR and 100% FR packed with 70% N2-MAP in comparison with 70% O2-MAP. In conclusion, the fat replacement with hydrated potato starch showed no negative effects on the quality of low fat ttoekgalbi during storage and 70% N2-MAP was better than 70% O2-MAP for low-fat ttoekgalbi packaging. PMID:25049619

  2. Impact of packaging material and storage conditions on polyphenol stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (prunus cerasus var. Marasca).

    PubMed

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Ježek, Damir; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging materials and storage conditions on polyphenols stability, colour and sensory characteristics of freeze-dried sour cherry (Prunus cerasus var. Marasca). Freeze-dried sour cherries were packed in high barrier metalized polypropylene and aluminium packaging (PET/PPmet/PE and PET/Al/PE) for up to 12 months at 4, 20 and 37 °C. Characterisation of polyphenol compounds was done by HPLC UV/Vis PDA and in all samples individual anthocyanins (ANTs), flavonol-glycosides (FGs) and hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) were determined. Polyphenol content was not markedly affected by freeze-drying and decreases were amounted 1.5-5 %. Furthermore, obtained results indicated that minimal loss of polyphenol content in freeze dried sour cherries were achieved at 4 °C and 3 months of storage. Regardless of the type of packaging materials, samples stored at lower temperature during 12 months, retained the higher content of FGs (quercetin-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-glucoside, kaempferol-3-rutinoside) and HCAs (neochlorogenic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acid) than ANTs (cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside). The same trend was confirmed with kinetic parameters, also. Sour cherry products packed in both type of laminate and stored at lower temperature retained characteristic dark red colour and sensory properties. This study showed that freeze-dried cherry products have pleasant sensory and very good nutritional properties, and storage in both type of laminates at 4 and 20 °C up to 6 months ensured good product quality. PMID:27162405

  3. Propane Clathrate Hydrate Formation Accelerated by Methanol.

    PubMed

    Amtawong, Jaruwan; Guo, Jin; Hale, Jared S; Sengupta, Suvrajit; Fleischer, Everly B; Martin, Rachel W; Janda, Kenneth C

    2016-07-01

    The role of methanol as both an inhibitor and a catalyst for the formation of clathrate hydrates (CHs) has been a topic of intense study. We report a new quantitative study of the kinetics of propane CH formation at 253 K from the reaction of propane gas with <75 μm ice particles that have been doped with varying amounts of methanol. We find that methanol significantly accelerates the formation reaction with quite small doping quantities. Even for only 1 methanol molecule per 10 000 water molecules, the maximum uptake rate of propane into CHs is enhanced and the initiation pressure is reduced. These results enable more efficient production of CHs for gas storage. This remarkable acceleration of the CH formation reaction by small quantities of methanol may place constraints on the mechanism of the inhibition effect observed under other conditions, usually employing much larger quantities of methanol. PMID:27275862

  4. Oxidative stability of pork meat lipids as related to high-oleic sunflower oil and vitamin E diet supplementation and storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Cardenia, Vladimiro; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Cumella, Fabio; Sardi, Luca; Della Casa, Giacinto; Lercker, Giovanni

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this research work was to evaluate the oxidative stability of pork meat lipids as related to dietary supplementation with high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and/or α-tocopheryl acetate (VE), as well as the influence of storage conditions. Four different diets (control; HOSO; VE; HOSO+VE), were fed to swines until slaughtering. Meat slices were packed in vessels with transparent shrink film and exposed to white fluorescent light for 3 days at 8 °C. HOSO supplementation increased oleic acid content of pork meat. The highest levels of peroxide value (PV) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were detected in the control group, whereas HOSO-enriched diets displayed the highest thiobarbituric reactive substance (TBARs) content. After storage under light exposure, pork meat slices exhibited a decrease of PV, which resulted in an increasing trend of TBARs and COPs. Feeding enrichment with both HOSO and vitamin E can be, therefore, used as an appropriate supplementation strategy to produce pork meat with a suitable oxidative stability.

  5. Linear induction accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  6. Effects of ovarian storage condition on in vitro maturation of Hokkaido sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) oocytes.

    PubMed

    Tulake, Kuerban; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Katagiri, Seiji; Higaki, Shogo; Koyama, Keisuke; Wang, Xuguang; Li, Heping

    2014-11-01

    The effects of different preservation conditions (temperature 20-25 or 10-15 degrees C; duration 12 or 24 h) for ovaries of Cervus nippon yesoensis on in vitro maturation of oocytes were examined. When ovaries were kept for 12 h at 20-25 degrees C, maturation rate of oocytes was highest (71%); however, it declined when the preservation time was extended to 24 h (31%). When the preservation temperature decreased to 10-15 degrees C, the maturation rate after 12 h preservation decreased (51%) but it remained in same level even though preservation time is prolonged to 24 h (55%). PMID:25597189

  7. Integrated modeling of CO2 storage and leakage scenarios including transitions between super- and sub-critical conditions, and phase change between liquid and gaseous CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    2011-05-15

    Storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers is intended to be at supercritical pressure and temperature conditions, but CO{sub 2} leaking from a geologic storage reservoir and migrating toward the land surface (through faults, fractures, or improperly abandoned wells) would reach subcritical conditions at depths shallower than 500-750 m. At these and shallower depths, subcritical CO{sub 2} can form two-phase mixtures of liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}, with significant latent heat effects during boiling and condensation. Additional strongly non-isothermal effects can arise from decompression of gas-like subcritical CO{sub 2}, the so-called Joule-Thomson effect. Integrated modeling of CO{sub 2} storage and leakage requires the ability to model non-isothermal flows of brine and CO{sub 2} at conditions that range from supercritical to subcritical, including three-phase flow of aqueous phase, and both liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate comprehensive simulation capabilities that can cope with all possible phase conditions in brine-CO{sub 2} systems. Our model formulation includes: (1) an accurate description of thermophysical properties of aqueous and CO{sub 2}-rich phases as functions of temperature, pressure, salinity and CO{sub 2} content, including the mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O; (2) transitions between super- and subcritical conditions, including phase change between liquid and gaseous CO{sub 2}; (3) one-, two-, and three-phase flow of brine-CO{sub 2} mixtures, including heat flow; (4) non-isothermal effects associated with phase change, mutual dissolution of CO{sub 2} and water, and (de-) compression effects; and (5) the effects of dissolved NaCl, and the possibility of precipitating solid halite, with associated porosity and permeability change. Applications to specific leakage scenarios demonstrate that the peculiar thermophysical properties of CO{sub 2} provide a potential for positive as well as negative

  8. Viability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in salami following conditioning of batter, fermentation and drying of sticks, and storage of slices.

    PubMed

    Faith, N G; Parniere, N; Larson, T; Lorang, T D; Kaspar, C W; Luchansky, J B

    1998-04-01

    The fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was monitored in salami during conditioning of batter, fermentation and drying of sticks, and storage of slices. The raw batter (75% pork: 25% beef, wt/wt, fat content about 20%) was inoculated with a pediococcal starter culture (about 10(8) CFU/g) and a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 ( > or = 2 x 10(7) CFU/g) and stuffed into 104-mm diameter fibrous casings. After being refrigerated at 4 degrees C or being tempered at 13 degrees C, frozen at -20 degrees C, and thawed at 4 degrees C, or being frozen at -20 degrees C, and thawed at 4 degrees C, the inoculated batter was fermented at 24 degrees C and 90% relative humidity (RH) to pH < or = 4.8, dried at 13 degrees C and 65% RH to a moisture/protein ratio of < or = 1.9:1, and then stored at 4 or 21 degrees C under air or vacuum. For salami sticks sampled immediately after drying, appreciable differences were evident among the various batter-conditioning treatments; pathogen numbers were reduced from original levels by 2.1, 1.6, or 1.1 log10 units when batter was tempered, frozen, and thawed, frozen and thawed, or refrigerated, respectively. Similarly, regardless of storage temperature or atmosphere, within 7 days salami slices cut from sticks prepared from batter that was tempered, frozen, and thawed (2.7- to 4.9-log10-unit reduction) or frozen and thawed (2.3- to 4.8-log10-unit reduction) displayed a greater impact on pathogen numbers than slices cut from sticks prepared from batter that was refrigerated (1.6- to 3.1-log10-unit reduction). The effects of batter conditioning notwithstanding, a greater reduction in levels of E. coli O157:H7 was observed when slices were stored at 21 degrees C compared to otherwise similar slices stored at 4 degrees C. After storage for 60 days the pathogen was only detected by enrichment in slices stored at 21 degrees C, whereas pathogen levels ranged from 1.4 to 4.5 log10 CFU/g in slices stored at 4 degrees C. Differences related to

  9. Effects of packaging and heat transfer kinetics on drug-product stability during storage under uncontrolled temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Toru; Yamaji, Takayuki; Takayama, Kozo

    2013-05-01

    To predict the stability of pharmaceutical preparations under uncontrolled temperature conditions accurately, a method to compute the average reaction rate constant taking into account the heat transfer from the atmosphere to the product was developed. The average reaction rate constants computed with taken into consideration heat transfer (κ(re) ) were then compared with those computed without taking heat transfer into consideration (κ(in) ). The apparent thermal diffusivity (κ(a) ) exerted some influence on the average reaction rate constant ratio (R, R = κ(re) /κ(in) ). In the regions where the κ(a) was large (above 1 h(-1) ) or very small, the value of R was close to 1. On the contrary, in the middle region (0.001-1 h(-1) ), the value of R was less than 1.The κ(a) of the central part of a large-size container and that of the central part of a paper case of 10 bottles of liquid medicine (100 mL) fell within this middle region. On the basis of the above-mentioned considerations, heat transfer may need to be taken into consideration to enable a more accurate prediction of the stability of actual pharmaceutical preparations under nonisothermal atmospheres.

  10. Petrological insights into the storage conditions, magmatic processes, and time scales that yielded the centennial 2010 Merapi explosive eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Rodriguez, F.; Andreastuti, S.; Bouvet de Maisonneuve, C.; Pallister, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    To understand the processes that made the 2010 eruption of Merapi much larger and more explosive than most dome forming eruptions of the past century, we investigated the geochemistry, petrology, and pre-eruptive conditions of magmas erupted in 2006 and 2010. The juvenile rocks of 2010 are plagioclase, two-pyroxene basaltic andesites with seriate textures and minor amounts of reaction-free amphibole and oxides. They are almost identical to those of the much less explosive eruption of 2006. X-ray distribution maps, backscattered electron images, and electron microprobe analyses reveal that both erupted products are heterogeneous, with amphibole and up to four types of pyroxenes. Geothermobarometry and thermodynamic modeling indicates at least three depths of crystallization: (1) a deep reservoir at about 30 (+/- 3) km recorded by some amphiboles and high-Al clinopyroxenes, (2) an intermediate depth recorded by other amphiboles at about 11 (+/- 1) km, and (3) shallower crystallization (<10 km) recorded by Ca-poor plagioclase and low-Al clinopyroxene, and perhaps orthopyroxene. High-Al basaltic andesites are generated by water rich fractionation of more primitive magmas in the deep reservoir below Merapi. These magmas are volatile rich and at near liquidus conditions (1050oC, ≥4-6 wt% H2O, ≥0.15 wt% SO2). High-Al clinopyroxene and Ca-rich plagioclase crystallize at the intermediate depth, where assimilation of limestone may also be important. Water content in the intermediate depth magma remains high enough to stabilize amphibole (4-6 wt% H2O) but CO2 and SO2 are already degassing. The shallow part of the system is crystal-rich and actively degassing, producing the high-temperature fumaroles and volcanic plume that are commonly seen at Merapi. We propose that the 2006 and 2010 eruptions at Merapi were driven by similar processes and magma types, but the main difference was the much larger volume of magmatic replenishment to the shallow system in 2010. In deposits

  11. A new storage-ring light source

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alex

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  12. Interactive Design of Accelerators (IDA)

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M.Q.

