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Sample records for accelerates carbon monoxide

  1. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  2. Carbon Monoxide (CO)

    MedlinePlus

    ... burning appliances -- including furnaces, stoves, fireplaces, clothes dryers, water heaters, and space heaters -- to detect deadly carbon monoxide leaks. Underwriters' Laboratory Product Safety Tips - Carbon Monoxide Alarms ...

  3. Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Aniol, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    Of all fatal poisonings in the United States, an estimated half are due to carbon monoxide. The number of non-lethal poisonings due to carbon monoxide is difficult to estimate because signs and symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning cover a wide spectrum and mimic other disorders. Misdiagnosis is serious, as the patient often returns to the contaminated environment. Those not receiving proper treatment are at significant risk, as high as 10% to 12%, of developing late neurological sequelae. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning depends upon precise history taking, careful physical examination, and a high index of suspicion. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:21221282

  4. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide Exposure - English PDF Prevention Guidelines: You Can Prevent Carbon Monoxide ... Expand Section Carbon Monoxide - Furnace Safety Fact Sheet - English PDF Carbon Monoxide - Furnace Safety Fact Sheet - العربية ( ...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... portable generators? Source: National Institute of Standards and Technology More information on carbon monoxide safety Heating fire safety NFPA Educational Messages Desk Reference – these messages provide fire and ...

  6. Estimating carbon monoxide exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerley, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Method predicts effects of carbon monoxide on astronauts confined in spacecraft cabin atmospheres. Information on need for low toxicity level also applies to confined spaces. Benefits are applicable to industry and public health.

  7. Occult Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, John N.

    1987-01-01

    A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells. PMID:3825110

  8. Occult carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, J N

    1987-01-01

    A syndrome of headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, chest pain, palpitations and visual disturbances was associated with chronic occult carbon monoxide exposure in 26 patients in a primary care setting. A causal association was supported by finding a source of carbon monoxide in a patient's home, workplace or vehicle; results of screening tests that ruled out other illnesses; an abnormally high carboxyhemoglobin level in 11 of 14 patients tested, and abatement or resolution of symptoms when the source of carbon monoxide was removed. Exposed household pets provided an important clue to the diagnosis in some cases. Recurrent occult carbon monoxide poisoning may be a frequently overlooked cause of persistent or recurrent headache, fatigue, dizziness, paresthesias, abdominal pain, diarrhea and unusual spells.

  9. Solid State Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Wood, George M. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); DAmbrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A means for detecting carbon monoxide which utilizes an un-heated catalytic material to oxidize carbon monoxide at ambient temperatures. Because this reaction is exothermic, a thermistor in contact with the catalytic material is used as a sensing element to detect the heat evolved as carbon monoxide is oxidized to carbon dioxide at the catalyst surface, without any heaters or external heating elements for the ambient air or catalytic element material. Upon comparison to a reference thermistor, relative increases in the temperature of the sensing thermistor correspond positively with an increased concentration of carbon monoxide in the ambient medium and are thus used as an indicator of the presence of carbon monoxide.

  10. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The carbon... employees shall be removed from the enclosed space if the carbon monoxide concentration exceeds a ceiling of...

  11. Carbon monoxide released from its pharmacological donor, tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer, accelerates the healing of pre-existing gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Magierowski, Marcin; Magierowska, Katarzyna; Hubalewska-Mazgaj, Magdalena; Sliwowski, Zbigniew; Ginter, Grzegorz; Pajdo, Robert; Chmura, Anna; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2017-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a gaseous mediator produced by haem oxygenases (HOs), has been shown to prevent stress-, ethanol-, aspirin- and alendronate-induced gastric damage; however, its role in gastric ulcer healing has not been fully elucidated. We investigated whether CO released from tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer (CORM-2) can affect gastric ulcer healing and determined the mechanisms involved in this healing action. Gastric ulcers were induced in Wistar rats by serosal application of acetic acid. Animals received 9 days of treatment with RuCl 3 [2.5 mg·kg -1 intragastrically (i.g.)], haemin (5 mg·kg -1 i.g.), CORM-2 (0.1-10 mg·kg -1 i.g.) administered alone or with zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP, 10 mg·kg -1 i.g.), 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 5 mg·kg -1 i.g.), N G -nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 15 mg·kg -1 i.g.), indomethacin (5 mg·kg -1 i.g.) or glibenclamide (10 mg·kg -1 i.g.). Gastric ulcer area and gastric blood flow (GBF) were assessed planimetrically, microscopically and by laser flowmeter respectively. Gastric mRNA/protein expressions of EGF, EGF receptors, VEGFA, HOs, nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), COX-2, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and pro-inflammatory iNOS, IL-1β and TNF-α were determined by real-time PCR or Western blots. CORM-2 and haemin but not RuCl 3 or ZnPP decreased ulcer size while increasing GBF. These effects were reduced by ODQ, indomethacin, l-NNA and glibenclamide. CORM-2 significantly decreased the expression of pro-inflammatory markers, Nrf2/HO1 and HIF-1α, and up-regulated EGF. CO released from CORM-2 or endogenously produced by the HO1/Nrf2 pathway accelerates gastric ulcer healing via an increase in GBF, an up-regulation in EGF expression and down-regulation of the inflammatory response. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The carbon monoxide content of the atmosphere in...

  13. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The carbon monoxide content of the atmosphere in...

  14. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide. 1917.24 Section 1917.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.24 Carbon monoxide. (a) Exposure limits. The carbon monoxide content of the atmosphere in...

  15. Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.

    1990-12-01

    The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in a previously described chronically maintained animal model of sudden cardiac death. In 60 percent of dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction, the combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation. The events in this model are highly reproducible, thus allowing study by internal control analysis. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation during the test of exercise and acute myocardial ischemia are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as 'susceptible'; dogs that survive the test without a fatal arrhythmia aremore » considered at low risk for sudden death and are defined as 'resistant.' In the current study, the effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates was observed at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. This trend was observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, this reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. This effect may depend on the increased hypoxic challenge caused by carbon monoxide, and thus on an augmentation of the neural reflex activation or a sensitization of the sinus node to acetylcholine induced by hypoxia. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. This worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. (Abstract Truncated)« less

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... a chemical produced from the incomplete burning of natural gas or other products containing carbon. This includes exhaust, ... indoor and camp stoves) Water heaters that use natural gas Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  17. Anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Horner, J M

    2000-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, nonirritating, odorless and tasteless gas. Carbon monoxide combines with hemoglobin far more readily than does oxygen, leading to tissue hypoxia. Thousands of people die annually from CO poisoning, and those recovering from acute exposure commonly suffer brain damage. Chronic poisoning is of particular concern to sufferers of coronary heart disease, pregnant women, and people with certain hematological disorders. Indoor emission sources, notably fuel-burning heating appliances, cause most unintentional deaths and cases of illness and should be the main focus of concern. Motor vehicle emissions pose a chronic health risk for occupationally exposed groups. Smoking is a major source of personal exposure. Recent exposure to CO is commonly evaluated by measuring blood carboxyhemoglobin levels, which are related to the concentration of atmospheric CO. Monitoring methods are reviewed here, and monitoring is considered in relation to air quality standards and guidelines. Finally, control measures for motor vehicles and indoor heating appliances are suggested.

  18. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862....3220 Carbon monoxide test system. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide test system is a device intended to measure carbon monoxide or carboxyhemoglobin (carbon monoxide bound to the hemoglobin in the...

  19. Method of removing carbon monoxide from gases

    DOEpatents

    Gerstein, Bernard C.; Macaulay, David B.

    1976-06-01

    A process and catalyst are disclosed for purifying an atmosphere containing carbon monoxide by passing the atmosphere through a bed of a catalyst of TbO.sub.x, where x = 1.8 to 1.5, which oxidizes the carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide.

  20. The Carbon Monoxide Tape Recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Waters, J.; Livesey, N.; Read, W.; Filipiak, M.

    2006-01-01

    Using Aura MLS data we have identified the stratospheric tape recorder in carbon monoxide (CO). Unlike the water vapor tape recorder, which is controlled by upper troposphere processes, the CO tape recorder is linked to seasonal biomass burning. Since CO has a lifetime of only a few months, the CO tape recorder barely extends above 20 km. The tape head for CO appears to be close to 360K near the same location as the water vapor tape head [Read et al, 20041. Both tape heads are below the equatorial cold point tropopause but above the base of the tropical tropopause layer. The tape recorder signal becomes more distinct from 360K to 380K suggesting that convective detrainment of plays a decreasingly important role with altitude. The Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model forced by the climatology of biomass burning reproduces the CO tape recorder.

  1. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has determined that the Provo carbon monoxide “moderate” nonattainment area attained the carbon monoxide national ambient air quality standard by December 31, 1995. This...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1237 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The base year carbon monoxide emission inventory requirement of section 187... Metropolitan Area and Minneapolis-St. Paul Metropolitan Area. (b) Approval—The 1993 carbon monoxide periodic...

  3. Device for staged carbon monoxide oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Nguyen, Trung V.; Guante, Jr., Joseph

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for selectively oxidizing carbon monoxide in a hydrogen rich feed stream. The method comprises mixing a feed stream consisting essentially of hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water and carbon monoxide with a first predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The temperature of the mixed feed/oxygen stream is adjusted in a first the heat exchanger assembly (20) to a first temperature. The mixed feed/oxygen stream is sent to reaction chambers (30,32) having an oxidation catalyst contained therein. The carbon monoxide of the feed stream preferentially absorbs on the catalyst at the first temperature to react with the oxygen in the chambers (30,32) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen to form an intermediate hydrogen rich process stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the feed stream. The elevated outlet temperature of the process stream is carefully controlled in a second heat exchanger assembly (42) to a second temperature above the first temperature. The process stream is then mixed with a second predetermined quantity of oxygen (air). The carbon monoxide of the process stream preferentially reacts with the second quantity of oxygen in a second stage reaction chamber (56) with minimal simultaneous reaction of the hydrogen in the process stream. The reaction produces a hydrogen rich product stream having a lower carbon monoxide content than the process stream. The product stream is then cooled in a third heat exchanger assembly (72) to a third predetermined temperature. Three or more stages may be desirable, each with metered oxygen injection.

  4. An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed Central

    Auger, P L; Levesque, B; Martel, R; Prud'homme, H; Bellemare, D; Barbeau, C; Lachance, P; Rhainds, M

    1999-01-01

    Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10379009

  5. A Fluorescent Source NDIR Carbon Monoxide Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Link, W. T.; McClatchie, E. A.; Watson, D. A.; Compher, A. B.

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for measuring trace quantities of carbon monoxide by the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) methods. The technique uses the property of infrared fluorescence in a gas to generate a specific source of radiation which is an exact match of the absorption spectrum of the fundamental band of carbon monoxide. This results in an instrument with high sensitivity and specificity for CO. A novel method of referencing using an isotopic species of CO confers great stability on the instrument.

  6. Continuous Thermometric Apparatus for Carbon Monoxide Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-08-30

    small cell containing Hopcalite , and a stream of air(1.5 li- ters per minute) passes; through the catalyst and around the ther- mometer bulb. The...from the heat of oxidation on the Hopcalite of selected concentrations of carbon monoxide. Thus in one thermometer used the base temperature was...in air. The air was drawn through a small quantity of Hopcalite , on which the carbon monoxide was oxidized, and the rise in temperature resulting

  7. Effects of positive acceleration on the metabolism of endogenous carbon monoxide and serum lipid in atherosclerotic rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Huilan; Chen, Yongsheng; Wang, Junhua

    2010-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerosis (AS) is caused mainly due to the increase in the serum lipid, thrombosis, and injuries of the endothelial cells. During aviation, the incremental load of positive acceleration that leads to dramatic stress reactions and hemodynamic changes may predispose pilots to functional disorders and even pathological changes of organs. However, much less is known on the correlation between aviation and AS pathogenesis. Methods and Results: A total of 32 rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 rabbits in each group. The control group was given a high cholesterol diet but no acceleration exposure, whereas the other 3 experimental groups were treated with a high cholesterol diet and acceleration exposure for 4, 8, and 12 weeks, respectively. In each group, samples of celiac vein blood and the aorta were collected after the last exposure for the measurement of endogenous CO and HO-1 activities, as well as the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). As compared with the control group, the endocardial CO content and the HO-1 activity in aortic endothelial cells were significantly elevated at the 4th, 8th, and 12th weekend, respectively (P < 0.05 or <0.01). And these measures tended upward as the exposure time was prolonged. Levels of TC and LDL-C in the experimental groups were significantly higher than those in the control group, presenting an upward tendency. Levels of TG were found significantly increased in the 8-week-exposure group, but significantly declined in the 12-week-exposure group (still higher than those in the control group). Levels of the HDL-C were increased in the 4-week-exposure group, declined in the 8-week-exposure group, and once more increased in the 12-week-exposure group, without significant differences with the control group. Conclusions: Positive acceleration exposure may lead to a significant increase of

  8. POLICY ASSESSMENT FOR THE CARBON MONOXIDE ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As part of the NAAQS review process, a Risk/Exposure Assessment (REA) has been developed by OAQPS and has receieved inital review by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC). A second review of the REA will be conducted in March 2010. The Policy Assessment for the Carbon monoxide NAAQS Review is being developed and will include summaries of the findings of recent key scientific studies reviewed in the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA), will draw conclusions as to the adequacy of the existing carbon monoxide NAAQS for protection of public health, and will make recommendations regarding revision or reaffirmation of the carbon monoxide NAAQS. This work will be reviewed by the CASAC in March 2010. CASAC provides independent advice to the EPA Administrator on the technical bases for EPA's NAAQS. Presents implications for any needed changes to the carbon monoxide NAAQS, including human health risks and human population exposure associated with the carbon monoxide NAAQS and potential alternative ambient standards. (This work will be reviewed by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC). CASAC provides independent advice to the EPA Administrator on the technical bases for EPA's national ambient air quality standards. Established in 1977 under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1977 (see 42 U.S.C. § 7409(d)(2)), CASAC also addresses research related to air quality, sources of air pollution, and the strategies to attain and maintain air quality

  9. CARBON MONOXIDE AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and non-irritating gas formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. It enters the bloodstream through the lungs and attaches to hemoglobin (Hb), the body's oxygen carrier, forming carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and there...

  10. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Dutta, Prabir K.; Swartz, Scott L.; Holt, Christopher T.; Revur, Ramachandra Rao

    2006-01-10

    A sensor and method of use for detection of low levels of carbon monoxide in gas mixtures. The approach is based on the change in an electrical property (for example: resistance) that occurs when carbon monoxide is selectively absorbed by a film of copper chloride (or other metal halides). The electrical property change occurs rapidly with both increasing and decreasing CO contents, varies with the amount of CO from the gas stream, and is insensitive to the presence of hydrogen. To make a sensor using this approach, the metal halide film will deposited onto an alumina substrate with electrodes. The sensor may be maintained at the optimum temperature with a thick film platinum heater deposited onto the opposite face of the substrate. When the sensor is operating at an appropriate (and constant) temperature, the magnitude of the electrical property measured between the interdigital electrodes will provide a measure of the carbon monoxide content of the gas.

  11. Carbon monoxide and the burning earth

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R.E.; Reichle, H.G. Jr.; Seiler, W.

    1989-10-01

    Carbon monoxide is one of many gases whose presence in the atmosphere is blamed largely on industrial activity in the Northern Hemisphere. Data collected by the authors show that the gas is also abundant in the Southern Hemisphere, where it comes mainly from the burning of tropical rain forests and savannas. The high levels of carbon monoxide confirm other evidence that the rain forests are being diminished rapidly, which may affect the climates of these regions as well as globally. Increases in carbon monoxide could also encourage the accumulation of pollutant gases such as ozone and methane. The first ismore » highly toxic to plants and the second would add to the greenhouse effect.« less

  12. Engineering evidence for carbon monoxide toxicity cases.

    PubMed

    Galatsis, Kosmas

    2016-07-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings and fatalities lead to many toxicity cases. Given the unusual physical properties of carbon monoxide-in that the gas is odorless and invisible-unorganized and erroneous methods in obtaining engineering evidence as required during the discovery process often occurs. Such evidence gathering spans domains that include building construction, appliance installation, industrial hygiene, mechanical engineering, combustion and physics. In this paper, we attempt to place a systematic framework that is relevant to key aspects in engineering evidence gathering for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning cases. Such a framework aims to increase awareness of this process and relevant issues to help guide legal counsel and expert witnesses. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. 40 CFR 52.1887 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D—Approval—The following portions of the Ohio plan are approved: (1) The carbon...) The carbon monoxide attainment and reasonable further progress demonstrations for the following urban...

  14. Enhanced carbon monoxide utilization in methanation process

    DOEpatents

    Elek, Louis F.; Frost, Albert C.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon monoxide - containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. The active carbon is subsequently reacted with steam or hydrogen to form methane. Surprisingly, hydrogen and water vapor present in the feed gas do not adversely affect CO utilization significantly, and such hydrogen actually results in a significant increase in CO utilization.

  15. CPSC Warns of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning with Camping Equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Warns of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Hazard with Camping Equipment The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) warns ... about the carbon monoxide (CO) hazard with camping equipment. CO can kill you! From 2002–2006, CPSC ...

  16. [Delayed neurological syndrome following carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Lima, Manuel J; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Cesáreo; Cruz-Landeira, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel

    2015-08-16

    Poisoning by carbon monoxide is the most frequent form of intoxication in our milieu as a result of exposure to poisonous gases. The effects of carbon monoxide poisoning are not limited to acute exposure, since, following apparent recovery from the acute intoxication, neurological or behavioural disorders may appear. A study was conducted to examine the cases of carbon monoxide poisoning that had occurred in a healthcare area of 80,000 inhabitants over a 10-year period. These patients were then submitted to a follow-up to appraise the appearance of delayed neurological syndrome (DNS) and its relationship with different variables in the initial exposure to the carbon monoxide, in the treatment that was administered or in the severity of the intoxication. It was observed that around 9.1% of those intoxicated by carbon dioxide detected within the healthcare district of Salnés went on to develop DNS, which is more frequent in patients with severe analytical criteria and very unlikely in those who do not have them. Patients with DNS did not express any clinical or analytical manifestations that differed from those who did not have the syndrome; no differences were observed in relation to the oxygen therapy that was administered. The rate of DNS within the healthcare district of Salnés between 2002 and 2012 is 0.84 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year.

  17. 40 CFR 52.349 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.349 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Revisions to the Colorado State Implementation Plan, Carbon Monoxide Redesignation Request...

  18. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon monoxide...

  19. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997, the Governor of Montana submitted revisions to the SIP narrative for the Missoula carbon monoxide control plan. (b) Revisions to the Montana State Implementation Plan...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 24, 1994, the Michigan Department of Natural Resources submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan. The submittal pertained to a plan for...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On February 1, 1999, the New Hampshire Department of Environmental... program for carbon monoxide that ceased operating on January 1, 1995. The Nashua Inspection/Maintenance...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52... strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a) Approval—On November 13, 1992, the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year...

  3. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868.1430 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a) Identification. A carbon monoxide gas...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1312 Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. The ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  5. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263... Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbon monoxide. (a) On and after the date on which the... furnace any gases which contain, on a dry basis, 20 or greater volume percent of carbon monoxide...

  6. Method and apparatus for selective removal of carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Borup, Rodney L.; Skala, Glenn W.; Brundage, Mark A.; LaBarge, William J.

    2000-01-01

    There is provided a method and apparatus for treatment of a hydrogen-rich gas to reduce the carbon monoxide content thereof by reacting the carbon monoxide in the gas with an amount of oxygen sufficient to oxidize at least a portion of the carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalyst in a desired temperature range without substantial reaction of hydrogen. The catalyst is an iridium-based catalyst dispersed on, and supported on, a carrier. In the presence of the catalyst, carbon monoxide in a hydrogen-rich feed gas is selectively oxidized such that a product stream is produced with a very low carbon monoxide content.

  7. Fermentative production of ethanol from carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Köpke, Michael; Mihalcea, Christophe; Bromley, Jason C; Simpson, Séan D

    2011-06-01

    'Too much Carbon Monoxide for me to bear…' are the opening lyrics of the CAKE song Carbon Monoxide (from their 2004 album Pressure Chief), and while this may be the case for most living organisms, several species of bacteria both thrive on this otherwise toxic gas, and metabolize it for the production of fuels and chemicals. Indeed CO fermentation offers the opportunity to sustainably produce fuels and chemicals without impacting the availability of food resources or even farm land. Mounting commercial interest in the potential of this process has in turn triggered greater scrutiny of the molecular and genetic basis for CO metabolism, as well as the challenges associated with the implementation and operation of gas fermentation at scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year emission...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52... strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On September 22, 2008, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management submitted a request to establish a limited maintenance plan for the Providence Rhode Island carbon...

  10. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon... for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for carbon monoxide in the Metropolitan...

  11. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year emission...

  12. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year emission...

  13. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year emission...

  14. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.376 Control strategy: Carbon... submitted a revision to the carbon monoxide State Implementation Plan for the 1990 base year emission...

  15. Carbon Monoxide Exposure in Youth Ice Hockey.

    PubMed

    Macnow, Theodore; Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P

    2017-11-01

    To examine the effect of ice resurfacer type on carboxyhemoglobin levels in youth hockey players. We hypothesized that players in arenas with electric resurfacers would have normal, stable carboxyhemoglobin levels during games, whereas those in arenas with internal combustion engine (IC) resurfacers would have an increase in carboxyhemoglobin levels. Prospective cohort study. Enclosed ice arenas in the northeastern United States. Convenience sample of players aged 8 to 18 years old in 16 games at different arenas. Eight arenas (37 players) used an IC ice resurfacer and 8 arenas (36 players) an electric resurfacer. Carboxyhemoglobin levels (SpCO) were measured using a pulse CO-oximeter before and after the game. Arena air was tested for carbon monoxide (CO) using a metered gas detector. Players completed symptom questionnaires. The change in SpCO from pregame to postgame was compared between players at arenas with electric versus IC resurfacers. Carbon monoxide was present at 6 of 8 arenas using IC resurfacers, levels ranged from 4 to 42 parts per million. Carbon monoxide was not found at arenas with electric resurfacers. Players at arenas with IC resurfacers had higher median pregame SpCO levels compared with those at electric arenas (4.3% vs 1%, P < 0.01). Players in the IC group also had a significant increase in their SpCO level during a hockey game compared with those in the electric group (2.8% vs 1%, P = 0.01). There were no significant differences in symptom scores. Players at arenas operating IC resurfacers had significantly higher SpCO levels. Youth hockey players in arenas with IC resurfacers have an increase in carboxyhemoglobin during games and have elevated baseline carboxyhemoglobin levels compared with players at arenas with electric resurfacers. Electric resurfacers decrease the risk of CO exposure.

  16. [Carbon monoxide poisoning by a heating system].

    PubMed

    Dietz, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Friedrich, Peter; Kappus, Stefan; Petter, Franz; Maurer, Klaus; Püschel, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    A case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in several occupants of two neighboring residential buildings in Hamburg-Harburg (Germany) caused by a defective gas central heating system is described. Because of leaks in one of the residential buildings and the directly adjacent wall of the neighboring house, the gas could spread and accumulated in both residential buildings, which resulted in a highly dangerous situation. Exposure to the toxic gas caused mild to severe intoxication in 15 persons. Three victims died still at the site of the accident. Measures to protect the occupants were taken only with a great delay. As symptoms were unspecific, it was not realized that the various alarms given by persons involved in the accident were related to the same cause. In order to take appropriate measures in time it is indispensible to recognize, assess and check potential risks, which can be done by using carbon monoxide warning devices and performing immediate COHb measurements with special pulse oximeters on site. Moreover, the COHb content in the blood should be routinely determined in all patients admitted to an emergency department with unspecific symptoms.

  17. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to CO. The development of this document is part of the Agency's periodic review of the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for CO. The recently completed CO ISA and supplementary annexes, in conjunction with additional technical and policy assessments developed by EPA’s Office of Air and Radiation, will provide the scientific basis to inform EPA decisions related to the review of the current CO NAAQS. The integrated Plan for Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Carbon Monoxide (U.S. EPA, 2008, 193995) identifies key policy-relevant questions that provide a framework for this assessment of the scientific evidence. These questions frame the entire review of the NAAQS for CO and thus are informed by both science and policy considerations. The ISA organizes, presents, and integrates the scientific evidence which is considered along with findings from risk analyses and policy considerations to help the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) address these questions during the NAAQS review.

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Lindell K

    2014-01-01

    Despite established exposure limits and safety standards, and the availability of carbon monoxide (CO) alarms, each year 50,000 people in the United States visit emergency departments for CO poisoning. Carbon monoxide poisoning can occur from brief exposures to high levels of CO, or from longer exposures to lower levels. Common symptoms include headaches, nausea and vomiting, dizziness, general malaise, and altered mental status. Some patients may have chest pain, shortness of breath and myocardial ischemia, and may require mechanical ventilation and treatment of shock. Individuals poisoned by CO often go on to develop neurological problems, including cognitive sequelae, anxiety and depression, persistent headaches, dizziness, sleep problems, motor weakness, vestibular and balance problems, gaze abnormalities, peripheral neuropathies, hearing loss, tinnitus and Parkinsonian-like syndrome. While breathing oxygen hastens the removal of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) hastens COHb elimination and favorably modulates inflammatory processes instigated by CO poisoning, an effect not observed with breathing normobaric oxygen. Hyperbaric oxygen improves mitochondrial function, inhibits lipid peroxidation transiently, impairs leukocyte adhesion to injured microvasculature, and reduces brain inflammation caused by the CO-induced adduct formation of myelin basic protein. Based upon three supportive randomized clinical trials in humans and considerable evidence from animal studies, HBO2 should be considered for all cases of acute symptomatic CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen is indicated for CO poisoning complicated by cyanide poisoning, often concomitantly with smoke inhalation.

  19. Cardiological aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Jakub; Gawlik, Iwona; Dębski, Grzegorz; Popiołek, Lech; Marchewka, Wojciech; Hydzik, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cardiological manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Background/introduction: Carbon monoxide intoxication is one of the most important toxicological causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Early clinical manifestation of CO poisoning is cardiotoxicity. We enrolled 75 patients (34 males and 41 females, mean age 37.6 ± 17.7 y/o) hospitalized due to CO poisoning. Laboratory tests including troponin I, blood pressure measurements, HR and electrocardiograms (ECG) were collected. Pach's scale scoring and grading system was used to establish severity of poisoning. Grade of poisoning is positively correlated with troponin I levels and systolic blood pressure. Moreover, troponin levels are significantly correlated with exposition time, lactates and are higher in tachycardiac, hypertensive and positive ECG subpopulations. COHb levels are indicative of exposure but do not correlate with grade of poisoning. The main cause of CO poisoning were bathroom heaters - 83%, only 11% of examined intoxicated population were equipped with CO detectors. Complex cardiological screening covering troponin levels, ECG, blood pressure and heart rate measurements as well as complete blood count with particular attention to platelet parameters should be performed in each case where CO intoxication is suspected. More emphasis on education on CO poisoning is needed.

  20. Carbon monoxide oxidation rates computed for automobile thermal reactor conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokaw, R. S.; Bittker, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation rates in thermal reactors for exhaust manifolds are computed by integrating differential equations for system of twenty-nine reversible chemical reactions. Reactors are noncatalytic replacements for conventional exhaust manifolds and are a system for reducing carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons in automobile exhausts.

  1. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  2. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On March 18, 1999, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS...: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A maintenance plan and redesignation request for the St. Louis, Missouri, area...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... techniques such as infrared absorption or gas chromatography. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a...

  5. 21 CFR 868.1430 - Carbon monoxide gas analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... techniques such as infrared absorption or gas chromatography. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. 868.1430 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1430 Carbon monoxide gas analyzer. (a...

  6. 40 CFR 86.1322-84 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be used. (2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3... columns is one form of corrective action which may be taken.) (b) Initial and periodic calibration. Prior... calibrated. (1) Adjust the analyzer to optimize performance. (2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with...

  7. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sensitive range to be used. (2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with either zero-grade air or zero-grade... conditioning columns is one form of corrective action which may be taken.) (b) Initial and periodic calibration... calibrated. (1) Adjust the analyzer to optimize performance. (2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1340 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1179 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1682 Section 52.1682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1682 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.2353 Section 52.2353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2353 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52.1132 Section 52.1132 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1132 Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.729 Section 52.729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. The following source specific...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1528 Section 52.1528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1528 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103 Section 60.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide....

  16. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1373 Section 52.1373 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1682 Section 52.1682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1682 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52.1132 Section 52.1132 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1132 Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103 Section 60.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide....

  20. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.2353 Section 52.2353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2353 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. Determination. EPA has...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1132 - Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. 52.1132 Section 52.1132 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Massachusetts § 52.1132 Control strategy: Carbon Monoxide. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.103 Section 60.103 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Petroleum Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide....

  3. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1581 Section 52.1581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1581 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.729 Section 52.729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. The following source specific...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1179 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1179 Section 52.1179 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1179 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1581 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1581 Section 52.1581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Jersey § 52.1581 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.785 Section 52.785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements of subpart G...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52.2089 Section 52.2089 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2089 Control strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—O...

  9. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.785 Section 52.785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements of subpart G...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2089 - Control strategy: carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: carbon monoxide. 52.2089 Section 52.2089 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2089 Control strategy: carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—O...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1528 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1528 Section 52.1528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Hampshire § 52.1528 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 52.729 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.729 Section 52.729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.729 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. The following source specific...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1373 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1373 Section 52.1373 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1373 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) On July 8, 1997...

  14. 40 CFR 52.785 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.785 Section 52.785 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.785 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) The requirements of subpart G...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1185 Section 52.1185 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1185 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1340 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. Approval—A...

  17. 40 CFR 52.1185 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1185 Section 52.1185 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1185 Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. (a) Approval—On...

  18. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission... New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon monoxide...

  19. Real World of Industrial Chemistry: Organic Chemicals from Carbon Monoxide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, Kenneth E.; Kolb, Doris

    1983-01-01

    Carbon Monoxide obtained from coal may serve as the source for a wide variety of organic compounds. Several of these compounds are discussed, including phosgene, benzaldehyde, methanol, formic acid and its derivatives, oxo aldehydes, acrylic acids, and others. Commercial reactions of carbon monoxide are highlighted in a table. (JN)

  20. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number ofmore » symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.« less

  1. Reduction of Carbon Monoxide. Past Research Summary

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Schrock, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  2. Carbon monoxide exposure from aircraft fueling vehicles.

    PubMed

    McCammon, C S; Halperin, W F; Lemen, R A

    1981-01-01

    Investigators from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health observed deficiencies in maintenance of fueling trucks at an international airport. The exhaust system is vented under the front bumper, a standard design on fueling trucks which is intended to minimize the proximity of the exhaust system to the jet fuel in the vehicles. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the cabs of 17 fueling trucks with windows closed, heaters on, and in different positions relative to the wind. One truck had an average CO level of 300 ppm, two exceeded 100 ppm, five others exceeded 50 ppm, while levels in the other nine averaged less than or equal to 500 ppm. Levels of CO depended on the mechanical condition of the vehicle and the vehicle's orientation to the wind. Stringent maintenance is required as the exhaust design is not fail-safe.

  3. Analysis of GASP carbon monoxide data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere for the period March 1977 through October 1978 was analyzed. The CO data are summarized and the distribution and variations in space and time of this gas are presented. The data show that the CO mixing ratios are higher in the troposphere than those in the stratosphere. In the Northern Hemisphere the highest value of CO mixing ratio occurs in spring, although more data are needed to verify these findings. Correlation coefficients among CO, O3, air temperature (T) and winds were calculated for different regions under different seasons. It was found that the CO correlates negatively with O3 above 20 degrees latitude and positively below that latitude. Case studies using the data of CO, O3, and T measured simultaneously were performed. Discussions and suggestions are made. Ozone data on seasonal basis is also summarized.

  4. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current standards for CO sufficiently protect public health and the environment. The Integrated Plan for Review of the NAAQS for CO {U.S. EPA, 2008 #8615} identifies key policy-relevant questions that provide a framework for this review of the scientific evidence. These questions frame the entire review of the NAAQS, and thus are informed by both science and policy considerations. The ISA organizes and presents the scientific evidence such that it, when considered along with findings from risk analyses and policy considerations, will help the EPA address these questions during the NAAQS review:

  5. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  6. Carbon monoxide sensor and method of use thereof

    DOEpatents

    McDaniel; Anthony H. , Medlin; J. Will , Bastasz; Robert J.

    2007-09-04

    Carbon monoxide sensors suitable for use in hydrogen feed streams and methods of use thereof are disclosed. The sensors are palladium metal/insulator/semiconductor (Pd-MIS) sensors which may possess a gate metal layer having uniform, Type 1, or non-uniform, Type 2, film morphology. Type 1 sensors display an increased sensor response in the presence of carbon monoxide while Type 2 sensors display a decreased response to carbon monoxide. The methods and sensors disclosed herein are particularly suitable for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs).

  7. Modeling of exposure to carbon monoxide in fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to predict carboxyhemoglobin concentrations in regions of the body for short exposures to carbon monoxide levels expected during escape from aircraft fires. The model includes the respiratory and circulatory dynamics of absorption and distribution of carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin. Predictions of carboxyhemoglobin concentrations are compared to experimental values obtained for human exposures to constant high carbon monoxide levels. Predictions are within 20% of experimental values. For short exposure times, transient concentration effects are predicted. The effect of stress is studied and found to increase carboxyhemoglobin levels substantially compared to a rest state.

  8. Mars in situ propellants: Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.; Roncace, James; Groth, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen were tested in a standard spark-torch igniter to identify the ignition characteristics of this potential Mars in situ propellant combination. The ignition profiles were determined as functions of mixture ratio, amount of hydrogen added to the carbon monoxide, and oxygen inlet temperature. The experiments indicated that the carbon monoxide and oxygen combination must have small amounts of hydrogen present to initiate reaction. Once the reaction was started, the combustion continued without the presence of hydrogen. A mixture ratio range was identified where ignition occurred, and this range varied with the oxygen inlet temperature.

  9. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H.

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonarymore » circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.« less

  10. Carbon monoxide: from the origin of life to molecular medicine.

    PubMed

    Bach, Fritz H

    2006-08-01

    Carbon monoxide, long considered only as a toxic gas, has recently been shown to mediate potent anti-inflammatory and other salutary effects in rodents when it is used at low doses. Carbon monoxide is one of the products of the degradation of heme by heme oxygenase 1. Until recently, these beneficial effects of carbon monoxide were shown only when it was given before a stress stimulus. Hagazi and colleagues have recently shown that this substance is effective even when it is given after a disease process has started. The effects of low doses of carbon monoxide are complemented by the production of biliverdin and probably also by ferritin, which are additional products of heme degradation.

  11. Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Auto Exhaust by Gas Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Dan; Herndon, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple and reliable technique using commonly available equipment for monitoring carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust. The experiment utilizes a gas chromatograph and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD). (DDR)

  12. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1) Follow... zero grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and...

  13. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1) Follow... zero grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and...

  14. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... service and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor and... N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of more...

  15. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1) Follow... zero grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and...

  16. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... service and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor and... N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of more...

  17. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... service and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor and... N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of more...

  18. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... service and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor and... N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of more...

  19. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... thereafter the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1) Follow... zero grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and...

  20. Concentration and Transport of Carbon Monoxide from the California Wildfires

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-09-04

    Carbon monoxide in the smoke from the Station fire was lofted high into the atmosphere, where it was observed by JPL Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument onboard NASA Aqua satellite. Animation available at the Photojournal.

  1. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon...

  2. Catalytic Copolymerization of Ethene and Carbon Monoxide on Nickel Complexes.

    PubMed

    Domhöver, Bernd; Kläui, Wolfgang; Kremer-Aach, Andreas; Bell, Ralf; Mootz, Dietrich

    1998-11-16

    Can palladium be replaced by nickel? For the industrial copolymerization of carbon monoxide and ethene a palladium catalyst is used which cannot be recovered-a cheaper procedure would be desirable. The presented complex 1 is the first structurally characterized nickel compound which does not polymerize ethene but a mixture from carbon monoxide and ethene unter mild conditions to give a perfectly alternating polyketone. © 1998 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  3. Carbon Monoxide | Air Quality Planning Unit | Ground-level ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas that can increase the severity of lung ailments, cause dizziness, fatigue, nausea, and even death. EPA has defined the national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for carbon monoxide as nine parts per million averaged over an eight-hour period, and this threshold cannot be exceeded more than once a year or an area would be violating the standard.

  4. Vehicle occupant exposure to carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Koushki, P A; al-Dhowalia, K H; Niaizi, S A

    1992-12-01

    This paper focuses on the auto commuting micro-environment and presents typical carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations to which auto commuters in central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were exposed. Two test vehicles traveling over four main arterial roadways were monitored for inside and outside CO levels during eighty peak and off-peak hours extending over an eight-month period. The relative importance of several variables which explained the variability in CO concentrations inside autos was also assessed. It was found that during peak hours auto commuters were exposed to mean CO levels that ranged from 30 to 40 ppm over trips that typically took between 25 to 40 minutes. The mean ratio of inside to outside CO levels was 0.84. Results of variance component analyses indicated that the most important variables affecting CO concentrations inside autos were, in addition to the smoking of vehicle occupants, traffic volume, vehicle speed, period of day and wind velocity. An increase in traffic volume from 1,000 to 5,000 vehicles per hour (vph) increased mean CO level exposure by 71 percent. An increase in vehicle speed from 14 to 55 km/h reduced mean CO exposure by 36 percent. The number of traffic interruptions had a moderate effect on mean concentrations of CO inside vehicles.

