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Sample records for accelerating lorentz force

  1. Vacuum Plasma Spray Forming of Tungsten Lorentz Force Accelerator Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank R.

    2001-01-01

    The Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated a fabrication technique using the VPS process to form anode sections for a Lorentz force accelerator from tungsten. Lorentz force accelerators are an attractive form of electric propulsion that provides continuous, high-efficiency propulsion at useful power levels for such applications as orbit transfers or deep space missions. The VPS process is used to deposit refractory metals such as tungsten onto a graphite mandrel of the desired shape. Because tungsten is reactive at high temperatures, it is thermally sprayed in an inert environment where the plasma gun melts and accelerates the metal powder onto the mandrel. A three-axis robot inside the chamber controls the motion of the plasma spray torch. A graphite mandrel acts as a male mold, forming the required contour and dimensions of the inside surface of the anode. This paper describes the processing techniques, design considerations, and process development associated with the VPS forming of the Lorentz force accelerator.

  2. Vacuum Plasma Spray Forming of Tungsten Lorentz Force Accelerator Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank R.

    2004-01-01

    The Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, working with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed and demonstrated a fabrication technique using the VPS process to form anode and cathode sections for a Lorentz force accelerator made from tungsten. Lorentz force accelerators are an attractive form of electric propulsion that provides continuous, high-efficiency propulsion at useful power levels for such applications as orbit transfers or deep space missions. The VPS process is used to deposit refractory metals such as tungsten onto a graphite mandrel of the desired shape. Because tungsten is reactive at high temperatures, it is thermally sprayed in an inert environment where the plasma gun melts and deposits the molten metal powder onto a mandrel. A three-axis robot inside the chamber controls the motion of the plasma spray torch. A graphite mandrel acts as a male mold, forming the required contour and dimensions for the inside surface of the anode or cathode of the accelerator. This paper describes the processing techniques, design considerations, and process development associated with the VPS forming of Lorentz force accelerator components.

  3. Lorentz-Dirac force from QED for linear acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Atsushi; Martin, Giles D.

    2004-10-01

    We investigate the motion of a wave packet of a charged scalar particle linearly accelerated by a static potential in quantum electrodynamics. We calculate the expectation value of the position of the charged particle after the acceleration to first order in the fine structure constant in the ℏ→0 limit. We find that the change in the expectation value of the position (the position shift) due to radiation reaction agrees exactly with the result obtained using the Lorentz-Dirac force in classical electrodynamics. We also point out that the one-loop correction to the potential may contribute to the position change in this limit.

  4. Lorentz force particle analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Thess, André; Moreau, René; Tan, Yanqing; Dai, Shangjun; Tao, Zhen; Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Bo

    2016-07-01

    A new contactless technique is presented for the detection of micron-sized insulating particles in the flow of an electrically conducting fluid. A transverse magnetic field brakes this flow and tends to become entrained in the flow direction by a Lorentz force, whose reaction force on the magnetic-field-generating system can be measured. The presence of insulating particles suspended in the fluid produce changes in this Lorentz force, generating pulses in it; these pulses enable the particles to be counted and sized. A two-dimensional numerical model that employs a moving mesh method demonstrates the measurement principle when such a particle is present. Two prototypes and a three-dimensional numerical model are used to demonstrate the feasibility of a Lorentz force particle analyzer (LFPA). The findings of this study conclude that such an LFPA, which offers contactless and on-line quantitative measurements, can be applied to an extensive range of applications. These applications include measurements of the cleanliness of high-temperature and aggressive molten metal, such as aluminum and steel alloys, and the clean manufacturing of semiconductors.

  5. Lorentz force optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Raghunathan, Raksha; Liu, Chih-Hao; Li, Jiasong; Schill, Alexander; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-09-01

    Quantifying tissue biomechanical properties can assist in detection of abnormalities and monitoring disease progression and/or response to a therapy. Optical coherence elastography (OCE) has emerged as a promising technique for noninvasively characterizing tissue biomechanical properties. Several mechanical loading techniques have been proposed to induce static or transient deformations in tissues, but each has its own areas of applications and limitations. This study demonstrates the combination of Lorentz force excitation and phase-sensitive OCE at ˜1.5 million A-lines per second to quantify the elasticity of tissue by directly imaging Lorentz force-induced elastic waves. This method of tissue excitation opens the possibility of a wide range of investigations using tissue biocurrents and conductivity for biomechanical analysis.

  6. Torsional Oscillations with Lorentz Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We have built a device that uses the Lorentz force on a current-carrying wire situated in a magnetic field, F = I L x B, in order to demonstrate a slowly varying alternating current by means of an optical lever. The apparatus consists of a horseshoe magnet, a length of thin enamel-coated wire (ours was 0.3 mm thick), a signal generator, a…

  7. Physical interpretation of a modified Lorentz dielectric function for metals based on the Lorentz-Dirac force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopidis, Konstantinos; Kalialakis, Christos

    2014-10-01

    It is proposed that a recently used ad hoc modified Lorentz dielectric function for metals can be physically interpreted via the Lorentz-Dirac force. The Lorentz-Dirac force considers the radiation reaction of electrons, an effect that is ignored in classical dispersion relationships. A suitable reduced order form of the Lorentz-Dirac force that does not suffer from pre-acceleration and runaway artifacts is employed in the derivation of the modified dispersion model. The frequency characteristics and the causality of the Lorentz-Dirac dielectric model are studied in detail. Furthermore, the superiority of the Lorentz-Dirac dielectric function as a means of improved fitting of experimental data is demonstrated for gold, silver, and silicon in the infrared and optical region.

  8. Lorentz force megahertz optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen; Singh, Manmohan; Han, Zhaolong; Raghunathan, Raksha; Liu, Chih-Hao; Li, Jiasong; Schill, Alexander; Larin, Kirill V.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Coherence Elastography (OCE) is a rapidly developing technique for assessing tissue biomechanical properties. This study demonstrates the first use of the Lorentz force to induce elastic waves within tissue to quantify the elasticity of tissue in combination with a phase-sensitive OCE system at ~1.5 million A-scans per second. The feasibility of this technique was tested on tissue-mimicking agar phantoms of various concentrations. The results as assessed by OCE were in good agreement with standard mechanical testing of the samples. After the preliminary experiments, the stiffness of porcine liver was examined. The results demonstrate that Lorentz force MHz OCE can be applied to study the elasticity of biological tissue effectively and has the potential for clinical applications due to rapid excitation and imaging.

  9. Behavior of Boundary Layer in Supersonic Flow with Applied Lorentz Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udagawa, Keisuke; Saito, Shinya; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Tomioka, Sadatake; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki

    Experimental study on behavior of boundary layer in supersonic flow with applied Lorentz force was carried out. In the experiment, Mach 1.5 supersonic wind tunnel driven by a shock-tube was used. At the test section, the current from the external DC power supply and the magnetic field of 2.4 Tesla were applied to the boundary layer developing on the bottom wall. Argon seeded with cesium was used as an electrically conducting gas. Effect of the direction of the Lorentz force on static pressure distribution was investigated, and the remarkable increase of static pressure at the test section was observed for the decelerating Lorentz force. It is noted that the acceleration of the flow inside the boundary layer was demonstrated for the first time without accelerating the main flow when the accelerating Lorentz force was applied. At the same time, the acceleration efficiency defined by a ratio of work done by the Lorentz force to energy input into the flow was found 54-61%. These results have suggested the possibility of the boundary layer separation control by applying the accelerating Lorentz force. In the case of the decelerating Lorentz force, the significant reduction of Mach number was observed not only inside the boundary layer but also in the main flow. The reduction of Mach number could be ascribed to the growth of the boundary layer due to gas heating inside the boundary layer. When the direction of the current was changed, the difference of light emission from the discharge inside the boundary layer was observed, and this was due to the difference of the electromotive force induced in the supersonic flow.

  10. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyan, S.; Froehlich, Th.

    2014-12-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known "electromagnetic force" compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 106 S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.

  11. Direct Lorentz force compensation flowmeter for electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Vasilyan, S. Froehlich, Th.

    2014-12-01

    A simplified method of contactless Lorentz force (LF) measurements for flow meters on electrolytes is described and realized. Modification and comparative representation are discussed against recently well-developed methods. Based on the catapult effect, that current carrying conductor experiences a repulsive force in a magnetic field, we demonstrate force measurement method of LF velocimetry applications by commonly known “electromagnetic force” compensation principle. Measurement approach through zero point stability is considered to minimize mechanical influences and avoid gravimetric uncertainties. Here, the current carrying wires are static fixed in the vicinity of magnet system at zero point stable position, while occurring deflection of magnets by electrolyte flow is compensated by external applied current within wires. Measurements performed by developed servo-system which drives control loop by means of optical position sensor for simplified (i) single wire and (ii) coil-like extended compensation schemes. Guided by experiments on electrolyte flow, we demonstrate the applicability of adopted principle for conductivities ranging from 2 to 20 S/m. Further improvements are discussed in agreement with the parameters of demonstration setup, straightforward theory, and experimental results. We argue that this method is potentially suitable for: (a) applications with higher conductivity like molten metal (order of 10{sup 6 }S/m) assuming spatial configuration of setup and (b) for lower range of conductivity (below 1 S/m) while this is strongly subject to stiffness of system and noise mainly mechanical and thermal radiations.

  12. Lorentz Force Based Satellite Attitude Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Dipak Kumar; Sinha, Manoranjan

    2016-07-01

    Since the inception of attitude control of a satellite, various active and passive control strategies have been developed. These include using thrusters, momentum wheels, control moment gyros and magnetic torquers. In this present work, a new technique named Lorentz force based Coulombic actuators for the active control is proposed. This method uses electrostatic charged shells, which interact with the time varying earth's magnetic field to establish a full three axes control of the satellite. It is shown that the proposed actuation mechanism is similar to a satellite actuated by magnetic coils except that the resultant magnetic moment vanishes under two different conditions. The equation for the required charges on the the Coulomb shells attached to the satellite body axes is derived, which is in turn used to find the available control torque for actuating the satellite along the orbit. Stability of the proposed system for very high initial angular velocity and exponential stability about the origin are proved for a proportional-differential control input. Simulations are carried out to show the efficacy of the proposed system for the attitude control of the earth-pointing satellite.

  13. LORENTZ SELF-FORCE OF AN ELLIPSE CURRENT LOOP MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang Jie; Kunkel, Valbona

    2013-07-10

    In this work, the Lorentz self-force of an ellipse current loop model is derived. We are motivated by the fact that it has been reported in the literature that coronal mass ejection morphology can resemble an ellipse in the field of view of coronagraph images. Deriving the Lorentz self-force using an ellipse geometry has the advantage of being able to be solved analytically, as opposed to other more complex geometries. The derived ellipse model is compared with the local curvature approximation, where the Lorentz self-force at the ellipse major/minor axis is compared with the Lorentz self-force of a torus with curvature equal to the local curvature at the ellipses major/minor axis. It is found that the local curvature approximation is valid for moderate values of eccentricity.

  14. Fermi acceleration in the randomized driven Lorentz gas and the Fermi-Ulam model.

    PubMed

    Karlis, A K; Papachristou, P K; Diakonos, F K; Constantoudis, V; Schmelcher, P

    2007-07-01

    Fermi acceleration of an ensemble of noninteracting particles evolving in a stochastic two-moving wall variant of the Fermi-Ulam model (FUM) and the phase randomized harmonically driven periodic Lorentz gas is investigated. As shown in [A. K. Karlis, P. K. Papachristou, F. K. Diakonos, V. Constantoudis, and P. Schmelcher, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 194102 (2006)], the static wall approximation, which ignores scatterer displacement upon collision, leads to a substantial underestimation of the mean energy gain per collision. In this paper, we clarify the mechanism leading to the increased acceleration. Furthermore, the recently introduced hopping wall approximation is generalized for application in the randomized driven Lorentz gas. Utilizing the hopping approximation the asymptotic probability distribution function of the particle velocity is derived. Moreover, it is shown that, for harmonic driving, scatterer displacement upon collision increases the acceleration in both the driven Lorentz gas and the FUM by the same amount. On the other hand, the investigation of a randomized FUM, comprising one fixed and one moving wall driven by a sawtooth force function, reveals that the presence of a particular asymmetry of the driving function leads to an increase of acceleration that is different from that gained when symmetrical force functions are considered, for all finite number of collisions. This fact helps open up the prospect of designing accelerator devices by combining driving laws with specific symmetries to acquire a desired acceleration behavior for the ensemble of particles.

  15. The competition between Lorentz and Coriolis forces in planetary dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderlund, Krista M.; Sheyko, Andrey; King, Eric M.; Aurnou, Jonathan M.

    2015-12-01

    Fluid motions within planetary cores generate magnetic fields through dynamo action. These core processes are driven by thermo-compositional convection subject to the competing influences of rotation, which tends to organize the flow into axial columns, and the Lorentz force, which tends to inhibit the relative movement of the magnetic field and the fluid. It is often argued that these forces are predominant and approximately equal in planetary cores; we test this hypothesis using a suite of numerical geodynamo models to calculate the Lorentz to Coriolis force ratio directly. Our results show that this ratio can be estimated by ( Λ i is the traditionally defined Elsasser number for imposed magnetic fields and Rm is the system-scale ratio of magnetic induction to magnetic diffusion). Best estimates of core flow speeds and magnetic field strengths predict the geodynamo to be in magnetostrophic balance where the Lorentz and Coriolis forces are comparable. The Lorentz force may also be significant, i.e., within an order of magnitude of the Coriolis force, in the Jovian interior. In contrast, the Lorentz force is likely to be relatively weak in the cores of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Ganymede, and Mercury.

  16. Lorentz Body Force Induced by Traveling Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Lorentz force induced by a traveling magnetic field (TMF) in a cylindrical container has been calculated. The force can be used to control flow in dectrically conducting melts and the direction of the magnetic field and resulting flow can be reversed. A TMF can be used to partially cancel flow driven by buoyancy. The penetration of the field into the cylinder decreases as the frequency increases, and there exists an optimal value of frequency for which the resulting force is a maximum. Expressions for the Lorentz force in the limiting cases of low frequency and infinite cylinder are also given and compared to the numerical calculations.

  17. A theoretical model for the Lorentz force particle analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, René; Tao, Zhen; Wang, Xiaodong

    2016-07-01

    In a previous paper [X. Wang et al., J. Appl. Phys. 120, 014903 (2016)], several experimental devices have been presented, which demonstrate the efficiency of electromagnetic techniques for detecting and sizing electrically insulating particles entrained in the flow of a molten metal. In each case, a non-uniform magnetic field is applied across the flow of the electrically conducting liquid, thereby generating a braking Lorentz force on this moving medium and a reaction force on the magnet, which tends to be entrained in the flow direction. The purpose of this letter is to derive scaling laws for this Lorentz force from an elementary theoretical model. For simplicity, as in the experiments, the flowing liquid is modeled as a solid body moving with a uniform velocity U. The eddy currents in the moving domain are derived from the classic induction equation and Ohm's law, and expressions for the Lorentz force density j ×B and for its integral over the entire moving domain follow. The insulating particles that are eventually present and entrained with this body are then treated as small disturbances in a classic perturbation analysis, thereby leading to scaling laws for the pulses they generate in the Lorentz force. The purpose of this letter is both to illustrate the eddy currents without and with insulating particles in the electrically conducting liquid and to derive a key relation between the pulses in the Lorentz force and the main parameters (particle volume and dimensions of the region subjected to the magnetic field).

  18. Lorentz-force-induced motion in conductive media.

    PubMed

    Basford, Alexandra T; Basford, Jeffrey R; Kugel, Jennifer; Ehman, Richard L

    2005-06-01

    This project was designed to assess whether MRI imaging could detect Lorentz-force-induced motion in conductive samples. Experiments were performed by applying alternating voltages across 2% agar and 18% bovine gels placed in the field of a 1.5-T MRI scanner. Motion-sensitized time-gated MRI images that were obtained and analyzed with custom-developed software used in previous studies revealed the production of movement in both agar and gel samples. Motion was most pronounced in the plane vertical to the sample and had the greatest amplitude when the current path was perpendicular to the scanner's magnetic field. These findings are compatible with the vector cross product nature of the Lorentz force and suggest that the imaging of Lorentz-force-induced motion in conductive samples is feasible. Whether this approach can be extended to study electrically active tissues such as the peripheral nerves, brain and heart remains to be seen.

  19. Attitude dynamics and control of spacecraft using geomagnetic Lorentz force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, Yehia A.; Shoaib, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Attitude stabilization of a charged rigid spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit using torques due to Lorentz force in pitch and roll directions is considered. A spacecraft that generates an electrostatic charge on its surface in the Earth's magnetic field will be subject to perturbations from the Lorentz force. The Lorentz force acting on an electrostatically charged spacecraft may provide a useful thrust for controlling a spacecraft's orientation. We assume that the spacecraft is moving in the Earth's magnetic field in an elliptical orbit under the effects of gravitational, geomagnetic and Lorentz torques. The magnetic field of the Earth is modeled as a non-tilted dipole. A model incorporating all Lorentz torques as a function of orbital elements has been developed on the basis of electric and magnetic fields. The stability of the spacecraft orientation is investigated both analytically and numerically. The existence and stability of equilibrium positions is investigated for different values of the charge to mass ratio (α*). Stable orbits are identified for various values of α*. The main parameters for stabilization of the spacecraft are α* and the difference between the components of the moment of inertia for the spacecraft.

  20. Manipulating the Lorentz force via the chirality of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Maoyan; Li, Hailong; Dong, Yuliang; Zhang, Xiaochuan; Du, Ming; Wang, Rui; Xu, Tong; Wu, Jian

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate that a single plane wave pulls a chiral nanoparticle toward the light source. The nanoparticle exhibits optical gain in a particular wavelength region. The equivalence of the generalized and alternative expressions of the Lorentz force density relating to bound charges for chiral media is numerically validated. By considering the two-dimensional electromagnetic problem of incident plane waves normally impinged on active chiral cylinders, it is shown that the gradient force is mainly contributed by the bound electric and magnetic current densities of the cross-polarized waves. We also investigate how the medium parameters and impedance mismatch can be used to manipulate the pulling or pushing Lorentz forces between two chiral cylinders. This finding may provide a recipe to understand the light interaction with multiple chiral nanoparticles of arbitrary shapes (in general) with the aid of the numerical approach. It could be a promising avenue in controlling the optical micromanipulation for chiral nanoparticles with mirroring asymmetry.

  1. Control of heat transfer in engine coolers by Lorentz forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karcher, C.; Kühndel, J.

    2016-09-01

    In engine coolers of off-highway vehicles convective heat transfer at the coolant side is a limiting factor of both efficiency and performance density of the cooler. Here, due to design restrictions, backwater areas and stagnation regions appear that are caused by flow deflections and cross-sectional expansions. As appropriate coolants, mixtures of water and glysantine are commonly used. Such coolants are characterized by their electrical conductivity of some S/m. This gives rise to control coolant flow and therefore convective heat transfer by means of Lorentz forces. These body forces are generated within the weakly conducting fluid by the interactions of an electrical current density and a localized magnetic field both of which being externally superimposed. In application this may be achieved by inserting electrodes in the cooler wall and a corresponding arrangement of permanent magnets. In this paper we perform numerical simulations of such magnetohydrodynamic flow in three model geometries that are frequently apparent in engine cooling applications: Carnot-Borda diffusor, 90° bend, and 180° bend. The simulations are carried out using the software package ANSYS Fluent. The present study demonstrates that, depending on the electromagnetic interaction parameter and the specific geometric arrangement of electrodes and magnetic field, Lorentz forces are suitable to break up eddy waters and separation zones and are thus significantly increasing convective heat transfer in these areas. Furthermore, the results show that due to the action of the Lorentz forces the hydraulic pressure losses can be reduced.

  2. Dynamics and control of spacecraft hovering using the geomagnetic Lorentz force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Yan, Ye; Zhou, Yang

    2014-02-01

    To achieve hovering, a spacecraft thrusts continuously to induce an equilibrium state at a desired position. Due to the constraints on the quantity of propellant onboard, long-time hovering around low-Earth orbits (LEO) is hardly achievable using traditional chemical propulsion. The Lorentz force, acting on an electrostatically charged spacecraft as it moves through a planetary magnetic field, provides a new propellantless method for orbital maneuvers. This paper investigates the feasibility of using the induced Lorentz force as an auxiliary means of propulsion for spacecraft hovering. Assuming that the Earth's magnetic field is a dipole that rotates with the Earth, a dynamical model that characterizes the relative motion of Lorentz spacecraft is derived to analyze the required open-loop control acceleration for hovering. Based on this dynamical model, we first present the hovering configurations that could achieve propellantless hovering and the corresponding required specific charge of a Lorentz spacecraft. For other configurations, optimal open-loop control laws that minimize the control energy consumption are designed. Likewise, the optimal trajectories of required specific charge and control acceleration are both presented. The effect of orbital inclination on the expenditure of control energy is also analyzed. Further, we also develop a closed-loop control approach for propellantless hovering. Numerical results prove the validity of proposed control methods for hovering and show that hovering around low-Earth orbits would be achievable if the required specific charge of a Lorentz spacecraft becomes feasible in the future. Typically, hovering radially several kilometers above a target in LEO requires specific charges on the order of 0.1 C/kg.

  3. Parameterization of the Lorentz to Coriolis Force Ratio in Planetary Dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderlund, K. M.; Sheyko, A. A.; King, E. M.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Lorentz to Coriolis force ratio is an important parameter for the dynamics of planetary cores: it is expected that dynamos with dominant Coriolis forces will be driven by fundamentally different archetypes of fluid motions than those with co-dominant Lorentz forces. Using a suite of geodynamo simulations, we have tested several parameterizations of the Lorentz to Coriolis force ratio against direct calculations and developed a scaling estimate to predict this ratio for planetary cores. Our results suggest that the Earth's core is likely to be in magnetostrophic balance where the Lorentz and Coriolis forces are comparable. The Lorentz force may also be significant in Jupiter's core, where it is predicted to be approximately a factor of ten less than the Coriolis force. Magnetic fields become increasingly sub-dominant for the other planets: the Coriolis force is predicted to exceed the Lorentz force by at least two orders of magnitude within the cores of Saturn, Uranus/Neptune, Ganymede, and Mercury.

  4. Amplitude modulated Lorentz force MEMS magnetometer with picotesla sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Varun; Ramezany, Alireza; Mahdavi, Mohammad; Pourkamali, Siavash

    2016-10-01

    This paper demonstrates ultra-high sensitivities for a Lorentz force resonant MEMS magnetometer enabled by internal-thermal piezoresistive vibration amplification. A detailed model of the magneto-thermo-electro-mechanical internal amplification is described and is in good agreement with the experimental results. Internal amplification factors up to ~1620 times have been demonstrated by artificially boosting the effective quality factor of the resonator from 680 to 1.14  ×  106 by tuning the bias current. The increase in the resonator bias current in addition to the improvement in the quality factor of the device led to a sensitivity enhancement by ~2400 times. For a bias current of 7.245 mA, where the effective quality factor of the device and consequently the sensitivity is maximum (2.107 mV nT-1), the noise floor is measured to be as low as 2.8 pT (√Hz)-1. This is by far the most sensitive Lorentz force MEMS magnetometer demonstrated to date.

  5. Force-rebalanced Lorentz force magnetometer based on a micromachined oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonmezoglu, S.; Li, M.; Horsley, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a 3-axis Lorentz force magnetometer based on an encapsulated micromechanical silicon resonator having three orthogonal vibration modes, each measuring one vector component of the external magnetic field. One mode, with natural frequency (fn) of 46.973 kHz and quality factor (Q) of 14 918, is operated as a closed-loop electrostatically excited oscillator to provide a frequency reference for 3-axis sensing and Lorentz force generation. Current, modulated at the reference frequency, is injected into the resonator, producing Lorentz force that is centered at the reference frequency. Lorentz force in the first axis is nulled by the oscillator loop, resulting in force-rebalanced operation. The bandwidth and scale-factor of this force-rebalanced axis are independent of resonator Q, improving the sensor's temperature coefficient from 20 841 ppm/ °C to 424 ppm/ °C. The frequencies of the other two modes are closely spaced to the first mode's reference frequency and are demonstrated to track this frequency over temperature within 1 ppm/K. Field measurements in these two axes are conducted open-loop and off-resonance, ensuring that the scale-factor is independent of Q to first order and producing a measurement bandwidth of over 40 Hz.

  6. A novel reciprocating micropump based on Lorentz force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salari, Alinaghi; Hakimsima, Abbas; Shafii, Mohammad Behshad

    2015-03-01

    Lorentz force is the pumping basis of many electromagnetic micropumps used in lab-on-a-chip. In this paper a novel reciprocating single-chamber micropump is proposed, in which the actuation technique is based on Lorentz force acting on an array of microwires attached on a membrane surface. An alternating current is applied through the microwires in the presence of a magnetic field. The resultant force causes the membrane to oscillate and pushes the fluid to flow through microchannel using a ball-valve. The pump chamber (3 mm depth) was fabricated on a Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate using laser engraving technique. The chamber was covered by a 60 μm thick hyper-elastic latex rubber diaphragm. Two miniature permanent magnets capable of providing magnetic field of 0.09 T at the center of the diaphragm were mounted on each side of the chamber. Square wave electric current with low-frequencies was generated using a function generator. Cylindrical copper microwires (250 μm diameter and 5 mm length) were attached side-by-side on top surface of the diaphragm. Thin loosely attached wires were used as connectors to energize the electrodes. Due to large displacement length of the diaphragm (~3 mm) a high efficiency (~90%) ball valve (2 mm diameter stainless steel ball in a tapered tubing structure) was used in the pump outlet. The micropump exhibits a flow rate as high as 490 μl/s and pressure up to 1.5 kPa showing that the pump is categorized among high-flow-rate mechanical micropumps.

  7. The electrodeless Lorentz force (ELF) thruster experimental facility.

    PubMed

    Weber, T E; Slough, J T; Kirtley, D

    2012-11-01

    An innovative facility for testing high-power, pulsed plasmoid thrusters has been constructed to develop the electrodeless Lorentz force (ELF) thruster concept. It is equipped with a suite of diagnostics optimized to study the physical processes taking place within ELF and evaluate its propulsive utility including magnetic field, neutral gas, and plasma flux diagnostics, a method to determine energy flow into the plasma from the pulsed power systems, and a new type of ballistic pendulum, which enables thrust to be measured without the need for installing the entire propulsion system on a thrust stand. Variable magnetic fields allow controlled studies of plume expansion in a small-scale experiment and dielectric chamber walls reduce electromagnetic influences on plasma behavior and thruster operation. The unique capabilities of this facility enable novel concept development to take place at greatly reduced cost and increased accessibility compared to testing at large user-facilities.

  8. Relative dynamics and control of spacecraft formations subject to lorentz force perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, Yehia; Shoaib, Muhammad

    A spacecraft that generates an electrostatic charge on its surface in the Earth magnetic field will be subject to a perturbative Lorentz force. The Lorentz force acting on an electrostatically charged spacecraft may provide a useful thrust for controlling a spacecraft’s orbit. We develop Lorentz force as a function of the orbital elements. The orbital perturbations of a charged spacecraft by Lorentz force in the Earth’s magnetic field are investigated using the Gauss variation of the Lagrange planetary Equations. The Earth’s magnetic field is modeled as a tilted dipole. The perturbations in the orbital elements depend on the value of the charge to mass ratio (q/m). The dynamical model of relative motion developed leads to approximate analytical solutions for the motion of a charged spacecraft subject to Lorentz force. The chief spacecraft’s reference orbit is taken to be either circular or elliptical. The deputy spacecraft is capable of accumulating electrostatic charge. The numerical results show that Lorentz force can be used to change the in-track position and plane orbit of the spacecraft. The numerical analysis shows that the target trajectory of the Lorentz spacecraft can be reached by varying the ratio (q/m) in different Low Earth Orbits.

  9. Optimal impedance on transmission of Lorentz force EMATs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isla, Julio; Seher, Matthias; Challis, Richard; Cegla, Frederic

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetic-acoustic transducers (EMATs) are attractive for non-destructive inspections because direct contact with the specimen under test is not required. This advantage comes at a high cost in sensitivity and therefore it is important to optimise every aspect of an EMAT. The signal strength produced by EMATs is in part determined by the coil impedance regardless of the transduction mechanism (e.g. Lorentz force, magnetostriction, etc.). There is very little literature on how to select the coil impedance that maximises the wave intensity; this paper addresses that gap. A transformer circuit is used to model the interaction between the EMAT coil and the eddy currents that are generated beneath the coil in the conducting specimen. Expressions for the coil impedances that satisfy the maximum efficiency and maximum power transfer conditions on transmission are presented. To support this analysis, a tunable coil that consists of stacked identical thin layers independently accessed is used so that the coil inductance can be modified while leaving the radiation pattern of the EMAT unaffected.

  10. A study of dynamic Lorentz force detuning of 650 MHz βg=0.9 superconducting radiofrequency cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Abhay; Ratan Jana, Arup; Kumar, Vinit

    2014-06-01

    The small bandwidth of superconducting cavities makes the study of dynamic Lorentz force detuning and its compensation indispensable in case of pulsed mode operation of high gradient accelerators. In this paper, we present the study of this detuning and also propose an optimized design for five cell 650 MHz βg=0.9 elliptic superconducting cavities, which will be used in the high energy section of the 1 GeV H- linear accelerator for the proposed Indian spallation neutron source project, by suitably inserting the inter-cell stiffeners. The paper presents a sequential design methodology which starts with study of static Lorentz force detuning and tunability; and progresses to find out the structural modes and related dynamic detuning values by performing transient structural dynamics calculations. The developed methodology is general in nature and can be used for a three dimensional model of any geometry. The work will be useful for optimizing the design against dynamic Lorentz force detuning of superconducting radiofrequency cavities of any shape.

  11. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography using magnetic field measurements.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Reyhan; Gençer, Nevzat Güneri

    2016-08-21

    In this study, magnetic field measurement technique is investigated to image the electrical conductivity properties of biological tissues using Lorentz forces. This technique is based on electrical current induction using ultrasound together with an applied static magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity generated due to induced currents is measured using two coil configurations, namely, a rectangular loop coil and a novel xy coil pair. A time-varying voltage is picked-up and recorded while the acoustic wave propagates along its path. The forward problem of this imaging modality is defined as calculation of the pick-up voltages due to a given acoustic excitation and known body properties. Firstly, the feasibility of the proposed technique is investigated analytically. The basic field equations governing the behaviour of time-varying electromagnetic fields are presented. Secondly, the general formulation of the partial differential equations for the scalar and magnetic vector potentials are derived. To investigate the feasibility of this technique, numerical studies are conducted using a finite element method based software. To sense the pick-up voltages a novel coil configuration (xy coil pairs) is proposed. Two-dimensional numerical geometry with a 16-element linear phased array (LPA) ultrasonic transducer (1 MHz) and a conductive body (breast fat) with five tumorous tissues is modeled. The static magnetic field is assumed to be 4 Tesla. To understand the performance of the imaging system, the sensitivity matrix is analyzed. The sensitivity matrix is obtained for two different locations of LPA transducer with eleven steering angles from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] at intervals of [Formula: see text]. The characteristics of the imaging system are shown with the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the sensitivity matrix. The images are reconstructed with the truncated SVD algorithm. The signal-to-noise ratio in measurements is assumed 80 d

  12. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography using magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zengin, Reyhan; Güneri Gençer, Nevzat

    2016-08-01

    In this study, magnetic field measurement technique is investigated to image the electrical conductivity properties of biological tissues using Lorentz forces. This technique is based on electrical current induction using ultrasound together with an applied static magnetic field. The magnetic field intensity generated due to induced currents is measured using two coil configurations, namely, a rectangular loop coil and a novel xy coil pair. A time-varying voltage is picked-up and recorded while the acoustic wave propagates along its path. The forward problem of this imaging modality is defined as calculation of the pick-up voltages due to a given acoustic excitation and known body properties. Firstly, the feasibility of the proposed technique is investigated analytically. The basic field equations governing the behaviour of time-varying electromagnetic fields are presented. Secondly, the general formulation of the partial differential equations for the scalar and magnetic vector potentials are derived. To investigate the feasibility of this technique, numerical studies are conducted using a finite element method based software. To sense the pick-up voltages a novel coil configuration (xy coil pairs) is proposed. Two-dimensional numerical geometry with a 16-element linear phased array (LPA) ultrasonic transducer (1 MHz) and a conductive body (breast fat) with five tumorous tissues is modeled. The static magnetic field is assumed to be 4 Tesla. To understand the performance of the imaging system, the sensitivity matrix is analyzed. The sensitivity matrix is obtained for two different locations of LPA transducer with eleven steering angles from -{{25}\\circ} to {{25}\\circ} at intervals of {{5}\\circ} . The characteristics of the imaging system are shown with the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the sensitivity matrix. The images are reconstructed with the truncated SVD algorithm. The signal-to-noise ratio in measurements is assumed 80 dB. Simulation studies

  13. Acousto-electrical speckle pattern in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Destrempes, François; Mari, Jean-Martial; Souchon, Rémi; Catheline, Stefan; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril; Cloutier, Guy

    2015-05-07

    Ultrasound speckle is a granular texture pattern appearing in ultrasound imaging. It can be used to distinguish tissues and identify pathologies. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography is an ultrasound-based medical imaging technique of the tissue electrical conductivity. It is based on the application of an ultrasound wave in a medium placed in a magnetic field and on the measurement of the induced electric current due to Lorentz force. Similarly to ultrasound imaging, we hypothesized that a speckle could be observed with Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography imaging. In this study, we first assessed the theoretical similarity between the measured signals in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography and in ultrasound imaging modalities. We then compared experimentally the signal measured in both methods using an acoustic and electrical impedance interface. Finally, a bovine muscle sample was imaged using the two methods. Similar speckle patterns were observed. This indicates the existence of an 'acousto-electrical speckle' in the Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography with spatial characteristics driven by the acoustic parameters but due to electrical impedance inhomogeneities instead of acoustic ones as is the case of ultrasound imaging.

  14. Acousto-electrical speckle pattern in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Destrempes, François; Mari, Jean-Martial; Souchon, Rémi; Catheline, Stefan; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril; Cloutier, Guy

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasound speckle is a granular texture pattern appearing in ultrasound imaging. It can be used to distinguish tissues and identify pathologies. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography is an ultrasound-based medical imaging technique of the tissue electrical conductivity. It is based on the application of an ultrasound wave in a medium placed in a magnetic field and on the measurement of the induced electric current due to Lorentz force. Similarly to ultrasound imaging, we hypothesized that a speckle could be observed with Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography imaging. In this study, we first assessed the theoretical similarity between the measured signals in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography and in ultrasound imaging modalities. We then compared experimentally the signal measured in both methods using an acoustic and electrical impedance interface. Finally, a bovine muscle sample was imaged using the two methods. Similar speckle patterns were observed. This indicates the existence of an ‘acousto-electrical speckle’ in the Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography with spatial characteristics driven by the acoustic parameters but due to electrical impedance inhomogeneities instead of acoustic ones as is the case of ultrasound imaging.

  15. Modeling laser wakefield accelerators in a Lorentz boosted frame

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D.P.

    2010-09-15

    Modeling of laser-plasma wakefield accelerators in an optimal frame of reference [1] is shown to produce orders of magnitude speed-up of calculations from first principles. Obtaining these speedups requires mitigation of a high frequency instability that otherwise limits effectiveness in addition to solutions for handling data input and output in a relativistically boosted frame of reference. The observed high-frequency instability is mitigated using methods including an electromagnetic solver with tunable coefficients, its extension to accomodate Perfectly Matched Layers and Friedman's damping algorithms, as well as an efficient large bandwidth digital filter. It is shown that choosing theframe of the wake as the frame of reference allows for higher levels of filtering and damping than is possible in other frames for the same accuracy. Detailed testing also revealed serendipitously the existence of a singular time step at which the instability level is minimized, independently of numerical dispersion, thus indicating that the observed instability may not be due primarily to Numerical Cerenkov as has been conjectured. The techniques developed for Cerenkov mitigation prove nonetheless to be very efficient at controlling the instability. Using these techniques, agreement at the percentage level is demonstrated between simulations using different frames of reference, with speedups reaching two orders of magnitude for a 0.1 GeV class stages. The method then allows direct and efficient full-scale modeling of deeply depleted laser-plasma stages of 10 GeV-1 TeV for the first time, verifying the scaling of plasma accelerators to very high energies. Over 4, 5 and 6 orders of magnitude speedup is achieved for the modeling of 10 GeV, 100 GeV and 1 TeV class stages, respectively.

  16. Trouble with the Lorentz law of force: incompatibility with special relativity and momentum conservation.

    PubMed

    Mansuripur, Masud

    2012-05-11

    The Lorentz law of force is the fifth pillar of classical electrodynamics, the other four being Maxwell's macroscopic equations. The Lorentz law is the universal expression of the force exerted by electromagnetic fields on a volume containing a distribution of electrical charges and currents. If electric and magnetic dipoles also happen to be present in a material medium, they are traditionally treated by expressing the corresponding polarization and magnetization distributions in terms of bound-charge and bound-current densities, which are subsequently added to free-charge and free-current densities, respectively. In this way, Maxwell's macroscopic equations are reduced to his microscopic equations, and the Lorentz law is expected to provide a precise expression of the electromagnetic force density on material bodies at all points in space and time. This Letter presents incontrovertible theoretical evidence of the incompatibility of the Lorentz law with the fundamental tenets of special relativity. We argue that the Lorentz law must be abandoned in favor of a more general expression of the electromagnetic force density, such as the one discovered by Einstein and Laub in 1908. Not only is the Einstein-Laub formula consistent with special relativity, it also solves the long-standing problem of "hidden momentum" in classical electrodynamics.

  17. Imaging of Shear Waves Induced by Lorentz Force in Soft Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasland-Mongrain, P.; Souchon, R.; Cartellier, F.; Zorgani, A.; Chapelon, J. Y.; Lafon, C.; Catheline, S.

    2014-07-01

    This study presents the first observation of elastic shear waves generated in soft solids using a dynamic electromagnetic field. The first and second experiments of this study showed that Lorentz force can induce a displacement in a soft phantom and that this displacement was detectable by an ultrasound scanner using speckle-tracking algorithms. For a 100 mT magnetic field and a 10 ms, 100 mA peak-to-peak electrical burst, the displacement reached a magnitude of 1 μm. In the third experiment, we showed that Lorentz force can induce shear waves in a phantom. A physical model using electromagnetic and elasticity equations was proposed. Computer simulations were in good agreement with experimental results. The shear waves induced by Lorentz force were used in the last experiment to estimate the elasticity of a swine liver sample.

  18. Numerical investigation on feedback control of flow around an oscillating hydrofoil by Lorentz force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zong-Kai; Zhou, Ben-Mou; Liu, Hui-Xing; Ji, Yan-Liang; Huang, Ya-Dong

    2013-06-01

    In order to improve the hydrodynamic characteristics of a hydrofoil (NACA0012), this paper investigates an oscillating hydrofoil immersed in seawater (an electrically poorly conducting fluid) with feedback control of electromagnetic force (Lorentz force). This method is used in the iterative process, by forecasting the location of boundary layer separation points and attack angle at the next time step and figuring out the optimal force distribution function based on these parameters, then returns to the current time step and applies the optimal force onto the leeside to control the flow separation. Based on the basic flow governing equations, the flow field structures, lift evolutions and energy consumptions (the input impulse of Lorentz force) have been numerically investigated. Numerical results show that with this control, the flow separation could be fully suppressed. Meanwhile, the lift increases dramatically and oscillation is suppressed successfully. Furthermore, under similar lift improvement and control effects, the feedback control optimal ratio is 72.58%.

  19. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-May, Agustín Leobardo; Soler-Balcazar, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Leal, Héctor; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Vigueras-Zuñiga, Marco Osvaldo; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases). PMID:27563912

  20. Recent Advances of MEMS Resonators for Lorentz Force Based Magnetic Field Sensors: Design, Applications and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Herrera-May, Agustín Leobardo; Soler-Balcazar, Juan Carlos; Vázquez-Leal, Héctor; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Vigueras-Zuñiga, Marco Osvaldo; Aguilera-Cortés, Luz Antonio

    2016-08-24

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators have allowed the development of magnetic field sensors with potential applications such as biomedicine, automotive industry, navigation systems, space satellites, telecommunications and non-destructive testing. We present a review of recent magnetic field sensors based on MEMS resonators, which operate with Lorentz force. These sensors have a compact structure, wide measurement range, low energy consumption, high sensitivity and suitable performance. The design methodology, simulation tools, damping sources, sensing techniques and future applications of magnetic field sensors are discussed. The design process is fundamental in achieving correct selection of the operation principle, sensing technique, materials, fabrication process and readout systems of the sensors. In addition, the description of the main sensing systems and challenges of the MEMS sensors are discussed. To develop the best devices, researches of their mechanical reliability, vacuum packaging, design optimization and temperature compensation circuits are needed. Future applications will require multifunctional sensors for monitoring several physical parameters (e.g., magnetic field, acceleration, angular ratio, humidity, temperature and gases).

  1. Experimental Demonstration of a Synthetic Lorentz Force by Using Radiation Pressure.

    PubMed

    Šantić, N; Dubček, T; Aumiler, D; Buljan, H; Ban, T

    2015-09-02

    Synthetic magnetism in cold atomic gases opened the doors to many exciting novel physical systems and phenomena. Ubiquitous are the methods used for the creation of synthetic magnetic fields. They include rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates employing the analogy between the Coriolis and the Lorentz force, and laser-atom interactions employing the analogy between the Berry phase and the Aharonov-Bohm phase. Interestingly, radiation pressure - being one of the most common forces induced by light - has not yet been used for synthetic magnetism. We experimentally demonstrate a synthetic Lorentz force, based on the radiation pressure and the Doppler effect, by observing the centre-of-mass motion of a cold atomic cloud. The force is perpendicular to the velocity of the cold atomic cloud, and zero for the cloud at rest. Our novel concept is straightforward to implement in a large volume, for a broad range of velocities, and can be extended to different geometries.

  2. Experimental Demonstration of a Synthetic Lorentz Force by Using Radiation Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Šantić, N.; Dubček, T.; Aumiler, D.; Buljan, H.; Ban, T.

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic magnetism in cold atomic gases opened the doors to many exciting novel physical systems and phenomena. Ubiquitous are the methods used for the creation of synthetic magnetic fields. They include rapidly rotating Bose-Einstein condensates employing the analogy between the Coriolis and the Lorentz force, and laser-atom interactions employing the analogy between the Berry phase and the Aharonov-Bohm phase. Interestingly, radiation pressure - being one of the most common forces induced by light - has not yet been used for synthetic magnetism. We experimentally demonstrate a synthetic Lorentz force, based on the radiation pressure and the Doppler effect, by observing the centre-of-mass motion of a cold atomic cloud. The force is perpendicular to the velocity of the cold atomic cloud, and zero for the cloud at rest. Our novel concept is straightforward to implement in a large volume, for a broad range of velocities, and can be extended to different geometries. PMID:26330327

  3. Frequency spectra of magnetostrictive and Lorentz forces generated in ferromagnetic materials by a CW excited EMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouge, C.; Lhémery, A.; Aristégui, C.

    2014-04-01

    Magnetostriction arises in ferromagnetic materials subjected to magnetization, e.g., when an EMAT (Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer) is used to generate ultrasonic waves. In such a case, the magnetostriction force must be taken into account as a transduction process that adds up to the Lorentz force. When the static magnetic field is high compared to the dynamic field, both forces are driven by the excitation frequency. For lower static relative values of the magnetic fields, the Lorentz force comprises both the excitation frequency and its first harmonic. In this work, a model is derived to predict the frequency content of the magnetostrictive force that comprises several harmonics. The discrete frequency spectrum strongly depends on both the static field and the relative amplitude of the dynamic field. The only material input data needed to predict it is the curve of macroscopic magnetostrictive strain that can be measured in the direction of an imposed magnetic field. Then, the various frequency-dependent distributions of Lorentz and magnetostriction body forces can be transformed into equivalent surface stresses. Examples of computation are given for different static and dynamic magnetic fields to study their influence on the frequency content of waves generated in ferromagnetic materials.

  4. Performance enhancement of a Lorentz force velocimeter using a buoyancy-compensated magnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, R.; Leineweber, J.; Resagk, C.