    1987-06-30

    IDA is a beam transport line calculation program which runs interactively on an IBM PC computer. It can be used for a large fraction of the usual calculations done for beam transport systems or periods of accelerators or storage rings. Because of the interactive screen editor nature of the data input, this program permits one to rather quickly arrive at general properties of a beam line or an accelerator period.

  13. Petrological insights into the storage conditions, and magmatic processes that yielded the centennial 2010 Merapi explosive eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Fidel; Andreastuti, Supriyati; Bouvet de Maisonneuve, Caroline; Pallister, John S.

    2013-07-01

    To understand the processes that made the 2010 eruption of Merapi much larger and more explosive than most dome-forming eruptions of the past century, we investigated the geochemistry, petrology, and pre-eruptive conditions of magmas erupted in 2006 and 2010. The juvenile rocks of 2010 are plagioclase, two-pyroxene basaltic andesites with seriate textures and minor amounts of reaction-free amphibole, Fe-Ti oxides, and rare crystals of olivine and biotite. The bulk-rock composition, mineral paragenesis, and textures are similar to those of juvenile blocks from the much less explosive eruption of 2006. One of the key differences is that most amphiboles in 2010 don't have breakdown reaction rims, whereas those of 2006 are largely reacted. We acquired > 80 X-ray distribution maps of major and minor elements of large areas (> 1 cm2) and single crystals, backscattered electron images, electron microprobe analyse, and compositional traverses across crystals. The data reveal that both the 2006 and 2010 samples are heterogeneous at various spatial scales, with numerous reaction textures between pyroxenes and amphiboles, dissolution textures, and large variations of crystal sizes, morphologies, and compositions. These features record open-system magmatic processes involving the assimilation of carbonate rocks, and interactions between various parts of Merapi's plumbing system, including a degassed shallow magma system and deep hotter and more volatile rich magma intrusions. The petrological complexity of the samples makes unraveling the pre-eruptive conditions of Merapi magmas a petrological puzzle. We applied five different geothermobarometers and performed thermodynamic modeling with the MELTS algorithm, and we propose that there are at least three crystallization zones or environments below Merapi. A deep reservoir at about 30 (+/- 3) km depth is suggested by some amphiboles and high-Al clinopyroxenes. Here is where the high-Al basaltic andesites from Merapi are generated

  14. Intracellular iron storage and the pathogenesis of paratuberculosis. Comparative studies with other mycobacterial, parasitic or infectious conditions of veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Lepper, A W; Wilks, C R

    1988-01-01

    macrophages and overwhelming mycobacterial multiplication occurred. These studies indicate that, in most infections with mycobacteria, differentiation of macrophages radically reverses their iron acquisitive properties, creating an intracellular environment unsuitable for mycobacterial multiplication. It seems likely that allergically mediated microvascular haemorrhage, local tolerance of commensal mycobacteria and attenuation of the macrophage siderosis reversal mechanism provide unique conditions for early, uninhibited, intracellular multiplication of M. paratuberculosis in the ileo-caecal valve of certain mature ruminants.

  15. Determining Carbon and Oxygen Stable Isotope Systematics in Brines at Elevated p/T Conditions to Enhance Monitoring of CO2 Induced Processes in Carbon Storage Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, V.; Myrttinen, A.; Mayer, B.; Barth, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) are a powerful tool for inferring carbon sources and mixing ratios of injected and baseline CO2 in storage reservoirs. Furthermore, CO2 releasing and consuming processes can be deduced if the isotopic compositions of end-members are known. At low CO2 pressures (pCO2), oxygen isotope ratios (δ18O) of CO2 usually assume the δ18O of the water plus a temperature-dependent isotope fractionation factor. However, at very high CO2 pressures as they occur in CO2 storage reservoirs, the δ18O of the injected CO2 may in fact change the δ18O of the reservoir brine. Hence, changing δ18O of brine constitutes an additional tracer for reservoir-internal carbon dynamics and allows the determination of the amount of free phase CO2 present in the reservoir (Johnson et al. 2011). Further systematic research to quantify carbon and oxygen isotope fractionation between the involved inorganic carbon species (CO2, H2CO3, HCO3-, CO32-, carbonate minerals) and kinetic and equilibrium isotope effects during gas-water-rock interactions is necessary because p/T conditions and salinities in CO2 storage reservoirs may exceed the boundary conditions of typical environmental isotope applications, thereby limiting the accuracy of stable isotope monitoring approaches in deep saline formations (Becker et al. 2011). In doing so, it is crucial to compare isotopic patterns observed in laboratory experiments with artificial brines to similar experiments with original fluids from representative field sites to account for reactions of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) with minor brine components. In the CO2ISO-LABEL project, funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research, multiple series of laboratory experiments are conducted to determine the influence of pressure, temperature and brine composition on the δ13C of DIC and the δ18O of brines in water-CO2-rock reactions with special focus placed on kinetics and stable oxygen and carbon isotope fractionation

  16. Using New Theory and Experimental Methods to Understand the Relative Controls of Storage, Antecedent Conditions and Precipitation Intensity on Transit Time Distributions through a Sloping Soil Lysimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.; Pangle, L. A.; Cardoso, C.; Lora, M.; Wang, Y.; Harman, C. J.; Troch, P. A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Transit time distributions (TTD) are an efficient way of characterizing transport through the complex flow dynamics of a hydrologic system, and can serve as a basis for spatially-integrated solute transport modeling. Recently there has been progress in the development of a theory of time-variable TTDs that captures the effect of temporal variability in the timing of fluxes as well as changes in flow pathways. Furthermore, a new formulation of this theory allows the essential transport properties of a system to be parameterized by a physically meaningful time-variable probability distribution, the Ω function. This distribution determines how the age distribution of water in storage is sampled by the outflow. The form of the Ω function varies if the flow pathways change, but is not determined by the timing of fluxes (unlike the TTD). In this study, we use this theory to characterize transport by transient flows through a homogeneously packed 1 m3 sloping soil lysimeter. The transit time distribution associated with each of four irrigation periods (repeated daily for 24 days) are compared to examine the significance of changes in the Ω function due to variations in total storage, antecedent conditions, and precipitation intensity. We observe both the time-variable TTD and the Ω function experimentally by applying the PERTH method (Harman and Kim, 2014, GRL, 41, 1567-1575). The method allows us to observe multiple overlapping time-variable TTD in controlled experiments using only two conservative tracers. We hypothesize that both the TTD and the Ω function will vary in time, even in this small scale, because water will take different flow pathways depending on the initial state of the lysimeter and irrigation intensity. However, based on primarily modeling, we conjecture that major variability in the Ω function will be limited to a period during and immediately after each irrigation. We anticipate the Ω function is almost time-invariant (or scales simply with

  17. Survival or growth of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on yellow onions (Allium cepa) under conditions simulating food service and consumer handling and storage.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Vanessa M; Zhao, Irene Y; Schaffner, Donald W; Danyluk, Michelle D; Harris, Linda J

    2015-01-01

    Whole and diced yellow onions (Allium cepa) were inoculated with five-strain cocktails of rifampin-resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella and stored under conditions to simulate food service or consumer handling. The inoculum was grown in broth (for both whole and diced onion experiments) or on agar plates (for whole onion experiments). Marked circles (3.3 cm in diameter) on the outer papery skin of whole onions were spot inoculated (10 μl in 10 drops) at 7 log CFU per circle, and onions were stored at 4°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity, or at ambient conditions (23°C, 30 to 50 % relative humidity). Diced onions were inoculated at 3 log CFU/g and then stored in open or closed containers at 4°C or ambient conditions. Previously inoculated and ambient-stored diced onions were also mixed 1:9 (wt/wt) with refrigerated uninoculated freshly diced onions and stored in closed containers at ambient conditions. Inoculated pathogens were recovered in 0.1 % peptone and plated onto selective and nonselective media supplemented with 50 μg/ml rifampin. Both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations declined more rapidly on onion skins when the inoculum was prepared in broth rather than on agar. Agar-prepared E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella declined by 0.4 and 0.3 log CFU per sample per day, respectively, at ambient conditions; at 4°C the rates of reduction were 0.08 and 0.06 log CFU per sample per day for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, respectively. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella did not change over 6 days of storage at 4°C in diced onions. Lag times of 6 to 9 h were observed with freshly inoculated onion at ambient conditions; no lag was observed when previously inoculated and uninoculated onions were mixed. Growth rates at ambient conditions were 0.2 to 0.3 log CFU/g/h for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in freshly inoculated onion and 0.2 log CFU/g/h in mixed product. Diced onions support pathogen growth and should be kept refrigerated.

  18. Storage conditions of blood samples and primer selection affect the yield of cDNA polymerase chain reaction products of hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed Central

    Cuypers, H T; Bresters, D; Winkel, I N; Reesink, H W; Weiner, A J; Houghton, M; van der Poel, C L; Lelie, P N

    1992-01-01

    We have noticed that suboptimal specimen processing and storage conditions may cause false-negative results in the detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in plasma or serum. To establish the influence of specimen handling in a serological laboratory on the rate of detection of HCV RNA by the cDNA polymerase chain reaction (cDNA-PCR), we tested routine serum samples and fresh-frozen plasma samples from the same bleeding from confirmed anti-HCV-positive blood donors. When primers from the NS3/NS4 region were used, HCV RNA was detected in fresh-frozen plasma from 67% of the donors, whereas positive results were obtained with only 50% of the serum samples that had been subjected to routine serological procedures. Analysis of the same samples with primers from the highly conserved 5'-terminal region (5'-TR) revealed an HCV RNA detection rate of 92% for both the routine and the fresh-frozen samples. However, the yield of the amplification product in routine samples was strongly reduced compared with that in fresh-frozen plasma. Comparison of both primer sets for cDNA-PCR showed that the 5'-TR primer set was 10- to 100-fold more effective in detecting HCV RNA. We also analyzed the effect of storage of whole EDTA-blood and serum at room temperature and at 4 degrees C on the yield of the amplification product. A rapid decline in detectable HCV RNA of 3 to 4 log units was observed within 14 days when whole blood and serum were stored at room temperature. By contrast, no perceptible reduction in the cDNA-PCR signal was found in freshly prepared serum stored at 4 degrees C. Images PMID:1333489

  19. Use of chemical indicators of beer aging for ex-post checking of storage conditions and prediction of the sensory stability of beer.

    PubMed

    Cejka, Pavel; Culík, Jiří; Horák, Tomáš; Jurková, Marie; Olšovská, Jana

    2013-12-26

    The rate of beer aging is affected by storage conditions including largely time and temperature. Although bottled beer is commonly stored for up to 1 year, sensorial damage of it is quite frequent. Therefore, a method for retrospective determination of temperature of stored beer was developed. The method is based on the determination of selected carbonyl compounds called as "aging indicators", which are formed during beer aging. The aging indicators were determined using GC-MS after precolumn derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentaflourobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride, and their profile was correlated with the development of old flavor evolving under defined conditions (temperature, time) using both a mathematical and statistical apparatus. Three approaches, including calculation from regression graph, multiple linear regression, and neural networks, were employed. The ultimate uncertainty of the method ranged from 3.0 to 11.0 °C depending on the approach used. Furthermore, the assay was extended to include prediction of beer tendency to sensory aging from freshly bottled beer.