  5. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science and will ultimately provide the scientific bases for EPA's decision regarding whether the current standards for CO sufficiently protect public health and the environment. Section 108(a) of the Clean Air Act directs the EPA Administrator to identify certain pollutants that “cause or contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare” and to issue air quality criteria for them. These air quality criteria are to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge useful in indicating the kind and extent of all identifiable effects on public health or welfare which may be expected from the presence of such pollutant in the ambient air….” Under section 109 of the Act, EPA is to establish national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for each pollutant for which EPA has issued criteria. Section 109(d) of the Act requires periodic review and, if appropriate, revision of existing air quality criteria to reflect advances in scientific knowledge on the effects of the pollutant on public health or welfare. EPA is also to revise the NAAQS, if appropriate, based on the revised air quality criteria.

  6. Carbon Monoxide Exposure in Norwegian Rescue Helicopters.

    PubMed

    Busch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to exhaust fumes from combustion engines can lead to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Sea King Rescue helicopter crews are frequently subjected to engine exhaust. This study investigates the extent of CO exposure and potential for intoxication for flight crews during standard operational training procedures. Over a 2-week period, rescue helicopter flight crews were monitored for exposure to exhaust fumes and clinical symptoms of CO intoxication by means of a written survey and measurements of carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SpCO) with a handheld pulse CO oximeter (RAD-57; Masimo, Irvine, CA). Normal ranges for SpCO were defined as ≤ 4%. Sixty-nine completed surveys and 138 SpCO measurements of 37 crewmembers were included in the study. Sixty-four percent (n = 44) experienced subjective exposure to engine exhaust during training. Clinical symptoms were reported in 8.6% (n = 6) and included exhaustion (n = 4), headache (n = 1), and nausea (n = 1). Twenty-nine percent (n = 20) showed postflight SpCO levels outside the normal range (≥ 4%). The maximum postflight SpCO level among all measurements was 7%. Exposure to engine fumes is common, even more so during open cargo door operations. However, clinical symptoms are infrequent and mild. Toxic SpCO levels were not reached in this study, but approximately one third of postflight SpCO levels were outside the normal range. Copyright © 2015 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  8. Carbon Monoxide Hydrogenation on Ice Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Kuwahata, Kazuaki; Ohno, Kaoru

    2018-03-14

    We have performed density functional calculations to investigate the carbon monoxide hydrogenation reaction (H+CO→HCO), which is important in interstellar clouds. We found that the activation energy of the reaction on amorphous ice is lower than that on crystalline ice. In the course of this study, we demonstrated that it is roughly possible to use the excitation energy of the reactant molecule (CO) in place of the activation energy. This relationship holds also for small water clusters at the CCSD level of calculation and the two-layer-level ONIOM (CCSD : X3LYP) calculation. Generally, since it is computationally demanding to estimate activation energies of chemical reactions in a circumstance of many water molecules, this relationship enables one to determine the activation energy of this reaction on ice surfaces from the knowledge of the excitation energy of CO only. Incorporating quantum-tunneling effects, we discuss the reaction rate on ice surfaces. Our estimate that the reaction rate on amorphous ice is almost twice as large as that on crystalline ice is qualitatively consistent with the experimental evidence reported by Hidaka et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett., 2008, 456, 36.]. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cardiovascular Abnormalities in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Garg, Jalaj; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Khera, Sahil; Ahmad, Hasan; Jain, Diwakar; Aronow, Wilbert S; Frishman, William H

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common cause of poisoning and poisoning-related death in the United States. It manifests as broad spectrum of symptoms ranging from mild headache, nausea, and fatigue to dizziness, syncope, coma, seizures resulting in cardiovascular collapse, respiratory failure, and death. Cardiovascular complications of CO poisoning has been well reported and include myocardial stunning, left ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary edema, and arrhythmias. Acute myocardial ischemia has also been reported from increased thrombogenicity due to CO poisoning. Myocardial toxicity from CO exposure is associated with increased short-term and long-term mortality. Carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels do not correlate well with the clinical severity of CO poisoning. Supplemental oxygen remains the cornerstone of therapy for CO poisoning. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy increases CO elimination and has been used with wide variability in patients with evidence of neurological and myocardial injury from CO poisoning, but its benefit in limiting or reversing cardiac injury is unknown. We present a comprehensive review of literature on cardiovascular manifestations of CO poisoning and propose a diagnostic algorithm for managing patients with CO poisoning.

  10. Residential carbon monoxide poisoning from motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    Although morbidity and mortality from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are high in the United States, identification of common but poorly recognized sources should help prevention efforts. The study aimed to describe CO poisoning of home occupants due to a vehicle left running in an attached garage. News stories reporting incidents of US CO poisoning were collected daily from March 2007 to September 2009 via a news.Google.com search and data extracted. Patients were individuals reported in the media to have been poisoned with CO in their home by a vehicle running in the attached garage. Main outcome measures were frequency of occurrence, geographic distribution, patient demographics, and mortality. Of 837 CO poisoning incidents reported in US news media over 2 and a half years, 59 (8%) were the result of a vehicle left running in the garage. The elderly were disproportionately affected, with incidents most common in states with larger elderly populations and 29% of cases with age specified occurring in individuals older than 80 years. Among those older than 80 years, 15 of 17 were found dead at the scene. Residential CO poisoning from a vehicle running in the garage is common, disproportionately affects the elderly, has a high mortality rate, and should be preventable with a residential CO alarm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical Feedback From Decreasing Carbon Monoxide Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubert, B.; Worden, H. M.; Arellano, A. F. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Tilmes, S.; Barré, J.; Martinez Alonso, S.; Vitt, F.; Anderson, J. L.; Alkemade, F.; Houweling, S.; Edwards, D. P.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding changes in the burden and growth rate of atmospheric methane (CH4) has been the focus of several recent studies but still lacks scientific consensus. Here we investigate the role of decreasing anthropogenic carbon monoxide (CO) emissions since 2002 on hydroxyl radical (OH) sinks and tropospheric CH4 loss. We quantify this impact by contrasting two model simulations for 2002-2013: (1) a Measurement of the Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) CO reanalysis and (2) a Control-Run without CO assimilation. These simulations are performed with the Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry of the Community Earth System Model fully coupled chemistry climate model with prescribed CH4 surface concentrations. The assimilation of MOPITT observations constrains the global CO burden, which significantly decreased over this period by 20%. We find that this decrease results to (a) increase in CO chemical production, (b) higher CH4 oxidation by OH, and (c) 8% shorter CH4 lifetime. We elucidate this coupling by a surrogate mechanism for CO-OH-CH4 that is quantified from the full chemistry simulations.

  12. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin: sources of carbon monoxide exposure.

    PubMed

    Buchelli Ramirez, Herminia; Fernández Alvarez, Ramón; Rubinos Cuadrado, Gemma; Martinez Gonzalez, Cristina; Rodriguez Jerez, Francisco; Casan Clara, Pere

    2014-11-01

    Inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) can result in poisoning, with symptoms ranging from mild and nonspecific to severe, or even death. CO poisoning is often underdiagnosed because exposure to low concentrations goes unnoticed, and threshold values for normal carboxyhemoglobin vary according to different authors. The aim of our study was to analyze carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in an unselected population and detect sources of CO exposure In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we analyzed consecutive arterial blood gas levels processed in our laboratory. We selected those with COHb≥2.5% in nonsmokers and ≥5% in smokers. In these cases a structured telephone interview was conducted. Elevated levels of COHb were found in 64 (20%) of 306 initial determinations. Of these, data from 51 subjects aged 65±12 years, 31 (60%) of which were men, were obtained. Mean COHb was 4.0%. Forty patients (78%) were non-smokers with mean COHb of 3.2%, and 11 were smokers with COHb of 6.7%. In 45 patients (88.2%) we detected exposure to at least one source of ambient CO other than cigarette smoke. A significant proportion of individuals from an unselected sample had elevated levels of COHb. The main sources of CO exposure were probably the home, so this possibility should be explored. The population should be warned about the risks and encouraged to take preventive measures. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. [Exposure to carbon monoxide in wildland firefighters during wildfires suppression].

    PubMed

    Carballo Leyenda, Belén; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José A; López-Satué, Jorge; Avila Ordás, Concepción; Pernía Cubillo, Raúl; Villa Vicente, José Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    Health and occupational performance in wildland firefighters are mainly impaired for the carbon monoxide inhalation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the personal exposure to carbon monoxide in wildland firefighters during wildfires suppression. Carbon monoxide exposure was monitorized in 44 subjects during 58 real wildfires. Moreover, we analyzed the time weighted average exposure for an 8h shift (VA-ED). The wildfires were classified according to the work done (direct attack, indirect attack and mixed attack) and the current fuel (grass, bush, understory and mixed). The mean exposure to carbon monoxide was of 18,4 ± 1,7 ppm, what supposed a VA-ED of 7,0 ± 1,0 ppm. The highest exposures to carbon monoxide were found during the mixed attack (20,4 ± 2,3 ppm) and direct attack (17,5 ± 2,7 ppm). We only obtained significant differences (p < 0.05) between bush (19,8 ± 2,2) and understory (17,2 ± 3,9) and grass (12,0 ± 5,6). Exposures to carbon monoxide were influenced for the work done during the wildfires suppression and the type of fuel involved. Mean values obtained in this study were within safety limits described by different Spanish (INSHT) and international (NIOSH, OSHA) occupational safety and health agencies.

  14. Solar cycle variations in mesospheric carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Fontenla, Juan

    2018-05-01

    As an extension of Lee et al. (2013), solar cycle variation of carbon monoxide (CO) is analyzed with MLS observation, which covers more than thirteen years (2004-2017) including maximum of solar cycle 24. Being produced primarily by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, the variations of the mesospheric CO concentration are largely driven by the solar cycle modulated ultraviolet (UV) variation. This solar signal extends down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex, showing a time lag that is consistent with the average descent velocity. To characterize a global distribution of the solar impact, MLS CO is correlated with the SORCE measured total solar irradiance (TSI) and UV. As high as 0.8 in most of the polar mesosphere, the linear correlation coefficients between CO and UV/TSI are more robust than those found in the previous work. The photochemical contribution explains most (68%) of the total variance of CO while the dynamical contribution accounts for 21% of the total variance at upper mesosphere. The photochemistry driven CO anomaly signal is extended in the tropics by vertical mixing. The solar cycle signal in CO is further examined with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) 3.5 simulation by implementing two different modeled Spectral Solar Irradiances (SSIs): SRPM 2012 and NRLSSI. The model simulations underestimate the mean CO amount and solar cycle variations of CO, by a factor of 3, compared to those obtained from MLS observation. Different inputs of the solar spectrum have small impacts on CO variation.

  15. Detection of Carbon Monoxide Using Polymer-Carbon Composite Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie L.; Ryan, Margaret A.; Lara, Liana M.

    2011-01-01

    A carbon monoxide (CO) sensor was developed that can be incorporated into an existing sensing array architecture. The CO sensor is a low-power chemiresistor that operates at room temperature, and the sensor fabrication techniques are compatible with ceramic substrates. Sensors made from four different polymers were tested: poly (4-vinylpryridine), ethylene-propylene-diene-terpolymer, polyepichlorohydrin, and polyethylene oxide (PEO). The carbon black used for the composite films was Black Pearls 2000, a furnace black made by the Cabot Corporation. Polymers and carbon black were used as received. In fact, only two of these sensors showed a good response to CO. The poly (4-vinylpryridine) sensor is noisy, but it does respond to the CO above 200 ppm. The polyepichlorohydrin sensor is less noisy and shows good response down to 100 ppm.

  16. Decadal Record of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, Helen; Deeter, Merritt; Frankenberg, Christian; George, Maya; Nichitiu, Florian; Worden, John; Aben, Ilse; Bowman, Kevin; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; de Laat, Jos; Warner, Juying; Drummond, James; Edwards, David; Gille, John; Hurtmans, Daniel; Ming, Luo; Martinez-Alonso, Sara; Massie, Steven; Pfister, Gabriele

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, chemical production, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern hemispheres along with regional trends for E. China, E. USA, Europe and India. Measurement and sampling methods for each of the instruments are discussed, and we show diagnostics for systematic errors in MOPITT trends. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend around -1%/year in total column CO over the Northern hemisphere for this time period. Decreasing trends in total CO column are observed for the United States, Europe and E. China with more than 2σ significance. For India, the trend is also decreasing, but smaller in magnitude and less significant. Decreasing trends in surface CO have also been observed from measurements in the U.S. and Europe. Although less information is available for surface CO in China, there is a decreasing trend reported for Beijing. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, and there may be some evidence of the global financial crisis in late 2008 to early 2009. But the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.

  17. Personal carbon monoxide exposure in Helsinki, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotto di Marco, Greta; Kephalopoulos, Stylianos; Ruuskanen, Juhani; Jantunen, Matti

    Personal exposure concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured for the adult urban population of Helsinki, Finland, as part of the multi-centre European EXPOLIS study. The arithmetic mean of the 48 h average personal CO exposure concentration was 1.3 mg m -3 for participants not exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and 1.6 mg m -3 for those exposed to ETS at any time and in any microenvironment. The maximum 8 and 1 h exposure values were 2.0 and 2.6 mg m -3, and 4.3 and 5.7 mg m -3, respectively. As tobacco smoke is one of the major sources of CO, therefore the personal mean exposures of ETS participants were higher than the non-ETS participants for all averaging times. The long- and short-term personal exposures were higher in winter than in summer for all participants. In order to analyse in more detail the correlation between the time-activity patterns and exposure levels, cluster analysis was performed using 24 h personal exposure profiles of 1 h moving averages. The results showed clearly that the major source of CO for non-ETS exposed participants are traffic emissions. The majority of the diurnal exposure profiles showed two notable exposure peaks corresponding to the morning and evening traffic rush hours. The time spent in street traffic was the most relevant factor for describing the short-term personal exposures. The more time was spent commuting by car the higher were the exposures. The long-term exposure levels were linked both to the time spent commuting and home location. People living in low-traffic suburban areas and working in downtown spent more time commuting and ended up experiencing similar long-term exposure levels than people who lived in heavy-traffic downtown areas, but spent little time commuting. For ETS exposed participants the personal exposure profiles were dominated by both tobacco smoke and traffic emissions.

  18. Carbon monoxide poisoning from portable electric generators.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Neil B; Zmaeff, Jennette L

    2005-01-01

    While the overall death rate from unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning has decreased in the United States due to improved automobile emissions controls and a decline in CO poisonings from motor vehicles, exposures have not changed from some sources of CO. One of these is the operation of portable electrical generators in poorly ventilated spaces. This study sought to describe the population poisoned from CO produced by portable electric generators, and to determine the reasons that generators are operated in a hazardous fashion. Cases of CO poisoning referred for treatment with hyperbaric oxygen at Virginia Mason Medical Center in Seattle from November 1978 to March 2004 were reviewed. Those cases that resulted from portable generator use were selected for analysis. Sixty-three patients aged 2 to 85 years were treated for CO poisoning from portable electric generators. They included 34 males and 29 females who were poisoned in 37 separate incidents. Thirty-four lost consciousness with the exposure. Of the 63 total patients, 60 spoke English. Generators were typically used when normal electrical service was disrupted by a storm or in remote locations. In 29 of 37 incidents, the generator was operated in the home environment, most commonly in the garage. Lack of awareness of the dangers of CO poisoning or lack of knowledge of ventilation requirements were the most commonly identified reasons. CO poisoning from portable electric generators occurs in a characteristic population, in a few typical locations and for a limited number of reasons. This information may help target prevention efforts for this form of poisoning, such as warning labels or educational programs.

  19. Carbon Monoxide Oxidation by Clostridium thermoaceticum and Clostridium formicoaceticum

    PubMed Central

    Diekert, Gabriele B.; Thauer, Rudolf K.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of Clostridium formicoaceticum and C. thermoaceticum growing on fructose and glucose, respectively, were shown to rapidly oxidize CO to CO2. Rates up to 0.4 μmol min−1 mg of wet cells−1 were observed. Carbon monoxide oxidation by cell suspensions was found (i) to be dependent on pyruvate, (ii) to be inhibited by alkyl halides and arsenate, and (iii) to stimulate CO2 reduction to acetate. Cell extracts catalyzed the oxidation of carbon monoxide with methyl viologen at specific rates up to 10 μmol min−1 mg of protein−1 (35°C, pH 7.2). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and ferredoxin from C. pasteurianum were ineffective as electron acceptors. The catalytic mechanism of carbon monoxide oxidation was “ping-pong,” indicating that the enzyme catalyzing carbon monoxide oxidation can be present in an oxidized and a reduced form. The oxidized form was shown to react reversibly with cyanide, and the reduced form was shown to react reversibly with alkyl halides: cyanide inactivated the enzyme only in the absence of carbon monoxide, and alkyl halides inactivated it only in the presence of carbon monoxide. Extracts inactivated by alkyl halides were reactivated by photolysis. The findings are interpreted to indicate that carbon monoxide oxidation in the two bacteria is catalyzed by a corrinoid enzyme and that in vivo the reaction is coupled with the reduction of CO2 to acetate. Cultures of C. acidi-urici and C. cylindrosporum growing on hypoxanthine were found not to oxidize CO, indicating that clostridia mediating a corrinoid-independent total synthesis of acetate from CO2 do not possess a CO-oxidizing system. PMID:711675

  20. The oxidation of carbon monoxide using tin oxide based catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Christopher F.; Jorgensen, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The preparation conditions for precious metal/tin oxide catalysts were optimized for maximum carbon monoxide/oxygen recombination efficiency. This was achieved by controlling the tin digestion, the peptization to form the sol, the calcination process and the method of adding the precious metals. Extensive studies of the tin oxide structure were carried out over the temperature range 20 to 500 C in air or hydrogen environments using Raman scattering and X ray diffraction. Adsorbed species on tin oxide, generated in an environment containing carbon monoxide, gave rise to a Raman band at about 1600 cm(exp -1) which was assigned to carbonaceous groups, possible carbonate.

  1. Separation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide for Mars ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Krista S.; LeVan, M. Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The atmosphere of Mars has many resources that can be processed to produce things such as oxygen, fuel, buffer gas, and water for support of human exploration missions. Successful manipulation of these resources is crucial for safe, cost-effective, and self-sufficient long-term human exploration of Mars. In our research, we are developing enabling technologies that require fundamental knowledge of adsorptive gas storage and separation processes. In particular, we are designing and constructing an innovative, low mass, low power separation device to recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU (in-situ resource utilization). The technology has broad implications for gas storage and separations for gas-solid systems that are ideally suited for reduced gravitational environments. This paper describes our separation process design and experimental procedures and reports results for the separation of CO2 and CO by a four-step adsorption cycle.

  2. Carbon monoxide poisoning from waterpipe smoking: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Lars; Michaelis, Dirk; Kemmerer, Michael; Jüttner, Björn; Tetzlaff, Kay

    2018-04-01

    Waterpipe smoking may increasingly account for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning, a serious health hazard with high morbidity and mortality. We aimed at identifying waterpipe smoking as a cause for carbon monoxide poisoning in a large critical care database of a specialty care referral center. This retrospective cohort study included patients with a history of exposure to waterpipe smoking and carbon monoxide blood gas levels >10% or presence of clinical symptoms compatible with CO poisoning admitted between January 2013 and December 2016. Patients' initial symptoms and carbon monoxide blood levels were retrieved from records and neurologic status was assessed before and after hyperbaric oxygen treatment. Sixty-one subjects with carbon monoxide poisoning were included [41 males, 20 females; mean age 23 (SD ± 6) years; range 13-45] with an initial mean carboxyhemoglobin of 26.93% (SD ± 9.72). Most common symptoms included syncope, dizziness, headache, and nausea; 75% had temporary syncope. Symptoms were not closely associated with blood COHb levels. CO poisoning after waterpipe smoking may present in young adults with a wide variability of symptoms from none to unconsciousness. Therefore diagnosis should be suspected even in the absence of symptoms.

  3. Influence of carbon monoxide poisoning on the fetal heart monitor tracing: a report of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Towers, Craig V; Corcoran, Vincent A

    2009-03-01

    The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning in the third trimester of pregnancy requires an index of suspicion, and the appearance of the fetal heart monitor tracing may help in this regard. Three cases of third-trimester acute carbon monoxide poisoning occurred. In each pregnancy, the fetal heart monitor tracing on admission was correlated with the maternal carboxyhemoglobin level, and how the pattern changed following the institution of therapy was analyzed. In all 3 cases, the initial fetal heart rate pattern demonstrated decreased variability with an elevated baseline and an absence of accelerations and decelerations. Within 45-90 minutes of treatment onset, the baseline fetal heart rate dropped by 20-40 beats per minute, the variability became moderate, and accelerations occurred. Absent accelerations with minimal variability, if caused by uteroplacental insufficiency, are usually preceded by recurrent decelerations. Absent accelerations with minimal variability in the absence of recurrent decelerations may suggest another cause, of which carbon monoxide intoxication can be added to the differential, especially since this disorder often has nonspecific clinical symptoms.

  4. An Unusual Cause of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Narghile Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Ateş, Alpay; Arikan, Müge; Özgök, Ayşegül

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 27 Final Diagnosis: Carbon monoxide poisoning Symptoms: Dizziness • nausea • Syncope Medication: — Clinical Procedure: O2 treatment Specialty: Anesthesiology Objective: Challenging differential diagnosis Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is commonly seen during the winter season in Turkey due to use of charcoal stoves and water heaters, but narghile smoking is a rare cause of CO poisoning. Case Report: In this paper, we report a CO poisoning case caused by narghile smoking. The patient was admitted to the ED with nausea, dizziness, vertigo, and syncope. Conclusions: The diagnosis of CO poisoning depends on suspicious anamnesis. The major treatment of CO poisoning is oxygen supply. PMID:27618983

  5. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  6. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Richard; Steinberg, Meyer

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to a high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280.degree. C. and containing as little as 36 mol % ethylene and about 41-51 mol % sulfur dioxide; and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10.degree.-50.degree. C., and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  7. Tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields of some Nigerian cigarettes.

    PubMed Central

    Awotedu, A A; Higenbottam, T W; Onadeko, B O

    1983-01-01

    Fourteen cigarette brands manufactured in Nigeria in 1981 were analysed to determine the tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields. Five of the brands belonged to the high and middle to high tar category (greater than 22 mg/cigarette) and nine to the middle tar (17-22 mg/cigarette) category. None of the cigarettes was in the low to middle and low tar (less than 17 mg/cigarette) category. The nicotine and carbon monoxide yields were similar to those of European cigarettes. Tobacco companies need to manufacture low tar cigarettes in the Third World as is the practice in the economically developed parts of the world. PMID:6619721

  8. CRISM Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd

    2008-01-01

    Near-infrared spectra returned by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM, [1]) on-board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) contain the clear spectral signature of several atmospheric gases including carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor (H2O), and carbon monoxide (CO). Here we describe the seasonal and spatial mapping of water vapor and carbon dioxide for one full Martian year using CRISM spectra.

  9. Inhalation toxicology. XI., The effect of elevated temperature on carbon monoxide toxicity.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-12-01

    Laboratory rats were exposed (a) to experimental concentrations of carbon monoxide in air at ambient temperature, (b) to elevated temperature atmospheres from 40 C to 60 C, and (c) to selected carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations at the elevated tem...

  10. Carbon monoxide screen for signalized intersections : COSIM, version 4.0 - technical documentation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-06-01

    Illinois Carbon Monoxide Screen for Intersection Modeling (COSIM) Version 3.0 is a Windows-based computer : program currently used by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) to estimate worst-case carbon : monoxide (CO) concentrations near s...

  11. Reaction engineering for materials processing in space: Reduction of ilmenite by hydrogen and carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Y.; Shadman, F.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen is a consumable material which needs to be produced continuously in most space missions. Its use for propulsion as well as life support makes oxygen one of the largest volume chemicals to be produced in space. Production of oxygen from lunar materials is of particular interest and is very attractive possibility. The kinetics and mechanism of reduction of ilmenite by carbon monoxide and hydrogen at 800 to 1100 C were investigated. The temporal profiles of conversion for carbon monoxide have a sigmoidal shape and indicate the presence of three different stages (induction, acceleration, and deceleration) during the reduction reaction. The apparent activation energy decreases from 18 kcal/mole at 10 percent conversion to 10 kcal/mole at 50 percent conversion. The reaction is first order with respect to carbon monoxide under the experimental conditions studied. Both SEM and EDX analysis show that the diffusion of Fe product away from the reaction front and through the TiO2 phase, followed by the nucleation and growth of a separate Fe phase are important steps affecting the process kinetics. The results from hydrogen reduction show that the mechanism of ilmenite reduction by hydrogen is similar to that by carbon monoxide. However, the titanium dioxide can be further reduced by hydrogen at 800 to 1000 C. The detailed comparison and theoretical modeling of both reduction processes is presented.

  12. 77 FR 8252 - Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation Conformity Purposes AGENCY..., Alaska, Carbon Monoxide (CO) Maintenance Plan, submitted by the State of Alaska on September 20, 2011, is... adequacy finding regarding the motor vehicle emissions budget (MVEB) in the carbon monoxide Maintenance...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque/Bernalillo County carbon monoxide maintenance plan as adopted on April 13, 1995, meets the requirements of...

  14. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA CARBON MONOXIDE, EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in criteria documents. The last air quality criteria document for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed by EPA in 1991. This...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1682 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New York § 52.1682 Control strategy... plan for the New York portion of the New York—Northern New Jersey—Long Island Carbon Monoxide... plan. The November 23, 1999, request to redesignate the New York portion of the New York—Northern New...

  16. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... the fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator will be operated, or 180 days after initial... discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst...

  17. 40 CFR 60.103 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Refineries § 60.103 Standard for carbon monoxide. Each owner or operator of any fluid catalytic cracking unit... the fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst regenerator will be operated, or 180 days after initial... discharge or cause the discharge into the atmosphere from any fluid catalytic cracking unit catalyst...

  18. Carbon Monoxide Isotopes: On the Trail of Galactic Chemical Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langer, W.

    1995-01-01

    From the early days of the discovery of radio emission from carbon monoxide it was realized that it offered unusual potential for under- standing the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and external galaxies through measurements of molecular isotopes. These results bear on stellar nucleosynthesis, star formation, and gases in the interstellar medium. Progress in isotopic radio measurements will be reviewed.

  19. Carbon monoxide detector. [electrochemical gas detector for spacecraft use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleck, G. L.; Bradspies, J. L.; Brummer, S. B.; Nelsen, L. L.

    1973-01-01

    A sensitive carbon monoxide detector, developed specifically for spacecraft use, is described. An instrument range of 0 to 60 ppm CO in air was devised. The fuel cell type detector is used as a highly sensitive electrolysis cell for electrochemically detecting gases. The concept of an electrochemical CO detector is discussed and the CO oxidation behavior in phosphoric and sulfuric acid electrolytes is reported.

  20. [Cerebellar Infarction After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy].

    PubMed

    Wick, Matthias; Schneiker, André; Bele, Sylvia; Pawlik, Michael; Meyringer, Helmut; Graf, Bernhard; Wendl, Christina; Kieninger, Martin

    2017-06-01

    We report on a patient who developed a space-occupying cerebellar infarction with occlusive hydrocephalus after a poisoning with carbon monoxide with the intention to commit suicide. A neurosurgical and intensive care therapy were needed. The patient's survival without severe neurological deficits could be secured due to the early detection of the intracerebral lesions. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... introduction into service and annually thereafter, the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer shall be checked for... to its introduction into service, after any maintenance which could alter calibration, and every two... engineering practice. For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least-squares best-fit straight line...

  2. CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING--A PUBLIC HEALTH PERSPECTIVE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon monoxide (CO) may be the cause of more than one-half of the fatal poisonings reported in many countries: fatal cases also are grossly under-reported or mis-diagnosed by medical professionals. Therefore, the precise number of individuals who have suffered from CO intoxicat...

  3. Severe carbon monoxide poisoning complicated by hypothermia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Yoshito; Ide, Toshimitsu; Ide, Ayako; Soma, Kazui

    2011-03-01

    It is proposed that the significant elevation of interleukin-6 (>400 pg/mL) in cerebrospinal fluid during the early phase of carbon monoxide poisoning may be a predictive biomarker for the development of delayed encephalopathy. A 52-year-old man presented to the emergency department with severe carbon monoxide poisoning. On arrival, the patient was comatose with decorticate rigidity (Glasgow Coma Scale, E1V1M3). His core body temperature, measured in the urinary bladder, was 32.4°C. Laboratory blood analysis revealed elevated CO-Hb (36.0%) and metabolic acidosis with elevated lactate (pH 7.081; base excess [BE], -19.2 mmol/L; HCO3, -9.8 mmol/L; lactate, 168.8 mg/dL). After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen and several different rewarming techniques, he became alert and his core body temperature increased to normal. Interleukin-6 in cerebrospinal fluid at 5.5 hours after his last exposure to carbon monoxide was significantly elevated (752 pg/mL). However, he did not develop delayed encephalopathy. In this case, hypothermia in the range of therapeutic hypothermia (32°C to 34°C) may have suppressed formation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent lipid peroxydation, preventing the development of delayed encephalopathy. Therapeutic hypothermia initiated soon after the last exposure to carbon monoxide may be an effective prophylactic method for preventing the development of delayed encephalopathy.

  4. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.2353 Section 52.2353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2353 Control strategy...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1340 Control strategy...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1340 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.1340 Section 52.1340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Missouri § 52.1340 Control strategy...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2353 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control strategy: Carbon monoxide. 52.2353 Section 52.2353 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2353 Control strategy...

  8. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... its initial use and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor and CO2. (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up and operation. Adjust the... CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of...

  9. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... its initial use and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor and CO2. (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up and operation. Adjust the... CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of...

  10. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... its initial use and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor and CO2. (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up and operation. Adjust the... CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of...

  11. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... its initial use and annually thereafter, check the NDIR carbon monoxide analyzer for response to water vapor and CO2. (1) Follow good engineering practices for instrument start-up and operation. Adjust the... CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer response. (4) An analyzer response of...

  12. 40 CFR 91.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to optimize performance on the most sensitive range to be used. (2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with either purified synthetic air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of three percent CO2 in... than one percent of full scale for ranges above 300 ppm full scale or more than three ppm on ranges...

  13. 40 CFR 90.317 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... analyzer to optimize performance on the most sensitive range to be used. (2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with either purified synthetic air or zero-grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of three percent... more than one percent of full scale for ranges above 300 ppm full scale or more than three ppm on...

  14. 40 CFR 86.522-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... performance on the most sensitive range. (2) Zero the carbon monoxide analyzer with either zero grade air or zero grade nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and... action. (Use of conditioning columns is one form of corrective action which may be taken.) (b) Initial...

  15. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263 Section 60.263 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Ferroalloy Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbo...

  16. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.222-94 Section 86.222-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year...

  17. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1522 Section 86.1522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  18. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263 Section 60.263 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Ferroalloy Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbo...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1522 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration. 86.1522 Section 86.1522 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty...

  20. 40 CFR 60.263 - Standard for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for carbon monoxide. 60.263 Section 60.263 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Ferroalloy Production Facilities § 60.263 Standard for carbo...

  1. 40 CFR 86.222-94 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1994 and Later Model Year Gasoline-Fueled New Light-Duty Vehicles, New Light-Duty Trucks and New Medium-Duty Passenger Vehicles; Cold Temperature Test Procedures § 86.222-94 Carbon monoxide...

  2. Photoproduction of Carbon Monoxide from Natural Organic Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pioneering studies by Valentine provided early kinetic results that used carbon monoxide (CO) production to evaluate the photodecomposition of aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) . (ES&T 1993 27 409-412). Comparatively few kinetic studies have been conducted of the photodegradat...

  3. Ethylene and Carbon Monoxide Production by Septoria musiva

    Treesearch

    S. Brown-Skrobot; L. R. Brown; T. H. Filer

    1984-01-01

    An investigation into the mechanism by which Septoria musiva causes the premature defoliation of cottonwood trees was undertaken. Gas-chromatograpic analysis of the atmosphere overlying the original culture indicated that this fungus produced significant quantities of ethylene and carbon monoxide. Subcultures failed to produce either gas on a variety...

  4. Mechanism of Ethylene and Carbon Monoxide Production by Septoria musiva

    Treesearch

    Susan K. Brown-Skrobot; Lewis R. Brown; Ted H. Filer

    1985-01-01

    S. musiva, a causative agent of premature defoliation of cottonwood trees, has been shown previously to produce ethylene and carbon monoxide (CO) on media containing glucose, methionine, and iron. Chemical analyses have shown that all three substances are present in the cottonwood leaves. Of seven carbohydrates tested, none supported the production...

  5. Production of Ethylene and Carbon Monoxide by Microorganisms

    Treesearch

    T. H. Filer; L. R. Brown; S. Brown-Sarobot; S. Martin

    1984-01-01

    Various quantities of ethylene and carbon monoxide were produced on PDA by Fusicladium effusum, Pestilotia nucicola, Alternaria tenuis, and Fusarium oxysporum subcultured from diseased pecan shucks. Repeated subculturing of these fungi on potato dextrose broth supplemented with iron powder produced ethylene. The production of...

  6. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  7. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  8. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3220 - Carbon monoxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Carbon monoxide test system. 862.3220 Section 862.3220 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Toxicology Test Systems § 862...

  10. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  11. Mechanistical studies on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial carbon monoxide ice analog samples.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Chris J; Jamieson, Corey S; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2009-06-07

    Binary ice mixtures of two carbon monoxide isotopomers, (13)C(16)O and (12)C(18)O, were subjected at 10 K to energetic electrons to investigate the interaction of ionizing radiation with extraterrestrial, carbon monoxide bearing ices. The chemical modifications were monitored on line and in situ via absorption-reflection-absorption Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy as well as in the gas-phase via a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Detected products include two newly formed carbon monoxide isotopomers ((12)C(16)O and (13)C(18)O), carbon dioxide ((12)C(16)O(2), (12)C(18)O(16)O, (12)C(18)O(2), (13)C(16)O(2), (13)C(18)O(16)O, and (13)C(18)O(2)), and dicarbon monoxide ((12)C(13)C(16)O and (13)C(13)C(16)O). Kinetic profiles of carbon monoxide and of carbon dioxide were extracted and fit to derive reaction mechanisms and information on the decomposition of carbon monoxide and on the formation of carbon dioxide in extraterrestrial ice analog samples.

  12. Catalyst for the methanation of carbon monoxide in sour gas

    DOEpatents

    Kustes, William A.; Hausberger, Arthur L.

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves the synergistic effect of the specific catalytic constituents on a specific series of carriers for the methanation of carbon monoxide in the presence of sulfur at relatively high temperatures and at low steam to gas ratios in the range of 0.2:1 or less. This effect was obtained with catalysts comprising the mixed sulfides and oxides of nickel and chromium supported on carriers comprising magnesium aluminate and magnesium silicate. Conversion of carbon monoxide to methane was in the range of from 40 to 80%. Tests of this combination of metal oxides and sulfides on other carriers and tests of other metal oxides and sulfides on the same carrier produced a much lower level of conversion.

  13. Exergy parametric study of carbon monoxide oxidation in moist air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souidi, Ferhat; Benmalek, Toufik; Yesaad, Billel; Baik, Mouloud

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to analyze the oxidation of carbon monoxide in moist air from the second thermodynamic law aspect. A mathematical model of laminar premixed flame in a stagnation point flow has been achieved by numerical solution of the boundary layer equation using a self-made code. The chemical kinetic mechanism for flameless combustion of fuel, which is a mixture of carbon monoxide, oxygen, and water vapor, is modeled by 34 elementary reactions that incorporate (09) nine chemical species: CO, O, CO2, O2, H2O, H, H2, HO2, and OH. The salient point is that for all the parameters we considered, the exergy of the process is completely destroyed by irreversibilities. From the chemical viewpoint, the OH radical plays an essential role in CO oxidation. This latter point has already been mentioned by previous investigators.

  14. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  15. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  16. Effect of carbon monoxide on plants. [Mimosa pudica

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Crocker, W.; Hitchcock, A.E.

    Of 108 species of plants treated with one per cent carbon monoxide, 45 showed epinastic growth of leaves. Several species showed hyponasty which caused upward curling of leaves. Other effects included: retarded stem elongation; abnormally small new leaves; abnormal yellowing of the leaves, beginning with the oldest; abscission of leaves usually associated with yellowing; and hypertrophied tissues on stems and roots. During recovery an abnormally large number of side shoots arose from latent buds of many species. Motion pictures of Mimosa pudica showed a loss of correlation, normal equilibrium position to gravity, and sensitiveness to contact or heat stimuli; however,more » the leaves moved about more rapidly than those of controls. Since carbon monoxide causes growth rigor and loss of sensitiveness to external stimuli, it is here considered as an anesthetic.« less

  17. Catalysis of carbon monoxide methanation by deep sea manganate minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabrera, A. L.; Maple, M. B.; Arrhenius, G.

    1990-01-01

    The catalytic activity of deep sea manganese nodule minerals for the methanation of carbon monoxide was measured with a microcatalytic technique between 200 and 460 degrees C. The manganate minerals were activated at 248 degrees C by immersion into a stream of hydrogen in which pulses of carbon monoxide were injected. Activation energies for the methanation reaction and hydrogen desorption from the manganate minerals were obtained and compared with those of pure nickel. Similar energy values indicate that the activity of the nodule materials for the reaction appears to be related to the amount of reducible transition metals present in the samples (ca. 11 wt.-%). Since the activity of the nodule minerals per gram is comparable to that of pure nickel, most of the transition metal ions located between manganese oxide layers appear to be exposed and available to catalyze the reaction.

  18. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Death on Mount McKinley,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-08

    Additionally, studies by Astrup(5) and Thomas(6) have reported decreased erythrocytic 2, 3- diphosphoglycerate (2, 3-DPG) concentrations with acute...Halebian, et al found no significant difference in measured 02 consumption or extraction between dogs subjected to CO poisoning vs nitrogen anoxia .(9...Astrup P: Intraerythrocytic 2,3- diphosphoglycerate and carbon monoxide exposure. Ann NY Acad Sci 1970;174:252-254. 6. Thomas MF, Penny DG: Hematologic

  19. Catalysts for the Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide at Low Temperatures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-21

    Four catalysts ( hopcalite , Whetlerite, a supported palladium, and a supported platinum) were tested for efficiency in promoting the oxidation of...carbon monoxide (CO). At room temperature and 50% RH, hopcalite has no catalytic capability and platinum has practically none. At room temperature and 15...RH, hopcalite is superior to platinum in catalyzing the oxidation of CO. Hopcalite is more efficient than either of the other three catalysts in the

  20. Carbon monoxide poisoning--Weld County, Colorado, 1993.

    PubMed

    1994-10-28

    In March 1993, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) was notified that six family members residing in a home in Weld County had suffered carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning; five of the persons died. An investigation indicated that the source of CO had been a van parked in the garage of the home; the van had been left running, and the exhaust fumes leaked into the home. This report summarizes the investigation of this incident.