    2015-07-01

    Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) is a highly feasible method for measuring flow rate in a pipe or a duct. This method has been established for liquid metal flows but also for electrolytes such as saltwater. A decrease in electrical conductivity of the medium causes a decrease of the Lorentz force which needs to be resolved, affecting the accuracy of the measurement. We use an electrical force compensation (EFC) balance for the determination of the tiny force signals in a test channel filled with electrolyte solution. It is used in a 90°-rotated orientation with a magnet system hanging vertically on its load bar. The thin coupling elements of its parallel guiding system limit the mass of the magnets to 1 kg. To overcome this restriction, which limits the magnetic flux density and hence the Lorentz forces, a weight force compensation mechanism is developed. Therefore, different methods such as air bearing are conceivable, but for the elimination of additional horizontal force components which would disturb the force signal, only compensation by lift force provided by buoyancy is reasonable. We present a swimming body setup that will allow larger magnet systems than before, because a large amount of the weight force will be compensated by this lift force. Thus the implementation of this concept has to be made with respect to hydrodynamical and mechanical stability. This is necessary to avoid overturning of the swimming body setup and to prevent inelastic deformation. Additionally, the issue will be presented and discussed whether thermal convection around the lifting body diminishes the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) significantly or not.

  5. Lorentz force and radiation pressure on a spherical cloak

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Hongsheng; Wu, B.-I.; Zhang Baile; Luo Yu; Zhang Jingjing; Ran Lixin; Kemp, Brandon A.

    2009-07-15

    The mechanical behavior of a transformation based spherical cloak under wave illumination is derived. We show that the equatorial region of the cloak is subject to much higher stress than the polar regions, where the polar axis is defined along the wave propagation direction. These forces do not exist before transformation but stem from the squeezed electromagnetic space. The trajectory of the ray can be interpreted as a result of the recoil force that the cloak exerts upon the ray. The total radiation pressure on an ideal cloak is shown to be exactly zero, effecting a stationary cloak.

  6. Local Lorentz force flowmeter at a continuous caster model using a new generation multicomponent force and torque sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Daniel; Schleichert, Jan; Karcher, Christian; Fröhlich, Thomas; Wondrak, Thomas; Timmel, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Lorentz force velocimetry is a non-invasive velocity measurement technique for electrical conductive liquids like molten steel. In this technique, the metal flow interacts with a static magnetic field generating eddy currents which, in turn, produce flow-braking Lorentz forces within the fluid. These forces are proportional to the electrical conductivity and to the velocity of the melt. Due to Newton’s third law, a counter force of the same magnitude acts on the source of the applied static magnetic field which is in our case a permanent magnet. In this paper we will present a new multicomponent sensor for the local Lorentz force flowmeter (L2F2) which is able to measure simultaneously all three components of the force as well as all three components of the torque. Therefore, this new sensor is capable of accessing all three velocity components at the same time in the region near the wall. In order to demonstrate the potential of this new sensor, it is used to identify the 3-dimensional velocity field near the wide face of the mold of a continuous caster model available at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. As model melt, the eutectic alloy GaInSn is used.

  7. An Experimental Study of Electromagnetic Lorentz Force and Rail Recoil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    MOTIVATION For over 200 years, electromagnetic forces have been extensively researched. During 1802 , Gian Domenico Romagnosi noticed that a magnetic...C. Woods, “Comment: Origin, location, magnitude and consequences of recoil in the plasma armature railgun,” Inst. Elect. Eng. Proc. Sci. Meas...22, pp. 849-850, 1989. [26] A. E. Witalis, “Origin, location, magnitude and consequences of recoil in the plasma armature railgun,” Inst. Elect

  8. Relativistic version of the Feynman-Dyson-Hughes derivation of the Lorentz force law and Maxwell's homogeneous equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essén, Hanno; Nordmark, Arne B.

    2016-09-01

    The canonical Poisson bracket algebra of four-dimensional relativistic mechanics is used to derive the equation of motion for a charged particle, with the Lorentz force, and the homogeneous Maxwell equations.

  9. Finite-difference analysis of plasmon-induced forces of metal nano-clusters by the Lorentz force formulation.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masafumi

    2010-12-20

    We analyze light-induced forces on metal nano-spheres by using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method with the Lorentz force formulation. Convergent analysis of the force on metal nano-particle clusters has been achieved by integrating the Lorentz and the Coulomb forces over the volume of the metal particles. Comparison to the Mie theory of radiation pressure on metal spheres under a plane wave illumination has verified rigorously the accuracy of the numerical method. We also analyze separate two metal spheres in close proximity and the results of the induced forces are compared to those in previous publications. The present method allows analysis of forces on various irregular structures; we apply the method to touching metal spheres, forming a simple cluster with a slight deformation at the contact point, to analyze the forces induced by the plasmonic resonance of the clusters. We show that the fundamental resonance modes, which newly appear in an infrared range when spheres are touching, exhibit strong binding forces within the clusters. Based on the numerical analyses we identify the resonance modes and evaluate quantitatively the infrared-induced forces on metal nano-sphere clusters.

  10. Velocity measurements and concentration field visualizations in copper electrolysis under the influence of Lorentz forces and buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weier, T.; Cierpka, C.; Huller, J.; Gerbeth, G.

    2006-12-01

    Velocity measurements and shadowgraph visualizations for copper electrolysis under the influence of a magnetic field are reported. Experiments in a rectangular cell show the expected strong correlation between flow features and limiting current density. The flow can be understood as driven by the interplay of Lorentz force and buoyancy. For a cylindrical cell with only slightly non-parallel electric and magnetic field lines, the presence and importance of the Lorentz force is demonstrated by velocity measurements. Figs 6, Refs 13.

  11. Lorentz Force Flowmeter for Liquid Aluminum: Laboratory Experiments and Plant Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Yurii; Karcher, Christian; Thess, André

    2011-06-01

    This article aims to demonstrate that molten metal flow at a high temperature can be measured effectively in a contactless manner by using external direct current magnetic fields. The device applied in the present work is termed Lorentz force flowmeter (LFF) and is based on exposing the flow to a magnet system and measuring the drag force acting on it. Two series of measurements are reported. In the first series, we perform a model experiment in the laboratory using the eutectic alloy GaInSn, which is liquid at room temperature. The second series of measurements is devoted to two plant tests on flow measurement of a liquid aluminum alloy. In both tests, the force acting on the magnet system is measured that is equal to the Lorentz force acting on the flow. To generalize our results, we also derive the scaling law that relates the force acting on a localized magnet system to the flow rate of a fluid with arbitrary electrical conductivity. This law shows that LFF, if properly designed, has a wide range of potential applications in ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy.

  12. Characterization and Comparison of Control Units for Piezo Actuators to be used for Lorentz Force Compensation inth ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, Sampriti; Pilipenko, Roman; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Superconducting accelerators, such as the International Linear Collider (ILC), rely on very high Q accelerating cavities to achieve high electric fields at low RF power. Such cavities have very narrow resonances: a few kHz with a 1.3GHz resonance frequency for the ILC. Several mechanical factors cause tune shifts much larger than this: pressure variations in the liquid helium bath; microphonics from pumps and other mechanical devices; and for a pulsed machine such as the ILC, Lorentz force detuning (pressure from the contained RF field). Simple passive stiffening is limited by many manufacturing and material considerations. Therefore, active tuning using piezo actuators is needed. Here we study a supply for their operation. Since commercial power amplifiers are expensive, we analyzed the characteristics of four power amplifiers: (iPZD) built by Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (Sezione di Pisa); and a DC-DC converter power supply built in Fermilab (Piezo Master); and two commercial amplifiers, Piezosystem jena and Piezomechanik. This paper presents an analysis and characterization of these amplifiers to understand the cost benefit and reliability when using in a large scale, pulsed beam accelerator like the ILC.

  13. Experimental Demonstration of Synthetic Lorentz Force on Cold Atoms by Using Radiation Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Ticijana; Santic, Neven; Dubcek, Tena; Aumiler, Damir; Buljan, Hrvoje

    2015-05-01

    The quest for synthetic magnetism in quantum degenerate atomic gases is motivated by producing controllable quantum emulators, which could mimic complex quantum systems such as interacting electrons in magnetic fields. Experiments on synthetic magnetic fields for neutral atoms have enabled realization of the Hall effect, Harper and Haldane Hamiltonians, and other intriguing topological effects. Here we present the first demonstration of a synthetic Lorentz force, based on the radiation pressure and the Doppler effect, in cold atomic gases captured in a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT). Synthetic Lorentz force on cold atomic cloud is measured by recording the cloud trajectory. The observed force is perpendicular to the cloud velocity, and it is zero for the atomic cloud at rest. The proposed concept is straightforward to implement in a large volume and different geometries, it is applicable for a broad range of velocities, and it can be realized for different atomic species. The experiment is based on the theoretical proposal introduced in. This work was supported by the UKF Grant No. 5/13 and Croatian MZOS.

  14. Near-wall measurements of the bubble- and Lorentz-force-driven convection at gas-evolving electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baczyzmalski, Dominik; Weier, Tom; Kähler, Christian J.; Cierpka, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Chemical energy storage systems, e.g., in the form of hydrogen or methanol, have a great potential for the establishment of volatile renewable energy sources due to the large energy density. The efficiency of hydrogen production through water electrolysis is, however, limited by gas bubbles evolving at the electrode's surface and can be enhanced by an accelerated bubble detachment. In order to characterize the complex multi-phase flow near the electrode, simultaneous measurements of the fluid velocities and the size and trajectories of hydrogen bubbles were performed in a water electrolyzer. The liquid phase velocity was measured by PIV/PTV, while shadowgraphy was used to determine the bubble trajectories. Special measurement and evaluation techniques had to be applied as the measurement uncertainty is strongly affected by the high void fraction close to the wall. In particular, the application of an advanced PTV scheme allowed for more precise fluid velocity measurements closer to electrode. Based on these data, stability characteristics of the near-wall flow were evaluated and compared to that of a wall jet. PTV was used as well to investigate the effect of Lorentz forces on the near-wall fluid velocities. The results show a significantly increased wall parallel liquid phase velocity with increasing Lorentz forces. It is presumed that this enhances the detachment of hydrogen bubbles from the electrode surface and, consequently, decreases the fractional bubble coverage and improves the efficiency. In addition, the effect of large rising bubbles with path oscillations on the near-wall flow was investigated. These bubbles can have a strong impact on the mass transfer near the electrode and thus affect the performance of the process.

  15. A simple levitation system using wireless power supply system and Lorentz force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Koichi; Tanaka, Masako

    2016-09-01

    A new type of magnetic levitation mechanism has been proposed. The feature of this mechanism is using wireless power supply system and Lorentz forces for levitation. The stability of levitation is performed by passive control by magnetic flux configuration between permanent magnets and active control of electromagnets. In this paper, the concept of levitation mechanism is introduced, FEM analyses for levitation force and wireless power supply performance is examined. In concept two types of levitation systems which are different on the point of active control directions are introduced. In FEM analyses, the required current for levitation and the directions of generating forces are calculated. In the study of wireless power supply system, the required voltage for the levitation is expected. Finally the feasibility of the proposed levitation system will be verified.

  16. Modeling of an omni-directional electromagnetic acoustic transducer driven by the Lorentz force mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shen; Huang, Songling; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Wei

    2016-12-01

    The electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) are gaining much attention in recent years due to their non-contact operation in ultrasonic wave generation and reception in NDT field. Quite often the transduction efficiency of EMATs is low, so efforts are always necessary to gain a better understanding of their complex and multi-physics transduction mechanism. In this work, we focused on modeling of an omni-directional Lorentz force-based EMAT operating on an aluminum disk and containing a rounded meander coil to generate a pure Lamb wave mode. We introduced an approach to solve the underlying eddy current equations in cylindrical coordinates directly, and applied this approach to a multi-conductor electromagnetic model to investigate the skin and proximity effects. These effects existed both for the complete and incomplete equations. Then we built the omni-directional EMAT model composed of three sub-models and two geometries. The two-geometry structure made it possible to reduce the total number of elements. Time varying spatial distribution of the Lorentz force vector was plotted. Propagation velocity of the simulated wave packet was compared with the group velocity of desired S0 mode Lamb waves. Interaction of the waves with a slot defect with a depth of 50% thickness was studied. The response to high current excitation and dynamic magnetic field was also investigated.

  17. Embbeded dipolar vortices driven by Lorentz forces in a shallow liquid metal layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Cinthya G.; Cuevas, Sergio

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental and numerical study of the vortex pattern that results from the action of a localized Lorentz force in a thin liquid metal layer (GaInSn) contained in a square box. The fluid motion is generated by the interaction of a uniform D.C. current and a non-uniform magnetic field produced by square-shaped permanent magnet much smaller that the container. Unlike the simple vortex dipole created by a localized Lorentz force in a layer of electrolyte, a more complex vortex pattern is formed in a liquid metal layer. Experiments show the appearance of two ``embedded'' vortex dipoles with a quasi-stagnat zone in the region of highest magnetic field intensity. The observed pattern can be explained by noticing that the localized magnetic field acts as a magnetic obstacle for the imposed flow. Using the Ultrasonic Doppler Velocimetry technique, we obtained the velocity profiles along the symmetry axis. We developed a quasi-two-dimensional numerical model that takes into account the effect of the boundary layers adhered to the bottom wall, the Hartmann friction and the induced effects. Numerical simulations show a satisfactory qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental results. Work supported by CONACYT, Mexico under Project 131399. C. G. Lara acknowledges a grant from CONACYT.

  18. Self-similar expansion of solar coronal mass ejections: Implications for Lorentz self-force driving

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Prasad; Arunbabu, K. P.; Mauriya, Adwiteey; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2014-08-01

    We examine the propagation of several coronal mass ejections (CMEs) with well-observed flux rope signatures in the field of view of the SECCHI coronagraphs on board the STEREO satellites using the graduated cylindrical shell fitting method of Thernisien et al. We find that the manner in which they propagate is approximately self-similar; i.e., the ratio (κ) of the flux rope minor radius to its major radius remains approximately constant with time. We use this observation of self-similarity to draw conclusions regarding the local pitch angle (γ) of the flux rope magnetic field and the misalignment angle (χ) between the current density J and the magnetic field B. Our results suggest that the magnetic field and current configurations inside flux ropes deviate substantially from a force-free state in typical coronagraph fields of view, validating the idea of CMEs being driven by Lorentz self-forces.

  19. Effects of Hyperbolic Rotation in Minkowski Space on the Modeling of Plasma Accelerators in a Lorentz Boosted Frame

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D. P.

    2010-09-21

    Laser driven plasma accelerators promise much shorter particle accelerators but their development requires detailed simulations that challenge or exceed current capabilities. We report the first direct simulations of stages up to 1 TeV from simulations using a Lorentz boosted calculation frame resulting in a million times speedup, thanks to a frame boost as high as gamma = 1300. Effects of the hyperbolic rotation in Minkowski space resulting from the frame boost on the laser propagation in the plasma is shown to be key in the mitigation of a numerical instability that was limiting previous attempts.

  20. Hidden momentum in a hydrogen atom and the Lorentz-force law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filho, J. S. Oliveira; Saldanha, Pablo L.

    2015-11-01

    By using perturbation theory, we show that a hydrogen atom with magnetic moment due to the orbital angular momentum of the electron has so-called hidden momentum in the presence of an external electric field. This means that the atomic electronic cloud has a nonzero linear momentum in its center-of-mass rest frame due to a relativistic effect. This is completely analogous to the hidden momentum that a classical current loop has in the presence of an external electric field. We discuss how this effect is essential for the validity of the Lorentz-force law in quantum systems. We also connect our results to the long-standing Abraham-Minkowski debate about the momentum of light in material media.

  1. RAPID PENUMBRA AND LORENTZ FORCE CHANGES IN AN X1.0 SOLAR FLARE

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhe; Jiang, Yunchun; Yang, Jiayang; Yang, Bo; Bi, Yi

    2016-03-20

    We present observations of the violent changes in photospheric magnetic structures associated with an X1.1 flare, which occurred in a compact δ-configuration region in the following part of AR 11890 on 2013 November 8. In both central and peripheral penumbra regions of the small δ sunspot, these changes took place abruptly and permanently in the reverse direction during the flare: the inner/outer penumbra darkened/disappeared, where the magnetic fields became more horizontal/vertical. Particularly, the Lorentz force (LF) changes in the central/peripheral region had a downward/upward and inward direction, meaning that the local pressure from the upper atmosphere was enhanced/released. It indicates that the LF changes might be responsible for the penumbra changes. These observations can be well explained as the photospheric response to the coronal field reconstruction within the framework of the magnetic implosion theory and the back reaction model of flares.

  2. Light-induced dynamics in the Lorentz oscillator model with magnetic forces

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, W. M.; Rand, S. C.

    2010-07-15

    The classical Lorentz oscillator model of bound electron motion ordinarily excludes magnetic forces at nonrelativistic intensities for the simple reason that their magnitude is small. However, perturbative and numerical results show that when the v-vectorxB-vector term is retained, dynamically enhanced terms give rise to large amplitude, magnetically induced charge displacements at zero frequency and at twice the driving frequency in the Cartesian laboratory frame. Numerical simulations of electron motion are in accord with the predictions of perturbative theory for steady-state motion in the classical picture. Direct integration shows that magnetic response which is comparable to electric dipole response can arise in transparent dielectrics at optical frequencies. Parametric instability in the equations of motion is implicated as the source of rapid energy transfer from electric to magnetic motions by reduction of the equations to a complex Mathieu equation.

  3. Thermal and Lorentz force analysis of beryllium windows for a rectilinear muon cooling channel

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, T.; Stratakis, D.; Li, D.; Virostek, S.; Palmer, R. B.; Bowring, D.

    2015-05-03

    Reduction of the 6-dimensional phase-space of a muon beam by several orders of magnitude is a key requirement for a Muon Collider. Recently, a 12-stage rectilinear ionization cooling channel has been proposed to achieve that goal. The channel consists of a series of low frequency (325 MHz-650 MHz) normal conducting pillbox cavities, which are enclosed with thin beryllium windows (foils) to increase shunt impedance and give a higher field on-axis for a given amount of power. These windows are subject to ohmic heating from RF currents and Lorentz force from the EM field in the cavity, both of which will produce out of the plane displacements that can detune the cavity frequency. In this study, using the TEM3P code, we report on a detailed thermal and mechanical analysis for the actual Be windows used on a 325 MHz cavity in a vacuum ionization cooling rectilinear channel for a Muon Collider.

  4. Thermal and Lorentz Force Analysis of Beryllium Windows for the Rectilinear Muon Cooling Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Tianhuan; Li, D.; Virostek, S.; Palmer, R.; Stratakis, Diktys; Bowring, D.

    2015-06-01

    Reduction of the 6-dimensional phase-space of a muon beam by several orders of magnitude is a key requirement for a Muon Collider. Recently, a 12-stage rectilinear ionization cooling channel has been proposed to achieve that goal. The channel consists of a series of low frequency (325 MHz-650 MHz) normal conducting pillbox cavities, which are enclosed with thin beryllium windows (foils) to increase shunt impedance and give a higher field on-axis for a given amount of power. These windows are subject to ohmic heating from RF currents and Lorentz force from the EM field in the cavity, both of which will produce out of the plane displacements that can detune the cavity frequency. In this study, using the TEM3P code, we report on a detailed thermal and mechanical analysis for the actual Be windows used on a 325 MHz cavity in a vacuum ionization cooling rectilinear channel for a Muon Collider.

  5. Design and simulation of superconducting Lorentz Force Electrical Impedance Tomography (LFEIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Boyang; Fu, Lin; Geng, Jianzhao; Zhang, Xiuchang; Zhang, Heng; Dong, Qihuan; Li, Chao; Li, Jing; Coombs, T. A.

    2016-05-01

    Lorentz Force Electrical Impedance Tomography (LFEIT) is a hybrid diagnostic scanner with strong capability for biological imaging, particularly in cancer and haemorrhages detection. This paper presents the design and simulation of a novel combination: a superconducting magnet together with LFEIT system. Superconducting magnets can generate magnetic field with high intensity and homogeneity, which could significantly enhance the imaging performance. The modelling of superconducting magnets was carried out using Finite Element Method (FEM) package, COMSOL Multiphysics, which was based on Partial Differential Equation (PDE) model with H-formulation coupling B-dependent critical current density and bulk approximation. The mathematical model for LFEIT system was built based on the theory of magneto-acoustic effect. The magnetic field properties from magnet design were imported into the LFEIT model. The basic imaging of electrical signal was developed using MATLAB codes. The LFEIT model simulated two samples located in three different magnetic fields with varying magnetic strength and homogeneity.

  6. Optical Characterization of Lorentz Force Based CMOS-MEMS Magnetic Field Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, John Ojur; Ahmad, Farooq; Khir, M. Haris Bin Md; Hamid, Nor Hisham Bin

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic field sensors are becoming an essential part of everyday life due to the improvements in their sensitivities and resolutions, while at the same time they have become compact, smaller in size and economical. In the work presented herein a Lorentz force based CMOS-MEMS magnetic field sensor is designed, fabricated and optically characterized. The sensor is fabricated by using CMOS thin layers and dry post micromachining is used to release the device structure and finally the sensor chip is packaged in DIP. The sensor consists of a shuttle which is designed to resonate in the lateral direction (first mode of resonance). In the presence of an external magnetic field, the Lorentz force actuates the shuttle in the lateral direction and the amplitude of resonance is measured using an optical method. The differential change in the amplitude of the resonating shuttle shows the strength of the external magnetic field. The resonance frequency of the shuttle is determined to be 8164 Hz experimentally and from the resonance curve, the quality factor and damping ratio are obtained. In an open environment, the quality factor and damping ratio are found to be 51.34 and 0.00973 respectively. The sensitivity of the sensor is determined in static mode to be 0.034 µm/mT when a current of 10 mA passes through the shuttle, while it is found to be higher at resonance with a value of 1.35 µm/mT at 8 mA current. Finally, the resolution of the sensor is found to be 370.37 µT. PMID:26225972

  7. Optical Characterization of Lorentz Force Based CMOS-MEMS Magnetic Field Sensor.

    PubMed

    Dennis, John Ojur; Ahmad, Farooq; Khir, M Haris Bin Md; Bin Hamid, Nor Hisham

    2015-07-27

    Magnetic field sensors are becoming an essential part of everyday life due to the improvements in their sensitivities and resolutions, while at the same time they have become compact, smaller in size and economical. In the work presented herein a Lorentz force based CMOS-MEMS magnetic field sensor is designed, fabricated and optically characterized. The sensor is fabricated by using CMOS thin layers and dry post micromachining is used to release the device structure and finally the sensor chip is packaged in DIP. The sensor consists of a shuttle which is designed to resonate in the lateral direction (first mode of resonance). In the presence of an external magnetic field, the Lorentz force actuates the shuttle in the lateral direction and the amplitude of resonance is measured using an optical method. The differential change in the amplitude of the resonating shuttle shows the strength of the external magnetic field. The resonance frequency of the shuttle is determined to be 8164 Hz experimentally and from the resonance curve, the quality factor and damping ratio are obtained. In an open environment, the quality factor and damping ratio are found to be 51.34 and 0.00973 respectively. The sensitivity of the sensor is determined in static mode to be 0.034 µm/mT when a current of 10 mA passes through the shuttle, while it is found to be higher at resonance with a value of 1.35 µm/mT at 8 mA current. Finally, the resolution of the sensor is found to be 370.37 µT.

  8. Lorentz Force on Sodium and Chlorine Ions in a Salt Water Solution Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luca, R.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity v[subscript A] under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B[subscript 0], an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force…

  9. Influence of the flow profile to Lorentz force velocimetry for weakly conducting fluids—an experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederhold, A.; Ebert, R.; Weidner, M.; Halbedel, B.; Fröhlich, T.; Resagk, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) is a highly feasible contactless method for measuring flow rate in a pipe or in a channel. This method has been established for liquid metal flows but also for weakly conducting electrolytes where the Lorentz force amplitudes are typically six orders smaller than the ones from liquid metal flows. Due to an increased resolution of the Lorentz force measurements which was the main focus of research in the last years, now it is possible to investigate the influence of the flow profile on the amplitude of the Lorentz force. Even if there is a semi-theoretical approach an experimental validation is still outstanding. Therefore we have tested symmetric and asymmetric flow profiles to test the LFV for weakly conducting fluids for typical industrial flows. Salt water has been used as a test electrolyte with constant values of the electrical conductivity from 0.035 to 20 S m-1 and of the flow velocity in a range of 0.5-3 m s-1. We confirmed by extensive measurements that LFV is a suitable method for flow measurements even for different flow profiles within 5% measurement uncertainty. For a wide range of applications in research and industry the LFV should be not sensitive to various flow profiles.

  10. An Exciting Experiment for Pre-Engineering and Introductory Physics Students: Creating a DC Motor Using the Lorentz Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq N.; Boehm, Manfred H.; Bushey, Ryan K.

    2008-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have been demonstrated in some instances to be difficult or uninteresting to students at the collegiate level. We have developed a laboratory that introduces the concept of the Lorentz force and allows students to build a non-traditional DC motor out of easily acquired materials. Basic electricity and magnetism…

  11. Variable Acceleration Force Calibration System (VACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhew, Ray D.; Parker, Peter A.; Johnson, Thomas H.; Landman, Drew

    2014-01-01

    Conventionally, force balances have been calibrated manually, using a complex system of free hanging precision weights, bell cranks, and/or other mechanical components. Conventional methods may provide sufficient accuracy in some instances, but are often quite complex and labor-intensive, requiring three to four man-weeks to complete each full calibration. To ensure accuracy, gravity-based loading is typically utilized. However, this often causes difficulty when applying loads in three simultaneous, orthogonal axes. A complex system of levers, cranks, and cables must be used, introducing increased sources of systematic error, and significantly increasing the time and labor intensity required to complete the calibration. One aspect of the VACS is a method wherein the mass utilized for calibration is held constant, and the acceleration is changed to thereby generate relatively large forces with relatively small test masses. Multiple forces can be applied to a force balance without changing the test mass, and dynamic forces can be applied by rotation or oscillating acceleration. If rotational motion is utilized, a mass is rigidly attached to a force balance, and the mass is exposed to a rotational field. A large force can be applied by utilizing a large rotational velocity. A centrifuge or rotating table can be used to create the rotational field, and fixtures can be utilized to position the force balance. The acceleration may also be linear. For example, a table that moves linearly and accelerates in a sinusoidal manner may also be utilized. The test mass does not have to move in a path that is parallel to the ground, and no re-leveling is therefore required. Balance deflection corrections may be applied passively by monitoring the orientation of the force balance with a three-axis accelerometer package. Deflections are measured during each test run, and adjustments with respect to the true applied load can be made during the post-processing stage. This paper will

  12. SENSITIVITY OF HELIOSEISMIC TRAVEL TIMES TO THE IMPOSITION OF A LORENTZ FORCE LIMITER IN COMPUTATIONAL HELIOSEISMOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Hamed; Cally, Paul S.

    2014-02-20

    The rapid exponential increase in the Alfvén wave speed with height above the solar surface presents a serious challenge to physical modeling of the effects of magnetic fields on solar oscillations, as it introduces a significant Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy time-step constraint for explicit numerical codes. A common approach adopted in computational helioseismology, where long simulations in excess of 10 hr (hundreds of wave periods) are often required, is to cap the Alfvén wave speed by artificially modifying the momentum equation when the ratio between the Lorentz and hydrodynamic forces becomes too large. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the Alfvén wave speed plays a critical role in the MHD mode conversion process, particularly in determining the reflection height of the upwardly propagating helioseismic fast wave. Using numerical simulations of helioseismic wave propagation in constant inclined (relative to the vertical) magnetic fields we demonstrate that the imposition of such artificial limiters significantly affects time-distance travel times unless the Alfvén wave-speed cap is chosen comfortably in excess of the horizontal phase speeds under investigation.

  13. Drain Current Modulation of a Single Drain MOSFET by Lorentz Force for Magnetic Sensing Application

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Prasenjit; Chow, Hwang-Cherng; Feng, Wu-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a detailed analysis of the drain current modulation of a single-drain normal-gate n channel metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (n-MOSFET) under an on-chip magnetic field. A single-drain n-MOSFET has been fabricated and placed in the center of a square-shaped metal loop which generates the on-chip magnetic field. The proposed device designed is much smaller in size with respect to the metal loop, which ensures that the generated magnetic field is approximately uniform. The change of drain current and change of bulk current per micron device width has been measured. The result shows that the difference drain current is about 145 µA for the maximum applied magnetic field. Such changes occur from the applied Lorentz force to push out the carriers from the channel. Based on the drain current difference, the change in effective mobility has been detected up to 4.227%. Furthermore, a detailed investigation reveals that the device behavior is quite different in subthreshold and saturation region. A change of 50.24 µA bulk current has also been measured. Finally, the device has been verified for use as a magnetic sensor with sensitivity 4.084% (29.6 T−1), which is very effective as compared to other previously reported works for a single device. PMID:27589747

  14. The initial transient of natural convection during copper electrolysis in the presence of an opposing Lorentz force: Current dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xuegeng; Mühlenhoff, Sascha; Nikrityuk, Petr A.; Eckert, Kerstin

    2013-03-01

    Magnetic fields are well-established in electrochemistry as an attractive tool to improve both the quality of the deposit as well as the deposition rate. The key mechanism is a mass transfer enhancement by Lorentz-force-driven convection. However, during electrolysis this convection interacts with buoyancy-driven convection, which arises from concentration differences, in a sometimes intriguing way. In the case of a Lorentz force opposing buoyancy, this is due to the growth of a bubble-like zone of less-concentrated cupric ion solution at the lower part of the vertical cathode when copper electrolysis is performed. If buoyancy is strong enough to compete with the Lorentz force, this zone rises along the cathode and causes surprisingly unsteady initial transient behaviour. We explore this initial transient under galvanostatic conditions by analyzing the development of the concentration and velocity boundary layers obtained by Mach-Zehnder interferometry and particle image velocimetry. Particular attention is also paid to higher current densities above the limiting current, obtained from potentiodynamic measurements, at which a chaotic advection takes place. The results are compared by scaling analysis.

  15. Mechanical characterization and modelling of Lorentz force based MEMS magnetic field sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkotsis, P.; Lara-Castro, M.; López-Huerta, F.; Herrera-May, A. L.; Raskin, J.-P.

    2015-10-01

    In this work we present experimental results from dynamic and static tests on miniature magnetic field sensors which are based on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technologies. These MEMS magnetometers were fabricated on SOI wafers using Si bulk micromachining techniques and they operate at the first resonant frequency under the action of the Lorentz force which arises when a current flows through them in the presence of an external magnetic field. Sensing is based on piezoresistive principles and high sensitivity is expected from devices that show high total quality factors Qtot. We investigate here the energy loss mechanisms and the temperature rise due to Joule heating effects in the resonators of the magnetometers by performing tests both in air and under vacuum conditions. Testing was performed using laser Doppler Vibrometry and white light interferometry. At each pressure different driving currents have been applied and Qtot was extracted. It is found that Qtot varies with pressure between two limiting values: a low one in air which was between 17 and 500 for the tested devices and a high one in vacuum which in the case of one of our devices was equal to 2800. The amplitude of the applied current is also affecting the Q value at a certain pressure due to the rise of thermal stress in the resonating structures. The sensitivity of the sensors in air was experimentally measured using a Helmholtz coil and an oscilloscope and values between 72 mV T-1 and 513 mV T-1 were obtained from the tested devices. We further attempt to estimate the temperature rise in the devices due to Joule heating effects by combining the topography scans which were experimentally obtained with results from thermomechanical analysis of the sensors using Finite Element Modelling.

  16. Magnetic field effects on the vestibular system: calculation of the pressure on the cupula due to ionic current-induced Lorentz force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, A.; Glover, P. M.; Li, Y.; Mian, O. S.; Day, B. L.

    2012-07-01

    Large static magnetic fields may be employed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). At high magnetic field strengths (usually from about 3 T and above) it is possible for humans to perceive a number of effects. One such effect is mild vertigo. Recently, Roberts et al (2011 Current Biology 21 1635-40) proposed a Lorentz-force mechanism resulting from the ionic currents occurring naturally in the endolymph of the vestibular system. In the present work a more detailed calculation of the forces and resulting pressures in the vestibular system is carried out using a numerical model. Firstly, realistic 3D finite element conductivity and fluid maps of the utricle and a single semi-circular canal containing the current sources (dark cells) and sinks (hair cells) of the utricle and ampulla were constructed. Secondly, the electrical current densities in the fluid are calculated. Thirdly, the developed Lorentz force is used directly in the Navier-Stokes equation and the trans-cupular pressure is computed. Since the driving force field is relatively large in comparison with the advective acceleration, we demonstrate that it is possible to perform an approximation in the Navier-Stokes equations that reduces the problem to solving a simpler Poisson equation. This simplification allows rapid and easy calculation for many different directions of applied magnetic field. At 7 T a maximum cupula pressure difference of 1.6 mPa was calculated for the combined ampullar (0.7 µA) and utricular (3.31 µA) distributed current sources, assuming a hair-cell resting current of 100 pA per unit. These pressure values are up to an order of magnitude lower than those proposed by Roberts et al using a simplistic model and calculation, and are in good agreement with the estimated pressure values for nystagmus velocities in caloric experiments. This modeling work supports the hypothesis that the Lorentz force mechanism is a significant contributor to the perception of magnetic field induced vertigo.

  17. Universal dynamics of spontaneous Lorentz violation and a new spin-dependent inverse-square law force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Luty, Markus; Thaler, Jesse

    2005-07-01

    We study the universal low-energy dynamics associated with the spontaneous breaking of Lorentz invariance down to spatial rotations. The effective lagrangian for the associated Goldstone field can be uniquely determined by the non-linear realization of a broken time diffeomorphism symmetry, up to some overall mass scales. It has previously been shown that this symmetry breaking pattern gives rise to a Higgs phase of gravity, in which gravity is modified in the infrared. In this paper, we study the effects of direct couplings between the Goldstone boson and standard model fermions, which necessarily accompany Lorentz-violating terms in the theory. The leading interaction is the coupling to the axial vector current, which reduces to spin in the non-relativistic limit. A spin moving relative to the ``ether" rest frame will emit Goldstone Cerenkov radiation. The Goldstone also induces a long-range inverse-square law force between spin sources with a striking angular dependence, reflecting the underlying Goldstone shockwaves and providing a smoking gun for this theory. We discuss the regime of validity of the effective theory describing these phenomena, and the possibility of probing Lorentz violations through Goldstone boson signals in a way that is complementary to direct tests in some regions of parameter space.

  18. Application of the reduction of scale range in a Lorentz boosted frame to the numerical simulation of particle acceleration devices.

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J; Fawley, W M; Geddes, C G; Cormier-Michel, E; Grote, D P

    2009-05-05

    It has been shown that the ratio of longest to shortest space and time scales of a system of two or more components crossing at relativistic velocities is not invariant under Lorentz transformation. This implies the existence of a frame of reference minimizing an aggregate measure of the ratio of space and time scales. It was demonstrated that this translated into a reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times, using methods based on first principles (e.g., Particle-In-Cell), for particle acceleration devices and for problems such as: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beams interacting with electron clouds. Since then, speed-ups ranging from 75 to more than four orders of magnitude have been reported for the simulation of either scaled or reduced models of the above-cited problems. In it was shown that to achieve full benefits of the calculation in a boosted frame, some of the standard numerical techniques needed to be revised. The theory behind the speed-up of numerical simulation in a boosted frame, latest developments of numerical methods, and example applications with new opportunities that they offer are all presented.

  19. Development of Lorentz force-type self-bearing motor for an alternative axial flow blood pump design.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tau Meng; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2006-05-01

    A Lorentz force-type self-bearing motor was developed to provide delivery of both motoring torque and levitation force for an alternative axial flow blood pump design with an enclosed impeller. The axial flow pumps currently available introduce electromagnetic coupling from the motor's stator to the impeller by means of permanent magnets (PMs) embedded in the tips of the pump's blades. This design has distinct disadvantages, for example, pumping efficiency and electromagnetic coupling transmission are compromised by the constrained or poor geometry of the blades and limited pole width of the PMs, respectively. In this research, a Lorentz force-type self-bearing motor was developed. It is composed of (i) an eight-pole PM hollow-cylindrical rotor assembly supposedly to house and enclose the impeller of an axial flow blood pump, and (ii) a six-pole stator with two sets of copper wire and different winding configurations to provide the motoring torque and levitating force for the rotor assembly. MATLAB's xPC Target interface hardware was used as the rapid prototyping tool for the development of the controller for the self-bearing motor. Experimental results on a free/simply supported rotor assembly validated the design feasibility and control algorithm effectiveness in providing both the motoring torque and levitation force for the rotor. When levitated, a maximum orbital displacement of 0.3 mm corresponding to 1050 rpm of the rotor was measured by two eddy current probes placed in the orthogonal direction. This design has the advantage of eliminating the trade-off between motoring torques, levitating force, and pumping efficiency of previous studies. It also indicated the benefits of enclosed-impeller design as having good dynamic response, linearity, and better reliability. The nonmechanical contact feature between rotating and stationary parts will further reduce hemolysis and thromboembolitic tendencies in a typical blood pump application.

  20. In-flight and collisional dissipation as a mechanism to suppress Fermi acceleration in a breathing Lorentz gas.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Diego F M; Leonel, Edson D

    2012-06-01

    Some dynamical properties for a time dependent Lorentz gas considering both the dissipative and non dissipative dynamics are studied. The model is described by using a four-dimensional nonlinear mapping. For the conservative dynamics, scaling laws are obtained for the behavior of the average velocity for an ensemble of non interacting particles and the unlimited energy growth is confirmed. For the dissipative case, four different kinds of damping forces are considered namely: (i) restitution coefficient which makes the particle experiences a loss of energy upon collisions; and in-flight dissipation given by (ii) F=-ηV(2); (iii) F=-ηV(μ) with μ≠1 and μ≠2 and; (iv) F=-ηV, where η is the dissipation parameter. Extensive numerical simulations were made and our results confirm that the unlimited energy growth, observed for the conservative dynamics, is suppressed for the dissipative case. The behaviour of the average velocity is described using scaling arguments and classes of universalities are defined.

  1. THE ABRUPT CHANGES IN THE PHOTOSPHERIC MAGNETIC AND LORENTZ FORCE VECTORS DURING SIX MAJOR NEUTRAL-LINE FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G. J. D.

    2012-11-01

    We analyze the spatial and temporal variations of the abrupt photospheric magnetic changes associated with six major flares using 12 minute, 0.''5 pixel{sup -1} vector magnetograms from NASA's Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory satellite. The six major flares occurred near the main magnetic neutral lines of four active regions, NOAA 11158, 11166, 11283, and 11429. During all six flares the neutral-line field vectors became stronger and more horizontal, in each case almost entirely due to strengthening of the horizontal field components parallel to the neutral line. In all six cases the neutral-line pre-flare fields were more vertical than the reference potential fields, and collapsed abruptly and permanently closer to potential-field tilt angles during every flare, implying that the relaxation of magnetic stress associated with non-potential tilt angles plays a major role during major flares. The shear angle with respect to the reference potential field did not show such a pattern, demonstrating that flare processes do not generally relieve magnetic stresses associated with photospheric magnetic shear. The horizontal fields became significantly and permanently more aligned with the neutral line during the four largest flares, suggesting that the collapsing field is on average more aligned with the neutral line than the pre-flare neutral-line field. The vertical Lorentz force had a large, abrupt, permanent downward change during each of the flares, consistent with loop collapse. The horizontal Lorentz force changes acted mostly parallel to the neutral line in opposite directions on each side, a signature of the fields contracting during the flare, pulling the two sides of the neutral line toward each other. The greater effect of the flares on field tilt than on shear may be explained by photospheric line-tying.

  2. Acceleration of objects to high velocity by electromagnetic forces

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F

    2017-02-28

    Two exemplary approaches to the acceleration of projectiles are provided. Both approaches can utilize concepts associated with the Inductrack maglev system. Either of them provides an effective means of accelerating multi-kilogram projectiles to velocities of several kilometers per second, using launchers of order 10 meters in length, thus enabling the acceleration of projectiles to high velocities by electromagnetic forces.

  3. Prediction of Spacecraft Vibration using Acceleration and Force Envelopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Scott; Kaufman, Daniel; Kern, Dennis; Scharton, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The base forces in the GLAST X- and Z-axis sine vibration tests were similar to those derived using generic inputs (from users guide and handbook), but the base forces in the sine test were generally greater than the flight data. Basedrive analyses using envelopes of flight acceleration data provided more accurate predictions of the base force than generic inputs, and as expected, using envelopes of both the flight acceleration and force provided even more accurate predictions The GLAST spacecraft interface accelerations and forces measured during the MECO transient were relatively low in the 60 to 150 Hz regime. One may expect the flight forces measured at the base of various spacecraft to be more dependent on the mass, frequencies, etc. of the spacecraft than are the corresponding interface acceleration data, which may depend more on the launch vehicle configuration.

  4. Rapid acceleration in dogs: ground forces and body posture dynamics.

    PubMed

    Walter, Rebecca M; Carrier, David R

    2009-06-01

    Because the ability to accelerate rapidly is crucial to the survival and reproductive fitness of most terrestrial animals, it is important to understand how the biomechanics of rapid acceleration differs from that of steady-state locomotion. Here we compare rapid acceleration with high-speed galloping in dogs to investigate the ways in which body and limb posture and ground forces are altered to produce effective acceleration. Seven dogs were videotaped at 250 Hz as they performed ;maximum effort' accelerations, starting in a standing position on a force plate and one and two strides before it. These dogs began accelerations by rapidly flexing their ankles and knees as they dropped into a crouch. The crouched posture was maintained in the first accelerating stride such that the ankle and knee were significantly more flexed than during steady high-speed galloping. The hindlimb was also significantly more retracted over the first stance period than during high-speed galloping. Ground forces differed from steady-state locomotion in that rapidly accelerating dogs supported only 43% of their body weight with the forelimbs, compared with 56-64% in steady-state locomotion. The hindlimbs applied greater peak accelerating forces than the forelimbs, but the forelimbs contributed significantly to the dogs' acceleration by producing 43% of the total propulsive impulse. Kinematically, rapid acceleration differs from steady-state galloping in that the limbs are more flexed and more retracted, while the back undergoes greater pitching movement. Ground reaction forces also differ significantly from steady-state galloping in that almost no decelerating forces are applied while propulsive force impulses are three to six times greater.

  5. The Sidereal Time Variations of the Lorentz Force and Maximum Attainable Speed of Electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Gabriel; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Roblin, Yves; Schmookler, Barak

    2016-09-01

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab produces electrons that orbit through a known magnetic system. The electron beam's momentum can be determined through the radius of the beam's orbit. This project compares the beam orbit's radius while travelling in a transverse magnetic field with theoretical predictions from special relativity, which predict a constant beam orbit radius. Variations in the beam orbit's radius are found by comparing the beam's momentum entering and exiting a magnetic arc. Beam position monitors (BPMs) provide the information needed to calculate the beam momentum. Multiple BPM's are included in the analysis and fitted using the method of least squares to decrease statistical uncertainty. Preliminary results from data collected over a 24 hour period show that the relative momentum change was less than 10-4. Further study will be conducted including larger time spans and stricter cuts applied to the BPM data. The data from this analysis will be used in a larger experiment attempting to verify special relativity. While the project is not traditionally nuclear physics, it involves the same technology (the CEBAF accelerator) and the same methods (ROOT) as a nuclear physics experiment. DOE SULI Program.

  6. A needle-free technique for interstitial fluid sample acquisition using a lorentz-force actuated jet injector.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jean H; Hogan, N Catherine; Hunter, Ian W

    2015-08-10

    We present a novel method of quickly acquiring dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) samples using a Lorentz-force actuated needle-free jet injector. The feasibility of the method is first demonstrated on post-mortem porcine tissue. The jet injector is used to first inject a small volume of physiological saline to breach the skin, and the back-drivability of the actuator is utilized to create negative pressure in the ampoule and collect ISF. The effect of the injection and extraction parameters on sample dilution and extracted volumes is investigated. A simple finite element model is developed to demonstrate why this acquisition method results in faster extractions than conventional sampling methods. Using this method, we are able to collect a sample that contains up to 3.5% ISF in 3.1s from post-mortem skin. The trends revealed from experimentation on post-mortem skin are then used to identify the parameters for a live animal study. The feasibility of the acquisition process is successfully demonstrated using live rats; the process is revealed to extract samples that have been diluted by a factor of 111-125.

  7. Characterization of a high mechanical-Q fiber laser Lorentz force dc magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Cranch, G A; Askins, C G; Miller, G A; Kirkendall, C K

    2011-04-01

    A magnetic field sensor is described based on coupling the field into a time varying strain in a fiber laser strain sensor, through the Lorentzian force. A conducting bridge carries an ac current and oscillates at resonance in the presence of a magnetic field. A fiber laser strain sensor attached to the ribbon measures the deflections. The quality factor is shown to be limited by air damping resulting in a measurement resolution of 704 pT/Hz(1/2)±10% at ambient pressure and 360 pT/Hz(1/2)±10% at a reduced pressure of 1700 Pa at 1 Hz and 75 mA (rms).