  20. High capacity multicomponent hydrogen storage materials: Investigation of the effect of stoichiometry and decomposition conditions on the cycling behaviour of LiBH 4-MgH 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Gavin S.; Grant, David M.; Price, Tobias C.; Yu, Xuebin; Legrand, Vincent

    LiBH 4-MgH 2 is an attractive reversible hydrogen storage system, it combines two high capacity hydrides (18.3 and 7.6 wt.%, respectively) and the concerted dehydrogenation reaction has a smaller enthalpy change than either species on its own. The latter effect leads to a destabilisation of the hydrided products and results in a lowering of the dehydrogenation temperature. In situ neutron diffraction experiments have been undertaken to characterise the mechanism of decomposition of the LiBD 4-MgD 2 system, with an emphasis on investigating the synergistic effects of the components during cycling under various conditions. This study compares the effect of stoichiometry of the multicomponent system on the cycling mechanism. Results show that LiBD 4-MgD 2 in a 2:1 molar ratio can be reversibly dehydrogenated under low pressures of hydrogen or under vacuum, contrary to earlier reports in the literature, although the reaction was only partially reversed for the 2:1 mixture decomposed under vacuum. This work shows that the reaction pathway was affected by dehydrogenation conditions, but the stoichiometry of the multicomponent system played a minor role.

  1. Human eye movements during various forms of linear acceleration and weightlessness. [electronystagmographic recordings of human and fish responses to gravitoinertial conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbaumgarten, R. J.; Thumler, R.; Shillinger, G. L., Jr.; Baldrighi, G.

    1973-01-01

    Eye movements of human subjects were recorded electronystagmographically in complete darkness during rectilinear horizontal accelerations as achieved in cars on the ground and also during aircraft parabolic flight. The results were compared to the movements of blinded goldfish subjected to similar changes of gravitoinertial forces. The results indicate that there is a human correlation with the gravity reference response of fish. During horizontal forward accelerations on the ground the human eyes turn downward and during horizontal backward acceleration the eyes turn upward. The human eye response to g-loads below 1 g and to weightlessness is the reverse of the tilt of the fish. While fish dive down during low g, or loop forward during weightlessness, the eyes of subjects sitting upright in an aircraft which flies at 0 g move upward.

  2. Project acceleration : making the leap from pilot to commercialization.

    SciTech Connect

    Borneo, Daniel R.

    2010-05-01

    Since the energy storage technology market is in a relatively emergent phase, narrowing the gap between pilot project status and commercialization is fundamental to the accelerating of this innovative market space. This session will explore regional market design factors to facilitate the storage enterprise. You will also hear about: quantifying transmission and generation efficiency enhancements; resource planning for storage; and assessing market mechanisms to accelerate storage adoption regionally.

  3. Evaluation of Final Radiological Conditions at Areas of the Niagara Falls Storage Site Remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program -12184

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, Christopher; Kothari, Vijendra; Starr, Ken; Widdop, Michael; Gillespie, Joey

    2012-02-26

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) methods and protocols allow evaluation of remediation and final site conditions to determine if remediated sites remain protective. Two case studies are presented that involve the Niagara Falls Storage Site (NFSS) and associated vicinity properties (VPs), which are being remediated under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). These properties are a part of the former Lake Ontario Ordnance Works (LOOW). In response to stakeholders concerns about whether certain remediated NFSS VPs were putting them at risk, DOE met with stakeholders and agreed to evaluate protectiveness. Documentation in the DOE records collection adequately described assessed and final radiological conditions at the completed VPs. All FUSRAP wastes at the completed sites were cleaned up to meet DOE guidelines for unrestricted use. DOE compiled the results of the investigation in a report that was released for public comment. In conducting the review of site conditions, DOE found that stakeholders were also concerned about waste from the Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) that was handled at LOOW. DOE agreed to determine if SPRU waste remained at that needed to be remediated. DOE reviewed records of waste characterization, historical handling locations and methods, and assessment and remediation data. DOE concluded that the SPRU waste was remediated on the LOOW to levels that pose no unacceptable risk and allow unrestricted use and unlimited exposure. This work confirms the following points as tenets of an effective long-term surveillance and maintenance (LTS&M) program: Stakeholder interaction must be open and transparent, and DOE must respond promptly to stakeholder concerns. DOE, as the long-term custodian, must collect and preserve site records in order to demonstrate that remediated sites pose no unacceptable risk. DOE must continue to maintain constructive relationships with the U

  4. OH solubility in olivine in the peridotite-COH system under reducing conditions and implications for water storage and hydrous melting in the reducing upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaozhi

    2015-12-01

    Experimental studies of OH solubility in peridotite minerals are of crucial importance for understanding some key geochemical, geophysical and geodynamical properties of the upper mantle. In reducing depths of the upper mantle, C-O-H fluids are dominated by CH4 and H2O. However, available experimental H-annealing of olivine concerning water storage capacity in the reducing upper mantle has been exclusively carried out by equilibrating olivine with H2O only. In this study, OH solubility in olivine has been investigated by annealing natural olivine crystals under peridotite-bearing and CH4-H2O-present conditions with piston cylinder and multi-anvil apparatus. Experiments were performed at 1-7 GPa and 1100-1350 °C and with oxygen fugacity controlled by Fe-FeO buffer, and OH solubilities were measured from polarized infrared spectra. The olivines show no change in chemical composition during the experiments. The infrared spectra of all the annealed olivines show OH bands in the range 3650-3000 cm-1, at both high (>3450 cm-1) and low (<3450 cm-1) frequency, and the bands at ˜3400-3300 cm-1 are greatly enhanced above ˜3 GPa and 1300 °C. The determined H2O solubility is ˜90-385 ppm for the olivine coexisting with H2O (1-7 GPa and 1100 °C), and is ˜40-380 ppm for the olivine coexisting with CH4-H2O (1-7 GPa and 1100-1350 °C). When CH4 is present in the equilibrium fluid, the H2O solubility is reduced by a factor of ˜2.3 under otherwise identical conditions, indicating a strong effect of CH4 on the partitioning of water between olivine and coexisting fluid. The storage capacity of water in the reducing upper mantle is, modeled with the measured solubility of olivine and available partition coefficients of water between coexisting minerals, up to ˜2 orders of magnitude lower than some previous estimates. Considering the temperature along the geotherm in the reducing oceanic upper mantle, the required H2O concentration to trigger hydrous melting is 250 and 535 ppm

  5. Pre-eruptive storage conditions of the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff from quartz-hosted melt inclusions in the initial fall deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, M.; Wallace, P. J.; Wilson, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field is one of the Earth's largest young silicic volcanic systems, erupting over 6,000 cubic kilometers of rhyolite in the Quaternary. The two most voluminous eruptions, the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff (HRT) (2.06 Ma, ~2500 km3) and the Lava Creek Tuff (0.62 Ma, ~1000 km3) are amongst the largest Quaternary eruptions on Earth. Geochemical studies of these deposits can reveal information on the accumulation and storage of silicic magma in this voluminous system and may also be useful for comparisons for current monitoring efforts. We have analyzed volatiles (H2O, CO2, F, Cl) and major elements in quartz-hosted melt inclusions (MIs) from near the top of the HRT fall deposit (the most coarse-grained part), which was deposited before eruption of the three major HRT ignimbrite units. We have combined these data with cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging on the host quartz crystals to obtain information on the evolution of the magmatic system before such a voluminous eruption. The major element compositions of the MIs indicate an evolved and homogeneous melt composition, with SiO2 ranging from 75.0-77.0 wt.% on an anhydrous basis. The MIs fall into two different populations based on color. Clear MIs have H2O concentrations of 0.5-1.5 wt.%, with CO2 >400 ppm, whereas brown MIs have H2O values falling mostly between 2.0-3.5 wt.%, with lower CO2 (100-300 ppm). These two MI populations, however, do not appear to show any other compositional distinction, with similar Cl (1100-1700 ppm) and F (1500-5500 ppm) ranges, as well as indistinguishable major element compositions. Both populations give similar vapor saturation pressure ranges (1000-1300 bars), implying pre-eruptive storage at similar depths. CL imaging distinguishes at least three populations of quartz crystals that also appear to be independent of MI composition. These populations include: (a) crystals with fine-scale oscillatory zoning, (b) crystals with broader zones separated by diffuse

  6. Investigating the effect of bottom boundary condition placement on ground heat storage in climate time scale simulations using ParflowE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorsandi, Ehsan; Kollet, Stefan; Venema, Victor; Simmer, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    Heat and water fluxes are key variables affecting the atmosphere-land surface interactions as well as transpiration by plants and geochemical cycles. At climate timescales, the subsurface thermal regime may impact the land surface energy balance via the ground heat flux and associated temperature feedbacks. As a matter of fact, since there is no real lower energy boundary condition, except the natural geothermal heat flux, the subsurface may act as an infinite heat sink in case of a positive temperature trend at the surface. However, due to computational reasons, climate models incorporate a shallow subsurface domain, and thus a shallow temperature boundary condition, which generally is of the Neumann type. This leads to a cumulative ground heat flux of zero over large time scales, which is not realistic, in case of a trend in air temperature. Additionally, the convection term of heat transfer in the subsurface and the memory effect of soil moisture on energy transport is also neglected in climate models by simplified parameterizations. Single soil column model experiments were performed with ParflowE as a subsurface model, which incorporates the more complete heat equation coupled to variably saturated flow, to study the effect of bottom boundary condition placement on ground heat storage and propagated temperature signals over large time-scale with respect to the hydro dynamic process and energy balances. Simulations were carried out over one hundred years (2002-2101) using 4 simple soil columns with the same soil characteristic, lateral boundary conditions and atmosphere forcing, but differing in depth (12, 24, 75 and 150m). After a spin-up period, the models were forced with step-change air temperature and GCM model results namely the IPCC RCP 8.5 scenarios, in order to identify the climate change signals in the subsurface and the associated feedbacks at the land surface. While in the deep soil column, temperature profiles show a heat distribution which is

  7. Wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The search for new methods to accelerate particle beams to high energy using high gradients has resulted in a number of candidate schemes. One of these, wakefield acceleration, has been the subject of considerable R D in recent years. This effort has resulted in successful proof of principle experiments and in increased understanding of many of the practical aspects of the technique. Some wakefield basics plus the status of existing and proposed experimental work is discussed, along with speculations on the future of wake field acceleration. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  8. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: sialic acid storage disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions sialic acid storage disease sialic acid storage disease Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Sialic acid storage disease is an inherited disorder that primarily ...

  10. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  11. ION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Bell, J.S.

    1959-09-15

    An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.

  12. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  13. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  14. Short term storage conditions for transport and farm delivery of the stink bug Perillus bioculatus for the biological control of the Colorado potato beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second instar of the predaceous pentatomid, Perillus bioculatus, was found to be a suitable developmental stage for short-term storage associated with release efforts to control field populations of pests, such as the Colorado potato beetle. Storage temperature, within the range of 9degC to 15d...