  1. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  2. Chemical Production of Vibrationally Excited Carbon Monoxide from Carbon Vapor and Molecular Oxygen Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederickson, Kraig; Musci, Ben; Rich, J. William; Adamovich, Igor

    2015-09-01

    Recent results demonstrating the formation of vibrationally excited carbon monoxide from carbon vapor and molecular oxygen will be presented. Previous reaction dynamics simulations and crossed molecular beam experiments have shown that gas-phase reaction of carbon atoms and molecular oxygen produces vibrationally excited carbon monoxide. The present work examines the product distribution of this reaction in a collision dominated environment, at a pressure of several Torr. Carbon vapor is produced in an AC arc discharge in argon buffer operated at a voltage of approximately 1 kV and current of 10 A, and mixed with molecular oxygen, which may also be excited by an auxiliary RF discharge, in a flowing chemical reactor. Identification of chemical reaction products and inference of their vibrational populations is performed by comparing infrared emission spectra of the flow in the reactor, taken by a Fourier Transform IR spectrometer, with synthetic spectra. Estimates of vibrationally excited carbon monoxide concentration and relative vibrational level populations will be presented.

  3. Experimental evaluation of the ignition process of carbon monoxide and oxygen in a rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1996-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and oxygen ignition boundaries were determined in a spark torch igniter as a function of propellant inlet temperatures. The oxygen temperature was varied from ambient to -258 F, and the carbon monoxide temperature was varied from ambient to -241 F. With the oxygen and carbon monoxide at -253 F and -219 F, respectively, they successfully ignited between mixture ratios of 2.42 and 3.10. Analysis of the results indicated that the lower ignition boundary was more sensitive to oxygen temperature than to carbon monoxide temperature. Another series of tests was performed in a small simulated rocket engine with oxygen at -197 F and carbon monoxide at -193 F. An oxygen/hydrogen flame was used to initiate combustion of the oxygen and carbon monoxide. Tests performed at the optimum operating mixture ratio of 0.55 obtained steady-state combustion in every test.

  4. Gas geyser--a cause of fatal domestic carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, T S; Kanchan, Tanuj; Pinakini, K S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Singh, Manisha; Sirohi, Parmendra; Anwar, Naureen

    2012-11-01

    Carbon monoxide is responsible for a large number of accidental domestic poisoning and deaths throughout the world. Domestic carbon monoxide poisoning is rarely reported in India and remains an under recognized problem. The diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning is usually based on autopsy findings, circumstantial evidence and estimation of carboxy-haemoglobin in blood. We report a case of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in a bathroom where an LPG gas water heater was installed recently. Cherry pink discolouration of the body and organs on autopsy suggested carbon monoxide poisoning. Laboratory analysis of blood by UV visible spectrophotometry revealed presence of dangerous levels of carboxy-haemoglobin. Effective preventive measures can help in bringing down the mortality and morbidity associated with carbon monoxide poisoning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Alternating copolymerization of fluoroalkenes with carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Tomoyuki; Nakano, Koji; Yamashita, Makoto; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2006-02-15

    The palladium-catalyzed alternating copolymerization of fluoroalkenes, represented as CH(2)=CH-CH(2)-C(n)F(2n+1), with CO was performed using (R,S)-BINAPHOS (2e) as a ligand. The CH(2)-C(n)F(2n+1) group is the most electronegative substituent ever reported for the copolymerization (Taft's sigma value of 0.90 for CH(2)CF(3)). The copolymer obtained from CH(2)=CH-CH(2)-C(8)F(17) (1a) existed as a mixture of polyspiroketal and polyketone, while that from CH(2)=CH-CH(2)-C(4)F(9) (1b) was a pure polyspiroketal, as was revealed by infrared and (13)C-CP/MAS NMR spectroscopies. The terminal structure of the polymer from 1b was confirmed by MALDI-TOF MS spectrometry. Detailed NMR studies suggested that the much higher reactivity with (R,S)-BINAPHOS (2e) than that with the conventional ligand DPPP (2a) can be attributed to the unique 1,2-insertion of the fluoroalkene into acylpalladium species. The existence of an electronegative substituent on the alpha-carbon of the palladium center is successfully avoided in the 1,2-insertion mechanism.

  6. Complexes of horseradish peroxidase with formate, acetate, and carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Gunilla H; Nicholls, Peter; Svistunenko, Dimitri; Berglund, Gunnar I; Hajdu, Janos

    2005-01-18

    Carbon monoxide, formate, and acetate interact with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by binding to subsites within the active site. These ligands also bind to catalases, but their interactions are different in the two types of enzymes. Formate (notionally the "hydrated" form of carbon monoxide) is oxidized to carbon dioxide by compound I in catalase, while no such reaction is reported to occur in HRP, and the CO complex of ferrocatalase can only be obtained indirectly. Here we describe high-resolution crystal structures for HRP in its complexes with carbon monoxide and with formate, and compare these with the previously determined HRP-acetate structure [Berglund, G. I., et al. (2002) Nature 417, 463-468]. A multicrystal X-ray data collection strategy preserved the correct oxidation state of the iron during the experiments. Absorption spectra of the crystals and electron paramagnetic resonance data for the acetate and formate complexes in solution correlate electronic states with the structural results. Formate in ferric HRP and CO in ferrous HRP bind directly to the heme iron with iron-ligand distances of 2.3 and 1.8 A, respectively. CO does not bind to the ferric iron in the crystal. Acetate bound to ferric HRP stacks parallel with the heme plane with its carboxylate group 3.6 A from the heme iron, and without an intervening solvent molecule between the iron and acetate. The positions of the oxygen atoms in the bound ligands outline a potential access route for hydrogen peroxide to the iron. We propose that interactions in this channel ensure deprotonation of the proximal oxygen before binding to the heme iron.

  7. 78 FR 48638 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide Limited Maintenance Plan AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The EPA is proposing to approve a carbon... carbon monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standards through the second 10- year maintenance period...

  8. Pathology of carbon monoxide poisoning in two cats.

    PubMed

    Sobhakumari, Arya; Poppenga, Robert H; Pesavento, J Brad; Uzal, Francisco A

    2018-03-05

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a common cause of poisoning in human beings has also been implicated in the death of animals. Though there are multiple studies on CO poisoning and relevant lethal blood COHb concentrations in humans, there are no reliable reports of diagnostic lethal carboxyhemoglobin percentage of saturation (COHb%) in cats. Additionally, due to shared housing environments, exposures to companion animals can be a surrogate for lethal exposures in human beings and provide valuable information in concurrent forensic investigations. Two adult Singapura brown ticked cats were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory (CAHFS) for necropsy and diagnostic work-up. These animals were found dead along with their two deceased owners. Similar lesions were observed in both cats. At necropsy, gross lesions consisted of multifocal, large, irregular, bright red spots on the skin of the abdomen and the inner surface of ear pinnae, bright red muscles and blood. The carcasses, and tissues fixed in formalin retained the bright red discoloration for up to two weeks. Microscopic lesions included diffuse pulmonary congestion and edema, and multifocal intense basophilia of cardiomyocytes mostly affecting whole fibers or occasionally a portion of the fiber. Based on the clinical history,gross and microscopic changes, cyanide or carbon monoxide poisoning was suspected. Blood samples analyzed for carbon monoxide showed 57 and 41% carboxyhemoglobin COHb%. Muscle samples were negative for cyanide. There are no established reference values for lethal COHb concentration in cats. The COHb % values detected in this case which fell within the lethal range reported for other species, along with the gross lesions and unique histological findings in the heart suggest a helpful criteria for diagnosis of CO intoxication associated death in cats. This case demonstrates that since pets share the same environment as human beings and often are a part of their activities

  9. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J M; Sousa, Diana Z

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved.

  10. Pathways and Bioenergetics of Anaerobic Carbon Monoxide Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Diender, Martijn; Stams, Alfons J. M.; Sousa, Diana Z.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide can act as a substrate for different modes of fermentative anaerobic metabolism. The trait of utilizing CO is spread among a diverse group of microorganisms, including members of bacteria as well as archaea. Over the last decade this metabolism has gained interest due to the potential of converting CO-rich gas, such as synthesis gas, into bio-based products. Three main types of fermentative CO metabolism can be distinguished: hydrogenogenesis, methanogenesis, and acetogenesis, generating hydrogen, methane and acetate, respectively. Here, we review the current knowledge on these three variants of microbial CO metabolism with an emphasis on the potential enzymatic routes and bio-energetics involved. PMID:26635746

  11. Submillimeter heterodyne detection of interstellar carbon monoxide at 434 micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetterman, H. R.; Clifton, B. J.; Peck, D. D.; Tannenwald, P. E.; Koepf, G. A.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Erickson, N. R.; Buhl, D.; Mcavoy, N.

    1981-01-01

    Laser heterodyne observations of submillimeter emissions from carbon monoxide in the Orion molecular cloud are reported. High frequency and spatial resolution observations were made at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on Mauna Kea by the use of an optically pumped laser local oscillator and quasi-optical Schottky diode mixer for heterodyne detection of the J = 6 - 5 rotational transition of CO at 434 microns. Spectral analysis of the 434-micron emission indicates that the emitting gas is optically thin and is at a temperature above 180 K. Results thus demonstrate the potential contributions of ground-based high-resolution submillimeter astronomy to the study of active regions in interstellar molecular clouds.

  12. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  13. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Linne, Diane L.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrocarbons. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquid. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  14. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrogen. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquids. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  15. Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning using a gas-powered generator.

    PubMed

    Blässer, Katharina; Tatschner, Thomas; Bohnert, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The presented case deals with an unusual suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning. In a car parked in a highway rest area, the body of a middle-aged man was found. In the open trunk of the car there was a gas-powered generator which was switched on, but no longer running. The tank was three quarters full. At autopsy, bright-red livores, cherry-pink fingernails, cherry-red blood and salmon-red skeletal musculature were found. According to the toxicological analysis performed during autopsy, the COHb content in the corpse blood was 68%. To reconstruct the event, the emergency generator was started again in the man's car. By means of measuring probes placed in the interior of the car, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen were measured and recorded in a concentration-time curve; the concentration of cyanide was measured at the end of the experiment. The lower explosion limit of 500 ppm CO was reached after 30s already. For technical reasons, no further values could be recorded. After about 14 min the engine started stuttering with approximately 14 vol.% of oxygen in the air, but continued to run at a lower speed until the experiment was stopped after 25 min. The final concentration of cyanide was 7.5 ppm. In view of the rapid CO increase in the interior of the vehicle it is to be assumed that the victim lost consciousness very fast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Methanation of gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having a relatively high concentration of hydrogen are pretreated so as to remove the hydrogen in a recoverable form for use in the second step of a cyclic, essentially two-step process for the production of methane. The thus-treated streams are then passed over a catalyst to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon thereon essentially without the formation of inactive coke. This active carbon is reacted with said hydrogen removed from the feed gas stream to form methane. The utilization of the CO in the feed gas stream is appreciably increased, enhancing the overall process for the production of relatively pure, low-cost methane from CO-containing waste gas streams.

  17. Assessment of carbon monoxide values in smokers: a comparison of carbon monoxide in expired air and carboxyhaemoglobin in arterial blood.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Mette F; Møller, Ann M

    2010-09-01

    Smoking increases perioperative complications. Carbon monoxide concentrations can estimate patients' smoking status and might be relevant in preoperative risk assessment. In smokers, we compared measurements of carbon monoxide in expired air (COexp) with measurements of carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) in arterial blood. The objectives were to determine the level of correlation and to determine whether the methods showed agreement and evaluate them as diagnostic tests in discriminating between heavy and light smokers. The study population consisted of 37 patients. The Micro Smokerlyzer was used to measure COexp; it measures COexp in parts per million (ppm) and converts it to the percentage of haemoglobin combined with carbon monoxide (%Hb). COHb in arterial blood was measured by the ABL 725. Correlation analysis and Bland-Altman analysis were performed, and 2 x 2 contingency tables and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were conducted. The correlation between the methods was high (rho = 0.964). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated that the Micro Smokerlyzer underestimated COHb values. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.746 (ABL 725) and 0.754 (Micro Smokerlyzer) and, by comparison, no statistically significant difference was found (P = 0.815). The two methods showed a high level of correlation, but poor agreement. The Micro Smokerlyzer systematically underestimated COHb values and, in order to avoid this, we suggested an alternative algorithm for converting COexp from ppm to %Hb. The ABL 725 and Micro Smokerlyzer were fair diagnostic tests in distinguishing between heavy and light smokers, but the longer the patients' smoking cessation time, the poorer the ability as diagnostic tests.

  18. Neuroprotective, neurotherapeutic, and neurometabolic effects of carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Mahan, Vicki L

    2012-12-27

    Studies in animal models show that the primary mechanism by which heme-oxygenases impart beneficial effects is due to the gaseous molecule carbon monoxide (CO). Produced in humans mainly by the catabolism of heme by heme-oxygenase, CO is a neurotransmitter important for multiple neurologic functions and affects several intracellular pathways as a regulatory molecule. Exogenous administration of inhaled CO or carbon monoxide releasing molecules (CORM's) impart similar neurophysiological responses as the endogenous gas. Its' involvement in important neuronal functions suggests that regulation of CO synthesis and biochemical properties may be clinically relevant to neuroprotection and the key may be a change in metabolic substrate from glucose to lactate. Currently, the drug is under development as a therapeutic agent and safety studies in humans evaluating the safety and tolerability of inhaled doses of CO show no clinically important abnormalities, effects, or changes over time in laboratory safety variables. As an important therapeutic option, inhaled CO has entered clinical trials and its clinical role as a neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic agent has been suggested. In this article, we review the neuroprotective effects of endogenous CO and discuss exogenous CO as a neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic agent.

  19. The Future of Carbon Monoxide Measurements from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, J.

    It is now over 20 years since the Measurements of Air Pollution from Space MAPS instrument made the first measurements of tropospheric carbon monoxide from the shuttle Since that time a number of instruments have flown including the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere MOPITT Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer TES and SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY SCIAMCHY to name only three of many Each of these instruments has a unique observing method and unique mission characteristics It is accepted that measurements of carbon monoxide provide a useful proxy of the pollution of the troposphere and contribute significantly to studies of various phenomena in the atmosphere and atmosphere-surface interactions These measurements should therefore be continued -- but in what form Technology has progresses significantly since the current generation of instruments was designed and our ability to interpret the data from such instrumentation has likewise expanded It is therefore fruitful to consider what is the best set of measurements that can be made which parameters should be emphasized and which compromised on the way to the next generation of sensors The Measurements of Air Pollution Levels in the Environment MAPLE instrument is a study financed by the Canadian Space Agency to design a next-generation instrument and since instrument spacecraft and mission are now intimately linked a consideration of the whole mission is appropriate This talk will outline some potential developments in the hardware

  20. High carbon monoxide levels measured in enclosed skating rinks

    SciTech Connect

    Spengler, J.D.; Stone, K.R.; Lilley, F.W.

    Carbon monoxide (CO) levels were measured in enclosed skating rinks in the Boston area. The 1 hr National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 35 ppm was exceeded in 82% of the sampled hours. In a separate study, alveolar breath samples were taken of 12 Harvard hockey players, indicating a fivefold increase in carboxyhemoglobin levels after 93 min of exercise in air with a relatively low 25 ppm CO concentration. This paper demonstrates that exercising athletes are incurring physiologically dangerous levels of carboxyhemoglobin when performing in legal ambient air concentrations of CO-25 ppm, and concentrations of the poisonous gas in manymore » indoor skating rinks regularly exceed the national ambient standards by as much as 300%. It is suggested that the Clean Air Act should be amended to include indoor public exposure to at least the criteria pollutants of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and suspended particulates. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency should require revisions in State Implementation Plans to ensure state responsibility for public air pollution exposures indoors. Finally, it is suggested that rink maintenance machinery be redesigned to reduce noxious output by shifting to electrical motors, by upgrading pollution control equipment, or by routine use of ventilation equipment.« less

  1. [Risk of underestimating blood carbon monoxide by certain analytic methods].

    PubMed

    Gourlain, H; Laforge, M; Buneaux, F; Galliot-Guilley, M

    1999-01-30

    Study the effect of delay to assay on the measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) in total blood samples. Carbon monoxide (CO) and carboxyhemoglobin were measured on 75 blood samples drawn from healthy subjects (smokers and non smokers) and in subjects with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Blood samples were drawn on lithium heparinate in perfectly closed tubes with no head space and stored at 4 infinity C until assay. The samples were pooled into 4 classes for 4 delays to assay: immediate, less than one hour, 3 hours, 12 hours. Infrared spectrometry was used to assay CO and order 4 and 5 derived spectrophotometry using CO-oximeters (AVL 912, IL 482, Corning 270, Radiometer OSM 3, Radiometer ABL 520) for HbCO. Regression lines for CO versus HbCO suggested that oxycarbonemia was underestimated using techniques measuring HbCO. This underestimation varied from 3 to 40% for delays to assay of 0 to 3 hours. Clinicians should be aware that the underestimation in oxycarbonemia related to HbCO assays is sensitive to delay to assay.

  2. Anesthesia-related Carbon Monoxide Exposure: Toxicity and Potential Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) during general anesthesia can result from volatile anesthetic degradation by carbon dioxide absorbents as well as re-breathing of endogenously produced CO. Although adherence to the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation guidelines reduces the risk of CO poisoning, patients may still experience a sub-toxic CO exposure during low-flow anesthesia. The consequences of such exposures are relatively unknown. In contrast to the widely recognized toxicity of high CO concentrations, the biological activity of low concentration CO has recently been shown be cytoprotective. As such, low dose CO is being explored as a novel treatment for a variety of different diseases. Here we review the concept of anesthesia-related CO exposure, identify the sources of production, detail the mechanisms of overt CO toxicity, highlight the cellular effects of low dose CO, and discuss the potential therapeutic role for CO as a part of routine anesthetic management. PMID:27537758

  3. Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfani, F.; Greco, G., Jr.; Iroio, G.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases.

  4. 75 FR 54805 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Minnesota; Carbon Monoxide (CO) Limited Maintenance Plan for... June 16, 2010, to revise the Minnesota State Implementation Plan (SIP) for carbon monoxide (CO) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). The State has submitted a limited maintenance plan for CO showing continued...

  5. METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIGH CO (CARBON MONOXIDE) LEVELS IN ALASKAN CITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    High winter carbon monoxide levels in Anchorage, as in Fairbanks, are due to intense nocturnal (ground-based) inversions persisting through the periods of maximum emissions and at times throughout the day. The problem is exacerbated by the large amounts of carbon monoxide emitted...

  6. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle... SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected. (a) No person shall dispatch or drive any commercial...

  7. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  8. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  9. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  10. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  11. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  12. Unusual presentation of death due to carbon monoxide poisoning. A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ruszkiewicz, A; de Boer, B; Robertson, S

    1997-06-01

    Two cases are reported representing opposite ends of the spectrum of death as a result of carbon monoxide poisoning from car exhaust fumes. In one case, a women was reported to be found dead in bed early in the morning by her husband. The cause of her death, established by autopsy, was carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicology examination indicated a car engine as the possible source of carbon monoxide. The mode of administration was never established. In the second case, a women was found in a car located in her garage with a hose leading from the exhaust pipe to the interior of the sealed vehicle. Autopsy revealed negligible carboxyhemoglobin saturation of the blood, bilateral infarction of the globus pallidus, and extensive bronchopneumonia. It was concluded that inhalation of carbon monoxide resulted in sublethal hypoxia with subsequent exhalation of carbon monoxide and a delayed death.

  13. Digital image analysis of fingernail colour in cadavers comparing carbon monoxide poisoning to controls.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Neil E I

    2010-03-01

    Carbon monoxide is a component of motor vehicle exhaust fumes, provided a functional catalytic converter is not present. This gas binds avidly to the hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells preventing its oxygen transport function, effectively poisoning the body by starving it of oxygen. In binding to hemoglobin, carbon monoxide forms carboxyhemoglobin, which has a characteristic bright pink color. It has been remarked that the fingernails of victims of carbon monoxide tend to exhibit pink color, otherwise fingernails of deceased bodies tend towards a dark red to blue color. This study sought to objectively determine by using digital image analysis if a color difference occurred between the fingernails of a group of cadavers with carbon monoxide poisoning compared to a group of controls. The fingernails of the carbon monoxide group did tend to be more red than the controls, but due to overlap between the two groups assessment of the fingernails cannot be recommended as a rapid screening test.

  14. Four-electron deoxygenative reductive coupling of carbon monoxide at a single metal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buss, Joshua A.; Agapie, Theodor

    2016-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is the ultimate source of the fossil fuels that are both central to modern life and problematic: their use increases atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, and their availability is geopolitically constrained. Using carbon dioxide as a feedstock to produce synthetic fuels might, in principle, alleviate these concerns. Although many homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts convert carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, further deoxygenative coupling of carbon monoxide to generate useful multicarbon products is challenging. Molybdenum and vanadium nitrogenases are capable of converting carbon monoxide into hydrocarbons under mild conditions, using discrete electron and proton sources. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon monoxide on copper catalysts also uses a combination of electrons and protons, while the industrial Fischer-Tropsch process uses dihydrogen as a combined source of electrons and electrophiles for carbon monoxide coupling at high temperatures and pressures. However, these enzymatic and heterogeneous systems are difficult to probe mechanistically. Molecular catalysts have been studied extensively to investigate the elementary steps by which carbon monoxide is deoxygenated and coupled, but a single metal site that can efficiently induce the required scission of carbon-oxygen bonds and generate carbon-carbon bonds has not yet been documented. Here we describe a molybdenum compound, supported by a terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, that activates and cleaves the strong carbon-oxygen bond of carbon monoxide, enacts carbon-carbon coupling, and spontaneously dissociates the resulting fragment. This complex four-electron transformation is enabled by the terphenyl-diphosphine ligand, which acts as an electron reservoir and exhibits the coordinative flexibility needed to stabilize the different intermediates involved in the overall reaction sequence. We anticipate that these design elements might help in the development of efficient catalysts for

  15. Suicide from carbon monoxide poisoning in South Korea: 2006-2012.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Rim; Cha, Eun Shil; Chang, Shu-Sen; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    Suicide from carbon monoxide poisoning by burning coal briquette or barbecue charcoal increased rapidly in some East Asian countries in the recent decade. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in suicides from carbon monoxide poisoning in South Korea and their epidemiologic characteristics. We presented age-standardized mortality rates of carbon monoxide suicide and compared them with those of suicide by other methods using registered death data from Statistics Korea (South Korea) from 2006 to 2012. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate odds ratios of carbon monoxide suicide by socio-demographic characteristics before and after the marked increase in carbon monoxide suicide in September 2008. The number of carbon monoxide suicides in South Korea was only 34 in 2006 but rapidly increased to 267 in 2008 and was 1125 in 2012, with the age-standardized rates of 0.06 (2006), 0.48 (2008), and 1.97 (2012) per 100,000 population respectively (a striking 3,183% increase in 2006-2012). Suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning showed greater odds ratios among men, younger age groups, single or the divorced, and those with high education and non-manual jobs compared with suicides by other methods. This study only used data for fatal self-poisoning by carbon monoxide (non-fatal cases not included) and had no information on the sources of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide suicides substantially increased in South Korea over the relatively short study period and showed some distinct socio-demographic characteristics compared with suicides by other methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The provisions...

  17. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The provisions...

  18. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The provisions...

  19. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The provisions...

  20. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured using...

  1. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured using...

  2. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured using...

  3. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The provisions...

  4. Vibrationally Excited Carbon Monoxide Produced via a Chemical Reaction Between Carbon Vapor and Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jans, Elijah R.; Eckert, Zakari; Frederickson, Kraig; Rich, Bill; Adamovich, Igor V.

    2017-06-01

    Measurements of the vibrational distribution function of carbon monoxide produced via a reaction between carbon vapor and molecular oxygen has shown a total population inversion on vibrational levels 4-7. Carbon vapor, produced using an arc discharge to sublimate graphite, is mixed with an argon oxygen flow. The excited carbon monoxide is vibrationally populated up to level v=14, at low temperatures, T=400-450 K, in a collision-dominated environment, 15-20 Torr, with total population inversions between v=4-7. The average vibrational energy per CO molecule formed by the reaction is 0.6-1.2 eV/molecule, which corresponds to 10-20% of the reaction enthalpy. Kinetic modeling of the flow reactor, including state specific vibrational processes, was performed to infer the vibrational distribution of the products of the reaction. The results show viability of developing of a new chemical CO laser from the reaction of carbon vapor and oxygen.

  5. Lethal carbon monoxide toxicity in a concrete shower unit.

    PubMed

    Heath, Karen; Byard, Roger W

    2018-05-23

    A 47-year-old previously-well woman was found dead on the floor of a shower cubicle on a property in rural South Australia. The impression of the attending doctor and police was of collapse due to natural disease. Although there was significant stenosing coronary artery atherosclerosis found at autopsy, cherry pink discoloration of tissues prompted measurement of the blood carboxyhemoglobin level which was found to be 55%. The source of the gas was a poorly-maintained hot water heater that was mounted on the inside wall of the shower. Construction of the shower using an impermeable concrete rain water tank had caused gas accumulation when the water heater malfunctioned. Had lethal carbon monoxide exposure not been identified others using the same shower unit would also have been at risk.

  6. Carbon monoxide mixing ratio inference from gas filter radiometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallio, H. A.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.; Casas, J. C.; Saylor, M. S.; Gormsen, B. B.

    1983-01-01

    A new algorithm has been developed which permits, for the first time, real time data reduction of nadir measurements taken with a gas filter correlation radiometer to determine tropospheric carbon monoxide concentrations. The algorithm significantly reduces the complexity of the equations to be solved while providing accuracy comparable to line-by-line calculations. The method is based on a regression analysis technique using a truncated power series representation of the primary instrument output signals to infer directly a weighted average of trace gas concentration. The results produced by a microcomputer-based implementation of this technique are compared with those produced by the more rigorous line-by-line methods. This algorithm has been used in the reduction of Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites, Shuttle, and aircraft data.

  7. Carbon monoxide – physiology, detection and controlled release

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, Stefan H.; Hoshi, Toshinori; Westerhausen, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is increasingly recognized as a cell-signalling molecule akin to nitric oxide (NO). CO has attracted particular attention as a potential therapeutic agent because of its reported anti-hypertensive, anti-inflammatory and cell-protective effects. We discuss recent progress in identifying new effector systems and elucidating the mechanisms of action of CO on, e.g., ion channels, as well as the design of novel methods to monitor CO in cellular environments. We also report on recent developments in the area of CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) and materials for controlled CO application. Novel triggers for CO release, metal carbonyls and degradation mechanisms of CORMs, are highlighted. In addition, potential formulations of CORMs for targeted CO release are discussed. PMID:24556640

  8. Carbon monoxide measurement in the global atmospheric sampling program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudzinski, T. J.

    1979-01-01

    The carbon monoxide measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available infrared absorption analyzer. The modifications increased the sensitivity of the analyzer to 1 ppmv full scale, with a limit of detectability of 0.02 ppmv. Packaging was modified for automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. The GASP system is described along with analyzer operation, calibration procedures, and measurement errors. Uncertainty of the CO measurement over a 2-year period ranged from + or - 3 to + or - 13 percent of reading, plus an error due to random fluctuation of the output signal + or - 3 to + or - 15 ppbv.

  9. An evaluation of a carbon monoxide poisoning education program.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Lauren; Martinez, Luz; Louie, Jean; Mercurio-Zappala, Maria; Howland, Mary Ann; Nokes, Kathleen; Hoffman, Robert S

    2010-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the leading cause of poisoning death in the United States. Research has shown that proper use of a CO detector in the home can reduce morbidity and mortality related to unintentional CO exposure. The authors evaluated three CO education workshops that included distribution of free CO detectors for home use, and their intervention reached 133 participants. Pretest surveys and follow-up calls evaluated change in knowledge and behavior factors. Results showed that statistically significant increases were found on three out of five knowledge-based items and 91% of respondents (N = 80) reported installing CO detectors in their home. Follow-up calls provided an opportunity to clarify information and provide tailored information to participants.

  10. Regulation of ROS Production and Vascular Function by Carbon Monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Kyung; Por, Elaine D.; Kwon, Young-Guen; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2012-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous molecule produced from heme by heme oxygenase (HO). CO interacts with reduced iron of heme-containing proteins, leading to its involvement in various cellular events via its production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). CO-mediated ROS production initiates intracellular signal events, which regulate the expression of adaptive genes implicated in oxidative stress and functions as signaling molecule for promoting vascular functions, including angiogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis. Therefore, CO generated either by exogenous delivery or by HO activity can be fundamentally involved in regulating mitochondria-mediated redox cascades for adaptive gene expression and improving blood circulation (i.e., O2 delivery) via neovascularization, leading to the regulation of mitochondrial energy metabolism. This paper will highlight the biological effects of CO on ROS generation and cellular redox changes involved in mitochondrial metabolism and angiogenesis. Moreover, cellular mechanisms by which CO is exploited for disease prevention and therapeutic applications will also be discussed. PMID:22928087

  11. Carbon monoxide transport and actions in blood and tissues.

    PubMed

    Thom, Stephen R

    2011-01-01

    This chapter will discuss the transport of carbon monoxide (CO) from the environment to the tissues of the body and physiological effects on blood-borne cells and perivascular tissues. It will review the physiology of CO exchange between alveolar gas and pulmonary capillary blood, dynamics of hemoglobin transport, the effects of CO on blood elements, and the effects of CO on extravascular tissues at the capillary bed. Effects of CO from exogenous and endogenous sources on the activities of different proteins will be reviewed. Because CO binds competitively to heme-containing proteins its effects depend on CO concentration relative to alternative ligands. Therefore, some discussion is devoted to how nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide influence CO effects. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  12. The Distribution of Carbon Monoxide in the GOCART Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Xiaobiao; Chin, Mian; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important trace gas because it is a significant source of tropospheric Ozone (O3) as well as a major sink for atmospheric hydroxyl radical (OH). The distribution of CO is set by a balance between the emissions, transport, and chemical processes in the atmosphere. The Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model is used to simulate the atmospheric distribution of CO. The GOCART model is driven by the assimilated meteorological data from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS) in an off-line mode. We study the distribution of CO on three time scales: (1) day to day fluctuation produced by the synoptic waves; (2) seasonal changes due to the annual cycle of CO sources and sinks; and (3) interannual variability induced by dynamics. Comparison of model results with ground based and remote sensing measurements will also be presented.

  13. [Etiology of combined inhalational hydrocyanic acid and carbon monoxide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Sigrist, T; Dirnhofer, R

    1979-01-01

    A young man was found dead in a kitchen, that was partly burnt. Autopsy revealed, as cause of death, a combined intoxication following inhalation of carbon monoxide and hydrocyanic acid. Own investigations on the pyrolysis of pieces of furniture found in the kitchen (plastic plates containing melamine and plates containing formaldehyde) showed, that hydrocyanic acid was liberated through combustion of such substances and inhaled by the victim. The poisoning picture is discussed, and discussion includes especially considerations on the peculiar sensitivity of the brain toward the action of hydrocyanic acid and the relative insensitivity of the heart muscle. It is thought that the cause of such sensitivity difference lies in the physiological differences of the intracellular energy production. Finally the dangers of combustion gases developing from burning plastic materials are reemphasized.

  14. Carbon monoxide in an extremely metal-poor galaxy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yong; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gao, Yu; Hao, Cai-Na; Xia, Xiao-Yang; Gu, Qiusheng

    2016-12-09

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies with metallicity below 10% of the solar value in the local universe are the best analogues to investigating the interstellar medium at a quasi-primitive environment in the early universe. In spite of the ongoing formation of stars in these galaxies, the presence of molecular gas (which is known to provide the material reservoir for star formation in galaxies such as our Milky Way) remains unclear. Here we report the detection of carbon monoxide (CO), the primary tracer of molecular gas, in a galaxy with 7% solar metallicity, with additional detections in two galaxies at higher metallicities. Such detections offer direct evidence for the existence of molecular gas in these galaxies that contain few metals. Using archived infrared data, it is shown that the molecular gas mass per CO luminosity at extremely low metallicity is approximately one-thousand times the Milky Way value.

  15. Carbon monoxide in an extremely metal-poor galaxy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yong; Wang, Junzhi; Zhang, Zhi-Yu; Gao, Yu; Hao, Cai-Na; Xia, Xiao-Yang; Gu, Qiusheng

    2016-01-01

    Extremely metal-poor galaxies with metallicity below 10% of the solar value in the local universe are the best analogues to investigating the interstellar medium at a quasi-primitive environment in the early universe. In spite of the ongoing formation of stars in these galaxies, the presence of molecular gas (which is known to provide the material reservoir for star formation in galaxies such as our Milky Way) remains unclear. Here we report the detection of carbon monoxide (CO), the primary tracer of molecular gas, in a galaxy with 7% solar metallicity, with additional detections in two galaxies at higher metallicities. Such detections offer direct evidence for the existence of molecular gas in these galaxies that contain few metals. Using archived infrared data, it is shown that the molecular gas mass per CO luminosity at extremely low metallicity is approximately one-thousand times the Milky Way value. PMID:27934880

  16. Iron Catalyst Chemistry in High Pressure Carbon Monoxide Nanotube Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Povitsky, Alexander; Dateo, Christopher; Gokcen, Tahir; Smalley, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) technique for producing single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) is analyzed using a chemical reaction model coupled with properties calculated along streamlines. Streamline properties for mixing jets are calculated by the FLUENT code using the k-e turbulent model for pure carbon monixide. The HiPco process introduces cold iron pentacarbonyl diluted in CO, or alternatively nitrogen, at high pressure, ca. 30 atmospheres into a conical mixing zone. Hot CO is also introduced via three jets at angles with respect to the axis of the reactor. Hot CO decomposes the Fe(CO)5 to release atomic Fe. Cluster reaction rates are from Krestinin, et aI., based on shock tube measurements. Another model is from classical cluster theory given by Girshick's team. The calculations are performed on streamlines that assume that a cold mixture of Fe(CO)5 in CO is introduced along the reactor axis. Then iron forms clusters that catalyze the formation of SWNTs from the Boudouard reaction on Fe-containing clusters by reaction with CO. To simulate the chemical process along streamlines that were calculated by the fluid dynamics code FLUENT, a time history of temperature and dilution are determined along streamlines. Alternative catalyst injection schemes are also evaluated.

  17. Estimating Effects of Brazilian Forest Wildfires on the Carbon Monoxide Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, S.; Qu, J.; Dasgupta, S.

    2004-12-01

    Forest wildfires have dramatically increased in recent years due to global warming and extreme dry conditions. Forest wildfires spew out a significant amount of atmospheric pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, due to incomplete burning of the biomass. According to United State Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a high increase of carbon monoxide leads to the formation of carboxyhemoglobin in blood which decreases the oxygen intake capacity of human body and at moderate concentration angina, impaired vision and reduced brain function may occur. As compared to Northern America where significant amount of carbon monoxide released is caused by combustion devices and furnace, the increase of carbon monoxide concentration in Brazilian regions is mainly attributed to the forest fires. In this study, carbon monoxide datasets from the Measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) have been analyzed to see the amount of increase in the carbon monoxide concentration after forest wildfires, ire, particularly in summer of 2003. The study reveals that there is a significant increase in the carbon monoxide concentration after forest fires.

  18. A new method for inferring carbon monoxide concentrations from gas filter radiometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallio, H. A.; Reichle, H. G., Jr.; Casas, J. C.; Gormsen, B. B.

    1981-01-01

    A method for inferring carbon monoxide concentrations from gas filter radiometer data is presented. The technique can closely approximate the results of more costly line-by-line radiative transfer calculations over a wide range of altitudes, ground temperatures, and carbon monoxide concentrations. The technique can also be used over a larger range of conditions than those used for the regression analysis. Because the influence of the carbon monoxide mixing ratio requires only addition, multiplication and a minimum of logic, the method can be implemented on very small computers or microprocessors.

  19. Development of a breadboard model correlation interferometer for the carbon monoxide pollution experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortner, M. H.; Dick, R.; Goldstein, H. W.; Grenda, R. N.; Levy, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    The breadboard model of the correlation interferometer for the Carbon Monoxide Pollution Experiment has been designed, fabricated, and tested. Laboratory, long-path, and atmospheric tests which were performed show the technique to be a feasible method for obtaining a global carbon monoxide map and a vertical carbon monoxide profile and similar information is readily obtainable for methane as well. In addition, the technique is readily applicable to other trace gases by minor instrumental changes. As shown by the results and the conclusions, it has been determined that CO and CH4 data can be obtained with an accuracy of 10% using this technique on the spectral region around 2.3 microns.

  20. Regulation of Multiple Carbon Monoxide Consumption Pathways in Anaerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Techtmann, Stephen M.; Colman, Albert S.; Murphy, Michael B.; Schackwitz, Wendy S.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Robb, Frank T.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH), the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO-utilization, has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: one clade (CooA-1) is found in the majority of CooA-containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2) is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of concentrations. PMID

  1. COSMIC: Carbon Monoxide and Soot in Microgravity Inverse Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, L. G.; Fernandez, M. G.; Mulholland, G. W.; Davis, R. W.; Moore, E. F.; Steel, E. B.; Scott, J. H. J.