  8. Optimal Lorentz-augmented spacecraft formation flying in elliptic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xu; Yan, Ye; Zhou, Yang

    2015-06-01

    An electrostatically charged spacecraft accelerates as it moves through the Earth's magnetic field due to the induced Lorentz force, providing a new means of propellantless electromagnetic propulsion for orbital maneuvers. The feasibility of Lorentz-augmented spacecraft formation flying in elliptic orbits is investigated in this paper. Assuming the Earth's magnetic field as a tilted dipole corotating with Earth, a nonlinear dynamical model that characterizes the orbital motion of Lorentz spacecraft in the vicinity of arbitrary elliptic orbits is developed. To establish a predetermined formation configuration at given terminal time, pseudospectral method is used to solve the optimal open-loop trajectories of hybrid control inputs consisted of Lorentz acceleration and thruster-generated control acceleration. A nontilted dipole model is also introduced to analyze the effect of dipole tilt angle via comparisons with the tilted one. Meanwhile, to guarantee finite-time convergence and system robustness against external perturbations, a continuous fast nonsingular terminal sliding mode controller is designed and the closed-loop system stability is proved by Lyapunov theory. Numerical simulations substantiate the validity of proposed open-loop and closed-loop control schemes, and the results indicate that an almost propellantless formation establishment can be achieved by choosing appropriate objective function in the pseudospectral method. Furthermore, compared to the nonsingular terminal sliding mode controller, the closed-loop controller presents superior convergence rate with only a bit more control effort. And the proposed controller can be applied in other Lorentz-augmented relative orbital control problems.

  9. Calculation of the electric potential and the Lorentz force in a transverse flow past a circular cylinder in a nonuniform magnetic field for various configurations of a locally ionized region at the cylinder surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikin, E. G.; Cheng, Wei Yang

    2013-12-01

    We obtain a solution to the equation for the electric potential in a locally ionized transverse magnetohydrodynamic flow past a circular cylinder in a nonuniform magnetic field produced by a linear conductor for various configurations of the ionization region. Analytical formulas are derived for the volume density of the Lorentz force acting on the flow in a locally ionized region. The effect of the Hall parameter and of the configuration of the region of the magnetohydrodynamic interaction on the Lorentz force is analyzed. It is shown that an increase in the Hall parameter leads to a decrease in the Lorentz force acting on the flow, and a change in the configuration of the locally ionized region makes it possible to suppress the effect of the Hall parameter on the Lorentz force.

  10. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    DOE PAGES

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; ...

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contributionmore » to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.« less

  11. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.

  12. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration.

    PubMed

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A R; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-06-03

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the calculation of atom-surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v(4). These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v(3).

  13. Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac versus Landau-Lifshitz radiation friction force in the ultrarelativistic electron interaction with electromagnetic wave (exact solutions).

    PubMed

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K; Bulanov, Stepan S

    2011-11-01

    When the parameters of electron-extreme power laser interaction enter the regime of dominated radiation reaction, the electron dynamics changes qualitatively. The adequate theoretical description of this regime becomes crucially important with the use of the radiation friction force either in the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac form, which possesses unphysical runaway solutions, or in the Landau-Lifshitz form, which is a perturbation valid for relatively low electromagnetic wave amplitude. The goal of the present paper is to find the limits of the Landau-Lifshitz radiation force applicability in terms of the electromagnetic wave amplitude and frequency. For this, a class of the exact solutions to the nonlinear problems of charged particle motion in the time-varying electromagnetic field is used.

  14. Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac versus Landau-Lifshitz radiation friction force in the ultrarelativistic electron interaction with electromagnetic wave (exact solutions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K.; Bulanov, Stepan S.

    2011-11-01

    When the parameters of electron-extreme power laser interaction enter the regime of dominated radiation reaction, the electron dynamics changes qualitatively. The adequate theoretical description of this regime becomes crucially important with the use of the radiation friction force either in the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac form, which possesses unphysical runaway solutions, or in the Landau-Lifshitz form, which is a perturbation valid for relatively low electromagnetic wave amplitude. The goal of the present paper is to find the limits of the Landau-Lifshitz radiation force applicability in terms of the electromagnetic wave amplitude and frequency. For this, a class of the exact solutions to the nonlinear problems of charged particle motion in the time-varying electromagnetic field is used.

  15. Modeling of 10 GeV-1 TeV laser-plasma accelerators using Lorentz boosted simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J. -L.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B.; Leemans, W. P.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Grote, D. P.

    2011-12-13

    We study modeling of laser-plasma wakefield accelerators in an optimal frame of reference [J.-L. Vay, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 130405 (2007)] that allows direct and efficient full-scale modeling of deeply depleted and beam loaded laser-plasma stages of 10 GeV-1 TeV (parameters not computationally accessible otherwise). This verifies the scaling of plasmaaccelerators to very high energies and accurately models the laser evolution and the accelerated electron beam transverse dynamics and energy spread. Over 4, 5, and 6 orders of magnitude speedup is achieved for the modeling of 10 GeV, 100 GeV, and 1 TeV class stages, respectively. Agreement at the percentage level is demonstrated between simulations using different frames of reference for a 0.1 GeV class stage. In addition, obtaining these speedups and levels of accuracy was permitted by solutions for handling data input (in particular, particle and laser beams injection) and output in a relativistically boosted frame of reference, as well as mitigation of a high-frequency instability that otherwise limits effectiveness.

  16. Spring operated accelerator and constant force spring mechanism therefor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillinger, G. L., Jr. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A spring assembly consisting of an elongate piece of flat spring material formed into a spiral configuration and a free running spool in circumscribing relation to which this spring is disposed was developed. The spring has a distal end that is externally accessible so that when the distal end is drawn along a path, the spring unwinds against a restoring force present in the portion of the spring that resides in a transition region between a relatively straight condition on the path and a fully wound condition on the spool. When the distal end is released, the distal end is accelerated toward the spool by the force existing at the transition region which force is proportional to the cross-sectional area of the spring.

  17. Introductory labs on the vector nature of force and acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanim, Stephen E.; Subero, Keron

    2010-05-01

    We discuss the use of long-exposure digital photography in introductory mechanics laboratories. Students at New Mexico State University use inexpensive digital cameras to record the motion of objects with attached blinking light emitting diodes. These photographs are used to make inferences about the velocity and acceleration of the moving object. We use the analysis of these photographs to promote student understanding of the vector nature of kinematics quantities. In subsequent laboratories we build on this understanding to help students relate the acceleration vector for a moving object to the net force vector for that object. We give details about the equipment we use and describe the sequence of activities that we have developed for a two-dimensional motion laboratory and for a laboratory on Newton's second law. Finally we present some pre- and post-test data on questions related to the concepts underlying these laboratories.

  18. An experimental validation of the influence of flow profiles and stratified two-phase flow to Lorentz force velocimetry for weakly conducting fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiederhold, Andreas; Ebert, Reschad; Resagk, Christian; Research Training Group: "Lorentz Force Velocimetry; Lorentz Force Eddy Current Testing" Team

    2016-11-01

    We report about the feasibility of Lorentz force velocimetry (LFV) for various flow profiles. LFV is a contactless non-invasive technique to measure flow velocity and has been developed in the last years in our institute. This method is advantageous if the fluid is hot, aggressive or opaque like glass melts or liquid metal flows. The conducted experiments shall prove an increased versatility for industrial applications of this method. For the force measurement we use an electromagnetic force compensation balance. As electrolyte salty water is used with an electrical conductivity in the range of 0.035 which corresponds to tap water up to 20 Sm-1. Because the conductivity is six orders less than that of liquid metals, here the challenging bottleneck is the resolution of the measurement system. The results show only a slight influence in the force signal at symmetric and strongly asymmetric flow profiles. Furthermore we report about the application of LFV to stratified two-phase flows. We show that it is possible to detect interface instabilities, which is important for the dimensioning of liquid metal batteries. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft DFG.

  19. Non-uniform drag force on the Fermi accelerator model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, Danila F.; Leonel, Edson D.; Costa Filho, R. N.

    2012-11-01

    Some dynamical properties of a particle suffering the action of a generic drag force are obtained for a dissipative Fermi Acceleration model. The dissipation is introduced via a viscous drag force, like a gas, and is assumed to be proportional to a power of the velocity: F∝-vγ. The dynamics is described by a two-dimensional nonlinear area-contracting mapping obtained via the solution of Newton’s second law of motion. We prove analytically that the decay of high energy is given by a continued fraction which recovers the following expressions: (i) linear for γ=1; (ii) exponential for γ=2; and (iii) second-degree polynomial type for γ=1.5. Our results are discussed for both the complete version and the simplified version. The procedure used in the present paper can be extended to many different kinds of system, including a class of billiards problems.

  20. Generalized Lorentz-Dirac equation for a strongly coupled gauge theory.

    PubMed

    Chernicoff, Mariano; García, J Antonio; Güijosa, Alberto

    2009-06-19

    We derive a semiclassical equation of motion for a "composite" quark in strongly coupled large-N_{c} N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory, making use of the anti-de Sitter space/conformal field theory correspondence. The resulting nonlinear equation incorporates radiation damping, and reduces to the standard Lorentz-Dirac equation for external forces that are small on the scale of the quark Compton wavelength, but has no self-accelerating or preaccelerating solutions. From this equation one can read off a nonstandard dispersion relation for the quark, as well as a Lorentz-covariant formula for its radiation rate.

  1. Magnetic field contribution to the Lorentz model.

    PubMed

    Oughstun, Kurt E; Albanese, Richard A

    2006-07-01

    The classical Lorentz model of dielectric dispersion is based on the microscopic Lorentz force relation and Newton's second law of motion for an ensemble of harmonically bound electrons. The magnetic field contribution in the Lorentz force relation is neglected because it is typically small in comparison with the electric field contribution. Inclusion of this term leads to a microscopic polarization density that contains both perpendicular and parallel components relative to the plane wave propagation vector. The modified parallel and perpendicular polarizabilities are both nonlinear in the local electric field strength.

  2. Local Lorentz transformations and Thomas effect in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silenko, Alexander J.

    2016-06-01

    The tetrad method is used for an introduction of local Lorentz frames and a detailed analysis of local Lorentz transformations. A formulation of equations of motion in local Lorentz frames is based on the Pomeransky-Khriplovich gravitoelectromagnetic fields. These fields are calculated in the most important special cases and their local Lorentz transformations are determined. The local Lorentz transformations and the Pomeransky-Khriplovich gravitoelectromagnetic fields are applied for a rigorous derivation of a general equation for the Thomas effect in Riemannian spacetimes and for a consideration of Einstein's equivalence principle and the Mathisson force.

  3. Lorentz Contraction and Current-Carrying Wires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kampen, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The force between two parallel current-carrying wires is investigated in the rest frames of the ions and the electrons. A straightforward Lorentz transformation shows that what appears as a purely magnetostatic force in the ion frame appears as a combined magnetostatic and electrostatic force in the electron frame. The derivation makes use of a…

  4. Estimating dynamic external hand forces during manual materials handling based on ground reaction forces and body segment accelerations.

    PubMed

    Faber, Gert S; Chang, Chien-Chi; Kingma, Idsart; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2013-10-18

    Direct measurement of hand forces during assessment of manual materials handling is infeasible in most field studies and some laboratory studies (e.g., during patient handling). Therefore, this study proposed and evaluated the performance of a novel hand force estimation method based on ground reaction forces (GRFs) and body segment accelerations. Ten male subjects performed a manual lifting/carrying task while an optoelectronic motion tracking system measured 3D full body kinematics, a force plate measured 3D GRFs and an instrumented box measured 3D hand forces. The estimated 3D hand forces were calculated by taking the measured GRF vector and subtracting the force vectors due to weight and acceleration of all body segments. Root-mean-square difference (RMSD) between estimated and measured hand forces ranged from 11 to 27N. When ignoring the segment accelerations (just subtracting body weight from the GRFs), the hand force estimation errors were much higher, with RMSDs ranging from 21 to 101N. Future studies should verify the performance of the proposed hand force estimation method when using an ambulatory field measurement system.

  5. Lorentz Force Control of Turbulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Electrohydrodynamics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF 18. NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE ABSTRACT OF...heating [6], piezo-electric flaps [7], oscillatory blowing [8], synthetic jets [9], surface motion [10] and plasma discharge [11]. Given the previous...interlaced with a commercially fabricated printed circuit board to generate the necessary fields. The segmentation of the electrodes in the spanwise

  6. Using Hand Grip Force as a Correlate of Longitudinal Acceleration Comfort for Rapid Transit Trains.

    PubMed

    Guo, Beiyuan; Gan, Weide; Fang, Weining

    2015-07-02

    Longitudinal acceleration comfort is one of the essential metrics used to evaluate the ride comfort of train. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using hand grip force as a correlate of longitudinal acceleration comfort of rapid transit trains. In the paper, a motion simulation system was set up and a two-stage experiment was designed to investigate the role of the grip force on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains. The results of the experiment show that the incremental grip force was linearly correlated with the longitudinal acceleration value, while the incremental grip force had no correlation with the direction of the longitudinal acceleration vector. The results also show that the effects of incremental grip force and acceleration duration on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains were significant. Based on multiple regression analysis, a step function model was established to predict the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains using the incremental grip force and the acceleration duration. The feasibility and practicably of the model was verified by a field test. Furthermore, a comparative analysis shows that the motion simulation system and the grip force based model were valid to support the laboratory studies on the longitudinal comfort of rapid transit trains.

  7. Forces and Stored Energy in Thin Cosine (n0) Accelerator Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.

    1996-03-18

    We wish to compute Lorentz forces, equilibrium stress and stored energy in thin multipole magnets (Fig.1), that are proportional to cos(n{theta}) and whose strength varies purely as a Fourier sinusoidal series of the longitudinal coordinate z (say proportional to cos (2m-1){pi}z/L where L denotes the half-period and m = 1,2,3...). We shall demonstrate that in cases where the current is situated on such a surface of discontinuity at r = R (i.e. J = f({theta},z)), by computing the Lorentz force and solving the state of equilibrium on that surface, a closed form solution can be obtained for single function magnets as well as for any combination of interacting nested multi function magnets. The results that have been obtained, indicate that the total axial force on the end of a single multipole magnet n is independent (orthogonal) to any other multipole magnet i as long as n {ne} i. The same is true for the stored energy, the total energy of a nested set of multipole magnets is equal to the some of the energy of the individual magnets (of the same period length 2L). Finally we demonstrate our results on a nested set of magnets a dipole (n = 1) and a quadmpole (n=2) that have an identical single periodicity {omega}{sub 1}. We show that in the limiting 2D case (period 2L tends to infinity), the force reduces to the commonly known 2D case.

  8. Calculation of structural dynamic forces and stresses using mode acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blelloch, Paul

    1989-01-01

    While the standard mode acceleration formulation in structural dynamics has often been interpreted to suggest that the reason for improved convergence obtainable is that the dynamic correction factor is divided by the modal frequencies-squared, an alternative formulation is presented which clearly indicates that the only difference between mode acceleration and mode displacement data recovery is the addition of a static correction term. Attention is given to the advantages in numerical implementation associated with this alternative, as well as to an illustrative example.

  9. Mechanisms of force production during linear accelerations in bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tytell, Eric D.; Wise, Tyler N.; Boden, Alexandra L.; Sanders, Erin K.; Schwalbe, Margot A. B.

    2016-11-01

    In nature, fish rarely swim steadily. Although unsteady behaviors are common, we know little about how fish change their swimming kinematics for routine accelerations, and how these changes affect the fluid dynamic forces and the wake produced. To study force production during acceleration, particle image velocimetry was used to quantify the wake of bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus and to estimate the pressure field during linear accelerations and steady swimming. We separated "steady" and "unsteady" trials and quantified the forward acceleration using inertial measurement units. Compared to steady sequences, unsteady sequences had larger accelerations and higher body amplitudes. The wake consisted of single vortices shed during each tail movement (a '2S' wake). The structure did not change during acceleration, but the circulation of the vortices increased, resulting in larger forces. A fish swimming unsteadily produced significantly more force than the same fish swimming steadily, even when the accelerations were the same. This increase is likely due to increased added mass during unsteady swimming, as a result of the larger body amplitude. Pressure estimates suggest that the increase in force is correlated with more low pressure regions on the anterior body. This work was supported by ARO W911NF-14-1-0494 and NSF RCN-PLS 1062052.

  10. Angular and Linear Accelerations of a Rolling Cylinder Acted by an External Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, V.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of a cylinder rolling on a horizontal plane acted on by an external force applied at an arbitrary angle is studied with emphasis on the directions of the acceleration of the centre-of-mass and the angular acceleration of the body. If rolling occurs without slipping, there is a relationship between the directions of these…

  11. Marine Forces Reserve: Accelerating Knowledge Flow through Asynchronous Learning Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-19

    processes , requirements and legalities about which incoming I-Is have negligible opportunities for advance or rapid learning. In short, the active...Current Knowledge Flow Processes .............................................................. 14 3. Alternate Processes to Accelerate Knowledge Flows...the Reserve component presents unique business processes , requirements and legalities about which incoming I-Is have negligible opportunities for

  12. Using Accelerator Pedal Force to Increase Seat Belt Use of Service Vehicle Drivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in…

  13. Lorentz-violating gravitoelectromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Quentin G.

    2010-09-15

    The well-known analogy between a special limit of general relativity and electromagnetism is explored in the context of the Lorentz-violating standard-model extension. An analogy is developed for the minimal standard-model extension that connects a limit of the CPT-even component of the electromagnetic sector to the gravitational sector. We show that components of the post-Newtonian metric can be directly obtained from solutions to the electromagnetic sector. The method is illustrated with specific examples including static and rotating sources. Some unconventional effects that arise for Lorentz-violating electrostatics and magnetostatics have an analog in Lorentz-violating post-Newtonian gravity. In particular, we show that even for static sources, gravitomagnetic fields arise in the presence of Lorentz violation.

  14. Tapered plasma channels to phase-lock accelerating and focusing forces in laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Rittershofer, W.; Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Gruner, F.J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-05-17

    Tapered plasma channels are considered for controlling dephasing of a beam with respect to a plasma wave driven by a weakly-relativistic, short-pulse laser. Tapering allows for enhanced energy gain in a single laser plasma accelerator stage. Expressions are derived for the taper, or longitudinal plasma density variation, required to maintain a beam at a constant phase in the longitudinal and/or transverse fields of the plasma wave. In a plasma channel, the phase velocities of the longitudinal and transverse fields differ, and, hence, the required tapering differs. The length over which the tapered plasma density becomes singular is calculated. Linear plasma tapering as well as discontinuous plasma tapering, which moves beams to adjacent plasma wave buckets, are also considered. The energy gain of an accelerated electron in a tapered laser-plasma accelerator is calculated and the laser pulse length to optimize the energy gain is determined.

  15. Coherence between magnetoencephalography and hand-action-related acceleration, force, pressure, and electromyogram.

    PubMed

    Piitulainen, Harri; Bourguignon, Mathieu; De Tiège, Xavier; Hari, Riitta; Jousmäki, Veikko

    2013-05-15

    Hand velocity and acceleration are coherent with magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals recorded from the contralateral primary sensorimotor (SM1) cortex. To learn more of this interaction, we compared the coupling of MEG signals with four hand-action-related peripheral signals: acceleration, pressure, force, and electromyogram (EMG). Fifteen subjects performed self-paced repetitive hand-action tasks for 3.5min at a rate of about 3Hz. Either acceleration, pressure or force signal was acquired with MEG and EMG signals during (1) flexions-extensions of right-hand fingers, with thumb touching the other fingers (acceleration; free), (2) dynamic index-thumb pinches against an elastic rubber ball attached to a pressure sensor (pressure and acceleration; squeeze), and (3) brief fixed-finger-position index-thumb pinches against a rigid load cell (force; fixed-pinch). Significant coherence occurred between MEG and all the four peripheral measures at the fundamental frequency of the hand action (F0) and its first harmonic (F1). In all tasks, the cortical sources contributing to the cross-correlograms were located at the contralateral hand SM1 cortex, with average inter-source distance (mean±SEM) of 9.5±0.3mm. The coherence was stronger with respect to pressure (0.40±0.03 in squeeze) and force (0.38±0.04 in fixed-pinch) than acceleration (0.24±0.03 in free) and EMG (0.25±0.02 in free, and 0.29±0.04 in fixed-pinch). The results imply that the SM1 cortex is strongly coherent at F0 and F1 with hand-action-related pressure and force, in addition to the previously demonstrated EMG, velocity, and acceleration. All these measures, especially force and pressure, are potential tools for functional mapping of the SM1 cortex.

  16. Upper neck forces and moments and cranial angular accelerations in lateral impact.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Zhang, Jiangyue; Stemper, Brian D; Philippens, Mat

    2008-03-01

    Biomechanical studies using postmortem human subjects (PMHS) in lateral impact have focused primarily on chest and pelvis injuries, mechanisms, tolerances, and comparison with side impact dummies. A paucity of data exists on the head-neck junction, i.e., forces and moments, and cranial angular accelerations. The objective of this study was to determine lateral impact-induced three-dimensional temporal forces and moments at the head-neck junction and cranial linear and angular accelerations from sled tests using PMHS and compare with responses obtained from an anthropomorphic test device (dummy) designed for lateral impact. Following initial evaluations, PMHS were seated on a sled, restrained using belts, and lateral acceleration was applied. Specimens were instrumented with a pyramid-shaped nine-accelerometer package to record cranial accelerations. A sled accelerometer was used to record the input acceleration. Radiographs and computed tomography scans were obtained to identify pathology. A similar testing protocol was adopted for dummy tests. Results indicated that profiles of forces and moments at the head-neck junction and cranial accelerations were similar between the two models. However, peak forces and moments at the head-neck junction were lower in the dummy than PMHS. Peak cranial linear and angular accelerations were also lower in the dummy than in the PMHS. Fractures to the head-neck complex were not identified in PMHS tests. Peak cranial angular accelerations were suggestive of mild traumatic brain injury with potential for loss of consciousness. Findings from this study with a limited dataset are valuable in establishing response corridors for side impacts and evaluating side impact dummies used in crashworthiness and safety-engineering studies.

  17. Quantum mechanics in noninertial reference frames: Relativistic accelerations and fictitious forces

    SciTech Connect

    Klink, W.H.; Wickramasekara, S.

    2016-06-15

    One-particle systems in relativistically accelerating reference frames can be associated with a class of unitary representations of the group of arbitrary coordinate transformations, an extension of the Wigner–Bargmann definition of particles as the physical realization of unitary irreducible representations of the Poincaré group. Representations of the group of arbitrary coordinate transformations become necessary to define unitary operators implementing relativistic acceleration transformations in quantum theory because, unlike in the Galilean case, the relativistic acceleration transformations do not themselves form a group. The momentum operators that follow from these representations show how the fictitious forces in noninertial reference frames are generated in quantum theory.

  18. Relationship between tibial acceleration and proximal anterior tibia shear force across increasing jump distance.

    PubMed

    Sell, Timothy C; Akins, Jonathan S; Opp, Alexis R; Lephart, Scott M

    2014-02-01

    Proximal anterior tibia shear force is a direct loading mechanism of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and is a contributor to ACL strain during injury. Measurement of this force during competition may provide insight into risk factors for ACL injury. Accelerometers may be capable of measuring tibial acceleration during competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between acceleration measured by a tibia-mounted accelerometer and proximal anterior tibia shear force as measured through inverse dynamics and peak posterior ground reaction forces during two leg stop-jump tasks. Nineteen healthy male subjects performed stop-jump tasks across increasing jump distances. Correlation coefficients were calculated to determine if a relationship exists between accelerometer data and proximal anterior tibia shear force and peak posterior ground reaction force. An analysis of variance was performed to compare these variables across jump distance. Significant correlations were observed between accelerometer data and peak posterior ground reaction force, but none between accelerometer data and proximal anterior tibia shear force. All variables except peak proximal anterior tibia shear force increased significantly as jump distance increased. Overall, results of this study provide initial, positive support for the use of accelerometers as a useful tool for future injury prevention research.

  19. Force-Time Characteristics and Running Velocity of Male Sprinters During the Acceleration Phase of Sprinting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mero, Antti

    1988-01-01

    Investigation of the force-time characteristics of eight male sprinters during the acceleration phase of the sprint start suggested that the braking and propulsion phases occur immediately after the block phase and that muscle strength strongly affects running velocity in the sprint start. (Author/CB)

  20. Forced detection Monte Carlo algorithms for accelerated blood vessel image simulations.

    PubMed

    Fredriksson, Ingemar; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas

    2009-03-01

    Two forced detection (FD) variance reduction Monte Carlo algorithms for image simulations of tissue-embedded objects with matched refractive index are presented. The principle of the algorithms is to force a fraction of the photon weight to the detector at each and every scattering event. The fractional weight is given by the probability for the photon to reach the detector without further interactions. Two imaging setups are applied to a tissue model including blood vessels, where the FD algorithms produce identical results as traditional brute force simulations, while being accelerated with two orders of magnitude. Extending the methods to include refraction mismatches is discussed.

  1. Letter: On the Solutions of the Lorentz-Dirac Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, D.; Letelier, P. S.

    2003-12-01

    We discuss the unstable character of the solutions of the Lorentz-Dirac equation and stress the need of methods like order reduction to derive a physically acceptable equation of motion. The discussion is illustrated with the paradigmatic example of the non-relativistic harmonic oscillator with radiation reaction. We also illustrate the removal of the noncausal pre-acceleration with the introduction of a small correction in the Lorentz-Dirac equation.

  2. Effects of Sled Towing on Peak Force, the Rate of Force Development and Sprint Performance During the Acceleration Phase.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valencia, María Asunción; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Elvira, José L L; González-Ravé, José María; Navarro-Valdivielso, Fernando; Alcaraz, Pedro E

    2015-06-27

    Resisted sprint training is believed to increase strength specific to sprinting. Therefore, the knowledge of force output in these tasks is essential. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of sled towing (10%, 15% and 20% of body mass (Bm)) on sprint performance and force production during the acceleration phase. Twenty-three young experienced sprinters (17 men and 6 women; men = 17.9 ± 3.3 years, 1.79 ± 0.06 m and 69.4 ± 6.1 kg; women = 17.2 ± 1.7 years, 1.65 ± 0.04 m and 56.6 ± 2.3 kg) performed four 30 m sprints from a crouch start. Sprint times in 20 and 30 m sprint, peak force (Fpeak), a peak rate of force development (RFDpeak) and time to RFD (TRFD) in first step were recorded. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant increases (p ≤ 0.001) in sprint times (20 and 30 m sprint) for each resisted condition as compared to the unloaded condition. The RFDpeak increased significantly when a load increased (3129.4 ± 894.6 N·s-1, p ≤ 0.05 and 3892.4 ± 1377.9 N·s-1, p ≤ 0.01). Otherwise, no significant increases were found in Fpeak and TRFD. The RFD determines the force that can be generated in the early phase of muscle contraction, and it has been considered a factor that influences performance of force-velocity tasks. The use of a load up to 20% Bm might provide a training stimulus in young sprinters to improve the RFDpeak during the sprint start, and thus, early acceleration.

  3. Effects of Sled Towing on Peak Force, the Rate of Force Development and Sprint Performance During the Acceleration Phase

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Valencia, María Asunción; Romero-Arenas, Salvador; Elvira, José L.L.; González-Ravé, José María; Navarro-Valdivielso, Fernando; Alcaraz, Pedro E.

    2015-01-01

    Resisted sprint training is believed to increase strength specific to sprinting. Therefore, the knowledge of force output in these tasks is essential. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of sled towing (10%, 15% and 20% of body mass (Bm)) on sprint performance and force production during the acceleration phase. Twenty-three young experienced sprinters (17 men and 6 women; men = 17.9 ± 3.3 years, 1.79 ± 0.06 m and 69.4 ± 6.1 kg; women = 17.2 ± 1.7 years, 1.65 ± 0.04 m and 56.6 ± 2.3 kg) performed four 30 m sprints from a crouch start. Sprint times in 20 and 30 m sprint, peak force (Fpeak), a peak rate of force development (RFDpeak) and time to RFD (TRFD) in first step were recorded. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant increases (p ≤ 0.001) in sprint times (20 and 30 m sprint) for each resisted condition as compared to the unloaded condition. The RFDpeak increased significantly when a load increased (3129.4 ± 894.6 N·s−1, p ≤ 0.05 and 3892.4 ± 1377.9 N·s−1, p ≤ 0.01). Otherwise, no significant increases were found in Fpeak and TRFD. The RFD determines the force that can be generated in the early phase of muscle contraction, and it has been considered a factor that influences performance of force-velocity tasks. The use of a load up to 20% Bm might provide a training stimulus in young sprinters to improve the RFDpeak during the sprint start, and thus, early acceleration. PMID:26240657

  4. Locating and quantifying ceramic body armor impact forces on a compliant torso using acceleration mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardi, Adam A.; Adams, Douglas E.; Walsh, Shawn

    2006-03-01

    This research experimentally implements a new method to identify the location and magnitude of a single impulsive excitation to ceramic body armor, which is supported on a compliant torso. The method could easily be extended to other flexibly supported components that undergo rigid body dynamics. Impact loads are identified in two steps. First, the location of the impact force is determined from time domain acceleration responses by comparing them to an array of reference acceleration time histories. Then based on the estimated location, reference frequency response functions are used to reconstruct the input force in the frequency domain through a least squares inverse problem. Experimental results demonstrate the validity of this method at both low energy excitations, which are produced by a medium modally-tuned impact hammer, and at high energy excitations, which are produced by dropping rods with masses up to 0.6 kilograms from a height of 2 meters. The maximum error in the estimated location or magnitude for the low energy excitations on the 10 cm square ceramic body armor was 7.07 mm with an average error of 1.09 mm. In comparing the estimated force for the low energy excitations to the force recorded by the transducer in the modal impact hammer, the maximum error in the predicted force amplitude was 6.78 percent and the maximum error in the predicted impulse was 6.44 percent. For the high energy excitations, which produced accelerations at the measurement locations up to 50 times greater than that of the low energy excitations, the maximum error in the predicted location of the input force was 15 mm with an average error of 6.64 mm. There was no force transducer to capture the input force on the body armor from the rod, but from non-energy-dissipative projectile motion equations the validity of the solutions was confirmed by comparing the impulses.

  5. Comparison of impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in surfing-related landing tasks.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Lina E; Tran, Tai T; Nimphius, Sophia; Raymond, Ellen; Secomb, Josh L; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the impact forces, accelerations and ankle range of motion in five different landing tasks that are used in training and testing for competitive surfing athletes, to assist coaches in the prescription of landing task progression and monitoring training load. Eleven competitive surfing athletes aged 24 ± 7 years participated, and inertial motion sensors were fixed to the anterior aspect of the feet, mid-tibial shafts, sacrum and eighth thoracic vertebrae on these athletes. Three tasks were performed landing on force plates and two tasks in a modified gymnastics set-up used for land-based aerial training. Peak landing force, resultant peak acceleration and front and rear side ankle dorsiflexion ranges of motion during landing were determined. The peak acceleration was approximately 50% higher when performing aerial training using a mini-trampoline and landing on a soft-density foam board, compared to a similar landing off a 50 cm box. Furthermore, the ankle ranges of motion during the gymnastic type landings were significantly lower than the other landing types (P ≤ 0.05 and P ≤ 0.001), for front and rear sides, respectively. Conclusively, increased task complexity and specificity of the sport increased the tibial peak acceleration, indicating greater training load.

  6. Influence of radiation reaction force on ultraintense laser-driven ion acceleration.

    PubMed

    Capdessus, R; McKenna, P

    2015-05-01

    The role of the radiation reaction force in ultraintense laser-driven ion acceleration is investigated. For laser intensities ∼10(23)W/cm(2), the action of this force on electrons is demonstrated in relativistic particle-in-cell simulations to significantly enhance the energy transfer to ions in relativistically transparent targets, but strongly reduce the ion energy in dense plasma targets. An expression is derived for the revised piston velocity, and hence ion energy, taking account of energy loses to synchrotron radiation generated by electrons accelerated in the laser field. Ion mass is demonstrated to be important by comparing results obtained with proton and deuteron plasma. The results can be verified in experiments with cryogenic hydrogen and deuterium targets.

  7. Enhanced Downward Acceleration of a Bouncing Droplet Due to the Lubrication Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, David; Cessna, Matthew; Nadim, Ali

    2015-11-01

    We explore the dynamics of moderately viscous (50-100 cSt) silicone oil drops bouncing on a vertically vibrated oil bath. When the driving acceleration of the bath is larger than a threshold value, drops can bounce indefinitely due to the presence of a thin air layer separating the drop from the bath. We present experimental evidence that the drop can temporarily ``stick'' to the oil bath during the rebound process causing it to be pulled downward briefly with the downward-accelerating bath. Thus, for a small time interval during each bounce, the drop's downward acceleration can exceed that of gravitational free-fall. A simple model incorporating the lubrication force between the drop and the bath, allowing for the deformation of the latter, is developed and found to match the observed dynamics closely.

  8. Control of focusing forces and emittances in plasma-based accelerators using near-hollow plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Benedetti, Carlo; Leemans, Wim

    2013-08-06

    A near-hollow plasma channel, where the plasma density in the channel is much less than the plasma density in the walls, is proposed to provide independent control over the focusing and accelerating forces in a plasma accelerator. In this geometry the low density in the channel contributes to the focusing forces, while the accelerating fields are determined by the high density in the channel walls. The channel also provides guiding for intense laser pulses used for wakefield excitation. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in a nearly symmetric fashion. Near-hollow plasma channels can effectively mitigate emittance growth due to Coulomb scattering for high energy physics applications.

  9. Unsteady forces on a spherical particle accelerating or decelerating in an initially stagnant fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshav, Yashas Mudlapur Phaneesh

    Flows with particles play an important role in a number of engineering applications. These include trajectories of droplets in sprays in fuel-injected-reciprocating-piston and gas-turbine engines, erosion of materials due to particle impact on a surface, and deposition of materials on surfaces by impinging droplets or particles that could solidify or bond on impact. For these applications, it is important to understand the forces that act on the particles so that their trajectories could be predicted. Considerable work has been done on understanding the forces acting on spherical particles, where the Reynolds numbers (Rep) based on the particle diameter and the relative speed between the particle and the fluid is less than unity. When Rep is larger than unity and when the particle is accelerating or decelerating, the added-mass effect and the Basset forces are not well understood. In this study, time-accurate numerical simulations were performed to study laminar incompressible flow induced by a single non-rotating rigid spherical particle that is accelerated or decelerated at a constant rate in an initially stagnant fluid, where the unsteady flow about the spherical particle is resolved. The Rep studied range from 0.01 to 100, and the acceleration number (Ac), where A c is the square of the relative velocity between the particle and the fluid divided by the acceleration times the particle diameter studied was in the range 2.13x-7 < |Ac |< 21337. Results obtained show the added mass effect for Rep up to 100 has the same functional form as those based on potential theory where the Rep is infinite and creeping flow where Rep is less than unity. The Basset force, however, differs considerably from those under creeping flow conditions and depends on Rep and the acceleration number (Ac). A model was developed to provide the magnitude of the added-mass effect and the Basset force in the range of Rep and Ac studied. Results obtained also show the effect of unsteadiness to

  10. Role of radiation reaction forces in the dynamics of centrifugally accelerated particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dalakishvili, G. T.; Rogava, A. D.; Berezhiani, V. I.

    2007-08-15

    In this paper we study the influence of radiation reaction (RR) forces on the dynamics of centrifugally accelerated particles. It is assumed that the particles move along magnetic field lines anchored in the rotating central object. The common 'bead-on-the-wire' approximation is used. The solutions are found and analyzed for cases when the form of the prescribed trajectory (rigidly rotating field line) is approximated by: (a) straight line, and (b) Archimedes spiral. Dynamics of neutral and charged particles are compared with the emphasis on the role of RR forces in the latter case. It is shown that for charged particles there exist locations of stable equilibrium. It is demonstrated that for particular initial conditions RR forces cause centripetal motion of the particles: their 'falling' on the central rotating object. It is found that in the case of Archimedes spiral both neutral and charged particles can reach infinity where their motion has asymptotically force-free character. The possible importance of these processes for the acceleration of relativistic, charged particles by rotating magnetospheres in the context of the generation of nonthermal, high-energy emission of AGN and pulsars is discussed.

  11. Accelerated Molecular Dynamics Simulations with the AMOEBA Polarizable Force Field on Graphics Processing Units.

    PubMed

    Lindert, Steffen; Bucher, Denis; Eastman, Peter; Pande, Vijay; McCammon, J Andrew

    2013-11-12

    The accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) method has recently been shown to enhance the sampling of biomolecules in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, often by several orders of magnitude. Here, we describe an implementation of the aMD method for the OpenMM application layer that takes full advantage of graphics processing units (GPUs) computing. The aMD method is shown to work in combination with the AMOEBA polarizable force field (AMOEBA-aMD), allowing the simulation of long time-scale events with a polarizable force field. Benchmarks are provided to show that the AMOEBA-aMD method is efficiently implemented and produces accurate results in its standard parametrization. For the BPTI protein, we demonstrate that the protein structure described with AMOEBA remains stable even on the extended time scales accessed at high levels of accelerations. For the DNA repair metalloenzyme endonuclease IV, we show that the use of the AMOEBA force field is a significant improvement over fixed charged models for describing the enzyme active-site. The new AMOEBA-aMD method is publicly available (http://wiki.simtk.org/openmm/VirtualRepository) and promises to be interesting for studying complex systems that can benefit from both the use of a polarizable force field and enhanced sampling.

  12. The Effects of Height and Distance on the Force Production and Acceleration in Martial Arts Strikes

    PubMed Central

    Bolander, Richard P.; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Bir, Cynthia A.

    2009-01-01

    Almost all cultures have roots in some sort of self defence system and yet there is relatively little research in this area, outside of a sports related environment. This project investigated different applications of strikes from Kung Fu practitioners that have not been addressed before in the literature. Punch and palm strikes were directly compared from different heights and distances, with the use of a load cell, accelerometers, and high speed video. The data indicated that the arm accelerations of both strikes were similar, although the force and resulting acceleration of the target were significantly greater for the palm strikes. Additionally, the relative height at which the strike was delivered was also investigated. The overall conclusion is that the palm strike is a more effective strike for transferring force to an object. It can also be concluded that an attack to the chest would be ideal for maximizing impact force and moving an opponent off balance. Key Points It has been determined that the palm strike is more effective than the punch for developing force and for transferring momentum, most likely the result of a reduced number of rigid links and joints. A strike at head level is less effective than a strike at chest level for developing force and transferring momentum. Distance plays an effect on the overall force and momentum changes, and most likely is dependent on the velocity of the limb and alignment of the bones prior to impact. The teaching of self defence for novices and law enforcement would benefit from including the palm strike as a high priority technique. PMID:24474886

  13. Force and acceleration characteristics of military foot drill: implications for injury risk in recruits

    PubMed Central

    Carden, Patrick P J; Izard, Rachel M; Greeves, Julie P; Lake, Jason P; Myers, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Background Foot drill involving marching and drill manoeuvres is conducted regularly during basic military recruit training. Characterising the biomechanical loading of foot drill will improve our understanding of the contributory factors to lower limb overuse injuries in recruits. Aim Quantify and compare forces, loading rates and accelerations of British Army foot drill, within and between trained and untrained personnel. Methods 24 trained soldiers (12 men and 12 women; TRAINED) and 12 civilian men (UNTRAINED) performed marching and five drill manoeuvres on force platforms; motion capture recorded tibial position. Peak vertical impact force (PF), peak vertical loading rate (PLR), expressed as multiples of body weight (BW) and peak tibial impact acceleration (PTA) were recorded. Results Drill manoeuvre PF, PLR and PTA were similar, but higher in TRAINED men (PF, PLR: p<0.01; PTA: p<0.05). Peak values in TRAINED men were shown for the halt (mean (SD); PF: 6.5 (1.5) BW; PLR: 983 (333) BW/s PTA; PTA: 207 (57) m/s2) and left turn (PF: 6.6 (1.7) BW; PLR: 928 (300) BW/s; 184 (62) m/s2). Marching PF, PLR, PTA were similar between groups and lower than all drill manoeuvres (PF: 1.1–1.3 BW; PLR: 42–70 BW/s; p<0.01; PTA: 23–38 m/s2; p<0.05). Conclusions Army foot drill generates higher forces, loading rates and accelerations than activities such as running and load carriage, while marching is comparable to moderate running (10.8 km/h). The large biomechanical loading of foot drill may contribute to the high rate of overuse injuries during initial military training, and strategies to regulate/reduce this loading should be explored. PMID:27900110

  14. Sprint Acceleration Mechanics: The Major Role of Hamstrings in Horizontal Force Production

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Jean-Benoît; Gimenez, Philippe; Edouard, Pascal; Arnal, Pierrick; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro; Samozino, Pierre; Brughelli, Matt; Mendiguchia, Jurdan

    2015-01-01

    Recent literature supports the importance of horizontal ground reaction force (GRF) production for sprint acceleration performance. Modeling and clinical studies have shown that the hip extensors are very likely contributors to sprint acceleration performance. We experimentally tested the role of the hip extensors in horizontal GRF production during short, maximal, treadmill sprint accelerations. Torque capabilities of the knee and hip extensors and flexors were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer in 14 males familiar with sprint running. Then, during 6-s sprints on an instrumented motorized treadmill, horizontal and vertical GRF were synchronized with electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and gluteus maximus averaged over the first half of support, entire support, entire swing and end-of-swing phases. No significant correlations were found between isokinetic or EMG variables and horizontal GRF. Multiple linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship (P = 0.024) between horizontal GRF and the combination of biceps femoris EMG activity during the end of the swing and the knee flexors eccentric peak torque. In conclusion, subjects who produced the greatest amount of horizontal force were both able to highly activate their hamstring muscles just before ground contact and present high eccentric hamstring peak torque capability. PMID:26733889

  15. Force reconstruction using the sum of weighted accelerations technique -- Max-Flat procedure

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Mayes, R.L.; Bateman, V.I.

    1993-12-31

    Force reconstruction is a procedure in which the externally applied force is inferred from measured structural response rather than directly measured. In a recently developed technique, the response acceleration time-histories are multiplied by scalar weights and summed to produce the reconstructed force. This reconstruction is called the Sum of Weighted Accelerations Technique (SWAT). One step in the application of this technique is the calculation of the appropriate scalar weights. In this paper a new method of estimating the weights, using measured frequency response function data, is developed and contrasted with the traditional SWAT method of inverting the mode-shape matrix. The technique uses frequency response function data, but is not based on deconvolution. An application that will be discussed as part of this paper is the impact into a rigid barrier of a weapon system with an energy-absorbing nose. The nose had been designed to absorb the energy of impact and to mitigate the shock to the interior components.

  16. USING ACCELERATOR PEDAL FORCE TO INCREASE SEAT BELT USE OF SERVICE VEHICLE DRIVERS

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, Ron; Hilton, Bryan; Schulman, Richard; Reagan, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a device that applied a sustained increase in accelerator pedal back force whenever drivers exceeded a preset speed criterion without buckling their seat belts. This force was removed once the belt was fastened. Participants were 6 commercial drivers who operated carpet-cleaning vans. During baseline, no contingency was in place for unbuckled trips. The pedal resistance was introduced via a multiple baseline design across groups. On the first day of treatment, the device was explained and demonstrated for all drivers of the vehicle. The treatment was associated with an immediate sustained increase in seat belt compliance to 100%. Occasionally, drivers initially did not buckle during a trip and encountered the force. In all instances, they buckled within less than 25 s. These results suggest that the increased force was sufficient to set up an establishing operation to reinforce seat belt buckling negatively. Drivers indicated that they were impressed with the device and would not drive very long unbelted with the pedal force in place. PMID:21541142

  17. A multipole accelerated desingularized method for computing nonlinear wave forces on bodies

    SciTech Connect

    Scorpio, S.M.; Beck, R.F.

    1996-12-31

    Nonlinear wave forces on offshore structures are investigated. The fluid motion is computed using an Euler-Lagrange time domain approach. Nonlinear free surface boundary conditions are stepped forward in time using an accurate and stable integration technique. The field equation with mixed boundary conditions that result at each time step are solved at N nodes using a desingularized boundary integral method with multipole acceleration. Multipole accelerated solutions require O(N) computational effort and computer storage while conventional solvers require O(N{sup 2}) effort and storage for an iterative solution and O(N{sup 3}) effort for direct inversion of the influence matrix. These methods are applied to the three dimensional problem of wave diffraction by a vertical cylinder.

  18. Range maximization and brachistochrone problem with Coulomb friction, viscous drag and accelerating force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkasov, O. Yu.; Zarodnyuk, A. V.; Bugrov, D. I.