  15. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  16. Understanding Magma Storage Conditions that Produce Highly Explosive Monogenetic Basaltic Eruptions Using Olivine-Hosted Melt Inclusions from Sunset Crater, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, C. M.; Roggensack, K.; Clarke, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    To investigate mechanisms of explosive basaltic volcanism, we studied the ca. 1085 AD Sunset Crater eruption in the San Francisco Volcanic Field (SFVF) of northern Arizona. This eruption, the youngest in the SFVF, first featured fissure eruptions (explosive phases 1-2) and a small lava flow, and then activity narrowed to a central vent producing explosive phases 3-8 and two additional lava flows. While the first two phases were Strombolian-style explosions, middle phases (3-5) were subplinian in character and produced an anomalously large tephra deposit. The final phases (6-8) are poorly characterized at this stage. The total erupted volume of lava and tephra is >0.7 km3 DRE of alkali olivine basalt with a large proportion of crystal-free glass and low phenocryst content. We studied 82 primary melt inclusions (MIs) in the largest tephra units (explosive phases 3, 4) to investigate magma volatiles and storage conditions. To prioritize primary volatile contents, we picked rapidly quenched free olivine crystals (Fo 81-85; 0.5-2 mm) and selected large volume MIs (50-180 μm) located near crystal cores for analysis. We observed vapor bubbles in all MIs and also noted rare occurrences of CO2-rich gas inclusions. MIs show little major element variability suggesting little crystal fractionation (K2O 0.8-1.1 wt.%). Post-entrapment crystallization is also minor (2-9%). The MI compositions from the two phases largely overlap, with phase 4 skewed to slightly higher K2O. FTIR spectroscopy shows that the MIs are relatively dry and CO2-rich. Water abundances vary 0.8-1.6 wt.% with a median of 1.25 wt.%, while most MIs have CO2 abundances 1,600-3,400 ppm. Phases 3 and 4 are essentially identical in water content. CO2 contents of phases 3 and 4 show considerable overlap, however the phase 4 MIs are skewed toward high CO2 (>2,500 ppm). These results require a minimum MI entrapment depth of ~11 km from fluid saturation constraints. Overall, the MIs indicate a largely homogeneous

  17. Dedicated storage rings for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    The use of internal targets in circulating beams of electron storage and stretcher rings has been widely discussed recently as a method of achieving high luminosity under conditions of low background, and good energy resolution, with minimal demands for beam from an injecting accelerator. In the two critical areas of the technology, ring design and target development, research is very active, and the prospects for major advances are very bright. Reasonable extrapolations of the current state of the art suggest for many problems in nuclear physics, particularly polarization physics of the nucleon and few body nuclei, internal target measurement may be the optimum experimental technique. This paper, discusses the comparative merit of internal target rings and external beam experiments, reviews briefly current research efforts in the critical areas of the technology, and establishes one goal for the discussions at the workshop. It appears that storage rings dedicated to internal target physics may offer a powerful option for future advances in nuclear physics.

  18. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on whole strawberries and blueberries of two maturities under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao P; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2014-07-01

    Strawberries and blueberries harvested at or near full-ripe maturity tend to be less firm and more susceptible to bruising during harvest and transport. The objective of this research was to determine the fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on bruised and intact surfaces of whole strawberries and blueberries at shipping (2°C) and retail display (15.5°C) temperatures. Strawberries and blueberries were either purchased from a supermarket or were harvested immediately prior to use; they were bruised using established protocols, were spot inoculated, and were incubated at 2 and 15.5°C. Strawberries, subjected to modified atmospheres, were further transferred to bags and were sealed in with an initial atmosphere of ca. 10% CO2 and 5% O2. Strawberries were sampled at 0, 2, 5, and 24 h and on days 3 and 7; blueberries were sampled on days 0, 1, 3, and 7. After stomaching, samples were enumerated on nonselective and selective media, and populations were recorded as log CFU per berry. At both storage temperatures, population declines for both E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were seen under all conditions for strawberries. At 2 ± 2°C, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella populations on blueberries declined over 7 days under all conditions. At 15.5 ± 2°C, E. coli O157:H7 populations declined; however, Salmonella populations initially declined but increased to populations near or above initial populations over 7 days on blueberries. No overall significant differences were observed between bruised and intact treatments or between the two maturity levels for strawberries and blueberries. Modified atmospheric conditions did not affect the behavior of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on strawberries at both temperatures. This research indicates that E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella do not grow on strawberries at shipping or retail display temperatures, even when they are harvested at a maturity prone to bruising; however, Salmonella growth may occur on bruised full ripe

  19. The Los Alamos accelerator code group

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczyk, F.L.; Billen, J.H.; Ryne, R.D.; Takeda, Harunori; Young, L.M.

    1995-05-01

    The Los Alamos Accelerator Code Group (LAACG) is a national resource for members of the accelerator community who use and/or develop software for the design and analysis of particle accelerators, beam transport systems, light sources, storage rings, and components of these systems. Below the authors describe the LAACG`s activities in high performance computing, maintenance and enhancement of POISSON/SUPERFISH and related codes and the dissemination of information on the INTERNET.

  20. Nylon 6.6 accelerated aging studies : thermal-oxidative degradation and its interaction with hydrolysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Robert; Derzon, Dora Kay; Gillen, Kenneth T.

    2004-06-01

    Accelerated aging of Nylon 6.6 fibers used in parachutes has been conducted by following the tensile strength loss under both thermal-oxidative and 100% relative humidity conditions. Thermal-oxidative studies (air circulating ovens) were performed for time periods of weeks to years at temperatures ranging from 37 C to 138 C. Accelerated aging humidity experiments (100% RH) were performed under both an argon atmosphere to examine the 'pure' hydrolysis pathway, and under an oxygen atmosphere (oxygen partial pressure close to that occurring in air) to mimic true aging conditions. As expected the results indicated that degradation caused by humidity is much more important than thermal-oxidative degradation. Surprisingly when both oxygen and humidity were present the rate of degradation was dramatically enhanced relative to humidity aging in the absence of oxygen. This significant and previously unknown phenomena underscores the importance of careful accelerated aging that truly mimics real world storage conditions.

  1. Comparative genetics of host response to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. II. Inverse relationship between tumor susceptibility and salt-hydrocortisone conditioned acceleration of water turnover in rodents.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Inoue, F; Kodama, T; Kodama, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the nature of the action of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) as the modulator of gene expression. Practically, both the acceleration of daily liquid consumption following salt-hydrocortisone conditioning (sea water adaptation phenomenon) and the suppressive effect of MNNG on that gene expression were comparatively investigated among Wistar rats of both sexes, Buffalo rats of both sexes and Swiss/ICR mice of both sexes. Results obtained are as follows: 1) the responsiveness to the salt-hydrocortisone conditioning, as assessed in terms of weight-adjusted liquid consumption, decreased in the order of female Swiss mice greater than male Swiss mice greater than Buffalo rats of both sexes greater than female Wistar rats greater than male Wistar rats, a finding which indicates that an inverse relationship exists between the expression of the sea water adaptation gene and that of putative stomach proto-oncogene. 2) Additional MNNG conditioning (provision of MNNG drink) eradicated the accelerating effect of the salt-hydrocortisone conditioning on the water turnover of a rodent. 3) Evidence was presented to indicate that MNNG acted as an antiandrogen in expressing the above effect. In conclusion, our findings are taken as evidence to support the proposition that the sea water adaptation gene and the stomach proto-oncogene compete with each other in the possession of one common MNNG-sensitive (and/or steroid-sensitive) enhancer gene in their gene expressions.

  2. Influence on growth conditions on the value of crisphead lettuce. 2. Weight losses during storage as affected by nitrogen, plant age and cooling system.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, N; Sørensen, J N; Johansen, A S

    1994-07-01

    Storage of crisphead lettuce was carried out at 1 degrees C in an ordinary cold storage room and in an ice bank cooling system. The plants were grown at three plantings at 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg total nitrogen supply per hectare and harvested at two or three different plant ages. The cultivars used were 'Marius' and 'Saladin'. The aim of the experiment was to prolong the storage and to reduce the losses. After 14 days of storage the greatest total weight losses were found at the mid-season planting whereas the least total weight loss was found at the late planting. Ice bank cooling at all plantings reduced the total weight loss in comparison to the cold storage. The effect of nitrogen and cultivar was low. The total weight loss defined as loss due to transpiration and trimming was neither related to the head weight nor the surface area of the heads. A reduced loss with increasing plant age was not a question of increased transpiration due to surface to volume ratio changes, but may be related to other factors. A lower average total weight loss was found in the ice bank cooling system compared to the cold storage. The explanation of this might be the existence of a high relative humidity in the ice bank storage. To reduce the total weight loss harvest must take place at the right plant age. No definite growth stage was defined here, but the plants must have reached marketable quality as the young plants are more susceptible to weight loss during storage. It seems likely that some unknown internal factors in the plant were involved in reduction of the total weight loss. PMID:7971782

  3. FPGA Verification Accelerator (FVAX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, Jane; Burke, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Is Verification Acceleration Possible? - Increasing the visibility of the internal nodes of the FPGA results in much faster debug time - Forcing internal signals directly allows a problem condition to be setup very quickly center dot Is this all? - No, this is part of a comprehensive effort to improve the JPL FPGA design and V&V process.

  4. Storage study and quality evaluation of coconut protein powder.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Prakash, Maya; R, Ravi; Raghavarao, Ksms

    2013-11-01

    Coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are 2 major byproducts in the production of virgin coconut oil. Coconut skim milk was homogenized along with insoluble protein and spray dried to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder (CPP). This study deals with the storage study of CPP under different conditions (refrigerated [control], ambient and accelerated). CPP samples were withdrawn periodically at designated intervals of 15 d for accelerated and control, and 30 d for ambient condition. CPP stored at different conditions exhibited marginal moisture uptake (by 0.74 % w/w for control, 0.76 % w/w for ambient, and 1.26 % w/w for accelerated condition) and as a result, had very little effect on the functional properties of the powder. Withdrawn CPP was tested for sensory quality aspects and subjected to instrumental analysis as well. Withdrawn CPP was incorporated as a milk substitute in dessert (Kheer). Quantitative descriptive analysis of the powder and product (Kheer) showed no significant difference in attributes of CPP during the storage period of 2 mo. Electronic nose analysis revealed that CPP samples were not much different with respect to aroma pattern matching, respectively.