    2001-01-01

    Almost seventy percent of deaths in accidental fires are caused by inhalation of toxins such as carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke (soot) that form during underventilated burning. The COSMIC project examines the formation mechanisms of CO and soot during underventilated combustion, achieved presently using laminar, inverse diffusion flames (IDFs) formed between an air jet and surrounding fuel. A major hypothesis of the project is that the IDF mimics underventilated combustion because carbon-containing species that form on the fuel side of the flame (such as CO and soot) can escape without passing through an oxidizing flame tip. An IDF literature review was presented at the last microgravity workshop, and a few additional IDF papers have appeared since that meeting. The COSMIC project is entering the third year of its four-year funding cycle. The first two years have been devoted to designing and constructing a rig for use in the NASA 2.2-second drop tower. A few computations and laboratory experiments have been performed. The goals of this paper are to discuss the use of numerical simulation during burner design, to present computational and experimental results that support the hypothesis that IDFs are similar to underventilated flames, and to delineate future plans.

  2. Interannual Variations of MLS Carbon Monoxide Induced by Solar Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    More than eight years (2004-2012) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed. The mesospheric CO, largely produced by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to the solar irradiance variability. The long-term variation of observed mesospheric MLS CO concentrations at high latitudes is likely driven by the solar-cycle modulated UV forcing. Despite of different CO abundances in the southern and northern hemispheric winter, the solar-cycle dependence appears to be similar. This solar signal is further carried down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex. Aura MLS CO is compared with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) total solar irradiance (TSI) and also with the spectral irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) region from the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE). Significant positive correlation (up to 0.6) is found between CO and FUVTSI in a large part of the upper atmosphere. The distribution of this positive correlation in the mesosphere is consistent with the expectation of CO changes induced by the solar irradiance variations.

  3. Triton's Summer Sky of Methane and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-04-01

    According to the first ever infrared analysis of the atmosphere of Neptune's moon Triton, summer is in full swing in its southern hemisphere. The European observing team used ESO's Very Large Telescope and discovered carbon monoxide and made the first ground-based detection of methane in Triton's thin atmosphere. These observations revealed that the thin atmosphere varies seasonally, thickening when warmed. "We have found real evidence that the Sun still makes its presence felt on Triton, even from so far away. This icy moon actually has seasons just as we do on Earth, but they change far more slowly," says Emmanuel Lellouch, the lead author of the paper reporting these results in Astronomy & Astrophysics. On Triton, where the average surface temperature is about minus 235 degrees Celsius, it is currently summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the northern. As Triton's southern hemisphere warms up, a thin layer of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on Triton's surface sublimates into gas, thickening the icy atmosphere as the season progresses during Neptune's 165-year orbit around the Sun. A season on Triton lasts a little over 40 years, and Triton passed the southern summer solstice in 2000. Based on the amount of gas measured, Lellouch and his colleagues estimate that Triton's atmospheric pressure may have risen by a factor of four compared to the measurements made by Voyager 2 in 1989, when it was still spring on the giant moon. The atmospheric pressure on Triton is now between 40 and 65 microbars - 20 000 times less than on Earth. Carbon monoxide was known to be present as ice on the surface, but Lellouch and his team discovered that Triton's upper surface layer is enriched with carbon monoxide ice by about a factor of ten compared to the deeper layers, and that it is this upper "film" that feeds the atmosphere. While the majority of Triton's atmosphere is nitrogen (much like on Earth), the methane in the atmosphere, first detected by

  4. Cyclic process for producing methane from carbon monoxide with heat removal

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C.; Yang, Chang-lee

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are converted to methane by a cyclic, essentially two-step process in which said carbon monoxide is disproportionated to form carbon dioxide and active surface carbon deposited on the surface of a catalyst, and said carbon is reacted with steam to form product methane and by-product carbon dioxide. The exothermic heat of reaction generated in each step is effectively removed during each complete cycle so as to avoid a build up of heat from cycle-to-cycle, with particularly advantageous techniques being employed for fixed bed, tubular and fluidized bed reactor operations.

  5. Autumn photoproduction of carbon monoxide in Jiaozhou Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Chunyan; Yang, Guipeng; Lu, Xiaolan

    2014-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) plays a significant role in global warming and atmospheric chemistry. Global oceans are net natural sources of atmospheric CO. CO at surface ocean is primarily produced from the photochemical degradation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). In this study, the effects of photobleaching, temperature and the origin (terrestrial or marine) of CDOM on the apparent quantum yields (AQY) of CO were studied for seawater samples collected from Jiaozhou Bay. Our results demonstrat that photobleaching, temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The concentration, absorbance and fluorescence of CDOM exponentially decreased with increasing light dose. Terrestrial riverine organic matter could be more prone to photodegradation than the marine algae-derived one. The relationships between CO AQY and the dissolved organic carbon-specific absorption coefficient at 254 nm for the photobleaching study were nonlinear, whereas those of the original samples were strongly linear. This suggests that: 1) terrestrial riverine CDOM was more efficient than marine algae-derived CDOM for CO photoproduction; 2) aromatic and olefinic moieties of the CDOM pool were affected more strongly by degradation processes than by aliphatic ones. Water temperature and the origin of CDOM strongly affected the efficiency of CO photoproduction. The photoproduction rate of CO in autumn was estimated to be 31.98 μmol m-2 d-1 and the total DOC photomineralization was equivalent to 3.25%-6.35% of primary production in Jiaozhou Bay. Our results indicate that CO photochemistry in coastal areas is important for oceanic carbon cycle.

  6. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOEpatents

    Golden, Timothy Christopher [Allentown, PA; Farris, Thomas Stephen [Bethlehem, PA

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  7. An empirical relationship between mesoscale carbon monoxide concentrations and vehicular emission rates : final report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1979-01-01

    Presented is a relatively simple empirical equation that reasonably approximates the relationship between mesoscale carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, areal vehicular CO emission rates, and the meteorological factors of wind speed and mixing height...

  8. Investigation of low temperature carbon monoxide oxidation catalysts. [for Spacelab atmosphere control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagow, R. B.; Katan, T.; Ray, C. D.; Lamparter, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon monoxide generation rates related to the use of commerical equipment in Spacelab, added to the normal metabolic and subsystem loads, will produce carbon monoxide levels in excess of the maximum allowable concentration. In connection with the sensitivity of carbon monoxide oxidation catalysts to poisoning at room temperature, catalysts for an oxidation of carbon monoxide at low temperatures have been investigated. It was found that platinum and palladium are the only effective room temperature catalysts which are effective at 333 K. Hopcalite was ineffective at ambient temperatures, but converted CO with 100 percent efficiency at 333 K. Poisoning tests showed the noble metal catalysts to be very sensitive, and Hopcalite to be very resistant to poisoning.

  9. Table of Historical Carbon Monoxide (CO) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    See the history of limits to the level of carbon monoxide (CO) in ambient air, set through the NAAQS review and rulemaking process under the Clean Air Act. This includes both primary and secondary standards.

  10. A review of carbon monoxide sources, sinks, and concentrations in the earth's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bortner, M. H.; Kummler, R. H.; Jaffe, L. S.

    1972-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a toxic pollutant which is continually introduced into the earth's atmosphere in significant quantities. There are apparently some mechanisms operating which destroy most of the CO in the atmosphere, i.e., a carbon monoxide sink. These mechanisms have not as yet been established in a quantitative sense. This report discusses the various possible removal mechanisms which warrant serious consideration. Particular emphasis is given to chemical reactions (especially that with OH), soil bacteria and other biological action, and transport effects. The sources of carbon monoxide, both natural and anthropogenic, are reviewed and it is noted that there is quite possibly a significant undefined natural source. Atmospheric CO concentrations are discussed and their implications on carbon monoxide lifetime, sinks and sources are considered.

  11. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque... Section 172 of the Clean Air Act, and is therefore approved. (b) Approval—The Albuquerque/Bernalillo...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. (a) Part D Approval. The Albuquerque... Section 172 of the Clean Air Act, and is therefore approved. (b) Approval—The Albuquerque/Bernalillo...

  13. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking onmore » fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)« less

  14. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking onmore » fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 137 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)« less

  15. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking onmore » fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)« less

  16. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking onmore » fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)« less

  17. Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning in Washington State, 2000-2005.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K; Whittaker, Stephen G; Adams, Darrin

    2010-10-01

    Washington State workers' compensation data can be used to guide prevention efforts focused on occupational carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Between 2000 and 2005, a total of 345 individual claims comprising 221 different exposure incidents were identified for the 6-year time period. The construction industry had 43 (20%) CO incidents, followed by wholesale trade with 32 (15%), and agriculture with 27 (12%) incidents. Fuel-powered forklifts caused 29% of all incidents, while autos/trucks/buses were responsible for 26%. The number of forklift incidents in fruit packing and cold storage companies declined significantly from 1994 through 2007 (Spearman's rho = 0.6659, p < 0.01). While this study used multiple medical records from workers' compensation claims to identify CO poisoning, a surveillance system that lacks extensive medical records may rely principally on carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) tests. This study demonstrated that 71% of the identified workers' compensation claims had associated COHb tests. The recurrence and timing of CO poisoning as well as control of the CO-generating source were determined. Approximately 8% of all work sites had recurring CO poisoning incidents. Two percent experienced a recurrent incident within 16 days of the initial incident, and 6% experienced a recurrent incident between 16 days and 3 years after the initial incident. Sixty-seven percent of claimants exposed to CO were not in direct control of the CO-generating source; this has implications for CO prevention and underscores the need for all employees to be trained on CO hazards.

  18. The neurotoxicology of carbon monoxide - Historical perspective and review.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Oliver T; Walker, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) has been recognized as a poison for centuries, and remains one of the most common causes of both accidental and deliberate poisoning worldwide. Despite this, there are widespread misconceptions with regards to the mechanisms, diagnosis and outcomes of CO induced poisoning such as the idea that CO poisoning is rare; that carboxyhaemoglobin levels above 20% and loss of consciousness are required before nervous system damage ensues; and that the binding of CO to haemoglobin is the only mechanism of toxicity. Prevention and diagnosis of CO poisoning is hampered by the lack of awareness of CO as a cause of illness, among both the general public and healthcare professionals. To complicate matters further there is no standardized definition of CO poisoning. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels are often used as a marker of CO poisoning, yet plasma levels rapidly reduce upon removal of the source and are therefore an unreliable biomarker of exposure and tissue damage. Adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes after CO poisoning are difficult to define, especially as they fluctuate, mimic other non-specific complaints, and are not present in all survivors. This paper challenges a number of misconceptions about CO poisoning which can result in misdiagnosis, and consequently in mismanagement. We illustrate how recent developments in the understanding of CO toxicology explain the particular susceptibility of the central nervous system to the effects of CO exposure. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon monoxide: present and future indications for a medical gas

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Augustine M. K.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous molecules continue to hold new promise in molecular medicine as experimental and clinical therapeutics. The low molecular weight gas carbon monoxide (CO), and similar gaseous molecules (e.g., H2S, nitric oxide) have been implicated as potential inhalation therapies in inflammatory diseases. At high concentration, CO represents a toxic inhalation hazard, and is a common component of air pollution. CO is also produced endogenously as a product of heme degradation catalyzed by heme oxygenase enzymes. CO binds avidly to hemoglobin, causing hypoxemia and decreased oxygen delivery to tissues at high concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a signal transduction molecule in the regulation of neural and vascular function and cellular homeostasis. CO has been demonstrated to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammation, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury, and organ transplantation. Additional experimental indications for this gas include pulmonary fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension, metabolic diseases, and preeclampsia. The development of chemical CO releasing compounds constitutes a novel pharmaceutical approach to CO delivery with demonstrated effectiveness in sepsis models. Current and pending clinical evaluation will determine the usefulness of this gas as a therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23525151

  20. A general circulation model study of atmospheric carbon monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, J. P.; Rind, D.; Russell, G. L.; Lerner, J. A.; Hansen, J. E.; Yung, Y. L.; Hameed, S.

    1983-01-01

    The carbon monoxide cycle is studied by incorporating the known and hypothetical sources and sinks in a tracer model that uses the winds generated by a general circulation model. Photochemical production and loss terms, which depend on OH radical concentrations, are calculated in an interactive fashion. The computed global distribution and seasonal variations of CO are compared with observations to obtain constraints on the distribution and magnitude of the sources and sinks of CO, and on the tropospheric abundance of OH. The simplest model that accounts for available observations requires a low latitude plant source of about 1.3 x 10 to the 15th g/yr, in addition to sources from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and oxidation of methane. The globally averaged OH concentration calculated in the model is 750,000/cu cm. Models that calculate globally averaged OH concentrations much lower than this nominal value are not consistent with the observed variability of CO. Such models are also inconsistent with measurements of CO isotopic abundances, which imply the existence of plant sources.

  1. Climate mode links to atmospheric carbon monoxide over fire regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchholz, R. R.; Hammerling, D.; Worden, H. M.; Monks, S. A.; Edwards, D. P.; Deeter, M. N.; Emmons, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    Fire is a strong contributor to variability in atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO), particularly for the Southern Hemisphere and tropics. The magnitude of emissions, such as CO, from biomass burning are related to climate through both the availability and dryness of fuel. We investigate this link between CO and climate using satellite measured CO and climate indices. Interannual variability in satellite-measured CO is determined for the time period covering 2001-2016. We use MOPITT total column retrievals and focus on biomass burning regions of the Southern Hemisphere and tropics. In each of the regions, data driven relationships are determined between CO and climate indices for the climate modes: El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); the Tropical Southern Atlantic (TSA); and the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO). Step-wise forward and backward regression combined with the Bayesian Information Criterion is used to select the best predictive model from combinations of lagged indices. We find evidence for the importance of first-order interaction terms of the climate modes when explaining CO variability. Generally, over 50% of the variability can be explained, with over 70% for the Maritime Southeast Asia and North Australasia regions. To help interpret variability, we draw on the chemistry-climate model CAM-chem, which provides information on source contributions and the relative influence of emissions and meteorology. Our results have implications for applications such as air quality forecasting and verifying climate-chemistry models.

  2. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen-Chia; Sung, Gang-Neng; Chen, Wen-Ching; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Chue, Jin-Ju; Wu, Chieh-Ming; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB) (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min), and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline). PMID:27669255

  3. Risk and protective behaviours for residential carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Rupert, Douglas J; Poehlman, Jon A; Damon, Scott A; Williams, Peyton N

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional, non-fire-related carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of poisoning death and injury in the USA. Residential poisonings caused by faulty furnaces are the most common type of CO exposure. However, these poisonings are largely preventable with annual furnace inspections and CO alarm installation. This study aimed to identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that might lead consumers to adopt these protective behaviours. In August 2009, four focus groups (n=29) were conducted with homeowners in Chicago, Illinois, USA, to identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that lead consumers to adopt risk and protective behaviours. Discussions were transcribed and the findings were analysed using an ordered meta-matrix. Focus group participants were aware of CO poisoning and supported the idea of regular furnace inspections. However, few participants consistently scheduled professional inspections for fear of costly repairs and unscrupulous contractors. Participants often owned CO alarms, but many did not locate them properly, nor maintain them. Some participants confused CO and natural gas and were unsure how to react if a CO alarm sounds. Participants stated that incentives, such as discounts and inspector selection tips, would make them more likely to schedule furnace inspections. Participants also identified trustworthy sources for CO education, including realtors, fire departments, home insurance agents and local media outlets. Participants' residential CO risk behaviours are not random but driven by underlying knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Correcting misperceptions, providing incentives and partnering with trustworthy sources might encourage greater consumer adoption of protective behaviours.

  4. Heme oxygenase and carbon monoxide protect from muscle dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Mun Chun; Ziegler, Olivia; Liu, Laura; Rowe, Glenn C; Das, Saumya; Otterbein, Leo E; Arany, Zoltan

    2016-11-28

    Duchenne muscle dystrophy (DMD) is one of the most common lethal genetic diseases of children worldwide and is 100% fatal. Steroids, the only therapy currently available, are marred by poor efficacy and a high side-effect profile. New therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. Here, we leverage PGC-1α, a powerful transcriptional coactivator known to protect against dystrophy in the mdx murine model of DMD, to search for novel mechanisms of protection against dystrophy. We identify heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) as a potential novel target for the treatment of DMD. Expression of HO-1 is blunted in the muscles from the mdx murine model of DMD, and further reduction of HO-1 by genetic haploinsufficiency worsens muscle damage in mdx mice. Conversely, induction of HO-1 pharmacologically protects against muscle damage. Mechanistically, HO-1 degrades heme into biliverdin, releasing in the process ferrous iron and carbon monoxide (CO). We show that exposure to a safe low dose of CO protects against muscle damage in mdx mice, as does pharmacological treatment with CO-releasing molecules. These data identify HO-1 and CO as novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of DMD. Safety profiles and clinical testing of inhaled CO already exist, underscoring the translational potential of these observations.

  5. Carbon monoxide poisoning at motels, hotels, and resorts.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Lindell K; Deru, Kayla

    2007-07-01

    Each year, more than 200 people in the United States die from carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Poisoning has occurred at motels, hotels, and resorts. Congressional mandate requires smoke alarms in all guest rooms; however, smoke alarms do not detect CO. Data on patients poisoned at hotels, motels, and resorts were evaluated at a hyperbaric medicine service. In 2005, legal databases and online news databanks were searched to discover additional incidents. Only victims evaluated in hospitals or declared dead at the scene were included. Cases of intentional poisoning and poisoning from fires were excluded. Between 1989 and 2004, 68 incidents of CO poisoning occurring at hotels, motels, and resorts were identified, resulting in 772 accidentally poisoned: 711 guests, 41 employees or owners, and 20 rescue personnel. Of those poisoned, 27 died, 66 had confirmed sequelae, and 6 had sequelae resulting in a jury verdict. Lodging-operated, faulty room heating caused 45 incidents, pool/spa boilers 16, CO entrained from outdoors 5, and unreported sources caused 2 incidents. Public verdicts have averaged $4.8 million per incident (range, $1 million to $17.5 million). Poisoning occurred at hotels of all classes. Despite these incidents, most properties did not install CO alarms, and requirements for CO alarms at hotels, motels, and resorts are rare. Guests of motels, hotels, and resorts remain at risk for injury or death from CO poisoning. Measures to prevent CO poisoning of guests and employees of the lodging industry should be evaluated.

  6. Predictors of carbon monoxide poisoning-induced delayed neuropsychological sequelae.

    PubMed

    Ku, Hsiao-Lun; Yang, Kai-Chun; Lee, Ying-Chiao; Lee, Ming-Been; Chou, Yuan-Hwa

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) commonly results in delayed neuropsychological sequelae (DNS). The aim of the article is to demonstrate the clinical characteristics and potential predictors of COP-induced DNS later. Retrospective medical record review was performed for patients who had COP in the past year at a National Medical Center in Taiwan. Sixty patients with COP were registered during a one-year period. Fifty-six of them (93.3%) were COP because of suicide attempt. Patients with COP who have a complete medical record of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) scores were recruited. Multiple regression analysis was performed to search for the predictive factors of DNS. Forty-three patients were recruited. Most had attempted suicide (93.0%) using CO, and thirteen developed DNS later. A longer duration of admission, more sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and positive findings in brain computed tomography (CT) scans were more often found in patients with DNS than those without DNS. The GCS and MMSE scores and positive findings in brain CT scans were associated with the development of DNS but COHb was not. Our results identified several potential predictors of DNS. This finding may help clinicians understand and treat COP patients efficiently. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Causes of unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide poisonings in California.

    PubMed Central

    Girman, J R; Chang, Y L; Hayward, S B; Liu, K S

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the annual number and incidence of unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in California and to identify specific factors that caused or contributed to the deaths. Unintentional CO deaths in California over a ten-year period (1979 to 1988) were identified from the database of the California Master Mortality File and coroners' investigation reports. Factors associated with unintentional CO deaths were determined based on the information from the investigation reports. The annual number of unintentional CO deaths varied from 27 to 58 over the ten years examined, with an average annual death incidence of 1.7 x 10(-6). Death rates were high among males and African-Americans. Alcohol appeared to be a factor in 31% of the cases. The types of combustion sources associated with unintentional CO deaths were: heating or cooking appliances; motor vehicles; charcoal grills and hibachis; small engines; and camping equipment. Factors associated with unintentional CO deaths interact in a complex way. To reduce the rate of unintentional CO deaths effectively, joint efforts involving several prevention methods are suggested. PMID:9549414

  8. EXHALED CARBON MONOXIDE LEVELS AMONG TOBACCO SMOKERS BY AGE.

    PubMed

    Chatrchaiwiwatana, Supaporn; Ratanasiri, Amornrat

    2017-03-01

    Measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (ECO) has been used to confirm self-reported tobacco smoking. There is little data regarding ECO levels among Thai tobacco smokers by age. The objectives of this study were to determine ECO cutoff level to confirm tobacco smoking and to assess whether the cutoff level varies by age. During 2009 we evaluated 875 Thai volunteers aged 16-70 years, residing in Pathum Thani (central Thailand) and Khon Kaen (northeastern Thailand). Among the 875 volunteers, there were 584 non-smokers and 291 smokers. Each subject was interviewed and had their ECO level measured. The mean ECO level was 11.24 ppm among smokers and 2.25 ppm among non-smokers. The best ECO cutoff level to distinguish 291smokers from 584 non-smokers was 5 ppm (sensitivity 79.0%, specificity 89.9%).The optimal ECO cutoff level varied by age-group. For subjects aged 16-25 years, the best ECO cutoff level was 4 ppm (sensitivity 85.2%, specificity 77.5%) and for subject aged 26-70 years, the best ECO cutoff level was 5 ppm (sensitivity 79.4%, specificity 91.2%).These levels by age should be used among Thai subjects to determine smoking.

  9. Variability in hyperbaric oxygen treatment for acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Brendan T; Lu, Jenny J; Valento, Matthew; Bryant, Sean M

    2012-01-01

    In patients with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, we have noted wide clinical variability in both criteria for hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatment as well as HBO2 treatment regimens. Our aim was to survey Midwest hyperbaric centers for insight into specific criteria and protocols for treating acute CO toxicity with HBO2. Hyperbaric centers were identified from the published list of the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. Ninety-three centers from nine Midwestern states were contacted via telephone. A standard script was used to minimize surveyor bias. Thirty centers that treat CO poisonings were identified. One did not participate in the study. Nineteen reported a specific level of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) that served as an independent indication for initiation of HBO2 treatment. Four centers used the COHb level as the exclusive indication for HBO2 treatment. Ten centers relied solely on reported symptoms, while the remaining centers used a combination of symptoms plus COHb levels. There were 19 separate treatment protocols. No uniform practice for either the initiation or implementation of HBO2 therapy for CO poisoning exists among U.S. Midwest hyperbaric centers responding to a survey. We see opportunity for specific targeted educational programs as well as further study.

  10. Dexamethasone therapy for preventing delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Song, J J; Zhang, H Y; Fu, K; Lan, H B; Deng, Y

    2015-01-01

    We investigated dexamethasone therapy for preventing delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Eighty healthy male rats were exposed to CO and randomly divided into four groups: hyperbaric oxygen treatment (H), treatment (D), combined hyperbaric and dexamethasone treatment (C), and a control (M) group in which the rats inhaled CO to coma in the hyperbaric oxygen chamber, then were removed without further treatment. Twelve rats were put into the hyperbaric oxygen chamber and treated with air for 60 min (N) group. An eight arm maze was used to evaluate cognitive and memory abilities of these mice. Serum myelin basic protein (MBP) levels were evaluated using ELISA, and magnetic resonance imaging was used to observe brain demyelination and morbidity associated with delayed encephalopathy. A sample of the hippocampus from each group was examined by light microscopy. Cognitive and memory functions decreased in the control group M. Three days after CO poisoning, the serum MBP level of each group increased significantly. On Day 10 after CO poisoning, the MBP levels in groups C and D decreased significantly, but returned to normal on Day 18. MBP levels in the M and H groups were elevated at all time points. Brain MRIs showed significant differences among C, D, H and control M groups. Hematoxylin & eosin staining of the hippocampus showed greater damage in the control M and H groups. Early dexamethasone treatment may be useful for preventing delayed encephalopathy after CO poisoning and may reduce serum MBP levels.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Pathogenesis, Management, and Future Directions of Therapy.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jason J; Wang, Ling; Xu, Qinzi; McTiernan, Charles F; Shiva, Sruti; Tejero, Jesus; Gladwin, Mark T

    2017-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning affects 50,000 people a year in the United States. The clinical presentation runs a spectrum, ranging from headache and dizziness to coma and death, with a mortality rate ranging from 1 to 3%. A significant number of patients who survive CO poisoning suffer from long-term neurological and affective sequelae. The neurologic deficits do not necessarily correlate with blood CO levels but likely result from the pleiotropic effects of CO on cellular mitochondrial respiration, cellular energy utilization, inflammation, and free radical generation, especially in the brain and heart. Long-term neurocognitive deficits occur in 15-40% of patients, whereas approximately one-third of moderate to severely poisoned patients exhibit cardiac dysfunction, including arrhythmia, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and myocardial infarction. Imaging studies reveal cerebral white matter hyperintensities, with delayed posthypoxic leukoencephalopathy or diffuse brain atrophy. Management of these patients requires the identification of accompanying drug ingestions, especially in the setting of intentional poisoning, fire-related toxic gas exposures, and inhalational injuries. Conventional therapy is limited to normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen, with no available antidotal therapy. Although hyperbaric oxygen significantly reduces the permanent neurological and affective effects of CO poisoning, a portion of survivors still have substantial morbidity. There has been some early success in therapies targeting the downstream inflammatory and oxidative effects of CO poisoning. New methods to directly target the toxic effect of CO, such as CO scavenging agents, are currently under development.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Pathogenesis, Management, and Future Directions of Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qinzi; Shiva, Sruti

    2017-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning affects 50,000 people a year in the United States. The clinical presentation runs a spectrum, ranging from headache and dizziness to coma and death, with a mortality rate ranging from 1 to 3%. A significant number of patients who survive CO poisoning suffer from long-term neurological and affective sequelae. The neurologic deficits do not necessarily correlate with blood CO levels but likely result from the pleiotropic effects of CO on cellular mitochondrial respiration, cellular energy utilization, inflammation, and free radical generation, especially in the brain and heart. Long-term neurocognitive deficits occur in 15–40% of patients, whereas approximately one-third of moderate to severely poisoned patients exhibit cardiac dysfunction, including arrhythmia, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and myocardial infarction. Imaging studies reveal cerebral white matter hyperintensities, with delayed posthypoxic leukoencephalopathy or diffuse brain atrophy. Management of these patients requires the identification of accompanying drug ingestions, especially in the setting of intentional poisoning, fire-related toxic gas exposures, and inhalational injuries. Conventional therapy is limited to normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen, with no available antidotal therapy. Although hyperbaric oxygen significantly reduces the permanent neurological and affective effects of CO poisoning, a portion of survivors still have substantial morbidity. There has been some early success in therapies targeting the downstream inflammatory and oxidative effects of CO poisoning. New methods to directly target the toxic effect of CO, such as CO scavenging agents, are currently under development. PMID:27753502

  13. Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Liwen; Gille, John C.; Edwards, David P.; Bailey, Paul L.; Rodgers, Clive D.

    1998-12-01

    A retrieval method for deriving the tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) profile and column amount under clear sky conditions has been developed for the Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument, scheduled for launch in 1998 onboard the EOS-AM1 satellite. This paper presents a description of the method along with analyses of retrieval information content. These analyses characterize the forward measurement sensitivity, the contribution of a priori information, and the retrieval vertical resolution. Ensembles of tropospheric CO profiles were compiled both from aircraft in situ measurements and from chemical model results and were used in retrieval experiments to characterize the method and to study the sensitivity to different parameters. Linear error analyses were carried out in parallel with the ensemble experiments. Results of these experiments and analyses indicate that MOPITT CO column measurements will have better than 10% precision, and CO profile measurement will have approximately three pieces of independent information that will resolve 3-5 tropospheric layers to approximately 10% precision. These analyses are important for understanding MOPITT data, both for application of data in tropospheric chemistry studies and for comparison with in situ measurements.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Off-Gassing From Bags of Wood Pellets.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Arifur; Rossner, Alan; Hopke, Philip K

    2018-02-13

    Wood pellets are increasingly used for space heating in the United States and globally. Prior work has shown that stored bulk wood pellets produce sufficient carbon monoxide (CO) to represent a health concern and exceed regulatory standards for occupational exposures. However, most of the pellets used for residential heating are sold in 40-pound (18.1 kg) plastic bags. This study measured CO emission factors from fresh, bagged-wood pellets as a function of temperature and relative humidity. CO concentrations increased with increasing temperature and moisture in the container. CO measurements in a pellet mill warehouse with stored pallets of bagged pellets had 8-h average CO concentrations up to 100 ppm exceeding occupational standards for worker exposure. Thus, manufacturers, distributors, and home owners should be aware of the potential for CO in storage areas and design facilities with appropriate ventilation and CO sensors. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  15. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Chia; Sung, Gang-Neng; Chen, Wen-Ching; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Chue, Jin-Ju; Wu, Chieh-Ming; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-09-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB) (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min), and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline).

  16. Carbon Monoxide Epidemic Among Immigrant Populations: King County, Washington, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Kwan-Gett, Tao; Hampson, Neil B.; Baer, Atar; Shusterman, Dennis; Shandro, Jamie R.; Duchin, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated an outbreak of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning after a power outage to determine its extent, identify risk factors, and develop prevention measures. Methods. We reviewed medical records and medical examiner reports of patients with CO poisoning or related symptoms during December 15 to 24, 2006. We grouped patients into households exposed concurrently to a single source of CO. Results. Among 259 patients with CO poisoning, 204 cases were laboratory confirmed, 37 were probable, 10 were suspected, and 8 were fatal. Of 86 households studied, 58% (n = 50) were immigrant households from Africa (n = 21), Asia (n = 15), Latin America (n = 10), and the Middle East (n = 4); 34% (n = 29) were US-born households. One percent of households was European (n = 1), and the origin for 7% (n = 6) was unknown. Charcoal was the most common fuel source used among immigrant households (82%), whereas liquid fuel was predominant among US-born households (34%). Conclusions. Educational campaigns to prevent CO poisoning should consider immigrants’ cultural practices and languages and specifically warn against burning charcoal indoors and incorrect ventilation of gasoline- or propane-powered electric generators. PMID:19608962

  17. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning After an Ice Storm in Kentucky, 2009

    PubMed Central

    Lutterloh, Emily C.; Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H.; Spillerr, Henry A.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Sugg, Tennis J.; Humbaugh, Kraig E.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Thoroughman, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during natural disasters. On January 26–27, 2009, a severe ice storm occurred in Kentucky, causing widespread, extended power outages and disrupting transportation and communications. After the storm, CO poisonings were reported throughout the state. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent of the problem, identify sources of CO poisoning, characterize cases, make recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality, and develop prevention strategies. Methods. We obtained data from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center (KRPC), hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) facilities, and coroners. Additionally, the Kentucky Department for Public Health provided statewide emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data. Results. During the two weeks after the storm, KRPC identified 144 cases of CO poisoning; exposure sources included kerosene heaters, generators, and propane heaters. Hospitals reported 202 ED visits and 26 admissions. Twenty-eight people received HBOT. Ten deaths were attributed to CO poisoning, eight of which were related to inappropriate generator location. Higher rates of CO poisoning were reported in areas with the most ice accumulation. Conclusions. Although CO poisonings are preventable, they continue to occur in postdisaster situations. Recommendations include encouraging use of CO alarms, exploring use of engineering controls on generators to decrease CO exposure, providing specific information regarding safe use and placement of CO-producing devices, and using multiple communication methods to reach people without electricity. PMID:21563718

  18. Carbon Monoxide in Exhaled Breath Testing and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation, and potential diagnostic value remains incompletely characterized. Among other candidate “medicinal gases” with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease. PMID:23446063

  19. Carbon monoxide inhalation induces headache in a human headache model.

    PubMed

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Britze, Josefine; Vestergaard, Mark Bitsch; Sander, Mikael; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2018-04-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced signalling molecule that has a role in nociceptive processing and cerebral vasodilatation. We hypothesized that inhalation of CO would induce headache and vasodilation of cephalic and extracephalic arteries. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 12 healthy volunteers were allocated to inhalation of CO (carboxyhemoglobin 22%) or placebo on two separate days. Headache was scored on a verbal rating scale from 0-10. We recorded mean blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) by transcranial Doppler, diameter of the superficial temporal artery (STA) and radial artery (RA) by high-resolution ultrasonography and facial skin blood flow by laser speckle contrast imaging. Results Ten volunteers developed headache after CO compared to six after placebo. The area under the curve for headache (0-12 hours) was increased after CO compared with placebo ( p = 0.021). CO increased VMCA ( p = 0.002) and facial skin blood flow ( p = 0.012), but did not change the diameter of the STA ( p = 0.060) and RA ( p = 0.433). Conclusion In conclusion, the study demonstrated that CO caused mild prolonged headache but no arterial dilatation in healthy volunteers. We suggest this may be caused by a combination of hypoxic and direct cellular effects of CO.

  20. Carbon monoxide exposure in households in Ciudad Juárez, México.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Teresa; Gurian, Patrick L; Velázquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Rojo, Analila; Graham, Jay P

    2008-03-01

    This study assessed exposure to carbon monoxide from gas and wood heater emissions in a sample of 64 households in peri-urban residential areas in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México. Indoor and outdoor carbon monoxide concentrations and temperatures were monitored for a continuous period of 1 week at 1 and 6-min intervals, respectively. The moving average carbon monoxide concentrations were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards for carbon monoxide. Sixty-seven percent of households with gas heaters and 60% of households with wood heaters exceeded a health-based standard at some point during the monitoring. The difference between indoor and outdoor temperatures was modestly correlated with average carbon monoxide exposure (r=0.35, p-value <0.01). Heater type may be a stronger determinant of exposure, as households with a particular heater model (the El Sol FM-210) were significantly more likely to be among the more highly exposed households (odds ratio of 4.8, p-value of 0.02). A variety of health effects were pooled and found at elevated frequency in the households that exceeded the 8-h standard of 9ppm (odds ratio=5.1, p-value=0.031). These results highlight the need for further efforts to identify and mitigate potentially hazardous carbon monoxide exposures, particularly in moderate-income countries with cooler climates.

  1. Carbon monoxide and methane adsorption of crude oil refinery using activated carbon from palm shells as biosorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuliusman; Afdhol, M. K.; Sanal, Alristo

    2018-03-01

    Carbon monoxide and methane gas are widely present in oil refineries. Off-potential gas is used as raw material for the petrochemical industry. In order for this off-gas to be utilized, carbon monoxide and methane must be removed from off-gas. This study aims to adsorb carbon monoxide and methane using activated carbon of palm shells and commercial activated carbon simultaneously. This research was conducted in 2 stages: 1) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon, 2) Carbon monoxide and methane adsorption test. The activation experiments using carbon dioxide at a flow rate of 150 ml/min yielded a surface area of 978.29 m2/g, Nitrogen at flow rate 150 ml/min yielded surface area 1241.48 m2/g, and carbon dioxide and nitrogen at a flow rate 200 ml/min yielded a surface area 300.37 m2/g. Adsorption of carbon monoxide and methane on activated carbon of palm shell systems yielded results in the amount of 0.5485 mg/g and 0.0649 mg/g and using commercial activated carbon yielded results in the amount of 0.5480 mg/g and 0.0650 mg/g

  2. Separation of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide for Mars ISRU-Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVan, M. Douglas; Finn, John E.; Sridhar, K. R.

    2000-01-01

    Solid oxide electrolyzers, such as electrolysis cells utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconia, can produce oxygen from Mars atmospheric carbon dioxide and reject carbon monoxide and unreacted carbon dioxide in a separate stream. The oxygen-production process has been shown to be far more efficient if the high-pressure, unreacted carbon dioxide can be separated and recycled back into the feed stream. Additionally, the mass of the adsorption compressor can be reduced. Also, the carbon monoxide by-product is a valuable fuel for space exploration and habitation, with applications from fuel cells to production of hydrocarbons and plastics. In our research, we will design, construct, and test an innovative, robust, low mass, low power separation device that can recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU. Such fundamental process technology, involving gas-solid phase separation in a reduced gravitational environment, will help to enable Human Exploration and Development of Space. The separation device will be scaled to operate with a CO2 sorption compressor and a zirconia electrolysis device built at the NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Arizona, respectively. In our research, we will design, construct, and test an innovative, robust, low mass, low power separation device that can recover carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU, Such fundamental process technology, involving gas-solid phase separation in a reduced gravitational environment, will help to enable Human Exploration and Development of Space. The separation device will be scaled to operate with a CO2 sorption compressor and a zirconia electrolysis device built at the NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Arizona, The separation device will be scaled to operate with a CO2 sorption compressor and a zirconia electrolysis device built at the NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Arizona, Research needs for the design shown are as follows: (1) The best adsorbent

  3. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1) Follow the manufacturer's... nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer...

  4. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1) Follow the manufacturer's... nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer...

  5. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1) Follow the manufacturer's... nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer...

  6. 40 CFR 86.122-78 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monoxide analyzer shall be checked for response to water vapor and CO2: (1) Follow the manufacturer's... nitrogen. (3) Bubble a mixture of 3 percent CO2 in N2 through water at room temperature and record analyzer...

  7. Inhalation toxicology. IX., Times-to-incapacitation for rats exposed to carbon monoxide alone, to hydrogen cyanide alone, and to mixtures of carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory rats were exposed to experimental atmospheres that contained a) carbon monoxide in air, b) hydrogen cyanide in air, and c) mixtures of CO and HCN in air. The toxic potency of each of the three types of environments was evaluated toxico-kin...

  8. Inhalation Toxicology. X., Times to incapacitation for rats exposed continuously to carbon monoxide, acrolein, and to carbon monoxide-acrolein mixtures.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-12-01

    Laboratory rats were exposed to experimental atmospheres of (a) carbon monoxide (CO) in air, (b) acrolein in air, and (c) to mixtures of CO and acrolein in air. The toxic potency of each of the three types of environments was evaluated toxicokinetica...