    2017-01-01

    The range maximization problem and corresponding the brachistochrone problem with Coulomb, viscous friction and accelerating force are considered. A Maximum Principle procedure is applied to reduce optimal problem to the boundary-value problem for the system of two nonlinear differential equations. Solutions of this system are corresponding to the motion under singular control. The qualitative analysis of the solutions is carried out. It allows to install the characteristic properties of the trajectories, unnoticed in a number of publications as well as to confirm the hypothesis and the results of numerical calculations presented in other sources.

  19. A new approach to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement in women: Orthodontic force application after ovulation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaomei; Zhao, Qing; Yang, Siwei; Fu, Guangxin; Chen, Yangxi

    2010-10-01

    Tooth movement occurs as a consequence of periodontal tissue remodeling. The goal of every orthodontist is to investigate better approaches to accelerate tooth movement. Estrogen, by binding with its receptors in periodontal tissue, regulates the remodeling of alveolar bones, promotes bone formation, and inhibits bone resorption. Estrogen secretion in vivo is characterized by a nearly lunar rhythm. The estrogen expression level is low during menstruation and the luteal phase, and reaches the highest at 1-2days before ovulation. Estrogen physiological fluctuations can cause physiological fluctuations in the serum markers of bone turnover. Therefore, orthodontic therapy should be planned according to the menstrual cycle since tooth movement, under the application of force, is faster during low estrogen levels. In this paper, we propose a hypothesis that application of orthodontic force after each ovulation may promote tooth movement, thereby shortening the course of orthodontic treatment.

  20. Development of Velocity Guidance Assistance System by Haptic Accelerator Pedal Reaction Force Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Feilong; Hayashi, Ryuzo; Raksincharoensak, Pongsathorn; Nagai, Masao

    This research proposes a haptic velocity guidance assistance system for realizing eco-driving as well as enhancing traffic capacity by cooperating with ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems). The proposed guidance system generates the desired accelerator pedal (abbreviated as pedal) stroke with respect to the desired velocity obtained from ITS considering vehicle dynamics, and provides the desired pedal stroke to the driver via a haptic pedal whose reaction force is controllable and guides the driver in order to trace the desired velocity in real time. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the feasibility of the haptic velocity guidance. A haptic velocity guidance system for research is developed on the Driving Simulator of TUAT (DS), by attaching a low-inertia, low-friction motor to the pedal, which does not change the original characteristics of the original pedal when it is not operated, implementing an algorithm regarding the desired pedal stroke calculation and the reaction force controller. The haptic guidance maneuver is designed based on human pedal stepping experiments. A simple velocity profile with acceleration, deceleration and cruising is synthesized according to naturalistic driving for testing the proposed system. The experiment result of 9 drivers shows that the haptic guidance provides high accuracy and quick response in velocity tracking. These results prove that the haptic guidance is a promising velocity guidance method from the viewpoint of HMI (Human Machine Interface).

  1. Massive photons and Lorentz violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambiaso, Mauro; Lehnert, Ralf; Potting, Robertus

    2012-04-01

    All quadratic translation- and gauge-invariant photon operators for Lorentz breakdown are included into the Stueckelberg Lagrangian for massive photons in a generalized Rξ gauge. The corresponding dispersion relation and tree-level propagator are determined exactly, and some leading-order results are derived. The question of how to include such Lorentz-violating effects into a perturbative quantum-field expansion is addressed. Applications of these results within Lorentz-breaking quantum-field theories include the regularization of infrared divergences as well as the free propagation of massive vector bosons.

  2. Search for anisotropic Lorentz invariance violation with γ -rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislat, Fabian; Krawczynski, Henric

    2015-08-01

    While Lorentz invariance, the fundamental symmetry of Einstein's theory of general relativity, has been tested to a great level of detail, grand unified theories that combine gravity with the other three fundamental forces may result in a violation of Lorentz symmetry at the Planck scale. These energies are unattainable experimentally. However, minute deviations from Lorentz invariance may still be present at much lower energies. These deviations can accumulate over large distances, making astrophysical measurements the most sensitive tests of Lorentz symmetry. One effect of Lorentz invariance violation is an energy-dependent photon dispersion of the vacuum resulting in differences of the light travel time from distant objects. The Standard Model Extension (SME) is an effective theory to describe the low-energy behavior of a more fundamental grand unified theory, including Lorentz- and C P T -violating terms. In the SME the Lorentz-violating operators can in part be classified by their mass dimension d , with the lowest order being d =5 . However, measurements of photon polarization have constrained operators with d =5 setting lower limits on the energy at which they become dominant well beyond the Planck scale. On the other hand, these operators also violate C P T , and thus d =6 could be the leading order. In this paper we present constraints on all 25 real coefficients describing anisotropic nonbirefringent Lorentz invariance violation at mass dimension d =6 in the SME. We used Fermi-LAT observations of 25 active galactic nuclei to constrain photon dispersion and combined our results with previously published limits in order to simultaneously constrain all 25 coefficients. This represents the first set of constraints on these coefficients of mass dimension d =6 , whereas previous measurements were only able to constrain linear combinations of all 25 coefficients.

  3. Study of Magnetogasdynamic Flow Acceleration in a Scramjet Nozzle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    direction along the electrodes to be parallel with the flow. At the end of the electrodes, the vectors push the flow toward the wall. The x-y midplane...accelerated case features long regions of slower Mach number along the walls. This is probably due to a combination of the Lorentz forces pushing ...Institute of Tecnology , WPAFB, OH, March 2004. 8. Einstein, A. Relativity, The Special and General Theory . Three Rivers Press, 1961. 9. “Ramjet, Scramjet

  4. Computational analysis of a pulsed inductive plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corpening, Jeremy H.

    The pulsed inductive plasma accelerator allows for ionization of a cold gas propellant to plasma and acceleration of plasma with the same current pulse and without plasma contact with any part. This is beneficial since erosion is never a problem and lifetimes are limited only by the amount of carried propellant. To date, work involving the pulsed inductive plasma accelerator concept has been largely experimental with minimal computational analysis. The goal of the present research was to develop a computational tool using Maxwell's equations coupled with the Navier-Stokes fluid equations to fully analyze a pulsed inductive plasma accelerator. A plasma model was developed using the Saha equation and partition functions to calculate all required thermodynamic properties. The solution to Maxwell's equations was verified accurate and then coupled computations with propellant plasma were conducted. These coupled computations showed good order of magnitude accuracy with a simple onedimensional model however failed when the plasma began to accelerate due to the Lorentz force. The electric field, magnetic field, current density, and Lorentz force were all aligned in the proper vector directions. The computational failure occurred due to rapid, fictitious increases in the induced electric field in the vacuum created between the accelerating plasma and drive coil. Possible solutions to this problem are to decrease the time step and refine the grid density. Although complete acceleration of propellant plasma has yet to be computationally computed, this study has shown successful coupled computations with Maxwell and Navier-Stokes equations for a pulsed inductive plasma accelerator.

  5. Determination of velocity, acceleration,and forces in the contraction of vorticella convallaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallaq, R.; van Winkle, D. H.; Cao, J.

    2003-03-01

    The contractile avoidance response of the single cell vorticella convallaria is one of the fastest motions in a biological system. Previous studies of this system have been limited by the difficulty in setting up high speed camera and triggering equipment to capture the contraction, occurring over several milliseconds. Using a CMOS camera, which can continuously record and store 64x256 pel images at rep rate up to 13 kHz into 500 MB of on-board memory (Vision Research, In.-Phantom), we are able to capture the spontaneous fast contraction of the vorticella in real time. By measuring the stalk length vs. time from these recorded images , the contraction velocity and acceleration vs. time plots are determined. Using estimates of mass the contractile forces exerted by the stalk are found to be on the order of 10-10N. In addition , significant variations in all measured quantities are observed even for the same organism.

  6. Accelerating ab initio Molecular Dynamics and Probing the Weak Dispersive Forces in Dense Liquid Hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzola, Guglielmo; Sorella, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    We propose an ab initio molecular dynamics method, capable of dramatically reducing the autocorrelation time required for the simulation of classical and quantum particles at finite temperatures. The method is based on an efficient implementation of a first order Langevin dynamics modified by means of a suitable, position dependent acceleration matrix S . Here, we apply this technique to both Lennard-Jones models, to demonstrate the accuracy and speeding-up of the sampling, and within a quantum Monte Carlo based wave function approach, for determining the phase diagram of high-pressure hydrogen with simulations much longer than the autocorrelation time. With the proposed method, we are able to equilibrate in a few hundred steps even close to the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLT). Within our approach, we find that the LLT transition is consistent with recent density functionals predicting a much larger transition pressure when the long range dispersive forces are taken into account.

  7. Pull-in instability of paddle-type and double-sided NEMS sensors under the accelerating force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keivani, M.; Khorsandi, J.; Mokhtari, J.; Kanani, A.; Abadian, N.; Abadyan, M.

    2016-02-01

    Paddle-type and double-sided nanostructures are potential for use as accelerometers in flying vehicles and aerospace applications. Herein the pull-in instability of the cantilever paddle-type and double-sided sensors in the Casimir regime are investigated under the acceleration. The D'Alembert principle is employed to transform the accelerating system into an equivalent static system by incorporating the accelerating force. Based on the couple stress theory (CST), the size-dependent constitutive equations of the sensors are derived. The governing nonlinear equations are solved by two approaches, i.e. modified variational iteration method and finite difference method. The influences of the Casimir force, geometrical parameters, acceleration and the size phenomenon on the instability performance have been demonstrated. The obtained results are beneficial to design and fabricate paddle-type and double-sided accelerometers.

  8. Uniform acceleration in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Yaakov; Scarr, Tzvi

    2015-10-01

    We extend de la Fuente and Romero's (Gen Relativ Gravit 47:33, 2015) defining equation for uniform acceleration in a general curved spacetime from linear acceleration to the full Lorentz covariant uniform acceleration. In a flat spacetime background, we have explicit solutions. We use generalized Fermi-Walker transport to parallel transport the Frenet basis along the trajectory. In flat spacetime, we obtain velocity and acceleration transformations from a uniformly accelerated system to an inertial system. We obtain the time dilation between accelerated clocks. We apply our acceleration transformations to the motion of a charged particle in a constant electromagnetic field and recover the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equation.

  9. Generalization of the Lorentz-Dirac equation to include spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barut, A. O.; Unal, Nuri

    1989-11-01

    For the classical point electron with Zitterbewegung (hence spin) we derive, after regularization, the radiation reaction force and covariant equations for the dynamical variables (xμ, πμ, vμ, and Sμν), which reduce to the Lorentz-Dirac equation in the spinless limit.

  10. Application of Machine Learning Approaches for Classifying Sitting Posture Based on Force and Acceleration Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tanadini, Matteo; Plüss, Stefan; Schnüriger, Karin; Singh, Navrag B.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational musculoskeletal disorders, particularly chronic low back pain (LBP), are ubiquitous due to prolonged static sitting or nonergonomic sitting positions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an instrumented chair with force and acceleration sensors to determine the accuracy of automatically identifying the user's sitting position by applying five different machine learning methods (Support Vector Machines, Multinomial Regression, Boosting, Neural Networks, and Random Forest). Forty-one subjects were requested to sit four times in seven different prescribed sitting positions (total 1148 samples). Sixteen force sensor values and the backrest angle were used as the explanatory variables (features) for the classification. The different classification methods were compared by means of a Leave-One-Out cross-validation approach. The best performance was achieved using the Random Forest classification algorithm, producing a mean classification accuracy of 90.9% for subjects with which the algorithm was not familiar. The classification accuracy varied between 81% and 98% for the seven different sitting positions. The present study showed the possibility of accurately classifying different sitting positions by means of the introduced instrumented office chair combined with machine learning analyses. The use of such novel approaches for the accurate assessment of chair usage could offer insights into the relationships between sitting position, sitting behaviour, and the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:27868066

  11. Strongly enhanced effects of Lorentz symmetry violation in entangled Yb+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzuba, V. A.; Flambaum, V. V.; Safronova, M. S.; Porsev, S. G.; Pruttivarasin, T.; Hohensee, M. A.; Häffner, H.

    2016-05-01

    A number of theories aiming at unifying gravity with other fundamental interactions, including field theory, suggest the violation of Lorentz symmetry. Whereas the energy scale of such strongly Lorentz-symmetry-violating physics is much higher than that attainable at present by particle accelerators, Lorentz violation may nevertheless be detectable via precision measurements at low energies. Here, we carry out a systematic theoretical investigation to identify which atom shows the greatest promise for detecting a Lorentz symmetry violation in the electron-photon sector. We found that the ytterbium ion (Yb+) is an ideal system with high sensitivity, as well as excellent experimental controllability. By applying quantum-information-inspired technology to Yb+, we expect tests of local Lorentz invariance (LLI) violating physics in the electron-photon sector to reach levels of 10-23--five orders of magnitude more sensitive than the current best bounds.

  12. Statistical mechanics and Lorentz violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick

    2004-12-01

    The theory of statistical mechanics is studied in the presence of Lorentz-violating background fields. The analysis is performed using the Standard-Model Extension (SME) together with a Jaynesian formulation of statistical inference. Conventional laws of thermodynamics are obtained in the presence of a perturbed hamiltonian that contains the Lorentz-violating terms. As an example, properties of the nonrelativistic ideal gas are calculated in detail. To lowest order in Lorentz violation, the scalar thermodynamic variables are only corrected by a rotationally invariant combination of parameters that mimics a (frame dependent) effective mass. Spin-couplings can induce a temperature-independent polarization in the classical gas that is not present in the conventional case. Precision measurements in the residual expectation values of the magnetic moment of Fermi gases in the limit of high temperature may provide interesting limits on these parameters.

  13. Systematic Study of Student Understanding of the Relationships between the Directions of Force, Velocity, and Acceleration in One Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Rebecca; Heckler, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    We developed an instrument to systematically investigate student conceptual understanding of the relationships between the directions of net force, velocity, and acceleration in one dimension and report on data collected on the final version of the instrument from over 650 students. Unlike previous work, we simultaneously studied all six possible…

  14. Fresnel formulas as Lorentz transformations

    PubMed

    Monzon; Sanchez-Soto

    2000-08-01

    From a matrix formulation of the boundary conditions we obtain the fundamental invariant for an interface and a remarkably simple factorization of the interface matrix, which enables us to express the Fresnel coefficients in a new and compact form. This factorization allows us to recast the action of an interface between transparent media as a hyperbolic rotation. By exploiting the local isomorphism between SL(2, C) and the (3 + 1)-dimensional restricted Lorentz group SO(3, 1), we construct the equivalent Lorentz transformation that describes any interface.

  15. Pulsed Plasma Accelerator Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, M.; Kazeminezhad, F.; Owens, T.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the main results of the modeling task of the PPA project. The objective of this task is to make major progress towards developing a new computational tool with new capabilities for simulating cylindrically symmetric 2.5 dimensional (2.5 D) PPA's. This tool may be used for designing, optimizing, and understanding the operation of PPA s and other pulsed power devices. The foundation for this task is the 2-D, cylindrically symmetric, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code PCAPPS (Princeton Code for Advanced Plasma Propulsion Simulation). PCAPPS was originally developed by Sankaran (2001, 2005) to model Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerators (LLFA's), which are electrode based devices, and are typically operated in continuous magnetic field to the model, and implementing a first principles, self-consistent algorithm to couple the plasma and power circuit that drives the plasma dynamics.

  16. Cosmology of a Lorentz violating Galileon theory

    SciTech Connect

    Haghani, Zahra; Shahidi, Shahab; Harko, Tiberiu; Sepangi, Hamid Reza E-mail: t.harko@ucl.ac.uk E-mail: s.shahidi@du.ac.ir

    2015-05-01

    We modify the scalar Einstein-aether theory by breaking the Lorentz invariance of a gravitational theory coupled to a Galileon type scalar field. This is done by introducing a Lagrange multiplier term into the action, thus ensuring that the gradient of the scalar field is time-like, with unit norm. The theory can also be considered as an extension to the mimetic dark matter theory, by adding some derivative self interactions to the action, which keeps the equation of motion at most second order in time derivatives. The cosmological implications of the model are discussed in detail. In particular, for pressure-less baryonic matter, we show that the universe experiences a late time acceleration. The cosmological implications of a special coupling between the scalar field and the trace of the energy-momentum tensor are also explored.

  17. ACCELERATION OF TYPE II SPICULES IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2012-10-01

    A 2.5D, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model is used to test the proposition that observed type II spicule velocities can be generated by a Lorentz force under chromospheric conditions. It is found that current densities localized on observed space and time scales of type II spicules and that generate maximum magnetic field strengths {<=}50 G can generate a Lorentz force that accelerates plasma to terminal velocities similar to those of type II spicules. Maximum vertical flow speeds are {approx}150-460 km s{sup -1}, horizontally localized within {approx}2.5-10 km from the vertical axis of the spicule, and comparable to slow solar wind speeds, suggesting that significant solar wind acceleration occurs in type II spicules. Horizontal speeds are {approx}20 times smaller than vertical speeds. Terminal velocity is reached {approx}100 s after acceleration begins. The increase in the mechanical and thermal energy of the plasma during acceleration is (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} ergs. The radial component of the Lorentz force compresses the plasma during the acceleration process by factors as large as {approx}100. The Joule heating flux generated during this process is essentially due to proton Pedersen current dissipation and can be {approx}0.1-3.7 times the heating flux of {approx}10{sup 6} ergs cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} associated with middle-upper chromospheric emission. About 84%-94% of the magnetic energy that accelerates and heats the spicules is converted into bulk flow kinetic energy.

  18. On Lorentz Transformations in Symplectic Deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, R.; Sabido, M.; Guzman, W.

    2010-07-12

    In this paper we study noncommutative Lorentz transformations using symplectic deformations. In this framework we define an infinitesimal line element that is invariant under this noncommutative Lorentz transformations. Using the symplectic geometry formalism, we find that noncommutative Lorentz transformations intertwine the canonical momentums with canonical position coordinates.

  19. Reflection theorem for Lorentz-Minkowski spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Nam-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    We generalize the reflection theorem of the Lorentz-Minkowski plane to that of the Lorentz-Minkowski spaces of higher dimensions. As a result, we show that an isometry of the Lorentz-Minkowski spacetime is a composition of at most 5 reflections.

  20. Pathology-Free Modification of the Lorentz-Dirac Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinder, S. M.

    2001-04-01

    The Lorentz-Dirac equation for the force on an accelerating electron is conventionally written in covariant form F_ext^λ=ma^λ-2 e^2\\over 3 c^3(dot a^λ+1\\over c^2 a^2 v^λ) However, this equation has fallen into disfavor in recent years because it admits pathological solutions representing runaway behavior or preacceleration violating classical causality. For example, force-free motion can exhibit unphysical runaway solutions of the form a(t)= a(0)exp(t/ τ_0), where τ_0≡ 2e^2/3mc^3≈ 6.26× 10-24 sec. Note that the first two terms of the L-D equation could originate from expansion of ma^λ(τ-τ_0) in powers of τ_0. We propose the following differential-difference equation as a compact non-pathologial alternative to the L-D equation: F^λ_ext(τ)=m [a^λ β^μ -a^μ β^λ]_τ-τ0 β_μ(τ) where β^λ=v^λ/c. Expansion of the bracketed quantity reacquires the conventional equation, apart from higher-order terms in τ_0. It can be demonstrated that F=0 unambiguously implies a=0. Moreover the occurrence of the retarded time variable τ-τ0 precludes any solutions with preacceleration. A more detailed derivation is given in a forthcoming paper [S. M. Blinder, ``Classical electrodynamics with vacuum polarization: electron self-energy and radiation reaction," Repts. Math. Phys., in press].

  1. Use of induced acceleration to quantify the (de)stabilization effect of external and internal forces on postural responses.

    PubMed

    van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; Carpenter, Mark G; van der Helm, Frans C T; van der Kooij, Herman

    2007-12-01

    Due to the mechanical coupling between the body segments, it is impossible to see with the naked eye the causes of body movements and understand the interaction between movements of different body parts. The goal of this paper is to investigate the use of induced acceleration analysis to reveal the causes of body movements. We derive the analytical equations to calculate induced accelerations and evaluate its potential to study human postural responses to support-surface translations. We measured the kinematic and kinetic responses of a subject to sudden forward and backward translations of a moving platform. The kinematic and kinetics served as input to the induced acceleration analyses. The induced accelerations showed explicitly that the platform acceleration and deceleration contributed to the destabilization and restabilization of standing balance, respectively. Furthermore, the joint torques, coriolis and centrifugal forces caused by swinging of the arms, contributed positively to stabilization of the Center of Mass. It is concluded that induced acceleration analyses is a valuable tool in understanding balance responses to different kinds of perturbations and may help to identify the causes of movement in different pathologies.

  2. Lorentz-violating dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondragon, Antonio R.

    Observations from the 1930s until the present have established the existence of dark matter with an abundance that is much larger than that of luminous matter. Because none of the known particles of nature have the correct properties to be identified as the dark matter, various exotic candidates have been proposed. The neutralino of supersymmetric theories is the most promising example. Such cold dark matter candidates, however, lead to a conflict between the standard simulations of the evolution of cosmic structure and observations. Simulations predict excessive structure formation on small scales, including density cusps at the centers of galaxies, that is not observed. This conflict still persists in early 2007, and it has not yet been convincingly resolved by attempted explanations that invoke astrophysical phenomena, which would destroy or broaden all small scale structure. We have investigated another candidate that is perhaps more exotic: Lorentz-violating dark matter, which was originally motivated by an unconventional fundamental theory, but which in this dissertation is defined as matter which has a nonzero minimum velocity. Furthermore, the present investigation evolved into the broader goal of exploring the properties of Lorentz-violating matter and the astrophysical consequences-a subject which to our knowledge has not been previously studied. Our preliminary investigations indicated that this form of matter might have less tendency to form small-scale structure. These preliminary calculations certainly established that Lorentz-violating matter which always moves at an appreciable fraction of the speed of light will bind less strongly. However, the much more thorough set of studies reported here lead to the conclusion that, although the binding energy is reduced, the small-scale structure problem is not solved by Lorentz-violating dark matter. On the other hand, when we compare the predictions of Lorentz-violating dynamics with those of classical

  3. Kinetic Study of Radiation-Reaction-Limited Particle Acceleration During the Relaxation of Force-Free Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yajie; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Blandford, Roger D.; East, William E.; Zrake, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Many powerful and variable gamma-ray sources, including pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, seem capable of accelerating particles to gamma-ray emitting energies efficiently over short time scales. This might be due to prodigal dissipation in a highly magnetized outflow. In order to understand the generic behavior of relativistic plasma with high magnetization, we consider a class of prototypical force-free equilibria which are shown to be unstable to ideal modes (East et al 2015 PRL 115, 095002). Kinetic simulations are carried out to follow the evolution of the instability and to study the basic mechanisms of particle acceleration, especially in the radiation-reaction-limited regime. We find that the instability naturally produces current layers and these are sites for efficient particle acceleration. Detailed calculations of the gamma ray spectrum, the evolution of the particle distribution function and the dynamical consequences of radiation reaction will be presented.

  4. An Involution of Lorentz Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubkin, Elihu

    2000-04-01

    Quadrilateral(axis, joystick) creates a proper Lorentz transformation dual to Quadrilateral(joystick, axis). The joystick is a line through axis and coaxis, selecting on them the intrinsic velocity and the intrinsic angle, respectively.(E. Lubkin, ``Reversed 3velocities'', APR99.) (Thing and co-thing are skew perpendicular with inverse nearest points.) This involution may be interesting: axis, coaxis, joystick, and cojoystick indeed do close in a quadrilateral. And this came up in multiplying coaxial Lorentz transformations A and B to get C. When result C is surprisingly not coaxial with A and B---this happens when A, B are improper of opposite types---the result is an (intrinsic) aboutface whose new axis is of old joystick form.

  5. Inertia Coupling Analysis of a Self-Decoupled Wheel Force Transducer under Multi-Axis Acceleration Fields

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lihang; Lin, Guoyu; Zhang, Weigong; Dai, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Wheel force transducer (WFT), which measures the three-axis forces and three-axis torques applied to the wheel, is an important instrument in the vehicle testing field and has been extremely promoted by researchers with great interests. The transducer, however, is typically mounted on the wheel of a moving vehicle, especially on a high speed car, when abruptly accelerating or braking, the mass/inertia of the transducer/wheel itself will have an extra effect on the sensor response so that the inertia/mass loads will also be detected and coupled into the signal outputs. The effect which is considered to be inertia coupling problem will decrease the sensor accuracy. In this paper, the inertia coupling of a universal WFT under multi-axis accelerations is investigated. According to the self-decoupling approach of the WFT, inertia load distribution is solved based on the principle of equivalent mass and rotary inertia, thus then inertia impact can be identified with the theoretical derivation. The verification is achieved by FEM simulation and experimental tests. Results show that strains in simulation agree well with the theoretical derivation. The relationship between the applied acceleration and inertia load for both wheel force and moment is the approximate linear, respectively. All the relative errors are less than 5% which are within acceptable and the inertia loads have the maximum impact on the signal output about 1.5% in the measurement range. PMID:25723492

  6. Lorentz transformation of blackbody radiation.

    PubMed

    Ford, G W; O'Connell, R F

    2013-10-01

    We present a simple calculation of the Lorentz transformation of the spectral distribution of blackbody radiation at temperature T. Here we emphasize that T is the temperature in the blackbody rest frame and does not change. We thus avoid the confused and confusing question of how temperature transforms. We show by explicit calculation that at zero temperature the spectral distribution is invariant. At finite temperature we find the well-known result familiar in discussions of the 2.7 K cosmic radiation.

  7. CONSTRAINTS ON THE BULK LORENTZ FACTORS OF GRB X-RAY FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Shuang-Xi; Wang, Fa-Yin; Dai, Zi-Gao; Wu, Xue-Feng

    2015-07-01

    X-ray flares were discovered in the afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) by the Swift satellite a decade ago and are known as a canonical component in GRB X-ray afterglows. In this paper, we constrain the Lorentz factors of GRB X-ray flares using two different methods. For the first method, we estimate the lower limit on the bulk Lorentz factor with the flare duration and jet break time. In the second method, the upper limit on the Lorentz factor is derived by assuming that the X-ray flare jet has undergone saturated acceleration. We also re-estimate the initial Lorentz factor with GRB afterglow onsets, and find the coefficient of the theoretical Lorentz factor is 1.67 rather than the commonly used 2 for the interstellar medium (ISM) and 1.44 for the wind case. We find that the correlation between the limited Lorentz factor and the isotropic radiation energy of X-ray flares in the ISM case is more consistent with that of prompt emission than the wind case in a statistical sense. For a comparison, the lower limit on the Lorentz factor is statistically larger than the extrapolation from prompt bursts in the wind case. Our results indicate that X-ray flares and prompt bursts are produced by the same physical mechanism.

  8. Radiation Pressure Forces, the Anomalous Acceleration, and Center of Mass Motion for the TOPEX/POSEIDON Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubitschek, Daniel G.; Born, George H.

    2000-01-01

    Shortly after launch of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) spacecraft (s/c), the Precision Orbit Determination (POD) Team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Center for Space Research at the University of Texas, discovered residual along-track accelerations, which were unexpected. Here, we describe the analysis of radiation pressure forces acting on the T/P s/c for the purpose of understanding and providing an explanation for the anomalous accelerations. The radiation forces acting on the T/P solar army, which experiences warping due to temperature gradients between the front and back surfaces, are analyzed and the resulting along-track accelerations are determined. Characteristics similar to those of the anomalous acceleration are seen. This analysis led to the development of a new radiation form model, which includes solar array warping and a solar array deployment deflection of as large as 2 deg. As a result of this new model estimates of the empirical along-track acceleration are reduced in magnitude when compared to the GSFC tuned macromodel and are less dependent upon beta(prime), the location of the Sun relative to the orbit plane. If these results we believed to reflect the actual orientation of the T/P solar array then motion of the solar array must influence the location of the s/c center of mass. Preliminary estimates indicate that the center of mass can vary by as much as 3 cm in the radial component of the s/c's position due to rotation of the deflected, warped solar array panel .The altimeter measurements rely upon accurate knowledge of the center of mass location relative to the s/c frame of reference. Any radial motion of the center of mass directly affects the altimeter measurements.

  9. Lorentz violation and Faddeev-Popov ghosts

    SciTech Connect

    Altschul, B.

    2006-02-15

    We consider how Lorentz-violating interactions in the Faddeev-Popov ghost sector will affect scalar QED. The behavior depends sensitively on whether the gauge symmetry is spontaneously broken. If the symmetry is not broken, Lorentz violations in the ghost sector are unphysical, but if there is spontaneous breaking, radiative corrections will induce Lorentz-violating and gauge-dependent terms in other sectors of the theory.

  10. Hall MHD Equilibrium of Accelerated Compact Toroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, S. J.; Hwang, D. Q.; Horton, R. D.; Evans, R. W.; Brockington, S. J.

    2007-11-01

    We examine the structure and dynamics of the compact toroid's magnetic field. The compact toroid is dramatically accelerated by a large rail-gun Lorentz force density equal to j xB. We use magnetic data from the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment to answer the question of exactly where in the system j xB has nonzero values, and to what extent we can apply the standard model of force-free equilibrium. In particular we present a method of analysis of the magnetic field probe signals that allows direct comparison to the predictions of the Woltjer-Taylor force-free model and Turner's generalization of magnetic relaxation in the presence of a non-zero Hall term and fluid vorticity.

  11. Renormalization of Lorentz violating theories

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmi, Damiano; Halat, Milenko

    2007-12-15

    We classify the unitary, renormalizable, Lorentz violating quantum field theories of interacting scalars and fermions, obtained improving the behavior of Feynman diagrams by means of higher space derivatives. Higher time derivatives are not generated by renormalization. Renormalizability is ensured by a ''weighted power-counting'' criterion. The theories contain a dimensionful parameter {lambda}{sub L}, yet a set of models are classically invariant under a weighted scale transformation, which is anomalous at the quantum level. Formulas for the weighted trace anomaly are derived. The renormalization-group properties are studied.

  12. South Pole Lorentz Invariance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, Morgan; Smiciklas, Marc; Romalis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Atomic spin co-magnetometers are among the most sensitive instruments to test for violations of CPT and Lorentz symmetry. Our rotating co-magnetometer has, in recent years, set the most stringent limits for such violations in fermions with measurements conducted in Princeton. In order to eliminate the gyroscopic pickup of Earth's rotation as a major limiting background, we now operate a Rb-21Ne co-magnetometer at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. We discuss the current status of our ongoing South Pole experiment along with the latest results. This research is funded by NSF grant #PLR-1142032.

  13. Progress towards the development of transient ram accelerator simulation as part of the U.S. Air Force Armament Directorate Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, N.; York, B. J.; Dash, S. M.; Drabczuk, R.; Rolader, G. E.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced CFD simulation capability in support of the U.S. Air Force Armament Directorate's ram accelerator research initiative. The state-of-the-art CRAFT computer code has been specialized for high fidelity, transient ram accelerator simulations via inclusion of generalized dynamic gridding, solution adaptive grid clustering, high pressure thermochemistry, etc. Selected ram accelerator simulations are presented which serve to exhibit the CRAFT code's capabilities and identify some of the principal research/design issues.

  14. Displacement of plasma protein and conduction velocity in rats under action of acceleration forces and hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baranski, S.; Edelwejn, Z.; Wojtkowiak, M.

    1980-01-01

    The permeability of capillary vessels was investigated in order to determine if acceleration alone or following prolonged hypokinesia would induce changes in the vascular wall leading to the penetration by l-albumins and/or proteins with larger molecules. In rats undergoing action of +5 Gz accelerations, no increase in vascular permeability, as tested with the use of (Cr-5k)-globulin, was demostrated. In rats immobilized for 4 weeks before centrifugation, rather weak migration of (Cr-51)-globulin from the vessels was observed. Immobilization resulted also in lowering of conduction velocity in the sciatic nerve.

  15. South Pole Lorentz Invariance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, Morgan; Smiciklas, Marc; Romalis, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Searches for Lorentz and CPT violation play an important role in testing current theories of space-time. To test one of the consequences of local Lorentz invariance we have performed a precision test of spatial isotropy at the Amundsen-Scott station near the geographic South Pole. This location provides the most isotropic environment available on Earth. The experiment is a rotating atomic-spin co-magnetometer which compares energy levels of 21Ne and Rubidium atoms as a function of direction. The experimental sensitivity obtained is more than an order of magnitude better than in previous such measurements, known as Hughes-Drever experiments. By operating the experiment at the Pole we are able to eliminate background signals due to the gyroscopic interactions of spins with Earth's rotation as well as diurnal environmental effects. Here we will present final results from the experiment's 2-year data collection period. This is the first precision atomic physics experiment performed at the Pole, and we will discuss the potential for future such measurements.

  16. South Pole Lorentz Invariance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, Morgan; Smiciklas, Marc; Romalis, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Tests of Lorentz and CPT symmetries are important because they form a cornerstone of quantum field theory and general relativity. To test one of the consequences of local Lorentz invariance we have performed a precision test of spatial isotropy at the Amundsen-Scott station near the geographic South Pole. This location provides the most isotropic environment available on Earth. We use an atomic spin co-magnetometer to compare energy levels in 21 Ne and Rubidium atoms as the apparatus rotates with respect to the cosmos. Our experimental sensitivity is more than an order of magnitude greater than in previous such measurements, known as Hughes-Drever experiments. By operating at the South Pole we eliminate background signals due to the gyroscopic interactions of spins with Earth's rotation as well as diurnal environmental effects. The experiment has finished a 2-year data collection period and we expect to present the final results at the meeting. This is the first precision atomic physics experiment performed at the Pole and we will discuss the potential for future such measurements.

  17. New effects in the interaction between electromagnetic sources mediated by nonminimal Lorentz violating interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, L. H. C.; Ferrari, A. F.; Barone, F. A.

    2016-11-01

    This paper is dedicated to the study of interactions between external sources for the electromagnetic field in the presence of Lorentz symmetry breaking. We focus on a higher derivative, Lorentz violating interaction that arises from a specific model that was argued to lead to interesting effects in the low energy phenomenology of light pseudoscalars interacting with photons. The kind of higher derivative Lorentz violating interaction we discuss are called nonminimal. They are usually expected to be relevant only at very high energies, but we argue they might also induce relevant effects in low energy phenomena. Indeed, we show that the Lorentz violating background considered by us leads to several phenomena that have no counterpart in Maxwell theory, such as nontrivial torques on isolated electric dipoles, as well as nontrivial forces and torques between line currents and point like charges, as well as among Dirac strings and other electromagnetic sources.

  18. Enhanced sensitivity to Lorentz invariance violations in short-range gravity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Chen, Ya-Fen; Tan, Yu-Jie; Luo, Jun; Yang, Shan-Qing; Tobar, Michael Edmund

    2016-11-01

    Recently, first limits on putative Lorentz invariance violation coefficients in the pure gravity sector were determined by the reanalysis of short-range gravity experiments. Such experiments search for new physics at sidereal frequencies. They are not, however, designed to optimize the signal strength of a Lorentz invariance violation force; in fact the Lorentz violating signal is suppressed in the planar test mass geometry employed in those experiments. We describe a short-range torsion pendulum experiment with enhanced sensitivity to possible Lorentz violating signals. A periodic, striped test mass geometry is used to augment the signal. Careful arrangement of the phases of the striped patterns on opposite ends of the pendulum further enhances the signal while simultaneously suppressing the Newtonian background.

  19. MTS-MD of Biomolecules Steered with 3D-RISM-KH Mean Solvation Forces Accelerated with Generalized Solvation Force Extrapolation.

    PubMed

    Omelyan, Igor; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2015-04-14

    We developed a generalized solvation force extrapolation (GSFE) approach to speed up multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of biomolecules steered with mean solvation forces obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure). GSFE is based on a set of techniques including the non-Eckart-like transformation of coordinate space separately for each solute atom, extension of the force-coordinate pair basis set followed by selection of the best subset, balancing the normal equations by modified least-squares minimization of deviations, and incremental increase of outer time step in motion integration. Mean solvation forces acting on the biomolecule atoms in conformations at successive inner time steps are extrapolated using a relatively small number of best (closest) solute atomic coordinates and corresponding mean solvation forces obtained at previous outer time steps by converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations. The MTS-MD evolution steered with GSFE of 3D-RISM-KH mean solvation forces is efficiently stabilized with our optimized isokinetic Nosé-Hoover chain (OIN) thermostat. We validated the hybrid MTS-MD/OIN/GSFE/3D-RISM-KH integrator on solvated organic and biomolecules of different stiffness and complexity: asphaltene dimer in toluene solvent, hydrated alanine dipeptide, miniprotein 1L2Y, and protein G. The GSFE accuracy and the OIN efficiency allowed us to enlarge outer time steps up to huge values of 1-4 ps while accurately reproducing conformational properties. Quasidynamics steered with 3D-RISM-KH mean solvation forces achieves time scale compression of conformational changes coupled with solvent exchange, resulting in further significant acceleration of protein conformational sampling with respect to real time dynamics. Overall, this provided a 50- to 1000-fold effective speedup of conformational sampling for these systems, compared to conventional MD

  20. Jetting mechanisms of particles under shock wave acceleration: the role of force chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Kun

    The particle jetting phenomenon is widely observed in many problems associated with blast/shock dispersal of granular materials, although its origin is still unidentified. We carried out discrete element simulations of the shock dispersal of two-dimensional particle rings in order to extract the particle-scale evolution of the shocked rings in terms of the velocity profile and the force-chain networks. Initially the force chains distribute uniformly along the circumference, but after several dozens of microseconds, they disseminate into a handful of blobs which mainly consist of long linear or branched chains align with the radial direction. These blobs are separated by zones featuring relatively sparse force chains which take forms of short chains or small compact polygons. The radial-like force chains in blobs serves as the channels transferring the momentum from the inner layers to outer layers, resulting in fast moving blocks without appreciable velocity differences. By contrast, the shock energy in the zones with short force chains is largely dissipated among the particle collision. Thus particles in these zones lag behind those bound by strong force chains. The resultant heterogeneous velocity profile acts as the precursor of the ensuing particle jetting.

  1. Adaptive GPU-accelerated force calculation for interactive rigid molecular docking using haptics.

    PubMed

    Iakovou, Georgios; Hayward, Steven; Laycock, Stephen D

    2015-09-01

    Molecular docking systems model and simulate in silico the interactions of intermolecular binding. Haptics-assisted docking enables the user to interact with the simulation via their sense of touch but a stringent time constraint on the computation of forces is imposed due to the sensitivity of the human haptic system. To simulate high fidelity smooth and stable feedback the haptic feedback loop should run at rates of 500Hz to 1kHz. We present an adaptive force calculation approach that can be executed in parallel on a wide range of Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) for interactive haptics-assisted docking with wider applicability to molecular simulations. Prior to the interactive session either a regular grid or an octree is selected according to the available GPU memory to determine the set of interatomic interactions within a cutoff distance. The total force is then calculated from this set. The approach can achieve force updates in less than 2ms for molecular structures comprising hundreds of thousands of atoms each, with performance improvements of up to 90 times the speed of current CPU-based force calculation approaches used in interactive docking. Furthermore, it overcomes several computational limitations of previous approaches such as pre-computed force grids, and could potentially be used to model receptor flexibility at haptic refresh rates.

  2. CPT violation implies violation of Lorentz invariance.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, O W

    2002-12-02

    A interacting theory that violates CPT invariance necessarily violates Lorentz invariance. On the other hand, CPT invariance is not sufficient for out-of-cone Lorentz invariance. Theories that violate CPT by having different particle and antiparticle masses must be nonlocal.

  3. Neutrinos as Probes of Lorentz Invariance

    DOE PAGES

    Díaz, Jorge S.

    2014-01-01

    Neutrinos can be used to search for deviations from exact Lorentz invariance. The worldwide experimental program in neutrino physics makes these particles a remarkable tool to search for a variety of signals that could reveal minute relativity violations. This paper reviews the generic experimental signatures of the breakdown of Lorentz symmetry in the neutrino sector.

  4. Lorentz Covariant Distributions with Spectral Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zinoviev, Yury M.

    2007-11-14

    The properties of the vacuum expectation values of products of the quantum fields are formulated in the book [1]. The vacuum expectation values of quantum fields products would be the Fourier transforms of the Lorentz covariant tempered distributions with supports in the product of the closed upper light cones. Lorentz invariant distributions are studied in the papers [2]--[4]. The authors of these papers wanted to describe Lorentz invariant distributions in terms of distributions given on the Lorentz group orbit space. This orbit space has a complicated structure. It is noted [5] that a tempered distribution with support in the closed upper light cone may be represented as the action of the wave operator in some power on a differentiable function with support in the closed upper light cone. For the description of the Lorentz covariant differentiable functions the boundary of the closed upper light cone is not important. The measure of this boundary is zero.

  5. Cosmology of a universe with spontaneously broken Lorentz symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, P. G.; Gripaios, B. M.; Zlosnik, T. G.; Saffari, R.

    2007-02-15

    A self-consistent effective field theory of modified gravity has recently been proposed with spontaneous breaking of local Lorentz invariance. The symmetry is broken by a vector field with the wrong-sign mass term and it has been shown to have additional graviton modes and modified dispersion relations. In this paper we study the evolution of a homogeneous and isotropic universe in the presence of such a vector field with a minimum lying along the timelike direction. A plethora of different regimes is identified, such as accelerated expansion, loitering, collapse, and tracking.

  6. Kinetic Study of Radiation-reaction-limited Particle Acceleration During the Relaxation of Unstable Force-free Equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yajie; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Zrake, Jonathan; East, William E.; Blandford, Roger D.

    2016-09-01

    Many powerful and variable gamma-ray sources, including pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, seem capable of accelerating particles to gamma-ray emitting energies efficiently over very short timescales. These are likely due to the rapid dissipation of electromagnetic energy in a highly magnetized, relativistic plasma. In order to understand the generic features of such processes, we have investigated simple models based on the relaxation of unstable force-free magnetostatic equilibria. In this work, we make the connection between the corresponding plasma dynamics and the expected radiation signal, using 2D particle-in-cell simulations that self-consistently include synchrotron radiation reactions. We focus on the lowest order unstable force-free equilibrium in a 2D periodic box. We find that rapid variability, with modest apparent radiation efficiency as perceived by a fixed observer, can be produced during the evolution of the instability. The “flares” are accompanied by an increased polarization degree in the high energy band, with rapid variation in the polarization angle. Furthermore, the separation between the acceleration sites and the synchrotron radiation sites for the highest energy particles facilitates acceleration beyond the synchrotron radiation reaction limit. We also discuss the dynamical consequences of the radiation reaction, and some astrophysical applications of this model. Our current simulations with numerically tractable parameters are not yet able to reproduce the most dramatic gamma-ray flares, e.g., from the Crab Nebula. Higher magnetization studies are promising and will be carried out in the future.

  7. Kinetic study of radiation-reaction-limited particle acceleration during the relaxation of unstable force-free equilibria

    DOE PAGES

    Yuan, Yajie; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Zrake, Jonathan; ...

    2016-09-07

    Many powerful and variable gamma-ray sources, including pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, seem capable of accelerating particles to gamma-ray emitting energies efficiently over very short timescales. These are likely due to the rapid dissipation of electromagnetic energy in a highly magnetized, relativistic plasma. In order to understand the generic features of such processes, we have investigated simple models based on the relaxation of unstable force-free magnetostatic equilibria. In this work, we make the connection between the corresponding plasma dynamics and the expected radiation signal, using 2D particle-in-cell simulations that self-consistently include synchrotron radiation reactions. We focusmore » on the lowest order unstable force-free equilibrium in a 2D periodic box. We find that rapid variability, with modest apparent radiation efficiency as perceived by a fixed observer, can be produced during the evolution of the instability. The "flares" are accompanied by an increased polarization degree in the high energy band, with rapid variation in the polarization angle. Furthermore, the separation between the acceleration sites and the synchrotron radiation sites for the highest energy particles facilitates acceleration beyond the synchrotron radiation reaction limit. We also discuss the dynamical consequences of the radiation reaction, and some astrophysical applications of this model. Our current simulations with numerically tractable parameters are not yet able to reproduce the most dramatic gamma-ray flares, e.g., from the Crab Nebula. As a result, higher magnetization studies are promising and will be carried out in the future.« less

  8. Kinetic study of radiation-reaction-limited particle acceleration during the relaxation of unstable force-free equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Yajie; Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Zrake, Jonathan; East, William E.; Blandford, Roger D.