  5. Storage study and quality evaluation of coconut protein powder.

    PubMed

    Naik, Aduja; Prakash, Maya; R, Ravi; Raghavarao, Ksms

    2013-11-01

    Coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are 2 major byproducts in the production of virgin coconut oil. Coconut skim milk was homogenized along with insoluble protein and spray dried to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder (CPP). This study deals with the storage study of CPP under different conditions (refrigerated [control], ambient and accelerated). CPP samples were withdrawn periodically at designated intervals of 15 d for accelerated and control, and 30 d for ambient condition. CPP stored at different conditions exhibited marginal moisture uptake (by 0.74 % w/w for control, 0.76 % w/w for ambient, and 1.26 % w/w for accelerated condition) and as a result, had very little effect on the functional properties of the powder. Withdrawn CPP was tested for sensory quality aspects and subjected to instrumental analysis as well. Withdrawn CPP was incorporated as a milk substitute in dessert (Kheer). Quantitative descriptive analysis of the powder and product (Kheer) showed no significant difference in attributes of CPP during the storage period of 2 mo. Electronic nose analysis revealed that CPP samples were not much different with respect to aroma pattern matching, respectively. PMID:24245897

  6. Geochemical changes and microbial activities during CO2 storage - Long-term experiments under in situ conditions within the frame of CO2SINK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandrey, Maren; Scherf, Ann-Kathrin; Vieth, Andrea; Zettlitzer, Michael; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the frame of the CO2SINK project, CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer of the Stuttgart formation (Triassic, Middle Keuper) at a depth of about 640 m below surface near Ketzin (Northeast German Basin, about 40 km west of Berlin) (Schilling et al., 2009). The injection of CO2 may induce a variety of geochemical changes in the reservoir system. Inorganic components may be dissolved from mineral phases (Wigand et al., 2008) and mineral precipitation from fluid components (Ketzer et al., 2009) may occur. In addition, organic molecules may be relocated, since supercritical CO2 is an excellent solvent for organic components. These geochemical shifts probably affect the microbial community composition and activity. The dissolution and precipitation of minerals, as well as corresponding microbial processes (Bennet et al., 2001) can affect reservoir permeability. In order to detect and quantify changes in geochemical characteristics and microbial processes during CO2storage and to estimate their impact on storage efficiency long-term experiments under in situ P-T conditions are performed. Freshly drilled sandstone sections from the target reservoir at Ketzin from a depth of about 630 m were incubated together with synthetic brine (20 % lower total dissolved solids than the Ketzin reservoir fluid) in high pressure vessels at 5.5 MPa and 40 ° C since September 2007. Since outer core sections were contaminated with drilling mud, as shown with fluorescein tracer detection (Wandrey et al., 2010), only clean inner core sections were used for long-term experiments to avoid contamination with microorganisms, as well as organic and inorganic mud components. After 15, 21 and 24 month fluid and rock samples were taken for chemical, microbial, mineralogical and petrophysical analyses. In fluid samples the concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ were found to exceed those of the Ketzin reservoir fluid. Assuming chemical equilibrium between mineral and formation brine, observed

  7. Geochemical changes and microbial activities during CO2 storage - Long-term experiments under in situ conditions within the frame of CO2SINK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wandrey, Maren; Scherf, Ann-Kathrin; Vieth, Andrea; Zettlitzer, Michael; Würdemann, Hilke

    2010-05-01

    Within the frame of the CO2SINK project, CO2 is injected into a saline aquifer of the Stuttgart formation (Triassic, Middle Keuper) at a depth of about 640 m below surface near Ketzin (Northeast German Basin, about 40 km west of Berlin) (Schilling et al., 2009). The injection of CO2 may induce a variety of geochemical changes in the reservoir system. Inorganic components may be dissolved from mineral phases (Wigand et al., 2008) and mineral precipitation from fluid components (Ketzer et al., 2009) may occur. In addition, organic molecules may be relocated, since supercritical CO2 is an excellent solvent for organic components. These geochemical shifts probably affect the microbial community composition and activity. The dissolution and precipitation of minerals, as well as corresponding microbial processes (Bennet et al., 2001) can affect reservoir permeability. In order to detect and quantify changes in geochemical characteristics and microbial processes during CO2storage and to estimate their impact on storage efficiency long-term experiments under in situ P-T conditions are performed. Freshly drilled sandstone sections from the target reservoir at Ketzin from a depth of about 630 m were incubated together with synthetic brine (20 % lower total dissolved solids than the Ketzin reservoir fluid) in high pressure vessels at 5.5 MPa and 40 ° C since September 2007. Since outer core sections were contaminated with drilling mud, as shown with fluorescein tracer detection (Wandrey et al., 2010), only clean inner core sections were used for long-term experiments to avoid contamination with microorganisms, as well as organic and inorganic mud components. After 15, 21 and 24 month fluid and rock samples were taken for chemical, microbial, mineralogical and petrophysical analyses. In fluid samples the concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, and K+ were found to exceed those of the Ketzin reservoir fluid. Assuming chemical equilibrium between mineral and formation brine, observed

  8. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  9. Accelerated Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

  10. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

    DOEpatents

    Pope, K.E.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

  11. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  12. Optomechanical light storage in a silica microresonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Victor; Dong, Chunhua; Kuzyk, Mark C.; Wang, Hailin

    2013-02-01

    Coherent interconversion between an optical and a mechanical excitation in an optomechanical resonator can be used for the storage of an optical pulse as an excitation in a mechanical oscillator. This optomechanical light storage is enabled by external writing and readout pulses at one mechanical frequency below the optical resonance. In this paper, we expand an earlier experimental study [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.133601 107, 133601 (2011)] on storing an optical pulse as a radial breathing mode in a silica microsphere. We show that the heterodyne beating between a readout pulse and the corresponding retrieved pulse features a periodic oscillation with a well-defined phase and with the beating period given by the mechanical frequency, demonstrating directly the coherent nature of the light storage process. The coherent interconversion accelerates with increasing optomechanical coupling rates, providing an effective mechanism for tailoring the temporal profile of the retrieved pulse. Experimental studies on both light storage and optomechanically induced transparency under nearly the same conditions also illustrate the connections between these two closely related processes.

  13. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  14. Conceptual design report: Nuclear materials storage facility renovation. Part 5, Structural/seismic investigation. Section A report, existing conditions calculations/supporting information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    The Nuclear Materials Storage Facility (NMSF) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) was a Fiscal Year (FY) 1984 line-item project completed in 1987 that has never been operated because of major design and construction deficiencies. This renovation project, which will correct those deficiencies and allow operation of the facility, is proposed as an FY 97 line item. The mission of the project is to provide centralized intermediate and long-term storage of special nuclear materials (SNM) associated with defined LANL programmatic missions and to establish a centralized SNM shipping and receiving location for Technical Area (TA)-55 at LANL. Based on current projections, existing storage space for SNM at other locations at LANL will be loaded to capacity by approximately 2002. This will adversely affect LANUs ability to meet its mission requirements in the future. The affected missions include LANL`s weapons research, development, and testing (WRD&T) program; special materials recovery; stockpile survelliance/evaluation; advanced fuels and heat sources development and production; and safe, secure storage of existing nuclear materials inventories. The problem is further exacerbated by LANL`s inability to ship any materials offsite because of the lack of receiver sites for mate rial and regulatory issues. Correction of the current deficiencies and enhancement of the facility will provide centralized storage close to a nuclear materials processing facility. The project will enable long-term, cost-effective storage in a secure environment with reduced radiation exposure to workers, and eliminate potential exposures to the public. Based upon US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations (DOE/Al) Office and LANL projections, storage space limitations/restrictions will begin to affect LANL`s ability to meet its missions between 1998 and 2002.

  15. Effects of temporary cooling, and of different explantation and storage conditions, on the subsequent development of post-implantation rat embryos in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kachilele, S G; New, D A

    1988-10-01

    Rat embryos explanted at head fold stage were stored under various levels of hypothermia prior to culture. The storage media were Hanks' Balanced Salt Solution (BSS), 50% rat serum with 50% Dulbecco's Modification of Eagle's Medium (standard medium), or 100% rat serum. The media were gassed with 5% O2/5% CO2/90% N2 or 20% O2/5% CO2/75% N2. Subsequent development of embryos after storage at temperatures between 10 degrees C and 30 degrees C for 5 hr in Hanks' BSS, or for 5-10 hr in standard medium or serum, was similar to that of controls. Some embryos developed well even after storage for 48 hr in standard medium. Development was poorer after storage at 0 degrees C or 5 degrees C, and after storage at all temperatures in ungassed Hanks' or standard medium (pH greater than 8.0). Differences in oxygen level had little effect. For routine explantation at room temperature in (ungassed) phosphate-buffered saline solutions such as Hanks', it is recommended that the delay before transferring the embryos to the culture incubator not exceed 2-3 hr.

  16. Introduction to Particle Acceleration in the Cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Horwitz, J. L.; Perez, J.; Quenby, J.

    2005-01-01

    Accelerated charged particles have been used on Earth since 1930 to explore the very essence of matter, for industrial applications, and for medical treatments. Throughout the universe nature employs a dizzying array of acceleration processes to produce particles spanning twenty orders of magnitude in energy range, while shaping our cosmic environment. Here, we introduce and review the basic physical processes causing particle acceleration, in astrophysical plasmas from geospace to the outer reaches of the cosmos. These processes are chiefly divided into four categories: adiabatic and other forms of non-stochastic acceleration, magnetic energy storage and stochastic acceleration, shock acceleration, and plasma wave and turbulent acceleration. The purpose of this introduction is to set the stage and context for the individual papers comprising this monograph.

  17. Energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  18. Accelerator simulation of astrophysical processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombrello, T. A.

    1983-01-01

    Phenomena that involve accelerated ions in stellar processes that can be simulated with laboratory accelerators are described. Stellar evolutionary phases, such as the CNO cycle, have been partially explored with accelerators, up to the consumption of He by alpha particle radiative capture reactions. Further experimentation is indicated on reactions featuring N-13(p,gamma)O-14, O-15(alpha, gamma)Ne-19, and O-14(alpha,p)F-17. Accelerated beams interacting with thin foils produce reaction products that permit a determination of possible elemental abundances in stellar objects. Additionally, isotopic ratios observed in chondrites can be duplicated with accelerator beam interactions and thus constraints can be set on the conditions producing the meteorites. Data from isotopic fractionation from sputtering, i.e., blasting surface atoms from a material using a low energy ion beam, leads to possible models for processes occurring in supernova explosions. Finally, molecules can be synthesized with accelerators and compared with spectroscopic observations of stellar winds.

  19. Compact accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  20. BICEP's acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2014-10-01

    The recent Bicep2 [1] detection of, what is claimed to be primordial B-modes, opens up the possibility of constraining not only the energy scale of inflation but also the detailed acceleration history that occurred during inflation. In turn this can be used to determine the shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) for the first time — if a single, scalar inflaton is assumed to be driving the acceleration. We carry out a Monte Carlo exploration of inflationary trajectories given the current data. Using this method we obtain a posterior distribution of possible acceleration profiles ε(N) as a function of e-fold N and derived posterior distributions of the primordial power spectrum P(k) and potential V(φ). We find that the Bicep2 result, in combination with Planck measurements of total intensity Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, induces a significant feature in the scalar primordial spectrum at scales k∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc {sup -1}. This is in agreement with a previous detection of a suppression in the scalar power [2].

  1. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1989-01-01

    The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass. The goal of the present program is to demonstrate feasibility of the EPA thruster concept through experimental and theoretical investigations of the EPA acceleration mechanism and discharge chamber performance. Experimental investigations will include operating the test bed ion (TBI) engine as an EPA thruster and parametrically varying the thruster geometry and operating conditions to quantify the electrostatic plasma acceleration effect. The theoretical investigations will include the development of a discharge chamber model which describes the relationships between the engine size, plasma properties, and overall performance. For the EPA thruster to be a viable propulsion concept, overall thruster efficiencies approaching 30% with specific impulses approaching 1000 s must be achieved.

  2. Cascaded target normal sheath acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W. P.; Shen, B. F.; Zhang, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Yu, Y. H.; Yi, L. Q.; Shi, Y.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, T. J.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2013-11-15

    A cascaded target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) scheme is proposed to simultaneously increase energy and improve energy spread of a laser-produced mono-energetic proton beam. An optimum condition that uses the maximum sheath field to accelerate the center of the proton beam is theoretically found and verified by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. An initial 10 MeV proton beam is accelerated to 21 MeV with energy spread decreased from 5% to 2% under the optimum condition during the process of the cascaded TNSA. The scheme opens a way to scale proton energy lineally with laser energy.

  3. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  4. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  5. Ripening and storage conditions of Chétoui and Arbequina olives: Part II. Effect on olive endogenous enzymes and virgin olive oil secoiridoid profile determined by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; Cortes-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Gargouri, Mohamed; Vichi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Several factors affect virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic profile. The aim of this study was to monitor olive hydrolytic (β-glucosidase) and oxidative (peroxydase, POX, and polyphenoloxydase, PPO) enzymes during olive ripening and storage and to determine their capacity to shape VOO phenolic profile. To this end, olives from the cultivars Chétoui and Arbequina were stored at 4°C or 25°C for 4weeks and their enzymatic activities and oil phenolic profiles were compared to those of ripening olives. We observed different trends in enzymes activities according to cultivar and storage temperature. Secoiridoid compounds, determined by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and their deacetoxylated, oxygenated, and deacetoxy-oxygenated derivatives were identified and their contents differed between the cultivars according to olive ripening degree and storage conditions. These differences could be due to β-glucosidase, POX and PPO activities changes during olive ripening and storage. Results also show that oxidised phenolic compounds could be a marker of VOO ''freshness".