  9. Revised Evaluation of Health Effects Associated with Carbon Monoxide Exposure: An Addendum to the 1979 U.S. EPA Air Quality Criteria Document for Carbon Monoxide (1984)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The addendum re-evaluates the scientific data base concerning health effects associated with exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) at ambient or near ambient levels by providing: (1) a concise summary of key health effects information pertaining to relatively low-level CO exposure; an...

  10. Sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from comets at large heliocentric distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1992-01-01

    Using a simple model for outgassing from a small flat surface area, the sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, two species more volatile than water ice that are known to be present in comets, are calculated for a suddenly activated discrete source on the rotating nucleus. The instantaneous sublimation rate depends upon the comet's heliocentric distance and the Sun's zenith angle at the location of the source. The values are derived for the constants of CO and CO2 in an expression that yields the local rotation-averaged sublimation rate as a function of the comet's spin parameters and the source's cometocentric latitude.

  11. Carbon monoxide pollution and neurodevelopment: A public health concern.

    PubMed

    Levy, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between air pollution and adverse systemic health effects has been known for years, the effect of pollutants on neurodevelopment has been underappreciated. Recent evidence suggests a possible link between air pollution and neurocognitive impairment and behavioral disorders in children, however, the exact nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. Infants and children are uniquely vulnerable due to the potential for exposure in both the fetal and postnatal environments during critical periods in development. Carbon monoxide (CO), a common component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, can cross the placenta to gain access to the fetal circulation and the developing brain. Thus, CO is of particular interest as a known neurotoxin and a potential public health threat. Here we review overt CO toxicity and the policies regulating CO exposure, detail the evidence suggesting a potential link between CO-associated ambient air pollution, tobacco smoke, and learning and behavioral abnormalities in children, describe the effects of subclinical CO exposure on the brain during development, and provide mechanistic insight into a potential connection between CO exposure and neurodevelopmental outcome. CO can disrupt a number of critical processes in the developing brain, providing a better understanding of how this specific neurotoxin may impair neurodevelopment. However, further investigation is needed to better define the effects of perinatal CO exposure on the immature brain. Current policies regarding CO standards were established based on evidence of cardiovascular risk in adults with pre-existing comorbidities. Thus, recent and emerging data highlighted in this review regarding CO exposure in the fetus and developing child may be important to consider when the standards and guidelines are evaluated and revised in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbon monoxide poisoning in Florida during the 2004 hurricane season.

    PubMed

    Van Sickle, David; Chertow, Daniel S; Schulte, Joann M; Ferdinands, Jill M; Patel, Prakash S; Johnson, David R; Harduar-Morano, Laurel; Blackmore, Carina; Ourso, Andre C; Cruse, Kelly M; Dunn, Kevin H; Moolenaar, Ronald L

    2007-04-01

    During August-September 2004, four major hurricanes hit Florida, resulting in widespread power outages affecting several million households. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings during this period were investigated to identify ways to prevent future poisoning. Medical records from ten hospitals (two with hyperbaric oxygen chambers) were reviewed to identify individuals diagnosed with unintentional CO poisoning between August 13 and October 15, 2004. Multiple attempts were made to interview one person from each nonfatal incident. Medical examiner records and reports of investigations conducted by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission of six fatal poisonings from five additional incidents were also reviewed. A total of 167 people treated for nonfatal CO poisoning were identified, representing 51 incidents. A portable, gasoline-powered generator was implicated in nearly all nonfatal incidents and in all fatal poisonings. Generators were most often located outdoors, followed by inside the garage, and inside the home. Telephone interviews with representatives of 35 (69%) incidents revealed that concerns about theft or exhaust most often influenced the choice of location. Twenty-six (74%) households did not own a generator before the hurricanes, and 86% did not have a CO detector at the time of the poisoning. Twenty-one (67%) households reported reading or hearing CO education messages before the incident. Although exposure to public education messages may have encouraged more appropriate use of generators, a substantial number of people were poisoned even when the devices were operated outdoors. Additional educational efforts and engineering solutions that reduce CO emission from generators should be the focus of public health activities.

  13. Nicotine and carbon monoxide exposure from inhalation of cigarillo smoke.

    PubMed

    Koszowski, Bartosz; Rosenberry, Zachary R; Kanu, Alieu; Viray, Lauren C; Potts, Jennifer L; Pickworth, Wallace B

    2015-12-01

    There has been an increase in the use of cigarillos in the US. People who smoke cigarillos typically also regularly smoke cigarettes (dual users). We compared puffing topography, biomarkers of acute exposure [exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) and plasma nicotine] and physiologic effects from usual brand cigarette and Black & Mild cigarillo smoking in dual users (N=23) in two laboratory sessions. Participants (21 men) smoked an average of 17.5cigarettes/day. Cigarillo consumption varied widely from as few as 1/week to daily. Participants were highly nicotine dependent (average FTND score: 6.3). There were statistically significant differences in smoking behavior between cigarette and cigarillo smoking in time to smoke, number of puffs, and total puff volume (all P<0.001). Average puff duration, interpuff interval average puff volume, and puff velocity did not differ between cigarettes and cigarillos. Nicotine boost was similar after both cigarettes and cigarillos. COex boost was significantly greater after cigarillo smoking compared to cigarette smoking (P<0.001). The smoking pattern and exposure profile indicate that dual users inhale cigarillo smoke just as they inhale cigarette smoke thereby exposing themselves to considerable amounts of nicotine and other components of tobacco smoke. COex exposure results imply that cigarillo smoking may be associated with higher exposure to smoke-delivered volatile components of mainstream cigarillo smoke including carcinogens when compared to cigarettes. The findings that cigarillos and cigarettes are smoked similarly in dual users are relevant to health and regulatory considerations on cigar products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Predictors for delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Japan, many carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning cases are transported to emergency settings, making treatment and prognostic assessment an urgent task. However, there is currently no reliable means to predict whether “delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS)” will develop after acute CO poisoning. This study is intended to find out risk factors for the development of DNS and to characterize the clinical course following the development of DNS in acute CO poisoning cases. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of 79 consecutive patients treated at a single institution for CO poisoning. This study included 79 cases of acute CO poisoning admitted to our emergency department after attempted suicide, who were divided into two groups consisting of 13 cases who developed DNS and 66 cases who did not. The two groups were compared and analyzed in terms of clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, etc. Results Predictors for the development of DNS following acute CO poisoning included: serious consciousness disturbance at emergency admission; head CT findings indicating hypoxic encephalopathy; hematology findings including high creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase levels; and low Global Assessment Scale scores. The clinical course of the DNS-developing cases was characterized by prolonged hospital stay and a larger number of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy sessions. Conclusion In patients with the characteristics identified in this study, administration of HBO therapy should be proactively considered after informing their family, at initial stage, of the risk of developing DNS, and at least 5 weeks’ follow-up to watch for the development of DNS is considered necessary. PMID:24484081

  15. Predictors for delayed encephalopathy following acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Kaoru; Otsuka, Kotaro; Yagi, Junko; Sanjo, Katsumi; Koizumi, Noritaka; Koeda, Atsuhiko; Umetsu, Miki Yokota; Yoshioka, Yasuhito; Mizugai, Ayumi; Mita, Toshinari; Shiga, Yu; Koizumi, Fumito; Nakamura, Hikaru; Sakai, Akio

    2014-01-31

    In Japan, many carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning cases are transported to emergency settings, making treatment and prognostic assessment an urgent task. However, there is currently no reliable means to predict whether "delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS)" will develop after acute CO poisoning. This study is intended to find out risk factors for the development of DNS and to characterize the clinical course following the development of DNS in acute CO poisoning cases. This is a retrospective cohort study of 79 consecutive patients treated at a single institution for CO poisoning. This study included 79 cases of acute CO poisoning admitted to our emergency department after attempted suicide, who were divided into two groups consisting of 13 cases who developed DNS and 66 cases who did not. The two groups were compared and analyzed in terms of clinical symptoms, laboratory findings, etc. Predictors for the development of DNS following acute CO poisoning included: serious consciousness disturbance at emergency admission; head CT findings indicating hypoxic encephalopathy; hematology findings including high creatine kinase, creatine kinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase levels; and low Global Assessment Scale scores. The clinical course of the DNS-developing cases was characterized by prolonged hospital stay and a larger number of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy sessions. In patients with the characteristics identified in this study, administration of HBO therapy should be proactively considered after informing their family, at initial stage, of the risk of developing DNS, and at least 5 weeks' follow-up to watch for the development of DNS is considered necessary.

  16. Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ching-Yuan; Huang, Yu-Wei; Tseng, Chun-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the dementia risk after carbon monoxide poisoning (CO poisoning). Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, a total of 9041 adults newly diagnosed with CO poisoning from 2000 to 2011 were identified as the CO poisoning cohort. Four-fold (N = 36,160) of non-CO poisoning insured people were randomly selected as controls, frequency-matched by age, sex, and hospitalization year. Incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of dementia were measured by the end 2011. The dementia incidence was 1.6-fold higher in the CO exposed cohort than in the non-exposed cohort (15.2 vs 9.76 per 10,000 person-years; n = 62 vs 174) with an adjusted HR of 1.50 (95% CI = 1.11–2.04). The sex- and age-specific hazards were higher in male patients (adjusted HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.20–2.54), and those aged <=49 years (adjusted HR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.38–4.99). CO exposed patients with 7-day or longer hospital stay had an adjusted HR of 2.18 (95% CI = 1.42, 3.36). The CO poisoning patients on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy had an adjusted HR of 1.80 (95% CI = 0.96–3.37). This study suggests that CO poisoning may have association with the risk of developing dementia, which is significant for severe cases. The effectiveness of HBO2 therapy remains unclear in preventing dementia. Patients with CO poisoning are more prevalent with depression. PMID:26735545

  17. Carbon monoxide from composting due to thermal oxidation of biomass.

    PubMed

    Hellebrand, H J; Schade, G W

    2008-01-01

    Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) were observed from decomposing organic wastes and litter under laboratory, pilot composting plant, and natural conditions. Field studies included air from inside a compost heap of about 200 m3, emissions from composting of livestock wastes at a biologically operating farm, and leaf litter pile air samples. The concentration of CO was up to 120 micromol mol(-1) in the compost piles of green waste, and up to 10 micromol mol(-1) in flux chambers above livestock waste windrow composts. The mean CO flux rates were approximately 20 mg CO m(-2) h(-1) for compost heaps of green waste, and varied from 30 to 100 mg CO m(-2) h(-1) for fresh dung windrows. Laboratory studies using a temperature and ventilation-controlled substrate container were performed to elucidate the origin of CO, and included hay samples of fixed moisture content at temperatures between 5 and 65 degrees C, including nonsterilized as well as sterilized samples. The concentration of CO was up to 160 micromol mol(-1) in these experiments, and Arrhenius-type plot analyses resulted in activation energies of 65 kJ mol(-1) for thermochemically produced CO from the nonsterilized compost substrate. Sterilized samples showed dramatically reduced CO2 but virtually unchanged CO emissions, albeit at a slightly lower activation energy, likely a result of the high-temperature sterilization. Though globally and regionally these CO emissions are only a minor source, thermochemically produced CO emissions might affect local air quality in and near composting facilities.

  18. Risk and protective behaviours for residential carbon monoxide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Rupert, Douglas J; Poehlman, Jon A; Damon, Scott A; Williams, Peyton N

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintentional, non-fire-related carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of poisoning death and injury in the USA. Residential poisonings caused by faulty furnaces are the most common type of CO exposure. However, these poisonings are largely preventable with annual furnace inspections and CO alarm installation. Objective This study aimed to identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that might lead consumers to adopt these protective behaviours. Methods In August 2009, four focus groups (n=29) were conducted with homeowners in Chicago, Illinois, USA, to identify the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs that lead consumers to adopt risk and protective behaviours. Discussions were transcribed and the findings were analysed using an ordered meta-matrix. Results Focus group participants were aware of CO poisoning and supported the idea of regular furnace inspections. However, few participants consistently scheduled professional inspections for fear of costly repairs and unscrupulous contractors. Participants often owned CO alarms, but many did not locate them properly, nor maintain them. Some participants confused CO and natural gas and were unsure how to react if a CO alarm sounds. Participants stated that incentives, such as discounts and inspector selection tips, would make them more likely to schedule furnace inspections. Participants also identified trustworthy sources for CO education, including realtors, fire departments, home insurance agents and local media outlets. Conclusions Participants’ residential CO risk behaviours are not random but driven by underlying knowledge, attitudes and beliefs. Correcting misperceptions, providing incentives and partnering with trustworthy sources might encourage greater consumer adoption of protective behaviours. PMID:22653781

  19. Quantification of point sources of carbon monoxide using satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Iris; Houweling, Sander; Aben, Ilse; Roeckmann, Thomas; Krol, Maarten

    2017-04-01

    The growth of mega-cities leads to air quality problems directly affecting the citizens. With satellite measurements becoming of higher quality and quantity, satellite instruments can more accurately retrieve the enhanced air pollutant concentrations over large cities. The aim of this research is to quantify carbon monoxide emissions from megacities and their trends using satellite retrievals, combined with an atmospheric chemistry and transport model. Earlier emission estimations of cities have been done using MOPITT satellite data only. To improve the reliability of the emission estimation, we simulate MOPITT retrievals using the Weather Research and Forecast model with chemistry core (WRF-Chem). The difference between model and retrieval is used to optimize CO emissions in WRF-Chem, focusing on the city of Madrid, Spain. A reasonable agreement is obtained between the yearly averaged model output and satellite measurements (R2=0.75) for Madrid. After optimization, the emission of Madrid is reduced by 48% for 2002 and by 17% for 2006 compared with EdgarV4.2. The MOPITT derived emission adjustments lead to a better agreement with a European emission inventory TNO-MAC-III for both years. This suggested that the downward trend in CO emissions over Madrid is overestimated in EdgarV4.2 and more realistically represented in TNO-MAC-III. However, uncertainties remain large using our satellite-based emission estimation method, in the order of 20% for 2002 and 50% for 2006. Therefore, different options to increase the degrees of freedom in the optimization are investigated, to account for the noise in the MOPITT data. We also show comparisons with IASI data, which have a higher temporal resolution. The method is developed for application to Sentinel 5P TROPOMI, to be launched in June 2017.

  20. Carbon Monoxide in Meat and Fish Packaging: Advantages and Limits

    PubMed Central

    Roncalés, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Due to increased demands for greater expectation in relation to quality, convenience, safety and extended shelf-life, combined with growing demand from retailers for cost-effective extensions of fresh muscle foods’ shelf-life, the food packaging industry quickly developed to meet these expectations. During the last few decades, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of foods has been a promising area of research, but much remains to be known regarding the use of unconventional gases such carbon monoxide (CO). The use of CO for meat and seafood packaging is not allowed in most countries due to the potential toxic effect, and its use is controversial in some countries. The commercial application of CO in food packaging was not then considered feasible because of possible environmental hazards for workers. CO has previously been reported to mask muscle foods’ spoilage, and this was the primary concern raised for the prohibition, as this may mislead consumers. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely-available, scattered information about the use of CO in the preservation of muscle foods. The advantages of CO and its industrial limits are presented and discussed. The most recent literature on the consumer safety issues related to the use of CO and consumer acceptance of CO especially in meat packaging systems were also discussed. Recommendations and future prospects were addressed for food industries, consumers and regulators on what would be a “best practice” in the use of CO in food packaging. All this promotes high ethical standards in commercial communications by means of effective regulation, for the benefit of consumers and businesses in the world, and this implies that industrialized countries and members of their regulatory agencies must develop a coherent and robust systems of regulation and control that can respond effectively to new challenges. PMID:29360803

  1. Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide Exposure from Inhalation of Cigarillo Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Koszowski, Bartosz; Rosenberry, Zachary R.; Kanu, Alieu; Viray, Lauren C.; Potts, Jennifer L.; Pickworth, Wallace B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in the use of cigarillos in the US. People who smoke cigarillos typically also regularly smoke cigarettes (dual users). Methods We compared puffing topography, biomarkers of acute exposure [exhaled carbon monoxide (COex) and plasma nicotine] and physiologic effects from usual brand cigarette and Black & Mild cigarillo smoking in dual users (N=23) in two laboratory sessions. Results Participants (21 men) smoked an average of 17.5 cigarettes/day. Cigarillo consumption varied widely from as few as 1/week to daily. Participants were highly nicotine dependent (average FTND score: 6.3). There were statistically significant differences in smoking behavior between cigarette and cigarillo smoking in time to smoke, number of puffs, and total puff volume (all P<0.001). Average puff duration, interpuff interval average puff volume, and puff velocity did not differ between cigarettes and cigarillos. Nicotine boost was similar after both cigarettes and cigarillos. COex boost was significantly greater after cigarillo smoking compared to cigarette smoking (P<0.001). Conclusions The smoking pattern and exposure profile indicate that dual users inhale cigarillo smoke just as they inhale cigarette smoke thereby exposing themselves to considerable amounts of nicotine and other components of tobacco smoke. COex exposure results imply that cigarillo smoking may be associated with higher exposure to smoke-delivered volatile components of mainstream cigarillo smoke including carcinogens when compared to cigarettes. Impact The findings that cigarillos and cigarettes are smoked similarly in dual users are relevant to health and regulatory considerations on cigar products. PMID:26459155

  2. Unusual way of suicide by carbon monoxide. Case Report.

    PubMed

    Zelený, Michal; Pivnička, Jan; Šindler, Martin; Kukleta, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Authors discuss the case of a suicide of a 29-year-old man caused by carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication. What the authors found interesting was the unusual way of committing suicide that required good technical skills and expert knowledge. The level of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood of the deceased man was routinely determined by the modified method by Blackmoore (1970), using gas chromatography/thermal conductivity detection. The level of saturation of the hemoglobin by CO in the collected blood sample is determined relatively to the same sample saturated to 100%. In the blood sample of the deceased man the lethal concentration of COHb of 76.5% was determined. Within the following examinations the blood alcohol concentration of 0.05 g.kg(-1) was determined. Further analysis revealed traces of sertraline, its metabolite N-desmethylsertraline, omeprazole and caffeine in the liver tissue, traces of N-desmethylsertraline, ibuprofen and caffeine in urine sample, and only traces of caffeine in the stomach content and blood samples were proved. To commit suicide the man used a sophisticated double container-system equipped with a timer for controlled generation of CO based on the chemical reaction of concentrated sulphuric acid and formic acid. The used timer was set by an electromechanical timer switch that triggered the fatal reaction of the acids while the man was sleeping. The authors discuss an unusual case of suicide by CO intoxication rarely seen in the area of forensic medicine and toxicology that is specific due to its sophisticated way of execution.

  3. Carbon Monoxide Pollution and Neurodevelopment: A Public Health Concern

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Although an association between air pollution and adverse systemic health effects has been known for years, the effect of pollutants on neurodevelopment has been underappreciated. Recent evidence suggests a possible link between air pollution and neurocognitive impairment and behavioral disorders in children, however, the exact nature of this relationship remains poorly understood. Infants and children are uniquely vulnerable due to the potential for exposure in both the fetal and postnatal environments during critical periods in development. Carbon monoxide (CO), a common component of indoor and outdoor air pollution, can cross the placenta to gain access to the fetal circulation and the developing brain. Thus, CO is of particular interest as a known neurotoxin and a potential public health threat. Here we review overt CO toxicity and the policies regulating CO exposure, detail the evidence suggesting a potential link between CO-associated ambient air pollution, tobacco smoke, and learning and behavioral abnormalities in children, describe the effects of subclinical CO exposure on the brain during development, and provide mechanistic insight into a potential connection between CO exposure and neurodevelopmental outcome. CO can disrupt a number of critical processes in the developing brain, providing a better understanding of how this specific neurotoxin may impair neurodevelopment. However, further investigation is needed to better define the effects of perinatal CO exposure on the immature brain. Current policies regarding CO standards were established based on evidence of cardiovascular risk in adults with pre-existing comorbidities. Thus, recent and emerging data highlighted in this review regarding CO exposure in the fetus and developing child may be important to consider when the standards and guidelines are evaluated and revised in the future. PMID:25772154

  4. First Retrieval of Thermospheric Carbon Monoxide From Mars Dayglow Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. Scott; Stevens, Michael H.; Jain, Sonal; Deighan, Justin; Lumpe, Jerry; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Stewart, A. Ian; Crismani, Matteo; Stiepen, Arnaud; Chaffin, Michael S.; Mayyasi-Matta, Majd A.; McClintock, William E.; Holsclaw, Greg; Lefevre, Franck; Lo, Daniel; Clarke, John T.; Montmessin, Franck; Bougher, Stephen W.; Bell, Jared M.; Eparvier, Frank; Thiemann, Ed; Mahaffy, Paul R.; Benna, Mehdi; Elrod, Meredith K.; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    As a minor species in the Martian thermosphere, Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a tracer that can be used to constrain changing circulation patterns between the lower thermosphere and upper mesosphere of Mars. By linking CO density distributions to dynamical wind patterns, the structure and variability of the atmosphere will be better understood. Direct measurements of CO can therefore provide insight into the magnitude and pattern of winds and provide a metric for studying the response of the atmosphere to solar forcing. In addition, CO measurements can help solve outstanding photochemical modeling problems in explaining the abundance of CO at Mars. CO is directly observable by electron impact excitation and solar resonance fluorescence emissions in the far-ultraviolet (FUV). The retrieval of CO from solar fluorescence was first proposed over 40 years ago, but has been elusive at Mars due to significant spectral blending. However, by simulating the spectral shape of each contributing emission feature, electron impact excitation and solar fluorescence brightnesses can be extracted from the composite spectrum using a multiple linear regression approach. We use CO Fourth Positive Group (4PG) molecular band emission observed on the limb (130 - 200 km) by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) on NASA’s Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) spacecraft over both northern and southern hemispheres from October 2014 to December 2016. We present the first direct retrieval of CO densities by FUV remote sensing in the upper atmosphere of Mars. Atmospheric composition is inferred using the terrestrial Atmospheric Ultraviolet Radiance Integrated Code adapted to the Martian atmosphere. We investigate the sensitivity of CO density retrievals to variability in solar irradiance, solar longitude, and local time. We compare our results to predictions from the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model as well as in situ measurements by the Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer

  5. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm formore » 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.« less

  6. Carbon monoxide poisoning-induced cardiomyopathy from charcoal at a barbecue restaurant: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jun; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwak, Kyeong Min; Ahn, Se-Jin; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Ju, Young-Su; Kwon, Young-Jun; Kim, Eun-A

    2015-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has important clinical value because it can cause severe adverse cardiovascular effects and sudden death. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning due to charcoal is well reported worldwide, and increased use of charcoal in the restaurant industry raises concern for an increase in occupational health problems. We present a case of carbon monoxide poisoning induced cardiomyopathy in a 47-year-old restaurant worker. A male patient was brought to the emergency department to syncope and complained of left chest pain. Cardiac angiography and electrocardiography were performed to rule out acute ischemic heart disease, and cardiac markers were checked. After relief of the symptoms and stabilization of the cardiac markers, the patient was discharged without any complications. Electrocardiography was normal, but cardiac angiography showed up to a 40% midsegmental stenosis of the right coronary artery with thrombotic plaque. The level of cardiac markers was elevated at least 5 to 10 times higher than the normal value, and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration was 35% measured at one hour after syncope. Following the diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide poisoning induced cardiomyopathy, the patient's medical history and work exposure history were examined. He was found to have been exposed to burning charcoal constantly during his work hours. Severe exposure to carbon monoxide was evident in the patient because of high carboxyhemoglobin concentration and highly elevated cardiac enzymes. We concluded that this exposure led to subsequent cardiac injury. He was diagnosed with acute carbon monoxide poisoning-induced cardiomyopathy due to an unsafe working environment. According to the results, the risk of exposure to noxious chemicals such as carbon monoxide by workers in the food service industry is potentially high, and workers in this sector should be educated and monitored by the occupational health service to prevent adverse effects.

  7. A Fire Department Community Health Intervention to Prevent Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Following a Hurricane

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Matthew; Jenkins, J Lee; Seaman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Portable generators are commonly used during electrical service interruptions that occur following large storms such as hurricanes. Nearly all portable generators use carbon based fuels and produce deadly carbon monoxide gas. Despite universal warnings to operate these generators outside only, the improper placement of generators makes these devices the leading cause of engine related carbon monoxide deaths in the United States. The medical literature reports many cases of Carbon Monoxide (CO) toxicity associated with generator use following hurricanes and other weather events. This paper describes how Howard County, Maryland Fire and Rescue (HCFR) Services implemented a public education program that focused on prevention of Carbon Monoxide poisoning from portable generator use in the wake of events where electrical service interruptions occurred or had the potential to occur. A major challenge faced was communication with those members of the population who were almost completely dependent upon electronic and wireless technologies and were without redundancies. HCFR utilized several tactics to overcome this challenge including helicopter based surveillance and the use of geocoded information from the electrical service provider to identify outage areas. Once outage areas were identified, HCFR personnel conducted a door-to-door canvasing of effected communities, assessing for hazards and distributing information flyers about the dangers of generator use. This effort represents one of the first reported examples of a community-based endeavor by a fire department to provide proactive interventions designed to prevent carbon monoxide illness. PMID:24596660

  8. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer Observations of Water Vapor and Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Wolff, Michael J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Murchie, Scott L.

    2009-01-01

    The Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft began taking observations in September 2006 and has now collected more than a full Martian year of data. Retrievals performed using the near-infrared spectra obtained by CRISM are used to characterize the seasonal and spatial variation of the column abundance of water vapor and the column-averaged mixing ratio of carbon monoxide. CRISM retrievals show nominal behavior in water vapor during northern hemisphere spring and summer with maximum abundance reaching 50 precipitable micrometers. Water vapor abundance during the southern hemisphere spring and summer appears significantly reduced compared to observations by other instruments taken during previous years. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be 700 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations at high latitudes. The summertime near-polar carbon monoxide mixing ratio falls to 200 ppm in the south and 400 ppm in the north as carbon dioxide sublimates from the seasonal polar ice caps and dilutes noncondensable species including carbon monoxide. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure.

  9. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in themore » laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10°C to 30°C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.« less

  10. Risk and Protective Factors for Fires, Burns, and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in U.S. Households

    PubMed Central

    Runyan, Carol W.; Johnson, Renee M.; Yang, Jingzhen; Waller, Anna E.; Perkis, David; Marshall, Stephen W.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; McGee, Kara S.

    2011-01-01

    Background More needs to be known about the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning in U.S. households. Methods A random-digit-dial survey was conducted about home safety with 1003 respondents representing households in the continental United States. Descriptive statistics assess the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide overall, and by demographic characteristics, household structure, region, and residential tenure. The data were weighted to adjust for nonresponse and to reflect the U.S. population. Results Although most respondents reported having a smoke alarm (97%), and 80% reported having one on each level of their home, <20% reported checking the alarm at least every 3 months. Seventy-one percent reported having a fire extinguisher, 29% had a carbon monoxide detector, and 51% of those living with at least one other person had a fire escape plan. Few could report the temperature of their hot water at the tap (9%), or the setting on the hot water heater (25%). Only 6% had an antiscald device. Conclusions Results suggest that there is much room for improvement regarding adoption of measures to prevent fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Further investigations of the efficacy of carbon monoxide detectors, fire extinguishers, and escape plans, as well as effectiveness studies of fire and burn-prevention efforts are needed. PMID:15626564

  11. Carbon monoxide and lethal arrhythmias. Research report, Jul 85-Jan 89

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, J.P.; Schwartz, P.J.; Vanoli, E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of acute exposure to carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias was studied in dogs with a healed anterior myocardial infarction. The combination of mild exercise and acute myocardial ischemia induces ventricular fibrillation in 60 percent of the animals. Dogs that develop ventricular fibrillation are considered at high risk for sudden death and are defined as susceptible; dogs that survive the test without fatal arrhythmia are considered at low risk and are defined as 'resistant.' The effects of carboxyhemoglobin levels ranging from 5 to 15 percent were tested in resistant and susceptible dogs. A trend toward higher heart rates wasmore » observed at rest and during exercise in both resistant and susceptible dogs at all levels of carboxyhemoglobin, although significant differences were observed only with 15 percent carboxyhemoglobin. In resistant animals, in which acute myocardial ischemia is typically associated with bradycardia even under the control condition, the reflex response occurred earlier and was augmented after exposure to carbon monoxide. In both resistant and susceptible dogs, carbon monoxide exposure induced a worsening of ventricular arrhythmias in a minority of cases. The worsening was not reproducible in subsequent trials. These data indicate that acute exposure to carbon monoxide is seldom arrhythmogenic in dogs that have survived myocardial infarction. Nevertheless, the observation that carbon monoxide exposure increases heart rate at rest and during moderate exercise may have clinical implications relevant to patients with coronary artery disease.« less

  12. Risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning in U.S. households.

    PubMed

    Runyan, Carol W; Johnson, Renee M; Yang, Jingzhen; Waller, Anna E; Perkis, David; Marshall, Stephen W; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; McGee, Kara S

    2005-01-01

    More needs to be known about the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning in U.S. households. A random-digit-dial survey was conducted about home safety with 1003 respondents representing households in the continental United States. Descriptive statistics assess the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide overall, and by demographic characteristics, household structure, region, and residential tenure. The data were weighted to adjust for nonresponse and to reflect the U.S. population. Although most respondents reported having a smoke alarm (97%), and 80% reported having one on each level of their home, <20% reported checking the alarm at least every 3 months. Seventy-one percent reported having a fire extinguisher, 29% had a carbon monoxide detector, and 51% of those living with at least one other person had a fire escape plan. Few could report the temperature of their hot water at the tap (9%), or the setting on the hot water heater (25%). Only 6% had an antiscald device. Results suggest that there is much room for improvement regarding adoption of measures to prevent fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Further investigations of the efficacy of carbon monoxide detectors, fire extinguishers, and escape plans, as well as effectiveness studies of fire and burn-prevention efforts are needed.

  13. Environmental variables and levels of exhaled carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin in elderly people taking exercise.

    PubMed

    Salicio, Marcos Adriano; Mana, Viviane Aparecida Martins; Fett, Waléria Christiane Rezende; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Botelho, Clovis

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to analyze levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobinand cardiopulmonary variables in old people practicing exercise in external environments, and correlate them with climate and pollution factors. Temporal ecological study with118 active elderly people in the city of Cuiabá, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Data were obtained on use of medication, smoking, anthropometric measurements, spirometry, peak flow, oxygen saturation, heart rate, exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin, climate, number of farm fires and pollution. Correlations were found between on the one hand environmental temperature, relative humidity of the air and number of farmers' fires, and on the other hand levels of carbon monoxide exhaled and carboxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05).There was a correlation between heart rate and changes in environmental temperature, time of exposure to the sun and relative humidity (p < 0.05). In elderly people, environmental factors influence levels of exhaled carbon monoxide, carboxyhemoglobin and heart rate. There is thus a need for these to be monitored during exercise. The use of a carbon monoxide monitor to evaluate exposure to pollutants is suggested.

  14. Correlation of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and clinical outcome in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Namik; Ozcam, Giray; Kosar, Pinar; Ozcan, Ayse; Basar, Hulya; Kaymak, Cetin

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas for humans and is still a silent killer in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this case series was to evaluate early radiological images as a predictor of subsequent neuropsychological sequelae, following carbon monoxide poisoning. After carbon monoxide exposure, early computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 52-year-old woman showed bilateral lesions in the globus pallidus. This patient was discharged and followed for 90 days. The patient recovered without any neurological sequela. In a 58-year-old woman exposed to carbon monoxide, computed tomography showed lesions in bilateral globus pallidus and periventricular white matter. Early magnetic resonance imaging revealed changes similar to that like in early tomography images. The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. On the 27th day of exposure, the patient developed disorientation and memory impairment. Late magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hyperintensity in the cerebral white matter. White matter lesions which progress to demyelination and end up in neuropsychological sequelae cannot always be diagnosed by early computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in carbon monoxide poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. 52.243 Section 52.243 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon...

  16. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. 52.243 Section 52.243 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon...

  17. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. 52.243 Section 52.243 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon...

  18. 40 CFR 52.243 - Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interim approval of the Carbon Monoxide plan for the South Coast. 52.243 Section 52.243 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.243 Interim approval of the Carbon...

  19. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... monoxide as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference check. Prior to its... engineering practice. For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least-squares best-fit straight line... range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data...

  20. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... monoxide as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference check. Prior to its... engineering practice. For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least-squares best-fit straight line... range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data...

  1. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... monoxide as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference check. Prior to its... engineering practice. For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least-squares best-fit straight line... range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data...

  2. 40 CFR 89.320 - Carbon monoxide analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... monoxide as described in this section. (b) Initial and periodic interference check. Prior to its... engineering practice. For each range calibrated, if the deviation from a least-squares best-fit straight line... range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, the best-fit non-linear equation which represents the data...

  3. Carbon monoxide-induced suspended animation protects against hypoxic damage in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Nystul, Todd G.; Roth, Mark B.

    2004-01-01

    Oxygen deprivation is a major cause of cellular damage and death. Here we demonstrate that Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, which can survive both in anoxia (<0.001 kPa O2) by entering into suspended animation and in mild hypoxia (0.25-1 kPa O2) through a hypoxia-inducible factor 1-mediated response, cannot survive in intermediate concentrations of oxygen, between 0.01 and 0.1 kPa O2. Moreover, we show that carbon monoxide can protect C. elegans embryos against hypoxic damage in this sensitive range. Carbon monoxide can also rescue the hypoxia-sensitive mutant hif-1(ia04) from lethality in hypoxia. This work defines the oxygen tensions over which hypoxic damage occurs in C. elegans embryos and demonstrates that carbon monoxide can prevent this damage by inducing suspended animation. PMID:15184665

  4. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Jiang, Zhaozhong

    1996-01-01

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN).sub.2 ](BF.sub.4).sub.2, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic .alpha.-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone)

  5. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    DOEpatents

    Sen, A.; Jiang, Z.

    1996-05-28

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic {alpha}-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone).

  6. [Carboxyhemoglobin concentration in carbon monoxide poisoning. Critical appraisal of the predictive value].

    PubMed

    Köthe, L; Radke, J

    2010-06-01

    In cases of unclear depression of conciousness, arrhythmia and symptoms of cardiac insufficiency inadvertent carbon monoxide intoxication should always be taken into consideration. Rapid diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide intoxication with mostly unspecific symptoms requires an immediate supply of high dose oxygen which enables a distinct reduction of mortality and long-term morbidity. Levels of carboxyhemoglobin, however, should not be used as a parameter to decide whether to supply normobaric or the more efficient hyperbaric oxygen. There is no sufficient coherence between carboxyhemoglobin blood levels and clinical symptoms. Increased carboxyhemoglobin concentrations help to diagnose acute carbon monoxide intoxication but do not allow conclusions to be drawn about possible long-term neuropsychiatric or cardiac consequences.

  7. Carbon monoxide in breath in relation to smoking and carboxyhaemoglobin levels.

    PubMed Central

    Wald, N J; Idle, M; Boreham, J; Bailey, A

    1981-01-01

    Carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels were studied in 11 249 men. The distribution among the 2613 men who smoked cigarettes was well separated from that in 6641 non-smokers (including ex-smokers). The distribution for 2005 cigar and pipe smokers was intermediate, though some of the highest COHb levels occurred in cigar smokers. Using a COHb cut-off level of 2%, 81% of cigarette smokers, 35% of cigar and pipe smokers, and 1.0% of non-smokers had raised COHb levels. In a subsidiary experiment alveolar air samples were collected from 162 smokers and 25 non-smokers using a simple breath sampling technique. Carbon monoxide concentrations in alveolar breath were highly correlated with COHb levels (r = 0.97) indicating that COHb levels can be estimated reliably by measuring the concentration of carbon monoxide in breath. Alveolar carbon monoxide measurement is thus a simple method of estimating whether a person is likely to be a smoker. PMID:7314006

  8. Absorption of nicotine and carbon monoxide from passive smoking under natural conditions of exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, M J; Russell, M A; Feyerabend, C

    1983-01-01

    Seven non-smokers were exposed to tobacco smoke under natural conditions for two hours in a public house. Measures of nicotine and cotinine in plasma, saliva, and urine and expired air carbon monoxide all showed reliable increases. The concentrations of carbon monoxide and nicotine after exposure averaged 15.7% and 7.5% respectively of the values found in heavy smokers. Although the increase in expired air carbon monoxide of 5.9 ppm was similar to increases in smokers after a single cigarette, the amount of nicotine absorbed was between a tenth and a third of the amount taken in from one cigarette. Since this represented a relatively extreme acute natural exposure, any health risks of passive smoking probably depend less on quantitative factors than on qualitative differences between sidestream and mainstream smoke. PMID:6648864

  9. Airborne Observations of Enhanced Marine Boundary Layer Carbon Monoxide over Remote Tropical Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, T. L.; Stell, M. H.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Hills, A. J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Kaser, L.; Aquino, J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent airborne observations of tropical marine boundary layer carbon monoxide included several instances of elevated MBL CO with a notable absence of corresponding enhancements in ozone. Instances were observed during the recent CONTRAST exploration of tropical Pacific marine dynamics and composition. The lack of correlation between sampled carbon monoxide and ozone is consistent with an oceanic source of CO. Carbon monoxide vertical flux will be estimated for all CONTRAST boundary layer transects, with particular focus on these events. Complementary correlative observations of trace organics lend insight into processes defining this composition. The frequency of occurrence will be presented along with comparison to similar observations within other data sets, including TORERO (2012), and HIPPO (2009-2012).