    2016-09-07

    Many powerful and variable gamma-ray sources, including pulsar wind nebulae, active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts, seem capable of accelerating particles to gamma-ray emitting energies efficiently over very short timescales. These are likely due to the rapid dissipation of electromagnetic energy in a highly magnetized, relativistic plasma. In order to understand the generic features of such processes, we have investigated simple models based on the relaxation of unstable force-free magnetostatic equilibria. In this work, we make the connection between the corresponding plasma dynamics and the expected radiation signal, using 2D particle-in-cell simulations that self-consistently include synchrotron radiation reactions. We focus on the lowest order unstable force-free equilibrium in a 2D periodic box. We find that rapid variability, with modest apparent radiation efficiency as perceived by a fixed observer, can be produced during the evolution of the instability. The "flares" are accompanied by an increased polarization degree in the high energy band, with rapid variation in the polarization angle. Furthermore, the separation between the acceleration sites and the synchrotron radiation sites for the highest energy particles facilitates acceleration beyond the synchrotron radiation reaction limit. We also discuss the dynamical consequences of the radiation reaction, and some astrophysical applications of this model. Our current simulations with numerically tractable parameters are not yet able to reproduce the most dramatic gamma-ray flares, e.g., from the Crab Nebula. As a result, higher magnetization studies are promising and will be carried out in the future.

  9. Lorentz violation and perpetual motion

    SciTech Connect

    Eling, Christopher; Foster, Brendan Z.; Jacobson, Ted; Wall, Aron C.

    2007-05-15

    We show that any Lorentz-violating theory with two or more propagation speeds is in conflict with the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics. We do this by identifying a classical energy-extraction method, analogous to the Penrose process, which would decrease the black hole entropy. Although the usual definitions of black hole entropy are ambiguous in this context, we require only very mild assumptions about its dependence on the mass. This extends the result found by Dubovsky and Sibiryakov, which uses the Hawking effect and applies only if the fields with different propagation speeds interact just through gravity. We also point out instabilities that could interfere with their black hole perpetuum mobile, but argue that these can be neglected if the black hole mass is sufficiently large.

  10. Lorentz violation and perpetual motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eling, Christopher; Foster, Brendan Z.; Jacobson, Ted; Wall, Aron C.

    2007-05-01

    We show that any Lorentz-violating theory with two or more propagation speeds is in conflict with the generalized second law of black hole thermodynamics. We do this by identifying a classical energy-extraction method, analogous to the Penrose process, which would decrease the black hole entropy. Although the usual definitions of black hole entropy are ambiguous in this context, we require only very mild assumptions about its dependence on the mass. This extends the result found by Dubovsky and Sibiryakov, which uses the Hawking effect and applies only if the fields with different propagation speeds interact just through gravity. We also point out instabilities that could interfere with their black hole perpetuum mobile, but argue that these can be neglected if the black hole mass is sufficiently large.

  11. Lorentz Contraction, Bell's Spaceships and Rigid Body Motion in Special Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Jerrold

    2010-01-01

    The meaning of Lorentz contraction in special relativity and its connection with Bell's spaceships parable is discussed. The motion of Bell's spaceships is then compared with the accelerated motion of a rigid body. We have tried to write this in a simple form that could be used to correct students' misconceptions due to conflicting earlier…

  12. Cancer cachexia decreases specific force and accelerates fatigue in limb muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, B.M.; Frye, G.S.; Ahn, B.; Ferreira, L.F.; Judge, A.R.

    2013-06-07

    Highlights: •C-26 cancer cachexia causes a significant decrease in limb muscle absolute force. •C-26 cancer cachexia causes a significant decrease in limb muscle specific force. •C-26 cancer cachexia decreases fatigue resistance in the soleus muscle. •C-26 cancer cachexia prolongs time to peak twitch tension in limb muscle. •C-26 cancer cachexia prolongs one half twitch relaxation time in limb muscle. -- Abstract: Cancer cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome that is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle mass and weakness, which compromises physical function, reduces quality of life, and ultimately can lead to mortality. Experimental models of cancer cachexia have recapitulated this skeletal muscle atrophy and consequent decline in muscle force generating capacity. However, more recently, we provided evidence that during severe cancer cachexia muscle weakness in the diaphragm muscle cannot be entirely accounted for by the muscle atrophy. This indicates that muscle weakness is not just a consequence of muscle atrophy but that there is also significant contractile dysfunction. The current study aimed to determine whether contractile dysfunction is also present in limb muscles during severe Colon-26 (C26) carcinoma cachexia by studying the glycolytic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and the oxidative soleus muscle, which has an activity pattern that more closely resembles the diaphragm. Severe C-26 cancer cachexia caused significant muscle fiber atrophy and a reduction in maximum absolute force in both the EDL and soleus muscles. However, normalization to muscle cross sectional area further demonstrated a 13% decrease in maximum isometric specific force in the EDL and an even greater decrease (17%) in maximum isometric specific force in the soleus. Time to peak tension and half relaxation time were also significantly slowed in both the EDL and the solei from C-26 mice compared to controls. Since, in addition to postural control, the oxidative

  13. Plasma acceleration and cooling by strong laser field due to the action of radiation reaction force.

    PubMed

    Berezhiani, V I; Mahajan, S M; Yoshida, Z

    2008-12-01

    It is shown that for super intense laser pulses propagating in a hot plasma, the action of the radiation reaction force (appropriately incorporated into the equations of motion) causes strong bulk plasma motion with the kinetic energy raised even to relativistic values; the increase in bulk energy is accompanied by a corresponding cooling (intense cooling) of the plasma. The effects are demonstrated through explicit analytical calculations.

  14. Light-bending tests of Lorentz invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Tso, Rhondale; Bailey, Quentin G.

    2011-10-15

    Classical light-bending is investigated for weak gravitational fields in the presence of hypothetical local Lorentz violation. Using an effective field theory framework that describes general deviations from local Lorentz invariance, we derive a modified deflection angle for light passing near a massive body. The results include anisotropic effects not present for spherical sources in General Relativity as well as Weak Equivalence Principle violation. We develop an expression for the relative deflection of two distant stars that can be used to analyze data in past and future solar-system observations. The measurement sensitivities of such tests to coefficients for Lorentz violation are discussed.

  15. Lorentz covariant {kappa}-Minkowski spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    DaPbrowski, Ludwik; Godlinski, Michal; Piacitelli, Gherardo

    2010-06-15

    In recent years, different views on the interpretation of Lorentz covariance of noncommuting coordinates have been discussed. By a general procedure, we construct the minimal canonical central covariantization of the {kappa}-Minkowski spacetime. Here, undeformed Lorentz covariance is implemented by unitary operators, in the presence of two dimensionful parameters. We then show that, though the usual {kappa}-Minkowski spacetime is covariant under deformed (or twisted) Lorentz action, the resulting framework is equivalent to taking a noncovariant restriction of the covariantized model. We conclude with some general comments on the approach of deformed covariance.

  16. Nonrelativisitic Ideal Gases and Lorentz Violations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colladay, D.; McDonald, P.

    2005-04-01

    We develop statistical mechanics for a nonrelativisitic ideal gas in the presence of Lorentz violating background fields. The analysis is performed using the Standard-Model Extension (SME). We derive the corresponding laws of thermodynamics and find that, to lowest order in Lorentz violation, the scalar thermodynamic variables are corrected by a rotationally invariant combination of the Lorentz terms which can be interpreted in terms of a (frame dependent) effective mass. We find that spin couplings can induce a temperature independent polarization in the gas that is not present in the conventional case.

  17. Alternative theories of gravity and Lorentz violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Foster, Joshua; Kostelecky, V. Alan

    2017-01-01

    General relativity has achieved many successes, including the prediction of experimental results. However, its incompatibility with quantum theory remains an obstacle. By extending the foundational properties of general relativity, alternative theories of gravity can be constructed. In this talk, we focus on fermion couplings in the weak-gravity limit of certain alternative theories of gravity. Under suitable experimental circumstances, some of these couplings match terms appearing in the gravitational SME, which is a general framework describing violations of local Lorentz invariance. Existing limits on Lorentz violation can therefore be used to constrain certain Lorentz-invariant alternative theories of gravity.

  18. Abraham-Lorentz versus Landau-Lifshitz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, David J.; Proctor, Thomas C.; Schroeter, Darrell F.

    2010-04-01

    The classical Abraham-Lorentz formula for the radiation reaction on a point charge suffers from two notorious defects: runaways and preacceleration. Recently, several authors have advocated as an alternative the Landau-Lifshitz formula, which has neither fault. The latter formula is often presented as an approximation to Abraham-Lorentz, raising the delicate question of how an approximation can be considered more accurate than the original. For a spherical shell of finite size, the equation for the radiation reaction is noncontroversial. We begin there, obtain the Abraham-Lorentz and Landau-Lifshitz expressions as limiting cases, and undertake some numerical studies to determine which is superior.

  19. Projected constraints on Lorentz-violating gravity with gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Devin; Yunes, Nicolás; Yagi, Kent

    2015-04-01

    Gravitational waves are excellent tools to probe the foundations of general relativity in the strongly dynamical and nonlinear regime. One such foundation is Lorentz symmetry, which can be broken in the gravitational sector by the existence of a preferred time direction and, thus, a preferred frame at each spacetime point. This leads to a modification in the orbital decay rate of binary systems, and also in the generation and chirping of their associated gravitational waves. Here we study whether waves emitted in the late, quasicircular inspiral of nonspinning, neutron star binaries can place competitive constraints on two proxies of gravitational Lorentz violation: Einstein-Æther theory and khronometric gravity. We model the waves in the small-coupling (or decoupling) limit and in the post-Newtonian approximation, by perturbatively solving the field equations in small deformations from general relativity and in the small-velocity or weak-gravity approximation. We assume that a gravitational wave consistent with general relativity has been detected with second- and third-generation, ground-based detectors, and with the proposed space-based mission DECIGO, with and without coincident electromagnetic counterparts. Without a counterpart, a detection consistent with general relativity can only place competitive constraints on gravitational Lorentz violation when using future, third-generation or space-based instruments. On the other hand, a single counterpart is enough to place constraints that are 10 orders of magnitude more stringent than current binary pulsar bounds, even when using second-generation detectors. This is because Lorentz violation forces the group velocity of gravitational waves to be different from that of light, and this difference can be very accurately constrained with coincident observations.

  20. LORENTZ PHASE IMAGING AND IN-SITU LORENTZ MICROSCOPY OF PATTERNED CO-ARRAYS.

    SciTech Connect

    VOLKOV,V.V.ZHU,Y.

    2003-08-03

    Understanding magnetic structures and properties of patterned and ordinary magnetic films at nanometer length-scale is the area of immense technological and fundamental scientific importance. The key feature to such success is the ability to achieve visual quantitative information on domain configurations with a maximum ''magnetic'' resolution. Several methods have been developed to meet these demands (Kerr and Faraday effects, differential phase contrast microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, SEMPA etc.). In particular, the modern off-axis electron holography allows retrieval of the electron-wave phase shifts down to 2{pi}/N (with typical N = 10-20, approaching in the limit N {approx} 100) in TEM equipped with field emission gun, which is already successfully employed for studies of magnetic materials at nanometer scale. However, it remains technically demanding, sensitive to noise and needs highly coherent electron sources. As possible alternative we developed a new method of Lorentz phase microscopy [1,2] based on the Fourier solution [3] of magnetic transport-of-intensity (MTIE) equation. This approach has certain advantages, since it is less sensitive to noise and does not need high coherence of the source required by the holography. In addition, it can be realized in any TEM without basic hardware changes. Our approach considers the electron-wave refraction in magnetic materials (magnetic refraction) and became possible due to general progress in understanding of noninterferometric phase retrieval [4-6] dealing with optical refraction. This approach can also be treated as further development of Fresnel microscopy, used so far for imaging of in-situ magnetization process in magnetic materials studied by TEM. Figs. 1-3 show some examples of what kind information can be retrieved from the conventional Fresnel images using the new approach. Most of these results can be compared with electron-holographic data. Using this approach we can shed more light on fine

  1. Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, Reed

    1989-01-01

    Discusses pupil misconceptions concerning forces. Summarizes some of Assessment of Performance Unit's findings on meaning of (1) force, (2) force and motion in one dimension and two dimensions, and (3) Newton's second law. (YP)

  2. Mechanical Forces Accelerate Collagen Digestion by Bacterial Collagenase in Lung Tissue Strips

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Eunice; Sato, Susumu; Takahashi, Ayuko; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Blute, Todd A.; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2016-01-01

    Most tissues in the body are under mechanical tension, and while enzymes mediate many cellular and extracellular processes, the effects of mechanical forces on enzyme reactions in the native extracellular matrix (ECM) are not fully understood. We hypothesized that physiological levels of mechanical forces are capable of modifying the activity of collagenase, a key remodeling enzyme of the ECM. To test this, lung tissue Young's modulus and a nonlinearity index characterizing the shape of the stress-strain curve were measured in the presence of bacterial collagenase under static uniaxial strain of 0, 20, 40, and 80%, as well as during cyclic mechanical loading with strain amplitudes of ±10 or ±20% superimposed on 40% static strain, and frequencies of 0.1 or 1 Hz. Confocal and electron microscopy was used to determine and quantify changes in ECM structure. Generally, mechanical loading increased the effects of enzyme activity characterized by an irreversible decline in stiffness and tissue deterioration seen on both confocal and electron microscopic images. However, a static strain of 20% provided protection against digestion compared to both higher and lower strains. The decline in stiffness during digestion positively correlated with the increase in equivalent alveolar diameters and negatively correlated with the nonlinearity index. These results suggest that the decline in stiffness results from rupture of collagen followed by load transfer and subsequent rupture of alveolar walls. This study may provide new understanding of the role of collagen degradation in general tissue remodeling and disease progression. PMID:27462275

  3. Mechanical Forces Accelerate Collagen Digestion by Bacterial Collagenase in Lung Tissue Strips.

    PubMed

    Yi, Eunice; Sato, Susumu; Takahashi, Ayuko; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Blute, Todd A; Bartolák-Suki, Erzsébet; Suki, Béla

    2016-01-01

    Most tissues in the body are under mechanical tension, and while enzymes mediate many cellular and extracellular processes, the effects of mechanical forces on enzyme reactions in the native extracellular matrix (ECM) are not fully understood. We hypothesized that physiological levels of mechanical forces are capable of modifying the activity of collagenase, a key remodeling enzyme of the ECM. To test this, lung tissue Young's modulus and a nonlinearity index characterizing the shape of the stress-strain curve were measured in the presence of bacterial collagenase under static uniaxial strain of 0, 20, 40, and 80%, as well as during cyclic mechanical loading with strain amplitudes of ±10 or ±20% superimposed on 40% static strain, and frequencies of 0.1 or 1 Hz. Confocal and electron microscopy was used to determine and quantify changes in ECM structure. Generally, mechanical loading increased the effects of enzyme activity characterized by an irreversible decline in stiffness and tissue deterioration seen on both confocal and electron microscopic images. However, a static strain of 20% provided protection against digestion compared to both higher and lower strains. The decline in stiffness during digestion positively correlated with the increase in equivalent alveolar diameters and negatively correlated with the nonlinearity index. These results suggest that the decline in stiffness results from rupture of collagen followed by load transfer and subsequent rupture of alveolar walls. This study may provide new understanding of the role of collagen degradation in general tissue remodeling and disease progression.

  4. Lorentz invariance in chiral kinetic theory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing-Yuan; Son, Dam T; Stephanov, Mikhail A; Yee, Ho-Ung; Yin, Yi

    2014-10-31

    We show that Lorentz invariance is realized nontrivially in the classical action of a massless spin-1/2 particle with definite helicity. We find that the ordinary Lorentz transformation is modified by a shift orthogonal to the boost vector and the particle momentum. The shift ensures angular momentum conservation in particle collisions and implies a nonlocality of the collision term in the Lorentz-invariant kinetic theory due to side jumps. We show that 2/3 of the chiral-vortical effect for a uniformly rotating particle distribution can be attributed to the magnetic moment coupling required by the Lorentz invariance. We also show how the classical action can be obtained by taking the classical limit of the path integral for a Weyl particle.

  5. Testing Lorentz invariance of dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Blas, Diego; Ivanov, Mikhail M.; Sibiryakov, Sergey E-mail: mm.ivanov@physics.msu.ru

    2012-10-01

    We study the possibility to constrain deviations from Lorentz invariance in dark matter (DM) with cosmological observations. Breaking of Lorentz invariance generically introduces new light gravitational degrees of freedom, which we represent through a dynamical timelike vector field. If DM does not obey Lorentz invariance, it couples to this vector field. We find that this coupling affects the inertial mass of small DM halos which no longer satisfy the equivalence principle. For large enough lumps of DM we identify a (chameleon) mechanism that restores the inertial mass to its standard value. As a consequence, the dynamics of gravitational clustering are modified. Two prominent effects are a scale dependent enhancement in the growth of large scale structure and a scale dependent bias between DM and baryon density perturbations. The comparison with the measured linear matter power spectrum in principle allows to bound the departure from Lorentz invariance of DM at the per cent level.

  6. Archimedean-type force in a cosmic dark fluid. I. Exact solutions for the late-time accelerated expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakin, Alexander B.; Bochkarev, Vladimir V.

    2011-01-01

    We establish a new self-consistent model in order to explain from a unified viewpoint two key features of the cosmological evolution: the inflation in the early Universe and the late-time accelerated expansion. The key element of this new model is the Archimedean-type coupling of the dark matter with dark energy, which form the so-called cosmic dark fluid. We suppose that dark matter particles immersed into the dark energy reservoir are affected by the force proportional to the four-gradient of the dark energy pressure. The Archimedean-type coupling is shown to play a role of effective energy-momentum redistributor between the dark matter and the dark energy components of the dark fluid, thus providing the Universe evolution to be a quasiperiodic and/or multistage process. In the first part of the work we discuss a theoretical base and new exact solutions of the model master equations. Special attention is focused on the exact solutions, for which the scale factor is presented by the anti-Gaussian function: these solutions describe the late-time acceleration and are characterized by a nonsingular behavior in the early Universe. The second part contains qualitative and numerical analysis of the master equations; we focus there on the solutions describing a multi-inflationary Universe.

  7. Lorentz Transformation from Symmetry of Reference Principle

    SciTech Connect

    Petre, M.; Dima, M.; Dima, A.; Petre, C.; Precup, I.

    2010-01-21

    The Lorentz Transformation is traditionally derived requiring the Principle of Relativity and light-speed universality. While the latter can be relaxed, the Principle of Relativity is seen as core to the transformation. The present letter relaxes both statements to the weaker, Symmetry of Reference Principle. Thus the resulting Lorentz transformation and its consequences (time dilatation, length contraction) are, in turn, effects of how we manage space and time.

  8. Lorentz violation in simple QED processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brito, G. P.; Guaitolini Junior, J. T.; Kroff, D.; Malta, P. C.; Marques, C.

    2016-09-01

    We determine the effect of a C P T -even and Lorentz violating nonminimal coupling on the differential cross sections for some of the most important tree-level processes in QED, namely, Compton and Bhabha scatterings, as well as electron-positron annihilation. Experimental limits constraining the allowed deviation of the differential cross sections relative to pure QED allow us to place upper bounds on the Lorentz violating parameters. A constraint based on the decay rate of parapositronium is also obtained.

  9. Gauge anomalies in Lorentz-violating QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Tiago R. S.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we study the issue of gauge anomalies in Lorentz-violating QED. To do so, we opt to use the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism within the algebraic renormalization approach, reducing our study to a cohomology problem. Since this approach is independent of the renormalization scheme, the results obtained here are expected to be general. We find that the Lorentz-violating QED is free of gauge anomalies to all orders in perturbation theory.

  10. Supersymmetry and Lorentz Violation in 5D

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Aguilar, J. D.; Perez-Lorenzana, A.; Pedraza-Ortega, O.

    2011-10-14

    We present a study for a Supersymmetric field theory with Lorentz-Violation terms in 5D. We perform the analysis in the context of the Berger-Kostelecky model (BK), adding one compactified dimension that explicitly breaks the Lorentz invariance. We introduce terms that encode this breaking, and find non trivial restrictions over boundary conditions of fields that one needs to close the supersymmetric algebra.

  11. Supersymmetry and Lorentz Violation in 5D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Aguilar, J. D.; Pérez-Lorenzana, A.; Pedraza-Ortega, O.

    2011-10-01

    We present a study for a Supersymmetric field theory with Lorentz-Violation terms in 5D. We perform the analysis in the context of the Berger-Kostelecky model (BK), adding one compactified dimension that explicitly breaks the Lorentz invariance. We introduce terms that encode this breaking, and find non trivial restrictions over boundary conditions of fields that one needs to close the supersymmetric algebra.

  12. Pacific trade winds accelerated by aerosol forcing over the past two decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Chiharu; Watanabe, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    The Pacific trade winds, coupled with the zonal sea surface temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean, control regional sea levels, and therefore their trend is a great concern in the Pacific Rim. Over the past two decades, easterly winds have been accelerated in association with eastern tropical Pacific cooling. They may represent natural interdecadal variability in the Pacific and possibly explain the recent global warming hiatus. However, the intensification of the winds has been the strongest ever observed in the past century, the reason for which is still unclear. Here we show, using multiple climate simulations for 1921-2014 by a global climate model, that approximately one-third of the trade-wind intensification for 1991-2010 can be attributed to changes in sulfate aerosols. The multidecadal sea surface temperature anomaly induced mostly by volcanic aerosols dominates in the western North Pacific, and its sign changed rapidly from negative to positive in the 1990s, coherently with Atlantic multidecadal variability. The western North Pacific warming resulted in intensification of trade winds to the west of the dateline. These trends have not contributed much to the global warming hiatus, but have greatly impacted rainfall over the western Pacific islands.

  13. Accelerated design and quality control of impact modifiers for plastics through atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, Gunter

    2011-03-01

    Standard polymer resins are often too brittle or do not meet other mechanical property requirements for typical polymer applications. To achieve desired properties it is common to disperse so called ``impact modifiers'', which are spherical latex particles with diameters of much less than one micrometer, into the pure resin. Understanding and control of the entire process from latex particle formation to subsequent dispersion into polymer resins are necessary to accelerate the development of new materials that meet specific application requirements. In this work AFM imaging and nanoindentation techniques in combination with AFM-based spectroscopic techniques were applied to assess latex formation and dispersion. The size and size distribution of the latex particles can be measured based on AFM amplitude modulation images. AFM phase images provide information about the chemical homogeneity of individual particles. Nanoindentation may be used to estimate their elastic and viscoelastic properties. Proprietary creep and nanoscale Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) tests that we have developed were used to measure these mechanical properties. The small size of dispersed latex inclusions requires local mechanical and spectroscopic analysis techniques with high lateral and spatial resolution. We applied the CRAVE AFM method, developed at NIST, to perform mechanical analysis of individual latex inclusions and compared results with those obtained using nanoscale DMA. NanoIR, developed by Anasys Inc., and principal component confocal Raman were used for spectroscopic analysis and results from both techniques compared.

  14. The charging processes of dust particles and the effects of Lorentz scattering in the circum-solar dust band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. S.; Isobe, Syuzo

    1992-03-01

    An analysis is presented of the charging processes for the dust particles in the circumsolar dust band at 4 solar radii, as well as the effects of the interactions between these charged particles and the magnetized ambient solar wind plasma on the evolution of their orbits. It is concluded that due to the higher values of the potential on the dust particle and the ambient solar wind magnetic field, the Lorentz force affects a much wider size range of particles in the near-solar regions. Since the magnitude of the Lorentz force is much higher and its characteristic time to affect the particle's orbit is much lower than those for the Poynting-Robertson drag force, the Lorentz force is a major perturbing force for dust particles in the circumsolar dust band at 4 solar radii.

  15. Lorentz covariance of loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, Carlo; Speziale, Simone

    2011-05-01

    The kinematics of loop gravity can be given a manifestly Lorentz-covariant formulation: the conventional SU(2)-spin-network Hilbert space can be mapped to a space K of SL(2,C) functions, where Lorentz covariance is manifest. K can be described in terms of a certain subset of the projected spin networks studied by Livine, Alexandrov and Dupuis. It is formed by SL(2,C) functions completely determined by their restriction on SU(2). These are square-integrable in the SU(2) scalar product, but not in the SL(2,C) one. Thus, SU(2)-spin-network states can be represented by Lorentz-covariant SL(2,C) functions, as two-component photons can be described in the Lorentz-covariant Gupta-Bleuler formalism. As shown by Wolfgang Wieland in a related paper, this manifestly Lorentz-covariant formulation can also be directly obtained from canonical quantization. We show that the spinfoam dynamics of loop quantum gravity is locally SL(2,C)-invariant in the bulk, and yields states that are precisely in K on the boundary. This clarifies how the SL(2,C) spinfoam formalism yields an SU(2) theory on the boundary. These structures define a tidy Lorentz-covariant formalism for loop gravity.

  16. Hadronic Lorentz violation in chiral perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamand, Rasha; Altschul, Brett; Schindler, Matthias R.

    2017-03-01

    Any possible Lorentz violation in the hadron sector must be tied to Lorentz violation at the underlying quark level. The relationships between the theories at these two levels are studied using chiral perturbation theory. Starting from a two-flavor quark theory that includes dimension-4 Lorentz-violation operators, the effective Lagrangians are derived for both pions and nucleons, with novel terms appearing in both sectors. Since the Lorentz-violation coefficients for nucleons and pions are all related to a single set of underlying quark coefficients, one can compare the sensitivity of different types of experiments. Our analysis shows that atomic physics experiments currently provide constraints on the quark parameters that are stronger by about 10 orders of magnitude than astrophysical experiments with relativistic pions. Alternatively, it is possible to place approximate bounds on pion Lorentz violation using only proton and neutron observations. Under the assumption that the Lorentz-violating operators considered here are the only ones contributing to the relevant observables and taking the currently unknown hadronic low-energy constants to be of natural size, the resulting estimated bounds on four pion parameters are at the 10-23 level, representing improvements of 10 orders of magnitude.

  17. Test of Lorentz symmetry with trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruttivarasin, Thaned

    2016-05-01

    The outcome of an experiment should not depend on the orientation of the apparatus in space. This important cornerstone of physics is deeply engrained into the Standard Model of Physics by requiring that all fields must be Lorentz invariant. However, it is well-known that the Standard Model is incomplete. Some theories conjecture that at the Planck scale Lorentz symmetry might be broken and measurable at experimentally accessible energy scales. Therefore, a search for violation of Lorentz symmetry directly probes physics beyond the Standard model. We present a novel experiment utilizing trapped calcium ions as a direct probe of Lorentz-violation in the electron-photon sector. We monitor the energy between atomic states with different orientations of the electronic wave-functions as they rotate together with the motion of the Earth. This is analogous to the famous Michelson-Morley experiment. To remove magnetic field noise, we perform the experiment with the ions prepared in the decoherence-free states. Our result improves on the most stringent bounds on Lorentz symmetry for electrons by 100 times. The experimental scheme is readily applicable to many ion species, hence opening up paths toward much improved test of Lorentz symmetry in the future. (Ph. D. Advisor: Hartmut Haeffner, University of California, Berkeley).

  18. Economic innovation and efficiency gains as the driving force for accelerating carbon dioxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is normally assumed that gains in energy efficiency are one of the best routes that society has available to it for stabilizing future carbon dioxide emissions. For a given degree of economic productivity less energy is consumed and a smaller quantity of fossil fuels is required. While certainly this observation is true in the instant, it ignores feedbacks in the economic system such that efficiency gains ultimately lead to greater energy consumption: taken as a global whole, they permit civilization to accelerate its expansion into the energy reserves that sustain it. Here this argument is formalized from a general thermodynamic perspective. The core result is that there exists a fixed, time-independent link between a very general representation of global inflation-adjusted economic wealth (units currency) and civilization's total capacity to consume power (units energy per time). Based on 40 years of available statistics covering more than a tripling of global GDP and a doubling of wealth, this constant has a value of 7.1 +/- 0.01 Watts per one thousand 2005 US dollars. Essentially, wealth is power. Civilization grows by dissipating power in order to sustain all its current activities and to incorporate more raw material into its existing structure. Growth of its structure is related to economic production, so more energy efficient economic production facilitates growth. Growth is into the reserves that sustain civilization, in which case there is a positive feedback in the economic system whereby energy efficiency gains ultimately "backfire" if their intended purpose is to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The analogy that can be made is to a growing child: a healthy child who efficiently incorporates food into her structure grows quickly and is able to consume more in following years. Economically, an argument is made that, for a range of reasons, there are good reasons to refer to efficiency gains as economic "innovation", both for

  19. Fluctuation theorem applied to the Nosé-Hoover thermostated Lorentz gas.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    We present numerical evidence supporting the validity of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem applied to the driven Lorentz gas with Nosé-Hoover thermostating. It is moreover argued that the asymptotic form of the fluctuation formula is independent of the amplitude of the driving force in the limit where it is small.

  20. Fluctuation theorem applied to the Nosé-Hoover thermostated Lorentz gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Thomas

    2006-03-01

    We present numerical evidence supporting the validity of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem applied to the driven Lorentz gas with Nosé-Hoover thermostating. It is moreover argued that the asymptotic form of the fluctuation formula is independent of the amplitude of the driving force in the limit where it is small.

  1. A test of Lorentz-Dirac and Lienard-Wiechert equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comay, E.

    1987-12-01

    Gedanken experiments of two charges moving uniformly along a circle are used for testing both the Lorentz-Dirac radiation reaction force and the Lienard-Wiechert formulas of retarted potentials. It is shown that if some additional postulates hold then these expressions are acceptable only as low order approximations.

  2. Renormalization and elimination of preacceleration and runaway solutions of the Lorentz-Dirac equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barut, A. O.

    1990-04-01

    By exact explicit solution it is shown that the Lorentz-Dirac equation with radiation reaction and proper initial conditions does not violate causality, even if the force is nonanalytic. We also show that if the equation is correctly renormalized there are no runaway solutions.

  3. Magnetic Susceptibility Effects and Lorentz Damping in Diamagnetic Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, Narayanan; Leslie, Fred W.

    2000-01-01

    A great number of crystals (semi-conductor and protein) grown in space are plagued by convective motions which contribute to structural flaws. The character of these instabilities is not well understood but is associated with density variations in the presence of residual gravity and g-jitter. Both static and dynamic (rotating or travelling wave) magnetic fields can be used to reduce the effects of convection in materials processing. In semi-conductor melts, due to their relatively high electrical conductivity, the induced Lorentz force can be effectively used to curtail convective effects. In melts/solutions with reduced electrical conductivity, such as aqueous solutions used in solution crystal growth, protein crystal growth and/or model fluid experiments for simulating melt growth, however, the variation of the magnetic susceptibility with temperature and/or concentration can be utilized to better damp fluid convection than the Lorentz force method. This paper presents a comprehensive, comparative numerical study of the relative damping effects using static magnetic fields and gradients in a simple geometry subjected to a thermal gradient. The governing equations are formulated in general terms and then simplified for the numerical calculations. Operational regimes, based on the best damping technique for different melts/solutions are identified based on fluid properties. Comparisons are provided between the numerical results and available results from experiments in surveyed literature.

  4. Acceleration toward polarization singularity inspired by relativistic E×B drift.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sunkyu; Piao, Xianji; Park, Namkyoo

    2016-11-24

    The relativistic trajectory of a charged particle driven by the Lorentz force is different from the classical one, by velocity-dependent relativistic acceleration term. Here we show that the evolution of optical polarization states near the polarization singularity can be described in analogy to the relativistic dynamics of charged particles. A phase transition in parity-time symmetric potentials is then interpreted in terms of the competition between electric and magnetic 'pseudo'-fields applied to polarization states. Based on this Lorentz pseudo-force representation, we reveal that zero Lorentz pseudo-force is the origin of recently reported strong polarization convergence to the singular state at the exceptional point. We also demonstrate the deterministic design of achiral and directional eigenstates at the exceptional point, allowing an anomalous linear polarizer which operates orthogonal to forward and backward waves. Our results linking parity-time symmetry and relativistic electrodynamics show that previous PT-symmetric potentials for the polarization singularity with a chiral eigenstate are the subset of optical potentials for the E×B "polarization" drift.

  5. Acceleration toward polarization singularity inspired by relativistic E×B drift

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sunkyu; Piao, Xianji; Park, Namkyoo

    2016-01-01

    The relativistic trajectory of a charged particle driven by the Lorentz force is different from the classical one, by velocity-dependent relativistic acceleration term. Here we show that the evolution of optical polarization states near the polarization singularity can be described in analogy to the relativistic dynamics of charged particles. A phase transition in parity-time symmetric potentials is then interpreted in terms of the competition between electric and magnetic ‘pseudo’-fields applied to polarization states. Based on this Lorentz pseudo-force representation, we reveal that zero Lorentz pseudo-force is the origin of recently reported strong polarization convergence to the singular state at the exceptional point. We also demonstrate the deterministic design of achiral and directional eigenstates at the exceptional point, allowing an anomalous linear polarizer which operates orthogonal to forward and backward waves. Our results linking parity-time symmetry and relativistic electrodynamics show that previous PT-symmetric potentials for the polarization singularity with a chiral eigenstate are the subset of optical potentials for the E×B “polarization” drift. PMID:27883043

  6. Maps for Lorentz transformations of spin

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Thomas F.; Shaji, Anil; Sudarshan, E. C. G.

    2006-03-15

    Lorentz transformations of spin density matrices for a particle with positive mass and spin 1/2 are described by maps of the kind used in open quantum dynamics. They show how the Lorentz transformations of the spin depend on the momentum. Since the spin and momentum generally are not independent, the maps generally are not completely positive and act in limited domains. States with two momentum values are considered, so the maps are for the spin qubit correlated with the qubit made from the two momentum values, and results from the open quantum dynamics of two coupled qubits can be applied. Inverses are used to show that every Lorentz transformation completely removes the spin polarization, and so completely removes the information, from a number of spin density matrices. The size of the spin polarization that is removed is calculated for particular cases.

  7. IMPULSIVE ACCELERATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS. I. STATISTICS AND CORONAL MASS EJECTION SOURCE REGION CHARACTERISTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Bein, B. M.; Berkebile-Stoiser, S.; Veronig, A. M.; Temmer, M.; Muhr, N.; Kienreich, I.; Utz, D.

    2011-09-10

    We use high time cadence images acquired by the STEREO EUVI and COR instruments to study the evolution of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from their initiation through impulsive acceleration to the propagation phase. For a set of 95 CMEs we derived detailed height, velocity, and acceleration profiles and statistically analyzed characteristic CME parameters: peak acceleration, peak velocity, acceleration duration, initiation height, height at peak velocity, height at peak acceleration, and size of the CME source region. The CME peak accelerations we derived range from 20 to 6800 m s{sup -2} and are inversely correlated with the acceleration duration and the height at peak acceleration. Seventy-four percent of the events reach their peak acceleration at heights below 0.5 R{sub sun}. CMEs that originate from compact sources low in the corona are more impulsive and reach higher peak accelerations at smaller heights. These findings can be explained by the Lorentz force, which drives the CME accelerations and decreases with height and CME size.

  8. Accelerating potential of mean force calculations for lipid membrane permeation: System size, reaction coordinate, solute-solute distance, and cutoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitschke, Naomi; Atkovska, Kalina; Hub, Jochen S.

    2016-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are capable of predicting the permeability of lipid membranes for drug-like solutes, but the calculations have remained prohibitively expensive for high-throughput studies. Here, we analyze simple measures for accelerating potential of mean force (PMF) calculations of membrane permeation, namely, (i) using smaller simulation systems, (ii) simulating multiple solutes per system, and (iii) using shorter cutoffs for the Lennard-Jones interactions. We find that PMFs for membrane permeation are remarkably robust against alterations of such parameters, suggesting that accurate PMF calculations are possible at strongly reduced computational cost. In addition, we evaluated the influence of the definition of the membrane center of mass (COM), used to define the transmembrane reaction coordinate. Membrane-COM definitions based on all lipid atoms lead to artifacts due to undulations and, consequently, to PMFs dependent on membrane size. In contrast, COM definitions based on a cylinder around the solute lead to size-independent PMFs, down to systems of only 16 lipids per monolayer. In summary, compared to popular setups that simulate a single solute in a membrane of 128 lipids with a Lennard-Jones cutoff of 1.2 nm, the measures applied here yield a speedup in sampling by factor of ˜40, without reducing the accuracy of the calculated PMF.

  9. Theoretical Studies of Lorentz and CPT Symmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostelecky, V. Alan

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental symmetries studied here are Lorentz and CPT invariance, which form a cornerstone of the relativistic quantum theories used in modern descriptions of nature. The results obtained during the reporting period focus on the idea, originally suggested by the P.I. and his group in the late 1980s, that observable CPT and Lorentz violation in nature might emerge from the qualitatively new physics expected to hold at the Planck scale. What follows is a summary of results obtained during the period of this grant.

  10. Imperfect fluids, Lorentz violations, and Finsler cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Kouretsis, A. P.; Stathakopoulos, M.; Stavrinos, P. C.

    2010-09-15

    We construct a cosmological toy model based on a Finslerian structure of space-time. In particular, we are interested in a specific Finslerian Lorentz violating theory based on a curved version of Cohen and Glashow's very special relativity. The osculation of a Finslerian manifold to a Riemannian manifold leads to the limit of relativistic cosmology, for a specified observer. A modified flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology is produced. The analogue of a zero energy particle unfolds some special properties of the dynamics. The kinematical equations of motion are affected by local anisotropies. Seeds of Lorentz violations may trigger density inhomogeneities to the cosmological fluid.

  11. Aberration corrected Lorentz scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    McVitie, S; McGrouther, D; McFadzean, S; MacLaren, D A; O'Shea, K J; Benitez, M J

    2015-05-01

    We present results from an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope which has been customised for high resolution quantitative Lorentz microscopy with the sample located in a magnetic field free or low field environment. We discuss the innovations in microscope instrumentation and additional hardware that underpin the imaging improvements in resolution and detection with a focus on developments in differential phase contrast microscopy. Examples from materials possessing nanometre scale variations in magnetisation illustrate the potential for aberration corrected Lorentz imaging as a tool to further our understanding of magnetism on this lengthscale.

  12. Black Hole Thermodynamics and Lorentz Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Ted; Wall, Aron C.

    2010-08-01

    Recent developments point to a breakdown in the generalized second law of thermodynamics for theories with Lorentz symmetry violation. It appears possible to construct a perpetual motion machine of the second kind in such theories, using a black hole to catalyze the conversion of heat to work. Here we describe and extend the arguments leading to that conclusion. We suggest the inference that local Lorentz symmetry may be an emergent property of the macroscopic world with origins in a microscopic second law of causal horizon thermodynamics.

  13. Angular Acceleration without Torque?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Hardly. Just as Robert Johns qualitatively describes angular acceleration by an internal force in his article "Acceleration Without Force?" here we will extend the discussion to consider angular acceleration by an internal torque. As we will see, this internal torque is due to an internal force acting at a distance from an instantaneous center.

  14. Some experimental observations on circulating currents in a crossed field plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlicka, J.; Haacker, J.

    1971-01-01

    Experiments on a thermally ionized argon plasma suggest that applying a Lorentz force by means of orthogonal electric and magnetic fields to an electrically conducting fluid flow imposes necessary but not sufficient conditions for acceleration. There are, in fact, many combinations of current and magnetic field which cause decelerations of the fluid. The deceleration arises from a retarding force which may be larger than the applied Lorentz force. The retarding force causing the deceleration is a consequence of currents circulating completely within the fluid. These currents arise from differences in velocity between the central and wall regions of the duct which interact with the imposed magnetic field to produce differences in induced voltages. The observed physical effects of the circulating currents cause a loss in velocity in the central region of the duct, an increase in thermal energy in the sidewall region, and little change in thermal energy near the electrode wall region. For similar velocity profiles, the adverse effects appear to be related to the product of electrical conductivity and velocity, and performance as an accelerator appears to be controlled by the Hoffman loading parameter (i.e., the ratio of the applied to the induced currents).

  15. The Lorentz Theory of Electrons and Einstein's Theory of Relativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Stanley

    1969-01-01

    Traces the development of Lorentz's theory of electrons as applied to the problem of the electrodynamics of moving bodies. Presents evidence that the principle of relativity did not play an important role in Lorentz's theory, and that though Lorentz eventually acknowledged Einstein's work, he was unwilling to completely embrace the Einstein…

  16. Lorentz-covariant dissipative Lagrangian systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of dissipative Hamiltonian system is converted to Lorentz-covariant form, with evolution generated jointly by two scalar functionals, the Lagrangian action and the global entropy. A bracket formulation yields the local covariant laws of energy-momentum conservation and of entropy production. The formalism is illustrated by a derivation of the covariant Landau kinetic equation.

  17. Another route to the Lorentz transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessonov, E. G.

    2016-05-01

    This paper uses the Galilean relativity principle and the dependence of the rate of a clock on its velocity to derive the Lorentz transformations (LTs). Analyzing different ways of deriving the LTs provides different perspectives on them and their implications, as well as making them more accessible to a wide range of readers with an interest in relativistic physics.

  18. Gravity, Lorentz violation, and the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostelecký, V. Alan

    2004-05-01

    The role of the gravitational sector in the Lorentz- and CPT-violating standard-model extension (SME) is studied. A framework is developed for addressing this topic in the context of Riemann-Cartan spacetimes, which include as limiting cases the usual Riemann and Minkowski geometries. The methodology is first illustrated in the context of the QED extension in a Riemann-Cartan background. The full SME in this background is then considered, and the leading-order terms in the SME action involving operators of mass dimension three and four are constructed. The incorporation of arbitrary Lorentz and CPT violation into general relativity and other theories of gravity based on Riemann-Cartan geometries is discussed. The dominant terms in the effective low-energy action for the gravitational sector are provided, thereby completing the formulation of the leading-order terms in the SME with gravity. Explicit Lorentz symmetry breaking is found to be incompatible with generic Riemann-Cartan geometries, but spontaneous Lorentz breaking evades this difficulty.

  19. Radiation force on a relativistic plasma and the Eddington limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odell, S. L.

    1981-01-01

    Calculations of the radiation force due to Thomson scattering on a relativistic plasma are presented and discussed in relation to certain astronomical objects which operate within a few orders of magnitude of their Eddington luminosity. The radiation force on a hot isotropic plasma is shown to exceed that on a cold plasma by a factor depending on the electron Lorentz factor, which can be substantial in a relativistic plasma. In such a plasma, radiative bulk acceleration is found to occur through the anisotropic loss of internal energy during the Thomson scattering, resulting in an effect termed a Compton rocket. The Compton rocket is shown to be a relevant acceleration mechanism in situations where a relativistic electron plasma lies in the vicinity of a luminous source operating near the classical Eddington limit, including compact galactic X-ray sources and objects associated with active galactic nuclei (quasars, blazars, and Seyfert nuclei).

  20. An Implicit δf Sub-cycled and Orbit Averaged Lorentz Ion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdevant, Benjamin; Parker, Scott; Chen, Yang; Hause, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    A second order implicit δf Lorentz ion hybrid model with sub-cycling and orbit averaging has been developed to study low-frequency, quasi-neutral plasmas. This model may be useful for verifying gyrokinetic simulation models in applications where higher order terms may be important, for example, in the tokamak edge pedestal region, where the equilibrium gradient scale lengths are quite short. A significant challenge for simulations using Lorentz ions in the presence of a strong guide field is the small time step size requirements for fully resolving the ion gyromotion. In this work, we present a GPU accelerated sub-cycling and orbit averaging method which has been developed to make the Lorentz ion model more viable and has been successfully applied to a test bed model for ion Landau damped ion acoustic waves in a uniform magnetic field. Simulation results will be presented to demonstrate the accurate reproduction of finite-Larmor-radius effects using large macro time steps to advance the fields. Future plans to implement the method in the GEM gyrokinetic simulation code to study the toroidal ITG instability with Lorentz ions will also be presented.

  1. Observed differences in upper extremity forces, muscle efforts, postures, velocities and accelerations across computer activities in a field study of office workers.

    PubMed

    Bruno Garza, J L; Eijckelhof, B H W; Johnson, P W; Raina, S M; Rynell, P W; Huysmans, M A; van Dieën, J H; van der Beek, A J; Blatter, B M; Dennerlein, J T

    2012-01-01

    This study, a part of the PRedicting Occupational biomechanics in OFfice workers (PROOF) study, investigated whether there are differences in field-measured forces, muscle efforts, postures, velocities and accelerations across computer activities. These parameters were measured continuously for 120 office workers performing their own work for two hours each. There were differences in nearly all forces, muscle efforts, postures, velocities and accelerations across keyboard, mouse and idle activities. Keyboard activities showed a 50% increase in the median right trapezius muscle effort when compared to mouse activities. Median shoulder rotation changed from 25 degrees internal rotation during keyboard use to 15 degrees external rotation during mouse use. Only keyboard use was associated with median ulnar deviations greater than 5 degrees. Idle activities led to the greatest variability observed in all muscle efforts and postures measured. In future studies, measurements of computer activities could be used to provide information on the physical exposures experienced during computer use. Practitioner Summary: Computer users may develop musculoskeletal disorders due to their force, muscle effort, posture and wrist velocity and acceleration exposures during computer use. We report that many physical exposures are different across computer activities. This information may be used to estimate physical exposures based on patterns of computer activities over time.