  6. Allergen Quantification by Use of Electrostatic Dust Collectors (EDCs): Influence of Deployment Time, Extraction Buffer, and Storage Conditions on the Results.

    PubMed

    Sander, Ingrid; Lotz, Anne; Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2016-08-01

    Sampling of endotoxin, beta-glucan, or allergens on electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) is a convenient method for exposure assessment. However, especially for allergens few experiments on validation of this method concerning deployment time or storage and extraction procedure have been performed. The aim of study was to optimize the EDC procedure for sampling of allergens in indoor environments. EDCs were placed in households or day-care centers and after extraction, allergens were quantified by six immunoassays detecting mite antigens (Domestic mites DM, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Dp, Tyrophagus putrescentiae Tp) or the main allergens from cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and mouse (Mus m 1). For 20 EDC holders, deployment times of cloths were varied between 7 and 28 days, 36 EDCs were used to test reproducibility, and for 28 EDCs extraction buffers were varied (with or without 0.05% Tween 20, borate, or phosphate buffer). The influence of storage of cloths at room temperature (2-629 days) or extracts at -80°C (7-639 days), and variation of extract storage temperature (-20°C and -80°C) for long time storage (1.5 years) on the outcome of allergen quantification were tested for about 150 EDCs. The allergens on EDC cloths increased proportionally with deployment time, and allergen loads on parallel sampled tissues were significantly correlated (P < 0.0001, Pearson of log-transformed values 0.91-0.99). Extraction without Tween reduced all results (P < 0.0001, -51% DM, -85% Dp, -60% Tp, -99% Fel d 1, -86% Can f 1, -52% Mus m 1), and borate buffer resulted in lower yields of Mus m 1 (-53%), DP (-45%), and Tp (-27%) than phosphate buffer. Storage of cloths at room temperature significantly decreased Can f 1 levels (P < 0.0001, -4.8% loss for every 30 days), whereas storage of extracts at -80°C decreased DM results (P < 0.0001, -1.2% loss for every 30 days). Extracts stored at -20°C gave at mean 12% higher DM results compared to extracts stored at -80°C for 1

  7. Allergen Quantification by Use of Electrostatic Dust Collectors (EDCs): Influence of Deployment Time, Extraction Buffer, and Storage Conditions on the Results.

    PubMed

    Sander, Ingrid; Lotz, Anne; Zahradnik, Eva; Raulf, Monika

    2016-08-01

    Sampling of endotoxin, beta-glucan, or allergens on electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) is a convenient method for exposure assessment. However, especially for allergens few experiments on validation of this method concerning deployment time or storage and extraction procedure have been performed. The aim of study was to optimize the EDC procedure for sampling of allergens in indoor environments. EDCs were placed in households or day-care centers and after extraction, allergens were quantified by six immunoassays detecting mite antigens (Domestic mites DM, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Dp, Tyrophagus putrescentiae Tp) or the main allergens from cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and mouse (Mus m 1). For 20 EDC holders, deployment times of cloths were varied between 7 and 28 days, 36 EDCs were used to test reproducibility, and for 28 EDCs extraction buffers were varied (with or without 0.05% Tween 20, borate, or phosphate buffer). The influence of storage of cloths at room temperature (2-629 days) or extracts at -80°C (7-639 days), and variation of extract storage temperature (-20°C and -80°C) for long time storage (1.5 years) on the outcome of allergen quantification were tested for about 150 EDCs. The allergens on EDC cloths increased proportionally with deployment time, and allergen loads on parallel sampled tissues were significantly correlated (P < 0.0001, Pearson of log-transformed values 0.91-0.99). Extraction without Tween reduced all results (P < 0.0001, -51% DM, -85% Dp, -60% Tp, -99% Fel d 1, -86% Can f 1, -52% Mus m 1), and borate buffer resulted in lower yields of Mus m 1 (-53%), DP (-45%), and Tp (-27%) than phosphate buffer. Storage of cloths at room temperature significantly decreased Can f 1 levels (P < 0.0001, -4.8% loss for every 30 days), whereas storage of extracts at -80°C decreased DM results (P < 0.0001, -1.2% loss for every 30 days). Extracts stored at -20°C gave at mean 12% higher DM results compared to extracts stored at -80°C for 1

  8. Salt-hydrate thermal-energy-storage system for space heating and air conditioning. Final report, December 1, 1977-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    MacCracken, C.D.; Armstrong, J.M.; MacCracken, M.M.; Silvetti, B.M.

    1980-01-01

    Latent heat storage equipment is being developed using 3 different salts. They are sodium sulfate pentahydrate which melts at 46/sup 0/C, magnesium chloride hexahydrate which melts at 115/sup 0/C, and a eutectic combination of seven different materials which melts at 7/sup 0/C. Development work is reported on stirring pumps, tank and tubing materials, and field filling of the salts into their tanks. Performance testing is also reported. Good performance is reported for the tank/heat exchangers with all three salts. Both the 115/sup 0/C and 46/sup 0/C salts are almost equivalent in volume storage to water/ice. The 7/sup 0/C salt, however, begins at about 56% of the BTU's per cubic foot of water/ice and declines due to separation to 40% after repeated cycling. (LEW)

  9. Impact of Cultivation Conditions, Ethylene Treatment, and Postharvest Storage on Selected Quality and Bioactivity Parameters of Kiwifruit "Hayward" Evaluated by Analytical and Chemometric Methods.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong Seo; Polovka, Martin; Ham, Kyung-Sik Ham; Park, Yang-Kyun; Vearasilp, Suchada; Namieśnik, Jacek; Toledo, Fernando; Arancibia-Avila, Patricia; Gorinstein, Shela

    2016-09-01

    Organic, semiorganic, and conventional "Hayward" kiwifruits, treated with ethylene for 24 h and stored during 10 days, were assessed by UV spectrometry, fluorometry, and chemometrical analysis for changes in selected characteristics of quality (firmness, dry matter and soluble solid contents, pH, and acidity) and bioactivity (concentration of polyphenols via Folin-Ciocalteu and p-hydroxybenzoic acid assays). All of the monitored qualitative parameters and characteristics related to bioactivity were affected either by cultivation practices or by ethylene treatment and storage. Results obtained, supported by statistical evaluation (Friedman two-way ANOVA) and chemometric analysis, clearly proved that the most significant impact on the majority of the evaluated parameters of quality and bioactivity of "Hayward" kiwifruit had the ethylene treatment followed by the cultivation practices and the postharvest storage. Total concentration of polyphenols expressed via p-hydroxybenzoic acid assay exhibited the most significant sensitivity to all three evaluated parameters, reaching a 16.5% increase for fresh organic compared to a conventional control sample. As a result of postharvest storage coupled with ethylene treatment, the difference increased to 26.3%. Three-dimensional fluorescence showed differences in the position of the main peaks and their fluorescence intensity for conventional, semiorganic, and organic kiwifruits in comparison with ethylene nontreated samples. PMID:27472553

  10. Lectures in accelerator theory

    SciTech Connect

    Month, M

    1980-01-01

    Lecture I deals with the behavior of particles in the nonlinear field arising from the electromagnetic interaction of colliding beams. The case treated, that of counter-rotating proton beams crossing each other at a non-zero angle, has the simple feature that the force between the beam is one dimensional. In lecture II, an analysis of the development of traveling waves on particle beams is presented. The situation studied is that of a uniform beam current in a circular accelerator and the excitation for the coherent motion is induced by the resistivity of the vacuum chamber wall. Finally, in lecture III, a description of the current accumulation process used at the proton storage rings at CERN (The ISR) is given. Particle pulses of rather low average current are injected and stored along the length and width of the vacuum chamber. The efficiency is very high and large currents (over 40 amperes) have been achieved.

  11. Thermal storage for electric utilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swet, C. J.; Masica, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of the thermal energy storage (TES) principle (storage of sensible heat or latent heat, or heat storage in reversible chemical reactions) in power systems are evaluated. Load leveling behind the meter, load following at conventional thermal power plants, solar thermal power generation, and waste heat utilization are the principal TES applications considered. Specific TES examples discussed include: storage heaters for electric-resistance space heating, air conditioning TES in the form of chilled water or eutectic salt baths, hot water TES, and trans-seasonal storage in heated water in confined aquifers.

  12. Accelerating Monte Carlo molecular simulations by reweighting and reconstructing Markov chains: Extrapolation of canonical ensemble averages and second derivatives to different temperature and density conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Kadoura, Ahmad; Sun, Shuyu Salama, Amgad

    2014-08-01

    Accurate determination of thermodynamic properties of petroleum reservoir fluids is of great interest to many applications, especially in petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Molecular simulation has many appealing features, especially its requirement of fewer tuned parameters but yet better predicting capability; however it is well known that molecular simulation is very CPU expensive, as compared to equation of state approaches. We have recently introduced an efficient thermodynamically consistent technique to regenerate rapidly Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMCs) at different thermodynamic conditions from the existing data points that have been pre-computed with expensive classical simulation. This technique can speed up the simulation more than a million times, making the regenerated molecular simulation almost as fast as equation of state approaches. In this paper, this technique is first briefly reviewed and then numerically investigated in its capability of predicting ensemble averages of primary quantities at different neighboring thermodynamic conditions to the original simulated MCMCs. Moreover, this extrapolation technique is extended to predict second derivative properties (e.g. heat capacity and fluid compressibility). The method works by reweighting and reconstructing generated MCMCs in canonical ensemble for Lennard-Jones particles. In this paper, system's potential energy, pressure, isochoric heat capacity and isothermal compressibility along isochors, isotherms and paths of changing temperature and density from the original simulated points were extrapolated. Finally, an optimized set of Lennard-Jones parameters (ε, σ) for single site models were proposed for methane, nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

  13. An update on corrosion monitoring in cylinder storage yards

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, H.M.; Newman, V.S.; Frazier, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    Depleted uranium, from US uranium isotope enrichment activities, is stored in the form of solid uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) in A285 and A516 steel cylinders designed and manufactured to ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code criteria. In general, storage facilities are open areas adjacent to the enrichment plants where the cylinders are exposed to weather. This paper describes the Oak Ridge program to determine the general corrosion behavior of UF{sub 6} cylinders, to determine cylinder yard conditions which are likely to affect long term storage of this material, and to assess cylinder storage yards against these criteria. This program is targeted at conditions specific to the Oak Ridge cylinder yards. Based on (a) determination of the current cylinder yard conditions, (b) determination of rusting behavior in regions of the cylinders showing accelerated attack, (c) monitoring of corrosion rates through periodic measurement of test coupons placed within the cylinder yards, and (d) establishment of a computer base to incorporate and retain these data, the technical division is working with the enrichment sites to implement an upgraded system for storage of this material until such time as it is used or converted.