  10. Carbon Monoxide Accumulation in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conkin, J.; Norcrosss, J. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Sanders, R. W.; Makowski, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Life support technology in large closed systems like submarines and space stations catalyzes carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide, which is easily removed. However, in a small system like the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), spacesuit, CO from exogenous (contaminated oxygen (O (sub 2) supply) and endogenous (human metabolism) sources will accumulate in the free suit volume. The free volume becomes a sink for CO that is rebreathed by the astronaut. The accumulation through time depends on many variables: the amount absorbed by the astronaut, the amount produced by the astronaut (between 0.28 and 0.34 ?moles per hour per kilogram)[1], the amount that enters the suit from contaminated O (sub 2), the amount removed through suit leak, the free volume of the suit, and the O (sub 2) partial pressure[2], just to list a few. Contamination of the EMU O (sub 2) supply with no greater than 1 part per million CO was the motivation for empirical measurements from CO pulse oximetry (SpCO) as well as mathematical modeling of the EMU as a rebreather for CO. Methods: We developed a first-order differential mixing equation as well as an iterative method to compute CO accumulation in the EMU. Pre-post measurements of SpCO (Rad-57, Masimo Corporation) from EMU ground training and on-orbit extravehicular activities (EVAs) were collected. Results: Initial modeling without consideration of the astronaut as a sink but only the source of CO showed that after 8 hours breathing 100 percent O (sub 2) with a 10 milliliter per minute (760 millimeters Hg at 21 degrees Centigrade standard) suit leak, an endogenous production rate of 0.23 moles per hour per kilogram for a 70 kilogram person with 42 liters (1.5 cubic feet) free suit volume resulted in a peak CO partial pressure (pCO) of 0.047 millimeters Hg at 4.3 pounds per square inch absolute (222 millimeters Hg). Preliminary results based on a 2008 model[3] with consideration of the astronaut as a sink and source of CO

  11. Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Don J

    2002-04-01

    Carbon monoxide poisonings continue to be significant and preventable for a number of work operations. This study assesses occupational carbon monoxide morbidity and mortality for the state of Washington based on a review of workers' compensation records for the years 1994-1999. The study characterizes sources, industries, and causative factors, and further attempts to identify work operations most at risk. Records were identified by both injury source and diagnostic codes. The study limits itself to non-fire-related carbon monoxide poisonings and primarily those from acute exposure. A decline in the number of claims was not evident, but the number of incidents per year showed a slight decline. Carbon monoxide poisonings were found to occur throughout all types of industries. The greatest number of claims was found in agriculture, followed by construction and wholesale trade, with these three accounting for more than half the claims and nearly half of the incidents. The more severe poisonings did not necessarily occur in industries with the greatest number of incidents. The major source for carbon monoxide poisoning was forklift trucks, followed by auto/truck/bus, portable saws, and more than 20 other sources. Fruit packing and storage had the highest number of incidents mostly due to fuel-powered forklift activity, with nearly half of the incidents occurring in cold rooms. Adverse health effects as measured by carboxyhemoglobin, hyperbaric oxygen treatment, unconsciousness, and number and cost of claims were indexed by source. Though several specific work operations were identified, the episodic nature of carbon monoxide poisonings, as well as the diverse industries and sources, and the opportunity for a severe poisoning in any number of operations, poses challenges for effective intervention.

  12. Gas filter radiometer for carbon monoxide measurements during the 1979 Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, H. G., Jr.; Wallio, H. A.; Casas, J. C.; Condon, E. P.

    1986-01-01

    The instrumental and data-reduction techniques used in obtaining remote measurements of carbon monoxide during the 1979 Summer Monsoon Experiment are described. The form of the signal function (the variation of signal with altitude) and the impact of variations in the vertical distribution of carbon monoxide are discussed. Estimates of the experimental accuracy are made both by assessment of error sources through the use of numerical simulations and by comparison with concurrent measurements made by means of gas chromatography. It is found that the radiometric measurements tend to be about 9 percent lower than the direct measurements and to have a precision of about 8 percent.

  13. Occupational carbon monoxide violations in the State of Washington, 1994-1999.

    PubMed

    Lofgren, Don J

    2002-07-01

    Occupational exposure to carbon monoxide continues to cause a number of injuries and deaths. This study reviewed the State of Washington OSHA inspection records for occupational safety or health violations related to carbon monoxide for the time period 1994-1999 to assess the agency's efforts and further identify and characterize causative factors. Inspection data were also compared with carbon monoxide claims data from a companion study to determine if the agency was visiting the most at risk work operations. Inspections were identified by searching computerized violation texts for "carbon monoxide" or "CO." The study found 142 inspections with one or more carbon monoxide violations. Inspections were spread over 84 different 4-digit Standard Industrial Classification codes. Most inspections were initiated as a result of a complaint or other informant. Inspections were predominantly in construction and manufacturing, whereas carbon monoxide claims were mores evenly distributed between the major industries. Inspections also may have failed to find violations for some types of equipment responsible for carbon monoxide claims. Forklifts were the source of carbon monoxide most often associated with a violation, followed by compressors for respirators, auto/truck/bus, and temporary heating devices. Inspections in response to poisonings found common factors associated with lack of recognition and failure to use or maintain equipment and ventilation. Some work sites with one or more poisonings were not being inspected. Only 10 of the 51 incidents with industrial insurance claim reports of carboxyhemoglobin at or above 20 percent were inspected. Further, it was found more preventive efforts should be targeted at cold storage operations and certain warehouse and construction activities. It is proposed that more specific standards, both consensus and regulatory, would provide additional risk reduction. Reliance upon safe work practices as a primary method of control in the

  14. Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisoning While Driving: A Case Report With Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Hubbard, Amanda O; Appleford, Colin; Kesha, Kilak; Schmidt, Carl J; Gupta, Avneesh

    2018-05-16

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the cause of a significant percentage of fatal poisonings in many countries. It is known that fatalities resulting from CO poisoning are underreported and/or misclassified. Carbon monoxide exposure while driving can occur due to faulty exhaust systems, defective ventilation systems, emission from other vehicles, and even cigarette smoking. We report the case of a 23-year-old woman who was involved in a low-speed motor vehicle collision and was found unresponsive in her vehicle due to CO poisoning. A review of the literature revealed rare vehicle-related accidental CO poisonings.

  15. Process for producing methane from gas streams containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Frost, Albert C.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon monoxide-containing gas streams are passed over a catalyst capable of catalyzing the disproportionation of carbon monoxide so as to deposit a surface layer of active surface carbon on the catalyst essentially without formation of inactive coke thereon. The surface layer is contacted with steam and is thus converted to methane and CO.sub.2, from which a relatively pure methane product may be obtained. While carbon monoxide-containing gas streams having hydrogen or water present therein can be used only the carbon monoxide available after reaction with said hydrogen or water is decomposed to form said active surface carbon. Although hydrogen or water will be converted, partially or completely, to methane that can be utilized in a combustion zone to generate heat for steam production or other energy recovery purposes, said hydrogen is selectively removed from a CO--H.sub.2 -containing feed stream by partial oxidation thereof prior to disproportionation of the CO content of said stream.

  16. Anaesthetic properties of carbon monoxide and other gases in relation to plants, insects, and centipedes

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, P.W.

    The anaesthetic effect of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, propylene, butylene, ethylene, and acetylene, when mixed with oxygen, was tested on ten different species of insects and centipedes. The lowest concentrations found to cause anaesthesia are given in per cent by volume as follows: propylene, for centipede, 30; katydid, 75; rose chafer, 60. Carbon monoxide, for centipede, 81.5; katydid, 89, rose chafer, 85. Butylene, for centipede, 5; katydid, 10; rose chafer, 40. Ethylene or acetylene, for centipede, katydid, and rose chafer, 100. Carbon dioxide, for rose chafer, 30. Ethylene was the most effective plant anaesthetic, 0.0005 per cent stopping growth movementsmore » of tomato and sunflower plants as shown by motion pictures; 0.001 per cent stopped elongation of sweet pea seedlings, while 0.00001 per cent retarded elongation nearly 50 per cent. The degree of retardation in growth from ethylene gas varied with the concentration and the plant species. Acetylene and propylene were about equally effective as plant anaesthetics. Both were approximately 10 times as effective as carbon monoxide. Mimosa pudica lost its capacity to respond to external stimuli while being exposed to 0.25 per cent of carbon monoxide, but became normal again upon being removed from the gas. 3 references, 4 tables.« less

  17. Anion-Receptor Mediated Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide to Carbonate by Peroxide Dianion

    DOE PAGES

    Nava, Matthew; Lopez, Nazario; Muller, Peter; ...

    2015-10-14

    The reactivity of peroxide dianion O 2 2– has been scarcely explored in organic media due to the lack of soluble sources of this reduced oxygen species. We now report the finding that the encapsulated peroxide cryptate, [O 2cmBDCA-5t-H 6] 2– (1), reacts with carbon monoxide in organic solvents at 40 °C to cleanly form an encapsulated carbonate. Characterization of the resulting hexacarboxamide carbonate cryptate by single crystal X-ray diffraction reveals that carbonate dianion forms nine complementary hydrogen bonds with the hexacarboxamide cryptand, [CO 3cmBDCA-5t-H 6] 2– (2), a conclusion that is supported by spectroscopic data. Labeling studies and 17Omore » solid-state NMR data confirm that two-thirds of the oxygen atoms in the encapsulated carbonate derive from peroxide dianion, while the carbon is derived from CO. Further evidence for the formation of a carbonate cryptate was obtained by three methods of independent synthesis: treatment of (i) free cryptand with K 2CO 3; (ii) monodeprotonated cryptand with PPN[HCO 3]; and (iii) free cryptand with TBA[OH] and atmospheric CO 2. This work demonstrates CO oxidation mediated by a hydrogen-bonding anion receptor, constituting an alternative to transition-metal catalysis.« less

  18. Utility of the Measurement of Carboxyhemoglobin Level at the Site of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Rural Areas.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Makoto; Fujino, Yasuhisa; Kikuchi, Satoshi; Sato, Masayuki; Mori, Kiyofumi; Beppu, Takaaki; Inoue, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the hypothesis that correlations exist between the carbon monoxide exposure time and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning, using a pulse carbon monoxide oximeter in rural areas or the carboxyhemoglobin concentration measured at a given medical institution. Background. In previous studies, no definitive relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning have been observed. Method. The subjects included patients treated for acute carbon monoxide poisoning in whom a medical emergency team was able to measure the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning. We examined the relationship between the carboxyhemoglobin level at the site of poisoning and carbon monoxide exposure time and the relationships between the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin level and carbon monoxide exposure time. Results. A total of 10 patients met the above criteria. The carboxyhemoglobin levels at the site of poisoning were significantly and positively correlated with the exposure time (rs = 0.710, p = 0.021), but the arterial blood carboxyhemoglobin levels were not correlated with the exposure time. Conclusion. In rural areas, the carboxyhemoglobin level measured at the site of carbon monoxide poisoning correlated with the exposure time.

  19. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards. 89.112 Section 89.112 Protection of....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured using...

  20. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards. 89.112 Section 89.112 Protection of....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured using...

  1. Conversion of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide by pulse dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Taobo; Liu, Hongxia; Xiong, Xiang; Feng, Xinxin

    2017-01-01

    The conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) to carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated in a non-thermal plasma dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor, and the effects of different process conditions on the CO2 conversion were investigated. The results showed that the increase of input power could optimize the conversion of CO2 to CO. The CO2 conversion and CO yield were negatively correlated with the gas flow rate, but there was an optimum gas flow rate, that made the CO selectivity best. The carrier gas (N2, Ar) was conducive to the conversion of CO2, and the effect of N2 as carrier gas was better than Ar. The conversion of CO2 to CO was enhanced by addition of the catalyst (5A molecular sieve).

  2. Evaluation of Length-of-Stain Gas Indicator Tubes for Measuring Carbon Monoxide in Air

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1971-11-01

    Techniques for detection and measurement of carbon monoxide (CO) in air are of interest and utility in many aspects of automotive safety. CO concentrations may range from less than 100 parts per million (ppm), or 0.01 percent, to about 10 percent by ...

  3. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES Prohibited Practices § 392.66 Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected. (a) No person shall dispatch or drive any commercial...

  4. EDUCATION LEVEL IS GREATEST RISK-FACTOR IN CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels. In confined spaces, inefficient combustion sources, such as furnaces, stoves, kerosene heaters and automobiles can generate levels of CO that interrupt oxygen transport throughout the body, potentially ...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November 5, 1997, the Richmond ozone nonattainment area, which consists of the counties of Chesterfield, Hanover...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November 5, 1997, the Richmond ozone nonattainment area, which consists of the counties of Chesterfield, Hanover...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November 5, 1997, the Richmond ozone nonattainment area, which consists of the counties of Chesterfield, Hanover...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November 5, 1997, the Richmond ozone nonattainment area, which consists of the counties of Chesterfield, Hanover...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November 5, 1997, the Richmond ozone nonattainment area, which consists of the counties of Chesterfield, Hanover...

  10. TES/MLS Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nadir (TML2CO)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2018-05-06

    TES/MLS Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nadir (TML2CO) Atmospheric ... profile estimates and associated errors derived using TES & MLS spectral radiance measurements taken at nearest time and locations. ... a priori constraint vectors. News:  TES News Join TES News List Project Title:  TES ...

  11. TES/MLS Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nadir (TML2CO)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2018-05-07

    TES/MLS Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Nadir (TML2CO) ... profile estimates and associated errors derived using TES & MLS spectral radiance measurements taken at nearest time and locations. ... a priori constraint vectors. News:  TES News Join TES News List Project Title:  TES ...

  12. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (Second External Review Draft, Sep 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of t...

  13. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (First External Review Draft, Mar 2009)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of th...

  14. CARBON MONOXIDE REVERSIBLY DISRUPTS IRON HOMEOSTATIS AND RESPIRATORY EPITHELIAL CELLS FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iron dissociation from heme is a major factor in iron metabolism and cellular concentrations of the metal correlate inversely with the expression of heme oxygenase (HO). We tested the hypothesis that 1) exposure to a product of HO, carbon monoxide (CO), disturbs iron homeostas...

  15. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for...

  16. Modelling of Carbon Monoxide Air Pollution in Larg Cities by Evaluetion of Spectral LANDSAT8 Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzelo, M.; Gharagozlou, A.; Sadeghian, S.; Baikpour, S. H.; Rajabi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS ), spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  17. EFFECT OF LOW LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE ON COMPENSATORY TRACKING AND EVENT MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments by Putz et al. concerning the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure on compensatory tracking and monitoring in healthy young men were replicated. Task and procedural variables were reproduced as closely as practical. Subjects were exposed to either room air or 100 p...

  18. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (Final Report, Jan 2010)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO). This report is EPA’s latest evaluation of the scientific literature on the potential human health and welfare effects associated with ambient exposures to CO...

  19. SEASONAL SOIL FLUXES OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN BURNED AND UNBURNED BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured from September 1999 through November 2000 in savanna areas in central Brazil (Cerrado) under different fire regimes using transparent and opaque static chambers. Studies focused on two vegetation types, cerrado stricto...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meteorological modeling, traffic flow monitoring, air quality monitoring and other measures necessary to... reviewing all available traffic data, physical site data and air quality and meteorological data for all... containing measures to regulate traffic and parking so as to reduce carbon monoxide emissions to achieve air...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meteorological modeling, traffic flow monitoring, air quality monitoring and other measures necessary to... reviewing all available traffic data, physical site data and air quality and meteorological data for all... containing measures to regulate traffic and parking so as to reduce carbon monoxide emissions to achieve air...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meteorological modeling, traffic flow monitoring, air quality monitoring and other measures necessary to... reviewing all available traffic data, physical site data and air quality and meteorological data for all... containing measures to regulate traffic and parking so as to reduce carbon monoxide emissions to achieve air...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meteorological modeling, traffic flow monitoring, air quality monitoring and other measures necessary to... reviewing all available traffic data, physical site data and air quality and meteorological data for all... containing measures to regulate traffic and parking so as to reduce carbon monoxide emissions to achieve air...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1164 - Localized high concentrations-carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meteorological modeling, traffic flow monitoring, air quality monitoring and other measures necessary to... reviewing all available traffic data, physical site data and air quality and meteorological data for all... containing measures to regulate traffic and parking so as to reduce carbon monoxide emissions to achieve air...

  5. 78 FR 48611 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans: Alaska; Fairbanks Carbon Monoxide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... rule. SUMMARY: The EPA is taking direct final action to approve a carbon monoxide (CO) Limited... maintain the CO National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) through the second 10-year maintenance..., Suite 900, Seattle, WA 98101. Hand Delivery/Courier: U.S. EPA Region 10, 1200 Sixth Avenue, Suite 900...

  6. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected. 392.66 Section 392.66 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTO...

  7. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected. 392.66 Section 392.66 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTO...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations:...

  9. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1627 - Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control strategy and regulations: Carbon monoxide. 52.1627 Section 52.1627 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) New Mexico § 52.1627 Control strategy and regulations:...

  11. 40 CFR 50.8 - National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false National primary ambient air quality standards for carbon monoxide. 50.8 Section 50.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS NATIONAL PRIMARY AND SECONDARY AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS § 50.8 National primary ambient air quality standards for...

  12. 76 FR 53364 - Recreational Vessel Propeller Strike and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Casualty Prevention

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... in Outdoor Recreation Activity Participation--1980 to Now, May 2009 (A Recreation Research Report in the Internet Research Information Series), available at http://warnell.forestry.uga.edu/nrrt/nsre... casualties caused by propeller strikes and carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, we will hold a meeting at a time...

  13. Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction secondary to carbon monoxide intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Danuta; Palabindala, Venkataraman; Salim, Sohail Abdul

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbon monoxide poisoning has been documented in literature to cause severe neurological and tissue toxicity within the body. However, cardiotoxicity is often overlooked, but not uncommon. Previous research studies and case reports have revealed a significant relationship between carbon monoxide intoxication and myocardial ischemic events. We report a case of a 48-year-old male, who was exposed to severe smoke inhalation due to a house fire and subsequently developed a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction. Ischemic changes were evident on electrocardiogram, which demonstrated T-wave inversion in lead III and ST-segment depression in leads V4-V6. Elevated cardiac enzymes were also present. After standard treatment for an acute cardiac event, the patient fully recovered. This case demonstrates that myocardial ischemic changes due to carbon monoxide poisoning may be reversible if recognized in early stages and treated appropriately, thus reminding physicians that a proper cardiovascular examination and diagnostic testing should be performed on all patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Abbreviations: NSTEMI: Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction PMID:28638579

  14. Operations and maintenance manual, atmospheric contaminant sensor. Addendum 1: Carbon monoxide monitor model 204

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An instrument for monitoring the carbon monoxide content of the ambient atmosphere is described. The subjects discussed are: (1) theory of operation, (2) system features, (3) controls and monitors, (4) operational procedures, and (5) maintenance and troubleshooting. Block drawings and circuit diagrams are included to clarify the text.

  15. Connections between Concepts Revealed by the Electronic Structure of Carbon Monoxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Bihui; Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.

    2012-01-01

    Different models for the electronic structure of carbon monoxide are suggested in influential textbooks. Therefore, this electronic structure offers an interesting subject in teaching because it can be used as an example to relate seemingly conflicting concepts. Understanding the connections between ostensibly different methods and between…

  16. 40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. 52.269 Section 52.269 Protection of Environment... PLANS California § 52.269 Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and... provide for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons...

  17. 40 CFR 52.269 - Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and carbon monoxide. 52.269 Section 52.269 Protection of Environment... PLANS California § 52.269 Control strategy and regulations: Photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons) and... provide for attainment and maintenance of the national standards for photochemical oxidants (hydrocarbons...

  18. 49 CFR 392.66 - Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carbon monoxide; use of commercial motor vehicle when detected. 392.66 Section 392.66 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS DRIVING OF COMMERCIAL MOTO...

  19. LOW-LEVEL CARBON MONOXIDE EXPOSURE AND WORK CAPACITY AT 1600 METERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    At sea level, low-level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure impairs exercise performance. To determine if altitude residence at 1600 m augments this CO effect, two studies of graded treadmill work capacity were done. The Initial Study investigated nine, non-smoking male subjects breath...

  20. Sciatic neuropathy and rhabdomyolysis after carbon monoxide intoxication: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeok Dong; Lee, Sung Young; Cho, Young-Shin; Han, Seung Hoon; Park, Si-Bog; Lee, Kyu Hoon

    2018-06-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a rare complication of carbon monoxide intoxication. Peripheral neuropathy following carbon monoxide intoxication is known to completely recover within a few months. A 40-year-old man complained of motor weakness and hypoesthesia of the right lower extremity with swelling of his right thigh after carbon monoxide intoxication resulting from a suicide attempt. Following nerve conduction and electromyographic studies, the patient was diagnosed with sciatic neuropathy with severe axonopathy. Clinical and laboratory findings led to a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. The patient was treated conservatively for rhabdomyolysis and underwent comprehensive rehabilitation for sciatic neuropathy during hospitalization. After discharge, he underwent serial follow-up tests with nerve conduction and electromyographic studies, which showed prolonged persistence of sciatic neuropathy; however, he showed significant improvement at his 26-month post-discharge follow-up. Patients presenting with peripheral neuropathy secondary to carbon monoxide intoxication may show variable recovery periods; however, a favorable prognosis can be expected regardless of the concomitant occurrence of rhabdomyolysis and/or compartment syndrome.

  1. Room-temperature cold-welding of gold nanoparticles for enhancing the electrooxidation of carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cai; Li, Yong-Jun; Sun, Shi-Gang; Yeung, Edward S

    2011-04-21

    A cold-welding strategy is proposed to rapidly join together Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) into two-dimensional continuous structures for enhancing the electrooxidation of carbon monoxide by injecting a mixture of ethanol and tolulene into the bottom of a AuNP solution. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  2. CARBON MONOXIDE FLUXES OF DIFFERENT SOIL LAYERS IN UPLAND CANADIAN BOREAL FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dark or low-light carbon monoxide fluxes at upland Canadian boreal forest sites were measured on-site with static chambers and with a laboratory incubation technique using cores from different depths at the same sites. Three different upland black spruce sites, burned in 1987,199...

  3. Unique case of fatal carbon monoxide poisoning in the absence of a combustible fossil fuel.

    PubMed

    Morgan, D R; Poon, P; Titley, J; Jagger, S F; Rutty, G N

    2001-09-01

    A 37-year-old man died as a result of exposure to carbon monoxide within an apartment. An investigation of the apartment showed no gas appliances or gas supply to the apartment and no evidence of any combustion event to any part of the apartment or roof space. Inhalation of dichloromethane was excluded. Heating to the apartment was found to be via an electrical storage heater, the examination of which revealed that the cast-iron core and insulating material showed evidence of heat damage with significant areas devoid of carbon. This electric storage heater is hypothesized to be the source of carbon for the fatal production of carbon monoxide within the apartment.

  4. Characteristics of Children with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Ankara: A Single Centre Experience.

    PubMed

    Unsal Sac, Rukiye; Taşar, Medine Ayşin; Bostancı, İlknur; Şimşek, Yurda; Bilge Dallar, Yıldız

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to define characteristics of children with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Eighty children hospitalized with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were recruited prospectively over a period of 12 months. Sociodemographic features, complaints and laboratory data were recorded. When the patient was discharged, necessary preventive measures to be taken were explained to parents. One month later, the parents were questioned during a control examination regarding the precautions that they took. The ages of the cases were between one month and 16 yr. Education levels were low in 86.2% of mothers and 52.6% of fathers. All families had low income and 48.8% did not have formal housing. The source of the acute carbon monoxide poisoning was stoves in 71.2% of cases and hot-water heaters in 28.8% of cases. Three or more people were poisoned at home in 85.1% of the cases. The most frequent symptoms of poisoning were headache and vertigo (58.8%). Median carboxyhemoglobin levels at admission to the hospital and discharge were measured as 19.5% and 1.1% (P < 0.001). When families were called for re-evaluation, it was determined that most of them had taken the necessary precautions after the poisoning incident (86.3%). This study determined that children with acute childhood carbon monoxide poisoning are usually from families with low socioeconomic and education levels. Education about prevention should be provided to all people who are at risk of carbon monoxide poisoning before a poisoning incident occurs.

  5. Characteristics of Children with Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Ankara: A Single Centre Experience

    PubMed Central

    Unsal Sac, Rukiye; Bostancı, İlknur; Şimşek, Yurda; Bilge Dallar, Yıldız

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to define characteristics of children with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Eighty children hospitalized with acute carbon monoxide poisoning were recruited prospectively over a period of 12 months. Sociodemographic features, complaints and laboratory data were recorded. When the patient was discharged, necessary preventive measures to be taken were explained to parents. One month later, the parents were questioned during a control examination regarding the precautions that they took. The ages of the cases were between one month and 16 yr. Education levels were low in 86.2% of mothers and 52.6% of fathers. All families had low income and 48.8% did not have formal housing. The source of the acute carbon monoxide poisoning was stoves in 71.2% of cases and hot-water heaters in 28.8% of cases. Three or more people were poisoned at home in 85.1% of the cases. The most frequent symptoms of poisoning were headache and vertigo (58.8%). Median carboxyhemoglobin levels at admission to the hospital and discharge were measured as 19.5% and 1.1% (P < 0.001). When families were called for re-evaluation, it was determined that most of them had taken the necessary precautions after the poisoning incident (86.3%). This study determined that children with acute childhood carbon monoxide poisoning are usually from families with low socioeconomic and education levels. Education about prevention should be provided to all people who are at risk of carbon monoxide poisoning before a poisoning incident occurs. PMID:26713060

  6. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  7. Inhalation Toxicology. 11. The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Carbon Monoxide Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    DOT/FAA/AM-90/16 Inhalation Toxicology : XI. The Effect of Elevated Temperature on Carbon Office of Aviation Medicine Washington, D.C. 20591 M onoxide...Accession No. 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. DOT/FAA/AM-90/16 4. Title and Subtitie S. Report Date INHALATION TOXICOLOGY : XI. THE EFFECT OF ELEVATED December...Statement Combustion toxicology , carbon monoxide, This document is available to the public heat, thermal effects, time-to- through the National Technical

  8. Carbon Monoxide as an Electron Donor for the Biological Reduction of Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Parshina, Sofiya N.; Sipma, Jan; Henstra, Anne Meint; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are able to use carbon monoxide (CO) as a carbon source and electron donor for biological sulphate reduction. These strains exhibit variable resistance to CO toxicity. The most resistant SRB can grow and use CO as an electron donor at concentrations up to 100%, whereas others are already severely inhibited at CO concentrations as low as 1-2%. Here, the utilization, inhibition characteristics, and enzymology of CO metabolism as well as the current state of genomics of CO-oxidizing SRB are reviewed. Carboxydotrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria can be applied for biological sulphate reduction with synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) as an electron donor. PMID:20628586

  9. Electricity generation from carbon monoxide in a single chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Mehta, P; Hussain, A; Tartakovsky, B; Neburchilov, V; Raghavan, V; Wang, H; Guiot, S R

    2010-05-05

    Electricity production from carbon monoxide (CO) is demonstrated in a single chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) with a CoTMPP-based air cathode. The MFC was inoculated with anaerobic sludge and continuously sparged with CO as a sole carbon source. Volumetric power output was maximized at a CO flow rate of 4.8LLR(-1)d(-1) reaching 6.4mWLR(-1). Several soluble and gaseous degradation products including hydrogen, methane, and acetate were detected, resulting in a relatively low apparent Coulombic efficiency of 8.7%. Tests also demonstrated electricity production from hydrogen and acetate with the highest and fastest increase in voltage exhibited after acetate injection. It is hypothesized that electricity generation in a CO-fed MFC is accomplished by a consortium of carboxydotrophic and carbon monoxide - tolerant anodophilic microorganisms. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. New Class of Hybrid Materials for Detection, Capture, and "On-Demand" Release of Carbon Monoxide.

    PubMed

    Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Lupan, Alexandru; Ellingford, Christopher; Attia, Amr A A; Barry, Nicolas P E

    2018-04-25

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is both a substance hazardous to health and a side product of a number of industrial processes, such as methanol steam reforming and large-scale oxidation reactions. The separation of CO from nitrogen (N 2 ) in industrial processes is considered to be difficult because of the similarities of their electronic structures, sizes, and physicochemical properties (e.g., boiling points). Carbon monoxide is also a major poison in fuel cells because of its adsorption onto the active sites of the catalysts. It is therefore of the utmost economic importance to discover new materials that enable effective CO capture and release under mild conditions. However, methods to specifically absorb and easily release CO in the presence of contaminants, such as water, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and oxygen, at ambient temperature are not available. Here, we report the simple and versatile fabrication of a new class of hybrid materials that allows capture and release of carbon monoxide under mild conditions. We found that carborane-containing metal complexes encapsulated in networks made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) react with CO, even when immersed in water, leading to dramatic color and infrared signature changes. Furthermore, we found that the CO can be easily released from the materials by simply dipping the networks into an organic solvent for less than 1 min, at ambient temperature and pressure, which not only offers a straightforward recycling method, but also a new method for the "on-demand" release of carbon monoxide. We illustrated the utilization of the on-demand release of CO from the networks by carrying out a carbonylation reaction on an electron-deficient metal complex that led to the formation of the CO-adduct, with concomitant recycling of the gel. We anticipate that our sponge-like materials and scalable methodology will open up new avenues for the storage, transport, and controlled release of CO, the silent killer and a major industrial poison.

  11. In situ gasification process for producing product gas enriched in carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Capp, John P.; Bissett, Larry A.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an in situ coal gasification process wherein the combustion zone within the underground coal bed is fed with air at increasing pressure to increase pressure and temperature in the combustion zone for forcing product gases and water naturally present in the coal bed into the coal bed surrounding the combustion zone. No outflow of combustion products occurs during the build-up of pressure and temperature in the combustion zone. After the coal bed reaches a temperature of about 2000.degree. F and a pressure in the range of about 100-200 psi above pore pressure the airflow is terminated and the outflow of the combustion products from the combustion zone is initiated. The CO.sub.2 containing gaseous products and the water bleed back into the combustion zone to react endothermically with the hot carbon of the combustion zone to produce a burnable gas with a relatively high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. About 11 to 29 percent of the gas recovered from the combustion zone is carbon monoxide which is considerably better than the 4 to 10 percent carbon monoxide obtained by employing previously known coal gasification techniques.

  12. Seasonal variations in elemental carbon aerosol, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide: Implications for sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony Chen, L.-W.; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Chow, Judith C.; Mueller, Peter K.; Quinn, John; Butler, William A.

    As part of Maryland Aerosol Research and CHaracterization (MARCH-Atlantic) study, measurements of 24-hr average elemental carbon (EC) aerosol concentration were made at Fort Meade, Maryland, USA, a suburban site within the Baltimore-Washington corridor during July 1999, October 1999, January 2000, April 2000 and July 2000. Carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were also measured nearly continuously over the period. Tight correlation between EC and CO in every month suggests common or proximate sources, likely traffic emissions. The EC versus CO slope varies in different seasons and generally increases with ambient temperature. The temperature dependence of EC/CO ratios suggests that EC source strength peaks in summer. By using the well established emission inventory for CO, and EC/CO ratio found in this study, EC emission over North America is estimated at 0.31±0.12 Tg yr-1, on the low end but in reasonable agreement with prior inventories based on emission factors and fuel consumption.

  13. Seasonal variations in elemental carbon aerosol, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide: Implications for sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.-W. Antony; Doddridge, Bruce G.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Chow, Judith C.; Mueller, Peter K.; Quinn, John; Butler, William A.

    2001-05-01

    As part of Maryland Aerosol Research and CHaracterization (MARCH-Atlantic) study, measurements of 24-hr average elemental carbon (EC) aerosol concentration were made at Fort Meade, Maryland, USA, a suburban site within the Baltimore-Washington corridor during July 1999, October 1999, January 2000, April 2000 and July 2000. Carbon monoxide (CO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) were also measured nearly continuously over the period. Tight correlation between EC and CO in every month suggests common or proximate sources, likely traffic emissions. The EC versus CO slope varies in different seasons and generally increases with ambient temperature. The temperature dependence of EC/CO ratios suggests that EC source strength peaks in summer. By using the well established emission inventory for CO, and EC/CO ratio found in this study, EC emission over North America is estimated at 0.31+/-0.12Tgyr-1, on the low end but in reasonable agreement with prior inventories based on emission factors and fuel consumption.

  14. Toxicity of carbon monoxide hydrogen cyanide gas mixtures : exposure concentration, time to incapacitation, carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide parameters.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-04-01

    During aircraft interior fires, carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) are produced in sufficient amounts to cause incapacitation and death. Time-to-incapacitation (ti) is a practical parameter for estimating escape time in fire environments...

  15. Non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with carbon-monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Marziali, Simone; Di Giuliano, Francesca; Picchi, Eliseo; Natoli, Silvia; Leonardis, Carlo; Leonardis, Francesca; Garaci, Francesco; Floris, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    The presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is non-specific and highly variable. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is used for the treatment of this condition. Various reports show the occurrence of self-limiting seizures after carbon monoxide poisoning and as a consequence of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Contrary to the seizures, status epilepticus has been rarely observed in these conditions. The exact pathophysiology underlying seizures and status epilepticus associated with carbon monoxide poisoning and hyperbaric oxygen therapy is not really clear, and some elements appear to be common to both conditions. We describe a case of non-convulsive status epilepticus in a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The mechanism, MRI findings and implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Acute Compartment Syndrome Which Causes Rhabdomyolysis by Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Sciatic Nerve Injury Associated with It: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jung-Woo

    2017-09-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is most frequently caused by soft tissue injury with trauma to the extremities. Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis may be caused by alcohol or drug abuse, infection, collagen disease, or intensive exercise, but incidence is low. In particular, rhabdomyolysis resulting from carbon monoxide poisoning is especially rare. If caught before death, carbon monoxide poisoning has been shown to cause severe muscle necrosis and severe muscle damage leading to acute renal failure. In cases of carbon-monoxide-induced rhabdomyolsis leading to acute compartment syndrome in the buttocks and sciatic nerve injury are rare. We have experience treating patients with acute compartment syndrome due to rhabdomyolysis following carbon monoxide poisoning. We report the characteristic features of muscle necrosis observed during a decompression operation and magnetic resonance imaging findings with a one-year follow-up in addition to a review of the literature.

  17. Nano-crystalline porous tin oxide film for carbon monoxide sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chung-Chiun (Inventor); Savinell, Robert F. (Inventor); Jin, Zhihong (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A tin oxide sol is deposited on platinum electrodes (12) of a sensor (10). The sol is calcined at a temperature of 500 to 800.degree. C. to produce a thin film of tin oxide with a thickness of about 150 nm to 2 .mu. and having a nano-crystalline structure with good stability. The sensor rapidly detects reducing gases, such as carbon monoxide, or hydrocarbons and organic vapors. Sensors using films calcined at around 700.degree. C. have high carbon monoxide selectivity with a response time of around 4 minutes and a recovery time of 1 minute, and therefore provide good detection systems for detection of trace amounts of pollutants such as toxic and flammable gases in homes, industrial settings, and hospitals.

  18. Identical linkage and cooperativity of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding to Octopus dofleini hemocyanin

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, P.R.; Gill, S.J.; Miller, K.I.

    1989-02-21

    Employment of high-precision thin-layer methods has enabled detailed functional characterization of oxygen and carbon monoxide binding for (1) the fully assembled form with 70 binding sites and (2) the isolated chains with 7 binding sites of octopus dofleini hemocyanin. The striking difference in the cooperativities of the two ligands for the assembled decamer is revealed through an examination of the binding capacities and the partition coefficient, determined as functions of the activities of both ligands. A global analysis of the data sets supported by a two-state allosteric model assuming an allosteric unit of 7. Higher level allosteric interactions were notmore » indicated. This contrasts to results obtained for arthropod hemocyanins. Oxygen and carbon monoxide experiments performed on the isolated subunit chain confirmed the presence of functional heterogeneity reported previously. The analysis shows two types of binding sites in the ratio of 4:3.« less

  19. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study of successive hydrogenation reactions of carbon monoxide producing methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Thi Nu; Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru, E-mail: ohno@ynu.ac.jp

    Doing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate a possibility of hydrogenation of carbon monoxide producing methanol step by step. At first, the hydrogen atom reacts with the carbon monoxide molecule at the excited state forming the formyl radical. Formaldehyde was formed after adding one more hydrogen atom to the system. Finally, absorption of two hydrogen atoms to formaldehyde produces methanol molecule. This study is performed by using the all-electron mixed basis approach based on the time dependent density functional theory within the adiabatic local density approximation for an electronic ground-state configuration and the one-shot GW approximation for an electronicmore » excited state configuration.« less

  20. Remote detection of carbon monoxide by FTIR for simulating field detection in industrial process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qiankun; Liu, Wenqing; Zhang, Yujun; Gao, Mingguang; Xu, Liang; Li, Xiangxian; Jin, Ling

    2016-10-01

    In order to monitor carbon monoxide in industrial production, we developed a passive gas radiation measurement system based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and carried out infrared radiation measurement experiment of carbon monoxide detection in simulated industrial production environment by this system. The principle, condition, device and data processing method of the experiment are introduced in this paper. In order to solve the problem of light path jitter in the actual industrial field, we simulated the noise in the industrial environment. We combine the advantages of MATHEMATICA software in the aspects of graph processing and symbolic computation to data processing to improve the signal noise ratio and noise suppression. Based on the HITRAN database, the nonlinear least square fitting method was used to calculate the concentration of the CO spectra before and after the data processing. By comparing the calculated concentration, the data processed by MATHEMATICA is reliable and necessary in the industrial production environment.

  1. The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide during early October 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichle, Henry G., Jr.; Connors, Vickie S.; Wallio, H. Andrew; Holland, J. Alvin; Sherrill, Robert T.; Casas, Joseph C.; Gormsen, Barbara B.

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of middle tropospheric carbon monoxide measure by the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) instrument carried aboard the space shuttle is reported. The data represent average mixing ratios in the middle troposphere and are presented in the form of maps that show the carbon monoxide mixing ratios averaged for 6 days of the mission. Comparisons with concurrent, direct measurements taken aboard aircraft show that the inferred concentrations are systematically low by from 20 to 40 percent depending upon which direct measurement calibration standard is used. The data show that there are very large CO sources resulting from biomass burning over South America and southern Africa. Measured mixing ratios were high over northeast Asia and were highly variable over Europe.