  2. Supra-bubble regime for laser acceleration of coldelectron beams in tenuous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Geyko, V. I.; Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.; Fraiman, G. M.

    2009-01-18

    Relativistic electrons can be accelerated by an ultraintense laser pulse in the "supra-bubble" regime, that is, in the blow-out regime ahead of the plasma bubble (as opposed to the conventional method, when particles remain inside the bubble). The acceleration is caused by the ponderomotive force of the pulse, via the so-called snow-plow mechanism. The maximum energy gain, Δγ ~ γg a, is attained when the particle Lorentz factor γ is initially about γg/a, where γg is the pulse group speed Lorentz factor, and a is the laser parameter, proportional to the laser field amplitude. The scheme operates at a ≤ γg, yielding Δγ of up to that via wakefield acceleration for the same plasma and laser parameters, Δγ ~ γ2g. The interaction length is shorter than that for the wake field mechanism but grows with the particle energy, hindering acceleration in multiple stages.

  3. Transforming to Lorentz gauge on de Sitter

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, S. P.; Tsamis, N. C.; Woodard, R. P.

    2009-12-15

    We demonstrate that certain gauge fixing functionals cannot be added to the action on backgrounds such as de Sitter, in which a linearization instability is present. We also construct the field-dependent gauge transformation that carries the electromagnetic vector potential from a convenient, non-de Sitter invariant gauge to the de Sitter invariant, Lorentz gauge. The transformed propagator agrees with the de Sitter invariant result previously found by solving the propagator equation in Lorentz gauge. This shows that the gauge transformation technique will eliminate unphysical breaking of de Sitter invariance introduced by a gauge condition. It is suggested that the same technique can be used to finally resolve the issue of whether or not free gravitons are de Sitter invariant.

  4. Remarks on holography with broken Lorentz invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeli, Ivan; Koroteev, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Recently a family of solutions of Einstein equations in backgrounds with broken Lorentz invariance was found. We show that the gravitational solution recently obtained by Kachru et al. is a part of the former solution which was derived earlier in the framework of extra-dimensional theories. We show how the energy-momentum and Einstein tensors are related and establish a correspondence between parameters which govern Lorentz invariance violation. Then we demonstrate that scaling behavior of two point correlation functions of local operators in scalar field theory is reproduced correctly for two cases with critical values of scaling parameters. Therefore, we complete the dictionary of “tree-level” duality for all known solutions of the bulk theory. In the end we speculate on relations between renormalization group flow of a boundary theory and asymptotic behavior of gravitational solutions in the bulk.

  5. Mr. Tompkins in Java: Interactive Lorentz transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Prasenjit

    2003-12-01

    This paper describes a simple applet for illustrating Lorentz transformations. The user specifies stationary and moving objects and light pulses, and sees animations of two reference frames. Even with minimal graphics (the objects are colored dots and the light flashes are expanding circles), such animations can make the concepts of redshift, length contraction, time dilation, and non-simultaneity more intuitive than traditional spacetime diagrams.

  6. Neutrino velocity and local Lorentz invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, Fabio; Mignani, Roberto; Petrucci, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    We discuss the possible violation of local Lorentz invariance (LLI) arising from a faster-than-light neutrino speed. A toy calculation of the LLI violation parameter δ, based on the (disclaimed) OPERA data, suggests that the values of δ are determined by the interaction involved, and not by the energy range. This hypothesis is further corroborated by the analysis of the more recent results of the BOREXINO, LVD and ICARUS experiments.

  7. The Lorentz anomaly via operator product expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Fredenhagen, Stefan; Hoppe, Jens Hynek, Mariusz

    2015-10-15

    The emergence of a critical dimension is one of the most striking features of string theory. One way to obtain it is by demanding closure of the Lorentz algebra in the light-cone gauge quantisation, as discovered for bosonic strings more than forty years ago. We give a detailed derivation of this classical result based on the operator product expansion on the Lorentzian world-sheet.

  8. Stochastic charging of dust grains in planetary rings: Diffusion rates and their effects on Lorentz resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, L.; Burns, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Dust grains in planetary rings acquire stochastically fluctuating electric charges as they orbit through any corotating magnetospheric plasma. Here we investigate the nature of this stochastic charging and calculate its effect on the Lorentz resonance (LR). First we model grain charging as a Markov process, where the transition probabilities are identified as the ensemble-averaged charging fluxes due to plasma pickup and photoemission. We determine the distribution function P(t;N), giving the probability that a grain has N excess charges at time t. The autocorrelation function tau(sub q) for the strochastic charge process can be approximated by a Fokker-Planck treatment of the evolution equations for P(t; N). We calculate the mean square response to the stochastic fluctuations in the Lorentz force. We find that transport in phase space is very small compared to the resonant increase in amplitudes due to the mean charge, over the timescale that the oscillator is resonantly pumped up. Therefore the stochastic charge variations cannot break the resonant interaction; locally, the Lorentz resonance is a robust mechanism for the shaping of etheral dust ring systems. Slightly stronger bounds on plasma parameters are required when we consider the longer transit times between Lorentz resonances.

  9. Lorentz force effects for graphene Aharonov-Bohm interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mreńca-Kolasińska, A.; Szafran, B.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate magnetic deflection of currents that flow across the Aharonov-Bohm interferometers defined in graphene. We consider devices induced by closed n -p junctions in nanoribbons as well as etched quantum rings. The deflection effects on conductance are strictly correlated with the properties of the ring-localized quasibound states. The energy of these states, their lifetime, and the periodicity of the conductance oscillations are determined by orientation of the current circulating within the interferometer. The formation of high harmonics of conductance at high magnetic field and the role of intervalley scattering are discussed.

  10. Evaluating the Bulk Lorentz Factors of Outflow Material: Lessons Learned from the Extremely Energetic Outburst GRB 160625B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan-Zhu; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Shuai; Liang, Yun-Feng; Jin, Zhi-Ping; He, Hao-Ning; Liao, Neng-Hui; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2017-02-01

    GRB 160625B is an extremely bright outburst with well-monitored afterglow emission. The geometry-corrected energy is high, up to ∼5.2 × 1052 erg or even ∼8 × 1052 erg, rendering it the most energetic GRB prompt emission recorded so far. We analyzed the time-resolved spectra of the prompt emission and found that in some intervals there were likely thermal-radiation components and the high energy emission was characterized by significant cutoff. The bulk Lorentz factors of the outflow material are estimated accordingly. We found out that the Lorentz factors derived in the thermal-radiation model are consistent with the luminosity-Lorentz factor correlation found in other bursts, as well as in GRB 090902B for the time-resolved thermal-radiation components, while the spectral cutoff model yields much lower Lorentz factors that are in tension with the constraints set by the electron pair Compton scattering process. We then suggest that these spectral cutoffs are more likely related to the particle acceleration process and that one should be careful in estimating the Lorentz factors if the spectrum cuts at a rather low energy (e.g., ∼tens of MeV). The nature of the central engine has also been discussed, and a stellar-mass black hole is favored.

  11. Kondo effect from a Lorentz-violating domain wall description of superconductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazeia, D.; Brito, F. A.; Mota-Silva, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    We extend recent results on domain wall description of superconductivity in an Abelian Higgs model by introducing a particular Lorentz-violating term. The temperature of the system is interpreted through the fact that the soliton following accelerating orbits is a Rindler observer experiencing a thermal bath. We show that this term can be associated with the Kondo effect, that is, the Lorentz-violating parameter is closely related to the concentration of magnetic impurities living on a superconducting domain wall. We also found that the critical temperature decreasing with the impurity concentration as a non-single-valued function, for the case TK

  12. Vacuum electron acceleration by using two variable frequency laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Saberi, H.; Maraghechi, B.

    2013-12-15

    A method is proposed for producing a relativistic electron bunch in vacuum via direct acceleration by using two frequency-chirped laser pulses. We consider the linearly polarized frequency-chiped Hermit-Gaussian 0, 0 mode lasers with linear chirp in which the local frequency varies linearly in time and space. Electron motion is investigated through a numerical simulation using a three-dimensional particle trajectory code in which the relativistic Newton's equations of motion with corresponding Lorentz force are solved. Two oblique laser pulses with proper chirp parameters and propagation angles are used for the electron acceleration along the z-axis. In this way, an electron initially at rest located at the origin could achieve high energy, γ=319 with the scattering angle of 1.02{sup ∘} with respect to the z-axis. Moreover, the acceleration of an electron in different initial positions on each coordinate axis is investigated. It was found that this mechanism has the capability of producing high energy electron microbunches with low scattering angles. The energy gain of an electron initially located at some regions on each axis could be greatly enhanced compared to the single pulse acceleration. Furthermore, the scattering angle will be lowered compared to the acceleration by using laser pulses propagating along the z-axis.

  13. Far-field intensity of Lorentz related beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xi; Chen, Chidao; Chen, Bo; Peng, Yulian; Zhou, Meiling; Zhang, Liping; Li, Dongdong; Deng, Dongmei

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a sufficient condition under which the Lorentz beam convolution with other beams constitutes valid cross-spectral densities. Two examples are given to show how the Lorentz related beam can be used for generation of a far field being a modulated version of another one. The far-field intensity patterns in the Cartesian symmetries by the convolution operation of the Lorentz beams with multi-sinc beams, and the convolution operation of the Lorentz beams with multi-sinc Gaussian beams, are shown respectively. We find that different beam order can result distinct far field changes.

  14. Fractional Fourier transform of Lorentz-Gauss beams.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoquan

    2009-02-01

    Lorentz-Gauss beams are introduced to describe certain laser sources that produce highly divergent beams. The fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) is applied to treat the propagation of Lorentz-Gauss beams. Based on the definition of convolution and the convolution theorem of the Fourier transform, an analytical expression for a Lorentz-Gauss beam passing through an FRFT system has been derived. By using the derived expression, the properties of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in the FRFT plane are graphically illustrated with numerical examples.

  15. Maxwell-Faraday Stresses in Electromagnetic Fields and the Self-Force on a Uniformly Accelerating Point Charge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, D. R.

    2007-01-01

    The physical analysis of a uniformly accelerating point charge provides a rich problem to explore in advanced courses in electrodynamics and relativity since it brings together fundamental concepts in relation to electromagnetic radiation, Einstein's equivalence principle and the inertial mass of field energy in ways that reveal subtleties in each…

  16. Extending the Lorentz transformation by characteristic coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    The problem considered is that of rectilinear motion with variable velocity. The paper gives, by an elementary construction, a system of coordinates which is conformal in a restricted region near the axis of the motion. In such coordinates the velocity of light remains invariant even for observers moving with variable velocity. By a particular choice of the scale relation the restricted conformal transformations can be made to reduce to the Lorentz transformation everywhere in the case of constant velocity and locally in the case of variable velocity.

  17. Optical finite representation of the Lorentz group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Lara, B. M.; Guerrero, J.

    2015-12-01

    We present a class of photonic lattices with an underlying symmetry given by a finite-dimensional representation of the 2+1D Lorentz group. In order to construct such a finite-dimensional representation of a non-compact group, we have to design a $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric optical structure. Thus, the array of coupled waveguides may keep or break $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetry, leading to a device that behaves like an oscillator or directional amplifier, respectively. We show that the so-called linear $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric dimer belongs to this class of photonic lattices.

  18. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration. (LSP)

  19. Variation of bulk Lorentz factor in AGN jets due to Compton rocket in a complex photon field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuillaume, T.; Henri, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.

    2015-09-01

    Radio-loud active galactic nuclei are among the most powerful objects in the universe. In these objects, most of the emission comes from relativistic jets getting their power from the accretion of matter ontosupermassive black holes. However, despite the number of studies, a jet's acceleration to relativistic speeds is still poorly understood. It is widely known that jets contain relativistic particles that emit radiation through several physical processes, one of them being the inverse Compton scattering of photons coming from external sources. In the case of a plasma composed of electrons and positrons continuously heated by the turbulence, inverse Compton scattering can lead to relativistic bulk motions through the Compton rocket effect. We investigate this process and compute the resulting bulk Lorentz factor in the complex photon field of an AGN composed of several external photon sources. We consider various sources:the accretion disk, the dusty torus, and the broad line region. We take their geometry and anisotropy carefully into account in order to numerically compute the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet at every altitude. The study, made for a broad range of parameters, shows interesting and unexpected behaviors of the bulk Lorentz factor, exhibiting acceleration and deceleration zones in the jet. We investigate the patterns of the bulk Lorentz factor along the jet depending on the source sizes and on the observation angle and we finally show that these patterns can induce variability in the AGN emission with timescales going from hours to months.

  20. The Lorentz-Dirac equation, Lienard-Wiechert potentials, and radiation by a system of uniformly circling charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hnizdo, V.

    1988-06-01

    Refutation is given of a recent claim that both the Lorentz-Dirac radiation reaction force and Lienard-Wiechert retarded potentials satisfy energy conservation only to a low order of approximation in a system of two charges which move uniformly along a circle. When correctly calculated, the power radiated by such a system equals exactly the rate at which work is done on the system by external forces.

  1. Testing Lorentz Symmetry with Lunar Laser Ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgoin, A.; Hees, A.; Bouquillon, S.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Francou, G.; Angonin, M.-C.

    2016-12-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be parametrized by an effective field theory framework that contains both general relativity and the standard model of particle physics called the standard-model extension (SME). We present new constraints on pure gravity SME coefficients obtained by analyzing lunar laser ranging (LLR) observations. We use a new numerical lunar ephemeris computed in the SME framework and we perform a LLR data analysis using a set of 20 721 normal points covering the period of August, 1969 to December, 2013. We emphasize that linear combination of SME coefficients to which LLR data are sensitive and not the same as those fitted in previous postfit residuals analysis using LLR observations and based on theoretical grounds. We found no evidence for Lorentz violation at the level of 10-8 for s¯T X, 10-12 for s¯X Y and s¯X Z, 10-11 for s¯X X-s¯Y Y and s¯X X+s¯Y Y-2 s¯Z Z-4.5 s¯Y Z, and 10-9 for s¯T Y+0.43 s¯T Z. We improve previous constraints on SME coefficient by a factor up to 5 and 800 compared to postfit residuals analysis of respectively binary pulsars and LLR observations.

  2. The Superluminal Neutrinos from Deformed Lorentz Invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Yunjie; Li, Tianjun; Liao, Yi; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.; Qi, Yonghui; Wang, Fei

    2012-10-01

    We study two superluminal neutrino scenarios where δ v≡ (v-c)/(c) is a constant. To be consistent with the OPERA, Borexino and ICARUS experiments and with the SN1987a observations, we assume that δvν on the Earth is about three-order larger than that on the interstellar scale. To explain the theoretical challenges from the Bremsstrahlung effects and pion decays, we consider the deformed Lorentz invariance, and show that the superluminal neutrino dispersion relations can be realized properly while the modifications to the dispersion relations of the other Standard Model particles can be negligible. In addition, we propose the deformed energy and momentum conservation laws for a generic physical process. In Scenario I the momentum conservation law is preserved while the energy conservation law is deformed. In Scenario II the energy conservation law is preserved while the momentum conservation law is deformed. We present the energy and momentum conservation laws in terms of neutrino momentum in Scenario I and in terms of neutrino energy in Scenario II. In such formats, the energy and momentum conservation laws are exactly the same as those in the traditional quantum field theory with Lorentz symmetry. Thus, all the above theoretical challenges can be automatically solved. We show explicitly that the Bremsstrahlung processes are forbidden and there is no problem for pion decays.

  3. Planar factors of proper homogeneous Lorentz transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Fahnline, D.E.

    1985-02-01

    This article discusses two constructions factoring proper homogeneous Lorentz transformations H into the product of two planar transformations. A planar transformation is a proper homogeneous Lorentz transformation changing vectors in a two-flat through the origin, called the transformation two-flat, into new vectors in the same two-flat and which leaves unchanged vectors in the orthogonal two-flat, called the pointwise invariant two-flat. The first construction provides two planar factors such that a given timelike vector lies in the transformation two-flat of one and in the pointwise invariant two-flat of the other; it leads to several basic conditions on the trace of H and to necessary and sufficient conditions for H to be planar. The second construction yields explicit formulas for the orthogonal factors of H when they exist and are unique, where two planar transformations are orthogonal if the transformation two-flat of one is the pointwise invariant two-flat of the other.

  4. Testing Lorentz Symmetry with Lunar Laser Ranging.

    PubMed

    Bourgoin, A; Hees, A; Bouquillon, S; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C; Francou, G; Angonin, M-C

    2016-12-09

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be parametrized by an effective field theory framework that contains both general relativity and the standard model of particle physics called the standard-model extension (SME). We present new constraints on pure gravity SME coefficients obtained by analyzing lunar laser ranging (LLR) observations. We use a new numerical lunar ephemeris computed in the SME framework and we perform a LLR data analysis using a set of 20 721 normal points covering the period of August, 1969 to December, 2013. We emphasize that linear combination of SME coefficients to which LLR data are sensitive and not the same as those fitted in previous postfit residuals analysis using LLR observations and based on theoretical grounds. We found no evidence for Lorentz violation at the level of 10^{-8} for s[over ¯]^{TX}, 10^{-12} for s[over ¯]^{XY} and s[over ¯]^{XZ}, 10^{-11} for s[over ¯]^{XX}-s[over ¯]^{YY} and s[over ¯]^{XX}+s[over ¯]^{YY}-2s[over ¯]^{ZZ}-4.5s[over ¯]^{YZ}, and 10^{-9} for s[over ¯]^{TY}+0.43s[over ¯]^{TZ}. We improve previous constraints on SME coefficient by a factor up to 5 and 800 compared to postfit residuals analysis of respectively binary pulsars and LLR observations.

  5. Superfluid helium sloshing dynamics induced oscillations and fluctuations of angular momentum, force and moment actuated on spacecraft driven by gravity gradient or jitter acceleration associated with slew motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The generalized mathematical formulation of sloshing dynamics for partially filled liquid of cryogenic superfluid helium II in dewar containers driven by the gravity gradient and jitter accelerations associated with slew motion for the purpose to perform scientific observation during the normal spacecraft operation are investigated. An example is given with the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility-Spectroscopy (AXAF-S) for slew motion which is responsible for the sloshing dynamics. The jitter accelerations include slew motion, spinning motion, atmospheric drag on the spacecraft, spacecraft attitude motions arising from machinery vibrations, thruster firing, pointing control of spacecraft, crew motion, etc. Explicit mathematical expressions to cover these forces acting on the spacecraft fluid systems are derived. The numerical computation of sloshing dynamics is based on the non-inertia frame spacecraft bound coordinate, and solve time-dependent, three-dimensional formulations of partial differential equations subject to initial and boundary conditions. The explicit mathematical expressions of boundary conditions to cover capillary force effect on the liquid-vapor interface in microgravity environments are also derived. The formulations of fluid moment and angular moment fluctuations in fluid profiles induced by the sloshing dynamics, together with fluid stress and moment fluctuations exerted on the spacecraft dewar containers have also been derived. Examples are also given for cases applicable to the AXAF-S spacecraft sloshing dynamics associated with slew motion.

  6. Testing local Lorentz invariance with short-range gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostelecký, V. Alan; Mewes, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    The Newton limit of gravity is studied in the presence of Lorentz-violating gravitational operators of arbitrary mass dimension. The linearized modified Einstein equations are obtained and the perturbative solutions are constructed and characterized. We develop a formalism for data analysis in laboratory experiments testing gravity at short range and demonstrate that these tests provide unique sensitivity to deviations from local Lorentz invariance.

  7. Lorentz and CPT Tests with Spin-Polarized Solids

    SciTech Connect

    Bluhm, Robert; Kostelecky, V. Alan

    2000-02-14

    Experiments using macroscopic samples of spin-polarized matter offer exceptional sensitivity to Lorentz and CPT violation in the electron sector. Data from existing experiments with a spin-polarized torsion pendulum provide sensitivity in this sector rivaling that of all other existing experiments and could reveal spontaneous violation of Lorentz symmetry at the Planck scale. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  8. Lorentz-Dirac equation and circularly moving charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comay, E.

    1987-09-01

    The Lorentz-Dirac equation of radiation reaction is tested in a system of circularly moving changes. It is shown that this equation together with the Lienard-Wiechert retarded fields is consistent with energy conservation. Therefore, in this particular experiment, any alternative expression of radiation reaction must agree with the Lorentz-Dirac equation.

  9. Supersymmetric Lorentz Chern-Simons terms coupled to supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Nishino, Hitoshi; Rajpoot, Subhash

    2010-04-15

    We present supersymmetric Lorentz Chern-Simons terms coupled to anti-de Sitter supergravity in three dimensions with an arbitrary number of supersymmetries. As an application to higher dimensions, we present analogous supersymmetric Lorentz Chern-Simons terms coupled to N=1 supergravity in 11 dimensions.

  10. Accelerated greenhouse gases versus slow insolation forcing induced climate changes in southern South America since the Mid-Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Ana Laura; Silvestri, Gabriel E.; Rojas, Maisa; Tonello, Marcela S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a pioneering analysis of past climates in southern South America combining multiproxy reconstructions and the state-of-the-art CMIP5/PMIP3 paleoclimatic models to investigate the time evolution of regional climatic conditions from the Mid-Holocene (MH) to the present. This analysis allows a comparison between the impact of the long term climate variations associated with insolation changes and the more recent effects of anthropogenic forcing on the region. The PMIP3 multimodel experiments suggest that changes in precipitation over almost all southern South America between MH and pre-industrial (PI) times due to insolation variations are significantly larger than those between PI and the present, which are due to changes in greenhouse gas concentrations. Anthropogenic forcing has been particularly intense over western Patagonia inducing reduction of precipitation in summer, autumn and winter as a consequence of progressively weaker westerly winds over the region, which have moved further poleward, between ca. 35-55°S and have become stronger south of about 50°S. Orbital variations between the MH to the PI period increased insolation over southern South America during summer and autumn inducing warmer conditions in the PI, accentuated by the effect of anthropogenic forcing during the last century. On the other hand, changes in orbital parameters from the MH to the PI period reduced insolation during winter and spring inducing colder conditions, which have been reversed by the anthropogenic forcing.

  11. Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason T.; Markusic, Tom E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A major shift in paradigm in driving pulsed plasma thruster is necessary if the original goal of accelerating a plasma sheet efficiently to high velocities as a plasma "slug" is to be realized. Firstly, the plasma interior needs to be highly collisional so that it can be dammed by the plasma edge layer not (upstream) adjacent to the driving 'vacuum' magnetic field. Secondly, the plasma edge layer needs to be strongly magnetized so that its Hall parameter is of the order of unity in this region to ensure excellent coupling of the Lorentz force to the plasma. Thirdly, to prevent and/or suppress the occurrence of secondary arcs or restrike behind the plasma, the region behind the plasma needs to be collisionless and extremely magnetized with sufficiently large Hall parameter. This places a vacuum requirement on the bore conditions prior to the shot. These requirements are quantified in the paper and lead to the introduction of three new design parameters corresponding to these three plasma requirements. The first parameter, labeled in the paper as gamma (sub 1), pertains to the permissible ratio of the diffusive excursion of the plasma during the course of the acceleration to the plasma longitudinal dimension. The second parameter is the required Hall parameter of the edge plasma region, and the third parameter the required Hall parameter of the region behind the plasma. Experimental research is required to quantify the values of these design parameters. Based upon fundamental theory of the transport processes in plasma, some theoretical guidance on the choice of these parameters are provided to help designing the necessary experiments to acquire these data.

  12. A Simple Method for Illustrating the Difference between the Homogeneous and Inhomogeneous Lorentz Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Y. S.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Using covarient harmonic oscillator formalism as an illustrative example, a method is proposed for illustrating the difference between the Poincare (inhomogeneous Lorentz) and homogeneous Lorentz groups. (BT)

  13. Influence of an AGN complex photon field on the jet bulk Lorentz factor through Compton rocket effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuillaume, T.; Henri, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.

    2014-12-01

    Radio-loud active galactic nuclei are among the most powerful objects in the universe. In these objects, most of the emission comes from a relativistic jet getting its power from the accretion of matter on a supermassive black-hole. However, despite many studies, the jets acceleration to relativistic speeds is still misunderstood. The bulk Lorentz factor characterizing the speed of these flows cannot be precisely measured and only limits have been established. It is widely admitted that jets are composed of relativistic particles emitting light through several physical processes, one of them being the comptonization of photons coming from external sources to the jet. It has been shown that this emission can drive a group of highly relativistic leptons placed in an external photon field to relativistic bulk motions through the Compton rocket effect. In this work, we investigate this process and compute the resulting bulk Lorentz factor in the complex photon field of an AGN composed of several external photon sources. To do so, we model the sources present in the inner parts of an AGN (the accretion disk, the dusty torus and the broad line region), taking precisely into account their geometry and anisotropy to numerically compute the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet at every altitude. The study shows interesting and unexpected behaviors of the bulk Lorentz factor with acceleration and deceleration zones in the jet. We investigate the patterns of the bulk Lorentz and Doppler factors along the jet for one geometry example and discuss the implications of these patterns on the AGN emission.

  14. Parallel Computation of Integrated Electromagnetic, Thermal and Structural Effects for Accelerator Cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Akcelik, V.; Candel, A.E.; Kabel, A.C.; Ko, K.; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.K.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2011-11-02

    The successful operation of accelerator cavities has to satisfy both rf and mechanical requirements. It is highly desirable that electromagnetic, thermal and structural effects such as cavity wall heating and Lorentz force detuning in superconducting rf cavities can be addressed in an integrated analysis. Based on the SLAC parallel finite-element code infrastructure for electromagnetic modeling, a novel multi-physics analysis tool has been developed to include additional thermal and mechanical effects. The parallel computation enables virtual prototyping of accelerator cavities on computers, which would substantially reduce the cost and time of a design cycle. The multi-physics tool is applied to the LCLS rf gun for electromagnetic, thermal and structural analyses.

  15. Current-driven plasma acceleration versus current-driven energy dissipation. I - Wave stability theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.; Choueiri, E. Y.

    1990-01-01

    The dominant unstable electrostatic wave modes of an electromagnetically accelerated plasma are investigated. The study is the first part of a three-phase program aimed at characterizing the current-driven turbulent dissipation degrading the efficiency of Lorentz force plasma accelerators such as the MPD thruster. The analysis uses a kinetic theory that includes magnetic and thermal effects as well as those of an electron current transverse to the magnetic field and collisions, thus combining all the features of previous models. Analytical and numerical solutions allow a detailed description of threshold criteria, finite growth behavior, destabilization mechanisms and maximized-growth characteristics of the dominant unstable modes. The lower hybrid current-driven instability is implicated as dominant and was found to preserve its character in the collisional plasma regime.

  16. Multiphysics Analysis of Frequency Detuning in Superconducting RF Cavities for Proton Particle Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Awida, M. H.; Gonin, I.; Passarelli, D.; Sukanov, A.; Khabiboulline, T.; Yakovlev, V.

    2016-01-22

    Multiphysics analyses for superconducting cavities are essential in the course of cavity design to meet stringent requirements on cavity frequency detuning. Superconducting RF cavities are the core accelerating elements in modern particle accelerators whether it is proton or electron machine, as they offer extremely high quality factors thus reducing the RF losses per cavity. However, the superior quality factor comes with the challenge of controlling the resonance frequency of the cavity within few tens of hertz bandwidth. In this paper, we investigate how the multiphysics analysis plays a major role in proactively minimizing sources of frequency detuning, specifically; microphonics and Lorentz Force Detuning (LFD) in the stage of RF design of the cavity and mechanical design of the niobium shell and the helium vessel.

  17. Dynamical properties of the Lorentz gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, K. C.; Ranganathan, S.; Egelstaff, P. A.; Soper, A. K.

    1987-07-01

    A Lorentz gas interacting with a Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential and obeying classical equations of motion has been simulated by the molecular-dynamics method. A system of 255 Ar particles and one H2 molecule at a reduced Ar density 0.413 and temperature 2.475 is simplified by allowing the ``argon'' to have infinite mass, and the hydrogen molecule interacts with Ar atoms via the LJ potential. The simulated incoherent dynamic structure factor Ss(Q,ω) for the hydrogen molecule, which is corrected for the rotational states, is found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental data of Egelstaff et al. (unpublished). One-parameter phenomenological model calculations are also compared to these data.

  18. Living with ghosts in Lorentz invariant theories

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2013-01-01

    We argue that theories with ghosts may have a long lived vacuum state even if all interactions are Lorentz preserving. In space-time dimension D = 2, we consider the tree level decay rate of the vacuum into ghosts and ordinary particles mediated by non-derivative interactions, showing that this is finite and logarithmically growing in time. For D > 2, the decay rate is divergent unless we assume that the interaction between ordinary matter and the ghost sector is soft in the UV, so that it can be described in terms of non-local form factors rather than point-like vertices. We provide an example of a nonlocal gravitational-strength interaction between the two sectors, which appears to satisfy all observational constraints.

  19. Testing Lorentz symmetry with planetary orbital dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hees, A.; Bailey, Q. G.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Bourgoin, A.; Rivoldini, A.; Lamine, B.; Meynadier, F.; Guerlin, C.; Wolf, P.

    2015-09-01

    Planetary ephemerides are a very powerful tool to constrain deviations from the theory of general relativity (GR) using orbital dynamics. The effective field theory framework called the Standard-Model Extension (SME) has been developed in order to systematically parametrize hypothetical violations of Lorentz symmetry (in the Standard Model and in the gravitational sector). In this communication, we use the latest determinations of the supplementary advances of the perihelia and of the nodes obtained by planetary ephemerides analysis to constrain SME coefficients from the pure gravity sector and also from gravity-matter couplings. Our results do not show any deviation from GR and they improve current constraints. Moreover, combinations with existing constraints from Lunar Laser Ranging and from atom interferometry gravimetry allow us to disentangle contributions from the pure gravity sector from the gravity-matter couplings.

  20. Lorentz drift compensation in high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions of the spectrum.

    PubMed

    Galloway, Benjamin R; Popmintchev, Dimitar; Pisanty, Emilio; Hickstein, Daniel D; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Popmintchev, Tenio

    2016-09-19

    We present a semi-classical study of the effects of the Lorentz force on electrons during high harmonic generation in the soft and hard X-ray regions driven by near- and mid-infrared lasers with wavelengths from 0.8 to 20 μm, and at intensities below 1015 W/cm2. The transverse extent of the longitudinal Lorentz drift is compared for both Gaussian focus and waveguide geometries. Both geometries exhibit a longitudinal electric field component that cancels the magnetic Lorentz drift in some regions of the focus, once each full optical cycle. We show that the Lorentz force contributes a super-Gaussian scaling which acts in addition to the dominant high harmonic flux scaling of λ-(5-6) due to quantum diffusion. We predict that the high harmonic yield will be reduced for driving wavelengths > 6 μm, and that the presence of dynamic spatial mode asymmetries results in the generation of both even and odd harmonic orders. Remarkably, we show that under realistic conditions, the recollision process can be controlled and does not shut off completely even for wavelengths >10 μm and recollision energies greater than 15 keV.

  1. Lorentz invariance violation and generalized uncertainty principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, Abdel Nasser; Magdy, H.; Ali, A. Farag

    2016-01-01

    There are several theoretical indications that the quantum gravity approaches may have predictions for a minimal measurable length, and a maximal observable momentum and throughout a generalization for Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) is based on a momentum-dependent modification in the standard dispersion relation which is conjectured to violate the principle of Lorentz invariance. From the resulting Hamiltonian, the velocity and time of flight of relativistic distant particles at Planck energy can be derived. A first comparison is made with recent observations for Hubble parameter in redshift-dependence in early-type galaxies. We find that LIV has two types of contributions to the time of flight delay Δ t comparable with that observations. Although the wrong OPERA measurement on faster-than-light muon neutrino anomaly, Δ t, and the relative change in the speed of muon neutrino Δ v in dependence on redshift z turn to be wrong, we utilize its main features to estimate Δ v. Accordingly, the results could not be interpreted as LIV. A third comparison is made with the ultra high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR). It is found that an essential ingredient of the approach combining string theory, loop quantum gravity, black hole physics and doubly spacial relativity and the one assuming a perturbative departure from exact Lorentz invariance. Fixing the sensitivity factor and its energy dependence are essential inputs for a reliable confronting of our calculations to UHECR. The sensitivity factor is related to the special time of flight delay and the time structure of the signal. Furthermore, the upper and lower bounds to the parameter, a that characterizes the generalized uncertainly principle, have to be fixed in related physical systems such as the gamma rays bursts.

  2. Graphical Representations for the Successive Lorentz Transformations. Application: Lorentz Contraction and Its Dependence on Thomas Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamseddine, Riad

    2016-04-01

    A new vectorial representation for the successive Lorentz transformations (SLT) has recently been proved very convenient to achieve a straightforward treatment of the Thomas rotation effect. Such a representation rests on equivalent forms for the pure Lorentz transformation (PLT) and SLT whose physical meaning escaped us. The present paper fills this gap in by showing that those equivalent forms could represent appropriate world lines, lines and planes of simultaneity. Those geometric elements are particularly convenient to build up two new graphical representations for the SLT: the first rests on that equivalent form for the SLT, while the second takes the SLT as a PLT preceded or followed by a Thomas rotation and uses the equivalent form for the PLT. As an application, the SLT Lorentz contraction (SLTLC) formulas are derived for the first time. The dependence of the SLTLC on the Thomas rotation is put in evidence. The SLTLC along directions transverse and parallel to the composite velocity is studied. Original SLT Minkowski diagrams are given for the first time.

  3. An implicit δf particle-in-cell method with sub-cycling and orbit averaging for Lorentz ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturdevant, Benjamin J.; Parker, Scott E.; Chen, Yang; Hause, Benjamin B.

    2016-07-01

    A second order implicit δf Lorentz ion hybrid model with sub-cycling and orbit averaging has been developed to study low-frequency, quasi-neutral plasmas. Models using the full Lorentz force equations of motion for ions may be useful for verifying gyrokinetic ion simulation models in applications where higher order terms may be important. In the presence of a strong external magnetic field, previous Lorentz ion models are limited to simulating very short time scales due to the small time step required for resolving the ion gyromotion. Here, we use a simplified model for ion Landau damped ion acoustic waves in a uniform magnetic field as a test bed for developing efficient time stepping methods to be used with the Lorentz ion hybrid model. A detailed linear analysis of the model is derived to validate simulations and to examine the significance of ion Bernstein waves in the Lorentz ion model. Linear analysis of a gyrokinetic ion model is also performed, and excellent agreement with the dispersion results from the Lorentz ion model is demonstrated for the ion acoustic wave. The sub-cycling/orbit averaging algorithm is shown to produce accurate finite-Larmor-radius effects using large macro-time steps sizes, and numerical damping of high frequency fluctuations can be achieved by formulating the field model in terms of the perturbed flux density. Furthermore, a CPU-GPU implementation of the sub-cycling/orbit averaging is presented and is shown to achieve a significant speedup over an equivalent serial code.

  4. Relativistic integro-differential form of the Lorentz-Dirac equation in 3D without runaways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibison, Michael; Puthoff, Harold E.

    2001-04-01

    It is well known that the third-order Lorentz-Dirac equation admits runaway solutions wherein the energy of the particle grows without limit, even when there is no external force. These solutions can be denied simply on physical grounds, and on the basis of careful analysis of the correspondence between classical and quantum theory. Nonetheless, one would prefer an equation that did not admit unphysical behavior at the outset. Such an equation - an integro-differential version of the Lorentz-Dirac equation - is currently available either in 1 dimension only, or in 3 dimensions only in the non-relativistic limit. It is shown herein how the Lorentz-Dirac equation may be integrated without approximation, and is thereby converted to a second-order integro-differential equation in 3D satisfying the above requirement. I.E., as a result, no additional constraints on the solutions are required because runaway solutions are intrinsically absent. The derivation is placed within the historical context established by standard works on classical electrodynamics by Rohrlich, and by Jackson.

  5. Electron acceleration and emission in a field of a plane and converging dipole wave of relativistic amplitudes with the radiation reaction force taken into account

    SciTech Connect

    Bashinov, Aleksei V; Gonoskov, Arkady A; Kim, A V; Marklund, Mattias; Mourou, G; Sergeev, Aleksandr M

    2013-04-30

    A comparative analysis is performed of the electron emission characteristics as the electrons move in laser fields with ultra-relativistic intensity and different configurations corresponding to a plane or tightly focused wave. For a plane travelling wave, analytical expressions are derived for the emission characteristics, and it is shown that the angular distribution of the radiation intensity changes qualitatively even when the wave intensity is much less than that in the case of the radiation-dominated regime. An important conclusion is drawn that the electrons in a travelling wave tend to synchronised motion under the radiation reaction force. The characteristic features of the motion of electrons are found in a converging dipole wave, associated with the curvature of the phase front and nonuniformity of the field distribution. The values of the maximum achievable longitudinal momenta of electrons accelerated to the centre, as well as their distribution function are determined. The existence of quasi-periodic trajectories near the focal region of the dipole wave is shown, and the characteristics of the emission of both accelerated and oscillating electrons are analysed. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  6. Disentangling forms of Lorentz violation with complementary clock comparison experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Altschul, Brett

    2009-03-15

    Atomic clock comparisons provide some of the most precise tests of Lorentz and CPT symmetries in the laboratory. With data from multiple such experiments using different nuclei, it is possible to constrain new regions of the parameter space for Lorentz violation. Relativistic effects in the nuclei allow us to disentangle forms of Lorentz violation which could not be separately measured in purely nonrelativistic experiments. The disentangled bounds in the neutron sectors are at the 10{sup -28} GeV level, far better than could be obtained with any other current technique.

  7. Ultrarelativistic Bose-Einstein gas on Lorentz symmetry violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sales, J. A.; Costa-Soares, T.; Vasquez Otoya, V. J.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of Lorentz Symmetry Breaking on the thermodynamic properties of ideal gases. Inspired by the dispersion relation coming from the Carroll-Field-Jackiw model for Electrodynamics with Lorentz and CPT violation term, we compute the thermodynamics quantities for a Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions. Two regimes are analyzed: the large and the small Lorentz violation. In the first case, we show that the topological mass induced by the Chern-Simons term behaves as a chemical potential. For Bose-Einstein gases, a condensation in both regimes can be found.

  8. Strong binary pulsar constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Kent; Blas, Diego; Yunes, Nicolás; Barausse, Enrico

    2014-04-25

    Binary pulsars are excellent laboratories to test the building blocks of Einstein's theory of general relativity. One of these is Lorentz symmetry, which states that physical phenomena appear the same for all inertially moving observers. We study the effect of violations of Lorentz symmetry in the orbital evolution of binary pulsars and find that it induces a much more rapid decay of the binary's orbital period due to the emission of dipolar radiation. The absence of such behavior in recent observations allows us to place the most stringent constraints on Lorentz violation in gravity, thus verifying one of the cornerstones of Einstein's theory much more accurately than any previous gravitational observation.

  9. Combined Search for Lorentz Violation in Short-Range Gravity.

    PubMed

    Shao, Cheng-Gang; Tan, Yu-Jie; Tan, Wen-Hai; Yang, Shan-Qing; Luo, Jun; Tobar, Michael Edmund; Bailey, Quentin G; Long, J C; Weisman, E; Xu, Rui; Kostelecký, V Alan

    2016-08-12

    Short-range experiments testing the gravitational inverse-square law at the submillimeter scale offer uniquely sensitive probes of Lorentz invariance. A combined analysis of results from the short-range gravity experiments HUST-2015, HUST-2011, IU-2012, and IU-2002 permits the first independent measurements of the 14 nonrelativistic coefficients for Lorentz violation in the pure-gravity sector at the level of 10^{-9}  m^{2}, improving by an order of magnitude the sensitivity to numerous types of Lorentz violation involving quadratic curvature derivatives and curvature couplings.

  10. Neutrino beam constraints on flavor-diagonal Lorentz violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschul, Brett

    2013-05-01

    Breaking of isotropy and Lorentz boost invariance in the dynamics of second-generation leptons would lead to direction-dependent changes in the lifetimes of charged pions. This would make the intensity of a neutrino beam produced via pion decay a function of the beam orientation. The experimental signature of this phenomenon—sidereal variations in the event rate at a downstream neutrino detector—has already been studied, in searches for Lorentz-violating neutrino oscillations. Existing analyses of MINOS near detector data can be used to constrain the flavor-diagonal Lorentz violation coefficients affecting muon neutrino speeds at roughly the 10-5 level.

  11. On the self-force in Bopp-Podolsky electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratus, Jonathan; Perlick, Volker; Tucker, Robin W.

    2015-10-01

    In the classical vacuum Maxwell-Lorentz theory the self-force of a charged point particle is infinite. This makes classical mass renormalization necessary and, in the special relativistic domain, leads to the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion possessing unphysical run-away and pre-acceleration solutions. In this paper we investigate whether the higher-order modification of classical vacuum electrodynamics suggested by Bopp, Landé, Thomas and Podolsky in the 1940s, can provide a solution to this problem. Since the theory is linear, Green-function techniques enable one to write the field of a charged point particle on Minkowski spacetime as an integral over the particle’s history. By introducing the notion of timelike worldlines that are ‘bounded away from the backward light-cone’ we are able to prescribe criteria for the convergence of such integrals. We also exhibit a timelike worldline yielding singular fields on a lightlike hyperplane in spacetime. In this case the field is mildly singular at the event where the particle crosses the hyperplane. Even in the case when the Bopp-Podolsky field is bounded, it exhibits a directional discontinuity as one approaches the point particle. We describe a procedure for assigning a value to the field on the particle worldline which enables one to define a finite Lorentz self-force. This is explicitly derived leading to an integro-differential equation for the motion of the particle in an external electromagnetic field. We conclude that any worldline solutions to this equation belonging to the categories discussed in the paper have continuous four-velocities.

  12. Probes of Lorentz violation in neutrino propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Harries, Nicholas; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Rubbia, André; Sakharov, Alexander S.

    2008-08-01

    It has been suggested that the interactions of energetic particles with the foamy structure of space-time thought to be generated by quantum-gravitational (QG) effects might violate Lorentz invariance, so that they do not propagate at a universal speed of light. We consider the limits that may be set on a linear or quadratic violation of Lorentz invariance in the propagation of energetic neutrinos, v/c=[1±(E/MνQG1)] or [1±(E/MνQG2)2], using data from supernova explosions and the OPERA long-baseline neutrino experiment. Using the SN1987a neutrino data from the Kamioka II, IMB, and Baksan experiments, we set the limits MνQG1>2.7(2.5)×1010GeV for subluminal (superluminal) propagation and MνQG2>4.6(4.1)×104GeV at the 95% confidence level. A future galactic supernova at a distance of 10 kpc would have sensitivity to MνQG1>2(4)×1011GeV for subluminal (superluminal) propagation and MνQG2>2(4)×105GeV. With the current CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso extraction spill length of 10.5μs and with standard clock synchronization techniques, the sensitivity of the OPERA experiment would reach MνQG1˜7×105GeV (MνQG2˜8×103GeV) after 5 years of nominal running. If the time structure of the super proton synchrotron radio frequency bunches within the extracted CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso spills could be exploited, these figures would be significantly improved to MνQG1˜5×107GeV (MνQG2˜4×104GeV). These results can be improved further if a similar time resolution can be achieved with neutrino events occurring in the rock upstream of the OPERA detector: we find potential sensitivities to MνQG1˜4×108GeV and MνQG2˜7×105GeV.

  13. Probes of Lorentz violation in neutrino propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, John; Harries, Nicholas; Meregaglia, Anselmo; Sakharov, Alexander S.

    2008-08-01

    It has been suggested that the interactions of energetic particles with the foamy structure of space-time thought to be generated by quantum-gravitational (QG) effects might violate Lorentz invariance, so that they do not propagate at a universal speed of light. We consider the limits that may be set on a linear or quadratic violation of Lorentz invariance in the propagation of energetic neutrinos, v/c=[1{+-}(E/M{sub {nu}}{sub QG1})] or [1{+-}(E/M{sub {nu}}{sub QG2}){sup 2}], using data from supernova explosions and the OPERA long-baseline neutrino experiment. Using the SN1987a neutrino data from the Kamioka II, IMB, and Baksan experiments, we set the limits M{sub {nu}}{sub QG1}>2.7(2.5)x10{sup 10} GeV for subluminal (superluminal) propagation and M{sub {nu}}{sub QG2}>4.6(4.1)x10{sup 4} GeV at the 95% confidence level. A future galactic supernova at a distance of 10 kpc would have sensitivity to M{sub {nu}}{sub QG1}>2(4)x10{sup 11} GeV for subluminal (superluminal) propagation and M{sub {nu}}{sub QG2}>2(4)x10{sup 5} GeV. With the current CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso extraction spill length of 10.5 {mu}s and with standard clock synchronization techniques, the sensitivity of the OPERA experiment would reach M{sub {nu}}{sub QG1}{approx}7x10{sup 5} GeV (M{sub {nu}}{sub QG2}{approx}8x10{sup 3} GeV) after 5 years of nominal running. If the time structure of the super proton synchrotron radio frequency bunches within the extracted CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso spills could be exploited, these figures would be significantly improved to M{sub {nu}}{sub QG1}{approx}5x10{sup 7} GeV (M{sub {nu}}{sub QG2}{approx}4x10{sup 4} GeV). These results can be improved further if a similar time resolution can be achieved with neutrino events occurring in the rock upstream of the OPERA detector: we find potential sensitivities to M{sub {nu}}{sub QG1}{approx}4x10{sup 8} GeV and M{sub {nu}}{sub QG2}{approx}7x10{sup 5} GeV.