  14. Stability and Degradation of Caffeoylquinic Acids under Different Storage Conditions Studied by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Photo Diode Array Detection and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ionization Collision-Induced Dissociation Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xue, Meng; Shi, Hang; Zhang, Jiao; Liu, Qing-Quan; Guan, Jun; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Ma, Qun

    2016-07-21

    Caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) are main constituents in many herbal medicines with various biological and pharmacological effects. However, CQAs will degrade or isomerize when affected by temperature, pH, light, etc. In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was utilized to study the stability and degradation of CQAs (three mono-acyl CQAs and four di-acyl CQAs) under various ordinary storage conditions (involving different temperatures, solvents, and light irradiation). The results indicated that the stability of CQAs was mainly affected by temperature and light irradiation, while solvents did not affect it in any obvious way under the conditions studied. Mono-acyl CQAs were generally much more stable than di-acyl CQAs under the same conditions. Meanwhile, the chemical structures of 30 degradation products were also characterized by HPLC-MS(n), inferring that isomerization, methylation, and hydrolysis were three major degradation pathways. The result provides a meaningful clue for the storage conditions of CQAs standard substances and samples.

  15. Stability and Degradation of Caffeoylquinic Acids under Different Storage Conditions Studied by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Photo Diode Array Detection and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrospray Ionization Collision-Induced Dissociation Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xue, Meng; Shi, Hang; Zhang, Jiao; Liu, Qing-Quan; Guan, Jun; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Ma, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs) are main constituents in many herbal medicines with various biological and pharmacological effects. However, CQAs will degrade or isomerize when affected by temperature, pH, light, etc. In this study, high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA) and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was utilized to study the stability and degradation of CQAs (three mono-acyl CQAs and four di-acyl CQAs) under various ordinary storage conditions (involving different temperatures, solvents, and light irradiation). The results indicated that the stability of CQAs was mainly affected by temperature and light irradiation, while solvents did not affect it in any obvious way under the conditions studied. Mono-acyl CQAs were generally much more stable than di-acyl CQAs under the same conditions. Meanwhile, the chemical structures of 30 degradation products were also characterized by HPLC-MS(n), inferring that isomerization, methylation, and hydrolysis were three major degradation pathways. The result provides a meaningful clue for the storage conditions of CQAs standard substances and samples. PMID:27455213

  16. Accelerator system and method of accelerating particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirz, Richard E. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An accelerator system and method that utilize dust as the primary mass flux for generating thrust are provided. The accelerator system can include an accelerator capable of operating in a self-neutralizing mode and having a discharge chamber and at least one ionizer capable of charging dust particles. The system can also include a dust particle feeder that is capable of introducing the dust particles into the accelerator. By applying a pulsed positive and negative charge voltage to the accelerator, the charged dust particles can be accelerated thereby generating thrust and neutralizing the accelerator system.

  17. Neural networks and orbit control in accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bozoki, E.; Friedman, A.

    1994-07-01

    An overview of the architecture, workings and training of Neural Networks is given. We stress the aspects which are important for the use of Neural Networks for orbit control in accelerators and storage rings, especially its ability to cope with the nonlinear behavior of the orbit response to `kicks` and the slow drift in the orbit response during long-term operation. Results obtained for the two NSLS storage rings with several network architectures and various training methods for each architecture are given.

  18. STATUS OF THE NIF POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, P; Hulsey, S; Ullery, G; Petersen, D; Pendleton, D; Ollis, C; Newton, M

    2007-07-26

    The NIF Power Conditioning System provides the pulsed excitation required to drive flashlamps in the laser's optical amplifiers. Modular in design, each of the 192 Main Energy Storage Modules (MESMs) storage up to 2.2 MJ of electrical energy in its capacitor bank before delivering the energy to 20 pairs of flashlamps in a 400 {micro}s pulse (10% power points). The peak current of each MESM discharge is 0.5 MA. Production, installation, commissioning and operation of the NIF Power Conditioning continue to progress rapidly, with the goals of completing accelerated production in late 2007 and finishing commissioning by early 2008, all the while maintaining an aggressive operations schedule. To date, more than 80% of the required modules have been assembled, shipped and installed in the facility, representing more that 240 MJ of stored energy available for driving NIF flashlamps. The MESMs have displayed outstanding reliability during daily, multiple-shift operations.

  19. Ultrafine hydrogen storage powders

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Ellis, Timothy W.; Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Ting, Jason; Terpstra, Robert; Bowman, Robert C.; Witham, Charles K.; Fultz, Brent T.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2000-06-13

    A method of making hydrogen storage powder resistant to fracture in service involves forming a melt having the appropriate composition for the hydrogen storage material, such, for example, LaNi.sub.5 and other AB.sub.5 type materials and AB.sub.5+x materials, where x is from about -2.5 to about +2.5, including x=0, and the melt is gas atomized under conditions of melt temperature and atomizing gas pressure to form generally spherical powder particles. The hydrogen storage powder exhibits improved chemcial homogeneity as a result of rapid solidfication from the melt and small particle size that is more resistant to microcracking during hydrogen absorption/desorption cycling. A hydrogen storage component, such as an electrode for a battery or electrochemical fuel cell, made from the gas atomized hydrogen storage material is resistant to hydrogen degradation upon hydrogen absorption/desorption that occurs for example, during charging/discharging of a battery. Such hydrogen storage components can be made by consolidating and optionally sintering the gas atomized hydrogen storage powder or alternately by shaping the gas atomized powder and a suitable binder to a desired configuration in a mold or die.

  20. Reversible Seeding in Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, Daniel; Chao, Alex; /SLAC

    2011-12-14

    We propose to generate steady-state microbunching in a storage ring with a reversible seeding scheme. High gain harmonic generation (HGHG) and echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) are two promising methods for microbunching linac electron beams. Because both schemes increase the energy spread of the seeded beam, they cannot drive a coherent radiator turn-by-turn in a storage ring. However, reversing the seeding process following the radiator minimizes the impact on the electron beam and may allow coherent radiation at or near the storage ring repetition rate. In this paper we describe the general idea and outline a proof-of-principle experiment. Electron storage rings can drive high average power light sources, and free-electron lasers (FELs) are now producing coherent light sources of unprecedented peak brightness While there is active research towards high repetition rate FELs (for example, using energy recovery linacs), at present there are still no convenient accelerator-based sources of high repetition rate, coherent radiation. As an alternative avenue, we recently proposed to establish steady-state microbunching (SSMB) in a storage ring. By maintaining steady-state coherent microbunching at one point in the storage ring, the beam generates coherent radiation at or close to the repetition rate of the storage ring. In this paper, we propose a method of generating a microbunched beam in a storage ring by using reversible versions of linac seeding schemes.

  1. Study of the reversible water vapour sorption process of MgSO4.7H2O and MgCl2.6H2O under the conditions of seasonal solar heat storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferchaud, C. J.; Zondag, H. A.; Veldhuis, J. B. J.; de Boer, R.

    2012-11-01

    The characterization of the structural, compositional and thermodynamic properties of MgSO4.7H2O and MgCl2.6H2O has been done using in-situ X-ray Diffraction and thermal analyses (TG/DSC) under practical conditions for seasonal heat storage (Tmax=150°C, p(H2O)=13 mbar). This study showed that these two materials release heat after a dehydration/hydration cycle with energy densities of 0.38 GJ/m3 for MgSO4.7H2O and 0.71 GJ/m3 MgCl2.6H2O. The low heat release found for MgSO4.7H2O is mainly attributed to the amorphization of the material during the dehydration performed at 13 mbar which reduces its sorption capacity during the rehydration. MgCl2.6H2O presents a high energy density which makes this material interesting for seasonal heat storage in domestic applications. This material would be able to fulfil the winter heat demand of a passive house estimated at 6 GJ with a packed bed reactor of 8.5 m3. However, a seasonal heat storage system built with this material should be carefully set with a restricted temperature at 40°C for the hydration reaction to avoid the liquefaction of the material at lower temperature which limits its performances for long term storage.

  2. Effect of bacterial biofilm on corrosion of galvanically coupled aluminum and stainless steel alloys under conditions simulating wet storage of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.J.; Dirk, W.J.; Geesey, G.G.

    1999-10-01

    Galvanic corrosion is a concern during wet storage of spent nuclear fuels when aluminum alloys used as cladding for nuclear fuel rods become coupled to stainless steel alloys used as materials for construction of fuel rod hangers and containment equipment. A larger galvanic current density was observed between coupled UNS A96061 and UNS S30400 electrodes submerged in autoclave-sterilized makeup water. The differences were attributed to the development of a discontinuous bacterial biofilm on the couples submerged in as-received makeup water, which was not evident on the control couples that contained several orders of magnitude lower densities of bacteria. While pitting corrosion was observed on the UNS A96061 electrodes containing high or low densities of bacteria, maximum pit depth on the electrodes with high bacterial densities was twice that measured on electrodes with low bacterial densities.

  3. [Resins for esthetic veneering of fixed dentures. 3. Simultaneous analysis of dimensional change variables and weight change as a function of materials, storage condition and time].

    PubMed

    Leonardi, P; Giampaolo, E T; Machado Cucci, A L

    1990-01-01

    The authors analysed the simultaneous effects of the dimensional and weight alteration of resins utilized for esthetic facets submitted to warehousing conditions and periods of time. The resins showed different behaviour and a neat correlation between dimensional alteration and weight. The condition of immersion promoted dimensional alteration 50% lower and an alteration of weight three times higher.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: glycogen storage disease type VII

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions glycogen storage disease type VII glycogen storage disease type VII Enable Javascript to view the ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Glycogen storage disease type VII (GSDVII) is an inherited disorder ...

  5. Stability models for sequential storage.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Emil M; Shum, Sam C

    2011-03-01

    Some drugs are intended for sequential storage under two different storage conditions. If the data for each condition are analyzed separately, predicting assay and other responses after T1 months at one condition followed by T2 months at the other condition is non-trivial for several reasons. First, the two analyses will give different intercept terms. What should one do about that? Second, how would one calculate the confidence limits for combined storage? Third, what if prior storage at one condition affects the slope at the other condition? This paper proposes a simple ANCOVA model containing two slope terms, one for each storage condition. When multiple batches and/or packages are involved, it is easily generalized to two sets of slope terms. Confidence limits are straightforward and can be calculated using existing commercial software. With properly designed data, one can test whether prior storage at one condition affects the slope at the other condition. If no such effect is significant, very useful extrapolations can be made. Temperature excursions, model reduction and curvilinear dependencies are discussed.