  2. MRI and clinical manifestations of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiahong; Li, Zhenyu; Berglass, Jacqueline; He, Wenlong; Zhao, Jianmin; Zhang, Min; Gao, Chongyang; Zhang, Caixia; Zhang, Huimin; Yi, Xuewei

    2016-11-01

    To explore the relationship between the clinical manifestations and functional magnetic resonance images of delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication. Six patients received the MRI were diagnosed with delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. Clinical manifestations were observed in each patient. MRI revealed multiple lesions. The majority of the lesions were located in the globus pallidus, sub cortical white matter, and basal ganglia. The cognitive injury, akinetic mutism, fecal and uroclepsia, forced crying, forced laughing and extra pyramidal syndromes such as chorea and parkinsonism were manifested in clinic. Cognitive impairment improved greatly while involuntary movements only improved slightly after several months. Meanwhile brain MRI suggested remarkable improvement. Neuroimaging directly correlated with the clinical manifestations.

  3. Supply Ventilation and Prevention of Carbon Monoxide (II) Ingress into Building Premises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinova, N. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article contains the relationships of carbon monoxide (II) concentration versus height-above-ground near buildings derived based on results of studies. The results of studies are crucial in preventing external pollutants ingress into a ventilation system. Being generated by external emission sources, such as motor vehicles and city heating plants, carbon monoxide (II) enters the premises during operation of a supply ventilation system. Fresh air nomographic charts were drawn to select the height of a fresh air intake into the ventilation system. Nomographic charts take into account external sources. The selected emission sources are located at various levels above ground relative to the building. The recommendations allow designing supply ventilation taking into account the quality of ambient air through the whole building height.

  4. Carbon monoxide and oxygen combustion experiments: A demonstration of Mars in situ propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using carbon monoxide and oxygen as rocket propellants was examined both experimentally and theoretically. The steady-state combustion of carbon monoxide and oxygen was demonstrated for the first time in a subscale rocket engine. Measurements of experimental characteristic velocity, vacuum specific impulse, and thrust coefficient efficiency were obtained over a mixture ratio range of 0.30 to 2.0 and a chamber pressures of 1070 and 530 kPa. The theoretical performance of the propellant combination was studied parametrically over the same mixture ratio range. In addition to one dimensional ideal performance predictions, various performance reduction mechanisms were also modeled, including finite-rate kinetic reactions, two-dimensional divergence effects and viscous boundary layer effects.

  5. Pathology of deaths from carbon monoxide poisoning in Port Harcourt: an autopsy study of 75 cases.

    PubMed

    Seleye-Fubara, D; Etebu, E N; Athanasius, B

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a notable cause of death at homes and industries that is posing public health problem worldwide that requires an elaborate study. To study and characterize deaths resulting from the noxious gas (CO). A ten year (January 1st, 1995 December 31st 2004) autopsy study. Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Coroners and hospital autopsies performed by the authors at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH), other hospitals and private mortuaries in Port Harcourt on deaths from carbon monoxide poisoning were studied over ten years. The circumstances of death reported by police were accidental, homicidal or suicidal; and other autopsy findings were used for the study. A total of seventy five autopsies were studied; out which 21 (28.0%) were females and 54 (72.0%) males giving a ratio 1:2.6 male dominance. The highest frequency of death 25 (33.3%) occurred in the age group 60 69 years; while the least 3 (4%) occurred in the age group 0 9 years. The youngest was an unborn 7 month old male fetus while the eldest was 85 years old female. The most common was accidental carbon monoxide poisoning which accounted for 48 (64%) cases. While Homicidal CO poisoning .was 24 (32%) and suicidal CO poisoning was 3 (4.0%). Body recovered from fumy electric generator rooms was 46 (61.3%) while least frequency was bodies recovered from naked flame 3 (4%). Carbon monoxide poisoning is posing a serious public health problem when ever it occurs. There is need for public enlightenment about this gas as it is related to fumes from generator, car exhausts, poorly ventilated rooms and enclosed chambers in order to reduce the carnage associated with it both at home and industries.

  6. Carbon monoxide poisoning in children riding in the back of pickup trucks.

    PubMed

    Hampson, N B; Norkool, D M

    OBJECTIVE - To describe the case characteristics of a series of children poisoned with carbon monoxide while traveling in the back of pickup trucks. DESIGN - Pediatric cases referred for treatment of carbon monoxide poisoning with hyperbaric oxygen between 1986 and 1991 were reviewed. Those cases that occurred during travel in the back of pickup trucks were selected. Clinical follow-up by telephone interview ranged from 2 to 55 months. SETTING - A private, urban, tertiary care center in Seattle, Wash. PATIENTS - Twenty children ranging from 4 to 16 years of age. INTERVENTION - All patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES - Characteristics of the poisoning incident and clinical patient outcome. RESULTS - Of 68 pediatric patients treated for accidental carbon monoxide poisoning, 20 cases occurred as children rode in the back of pickup trucks. In 17 of these, the children were riding under a rigid closed canopy on the rear of the truck, while three episodes occurred as children rode beneath a tarpaulin. Average carboxyhemoglobin level on emergency department presentation was 18.2% +/- 2.4% (mean +/- SEM; range, 1.6% to 37.0%). Loss of consciousness occurred in 15 of the 20 children. One child died of cerebral edema, one had permanent neurologic deficits, and 18 had no recognizable sequelae related to the episode. In all cases, the truck exhaust system had a previously known leak or a tail pipe that exited at the rear rather than at the side of the pickup truck. CONCLUSIONS - Carbon monoxide poisoning is a significant hazard for children who ride in the back of pickup trucks. If possible, this practice should be avoided.

  7. Effects on carbon monoxide levels in mobile homes using unvented kerosene heaters for residential heating

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.; Walsh, D.; White, J.

    1992-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels were continuously monitored in 8 mobile trailer homes less than 10 years old. These homes were monitored in an US EPA study on indoor air quality as affected by unvented portable kerosene heaters. Respondents were asked to operate their heaters in a normal fashion. CO, air exchange and temperature values were measured during the study in each home. Results indicate that consumers using unvented kerosene heaters may be unknowingly exposed to high CO levels without taking proper precautions.

  8. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  9. Measurements of the global distribution of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and methane grab samples were obtained simultaneously with ozone, aerosol, nitric oxide and DACOM CO measurements. Eighty grab samples were collected at various altitudes up to 19,000 ft. along a north-south flight path from Wallops Flight Center, VA to 11 N. CO and CH were analyzed by flame ionization gas chromatography with cryogenic preconcentration. The relationship between CO and O3 concentrated is examined. A comparative analysis between trends in aerosol and CO concentration is performed.

  10. A Computer Model for Evaluating the Effects on Fighting Vehicle Crewmembers of Exposure to Carbon Monoxide Emissions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Is. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse ede If neceseay id Identify by block number) Carbon Monoxide (CO) Computer Program Carboxyhemoglobin ...several researchers, which predicts the instantaneous amount of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in the blood of a person based upon the amount of carbon monoxide...developed from an empirical equation (derived from reference I and detailed in reference 3) which predicts the amount of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) in

  11. The origin of carbon monoxide in Neptunes's atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lodders, K.; Fegley, B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The CO abundance in the observable atmosphere of Neptune can be plausibly explained by rapid vertical mixing from the deeper atmosphere if Neptune has a greater complement of water than Uranus. Thermochemical equilibrium and kinetic calculations reveal that Neptune must and Uranus may have about 10 times more oxygen than carbon, whereas for Jupiter and Saturn equal enrichments of carbon and oxygen are satifactory to explain the observed CO abundances by deep vertical mixing. Relative to hydrogen and solar composition, the respective enrichment factors for carbon and oxygen are 41, 440 (Neptune); 32, less than or equal 260 (Uranus); 6.6, 6.6 (Saturn); and 2.8, 2.8 (Jupiter). Because water ice is the most refractory ice among the ices assumed to be present in the outer solar nebula, the most massive H2O enrichment is expected for the outermost planet of this group. Thus, Neptune can indeed be regarded as the 'god of the seas.'

  12. Selected constituents in the smokes of U. S. commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    One hundred twenty-one brands of United States commercial cigarettes were analyzed for their deliveries of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. The sample included both filter and nonfilter cigarettes. Comparisons of carbon monoxide deliveries over the range of observed tar deliveries indicated a very high correlation between CO and tar for filter cigarettes, but nonfilter cigarettes tended to produce much less CO than would have been predicted from their tar deliveries. Comparison of ORNL nicotine values for specific brands with those determined by the Federal Trade Commission yield no statistically significant differences between laboratories.more » 4 figures, 6 tables.« less

  13. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. III; Yu, L.

    An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smokingmore » ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.« less

  14. Incidence and causes of carbon monoxide intoxication: results of an epidemiologic survey in a French department.

    PubMed

    Gajdos, P; Conso, F; Korach, J M; Chevret, S; Raphael, J C; Pasteyer, J; Elkharrat, D; Lanata, E; Geronimi, J L; Chastang, C

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence, mortality, and causes of carbon monoxide intoxications in France. A survey was conducted in the department of the Hauts-de-Seine, which is representative of the French population. Data were collected through a headquarters that had direct contact with all department emergency organizations and to a technical laboratory. During the 3-y study, 735 cases that were related to 291 events were reported. Thirty-six patients died. The average incidence of carbon monoxide intoxications was 17.5 per 100,000 inhabitants. Poisoning was caused by fires in 36 events and by car exhausts in 12. For the remaining events, causes were determined as follows for 196: water heaters (57%), boiler (20.5%), coal stove (9%), brazier (4%), cooker (2%), heating device (1.5%), and miscellaneous (6%). The main mechanisms of intoxication were a defective device, poor ventilation, or poor evacuation of combustion gases. Carbon monoxide intoxication occurs frequently in France, and preventive actions are warranted.

  15. An Urban Diffusion Simulation Model for Carbon Monoxide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. B.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A relatively simple Gaussian-type diffusion simulation model for calculating urban carbon (CO) concentrations as a function of local meteorology and the distribution of traffic is described. The model can be used in two ways: in the synoptic mode and in the climatological mode. (Author/BL)

  16. Critical review of carbon monoxide pressure measurements in the uranium carbon oxygen ternary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gossé, S.; Guéneau, C.; Chatillon, C.; Chatain, S.

    2006-06-01

    For high temperature reactors (HTR), the high level of fuel operating temperature in normal and accidental conditions requires to predict the possible chemical interactions between the fuel components. Among the concerns of the TRISO fuel particle thermomechanical behavior, it is necessary to better understand the carbon monoxide formation due to chemical interactions at the UO2 kernel and graphite buffer's interface. In a first step, the thermodynamic properties of the U-C-O system have to be assessed. The experimental data from literature on the equilibrium CO gas pressure measurements in the UO2-UC2-C ternary section of the U-C-O system are critically reviewed. Discrepancies between the different determinations can be explained - (i) by the different gaseous flow regimes in the experiments and - (ii) by the location of the measuring pressure gauge away from the reaction site. Experimental values are corrected - (i) from the gaseous flow type (molecular, transition or viscous) defined by the Knudsen number and - (ii) from the thermomolecular effect due to the temperature gradient inside the experimental vessels. Taking account of the selected and corrected values improves greatly the consistency of the original set of measurements.

  17. Palladium-catalyzed double carbonylation using near stoichiometric carbon monoxide: expedient access to substituted 13C2-labeled phenethylamines.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Dennis U; Neumann, Karoline; Taaning, Rolf H; Lindhardt, Anders T; Modvig, Amalie; Skrydstrup, Troels

    2012-07-20

    A novel and general approach for (13)C(2)- and (2)H-labeled phenethylamine derivatives has been developed, based on a highly convergent single-step assembly of the carbon skeleton. The efficient incorporation of two carbon-13 isotopes into phenethylamines was accomplished using a palladium-catalyzed double carbonylation of aryl iodides with near stoichiometric carbon monoxide.

  18. Thermal device and method for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by thermal dissociation of hydrocarbon gases

    DOEpatents

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is produced in a fast quench reactor. The production of carbon monoxide includes injecting carbon dioxide and some air into a reactor chamber having a high temperature at its inlet and a rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Carbon dioxide and other reactants such as methane and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons are injected into the reactor chamber. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  19. High Resolution Spectra of Carbon Monoxide, Propane and Ammonia for Atmospheric Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Christopher Andrew

    Spectroscopy is a critical tool for analyzing atmospheric data. Identification of atmospheric parameters such as temperature, pressure and the existence and concentrations of constituent gases via remote sensing techniques are only possible with spectroscopic data. These form the basis of model atmospheres which may be compared to observations to determine such parameters. To this end, this dissertation explores the spectroscopy of three molecules: ammonia, propane and carbon monoxide. Infrared spectra have been recorded for ammonia in the region 2400-9000 cm-1. These spectra were recorded at elevated temperatures (from 293-973 K) using a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). Comparison between the spectra recorded at different temperatures yielded experimental lower state energies. These spectra resulted in the measurement of roughly 30000 lines and about 3000 quantum assignments. In addition spectra of propane were recorded at elevated temperatures (296-700 K) using an FTS. Atmospheres with high temperatures require molecular data at appropriate conditions. This dissertation describes collection of such data and the potential application to atmospheres in our solar system, such as auroral regions in Jupiter, to those of planets orbiting around other stars and cool sub-stellar objects known as brown dwarfs. The spectra of propane and ammonia provide the highest resolution and most complete experimental study of these gases in their respective spectral regions at elevated temperatures. Detection of ammonia in an exoplanet or detection of propane in the atmosphere of Jupiter will most likely rely on the work presented here. The best laboratory that we have to study atmospheres is our own planet. The same techniques that are applied to these alien atmospheres originated on Earth. As such it is appropriate to discuss remote sensing of our own atmosphere. This idea is explored through analysis of spectroscopic data recorded by an FTS on the Atmospheric Chemistry

  20. Iron catalyst chemistry in modeling a high-pressure carbon monoxide nanotube reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Carl D.; Povitsky, Alexander; Dateo, Christopher; Gokcen, Tahir; Willis, Peter A.; Smalley, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) technique for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is analyzed with the use of a chemical reaction model coupled with flow properties calculated along streamlines, calculated by the FLUENT code for pure carbon monoxide. Cold iron pentacarbonyl, diluted in CO at about 30 atmospheres, is injected into a conical mixing zone, where hot CO is also introduced via three jets at 30 degrees with respect to the axis. Hot CO decomposes the Fe(CO)5 to release atomic Fe. Then iron nucleates and forms clusters that catalyze the formation of SWNTs by a disproportionation reaction (Boudouard) of CO on Fe-containing clusters. Alternative nucleation rates are estimated from the theory of hard sphere collision dynamics with an activation energy barrier. The rate coefficient for carbon nanotube growth is estimated from activation energies in the literature. The calculated growth was found be about an order of magnitude greater than measured, regardless of the nucleation rate. A study of cluster formation in an incubation zone prior to injection into the reactor shows that direct dimer formation from Fe atoms is not as important as formation via an exchange reaction of Fe with CO in FeCO.

  1. Iron catalyst chemistry in modeling a high-pressure carbon monoxide nanotube reactor.

    PubMed

    Scott, Carl D; Povitsky, Alexander; Dateo, Christopher; Gökçen, Tahir; Willis, Peter A; Smalley, Richard E

    2003-01-01

    The high-pressure carbon monoxide (HiPco) technique for producing single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is analyzed with the use of a chemical reaction model coupled with flow properties calculated along streamlines, calculated by the FLUENT code for pure carbon monoxide. Cold iron pentacarbonyl, diluted in CO at about 30 atmospheres, is injected into a conical mixing zone, where hot CO is also introduced via three jets at 30 degrees with respect to the axis. Hot CO decomposes the Fe(CO)5 to release atomic Fe. Then iron nucleates and forms clusters that catalyze the formation of SWNTs by a disproportionation reaction (Boudouard) of CO on Fe-containing clusters. Alternative nucleation rates are estimated from the theory of hard sphere collision dynamics with an activation energy barrier. The rate coefficient for carbon nanotube growth is estimated from activation energies in the literature. The calculated growth was found be about an order of magnitude greater than measured, regardless of the nucleation rate. A study of cluster formation in an incubation zone prior to injection into the reactor shows that direct dimer formation from Fe atoms is not as important as formation via an exchange reaction of Fe with CO in FeCO.

  2. Measurements of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Other Related Tracers at High Spatial and Temporal Resolution in an Urban Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rella, C.; Jacobson, G.

    2012-04-01

    The ability to quantify the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide on the urban scale is essential for understanding the atmospheric drivers to global climate change. In the 'top-down' approach, overall carbon fluxes are determined by combining remote measurements of carbon dioxide concentrations with complex atmospheric transport models, and these emissions measurements are compared to "bottoms-up" predictions based on detailed inventories of the sources and sinks of carbon, both anthropogenic and biogenic in nature. This approach, which has been proven to be effective at continental scales, becomes challenging to implement at the urban scale, due to poorly understood micrometeorological atmospheric transport models and high variability of the emissions sources in space (e.g., factories, highways, residences) and time (rush hours, factory shifts and shutdowns, residential energy usage variability during the day and over the year). New measurement and analysis techniques are required to make sense of the carbon dioxide signal in cities. Here we present detailed, high spatial- and temporal-resolution greenhouse gas measurements in Silicon Valley in California. The synthesis of two experimental campaigns is presented: real-time measurements from two ten-meter urban 'towers,' and ground-based mobile mapping measurements. Real-time carbon dioxide data from a nine-month period are combined with real-time carbon monoxide, methane, acetylene, and carbon 13 measurements to partition the observed CO2 concentrations between different anthropogenic sectors (e.g., transport, residential) and biogenic sources. The carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide ratio is shown to vary over more than a factor of two from season to season or even from day to night, indicating rapid and frequent shifts in the balance between different carbon dioxide sources. Clear differences are seen between the two urban sites, which are separated by 7 km. Further information is given by the carbon 13 signature

  3. Selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in fuel processor gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manasilp, Akkarat

    The trace amount of CO present in the hydrogen-rich stream coming from fuel reformers poisons the platinum anode electrode of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells and reduces the power output. Removal of low levels of CO present in the reformed gas must take place before the gas enters the fuel cell. The tolerable level of CO is around 10 ppm. We investigated the performance of single step sol-gel prepared Pt/alumina catalyst and Pt supported on sol gel made alumina. The effect of water vapor, carbon dioxide, CO and oxygen concentrations, temperature, and Pt loading on the activity and selectivity are presented. Our results showed that a 2%Pt/alumina sol-gel catalyst can selectively oxide CO down to a few ppm with constant selectivity and high space velocity. Water vapor in the feed increases the activity of catalysts dramatically and in the absence of water vapor, CO2 in the feed stream decreases the activity of the catalysts significantly. We also found that the presence of potassium as an electron donor did not improve the performance of Pt/alumina catalyst to the selective CO oxidation. For Pt supported on sol gel made alumina, we found that the combination of CO2 and H2O in the gas feed has a strong effect on selective CO oxidation over Pt/Al2O3. It could be a positive or negative effect depending upon Pt loading in the catalyst. With high Pt loading, the CO2 effect tends to dominate the H2O effect resulting in the decrease in CO conversion. Moreover, the presence of CeO2 as an oxygen storage compound promotes the performance of Pt supported on alumina at low temperature ˜90°C when Pt loading was 5%. Amongst the examined catalysts, the 5%Pt/15%CeO2/Al 2O3 catalyst showed the highest selectivity, with high CO conversion at a low temperature ˜90°C. The beneficial effect of the addition of CeO2 is most likely due to spillover of O2 from CeO2 to Pt at the Pt sites at the interface of Pt and CeO 2.

  4. Sublimation rates of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from comet nuclei at large distances from the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Zdenek

    1991-01-01

    One of the more attractive among the plausible scenarios for the major emission event recently observed on Comet Halley at a heliocentric distance of 14.3 AU is activation of a source of ejecta driven by an icy substance much more volatile than water. As prerequisite for the forthcoming detailed analysis of the imaging observations of this event, a simple model is proposed that yields the sublimation rate versus time at any location on the surface of a rotating cometary nucleus for two candidate ices: carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The model's variable parameters are the comet's heliocentric distance r and the Sun's instantaneous zenith angle z.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Improves Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells During Sepsis by Production of Specialized Proresolving Lipid Mediators.

    PubMed

    Tsoyi, Konstantin; Hall, Sean R R; Dalli, Jesmond; Colas, Romain A; Ghanta, Sailaja; Ith, Bonna; Coronata, Anna; Fredenburgh, Laura E; Baron, Rebecca M; Choi, Augustine M K; Serhan, Charles N; Liu, Xiaoli; Perrella, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells are being investigated as a cell-based therapy for a number of disease processes, with promising results in animal models of systemic inflammation and sepsis. Studies are ongoing to determine ways to further improve the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells. A gas molecule that improves outcome in experimental sepsis is carbon monoxide. We hypothesized that preconditioning of mesenchymal stromal cells with carbon monoxide ex vivo would promote further therapeutic benefit when cells are administered in vivo after the onset of polymicrobial sepsis in mice. Animal study and primary cell culture. Laboratory investigation. BALB/c mice. Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. Mesenchymal stromal cells, mesenchymal stromal cells-conditioned with carbon monoxide, fibroblasts, or fibroblasts-conditioned with carbon monoxide were delivered by tail vein injections to septic mice. The mice were assessed for survival, bacterial clearance, and the inflammatory response during sepsis in each of the groups. Mesenchymal stromal cells were also assessed for their ability to promote bacterial phagocytosis by neutrophils, the production of specialized proresolving lipid mediators, and their importance for mesenchymal stromal cells function using gene silencing. Ex vivo preconditioning with carbon monoxide allowed mesenchymal stromal cells to be administered later after the onset of sepsis (6 hr), and yet maintain their therapeutic effect with increased survival. Carbon monoxide preconditioned mesenchymal stromal cells were also able to alleviate organ injury, improve bacterial clearance, and promote the resolution of inflammation. Mesenchymal stromal cells exposed to carbon monoxide, with docosahexaenoic acid substrate, produced specialized proresolving lipid mediators, particularly D-series resolvins, which promoted survival. Silencing of lipoxygenase pathways (5-lipoxygenase and 12/15-lipoxygenase), which are

  6. Ambient carbon monoxide and cardiovascular mortality: a nationwide time-series analysis in 272 cities in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Yin, Peng; Chen, Renjie; Meng, Xia; Wang, Lijun; Niu, Yue; Lin, Zhijing; Liu, Yunning; Liu, Jiangmei; Qi, Jinlei; You, Jinling; Kan, Haidong; Zhou, Maigeng

    2018-01-01

    Evidence of the acute health effects of ambient carbon monoxide air pollution in developing countries is scarce and mixed. We aimed to evaluate short-term associations between carbon monoxide and daily cardiovascular disease mortality in China. We did a nationwide time-series analysis in 272 major cities in China from January, 2013, to December, 2015. We extracted daily cardiovascular disease mortality data from China's Disease Surveillance Points system. Data on daily carbon monoxide concentrations for each city were obtained from the National Urban Air Quality Real-time Publishing Platform. City-specific associations between carbon monoxide concentrations and daily mortality from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke were estimated with over-dispersed generalised linear models. Bayesian hierarchical models were used to obtain national and regional average associations. Exposure-response association curves and potential effect modifiers were evaluated. Two-pollutant models were fit to evaluate the robustness of the effects of carbon monoxide on cardiovascular mortality. The average annual mean carbon monoxide concentration in these cities from 2013 to 2015 was 1·20 mg/m 3 , ranging from 0·43 mg/m 3 to 2·45 mg/m 3 . For a 1 mg/m 3 increase in average carbon monoxide concentrations on the present day and previous day (lag 0-1), we observed significant increments in mortality of 1·12% (95% posterior interval [PI] 0·42-1·83) from cardiovascular disease, 1·75% (0·85-2·66) from coronary heart disease, and 0·88% (0·07-1·69) from stroke. These associations did not vary substantially by city, region, and demographic characteristics (age, sex, and level of education), and the associations for cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease were robust to the adjustment of criteria co-pollutants. We did not find a threshold below which carbon monoxide exposure had no effect on cardiovascular disease mortality. This analysis is, to our

  7. Determining the diagnostic value of endogenous carbon monoxide in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nurettin Özgür; Corbacioglu, Seref Kerem; Bildik, Fikret; Kilicaslan, Isa; Günaydin, Gül Pamukcu; Cevik, Yunsur; Ülker, Volkan; Hakoglu, Onur; Gökcen, Emre

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether endogenous carbon monoxide levels in exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients were higher compared to healthy individuals and to investigate alteration of carbon monoxide levels across the three different severity stages of Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria related to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations. The prospective study was conducted from January to March 2011 at two medical institutions in Ankara, Turkey, and comprised patients of acute Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease exacerbations. The severity of the exacerbations was based on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Patients with active tobacco smoking, suspicious carbon monoxide poisoning and uncertain diagnosis were excluded. healthy control subjects who did not have any comorbid diseases and smoking habitus were also enrolled to compare the differences between carboxyhaemoglobin levels A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction was done following a Kruskal-Wallis test for statistical purposes. There were 90 patients and 81 controls in the study. Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were higher in the patients than the controls (p < 0.001). As for the three severity stages, Group 1 had a median carboxyhaemoglobin of 1.6 (0.95- 2.00). The corresponding levels in Group 2 (1.8 [1.38-2.20]) and Group 3 (1.9 [1.5-3.0]) were higher than the controls (p < 0.001 and p < 0.005 respectively). No statistically significant difference between Group 1 and the controls (1.30 [1.10-1.55]) was observed (p < 0.434). Carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly higher in exacerbations compared with the normal population. Also, in more serious exacerbations, carboxyhaemoglobin levels were significantly increased compared with healthy individuals and mild exacerbations.

  8. Multiple Victims of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in the Aftermath of a Wildfire: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Santos, Luís Ramos; Alves-Correia, Magna; Câmara, Margarida; Lélis, Manuela; Caldeira, Carmo; Brazão, Maria Luz; Nóbrega, José Júlio

    2018-03-29

    Carbon monoxide poisoning may occur in several contexts. Retrospective of 37 carbon monoxide poisoning cases that underwent hyperbaric oxygen during wildfires in Funchal in August 2016. The studied sample included 37 patients, mean age of 38 years, 78% males. Ten were firefighters, four children and two pregnant victims. Neurological symptoms were the most reported. Median carboxyhemoglobin level was 3.7% (IQR 2.7). All received high-flow oxygen from admission to delivery of hyperbaric oxygen. Persistence of symptoms was the main indication for hyperbaric oxygen. Median time to hyperbaric oxygen was 4.8 hours (IQR 9.5), at 2.5 ATA for 90 minutes, without major complications. Discharge in less than 24 hours occurred in 92% of the cases. Thirty days follow-up: five patients presented clinical symptoms of late neurological syndrome; twelve patients were lost to follow-up. Carboxyhemoglobin levels on admission and mean time to hyperbaric oxygen were no different between those who did and did not develop the syndrome at 30 days (p = 0.44 and p = 0.58, respectively). Late neurological syndrome at 30 days occurred in 20% and no new cases were reported at 12 months. Use of hyperbaric oxygen appears to have reduced the incidence of the syndrome. This seems to be the first Portuguese series reporting use of hyperbaric oxygen in carbon monoxide poisoning due to wildfires. The authors intend to alert to the importance of referral of these patients because the indications and benefits of this treatment are well documented. This is especially important given the ever-growing issue of wildfires in Portugal.

  9. The Importance of H-FABP in Determining the Severity of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

    PubMed

    Koylu, Ramazan; Cander, Basar; Dundar, Zerrin Defne; Koylu, Oznur; Akilli, Nazire Belgin; Ivelik, Korhan

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the importance of the use of heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP) in evaluating the myocardial damage in patients admitted to the emergency department with moderate to severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. All patients admitted to the emergency department with severe acute CO intoxication were enrolled the study. The H-FABP and cardiac biomarker levels were assessed at 0, 6th and 24th hours. The patients were divided into groups as those with normal echocardiography findings and with wall motion abnormalities. The differences between the groups for these parameters were compared. The mean age of 80 patients was 32.3 ± 12.9 years old. 42 of them were male. On admission, 29 (36.3%) had elevated serum troponin I levels and 56 (70.0%) had elevated serum H-FABP levels. At 6thhour, 4 (5.0%) of 80 patients had higher serum H-FABP levels and 23 (28.8%) of them had higher serum Troponin I levels than 0 hour. The patients with wall motion abnormality had significantly higher serum H-FABP levels compared to the patients with normal echocardiography findings at 6th and 24th hours (p = 0.001 and 0.009). While the serum COHb and H-FABP levels tended to decrease continuously in time (p < 0.001), the serum troponin I levels increased at 6th hour and then decreased at 24th hour (p = 0.017). The serum H-FABP levels are useful in identifying the myocardial damage in patients admitted to the emergency department with moderate to severe carbon monoxide poisoning at an early phase. Carbon monoxide; Poisoning; H-FABP; Myocardial injury.

  10. Distribution of anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase genes in deep subseafloor sediments.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, T; Inagaki, F

    2017-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the simplest oxocarbon generated by the decomposition of organic compounds, and it is expected to be in marine sediments in substantial amounts. However, the availability of CO in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere is largely unknown even though anaerobic oxidation of CO is a thermodynamically favourable reaction that possibly occurs with sulphate reduction, methanogenesis, acetogenesis and hydrogenesis. In this study, we surveyed for the first time the distribution of the CO dehydrogenase gene (cooS), which encodes the catalytic beta subunit of anaerobic CO dehydrogenase (CODH), in subseafloor sediment-core samples from the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Mars-Ursa Basin, Kumano Basin, and off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 301, 308 and 315 and the D/V Chikyu shakedown cruise CK06-06, respectively. Our results show the occurrence of diverse cooS genes from the seafloor down to about 390 m below the seafloor, suggesting that microbial communities have metabolic functions to utilize CO in anoxic microbial ecosystems beneath the ocean floor, and that the microbial community potentially responsible for anaerobic CO oxidation differs in accordance with possible energy-yielding metabolic reactions in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere. Little is known about the microbial community associated with carbon monoxide (CO) in the deep subseafloor. This study is the first survey of a functional gene encoding anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH). The widespread occurrence of previously undiscovered CO dehydrogenase genes (cooS) suggests that diverse micro-organisms are capable of anaerobic oxidation of CO in the deep subseafloor sedimentary biosphere. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Influence of water table on carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and methane fluxes from taiga bog microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, D.W.; Pullmann, E.R.; Peterson, K.M.

    1994-09-01

    Hydrological changes, particularly alterations in water table level, may largely overshadow the more direct effects of global temperature increase upon carbon cycling in arctic and subarctic wetlands. Frozen cores (n=40) of intact soils and vegetation were collected from a bog near Fairbanks, Alaska, and fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and Co in response to water table variation were studied under controlled conditions in the Duke University phytotron. Core microcosms thawed to a 20-cm depth over 30 days under a 20 hour photoperiod with a day/night temperature regime of 20/10{degrees}C. After 30 days the water table in 20 microcosms wasmore » decreased from the soil surface to -15 cm and maintained at the soil surface in 20 control cores. Outward fluxes of CO{sub 2} (9-16 g m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) and CO (3-4 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) were greatest during early thaw and decreased to near zero for both gases before the water table treatment started. Lower water table tripled CO{sub 2} flux to the atmosphere when compared with control cores. Carbon monoxide was emitted at low rates from high water table cores and consumed by low water table cores. Methane fluxes were low (<1 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}) in all cores during thaw. High water table cores increased CH{sub 4} flux to 8-9 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1} over 70 days and remained high relative to the low water table cores (<0.74 mg m{sup -2}d{sup -1}). Although drying of wetland taiga soils may decrease CH{sub 4} emissions to the atmosphere, the associated increase in CO{sub 2} due to aerobic respiration will likely increase the global warming potential of gas emissions from these soils. 43 refs., 4 figs.« less

  12. An operando FTIR spectroscopic and kinetic study of carbon monoxide pressure influence on rhodium-catalyzed olefin hydroformylation.

    PubMed

    Kubis, Christoph; Sawall, Mathias; Block, Axel; Neymeyr, Klaus; Ludwig, Ralf; Börner, Armin; Selent, Detlef

    2014-09-08

    The influence of carbon monoxide concentration on the kinetics of the hydroformylation of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene with a phosphite-modified rhodium catalyst has been studied for the pressure range p(CO)=0.20-3.83 MPa. Highly resolved time-dependent concentration profiles of the organometallic intermediates were derived from IR spectroscopic data collected in situ for the entire olefin-conversion range. The dynamics of the catalyst and organic components are described by enzyme-type kinetics with competitive and uncompetitive inhibition reactions involving carbon monoxide taken into account. Saturation of the alkyl-rhodium intermediates with carbon monoxide as a cosubstrate occurs between 1.5 and 2 MPa of carbon monoxide pressure, which brings about a convergence of aldehyde regioselectivity. Hydrogenolysis of the acyl intermediate is fast at 30 °C and low pressure of p(CO)=0.2 MPa, but is of minus first order with respect to the solution concentration of carbon monoxide. Resting 18-electron hydrido and acyl complexes that correspond to early and late rate-determining states, respectively, coexist as long as the conversion of the substrate is not complete. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. AIRS Map of Carbon Monoxide Draped on Globe: Time Series from 8/1/2005 to 9/30/2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of AIRS Map of Carbon Monoxide Draped on Globe

    Forest fires and agricultural burning create large amounts of carbon monoxide. AIRS provides daily global maps of carbon monoxide from space, allowing scientists to follow the global transport of this gas day-to-day. In this image sequence, carbon monoxide pollution from agricultural burning blooms repeatedly over the Amazonian basin. The gas is then transported across the Atlantic Ocean. Carbon monoxide pollution from fires in sub-Saharan Africa is also apparent.

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. [Risk of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning in automobile garages. Results of a study in the Lausanne region].

    PubMed

    Köhl, U; Lob, M

    1975-01-11

    Clinical and physiologic data on chronic carbon monoxide poisoning are reviewed and the results of an investigation involving 7 garages in the Lausanne (Switzerland) area are reported. The aim was a practical approach to the relationships between carbon monoxide level in the air, COHb and clinical picture. The study covered working conditions (especially ventilation) but did not take into account of other factors (stresses) which may effect the parameters investigated. CO was measured by continuous recording with an MSA Carbon Monoxide Alarm and the hourly and daily averages were determined. The garage personnel replied to a questionnaire and underwent a brief clinical examination including taking of digital blood samples for measurement of hematocrit and carboxyhemoglobin level by the method of COMMINS and LAWTHER as modified by BUCHWALD. One of the garages did not meet present health requirements. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between carbon monoxide and carboxyhemoglobin. The incidence of complaints was highest in poorly ventilated garages. On the basis of COHb level in the total group of employees, together with data from individual histories, it is possible to evaluate the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning in a given garage.

  15. Treatment in carbon monoxide poisoning patients with headache: a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ocak, Tarik; Tekin, Erdal; Basturk, Mustafa; Duran, Arif; Serinken, Mustafa; Emet, Mucahit

    2016-11-01

    There is a lack of specificity of the analgesic agents used to treat headache and underlying acute carbon monoxide poisoning. To compare effectiveness of "oxygen alone" vs "metoclopramide plus oxygen" vs "metamizole plus oxygen" therapy in treating carbon monoxide-induced headache. A prospective, multicenter, double-blind, controlled trial. Three emergency departments in Turkey. Adult carbon monoxide poisoning patients with headache. A total of 117 carbon monoxide-intoxicated patients with headache were randomized into 3 groups and assessed at baseline, 30 minutes, 90 minutes, and 4 hours. The primary outcome was patient-reported improvement rates for headache. Secondary end points included nausea, need for rescue medication during treatment, and reduction in carboxyhemoglobin levels. During observation, there was no statistical difference between drug type and visual analog scale score change at 30 minutes, 90 minutes, or 4 hours, for either headache or nausea. No rescue medication was needed during the study period. The reduction in carboxyhemoglobin levels did not differ among the 3 groups. The use of "oxygen alone" is as efficacious as "oxygen plus metoclopramide" or "oxygen plus metamizole sodium" in the treatment of carbon monoxide-induced headache. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance and heat transfer characteristics of a carbon monoxide/oxygen rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.

    1993-01-01

    The combustion and heat transfer characteristics of a carbon monoxide and oxygen rocket engine were evaluated. The test hardware consisted of a calorimeter combustion chamber with a heat sink nozzle and an eighteen element concentric tube injector. Experimental results are given at chamber pressures of 1070 and 3070 kPa, and over a mixture ratio range of 0.3 to 1.0. Experimental C efficiency was between 95 and 96.5 percent. Heat transfer results are discussed both as a function of mixture ratio and axial distance in the chamber. They are also compared to a Nusselt number correlation for fully developed turbulent flow.

  17. The relation between carbon monoxide emission and visual extinction in cloud L134

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, K. D.; Dickman, R. L.; Encrenaz, P. J.; Kutner, M. L.

    1976-01-01

    Emission from the J = 1-0 transition of carbon monoxide has been mapped over an area of 40 by 55 arcmin in cloud L134, and visual extinctions over the entire cloud have been obtained by means of star counts. Line intensities of at least 2 K are observable down to an extinction level of about one magnitude. From observations of the J = 1-0 transition of the (C-13)O isotopic species at 18 locations in the cloud, a linear correlation is found between the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) column densities of (C-13)O and magnitudes of visual extinction.

  18. Unsuccessful Suicide by Carbon Monoxide: A Secondary Benefit of Emissions Control

    PubMed Central

    Landers, Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Emission systems and devices are required on automobile engines to reduce air pollution problems. Catalytic converters have been used on most 1975 and newer automobiles to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to a value that meets the Environmental Protection Agency requirements established for 1975 and 1976. The 1980-1981 Boise, Idaho, study shows that with a functioning catalytic converter either unmeasurable or sublethal quantities of CO appear in automobile exhaust. Thus, emissions control has produced a secondary benefit in reducing the number of suicides by CO poisoning from automobile exhaust fumes. PMID:6176074

  19. Unsuccessful suicide by carbon monoxide: a secondary benefit of emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.