  14. Larmor and the Prehistory of the Lorentz Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kittel, C.

    1974-01-01

    A historical analysis is given of the development in 1900 of the Lorentz transformation of coordinates and time, and of electric and magnetic field components. The earlier work of Voight is discussed. (RH)

  15. Comment on ‘Lorentz transformations and the wave equation’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Rocco, Héctor O.

    2017-01-01

    In this comment we make some clarifications with respect to certain asumptions and demands required by Ricardo Heras in his paper entitled ‘Lorentz transformations and the wave equation’ (2016 Eur. J. Phys. 37 025603).

  16. Traveling solitons in Lorentz and CPT breaking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Souza Dutra, A. de; Correa, R. A. C.

    2011-05-15

    In this work we present a class of traveling solitons in Lorentz and CPT breaking systems. In the case of Lorentz violating scenarios, as far as we know, only static solitonic configurations were analyzed up to now in the literature. Here it is shown that it is possible to construct some traveling solitons which cannot be mapped into static configurations by means of Lorentz boosts due to explicit breaking. In fact, the traveling solutions cannot be reached from the static ones by using something similar to a Lorentz boost in those cases. Furthermore, in the model studied, a complete set of exact solutions is obtained. The solutions present a critical behavior controlled by the choice of an arbitrary integration constant.

  17. Accelerators and the Accelerator Community

    SciTech Connect

    Malamud, Ernest; Sessler, Andrew

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, standing back--looking from afar--and adopting a historical perspective, the field of accelerator science is examined. How it grew, what are the forces that made it what it is, where it is now, and what it is likely to be in the future are the subjects explored. Clearly, a great deal of personal opinion is invoked in this process.

  18. Limits on neutron Lorentz violation from pulsar timing

    SciTech Connect

    Altschul, Brett

    2007-01-15

    Pulsars are the most accurate naturally occurring clocks, and data about them can be used to set bounds on neutron-sector Lorentz violations. If SO(3) rotation symmetry is completely broken for neutrons, then pulsars' rotation speeds will vary periodically. Pulsar timing data limits the relevant Lorentz-violating coefficients to be smaller than 1.7x10{sup -8} at at least 90% confidence.

  19. Cavity tests of parity-odd Lorentz violations in electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewes, Matthew; Petroff, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    Electromagnetic resonant cavities form the basis for a number modern tests of Lorentz invariance. The geometry of most of these experiments implies unsuppressed sensitivities to parity-even Lorentz violations only. Parity-odd violations typically enter through suppressed boost effects, causing a reduction in sensitivity by roughly 4 orders of magnitude. Here we discuss possible techniques for achieving unsuppressed sensitivities to parity-odd violations using asymmetric resonators.

  20. Lorentz-breaking theory with higher derivatives in spinor sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Reyes, C. Marat

    2015-08-01

    We consider the two-point function of the gauge field in Lorentz-breaking theories with higher-derivative extension of the Dirac Lagrangian. We show that the Carroll-Field-Jackiw term naturally arises in this theory as a quantum correction being perfectly finite and thus displaying no ambiguities. Also, the finiteness of this term at the low energy limit and the absence of large Lorentz violating corrections allows to avoid the fine-tuning problem.

  1. Local effects of the quantum vacuum in Lorentz-violating electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Ruiz, A.; Escobar, C. A.

    2017-02-01

    The Casimir effect is one of the most remarkable consequences of the nonzero vacuum energy predicted by quantum field theory. In this paper we use a local approach to study the Lorentz violation effects of the minimal standard model extension on the Casimir force between two parallel conducting plates in the vacuum. Using a perturbative method similar to that used for obtaining the Born series for the scattering amplitudes in quantum mechanics, we compute, at leading order in the Lorentz-violating coefficients, the relevant Green's function which satisfies given boundary conditions. The standard point-splitting technique allow us to express the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor in terms of the Green's function. We discuss its structure in the region between the plates. We compute the renormalized vacuum stress, which is obtained as the difference between the vacuum stress in the presence of the plates and that of the vacuum. The Casimir force is evaluated in an analytical fashion by two methods: by differentiating the renormalized global energy density and by computing the normal-normal component of the renormalized vacuum stress. We compute the local Casimir energy, which is found to diverge as approaching the plates, and we demonstrate that it does not contribute to the observable force.

  2. ICECUBE NEUTRINOS AND LORENTZ INVARIANCE VIOLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Guetta, D.; Piran, Tsvi

    2015-06-20

    The IceCube neutrino telescope has found so far no evidence of gamma-ray burst (GRB) neutrinos. We here notice that these results assume the same travel times from source to telescope for neutrinos and photons, an assumption that is challenged by some much-studied pictures of spacetime quantization. We briefly review previous results suggesting that limits on quantum-spacetime effects obtained for photons might not be applicable to neutrinos, and we then observe that the outcome of GRB-neutrino searches could depend strongly on whether one allows for neutrinos to be affected by the minute effects of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) predicted by some relevant quantum-spacetime models. We discuss some relevant issues using as an illustrative example three neutrinos that were detected by IceCube in good spatial coincidence with GRBs, but hours before the corresponding gamma rays. In general, this could happen if the earlier arrival reflects quantum-spacetime-induced LIV, but, as we stress, some consistency criteria must be enforced in order to properly test such a hypothesis. Our analysis sets the stage for future GRB-neutrino searches that could systematically test the possibility of quantum-spacetime-induced LIV.

  3. Lorentz symmetry and very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Hees, A.; Lambert, S.

    2016-12-01

    Lorentz symmetry violations can be described by an effective field theory framework that contains both general relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics called the Standard Model extension (SME). Recently, postfit analysis of Gravity Probe B and binary pulsars led to an upper limit at the 10-4 level on the time-time coefficient s¯T T of the pure-gravity sector of the minimal SME. In this work, we derive the observable of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) in SME and then implement it into a real data analysis code of geodetic VLBI observations. Analyzing all available observations recorded since 1979, we compare estimates of s¯T T and errors obtained with various analysis schemes, including global estimations over several time spans, and with various Sun elongation cutoff angles, and by analysis of radio source coordinate time series. We obtain a constraint on s¯ T T=(-5 ±8 )×10-5 , directly fitted to the observations and improving by a factor of 5 previous postfit analysis estimates.

  4. Hendrik Antoon Lorentz: his role in physics and society.

    PubMed

    Berends, Frits

    2009-04-22

    Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (1853-1928) was appointed in 1878 to a chair of theoretical physics at the University of Leiden, one of the first of such chairs in the world. A few years later Heike Kamerlingh Onnes became his experimental colleague, after vehement discussions in the faculty. Lorentz strongly supported Kamerlingh Onnes then, and proved subsequently to be an ideal colleague. With Lorentz's electron theory the classical theory of electromagnetism obtained its final form, at the time often called the Maxwell-Lorentz theory. In this theory the Zeeman effect could be explained: the first glimpse of the electron. The Nobel Prize followed in 1902. The Lorentz transformation, established in 1904, preceded the special theory of relativity. Later on, Lorentz played a much admired role in the debate on the new developments in physics, in particular as chairman of a series of Solvay conferences. Gradually his stature outside of physics grew, both nationally as chairman of the Zuiderzee committee and internationally as president of the International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations. At his funeral the overwhelming tribute was the recognition of his unique greatness. Einstein said about him 'He meant more to me personally than anyone else I have met on my life's journey'.

  5. A new look at Lorentz-covariant loop quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiller, Marc; Lachièze-Rey, Marc; Noui, Karim

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we study the classical and quantum properties of the unique commutative Lorentz-covariant connection for loop quantum gravity. This connection has been found after solving the second-class constraints inherited from the canonical analysis of the Holst action without the time gauge. We show that it has the property of lying in the conjugacy class of a pure su(2) connection, a result which enables one to construct the kinematical Hilbert space of the Lorentz-covariant theory in terms of the usual SU(2) spin-network states. Furthermore, we show that there is a unique Lorentz-covariant electric field, up to trivial and natural equivalence relations. The Lorentz-covariant electric field transforms under the adjoint action of the Lorentz group, and the associated Casimir operators are shown to be proportional to the area density. This gives a very interesting algebraic interpretation of the area. Finally, we show that the action of the surface operator on the Lorentz-covariant holonomies reproduces exactly the usual discrete SU(2) spectrum of time-gauge loop quantum gravity. In other words, the use of the time gauge does not introduce anomalies in the quantum theory.

  6. The Flux-Rope Scaling of the Acceleration of Coronal Mass Ejections and Eruptive Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Marqué, C.; Vourlidas, A.; Krall, J.; Schuck, P. W.

    2006-09-01

    The new flux-rope scaling law of the acceleration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) derived by Chen & Krall is quantitatively tested by comparing the theoretical prediction with the near-Sun acceleration profiles of 13 eruptive prominences (EPs) and four CMEs. A CME and associated EP are assumed to be organized by an underlying magnetic flux rope (MFR) with specific structural and geometrical relationships. The scaling law states that if the initial structure is a flux rope with a footpoint separation distance of Sf, then the height Zmax at which the acceleration measured at the centroid of the apex reaches maximum scales with Sf. The primary source of prominence data is the radio data from the archive of the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. A number of Hα events are also included. For CMEs, previously published events with good coverage of the initial acceleration are used. For each event, observed quantities are used to determine Sf and Zmax. It is shown that for the events included in the present study, Zmax scales with Sf in accordance with the scaling law. The result is consistent with the hypothesis that the preeruption magnetic structure underlying a CME and the associated EP is a flux rope driven by the toroidal Lorentz hoop force. The scaling law may constitute a quantitative observable discriminator of the preeruption magnetic geometry underlying CMEs/EPs and the driving force.

  7. Introduction to electrodynamics for microwave linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, D.H.

    1998-04-01

    This collection of notes and exercises is intended as a workbook to introduce the principles of microwave linear accelerators, starting with the underlying foundation in electrodynamics. The author reviewed Maxwell's equations, the Lorentz force law, and the behavior of fields near a conducting boundary. The author goes on to develop the principles of microwave electronics, including waveguide modes, circuit equivalence, shunt admittance of an iris, and voltage standing-wave ratio. The author constructed an elementary example of a waveguide coupled to a cavity, and examined its behavior during transient filling of the cavity, and in steady-state. He goes on to examine a periodic line. Then he examined the problem of acceleration in detail, studying first the properties of a single cavity-waveguide-beam system and developing the notions of wall Q, external Q, [R/Q], shunt impedance, and transformer ratio. He then examined the behavior of such a system on and off resonance, on the bench, and under conditions of transient and steady-state beam-loading. This work provides the foundation for the commonly employed circuit equivalents and the basic scalings for such systems. Following this he examined the coupling of two cavities, powered by a single feed, and goes on to consider structures constructed from multiple coupled cavities. The basic scalings for constant impedance and constant gradient traveling-wave structures are set down, including features of steady-state beam-loading, and the coupled-circuit model. Effects of uniform and random detuning are derived. These notes conclude with a brief outline of some problems of current interest in accelerator research.

  8. Lorentz, the Solvay Councils and the Physics Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berends, Frits A.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes the crucial role which Lorentz played in shaping and continuing the Solvay Councils and the Physics Institute. At the same time it will become clear that Lorentz* intensive involvement in these activities added significantly to his influence on, and recognition in, the international physics community. The first Solvay Council in 1911 was an initiative of the German physical chemist Walther Nernst. It was generously supported by the wealthy industrialist and philantropist Ernest Solvay. About five months before the Council*s start Nernst invited Lorentz to chair the meeting. That was no simple task in view of the fundamental problem of the quanta and the practical problem of communication in different languages. Lorentz*s way of presiding the conference impressed all participants. When, after the meeting, Solvay was willing to support research in the field, it was only natural to ask Lorentz for a plan. Within two months Lorentz provided Solvay with a draft which would serve as an outline for the statutes of an institute. The international Solvay Institute of Physics was founded on 1 May 1912. It would support research proposals in a specified field and would regularly organize Councils. An international scientific committee would decide on grants which could be requested from everywhere. Between the Institute*s beginnings and the outbreak of WWI, 97 requests were considered and 40 proposals - originating from 7 countries - were accepted. A second Council took place in 1913. Lorentz was given the possibility to spend considerable time on chairing the scientific committee when in 1912 his full time professorship in Leiden was changed into a part-time one. During WWI Lorentz maintained contacts with Solvay and with several of his foreign colleagues in the countries at war. He tried to remain objective, impartial and helpful, and did not lose hope that pre-war international scientific relations would eventually be re-established. After the war he

  9. Michelson-Morley analogue for electrons using trapped ions to test Lorentz symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruttivarasin, T.; Ramm, M.; Porsev, S. G.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Safronova, M. S.; Hohensee, M. A.; Häffner, H.

    2015-01-01

    All evidence so far suggests that the absolute spatial orientation of an experiment never affects its outcome. This is reflected in the standard model of particle physics by requiring all particles and fields to be invariant under Lorentz transformations. The best-known tests of this important cornerstone of physics are Michelson-Morley-type experiments verifying the isotropy of the speed of light. For matter, Hughes-Drever-type experiments test whether the kinetic energy of particles is independent of the direction of their velocity, that is, whether their dispersion relations are isotropic. To provide more guidance for physics beyond the standard model, refined experimental verifications of Lorentz symmetry are desirable. Here we search for violation of Lorentz symmetry for electrons by performing an electronic analogue of a Michelson-Morley experiment. We split an electron wave packet bound inside a calcium ion into two parts with different orientations and recombine them after a time evolution of 95 milliseconds. As the Earth rotates, the absolute spatial orientation of the two parts of the wave packet changes, and anisotropies in the electron dispersion will modify the phase of the interference signal. To remove noise, we prepare a pair of calcium ions in a superposition of two decoherence-free states, thereby rejecting magnetic field fluctuations common to both ions. After a 23-hour measurement, we find a limit of h × 11 millihertz (h is Planck's constant) on the energy variations, verifying the isotropy of the electron's dispersion relation at the level of one part in 1018, a 100-fold improvement on previous work. Alternatively, we can interpret our result as testing the rotational invariance of the Coulomb potential. Assuming that Lorentz symmetry holds for electrons and that the photon dispersion relation governs the Coulomb force, we obtain a fivefold-improved limit on anisotropies in the speed of light. Our result probes Lorentz symmetry violation at

  10. Michelson-Morley analogue for electrons using trapped ions to test Lorentz symmetry.

    PubMed

    Pruttivarasin, T; Ramm, M; Porsev, S G; Tupitsyn, I I; Safronova, M S; Hohensee, M A; Häffner, H

    2015-01-29

    All evidence so far suggests that the absolute spatial orientation of an experiment never affects its outcome. This is reflected in the standard model of particle physics by requiring all particles and fields to be invariant under Lorentz transformations. The best-known tests of this important cornerstone of physics are Michelson-Morley-type experiments verifying the isotropy of the speed of light. For matter, Hughes-Drever-type experiments test whether the kinetic energy of particles is independent of the direction of their velocity, that is, whether their dispersion relations are isotropic. To provide more guidance for physics beyond the standard model, refined experimental verifications of Lorentz symmetry are desirable. Here we search for violation of Lorentz symmetry for electrons by performing an electronic analogue of a Michelson-Morley experiment. We split an electron wave packet bound inside a calcium ion into two parts with different orientations and recombine them after a time evolution of 95 milliseconds. As the Earth rotates, the absolute spatial orientation of the two parts of the wave packet changes, and anisotropies in the electron dispersion will modify the phase of the interference signal. To remove noise, we prepare a pair of calcium ions in a superposition of two decoherence-free states, thereby rejecting magnetic field fluctuations common to both ions. After a 23-hour measurement, we find a limit of h × 11 millihertz (h is Planck's constant) on the energy variations, verifying the isotropy of the electron's dispersion relation at the level of one part in 10(18), a 100-fold improvement on previous work. Alternatively, we can interpret our result as testing the rotational invariance of the Coulomb potential. Assuming that Lorentz symmetry holds for electrons and that the photon dispersion relation governs the Coulomb force, we obtain a fivefold-improved limit on anisotropies in the speed of light. Our result probes Lorentz symmetry violation

  11. A Real Lorentz-FitzGerald Contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barceló, Carlos; Jannes, Gil

    2008-02-01

    Many condensed matter systems are such that their collective excitations at low energies can be described by fields satisfying equations of motion formally indistinguishable from those of relativistic field theory. The finite speed of propagation of the disturbances in the effective fields (in the simplest models, the speed of sound) plays here the role of the speed of light in fundamental physics. However, these apparently relativistic fields are immersed in an external Newtonian world (the condensed matter system itself and the laboratory can be considered Newtonian, since all the velocities involved are much smaller than the velocity of light) which provides a privileged coordinate system and therefore seems to destroy the possibility of having a perfectly defined relativistic emergent world. In this essay we ask ourselves the following question: In a homogeneous condensed matter medium, is there a way for internal observers, dealing exclusively with the low-energy collective phenomena, to detect their state of uniform motion with respect to the medium? By proposing a thought experiment based on the construction of a Michelson-Morley interferometer made of quasi-particles, we show that a real Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction takes place, so that internal observers are unable to find out anything about their ‘absolute’ state of motion. Therefore, we also show that an effective but perfectly defined relativistic world can emerge in a fishbowl world situated inside a Newtonian (laboratory) system. This leads us to reflect on the various levels of description in physics, in particular regarding the quest towards a theory of quantum gravity.

  12. Energy Loss by Radiation in Many-Particle Numerical Simulation With Lorentz-Dirac Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žáček, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We studied the possibilities for numerical integration of Lorentz-Dirac equation that is the equation describing the motion of a charged point particle when radiation reaction is taken into account. In numerical modelling based on particle models usually the equations of motion without radiation force are used and the corrections for radiation are used consequently, expressed by laws given by averaged particle parameters as the temperature or particle density. If the complete equation of motion concluding the radiation would be used, the corrections for radiation reaction force could be used for every charged particle individually from more fundamental laws. Thus the model could be able to describe more physical phenomena. However from theory of Lorentz-Dirac equation there are known various problems with non-physical solutions and nonuniqueness that are often solved and tested by various methods. One way to eliminate the non-physical solutions is to use integro-differential equation, which is used here. The leap-frog method is used for numerical integrating and accuracy is verified for electron in magnetic field. This approach is proposed to be used for PIC (particle-in-cell) integration method, which is often used as an effective method of simulation in plasma physics for many charged particles interactinge with electromagnetic field.

  13. Energy Loss by Radiation in Many-Particle Numerical Simulation With Lorentz-Dirac Equation

    SciTech Connect

    Zacek, Martin

    2006-01-15

    We studied the possibilities for numerical integration of Lorentz-Dirac equation that is the equation describing the motion of a charged point particle when radiation reaction is taken into account. In numerical modelling based on particle models usually the equations of motion without radiation force are used and the corrections for radiation are used consequently, expressed by laws given by averaged particle parameters as the temperature or particle density. If the complete equation of motion concluding the radiation would be used, the corrections for radiation reaction force could be used for every charged particle individually from more fundamental laws. Thus the model could be able to describe more physical phenomena. However from theory of Lorentz-Dirac equation there are known various problems with non-physical solutions and nonuniqueness that are often solved and tested by various methods. One way to eliminate the non-physical solutions is to use integro-differential equation, which is used here. The leap-frog method is used for numerical integrating and accuracy is verified for electron in magnetic field. This approach is proposed to be used for PIC (particle-in-cell) integration method, which is often used as an effective method of simulation in plasma physics for many charged particles interactinge with electromagnetic field.

  14. FULL ELECTROMAGNETIC SIMULATION OF COHERENT SYNCHROTRON RADIATION VIA THE LORENTZ-BOOSTED FRAME APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Fawley, William M; Vay, Jean-Luc

    2010-05-21

    Numerical simulation of some systems containing charged particles with highly relativistic directed motion can by speeded up by orders of magnitude by choice of the proper Lorentz-boosted frame. Orders of magnitude speedup has been demonstrated for simulations from first principles of laser-plasma accelerator, free electron laser, and particle beams interacting with electron clouds. Here we address the application of the Lorentz-boosted frame approach to coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR), which can be strongly present in bunch compressor chicanes. CSR is particularly relevant to the next generation of x-ray light sources and is simultaneously difficult to simulate in the lab frame because of the large ratio of scale lengths. It can increase both the incoherent and coherent longitudinal energy spread, effects that often lead to an increase in transverse emittance. We have adapted the WARP code to simulate CSR emission along a simple dipole bend. We present some scaling arguments for the possible computational speed up factor in the boosted frame and initial 3D simulation results.

  15. Black hole dynamical evolution in a Lorentz-violating spacetime

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, S.; Salesi, G.

    2011-04-15

    We consider the black hole dynamical evolution in the framework of a Lorentz-violating spacetime endowed with a Schwarzchild-like momentum-dependent metric. Large deviations from the Hawking-Bekenstein predictions are obtained, depending on the values of the Lorentz-violating parameter {lambda} introduced. A nontrivial evolution comes out, following mainly from the existence of a nonvanishing minimum mass: for large Lorentz violations, most of the black hole evaporation takes place in the initial stage, which is then followed by a stationary stage (whose duration depends on the value of {lambda}) where the mass does not change appreciably. Furthermore, for the final stage of evolution, our model predicts a sweet slow death of the black hole, whose ''slowness'' again depends on {lambda}, in contrast with the violent final explosion predicted by the standard theory.

  16. Dynamical ambiguities in models with spontaneous Lorentz violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonder, Yuri; Escobar, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous Lorentz violation is a viable mechanism to look for Planck scale physics. In this work, we study spontaneous Lorentz violation models, in flat spacetime, where a vector field produces such a violation and matter is modeled by a complex scalar field. We show that it is possible to construct a Hamilton density for which the evolution respects the dynamical constraints. However, we also find that the initial data, as required by standard field theory, does not determine the fields evolution in a unique way. In addition, we present some examples where the physical effects of such ambiguities can be recognized. As a consequence, the proposals in which the electromagnetic and gravitational interactions emerge from spontaneous Lorentz violation are challenged.

  17. Restrictions from Lorentz invariance violation on cosmic ray propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Huerta, H.; Pérez-Lorenzana, A.

    2017-03-01

    Lorentz invariance violation introduced as a generic modification to particle dispersion relations is used to study high energy cosmic ray attenuation processes. It is shown to reproduce the same physical effects for vacuum Cherenkov radiation, as in some particular models with spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry. This approximation is also implemented for the study of photon decay in vacuum, where stringent limits to the violation scale are derived from the direct observation of very high energy cosmic ray photon events on gamma telescopes. Photo production processes by cosmic ray primaries on photon background are also addressed, to show that Lorentz violation may turn off this attenuation process at energies above a well-defined secondary threshold.

  18. A Lorentz-Covariant Connection for Canonical Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiller, Marc; Lachièze-Rey, Marc; Noui, Karim; Sardelli, Francesco

    2011-08-01

    We construct a Lorentz-covariant connection in the context of first order canonical gravity with non-vanishing Barbero-Immirzi parameter. To do so, we start with the phase space formulation derived from the canonical analysis of the Holst action in which the second class constraints have been solved explicitly. This allows us to avoid the use of Dirac brackets. In this context, we show that there is a ''unique'' Lorentz-covariant connection which is commutative in the sense of the Poisson bracket, and which furthermore agrees with the connection found by Alexandrov using the Dirac bracket. This result opens a new way toward the understanding of Lorentz-covariant loop quantum gravity.

  19. Classical kinematics for isotropic, minimal Lorentz-violating fermion operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, M.

    2015-05-01

    In this article a particular classical, relativistic Lagrangian based on the isotropic fermion sector of the Lorentz-violating (minimal) Standard Model extension is considered. The motion of the associated classical particle in an external electromagnetic field is studied, and the evolution of its spin, which is introduced by hand, is investigated. It is shown that the particle travels along trajectories that are scaled versions of the standard ones. Furthermore there is no spin precession due to Lorentz violation, but the rate is modified at which the longitudinal and transverse spin components transform into each other. This demonstrates that it is practical to consider classical physics within such an isotropic Lorentz-violating framework and it opens the pathway to study a curved background in that context.

  20. Convexity and concavity constants in Lorentz and Marcinkiewicz spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminska, Anna; Parrish, Anca M.

    2008-07-01

    We provide here the formulas for the q-convexity and q-concavity constants for function and sequence Lorentz spaces associated to either decreasing or increasing weights. It yields also the formula for the q-convexity constants in function and sequence Marcinkiewicz spaces. In this paper we extent and enhance the results from [G.J.O. Jameson, The q-concavity constants of Lorentz sequence spaces and related inequalities, Math. Z. 227 (1998) 129-142] and [A. Kaminska, A.M. Parrish, The q-concavity and q-convexity constants in Lorentz spaces, in: Banach Spaces and Their Applications in Analysis, Conference in Honor of Nigel Kalton, May 2006, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 2007, pp. 357-373].

  1. Special Relativity in Week One: 3) Introducing the Lorentz Contraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-05-01

    This is the third of four articles on teaching special relativity in the first week of an introductory physics course.1,2 With Einstein's second postulate that the speed of light is the same to all observers, we could use the light pulse clock to introduce time dilation. But we had difficulty introducing the Lorentz contraction until we saw the movie "Time Dilation, an Experiment with Mu-Mesons" by David Frisch and James Smith.3,4 The movie demonstrates that time dilation and the Lorentz contraction are essentially two sides of the same coin. Here we take the muon's point of view for a more intuitive understanding of the Lorentz contraction, and use the results of the movie to provide an insight into the way we interpret experimental results involving special relativity.

  2. Spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry with an antisymmetric tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernaski, C. A.

    2016-11-01

    This paper considers the spontaneous violation of Lorentz symmetry by the vacuum condensation of an antisymmetric two-tensor. The coset construction for nonlinear realization of spacetime symmetries is employed to build the most general low-energy effective action for the Goldstone modes interacting with photons. We analyze the model within the context of the Standard-Model extension and noncommutative QED. Experimental bounds for some parameters of the model are discussed, and we readdress the subtle issues of stability and causality in Lorentz-noninvariant scenarios. To set a sensible low-energy effective model, in addition to the two photon polarizations only one Goldstone mode must be dynamical, and the enhancement of the stability by accounting for interaction terms points to a protection against observational Lorentz violation.

  3. Simulation of sloshing dynamics induced forces and torques actuated on dewar container driven by gravity gradient and jitter accelerations in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Pan, H. L.

    1993-01-01

    three levels of gravity jitter (10(exp -6), 10(exp -7), and 10(exp -8) g(sub 0)) each at three predominant frequencies (0.1, 1.0, and 10 Hz), combined with a gravity gradient appropriate for the GP-B orbit. Dynamical evolution of sloshing dynamics excited fluid forces and torque fluctuations exerted on the dewar container driven by the combined gravity gradient and jitter accelerations are also investigated and simulated.

  4. Electrodynamics with Lorentz-violating operators of arbitrary dimension

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelecky, V. Alan; Mewes, Matthew

    2009-07-01

    The behavior of photons in the presence of Lorentz and CPT violation is studied. Allowing for operators of arbitrary mass dimension, we classify all gauge-invariant Lorentz- and CPT-violating terms in the quadratic Lagrange density associated with the effective photon propagator. The covariant dispersion relation is obtained, and conditions for birefringence are discussed. We provide a complete characterization of the coefficients for Lorentz violation for all mass dimensions via a decomposition using spin-weighted spherical harmonics. The resulting nine independent sets of spherical coefficients control birefringence, dispersion, and anisotropy in the photon propagator. We discuss the restriction of the general theory to various special models, including among others the minimal standard-model extension, the isotropic limit, the case of vacuum propagation, the nonbirefringent limit, and the vacuum-orthogonal model. The transformation of the spherical coefficients for Lorentz violation between the laboratory frame and the standard Sun-centered frame is provided. We apply the results to various astrophysical observations and laboratory experiments. Astrophysical searches of relevance include studies of birefringence and of dispersion. We use polarimetric and dispersive data from gamma-ray bursts to set constraints on coefficients for Lorentz violation involving operators of dimensions four through nine, and we describe the mixing of polarizations induced by Lorentz and CPT violation in the cosmic-microwave background. Laboratory searches of interest include cavity experiments. We present the general theory for searches with cavities, derive the experiment-dependent factors for coefficients in the vacuum-orthogonal model, and predict the corresponding frequency shift for a circular-cylindrical cavity.

  5. Accelerator Science: Why RF?

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-12-21

    Particle accelerators can fire beams of subatomic particles at near the speed of light. The accelerating force is generated using radio frequency technology and a whole lot of interesting features. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it all works.

  6. How is Lorentz invariance encoded in the Hamiltonian?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajuri, Nirmalya

    2016-07-01

    One of the disadvantages of the Hamiltonian formulation is that Lorentz invariance is not manifest in the former. Given a Hamiltonian, there is no simple way to check whether it is relativistic or not. One would either have to solve for the equations of motion or calculate the Poisson brackets of the Noether charges to perform such a check. In this paper we show that, for a class of Hamiltonians, it is possible to check Lorentz invariance directly from the Hamiltonian. Our work is particularly useful for theories where the other methods may not be readily available.

  7. On the anomalies in Lorentz-breaking theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baêta Scarpelli, A. P.; Mariz, T.; Nascimento, J. R.; Yu. Petrov, A.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss the chiral anomaly in a Lorentz-breaking extension of QED which, besides the common terms that are present in the Standard Model Extension, includes some dimension-five nonminimal couplings. We find, using the Fujikawa formalism, that these nonminimal couplings induce new terms in the anomaly which depend on the Lorentz-violating parameters. Perturbative calculations are also carried out in order to investigate whether new ambiguous Carroll-Field-Jackiw terms are induced in the effective action.

  8. Global defects in theories with Lorentz symmetry violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubo, Musongela

    2005-02-01

    We study global topological defects in the Jacobson-Corley model which breaks Lorentz symmetry and involves up to fourth order derivatives. There is a window in the parameter space in which no solution exists. Otherwise, different profiles are allowed for the same values of the parameters. For a scale of Lorentz violation much higher than the scale of gauge symmetry breaking, the energy densities are higher, of the same order or smaller than in the usual case for domain walls, cosmic strings, and hedgehogs, respectively. Possible cosmological implications are suggested.

  9. Global defects in theories with Lorentz symmetry violation

    SciTech Connect

    Lubo, Musongela

    2005-02-15

    We study global topological defects in the Jacobson-Corley model which breaks Lorentz symmetry and involves up to fourth order derivatives. There is a window in the parameter space in which no solution exists. Otherwise, different profiles are allowed for the same values of the parameters. For a scale of Lorentz violation much higher than the scale of gauge symmetry breaking, the energy densities are higher, of the same order or smaller than in the usual case for domain walls, cosmic strings, and hedgehogs, respectively. Possible cosmological implications are suggested.

  10. The 1895 Lorentz transformations: historical issues and present teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provost, Jean-Pierre; Bracco, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We present the pedagogical interest for the teaching of special relativity of the 1895 Lorentz transformations, which are a simple modification of the Galilean ones, satisfying the invariance of light velocity at first order in V/c. Since they are also the infinitesimal version of the better known but more complicated 1904 Lorentz ones, they allow us to address the main topics of this teaching (time dilatation, length contraction, relativistic dynamics, invariance of electromagnetism) and to recover standard results through simple integrations or the use of invariants. In addition, they are directly related to important historical issues, including Einstein’s 1911 relativistic approach to gravitation.

  11. Method of Calibrating a Force Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Peter A. (Inventor); Rhew, Ray D. (Inventor); Johnson, Thomas H. (Inventor); Landman, Drew (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A calibration system and method utilizes acceleration of a mass to generate a force on the mass. An expected value of the force is calculated based on the magnitude and acceleration of the mass. A fixture is utilized to mount the mass to a force balance, and the force balance is calibrated to provide a reading consistent with the expected force determined for a given acceleration. The acceleration can be varied to provide different expected forces, and the force balance can be calibrated for different applied forces. The acceleration may result from linear acceleration of the mass or rotational movement of the mass.

  12. Lorentz-violating dilatations in momentum space and some extensions on nonlinear actions of Lorentz-algebra-preserving systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardini, A. E.; Rocha, R. da

    2007-03-15

    We work on some general extensions of the formalism for theories which preserve the relativity of inertial frames with a nonlinear action of the Lorentz transformations on momentum space. Relativistic particle models invariant under the corresponding deformed symmetries are presented with particular emphasis on deformed dilatation transformations. The algebraic transformations relating the deformed symmetries with the usual (undeformed) ones are provided in order to preserve the Lorentz algebra. Two distinct cases are considered: a deformed dilatation transformation with a spacelike preferred direction and a very special relativity embedding with a lightlike preferred direction. In both analysis we consider the possibility of introducing quantum deformations of the corresponding symmetries such that the spacetime coordinates can be reconstructed and the particular form of the real space-momentum commutator remains covariant. Eventually feasible experiments, for which the nonlinear Lorentz dilatation effects here pointed out may be detectable, are suggested.

  13. An Analysis of the Potential Use of Red Horse Capabilities and Training Activities to Perform or Accelerate Air Force Environmental Cleanups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    a highly skilled, mobile , self-sufficient Air Force combat engineering force capable of rapid response and independent operations to support...HORSE was formed to provide a mobile civil engineering unit, self-sufficient, and organic to the Air Force. That is, RED HORSE squadrons must be manned... mobile , self-sufficient Air Force combat engineering force capable of rapid response and independent operations to support contingency operations

  14. Four easy routes to the Lorentz transformations: addendum to ‘Lorentz transformations and the wave equation’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heras, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper I briefly discuss and compare four easy derivations of the Lorentz transformations. Two of these derivations assume the invariance of the Minkowski spacetime interval in inertial frames and the other two assume the invariance of the d’Alembert operator in these frames. These derivations are suitable for a first view of special relativity. Finally, I discuss the comment made by Di Rocco on my original paper, ‘Lorentz transformations and the wave equation’ (2016 Eur. J. Phys. 37 025603).

  15. Acceleration of type 2 spicules in the solar chromosphere. II. Viscous braking and upper bounds on coronal energy input

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2014-04-20

    A magnetohydrodynamic model is used to determine conditions under which the Lorentz force accelerates plasma to type 2 spicule speeds in the chromosphere. The model generalizes a previous model to include a more realistic pre-spicule state, and the vertical viscous force. Two cases of acceleration under upper chromospheric conditions are considered. The magnetic field strength for these cases is ≤12.5 and 25 G. Plasma is accelerated to terminal vertical speeds of 66 and 78 km s{sup –1} in 100 s, compared with 124 and 397 km s{sup –1} for the case of zero viscosity. The flows are localized within horizontal diameters ∼80 and 50 km. The total thermal energy generated by viscous dissipation is ∼10 times larger than that due to Joule dissipation, but the magnitude of the total cooling due to rarefaction is ≳ this energy. Compressive heating dominates during the early phase of acceleration. The maximum energy injected into the corona by type 2 spicules, defined as the energy flux in the upper chromosphere, may largely balance total coronal energy losses in quiet regions, possibly also in coronal holes, but not in active regions. It is proposed that magnetic flux emergence in intergranular regions drives type 2 spicules.

  16. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  17. Direct acceleration of electrons by a circular polarized laser pulse with phase modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Lun-Wu; Sheng, Zheng-Mao; Yu, M. Y.

    2013-11-15

    Electron acceleration by transversely echelon phase-modulated (EPM) circularly polarized (CP) intense laser pulse is investigated. Solution of the relativistic electron equations of motion shows that the CP EPM light wave structure can disrupt the harmonic response of a trapped electron not only in the transverse direction but also in the direction of laser propagation. In each laser cycle, there can be a net gain in the electron's transverse momentum, which is promptly converted into the forward direction by the Lorentz force. As a result, the electron can be trapped and accelerated in the favorable phase of the laser for a rather long time. Its momentum gain then accumulates and can eventually reach high levels. It is also found that with the CP EPM laser, the net acceleration of the electron is not sensitive to its initial position and velocity relative to the phase of the laser fields, so that such a laser can also be useful for accelerating thermal electron bunches to high energies.

  18. Performance Effects of Adding a Parallel Capacitor to a Pulse Inductive Plasma Accelerator Powertrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Sivak, Amy D.; Balla, Joseph V.

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma accelerators are electrodeless space propulsion devices where a capacitor is charged to an initial voltage and then discharged through a coil as a high-current pulse that inductively couples energy into the propellant. The field produced by this pulse ionizes the propellant, producing a plasma near the face of the coil. Once a plasma is formed if can be accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity by the Lorentz force arising from the interaction of an induced plasma current and the magnetic field. While there are many coil geometries that can be employed to inductively accelerate a plasma, in this paper the discussion is limit to planar geometries where the coil take the shape of a flat spiral. A recent review of the developmental history of planar-geometry pulsed inductive thrusters can be found in Ref. [1]. Two concepts that have employed this geometry are the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT) and the Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD).

  19. Force-free foliations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Gralla, Samuel E.; Lupsasca, Alexandru

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic field configurations with vanishing Lorentz force density are known as force-free and appear in terrestrial, space, and astrophysical plasmas. We explore a general method for finding such configurations based on formulating equations for the field lines rather than the field itself. The basic object becomes a foliation of spacetime or, in the stationary axisymmetric case, of the half-plane. We use this approach to find some new stationary and axisymmetric solutions, one of which could represent a rotating plasma vortex near a magnetic null point.

  20. Spontaneous Lorentz violation: the case of infrared QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, A. P.; Kürkçüoǧlu, S.; de Queiroz, A. R.; Vaidya, S.

    2015-02-01

    It is by now clear that the infrared sector of quantum electrodynamics (QED) has an intriguingly complex structure. Based on earlier pioneering work on this subject, two of us recently proposed a simple modification of QED by constructing a generalization of the charge group of QED to the "Sky" group incorporating the well-known spontaneous Lorentz violation due to infrared photons, but still compatible in particular with locality (Balachandran and Vaidya, Eur Phys J Plus 128:118, 2013). It was shown that the "Sky" group is generated by the algebra of angle-dependent charges and a study of its superselection sectors has revealed a manifest description of spontaneous breaking of the Lorentz symmetry. We further elaborate this approach here and investigate in some detail the properties of charged particles dressed by the infrared photons. We find that Lorentz violation due to soft photons may be manifestly codified in an angle-dependent fermion mass, modifying therefore the fermion dispersion relations. The fact that the masses of the charged particles are not Lorentz invariant affects their spin content, and time dilation formulas for decays should also get corrections.

  1. Lorentz transformations in the presence of a uniform gravitational field.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broucke, R.

    1971-01-01

    This article describes a Lorentz-like transformation between a fixed frame and an inertial frame that is free falling due to the presence of a uniform gravitation field. The application to the clock paradox problem and some connections with similar works are also discussed.

  2. Lorentz Transformation Derived from First-Order Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfleiderer, J.

    1969-01-01

    Suggests a first-order experiment that can be used to establish the Lorentz transformation without considering the constancy of light velocity or the full set of Maxwell's equations. Involves the use of a long solenoid to create an electric field in a moving magnetic field. (LC)

  3. A Useful Device for Illustrating the Lorentz Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortini, Giulio

    1972-01-01

    A graphical representation is proposed as a teaching device which can be useful in order to obtain a good intuitive grasp of the physical meaning of the Lorentz transformations. The connection between the time dilation and the desynchronization of clocks is particularly discussed. (Author/PR)

  4. The Lorentz extension as consequence of the family symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Haijun

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, we postulate an algebraic model to explain how the symmetry of three lepton species plays its role in the Lorentz extension. Inspired by the two-to-one mapping between the SL(2,C) group and the Lorentz group, we design a mapping between the SL(3,C) group, which displays the family symmetry, and a generalized Lorentz group. Following the conventional method, we apply the mapping results to the Dirac equation to discuss its transformation invariance, and it turns out that only when the vertex matrix {gamma}{sub {mu}} is extended to the combination c{sub 1}{gamma}{sub {mu}}+c{sub 2}{gamma}{sub 5}{gamma}{sub {mu}} can the Dirac-equation form be reserved. At the same time, we find that the Lorentz group has to be extended with an additional generator {gamma}{sub 5}. The generalized vertex matrix is helpful in understanding the axial-like form of weak interaction and the neutrino oscillations.

  5. On the conformal geometry of transverse Riemann Lorentz manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, E.; Fernández, V.; Lafuente, J.

    2007-06-01

    Physical reasons suggested in [J.B. Hartle, S.W. Hawking, Wave function of the universe, Phys. Rev. D41 (1990) 1815-1834] for the Quantum Gravity Problem lead us to study type-changing metrics on a manifold. The most interesting cases are Transverse Riemann-Lorentz Manifolds. Here we study the conformal geometry of such manifolds.

  6. Lorentz- and CPT-symmetry studies in subatomic physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Ralf

    2016-12-01

    Subatomic systems provide an exquisite test bench for spacetime symmetries. This work motivates such measurements, reviews the effective field theory test framework for the description of Lorentz and CPT violation, and employs this framework to study the phenomenology of spacetime-symmetry breaking in various subatomic systems.

  7. Noncommutative spaces, the quantum of time, and Lorentz symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Juan M.; Vergara, J. D.; Santiago, J. A.

    2007-03-15

    We introduce three space-times that are discrete in time and compatible with the Lorentz symmetry. We show that these spaces are not commutative, with commutation relations similar to the relations of the Snyder and Yang spaces. Furthermore, using a reparametrized relativistic particle we obtain a realization of the Snyder type spaces and we construct an action for them.

  8. Tests of Lorentz and CPT Invariance in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewes, Matthew

    2003-01-01

    I give a brief overview of recent work concerning possible signals of Lorentz violation in sensitive clock-based experiments in space. The systems under consideration include atomic clocks and electromagnetic resonators of the type planned for flight on the International Space Station.

  9. Lorentz estimates for degenerate and singular evolutionary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, Paolo

    We prove estimates of Calderón-Zygmund type for evolutionary p-Laplacian systems in the setting of Lorentz spaces. We suppose the coefficients of the system to satisfy only a VMO condition with respect to the space variable. Our results hold true, mutatis mutandis, also for stationary p-Laplacian systems.

  10. A More Intuitive Version of the Lorentz Velocity Addition Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, John F.

    2009-01-01

    The Lorentz velocity addition formula for one-dimensional motion presents a number of problems for beginning students of special relativity. In this paper we suggest a simple rewrite of the formula that is easier for students to memorize and manipulate, and furthermore is more intuitive in understanding the correction necessary when adding…

  11. Special Relativity in Week One: 3) Introducing the Lorentz Contraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    This is the third of four articles on teaching special relativity in the first week of an introductory physics course. With Einstein's second postulate that the speed of light is the same to all observers, we could use the light pulse clock to introduce time dilation. But we had difficulty introducing the Lorentz contraction until we saw the movie…

  12. Round Table Discussion at the Lorentz Workshop "beyond the Quantum"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetto, A. M.; Balian, R.; 't Hooft, G.; Khrennikov, A. Yu.; Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.

    2007-09-01

    This is a transcript of the round table discussion, moderated by G. 't Hooft, that took place at the end of the workshop "Beyond The Quantum" in the Lorentz Center of the University of Leiden, the Netherlands, 29 May - 2 June 2006. It displays current views on foundations of quantum mechanics.

  13. Lorentz-violating effects in three-dimensional QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufalo, R.

    2014-08-01

    Inspired in discussions presented lately regarding Lorentz-violating interaction terms in B. Charneski, M. Gomes, R. V. Maluf and A. J. da Silva, Phys. Rev. D86, 045003 (2012); R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira Jr., R. V. Maluf and F. E. P. dos Santos, Phys. Lett. B726, 815 (2013); R. Casana, M. M. Ferreira Jr., E. Passos, F. E. P. dos Santos and E. O. Silva, Phys. Rev. D87, 047701 (2013), we propose here a slightly different version for the coupling term. We will consider a modified quantum electrodynamics with violation of Lorentz symmetry defined in a (2+1)-dimensional space-time. We define the Lagrangian density with a Lorentz-violating interaction, where the space-time dimensionality is explicitly taken into account in its definition. The work encompasses an analysis of this model at both zero and finite-temperature, where very interesting features are known to occur due to the space-time dimensionality. With that in mind, we expect that the space-time dimensionality may provide new insights about the radiative generation of higher-derivative terms into the action, implying in a new Lorentz-violating electrodynamics, as well the nonminimal coupling may provide interesting implications on the thermodynamical quantities.