  6. Spectroscopic evaluation of a freeze-dried vaccine during an accelerated stability study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Laurent; Van Renterghem, Jeroen; Daoussi, Rim; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; De Beer, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    This research evaluates a freeze-dried live, attenuated virus vaccine during an accelerated stability study using Near Infrared (NIR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in addition to the traditional quality tests (i.e., potency assay and residual moisture analysis) and Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (MDSC). Therefore, freeze-dried live, attenuated virus vaccines were stored during four weeks at 4°C (i.e., recommended storage condition) and at 37°C (i.e., accelerated storage condition) and weekly analyzed using these techniques. The potency assay showed that the virus titer decreased in two phases when the samples were stored at 37°C. The highest titer loss occurred during the first week storage at 37°C after which the degradation rate decreased. Both the residual moisture content and the relaxation enthalpy also increased according to this two-phase pattern during storage at 37°C. In order to evaluate the virus and its interaction with the amorphous stabilizer in the formulation (trehalose), the NIR spectra were analyzed via principal component analysis (PCA) using the amide A/II band (5029-4690cm(-1)). The FTIR spectra were also analyzed via PCA using the amide III spectral range (1350-1200cm(-1)). Analysis of the amide A/II band in the NIR spectra revealed that the titer decrease during storage was probably linked to a change of the hydrogen bonds (i.e., interaction) between the virus proteins and the amorphous trehalose. Analyzing the amide III band (FTIR spectra) showed that the virus destabilization was coupled to a decrease of the coated proteins β turn and an increase of α helix. During storage at 4°C, the titer remained constant, no enthalpic relaxation was observed and neither the Amide A/II band (NIR spectra) nor the Amide III band (FTIR spectra) varied. PMID:27102305

  7. Fuel performance in water storage

    SciTech Connect

    Hoskins, A.P.; Scott, J.G.; Shelton-Davis, C.V.; McDannel, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company operates the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Department of Energy (DOE). A variety of different types of fuels have been stored there since the 1950`s prior to reprocessing for uranium recovery. In April of 1992, the DOE decided to end fuel reprocessing, changing the mission at ICPP. Fuel integrity in storage is now viewed as long term until final disposition is defined and implemented. Thus, the condition of fuel and storage equipment is being closely monitored and evaluated to ensure continued safe storage. There are four main areas of fuel storage at ICPP: an original underwater storage facility (CPP-603), a modern underwater storage facility (CPP-666), and two dry fuel storage facilities. The fuels in storage are from the US Navy, DOE (and its predecessors the Energy Research and Development Administration and the Atomic Energy Commission), and other research programs. Fuel matrices include uranium oxide, hydride, carbide, metal, and alloy fuels. In the underwater storage basins, fuels are clad with stainless steel, zirconium, and aluminum. Also included in the basin inventory is canned scrap material. The dry fuel storage contains primarily graphite and aluminum type fuels. A total of 55 different fuel types are currently stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The corrosion resistance of the barrier material is of primary concern in evaluating the integrity of the fuel in long term water storage. The barrier material is either the fuel cladding (if not canned) or the can material.

  8. Prototype rf cavity for the HISTRAP accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Mosko, S.W.; Dowling, D.T.; Olsen, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    HISTRAP, a proposed synchrotron-cooling-storage ring designed to both accelerate and decelerate very highly charged very heavy ions for atomic physics research, requires an rf accelerating system to provide /+-/2.5 kV of peak accelerating voltage per turn while tuning through a 13.5:1 frequency range in a fraction of a second. A prototype half-wave, single gap rf cavity with biased ferrite tuning was built and tested over a continuous tuning range of 200 kHz through 2.7 MHz. Initial test results establish the feasibility of using ferrite tuning at the required rf power levels. The resonant system is located entirely outside of the accelerator's 15cm ID beam line vacuum enclosure except for a single rf window which serves as an accelerating gap. Physical separation of the cavity and the beam line permits in situ vacuum baking of the beam line at 300/degree/C.

  9. Behavior and Inactivation of Enterotoxin-Positive Clostridium perfringens in Pork Picadillo and Tamales Filled with Pork Picadillo under Different Cooking, Storage, and Reheating Conditions.

    PubMed

    Villarruel-López, A; Ruíz-Quezada, S L; Castro-Rosas, J; Gomez-Aldapa, C A; Olea-Rodríguez, M A; Nuño, K; Navarro-Hidalgo, V; Torres-Vitela, M R

    2016-05-01

    This study analyzed the behavior of Clostridium perfringens in individual ingredients and tamales containing different pathogen concentrations upon exposure to different temperatures and methods of cooking, storage, and reheating. In ground pork, C. perfringens cells were inactivated when exposed to 95°C for 30 min. Three lots of picadillo inoculated with 0, 3, and 5 log CFU/g C. perfringens cells, respectively, were exposed to different storage temperatures. At 20°C, cell counts increased 1 log in all lots, whereas at 8°C, counts decreased by 2 log. Four lots of tamales prepared with picadillo inoculated with 0, 2, 3, and 7 log CFU/g prior to the final cooking step exhibited no surviving cells (91°C for 90, 45, or 35 min). Four lots of tamales were inoculated after cooking with concentrations of 0, 0.6, 4, and 6 log CFU/g of the pathogen and then stored at different temperatures. In these preparations, after 24 h at 20°C, the count increased by 1.4, 1.7, and 1.8 log in the tamales inoculated with 0.6, 4, and 6 log inoculum, respectively. When they were stored at 8°C for 24 h, enumerations decreased to <1, 2.5, and 1.9 log in the tamales inoculated with 0.6, 4, and 6 log of C. perfringens cells, respectively. However, when the lots were exposed to 20°C and then 8°C, 0.8, 1.8, and 2.4 log changes were observed for the tamales inoculated with 0.6, 4, and 6 log, respectively. Microwaving, steaming, and frying to reheat tamales inoculated with 6 log CFU/g C. perfringens cells showed that the pathogen was inactivated after 2 min of exposure in the microwave and after 5 min of exposure to steam. In contrast, no inactivation was observed after 5 min of frying. The tamales inoculated with spores (7 log most probable number [MPN]/g) showed a decrease of 2 log after steaming or frying, and no survival was observed after microwaving. Tamales inoculated with spores (7 log MPN/g) after cooking were susceptible to microwaves, but 2.4 and 255 MPN/g remained after frying

  10. A system approach to archival storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The introduction and viewgraphs of a discussion on a system approach to archival storage presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. The use of D-2 iron particles for archival storage is discussed along with how acceleration factors relating short-term tests to archival life times can be justified. Ampex Recording Systems is transferring D-2 video technology to data storage applications, and encountering concerns about corrosion. To protect the D-2 standard, Battelle tests were done on all four tapes in the Class 2 environment. Error rates were measured before and after the test on both exposed and control groups.

  11. Movable RF probe eliminates need for calibration in plasma accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. B.

    1967-01-01

    Movable RF antenna probe in plasma accelerators continuously maps the RF field both within and beyond the accelerator. It eliminates the need for installing probes in the accelerator walls. The moving RF probe can be used to map the RF electrical field under various accelerator conditions.

  12. Wear performance of neat and vitamin E blended highly cross-linked PE under severe conditions: The combined effect of accelerated ageing and third body particles during wear test.

    PubMed

    Affatato, Saverio; De Mattia, Jonathan Salvatore; Bracco, Pierangiola; Pavoni, Eleonora; Taddei, Paola

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of third-body particles on the in vitro wear behaviour of three different sets of polyethylene acetabular cups after prolonged testing in a hip simulator and accelerated ageing. Vitamin E-blended, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE_VE), cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) and conventional polyethylene (STD_PE) acetabular cups were simulator tested for two million cycles under severe conditions (i.e. by adding third-body particles to the bovine calf serum lubricant). Micro-Fourier Transform Infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopic analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, and crosslink density measurements were used to characterize the samples at a molecular level. The STD_PE cups had twice mass loss than the XLPE_VE components and four times than the XLPE samples; statistically significant differences were found between the mass losses of the three sets of cups. The observed wear trend was justified on the basis of the differences in cross-link density among the samples (XLPE>XLPE_VE>STD_PE). FTIR crystallinity profiles, bulk DSC crystallinity and surface micro-Raman crystallinity seemed to have a similar behaviour upon testing: all of them (as well as the all-trans and ortho-trans contents) revealed the most significant changes in XLPE and XLPE_VE samples. The more severe third-body wear testing conditions determined more noticeable changes in all spectroscopic markers with respect to previous tests. Unexpectedly, traces of bulk oxidation were found in both STD_PE (unirradiated) and XLPE (remelting-stabilized), which were expected to be stable to oxidation; on the contrary, XLPE_VE demonstrated a high oxidative stability in the present, highly demanding conditions.

  13. R&D Topics for Neutrino Factory Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, J. Scott

    2008-02-01

    The muons in a neutrino factory must be accelerated from the energy of the capture, phase rotation, and cooling systems (around 120 MeV kinetic energy) to the energy of the storage ring (around 25 GeV). This is done with a sequence of accelerators of different types: a linac, one or more recirculating linear accelerators, and finally one or more fixed field alternating gradient accelerators (FFAGs). I discuss the R&D that is needed to arrive at a complete system which we can have confidence will accelerate the beam and for which we can obtain a cost estimate.

  14. Guide to accelerator physics program SYNCH: VAX version 1987. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, Z.; Courant, E.

    1987-01-01

    This guide is written to accommodate users of Accelerator Physics Data Base BNLDAG::DUAO:(PARSA1). It describes the contents of the on line Accelerator Physics data base DUAO:(PARSA1.SYNCH). SYNCH is a computer program used for the design and analysis of synchrotrons, storage rings and beamlines.

  15. Accelerator technology program. Progress report, July-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, E.A.; Jameson, R.A.

    1982-08-01

    We report on the major projects of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Accelerator Technology Division during the last 6 months of calendar year 1981. We have continued work on the radio-frequency quadrupole linear accelerator; we are doing studies of octupole focusing. We have completed the design study on an unusual electron-linear radiographic machine that could obtain x rays of turbine engines operating under simulated flight-maneuver conditions on a centrifuge. In September we completed the 5-y PIon Generator for Medical Irradiation (PIGMI) program to develop the concept and technology for an accelerator-based facility to treat cancer in a hospital environment. The design and construction package for the site, building, and utilities for the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility has been completed, and we have begun to concentrate on tests of the rf power equipment and on the design, procurement, and installation of the 2-MeV proto-type accelerator. The Proton Storage Ring project has continued to mature. The main effort on the racetrack microtron (RTM) has been on the design and construction of various components for the demonstration RTM. On the gyrocon radio-frequency generator project, the gyrocon was rebuilt with a new electron gun and new water-cooled gun-focus coil; these new components have performed well. We have initiated a project to produce a klystron analysis code that will be useful in reducing the electrical-energy demand for accelerators. A free-electron laser amplifier experiment to test the performance of a tapered wiggler at high optical power has been successfully completed.

  16. 40 CFR 266.230 - What conditions must you meet for your LLMW to qualify for and maintain a storage and treatment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the LLMW stored on your facility. The dated notification must include your name, address, RCRA... compatibility requirements of a tank or container in 40 CFR 264.177, or 264.199 or 40 CFR 265.177, or 265.199; (3) Certify that facility personnel who manage stored conditionally exempt LLMW are trained in...

  17. 40 CFR 266.230 - What conditions must you meet for your LLMW to qualify for and maintain a storage and treatment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the LLMW stored on your facility. The dated notification must include your name, address, RCRA... compatibility requirements of a tank or container in 40 CFR 264.177, or 264.199 or 40 CFR 265.177, or 265.199; (3) Certify that facility personnel who manage stored conditionally exempt LLMW are trained in...

  18. 40 CFR 266.230 - What conditions must you meet for your LLMW to qualify for and maintain a storage and treatment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the LLMW stored on your facility. The dated notification must include your name, address, RCRA... compatibility requirements of a tank or container in 40 CFR 264.177, or 264.199 or 40 CFR 265.177, or 265.199; (3) Certify that facility personnel who manage stored conditionally exempt LLMW are trained in...

  19. 40 CFR 266.230 - What conditions must you meet for your LLMW to qualify for and maintain a storage and treatment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the LLMW stored on your facility. The dated notification must include your name, address, RCRA... compatibility requirements of a tank or container in 40 CFR 264.177, or 264.199 or 40 CFR 265.177, or 265.199; (3) Certify that facility personnel who manage stored conditionally exempt LLMW are trained in...

  20. 40 CFR 266.230 - What conditions must you meet for your LLMW to qualify for and maintain a storage and treatment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the LLMW stored on your facility. The dated notification must include your name, address, RCRA... compatibility requirements of a tank or container in 40 CFR 264.177, or 264.199 or 40 CFR 265.177, or 265.199; (3) Certify that facility personnel who manage stored conditionally exempt LLMW are trained in...