    Emission systems and devices are required on automobile engines to reduce air pollution problems. Catalytic converters have been used on most 1975 and newer automobiles to reduce hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to a value that meets the Environmental Protection Agency requirements established for 1975 and 1976. The 1980-1981 Boise, Idaho, study shows that with a functioning catalytic converter either unmeasurable or sublethal quantities of CO appear in automobile exhaust. Thus, emissions control has produced a secondary benefit in reducing the number of suicides by CO poisoning from automobile exhaust fumes.

  20. Research and development of a luminol-carbon monoxide flow system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. R.

    1977-01-01

    Adaption of the luminol-carbon monoxide injection system to a flowing type system is reported. Analysis of actual wastewater samples was carried out and revealed that bacteria can be associated with particles greater than 10 microns in size in samples such as mixed liquor. Research into the luminol reactive oxidation state indicates that oxidized iron porphyrins, cytochrome-c in particular, produce more luminol chemiluminescence than the reduced form. Correlation exists between the extent of porphyrin oxidation and relative chemiluminescence. In addition, the porphyrin nucleus is apparently destroyed under the current chemiluminescent reaction conditions.

  1. Clinical and neuropathological findings of acute carbon monoxide toxicity in chihuahuas following smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    Kent, Marc; Creevy, Kate E; Delahunta, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Three adult Chihuahuas were presented for evaluation after smoke inhalation during a house fire. All three dogs received supportive care and supplemental oxygen. After initial improvement, the dogs developed seizures. Despite anticonvulsant therapy and supportive care, the dogs died. The brains of two dogs were examined. Lesions were identified that were compatible with acute carbon monoxide (CO) toxicity. Lesions were confined to the caudate nucleus, the globus pallidus, and the substantia nigra bilaterally, as well as the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and dorsal thalamus. This case report describes the clinicopathological sequelae in acute CO toxicity.

  2. Carbon monoxide tolerant electrocatalyst with low platinum loading and a process for its preparation

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Brankovic, Stanko; Wang, Jia

    2003-12-30

    An electrocatalyst is provided for use in a fuel cell that has low platinum loading and a high tolerance to carbon monoxide poisoning. The fuel cell anode includes an electrocatalyst that has a conductive support material, ruthenium nanoparticles reduced in H.sub.2 and a Group VIII noble metal in an amount of between about 0.1 and 25 wt % of the ruthenium nanoparticles, preferably between about 0.5 and 15 wt %. The preferred Group VIII noble metal is platinum. In one embodiment, the anode can also have a perfluorinated polymer membrane on its surface.

  3. Unintentional deaths from carbon monoxide in motor vehicle exhaust: West Virginia.

    PubMed Central

    Baron, R C; Backer, R C; Sopher, I M

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the circumstances of unintended carbon monoxide deaths from motor vehicle exhaust. Of 64 episodes involving 82 deaths investigated by the West Virginia Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, 1978-84, 50 occurred outdoors in older vehicles with defective exhaust systems and 14 occurred in enclosed or semi-enclosed home garages. Blood alcohol was detected in 50 (68 per cent) of 74 victims tested; 34 had blood alcohol concentrations greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. We suggest increasing public awareness of the hazards of motor vehicle exhaust and enforcing vehicle inspection regulations. PMID:2464951

  4. Detection of the J = 6 - 5 transition of carbon monoxide. [in Orion molecular cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsmith, P. F.; Erickson, N. R.; Fetterman, H. R.; Clifton, B. J.; Peck, D. D.; Tannenwald, P. E.; Koepf, G. A.; Buhl, D.; Mcavoy, N.

    1981-01-01

    The J = 6 - 5 rotational transition of carbon monoxide has been detected in emission from the KL 'plateau source' in the Orion molecular cloud. The corrected peak antenna temperature is 100 K, and the FWHM line width is 26 km/sec. These observations were carried out using the 3 m telescope of the NASA IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and constitute the first astronomical data obtained at submillimeter wavelengths with a heterodyne system using a laser local oscillator. The data support the idea that the high-velocity dispersion CO in Orion is optically thin and set a lower limit to its temperature of approximately 180 K.

  5. On the detection of carbon monoxide as an anti-biosignature in exoplanetary atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuwei; Tian, Feng; Li, Tong; Hu, Yongyun

    2016-03-01

    Recent works suggest that oxygen can be maintained on lifeless exoplanets in the habitable zones of M dwarfs as the results of photochemical reactions. However, the same photochemical models also predict high concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the corresponding atmospheres. Here we use a line-by-line radiative transfer model to investigate the observation requirements of O2 and CO in such atmospheres. The results show that photochemically produced CO can be readily detected at 1.58, 2.34, and 4.67 μm. We suggest that future missions aiming at characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres consider detections of CO as an anti-biosignature.

  6. An overview of carbon monoxide generation and release by home appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Batey, J

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas which is highly toxic and can be produced by many combustion sources commonly found within homes. Potential sources include boilers and furnaces, water heaters, space heaters, stoves, ovens, clothes dryers, wood stoves, fireplaces, charcoal grilles, automobiles, cigarettes, oil lamps, and candles. Any fuel that contains carbon can form CO including, natural gas, propane, kerosene, fuel oil, wood, and coal. Exposure to elevated CO levels typically requires its production by a combustion source and its release into the home through a venting system malfunction. The health effects of CO range frommore » headaches and flue-like symptoms to loss of concentration, coma and death depending on the concentration of CO and the exposure time. At levels of only 1%, which is the order of magnitude produced by automobile exhaust, carbon monoxide can cause death in less than 3 minutes. While most combustion equipment operate with low CO levels, many operating factors can contribute to elevated CO levels in the home including: burner adjustment, combustion air supply, house air-tightness, exhaust fan operation, cracked heat exchangers, vent blockages, and flue pipe damage. Test data on CO emissions is presented from a wide range of sources including Brookhaven National Laboratory, Gas Research Institute, American Gas Association, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for many potential CO sources in and near the home.« less

  7. Optimization of bio-ethanol autothermal reforming and carbon monoxide removal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, D.; Bazbauers, G.; Valters, K.; Alhucema Arias, R.; Weuffen, C.; Rochlitz, L.

    Experimental investigation of bio-ethanol autothermal reforming (ATR) and water-gas shift (WGS) processes for hydrogen production and regression analysis of the data is performed in the study. The main goal was to obtain regression relations between the most critical dependent variables such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane content in the reformate gas and independent factors such as air-to-fuel ratio (λ), steam-to-carbon ratio (S/C), inlet temperature of reactants into reforming process (T ATRin), pressure (p) and temperature (T ATR) in the ATR reactor from the experimental data. Purpose of the regression models is to provide optimum values of the process factors that give the maximum amount of hydrogen. The experimental ATR system consisted of an evaporator, an ATR reactor and a one-stage WGS reactor. Empirical relations between hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane content and the controlling parameters downstream of the ATR reactor are shown in the work. The optimization results show that within the considered range of the process factors the maximum hydrogen concentration of 42 dry vol. % and yield of 3.8 mol mol -1 of ethanol downstream of the ATR reactor can be achieved at S/C = 2.5, λ = 0.20-0.23, p = 0.4 bar, T ATRin = 230 °C, T ATR = 640 °C.

  8. 77 FR 31351 - Adequacy Determination for Aspen PM10 and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...[bdi1][bdi0] and Fort Collins Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plans' Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets for... Aspen Attainment/Maintenance Area'' \\1\\ and its motor vehicle emissions budget, and the ``Revised Carbon... which we determine whether a SIP revision's motor vehicle emissions budget (MVEB) is adequate for...

  9. Shock tube measurements of growth constants in the branched chain formaldehyde-carbon monoxide-oxygen system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brabbs, T. A.; Brokaw, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Exponential free radical growth constants were measured for formaldehyde carbon monoxide-oxygen systems by monitoring the growth of oxygen atom concentration as manifested by CO flame band emission. Data were obtained over the temperature range of 1200 to 2000 K. The data were analyzed using a formaldehyde oxidation mechanism involving 12 elementary reaction steps. The computed growth constants are roughly in accord with experimental values, but are much more temperature dependent. The data was also analyzed assuming formaldehyde is rapidly decomposed to carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Growth constants computed for the resulting carbon monoxide hydrogen oxygen mixtures have a temperature dependence similar to experiments; however, for most mixtures, the computed growth constants were larger than experimental values.

  10. Quantifying fire emissions and associated aerosols species using assimilation of satellite carbon monoxide retrievals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barre, J.; Edwards, D. P.; Worden, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    Wildfires tend to be more intense and hence costly and are predicted to increase in frequency under a warming climate. For example, the recent August 2015 Washington State fires were the largest in the state's history. Also in September and October 2015 very intense fires over Indonesia produced some of the highest concentration of carbon monoxide (CO) ever seen from space. Such larges fires impact not only the local environment but also affects air quality far downwind through the long-range transport of pollutants. Global to continental scale coverage showing the evolution of CO resulting from fire emission is available from satellite observations. Carbon monoxide is the only atmospheric trace gas for which satellite multispectral retrievals have demonstrated reliable independent profile information close to the surface and also higher in the free troposphere. The unique CO profile product from Terra/MOPITT clearly distinguishes near-surface CO from the free troposphere CO. Also previous studies have suggested strong correlations between primary emissions of fire organic and black carbon aerosols and CO. We will present results from the Ensemble Adjustement Kalman Filter (DART) system that has been developed to assimilate MOPITT CO in the global scale chemistry-climate model CAM-Chem. The ensemble technique allows inference on various fire model state variables such as CO emissions and also aerosol species resulting from fires such as organic and black carbon. The benefit of MOPITT CO assimilation on the Washington and Indonesian fire cases studies will be diagnosed regarding the CO fire emissions, black and organic carbon inference using the ensemble information.

  11. Quantifying Wildfire Emissions and associated Aerosol Species using Assimilation of Satellite Carbon Monoxide Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, David; Barre, Jerome; Worden, Helen; Gaubert, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Intense and costly wildfires tend are predicted to increase in frequency under a warming climate. For example, the recent August 2015 Washington State fires were the largest in the state's history. Also in September and October 2015 very intense fires over Indonesia produced some of the highest concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) ever seen from satellite. Such larges fires impact not only the local environment but also affect air quality far downwind through the long-range transport of pollutants. Global to continental scale coverage showing the evolution of CO resulting from fire emission is available from satellite observations. Carbon monoxide is the only atmospheric trace gas for which satellite multispectral retrievals have demonstrated reliable independent profile information close to the surface and also higher in the free troposphere. The unique CO profile product from Terra/MOPITT clearly distinguishes near-surface CO from the free troposphere CO. Also previous studies have suggested strong correlations between primary emissions of fire organic and black carbon aerosols and CO. We will present results from the Ensemble Adjustement Kalman Filter (DART) system that has been developed to assimilate MOPITT CO in the global-scale chemistry-climate model CAM-Chem. The ensemble technique allows inference on various fire model state variables such as CO emissions, and also aerosol species resulting from fires such as organic and black carbon. The benefit of MOPITT CO profile assimilation for estimating the CO emissions from the Washington and Indonesian fire cases will be discussed, along with the ability of the ensemble approach to infer information on the black and organic carbon aerosol distribution. This study builds on capability to quantitatively integrate satellite observations and models developed in recent years through projects funded by the NASA ACMAP Program.

  12. Cavity-enhanced quantum-cascade laser-based instrument for carbon monoxide measurements.

    PubMed

    Provencal, Robert; Gupta, Manish; Owano, Thomas G; Baer, Douglas S; Ricci, Kenneth N; O'Keefe, Anthony; Podolske, James R

    2005-11-01

    An autonomous instrument based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy has been developed and successfully deployed for measurements of carbon monoxide in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument (Carbon Monoxide Gas Analyzer) consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high-reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data-acquisition electronics, and data-analysis software. CO measurements were determined from high-resolution CO absorption line shapes obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the R(7) transition of the fundamental vibration band near 2172.8 cm(-1). The instrument reports CO mixing ratio (mole fraction) at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature, and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May-June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41,000 ft (12.5 km), the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time) and an accuracy limited by the reference CO gas cylinder (uncertainty < 1.0%). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights.

  13. Non-accidental carbon monoxide poisoning from burning charcoal in attempted combined homicide-suicide.

    PubMed

    Lee, A C W; Ou, Y; Lam, S Y; So, K T; Kam, C W

    2002-10-01

    To describe an emerging form of serious child abuse in combined homicide-suicide in Hong Kong. This is a retrospective hospital chart review in a regional hospital in Hong Kong from January to December 2000. Eight children, with a mean age of 7.8 years (range 0.5-11 years), from four families were admitted to hospital because of non-accidental exposure to carbon monoxide when their parents attempted suicide by burning charcoal. A 7-year-old boy died on arrival. His 5.6-year-old sister and another 6-month-old boy had cerebral hypoxia on admission. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was used in both cases, with rapid improvement, although there were persistent neurological deficits in the girl. The other children in the present study were asymptomatic and none had delayed neurological sequelae. Concomitant use of sedatives was also detected in three of the surviving patients. Non-accidental poisoning with carbon monoxide appears to be a new means of child abuse with potentially serious consequences. Concomitant intoxication with psychotropic drugs is common in such cases. The reason for parents killing their own children under such circumstances was unclear, but a desire to exact revenge on an estranged partner was suggested.

  14. a New Gas Correlation Radiometer for Remote Sounding of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirov, Alexey; Drummond, James

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is extremely important component of the Earth's atmosphere since it is an indicator of air quality and plays a great role in tropospheric chemistry. Experimental data about CO mixing ratio distribution are necessary to study long range transport of pollutions and are being used along with models in understanding the CO budget. Remote sounding techniques from space are very advantageous in terms of global monitoring of CO. The gas correlation radiometry method has been successfully employed on a number of satellite based instruments for remote sounding of atmospheric gases for several decades. In this report a new concept of gas correlation radiometer for remote sounding of carbon monoxide from space is described. A length modulated cell, used for the first time with the MOPITT instrument, coupled with a static dual detector per channel architecture underlies the optical design of the new sounder. The main goal of the design is to produce an extremely simple and compact system which will in turn lead to a small space instrument. A laboratory prototype of the radiometer has been built in Dalhousie University. Its characteristics are investigated to verify the new concept. The sources of optical imbalance will be discussed as well as the methods for optical imbalance characterization and minimization. The results of the radiometer calibration and laboratory measurements of CO are presented. This work is supported by the Canadian Space Agency, the Canadian Foundation for Innovation, the Atlantic Innovation Fund/Nova Scotia Research Innovation Trust and Dalhousie University.

  15. Electron impact excitation of carbon monoxide in comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, L.; Brunger, M. J.

    2009-02-01

    The fourth positive emissions of carbon monoxide in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp have been assumed to be due mainly to fluorescence induced by sunlight. Based on this assumption they were used to deduce the abundance of carbon monoxide in the comet, giving a value higher than in other comets. Emissions produced by electron impact excitation of CO were not considered. Recent measurements and theoretical calculations of integral cross sections for electron impact excitation of CO allow the contribution of electron impact to be calculated, giving about 40% of the total. This implies that the abundance of CO in the outer coma of comet Hale-Bopp was only 60% of that previously deduced. However, as the high proportion of CO in comet Hale-Bopp was also seen in some other measurements, alternative explanations are considered. The method of calculation is tested by successfully predicting the O I emission at 1356 Å, supporting the belief that this line is due to electron impact excitation.

  16. A positive Babinski reflex predicts delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae in Chinese patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jian-Fang; Guo, Qiming; Shao, Hua; Li, Bin; Du, Yuxiu; Liu, Maofeng; Liu, Fengling; Dai, Lixin; Chung, Min-Hsien; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Yang, Tzu-Meng; Huang, Chien-Cheng; Hsu, Chien-Chin

    2014-01-01

    As the human population increased in China, the carbon monoxide is a serious environmental toxin in public health. However, predicting the delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae (DNS) of carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) has not been well studied. We investigated the independent predictors of DNS in patients with COP. This study was conducted at four hospitals in China. Data were retrospectively collected from 258 patients with COP between November 1990 and October 2011. DNS was the primary endpoint. A positive Babinski reflex was the independent predictor for DNS: sensitivity = 53.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 26.1-79.6), specificity = 88.6% (95% CI: 83.7-92.1), positive predictive value (PPV) = 20.0% (95% CI: 9.1-37.5), and negative predictive value (NPV) = 97.3% (95% CI: 94.0-98.9). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.712 (95% CI: 0.544-0.880). A positive Babinski reflex was very memorable, immediately available, and applicable in clinical practice. Even when the sensitivity and PPV of a positive Babinski reflex were unsatisfactory, it had a good specificity and NPV for excluding the risk of DNS. In patients without a positive Babinski reflex, the risk for DNS was only 2.7%. This finding may help physicians make decisions about dispositions for patients with COP.

  17. Comparison of measurement capability with 100 μmol/mol of carbon monoxide in nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeongsoon; Lee, JinBok; Lim, Jeongsik; Tarhan, Tanıl; Liu, Hsin-Wang; Aggarwal, Shankar G.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) in nitrogen was one of the first types of gas mixtures used in an international key comparison. The comparison dates back to 1998 (CCQMK1a) [1]. Since then, many National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) have developed calibration and measurement capabilities (CMCs) for these mixtures. Recently, NMIs in the APMP region have actively participated in international comparisons to provide domestic services. At the 2013 APMP meeting, several NMIs requested a CO comparison to establish CO/N2 certification for industrial applications, which was to be coordinated by KRISS. Consequently, this comparison provides an opportunity for APMP regional NMIs to develop CO/N2 CMC claims. The goal of this supplementary comparison is to support CMC claim for carbon monoxide in the N2 range of 50–2000 μmol/mol. An extended range may be supported as described in the GAWG strategy for comparisons and CMC claims. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Measuring Carbon Monoxide With TROPOMI: First Results and a Comparison With ECMWF-IFS Analysis Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsdorff, T.; Aan de Brugh, J.; Hu, H.; Aben, I.; Hasekamp, O.; Landgraf, J.

    2018-03-01

    The Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) was launched onboard of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Sentinel-5P satellite. One of the mission's key products is the total column density of carbon monoxide, inferred from TROPOMI's 2.3 μm measurements. Using the operational processing algorithm, we analyze six subsequent days of measurements during the commissioning phase. The TROPOMI product is compared with CO fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) assimilation system. Globally, a small mean difference between the data sets of 3.2 ± 5.5% with a correlation coefficient of 0.97 is found. The daily global coverage of TROPOMI enables it to capture day-to-day evolution of the atmospheric composition. As an example, we discuss the air pollution event of India in November 2017 with high carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, which partly dispersed when the CO polluted air was transported north alongside the Himalaya to China. The striking agreement and also regional differences with ECMWF indicate new exciting applications for the TROPOMI CO data product.

  19. Carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide levels in an indoor ice skating rink with mitigation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Spengler, J.D.

    1993-05-01

    An indoor ice skating rink is an enclosed space with intermittent air pollutant emissions from fuel-powered ice-resurfacing equipment, such as a resurfacer and an edger. Exhaust gases discharged from the resurfacing equipment actually include significant quantities of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO[sub 2]) which may induced adverse health effects. Carbon monoxide exposures in ice skating rinks resulting from malfunctioning ice resurfacing equipment were first reported more than twenty years ago. Attempts to reduce emissions of CO and NO[sub 2] form resurfacing equipment, such as the extended exhaust pipe, operation of the air recirculation system or reduced resurfacer operation,more » appeared not to be effective for maintaining the air pollutant concentrations below guidelines. Even though improved indoor air quality was obtained by the combination of the full operation of the air exhaust system and the reduced number of resurfacer operations in this investigation, these methods may be impractical for most skating rinks. Replacement of the fuel-powered resurfacer with a battery operated resurfacer is recommended. If replacement is not feasible, then increasing the air ventilation rate is recommended as a second choice. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.« less

  20. Convective Influence and Transport Pathways Controlling the Tropical Distribution of Carbon Monoxide at 100 Hpa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Eric; Bergman, John; Pfister, Leonard; Ueyama, Rei; Kinnison, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Trajectory calculations with convective influence diagnosed from geostationary-satellite cloud measurements are used to evaluate the relative importance of different Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) transport pathways for establishing the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) at 100 hPa as observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board the Aura satellite. Carbon monoxide is a useful tracer for investigating TTL transport and convective influence because the CO lifetime is comparable to the time require for slow ascent through the TTL (a couple of months). Offline calculations of TTL radiative heating are used to determine the vertical motion field. The simple trajectory model does a reasonable job of reproducing the MLS CO distributions during Boreal wintertime and summertime. The broad maximum in CO concentration over the Pacific is primarily a result of the strong radiative heating (indicating upward vertical motion) associated with the abundant TTL cirrus in this region. Sensitivity tests indicate that the distinct CO maximum in the Asian monsoon anticyclone is strongly impacted by extreme convective systems with detrainment of polluted air above 360 K potential temperature. The relative importance of different CO source regions will also be discussed.

  1. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) 1994 Correlative Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Mixing Ratios (DB-1020)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Novelli, Paul [NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab (CMDL), Boulder, Colorado; Masarie, Ken [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado

    1998-01-01

    This database offers select carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios from eleven field and aircraft measurement programs around the world. Carbon monoxide mixing ratios in the middle troposphere have been examined for short periods of time by using the Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) instrument. MAPS measures CO from a space platform, using gas filter correlation radiometry. During the 1981 and 1984 MAPS flights, measurement validation was attempted by comparing space-based measurements of CO to those made in the middle troposphere from aircraft. Before the 1994 MAPS flights aboard the space shuttle Endeavour, a correlative measurement team was assembled to provide the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with results of their CO field measurement programs during the April and October shuttle missions. To maximize the usefulness of these correlative data, team members agreed to participate in an intercomparison of CO measurements. The correlative data presented in this database provide an internally consistent, ground-based picture of CO in the lower atmosphere during Spring and Fall 1994. The data show the regional importance of two CO sources: fossil-fuel burning in urbanized areas and biomass burning in regions in the Southern Hemisphere.

  2. Carbon Monoxide in Mid-Troposphere over Indonesia Fires, October 2015

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-30

    Widespread forest fires across Indonesia have burned tens of thousands of acres over three months, causing high levels of pollution, loss of life, and billions of dollars to the Indonesian government. It is estimated that more than 43 million people have been inhaling toxic fumes, and large parts of Indonesia have been placed in a state of emergency. Most of the fires are believed to have been set to clear farmland during the dry season, but a long term drought enhanced by El Niño conditions have contributed to the fires remaining unchecked due to lack of rain. These images made with data acquired by AIRS, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder on NASA's Aqua Satellite, show the global concentration of carbon monoxide at the 500hPa pressure level, or approximately 18,000 feet (5,500 meters) altitude. The data are an average of measurements taken over three days, from October 14 through 16, and October 26 through 28, and the high concentration and large extent of the fires over Indonesia are quite apparent. While the scale for this image extends to 400 parts per billion, local values of carbon monoxide can be significantly higher. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20042

  3. Retinal venous blood carbon monoxide response to bright light in male pigs: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Oren, Dan A; Duda, Magdalena; Kozioł, Katarzyna; Romerowicz-Misielak, Maria; Koziorowska, Anna; Sołek, Przemysław; Nowak, Sławomir; Kulpa, Magdalena; Koziorowski, Marek

    2017-03-01

    The physical mechanism by which light is absorbed in the eye and has antidepressant and energizing effects in Seasonal Affective Disorder and other forms of psychiatric major depression is of scientific interest. This study was designed to explore one specific aspect of a proposed humoral phototransduction mechanism, namely that carbon monoxide (CO) levels increase in retinal venous blood in response to bright light. Eleven mature male pigs approximately six months of age were kept for 7days in darkness and fasted for 12h prior to surgery. Following mild sedation, anesthesia was induced. Silastic catheters were inserted into the dorsal nasal vein through the angular vein of the eye to reach the ophthalmic sinus, from which venous blood outflowing from the eye area was collected. The animals were exposed to 5000lx of fluorescent-generated white light. CO levels in the blood were analyzed by gas chromatography before and after 80min of light exposure. At baseline, mean CO levels in the retinal venous blood were 0.43±0.05(SE)nmol/ml. After bright light, mean CO levels increased to 0.54±0.06nmol/ml (two-tailed t-test p<0.05). This study provides preliminary mammalian evidence that acute bright light exposure raises carbon monoxide levels in ophthalmic venous blood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide in the sidestream smoke from 15 brands of Canadian cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Rickert, W.S.; Robinson, J.C.; Collishaw, N.

    Sidestream smoke yields for 15 brands of cigarettes were determined under conditions where mainstream yields were approximately equal to those used for determining the values which appear on packages of Canadian cigarettes. Sidestream yields of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide were much higher than mainstream yields for all brands tested. The average sidestream-to-mainstream ratios for the 15 brands were 3.5, 6.6, and 6.8 for tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, respectively. The highest yields of sidestream were obtained from the brands with the lowest mainstream yields.

  5. The effect of ambient conditions on carbon monoxide emissions from an idling gas turbine combustor. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanian, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    A test program employing a gas turbine combustor is outlined; the results of which quantize the effects of changes in ambient temperature and humidity on carbon monoxide emissions at simulated idle operating conditions. A comparison of the experimental results with analytical results generated by a kinetic model of the combustion process, and reflecting changing ambient conditions, is given. It is demonstrated that for a complete range of possible ambient variations, significant changes do occur in the amount of carbon monoxide emitted by a gas turbine at idle, and that the analytical model is reasonably successful in predicting changes.

  6. The effect of ambient temperature and humidity on the carbon monoxide emissions of an idling gas turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, C. W.; Subramaniam, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    Changes in ambient temperature and humidity affect the exhaust emissions of a gas turbine engine. The results of a test program employing a JT8D combustor are presented which quantize the effect of these changes on carbon monoxide emissions at simulated idle operating conditions. Analytical results generated by a kinetic model of the combustion process and reflecting changing ambient conditions are given. It is shown that for a complete range of possible ambient variations, significant changes do occur in the amount of carbon monoxide emitted by a gas turbine engine.

  7. The effects of reduced oxygen and of carbon monoxide on performance in a mouse pole-jump apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cagliostro, D. E.; Islas, A.

    1982-01-01

    The effects on reaction time and behavior were studied for exposure to reduced oxygen concentrations in the presence and absence of carbon monoxide. Tests were run with Swiss Webster mice in a pole-jump apparatus. The results show that reaction times increase gradually with a decrease in oxygen (O2) to 10 percent O2. Below 10 percent O2 reaction times increase dramatically and performance is degraded almost immediately. At carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations of 500 ppm and reduced O2 levels, reaction times are increased even more. At CO concentrations of 1000 ppm, performance is nearly completely degraded even without reduced oxygen levels.

  8. Detection of carbon monoxide and water absorption lines in an exoplanet atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Konopacky, Quinn M; Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce A; Marois, Christian

    2013-03-22

    Determining the atmospheric structure and chemical composition of an exoplanet remains a formidable goal. Fortunately, advancements in the study of exoplanets and their atmospheres have come in the form of direct imaging--spatially resolving the planet from its parent star--which enables high-resolution spectroscopy of self-luminous planets in jovian-like orbits. Here, we present a spectrum with numerous, well-resolved molecular lines from both water and carbon monoxide from a massive planet orbiting less than 40 astronomical units from the star HR 8799. These data reveal the planet's chemical composition, atmospheric structure, and surface gravity, confirming that it is indeed a young planet. The spectral lines suggest an atmospheric carbon-to-oxygen ratio that is greater than that of the host star, providing hints about the planet's formation.

  9. A near-infrared fluorescent probe for rapid detection of carbon monoxide in living cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liqiang; Nan, Ding; Lin, Cheng; Wan, Yi; Pan, Qiang; Qi, Zhengjian

    2018-09-05

    A near-infrared (NIR) and colorimetric fluorescent probe system was developed for Carbon Monoxide (CO) via a Pd 0 -mediated Tsuji-Trost reaction. In this probe, phenoxide anion formation (DPCO - ) was acted as the signal unit and an allyl carbonate group was used as the recognition unit. This non-fluorescent probe molecule can release the relevant fluorophore after conversion of Pd 2+ to Pd 0 by CO. The probe system including probe 1 and Pd 2+ can be used for "naked-eye" detection of CO, and exhibited high selectivity to CO over various other sensing objects. More importantly, the probe system has great potential for fluorescence imaging of intracellular CO in living cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Monitoring of endogenous carbon monoxide dynamics in human breath by tunable diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Daraselia, Mikhail V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Shulagin, Yurii A.; Skrupskii, Vladimir A.

    1996-01-01

    High sensitive CO gas analyzer based on tunable diode laser (TDL) was used as a real time monitor of endogenous carbon monoxide in a set of breath physiology experiments. The measurements of the CO content dynamics in exhaled air with 10 ppb sensitivity were attended with detection of carbon dioxide and O2 in breath, lung ventilation parameters, heart rate and blood analysis using conventional techniques. Temporal variations of endogenous CO in human breath caused by hyperoxia, hypoxia, hyperventilation and sport loading were first studied in real time. Scattering of the CO variation time constants was observed for different tested persons. Possible reasons for this scattering related with the organisms' physiology peculiarities are discussed.

  11. Increased ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations are associated with asthma exacerbation among urban children.

    PubMed

    Evans, Kristin A; Halterman, Jill S; Hopke, Philip K; Fagnano, Maria; Rich, David Q

    2014-02-01

    Increased air pollutant concentrations have been linked to several asthma-related outcomes in children, including respiratory symptoms, medication use, and hospital visits. However, few studies have examined effects of ultrafine particles in a pediatric population. Our primary objective was to examine the effects of ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles on asthma exacerbation among urban children and determine whether consistent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids could attenuate these effects. We also explored the relationship between asthma exacerbation and ambient concentrations of accumulation mode particles, fine particles (≤2.5 micrograms [μm]; PM2.5), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. We hypothesized that increased 1-7 day concentrations of ultrafine particles and other pollutants would be associated with increases in the relative odds of an asthma exacerbation, but that this increase in risk would be attenuated among children receiving school-based corticosteroid therapy. We conducted a pilot study using data from 3 to 10 year-old children participating in the School-Based Asthma Therapy trial. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit treated with prednisone (n=96 visits among 74 children) associated with increased pollutant concentrations in the previous 7 days. We re-ran these analyses separately for children receiving medications through the school-based intervention and children in a usual care control group. Interquartile range increases in ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations in the previous 7 days were associated with increases in the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit, with the largest increases observed for 4-day mean ultrafine particles (interquartile range=2088p/cm(3); OR=1.27; 95% CI=0.90-1.79) and 7-day mean carbon monoxide (interquartile range=0.17ppm; OR=1.63; 95% CI=1.03-2.59). Relative odds

  12. Increased ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations are associated with asthma exacerbation among urban children

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Kristin A.; Halterman, Jill S.; Hopke, Philip K.; Fagnano, Maria; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increased air pollutant concentrations have been linked to several asthma-related outcomes in children, including respiratory symptoms, medication use, and hospital visits. However, few studies have examined effects of ultrafine particles in a pediatric population. Our primary objective was to examine the effects of ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles on asthma exacerbation among urban children and determine whether consistent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids could attenuate these effects. We also explored the relationship between asthma exacerbation and ambient concentrations of accumulation mode particles, fine particles (≤ 2.5 micrograms [μm]; PM2.5), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. We hypothesized that increased 1 to 7 day concentrations of ultrafine particles and other pollutants would be associated with increases in the relative odds of an asthma exacerbation, but that this increase in risk would be attenuated among children receiving school-based corticosteroid therapy. Methods We conducted a pilot study using data from 3–10 year-old children participating in the School-Based Asthma Therapy trial. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit treated with prednisone (n=96 visits among 74 children) associated with increased pollutant concentrations in the previous 7 days. We re-ran these analyses separately for children receiving medications through the school-based intervention and children in a usual care control group. Results Interquartile range increases in ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations in the previous 7 days were associated with increases in the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit, with the largest increases observed for 4-day mean ultrafine particles (interquartile range=2088 p/cm3; OR=1.27; 95% CI=0.90–1.79) and 7-day mean carbon monoxide (interquartile range=0.17 ppm; OR=1.63; 95

  13. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Alleviates Carbon Monoxide Poisoning-Induced Delayed Memory Impairment by Preserving Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor-Dependent Hippocampal Neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Chung; Yang, San-Nan; Wu, Chih-Wei J; Chen, Lee-Wei; Chan, Julie Y H

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that hyperbaric oxygen therapy ameliorates delayed cognitive impairment after acute carbon monoxide poisoning by promoting neurogenesis through upregulating the brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus. Laboratory animal experiments. University/Medical center research laboratory. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were divided into five groups: (1) non-carbon monoxide-treated control, (2) acute carbon monoxide poisoning, (3) acute carbon monoxide poisoning followed by 7-day hyperbaric oxygen treatment, (4) carbon monoxide + hyperbaric oxygen with additional intracerebroventricular infusion of Fc fragment of tyrosine kinase receptor B protein (TrkB-Fc) chimera, and (5) acute carbon monoxide poisoning followed by intracerebroventricular infusion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning was achieved by exposing the rats to carbon monoxide at 2,500 ppm for 40 minutes, followed by 3,000 ppm for 20 minutes. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (at 2.5 atmospheres absolute with 100% oxygen for 60 min) was conducted during the first 7 days after carbon monoxide poisoning. Recombinant human TrkB-Fc chimera or brain-derived neurotrophic factor was infused into the lateral ventricle via the implanted osmotic minipump. For labeling of mitotic cells in the hippocampus, bromodeoxyuridine was injected into the peritoneal cavity. Distribution of bromodeoxyuridine and two additional adult neurogenesis markers, Ki-67 and doublecortin, in the hippocampus was evaluated by immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence staining. Tissue level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cognitive behavior was evaluated by the use of eight-arm radial maze. Acute carbon monoxide poisoning significantly suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis evident by the reduction in number of bromodeoxyuridine-positive, Ki-67⁺, and doublecortin⁺ cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. This

  14. Monitoring of carbon monoxide in residences with bulk wood pellet storage in the Northeast United States.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Alan; Jordan, Carolyn E; Wake, Cameron; Soto-Garcia, Lydia

    2017-10-01

    The interest in biomass fuel is continuing to expand globally and in the northeastern United States as wood pellets are becoming a primary source of fuel for residential and small commercial systems. Wood pellets for boilers are often stored in basement storage rooms or large bag-type containers. Due to the enclosed nature of these storage areas, the atmosphere may exhibit increased levels of carbon monoxide. Serious accidents in Europe have been reported over the last decade in which high concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) have been found in or near bulk pellet storage containers. The aim of this study was to characterize the CO concentrations in areas with indoor storage of bulk wood pellets. Data was obtained over approximately 7 months (December 2013 to June 2014) at 25 sites in New Hampshire and Massachusetts: 16 homes using wood pellet boilers with indoor pellet storage containers greater than or equal to 3 ton capacity; 4 homes with wood pellet heating systems with outdoor pellet storage; 4 homes using other heating fuels; and a university laboratory site. CO monitors were set up in homes to collect concentrations of CO in the immediate vicinity of wood pellet storage containers, and data were then compared to those of homes using fossil fuel systems. The homes monitored in this study provided a diverse set of housing stock spanning two and a half centuries of construction, with homes built from 1774 to 2013, representing a range of air exchange rates. The CO concentration data from each home was averaged hourly and then compared to a threshold of 9 ppm. While concentrations of CO were generally low for the homes studied, the need to properly design storage locations for pellets is and will remain a necessary component of wood pellet heating systems to minimize the risk of CO exposure. This paper is an assessment of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure from bulk wood pellet storage in homes in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Understanding the CO concentrations

  15. Satellite observations of tropospheric ammonia and carbon monoxide: Global distributions, regional correlations and comparisons to model simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia (NH3) and carbon monoxide (CO) are primary pollutants emitted to the Earth's atmosphere from common as well as distinct sources associated with anthropogenic and natural activities. The seasonal and global distributions and correlations of NH3 and CO from the Tropospheric...

  16. Levels of maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide and certain cardiovascular parameters following hubble-bubble smoking.

    PubMed

    Shafagoj, Yanal A; Mohammed, Faisal I

    2002-08-01

    The physiological effects of cigarette smoking have been widely studied, however, little is known regarding the effects of smoking hubble-bubble. We examined the acute effects of hubble-bubble smoking on heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure and maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide. This study was carried out in the student laboratory, School of Medicine, Department of Physiology, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, during the summer of 1999. In 18 healthy habitual hubble-bubble smokers, heart rate, blood pressure, and maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide was measured before, during and post smoking of one hubble-bubble run (45 minutes). Compared to base line (time zero), at the end of smoking heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, and maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide were increased 16 2.4 beats per minute, 6.7 2.5 mm Hg, 4.4 1.6 mm Hg, 5.2 1.7 mm Hg, and 14.2 1.8 ppm, (mean standard error of mean, P<.05). Acute short-term active hubble-bubble smoking elicits a modest increase in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide in healthy hubble-bubble smokers.

  17. Variations of time-to-incapacitation and carboxyhemoglobin values in rats exposed to two carbon monoxide concentrations.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1993-05-01

    It has been suggested that passenger protective breathing equipment protect aircraft passengers from smoke for 5 min during an evacuation phase and for 35 min during an in-flight-plus-evacuation phase. Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the most abundant...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1182 - How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas? 63.1182 Section 63.1182 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES ...

  19. Regional and hemispheric influences on temporal variability in baseline carbon monoxide and ozone over the Northeast US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interannual variability in baseline carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3), defined as mixing ratios under minimal influence of recent and local emissions, was studied for seven rural sites in the Northeast US over 2001–2010. Annual baseline CO exhibited statistically signific...

  20. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...