  14. Relativity and electromagnetism: The force on a magnetic monopole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rindler, Wolfgang

    1989-11-01

    On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the first publication, by Oliver Heaviside, of what is now known as the Lorentz force law in electromagnetic theory, the analogous force law for magnetic monopoles is examined. Its relevance and limitations in calculating the force and torque on small current loops are discussed, and both its heuristic and practical uses are demonstrated.

  15. Transverse forces on a vortex in lattice models of superfluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonin, E. B.

    2013-12-01

    The paper derives the transverse forces (the Magnus and the Lorentz forces) in the lattice models of superfluids in the continuous approximation. The continuous approximation restores translational invariance absent in the original lattice model, but the theory is not Galilean invariant. As a result, calculation of the two transverse forces on the vortex, Magnus force and Lorentz force, requires the analysis of two balances, for the true momentum of particles in the lattice (Magnus force) and for the quasimomentum (Lorentz force) known from the Bloch theory of particles in the periodic potential. While the developed theory yields the same Lorentz force, which was well known before, a new general expression for the Magnus force was obtained. The theory demonstrates how a small Magnus force emerges in the Josephson-junction array if the particle-hole symmetry is broken. The continuous approximation for the Bose-Hubbard model close to the superfluid-insulator transition was developed, which was used for calculation of the Magnus force. The theory shows that there is an area in the phase diagram for the Bose-Hubbard model, where the Magnus force has an inverse sign with respect to that which is expected from the sign of velocity circulation.

  16. Aerodynamic Lifting Force.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weltner, Klaus

    1990-01-01

    Describes some experiments showing both qualitatively and quantitatively that aerodynamic lift is a reaction force. Demonstrates reaction forces caused by the acceleration of an airstream and the deflection of an airstream. Provides pictures of demonstration apparatus and mathematical expressions. (YP)

  17. Approaching a realistic force balance in geodynamo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Rakesh K.; Gastine, Thomas; Christensen, Ulrich R.; Wolk, Scott J.; Poppenhaeger, Katja

    2016-10-01

    Earth sustains its magnetic field by a dynamo process driven by convection in the liquid outer core. Geodynamo simulations have been successful in reproducing many observed properties of the geomagnetic field. However, although theoretical considerations suggest that flow in the core is governed by a balance between Lorentz force, rotational force, and buoyancy (called MAC balance for Magnetic, Archimedean, Coriolis) with only minute roles for viscous and inertial forces, dynamo simulations must use viscosity values that are many orders of magnitude larger than in the core, due to computational constraints. In typical geodynamo models, viscous and inertial forces are not much smaller than the Coriolis force, and the Lorentz force plays a subdominant role; this has led to conclusions that these simulations are viscously controlled and do not represent the physics of the geodynamo. Here we show, by a direct analysis of the relevant forces, that a MAC balance can be achieved when the viscosity is reduced to values close to the current practical limit. Lorentz force, buoyancy, and the uncompensated (by pressure) part of the Coriolis force are of very similar strength, whereas viscous and inertial forces are smaller by a factor of at least 20 in the bulk of the fluid volume. Compared with nonmagnetic convection at otherwise identical parameters, the dynamo flow is of larger scale and is less invariant parallel to the rotation axis (less geostrophic), and convection transports twice as much heat, all of which is expected when the Lorentz force strongly influences the convection properties.

  18. Approaching a realistic force balance in geodynamo simulations.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rakesh K; Gastine, Thomas; Christensen, Ulrich R; Wolk, Scott J; Poppenhaeger, Katja

    2016-10-25

    Earth sustains its magnetic field by a dynamo process driven by convection in the liquid outer core. Geodynamo simulations have been successful in reproducing many observed properties of the geomagnetic field. However, although theoretical considerations suggest that flow in the core is governed by a balance between Lorentz force, rotational force, and buoyancy (called MAC balance for Magnetic, Archimedean, Coriolis) with only minute roles for viscous and inertial forces, dynamo simulations must use viscosity values that are many orders of magnitude larger than in the core, due to computational constraints. In typical geodynamo models, viscous and inertial forces are not much smaller than the Coriolis force, and the Lorentz force plays a subdominant role; this has led to conclusions that these simulations are viscously controlled and do not represent the physics of the geodynamo. Here we show, by a direct analysis of the relevant forces, that a MAC balance can be achieved when the viscosity is reduced to values close to the current practical limit. Lorentz force, buoyancy, and the uncompensated (by pressure) part of the Coriolis force are of very similar strength, whereas viscous and inertial forces are smaller by a factor of at least 20 in the bulk of the fluid volume. Compared with nonmagnetic convection at otherwise identical parameters, the dynamo flow is of larger scale and is less invariant parallel to the rotation axis (less geostrophic), and convection transports twice as much heat, all of which is expected when the Lorentz force strongly influences the convection properties.

  19. Average intensity and spreading of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoquan; Chu, Xiuxiang

    2010-01-18

    The propagation of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere is investigated. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral and the Hermite-Gaussian expansion of a Lorentz function, analytical formulae for the average intensity and the effective beam size of a Lorentz-Gauss beam are derived in turbulent atmosphere. The average intensity distribution and the spreading properties of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere are numerically demonstrated. The influences of the beam parameters and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in turbulent atmosphere are also discussed in detail.

  20. Electrodynamics of the Maxwell-Lorentz type in the ten-dimensional space of the testing of special relativity: A case for Finsler type connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, Jose G.; Torr, Douglas G.

    1989-03-01

    It has recently been shown by Vargas, (4) that the passive coordinate transformations that enter the Robertson test theory of special relativity have to be considered as coordinate transformations in a seven-dimensional space with degenerate metric. It has also been shown by Vargas that the corresponding active coordinate transformations are not equal in general to the passive ones and that the composite active-passive transformations act on a space whose number of dimensions is ten (one-particle case) or larger (more than one particle). In this paper, two different (families of) electrodynamics are constructed in ten-dimensional space upon the coordinate free form of the Maxwell and Lorentz equations. The two possibilities arise from the two different assumptions that one can naturally make with respect to the acceleration fields of charges, when these fields are related to their relativistic counterparts. Both theories present unattractive features, which indicates that the Maxwell-Lorentz framework is unsuitable for the construction of an electrodynamics for the Robertson test theory of the Lorentz transformations. It is argued that this construction would first require the formulation of Maxwell-Lorentz electrodynamics in the form of a connection in Finsler space. If such formulation is possible, the sought generalization would consist in simply changing bases in the tangent spaces of the manifold that supports the connection. In addition, the number of dimensions of the space of the Robertson transformations would be ten, but not greater than ten.

  1. Phenomenologically viable Lorentz-violating quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Thomas P; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2009-06-26

    Horava's "Lifschitz point gravity" has many desirable features, but in its original incarnation one is forced to accept a nonzero cosmological constant of the wrong sign to be compatible with observation. We develop an extension of Horava's model that abandons "detailed balance" and regains parity invariance, and in 3+1 dimensions exhibit all five marginal (renormalizable) and four relevant (super-renormalizable) operators, as determined by power counting. We also consider the classical limit of this theory, evaluate the Hamiltonian and supermomentum constraints, and extract the classical equations of motion in a form similar to the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formulation of general relativity. This puts the model in a framework amenable to developing detailed precision tests.

  2. Can Accelerators Accelerate Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Fonseca, P.; Coelho, L. F. S.

    2009-03-01

    The 'Young Talented' education program developed by the Brazilian State Funding Agency (FAPERJ) [1] makes it possible for high-schools students from public high schools to perform activities in scientific laboratories. In the Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratory at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), the students are confronted with modern research tools like the 1.7 MV ion accelerator. Being a user-friendly machine, the accelerator is easily manageable by the students, who can perform simple hands-on activities, stimulating interest in physics, and getting the students close to modern laboratory techniques.

  3. PARTICLE ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Teng, L.C.

    1960-01-19

    ABS>A combination of two accelerators, a cyclotron and a ring-shaped accelerator which has a portion disposed tangentially to the cyclotron, is described. Means are provided to transfer particles from the cyclotron to the ring accelerator including a magnetic deflector within the cyclotron, a magnetic shield between the ring accelerator and the cyclotron, and a magnetic inflector within the ring accelerator.

  4. Reduced-order Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac equation and the consistency of classical electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steane, Andrew M.

    2015-03-01

    It is widely believed that classical electromagnetism is either unphysical or inconsistent, owing to pathological behavior when self-force and radiation reaction are non-negligible. We argue that there is no inconsistency as long as it is recognized that certain types of charge distribution are simply impossible, such as, for example, a point particle with finite charge and finite inertia. This is owing to the fact that negative inertial mass is an unphysical concept in classical physics. It remains useful to obtain an equation of motion for small charged objects that describes their motion to good approximation without requiring knowledge of the charge distribution within the object. We give a simple method to achieve this, leading to a reduced-order form of the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac equation, essentially as proposed by Eliezer, Landau, and Lifshitz and derived by Ford and O'Connell.

  5. A New Process for the Acceleration Test and Evaluation of Aeromedical Equipment for U.S. Air Force Safe-To-Fly Certification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    equipment and successfully introducing the use of the Equivalent Load Testing ( ELT ) method , which permits the use of alternative testing approaches...Data Conduct Acceleration Test Selection Meeting Acceleration Test Type Decision Determine Tasks for Component Level Tests ( ELT Method ) Analyze...mounting brackets, screws, beams, straps, etc. When the decision is a component-level test type, the ATB team applies the ELT method by conducting an in

  6. Angular velocities, angular accelerations, and coriolis accelerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graybiel, A.

    1975-01-01

    Weightlessness, rotating environment, and mathematical analysis of Coriolis acceleration is described for man's biological effective force environments. Effects on the vestibular system are summarized, including the end organs, functional neurology, and input-output relations. Ground-based studies in preparation for space missions are examined, including functional tests, provocative tests, adaptive capacity tests, simulation studies, and antimotion sickness.

  7. The local geometry of compact homogeneous Lorentz spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Felix

    2015-03-01

    In 1995, S. Adams and G. Stuck as well as A. Zeghib independently provided a classification of non-compact Lie groups which can act isometrically and locally effectively on compact Lorentzian manifolds. In the case that the corresponding Lie algebra contains a direct summand isomorphic to the two-dimensional special linear algebra or to a twisted Heisenberg algebra, Zeghib also described the geometric structure of the manifolds. Using these results, we investigate the local geometry of compact homogeneous Lorentz spaces whose isometry groups have non-compact connected components. It turns out that they all are reductive. We investigate the isotropy representation and curvatures. In particular, we obtain that any Ricci-flat compact homogeneous Lorentz space is flat or has compact isometry group.

  8. Quantum gravity and Lorentz invariance violation in the standard model.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, Jorge

    2005-06-10

    The most important problem of fundamental physics is the quantization of the gravitational field. A main difficulty is the lack of available experimental tests that discriminate among the theories proposed to quantize gravity. Recently, Lorentz invariance violation by quantum gravity (QG) has been the source of growing interest. However, the predictions depend on an ad hoc hypothesis and too many arbitrary parameters. Here we show that the standard model itself contains tiny Lorentz invariance violation terms coming from QG. All terms depend on one arbitrary parameter alpha that sets the scale of QG effects. This parameter can be estimated using data from the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum to be |alpha|< approximately 10(-22)-10(-23).

  9. Impossibility of superluminal travel in Lorentz violating theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutant, Antonin; Finazzi, Stefano; Liberati, Stefano; Parentani, Renaud

    2012-03-01

    Warp drives are space-times allowing for superluminal travel. However, they are quantum mechanically unstable because they produce a Hawking-like radiation which is blue shifted at their front wall without any bound. We reexamine this instability when local Lorentz invariance is violated at ultrahigh energy by dispersion, as in some theories of quantum gravity. Interestingly, even though the ultraviolet divergence is now regulated, warp drives are still unstable. Moreover the type of instability is different whether one uses a subluminal or a superluminal dispersion relation. In the first case, a black-hole laser yields an exponential amplification of the emitted flux whereas, in the second, infrared effects produce a linear growth of that flux. These results suggest that chronology could still be protected when violating Lorentz invariance.

  10. Extending the Lorentz Transformation to Motion with Variable Velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert T.

    1959-01-01

    The problem considered is that of rectilinear motion with variable velocity. The paper gives, by an elementary construction, a system of coordinates which is conformal in the vicinity of the axis of motion. By a particular choice of the scale relation, such restricted conformal transformations can be made to reduce to the Lorentz transformation everywhere in the case of uniform velocity and locally in the case of variable velocity.

  11. Shape of solitons in classically forbidden states - 'Lorentz expansion'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinea, F.; Peierls, R. E.; Schrieffer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The shape of extended objects in classically forbidden regions is shown to undergo expansion analogous to Lorentz contraction of a relativistic body of finite velocities. The problem of two interacting Dirac particles moving in one dimension is solved explicitly and the results are generalized to soliton solutions of field theories. An estimate of the effect on tunneling rates is also given, including solitons in (CH)z.

  12. Two field BPS solutions for generalized Lorentz breaking models

    SciTech Connect

    Souza Dutra, A. de; Hott, M.; Barone, F. A.

    2006-10-15

    In this work we present nonlinear models in two-dimensional space-time of two interacting scalar fields in the Lorentz and CPT violating scenarios. We discuss the soliton solutions for these models as well as the question of stability for them. This is done by generalizing a model recently published by Barreto and collaborators and also by getting new solutions for the model introduced by them.

  13. Einstein and Lorentz: The structure of a scientific revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouwer, W.

    1980-06-01

    In a course entitled ''Revolutions in Physics'' a number of episodes in the history of physics are examined, in order to test the theories of Kuhn, Popper, Lakatos, and others, with regard to any common structure exhibited by the various revolutions that physics has undergone. The conflict between Lorentz's Electron Theory and Einstein's Special Relativity becomes a major focal point in the second half of the course for the models of scientific revolutions that are studied.

  14. Lorentz-invariant actions for chiral p-forms

    SciTech Connect

    Pasti, P.; Sorokin, D.; Tonin, M.

    1997-05-01

    We demonstrate how a Lorentz-covariant formulation of the chiral p-form model in D=2(p+1) containing infinitely many auxiliary fields is related to a Lorentz-covariant formulation with only one auxiliary scalar field entering a chiral p-form action in a nonpolynomial way. The latter can be regarded as a consistent Lorentz-covariant truncation of the former. We make the Hamiltonian analysis of the model based on the nonpolynomial action and show that the Dirac constraints have a simple form and are all first class. In contrast with the Siegel model the constraints are not the square of second-class constraints. The canonical Hamiltonian is quadratic and determines the energy of a single chiral p-form. In the case of D=2 chiral scalars the constraint can be improved by use of a {open_quotes}twisting{close_quotes} procedure (without the loss of the property to be first class) in such a way that the central charge of the quantum constraint algebra is zero. This points to the possible absence of an anomaly in an appropriate quantum version of the model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  16. Rolamite acceleration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Briner, Clifton F.; Martin, Samuel B.

    1993-01-01

    A rolamite acceleration sensor which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently.

  17. Rolamite acceleration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P.; Briner, C.F.; Martin, S.B.

    1993-12-21

    A rolamite acceleration sensor is described which has a failsafe feature including a housing, a pair of rollers, a tension band wrapped in an S shaped fashion around the rollers, wherein the band has a force-generation cut out and a failsafe cut out or weak portion. The failsafe cut out or weak portion breaks when the sensor is subjected to an excessive acceleration so that the sensor fails in an open circuit (non-conducting) state permanently. 6 figures.

  18. Multiple time step molecular dynamics in the optimized isokinetic ensemble steered with the molecular theory of solvation: Accelerating with advanced extrapolation of effective solvation forces

    SciTech Connect

    Omelyan, Igor E-mail: omelyan@icmp.lviv.ua; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2013-12-28

    We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nosé-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics

  19. Multiple time step molecular dynamics in the optimized isokinetic ensemble steered with the molecular theory of solvation: Accelerating with advanced extrapolation of effective solvation forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omelyan, Igor; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2013-12-01

    We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nosé-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics

  20. Dipole-field sums and Lorentz factors for orthorhombic lattices, and implications for polarizable molecules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purvis, C. K.; Taylor, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    A method for computing the Lorentz tensor components in single crystals via rapidly convergent sums of Bessels functions is developed using the relationship between dipole-field sums and the tensor components. The Lorentz factors for simple, body-centered, and base-centered orthorhombic lattices are computed using this method, and the derivative Lorentz factors for simple orthorhombic lattices are also determined. Both the Lorentz factors and their derivatives are shown to be very sensitive to a lattice structure. The equivalent of the Clausius-Mossotti relation for general orthorhombic lattices is derived using the Lorentz-factor formalism, and the permanent molecular dipole moment is related to crystal polarization for the case of a ferroelectric of polarizable point dipoles. It is concluded that the polarization enhancement due to self-polarization familiar from classical theory may actually be a reduction in consequences of negative Lorentz factors in one or two lattice directions for noncubic crystals.

  1. The Accelerating Jet of 3C 279

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, S. D.; Fromm, C. M.; Ros, E.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the proper motions of the subparsec scale jet of the quasar 3C 279 at 15 GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array shows significant accelerations in four of nine superluminal features. Analysis of these motions is combined with the analysis of flux density light curves to constrain values of Lorentz factor and viewing angle (and their derivatives) for each component. The data for each of these components are consistent with significant changes to the Lorentz factor, viewing angle, and azimuthal angle, suggesting jet bending with changes in speed. We see that for these observed components Lorentz factors are in the range Γ = 10-41, viewing angles are in the range thetav = 0.°1-5.°0, and intrinsic (source frame) flux density is in the range, F ν, int = 1.5 × 10-9-1.5 × 10-5 Jy. Considering individual components, the Lorentz factors vary from Γ = 11-16 for C1, Γ = 31-41 for C5, Γ = 29-41 for C6, and Γ = 9-12 for C8, indicating that there is no single underlying flow speed to the jet and likely we are seeing pattern speeds from shocks in the jet. The viewing angles vary in time from 0.°6 to 1.°5 in the case of C1 (the least extreme example), from 0.°5 to 5.°0 in the case of C8, and from 0.°1 to 0.°9 for C5 (the last two being the most extreme examples). The intrinsic flux density varies by factors from 1.4 for C8 and 430 for C5. Theoretical analysis of the accelerations also indicates potential jet bending. In addition, for one component, C5, polarization measurements also set limits to the trajectory of the jet.

  2. Scattering and confinement dynamics of Dirac particles in external electrostatic and Lorentz scalar potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M, Haritha; P, Durganandini

    2015-06-01

    We study the scattering and confinement of Dirac particles in external electrostatic and Lorentz scalar potentials. We use a numerical finite difference time -domain method to solve the equation and obtain the particle dynamics. We find qualitatively different dynamical behavior for electrostatic and Lorentz scalar potentials. Electrostatic potentials lead to Klein tunneling and do not exhibit confinement, while Lorentz scalar potentials inhibit Klein tunneling and exhibit confinement.

  3. Bounds on Lorentz and CPT violation from the Earth-ionosphere cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Mewes, Matthew

    2008-11-01

    Electromagnetic resonant cavities form the basis of many tests of Lorentz invariance involving photons. The effects of some forms of Lorentz violation scale with cavity size. We investigate possible signals of violations in the naturally occurring resonances formed in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. Comparison with observed resonances places the first terrestrial constraints on coefficients associated with dimension-three Lorentz-violating operators at the level of 10{sup -20} GeV.

  4. A microwave inverse Cerenkov accelerator ({open_quotes}MICA{close_quotes})

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, T.B.; Marshall, T.C.

    1995-12-31

    By {open_quotes}inverting{close_quotes} the stimulated Cerenkov effect to stimulated Cerenkov absorption, it is possible to build an electron accelerator device driven by high power microwaves that propagate in a slow-wave TM mode (axial E-field). An experiment now running at Brookhaven uses a powerful C02 laser and a 50MeV electron beam moving in a gas-loaded cell. Our approach is to use the 15MW available at 2.865GHz from a SLAC klystron to accelerate an electron beam provided from an rf gun ({approximately}6MeV, few psec pulses) to energy {approximately}20MeV. The use of microwaves permits a well defined group of electrons to be accelerated in a narrow window of phase. The waveguide is a cylinder, radius = 1.59cm, which contains an annular tube of alumina ({epsilon} = 9.4) having a hole about 1cm diameter, we show this will slow the waves to 0.9943c and permit electrons to be accelerated by a co-propagating field. This results in a relatively compact structure that has the advantage of a smooth-bore design and no need of magnetic focussing. We have solved for the wave dispersion in the structure, found the fields, and then used the Lorentz force equations to obtain the motion of a group of electrons distributed in radius and along the axis. We find the radial forces are focussing. Electrons in a well-defined filament (r < 0.5mm) remain collimated and do not strike the dielectric. Techniques for improving the dielectric breakdown of the surface should permit axial fields in the range of 100-200 kV/cm.

  5. Lorentz-invariant formulation of Cherenkov radiation by tachyons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, F. C.

    1972-01-01

    Previous treatments of Cherenkov radiation, electromagnetic and gravitational, by tachyons were in error because the prescription employed to cut off the divergent integral over frequency is not a Lorentz invariant procedure. The resulting equation of motion for the tachyon is therefore not covariant. The proper procedure requires an extended, deformable distribution of charge or mass and yields a particularly simple form for the tachyon's world line, one that could be deduced from simple invariance considerations. It is shown that Cherenkov radiation by tachyons implys their ultimate annihilation with an antitachyon and demonstrates a disturbing property of tachyons, namely the impossibility of specifying arbitrary Cauchy data even in a purely classical theory.

  6. Fluctuation formula for nonreversible dynamics in the thermostated Lorentz gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolowschiák, M.; Kovács, Z.

    2002-12-01

    We investigate numerically the validity of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation formula in the two- and three-dimensional periodic Lorentz gas subjected to constant electric and magnetic fields and thermostated by the Gaussian isokinetic thermostat. The magnetic field breaks the time reversal symmetry, and by choosing its orientation with respect to the lattice, one can have either a generalized reversing symmetry or no reversibility at all. Our results indicate that the scaling property described by the fluctuation formula may be approximately valid for large fluctuations even in the absence of reversibility.

  7. Fluctuation formula for nonreversible dynamics in the thermostated Lorentz gas.

    PubMed

    Dolowschiák, M; Kovács, Z

    2002-12-01

    We investigate numerically the validity of the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation formula in the two- and three-dimensional periodic Lorentz gas subjected to constant electric and magnetic fields and thermostated by the Gaussian isokinetic thermostat. The magnetic field breaks the time reversal symmetry, and by choosing its orientation with respect to the lattice, one can have either a generalized reversing symmetry or no reversibility at all. Our results indicate that the scaling property described by the fluctuation formula may be approximately valid for large fluctuations even in the absence of reversibility.

  8. Chaos properties and localization in Lorentz lattice gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appert, C.; Ernst, M. H.

    1997-11-01

    The thermodynamic formalism of Ruelle, Sinai, and Bowen [David Ruelle, Thermodynamic Formalism (Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1978)], in which chaotic properties of dynamical systems are expressed in terms of a free-energy-type function ψ(β), is applied to a Lorentz lattice gas, as typical for diffusive systems with static disorder. In the limit of large system sizes, the mechanism and effects of localization on large clusters of scatterers in the calculation of ψ(β) are elucidated and supported by strong numerical evidence. Moreover, we clarify and illustrate a previous theoretical analysis [C. Appert et al., J. Stat. Phys. 87, 1253 (1997)] of this localization phenomenon.

  9. Direct measurement of correlation functions in a lattice Lorentz gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binder, P.-M.; Frenkel, D.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations of a two-dimensional ballistic Lorentz gas on a lattice are reported. A moment-propagation technique allows direct measurements of the velocity correlation function and its moments with low relative errors for all times. The predicted 1/t-sq algebraic tails in the velocity correlation function are observed at all studied scatterer densities, unlike what has been reported for continuous systems. In the square lattice a fast oscillation is observed, consistent with the existence of staggered density modes. For the second-rank tensor correlation function, an extremely slow approach to the expected 1/t exp 3 tail is found.

  10. The Lorentz gas in Kaluza's MHD: Transport equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval-Villalbazo, Alfredo; Sagaceta-Mejia, Alma Rocio; Mondragon-Suarez, Jose Humberto

    2016-11-01

    Relativistic kinetic theory is applied to the study of the transport processes present in a Lorentz gas, using a geometric five-dimensional space-time. While the conventional transport equations are recovered in the Newtonian limit, it is shown that relativistic corrections to the conduction and diffusion fluxes arise within this formalism. A brief review of the conceptual advantages of the Kaluza-type approach to magnetohydrodynamics is also given. The authors acknowledge support from CONACyT through Grant CB2011/167563.

  11. The Need for a First-order Quasi Lorentz Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Censor, D.

    2010-11-25

    Solving electromagnetic scattering problems involving non-uniformly moving objects or media requires an approximate but consistent extension of Einstein's Special Relativity theory, originally valid for constant velocities only. For moderately varying velocities a quasi Lorentz transformation is presented. The conditions for form-invariance of the Maxwell equations, the so-called ''principle of relativity'', are shown to hold for a broad class of motional modes and time scales. A simple example of scattering by a harmonically oscillating mirror is analyzed in detail. Application to generally orbiting objects is mentioned.

  12. Getting the Lorentz transformations without requiring an invariant speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelissetto, Andrea; Testa, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    The structure of the Lorentz transformations follows purely from the absence of privileged inertial reference frames and the group structure (closure under composition) of the transformations—two assumptions that are simple and physically necessary. The existence of an invariant speed is not a necessary assumption and in fact is a consequence of the principle of relativity (though the finite value of this speed must, of course, be obtained from experiment). Von Ignatowsky derived this result in 1911, but it is still not widely known and is absent from most textbooks. Here, we present a completely elementary proof of the result, suitable for use in an introductory course in special relativity.

  13. Lorentz invariant relative velocity and relativistic binary collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannoni, Mirco

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of Lorentz invariant relative velocity that is often misunderstood or unknown in high energy physics literature. The properties of the relative velocity allow to formulate the invariant flux and cross-section without recurring to nonphysical velocities or any assumption about the reference frame. Applications such as the luminosity of a collider, the use as kinematic variable, and the statistical theory of collisions in a relativistic classical gas are reviewed. It is emphasized how the hyperbolic properties of the velocity space explain the peculiarities of relativistic scattering.

  14. New limits on Planck scale Lorentz violation in QED.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, T; Liberati, S; Mattingly, D; Stecker, F W

    2004-07-09

    Constraints on possible Lorentz symmetry violation (LV) of order E/M(Planck) for electrons and photons in the framework of effective field theory (EFT) are discussed. Using (i) the report of polarized MeV emission from GRB021206 and (ii) the absence of vacuum Cerenkov radiation from synchrotron electrons in the Crab Nebula, we improve previous bounds by 10(-10) and 10(-2), respectively. We also show that the LV parameters for positrons and electrons are different, discuss electron helicity decay, and investigate how prior constraints are modified by the relations between LV parameters implied by EFT.

  15. Renormalization of high-energy Lorentz-violating QED

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmi, Damiano; Taiuti, Martina

    2010-04-15

    We study a QED extension that is unitary, CPT invariant, and super-renormalizable, but violates Lorentz symmetry at high energies, and contains higher-dimension operators (LVQED). Divergent diagrams are only one- and two-loop. We compute the one-loop renormalizations at high and low energies and analyze the relation between them. It emerges that the powerlike divergences of the low-energy theory are multiplied by arbitrary constants, inherited by the high-energy theory, and therefore can be set to zero at no cost, bypassing the hierarchy problem.

  16. Investigation of Calibrating Force Transducer Using Sinusoidal Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lizhe

    2010-05-01

    Sinusoidal force calibration method was studied several years before at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). A similar dynamic force calibration system is developed at Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement (CIMM). It uses electro-dynamic shakers to generate dynamic force in the range from 1 N to 20 kN, and heterodyne laser interferometers are used for acceleration measurement. The force transducer to be calibrated is mounted on the shaker, and a mass block is screwed on the top of force transducer, the sinusoidal forces realized by accelerated load masses are traceable to acceleration and mass according to the force definition. The methods of determining Spatial-dependent acceleration on mass block and measuring the end mass of force transducer in dynamic force calibration are discussed in this paper.

  17. Investigation of Calibrating Force Transducer Using Sinusoidal Force

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Li; Wang Yu; Zhang Lizhe

    2010-05-28

    Sinusoidal force calibration method was studied several years before at Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). A similar dynamic force calibration system is developed at Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement (CIMM). It uses electro-dynamic shakers to generate dynamic force in the range from 1 N to 20 kN, and heterodyne laser interferometers are used for acceleration measurement. The force transducer to be calibrated is mounted on the shaker, and a mass block is screwed on the top of force transducer, the sinusoidal forces realized by accelerated load masses are traceable to acceleration and mass according to the force definition. The methods of determining Spatial-dependent acceleration on mass block and measuring the end mass of force transducer in dynamic force calibration are discussed in this paper.

  18. ACCELERATION AND COLLIMATION OF RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC DISK WINDS

    SciTech Connect

    Porth, Oliver; Fendt, Christian E-mail: fendt@mpia.d

    2010-02-01

    We perform axisymmetric relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations to investigate the acceleration and collimation of jets and outflows from disks around compact objects. Newtonian gravity is added to the relativistic treatment in order to establish the physical boundary condition of an underlying accretion disk in centrifugal and pressure equilibrium. The fiducial disk surface (respectively a slow disk wind) is prescribed as boundary condition for the outflow. We apply this technique for the first time in the context of relativistic jets. The strength of this approach is that it allows us to run a parameter study in order to investigate how the accretion disk conditions govern the outflow formation. Substantial effort has been made to implement a current-free, numerical outflow boundary condition in order to avoid artificial collimation present in the standard outflow conditions. Our simulations using the PLUTO code run for 500 inner disk rotations and on a physical grid size of 100 x 200 inner disk radii. The simulations evolve from an initial state in hydrostatic equilibrium and an initially force-free magnetic field configuration. Two options for the initial field geometries are applied-an hourglass-shaped potential magnetic field and a split monopole field. Most of our parameter runs evolve into a steady state solution which can be further analyzed concerning the physical mechanism at work. In general, we obtain collimated beams of mildly relativistic speed with Lorentz factors up to 6 and mass-weighted half-opening angles of 3-7 deg. The split-monopole initial setup usually results in less collimated outflows. The light surface of the outflow magnetosphere tends to align vertically-implying three relativistically distinct regimes in the flow-an inner subrelativistic domain close to the jet axis, a (rather narrow) relativistic jet and a surrounding subrelativistic outflow launched from the outer disk surface-similar to the spine-sheath structure currently

  19. Future accelerators (?)

    SciTech Connect

    John Womersley

    2003-08-21

    I describe the future accelerator facilities that are currently foreseen for electroweak scale physics, neutrino physics, and nuclear structure. I will explore the physics justification for these machines, and suggest how the case for future accelerators can be made.

  20. Force Limited Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, Terry; Chang, Kurng Y.

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concept and applications of Force Limited Vibration Testing. The goal of vibration testing of aerospace hardware is to identify problems that would result in flight failures. The commonly used aerospace vibration tests uses artificially high shaker forces and responses at the resonance frequencies of the test item. It has become common to limit the acceleration responses in the test to those predicted for the flight. This requires an analysis of the acceleration response, and requires placing accelerometers on the test item. With the advent of piezoelectric gages it has become possible to improve vibration testing. The basic equations have are reviewed. Force limits are analogous and complementary to the acceleration specifications used in conventional vibration testing. Just as the acceleration specification is the frequency spectrum envelope of the in-flight acceleration at the interface between the test item and flight mounting structure, the force limit is the envelope of the in-flight force at the interface . In force limited vibration tests, both the acceleration and force specifications are needed, and the force specification is generally based on and proportional to the acceleration specification. Therefore, force limiting does not compensate for errors in the development of the acceleration specification, e.g., too much conservatism or the lack thereof. These errors will carry over into the force specification. Since in-flight vibratory force data are scarce, force limits are often derived from coupled system analyses and impedance information obtained from measurements or finite element models (FEM). Fortunately, data on the interface forces between systems and components are now available from system acoustic and vibration tests of development test models and from a few flight experiments. Semi-empirical methods of predicting force limits are currently being developed on the basis of the limited flight and system test

  1. FPGA Verification Accelerator (FVAX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, Jane; Burke, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Is Verification Acceleration Possible? - Increasing the visibility of the internal nodes of the FPGA results in much faster debug time - Forcing internal signals directly allows a problem condition to be setup very quickly center dot Is this all? - No, this is part of a comprehensive effort to improve the JPL FPGA design and V&V process.

  2. Comparison of various approaches to the calculation of optically induced forces

    SciTech Connect

    Torchigin, V.P. Torchigin, A.V.

    2012-09-15

    Various approaches used for the calculation of optically induced forces applied to a transparent optical medium imbedded in a close plane optical resonator are analyzed. The forces are calculated by means of analysis of a change in the eigen frequency and energy stored in the resonator at various positions of the medium. It is shown that results obtained are identical to those calculated by means of approaches based on the Maxwell stress tensor, based on an analysis of a change in the momentum of light. An exception is for results obtained on the base of last versions of the Lorentz density force. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There are no Lorentz forces in a homogeneous optical medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A net force produced by an inhomogeneous electrostriction pressure is equal to zero. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Any distributions of the Lorentz force in a homogeneous optical medium are misleading.

  3. A gyrokinetic collision operator for magnetized Lorentz plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Chang; Ma Chenhao; Yu Xiongjie; Qin, Hong

    2011-03-15

    A gyrocenter collision operator for magnetized Lorentz plasmas is derived using the Fokker-Plank method. The gyrocenter collision operator consists of drift and diffusion terms in the gyrocenter coordinates, including the diffusion of the gyrocenter, which does not exist for the collision operator in the particle phase space coordinates. The gyrocenter collision operator also depends on the transverse electric field explicitly, which is crucial for the correct treatment of collisional effects and transport in the gyrocenter coordinates. The gyrocenter collision operator derived is applied to calculate the particle and heat transport fluxes in a magnetized Lorentz plasma with an electric field. The particle and heat transport fluxes calculated from our gyrocenter collision operator agree exactly with the classical Braginskii's result [S. I. Braginskii, Reviews of Plasma Physics (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 205: P. Helander and D. J. Sigmar, Collisional Transport in Magnetized Plasmas (Cambridge University, Cambridge, 2002), p. 65], which validates the correctness of our collision operator. To calculate the transport fluxes correctly, it is necessary to apply the pullback transformation associated with gyrocenter coordinate transformation in the presence of collisions, which also serves as a practical algorithm for evaluating collisional particle and heat transport fluxes in the gyrocenter coordinates.

  4. Cosmic censorship in Lorentz-violating theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiers, Michael; Saravani, Mehdi; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2016-05-01

    Is cosmic censorship special to general relativity, or can it survive a violation of local Lorentz invariance? Recent studies have shown that singularities in Lorentz -violating Einstein-Aether (or Horava-Lifshitz) theories can lie behind a universal horizon in simple black hole spacetimes. Even infinitely fast signals cannot escape these universal horizons. We extend this result, for an incompressible aether, to 3 +1 d dynamical or spinning spacetimes which possess inner Killing horizons, and show that a universal horizon always forms in between the outer and (would-be) inner horizons. This finding suggests a notion of cosmic censorship, given that geometry in these theories never evolves beyond the universal horizon (avoiding potentially singular inner Killing horizons). A surprising result is that there are 3 distinct possible stationary universal horizons for a spinning black hole, only one of which matches the dynamical spherical solution. This motivates dynamical studies of collapse in Einstein-Aether theories beyond spherical symmetry, which may reveal instabilities around the spherical solution.

  5. A test of local Lorentz invariance with Compton scattering asymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanmurthy, Prajwal; Narayan, Amrendra; Dutta, Dipangkar

    2016-12-14

    Here, we report on a measurement of the constancy and anisotropy of the speed of light relative to the electrons in photon-electron scattering. We also used the Compton scattering asymmetry measured by the new Compton polarimeter in Hall~C at Jefferson Lab to test for deviations from unity of the vacuum refractive index ($n$). For photon energies in the range of 9 - 46 MeV, we obtain a new limit of $1-n < 1.4 \\times 10^{-8}$. In addition, the absence of sidereal variation over the six month period of the measurement constrains any anisotropies in the speed of light. These constitute the first study of Lorentz invariance using Compton asymmetry. Within the minimal standard model extension framework, our result yield limits on the photon and electron coefficients $\\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{YZ}, c_{TX}, \\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{ZX}$, and $c_{TY}$. Though, these limits are several orders of magnitude larger than the current best limits, they demonstrate the feasibility of using Compton asymmetry for tests of Lorentz invariance. For future parity violating electron scattering experiments at Jefferson Lab we will use higher energy electrons enabling better constraints.

  6. A test of local Lorentz invariance with Compton scattering asymmetry

    DOE PAGES

    Mohanmurthy, Prajwal; Narayan, Amrendra; Dutta, Dipangkar

    2016-12-14

    Here, we report on a measurement of the constancy and anisotropy of the speed of light relative to the electrons in photon-electron scattering. We also used the Compton scattering asymmetry measured by the new Compton polarimeter in Hall~C at Jefferson Lab to test for deviations from unity of the vacuum refractive index (more » $n$). For photon energies in the range of 9 - 46 MeV, we obtain a new limit of $$1-n < 1.4 \\times 10^{-8}$$. In addition, the absence of sidereal variation over the six month period of the measurement constrains any anisotropies in the speed of light. These constitute the first study of Lorentz invariance using Compton asymmetry. Within the minimal standard model extension framework, our result yield limits on the photon and electron coefficients $$\\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{YZ}, c_{TX}, \\tilde{\\kappa}_{0^+}^{ZX}$$, and $$c_{TY}$$. Though, these limits are several orders of magnitude larger than the current best limits, they demonstrate the feasibility of using Compton asymmetry for tests of Lorentz invariance. For future parity violating electron scattering experiments at Jefferson Lab we will use higher energy electrons enabling better constraints.« less

  7. Eikonal equation of the Lorentz-violating Maxwell theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhi; Shao, Lijing; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2010-12-01

    We derive the eikonal equation of light wavefront in the presence of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) from the photon sector of the standard model extension (SME). The results obtained from the equations of the E and B fields, respectively, are the same. This guarantees the self-consistency of our derivation. We adopt a simple case with only one non-zero LIV parameter as an illustration, from which we find two points. One is that, in analogy with the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, from the eikonal equation, we can derive dispersion relations which are compatible with results obtained from other approaches. The other is that the wavefront velocity is the same as the group velocity, as well as the energy flow velocity. If further we define the signal velocity v s as the front velocity, there always exists a mode with v s >1; hence causality is violated classically. Thus, our method might be useful in the analysis of Lorentz violation in QED in terms of classical causality.

  8. Non-dissipative electromagnetic media with two Lorentz null cones

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, Matias F.

    2013-03-15

    We study Maxwell's equations on a 4-manifold where the electromagnetic medium is modeled by an antisymmetric (2/2 )-tensor with 21 real coefficients. In this setting the Fresnel surface is a fourth-order polynomial surface that describes the dynamical response of the medium in the geometric optics limit. For example, in an isotropic medium the Fresnel surface is a Lorentz null cone. The contribution of this paper is the pointwise description of all electromagnetic medium tensors {kappa} with real coefficients that satisfy the following three conditions: (i)medium {kappa} is invertible, (ii)medium {kappa} is skewon-free, or non-dissipative, (iii)the Fresnel surface of {kappa} is the union of two distinct Lorentz null cones. We show that there are only three classes of media with these properties and give explicit expressions in local coordinates for each class. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find two new electromagnetic media classes for which the Fresnel surface decomposes into two light cones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In a suitable setting we classify all electromagnetic media where this is the case. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find an electromagnetic medium tensor with three different signal speeds in one direction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The work is related to [5], which classifies all media with one light cone (in a suitable setting).

  9. Lorentz-breaking massive gravity in curved space

    SciTech Connect

    Blas, D.; Nesti, F.; Pilo, L.

    2009-08-15

    A systematic study of the different phases of Lorentz-breaking massive gravity in a curved background is performed. For tensor and vector modes, the analysis is very close to that of Minkowski space. The most interesting results are in the scalar sector where, generically, there are two propagating degrees of freedom (DOF). While in maximally symmetric spaces ghostlike instabilities are inevitable, they can be avoided in a FRW background. The phases with less than two DOF in the scalar sector are also studied. Curvature allows an interesting interplay with the mass parameters; in particular, we have extended the Higuchi bound of de Sitter to Friedman-Robertson-Walker and Lorentz-breaking masses. As in dS, when the bound is saturated there is no propagating DOF in the scalar sector. In a number of phases the smallness of the kinetic terms gives rise to strongly coupled scalar modes at low energies. Finally, we have computed the gravitational potentials for pointlike sources. In the general case we recover the general relativity predictions at small distances, whereas the modifications appear at distances of the order of the characteristic mass scale. In contrast with Minkowski space, these corrections may not spoil the linear approximation at large distances.

  10. Lorentz boosted frame simulation technique in Particle-in-cell methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peicheng

    In this dissertation, we systematically explore the use of a simulation method for modeling laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) using the particle-in-cell (PIC) method, called the Lorentz boosted frame technique. In the lab frame the plasma length is typically four orders of magnitude larger than the laser pulse length. Using this technique, simulations are performed in a Lorentz boosted frame in which the plasma length, which is Lorentz contracted, and the laser length, which is Lorentz expanded, are now comparable. This technique has the potential to reduce the computational needs of a LWFA simulation by more than four orders of magnitude, and is useful if there is no or negligible reflection of the laser in the lab frame. To realize the potential of Lorentz boosted frame simulations for LWFA, the first obstacle to overcome is a robust and violent numerical instability, called the Numerical Cerenkov Instability (NCI), that leads to unphysical energy exchange between relativistically drifting particles and their radiation. This leads to unphysical noise that dwarfs the real physical processes. In this dissertation, we first present a theoretical analysis of this instability, and show that the NCI comes from the unphysical coupling of the electromagnetic (EM) modes and Langmuir modes (both main and aliasing) of the relativistically drifting plasma. We then discuss the methods to eliminate them. However, the use of FFTs can lead to parallel scalability issues when there are many more cells along the drifting direction than in the transverse direction(s). We then describe an algorithm that has the potential to address this issue by using a higher order finite difference operator for the derivative in the plasma drifting direction, while using the standard second order operators in the transverse direction(s). The NCI for this algorithm is analyzed, and it is shown that the NCI can be eliminated using the same strategies that were used for the hybrid FFT

  11. Lorentz approach to static magnetic field effects on bound-ion dynamics and binding kinetics: Thermal noise considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Muehsam, D.J.; Pilla, A.A.

    1996-05-01

    The present study characterizes an ion-binding site, a molecular cleft in a signaling molecule such as calmodulin or troponin C, as a damped linear isotropic oscillator potential for small displacements about the origin. Quantitative assessments of the effects of thermal noise and exogenous static magnetic fields are made through a statistical mechanical treatment of the Lorentz-Langevin equation for an ion bound in a molecular cleft. Thermal noise causes a bound ion to e ejected from the site after a bound life-time dependent upon the thermal noise spectral density. It is shown that the Lorentz-Langevin model requires values of the viscous damping parameter many orders of magnitude below those for bulk water in order to characterize the binding site and to obtain realistic lifetimes for a bound ion. The model predicts that milliTesla-range magnetic fields are required for static field effects on dissociation kinetics. The Lorentz equation also yields a classic coherent solution describing precession of the bound-ion oscillator orientation at the Larmor frequency. The bound-ion dynamics described by this coherent solution are sensitive to microTesla-range static magnetic fields in the presence of thermal noise. Numerical integration of the contribution of thermal noise forces to these dynamics is in good agreement with the results of statistical mechanical analysis, also producing realistic bound lifetimes for only very low viscous damping values. The mechanisms by which modulation of precessional motion might enable a signaling molecule such as calmodulin to detect an exogenous magnetic field are presently unclear.

  12. Relativistic Landau-Aharonov-Casher quantization based on the Lorentz symmetry violation background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakke, K.; Belich, H.; Silva, E. O.

    2011-06-01

    Based on the discussions about the Aharonov-Casher effect in the Lorentz symmetry violation background, we show that the analogue of the relativistic Landau quantization in the Aharonov-Casher setup can be achieved in the Lorentz-symmetry violation background.

  13. Quasi-exact solvability of Dirac equation with Lorentz scalar potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.-L. . E-mail: hcl@mail.tku.edu.tw

    2006-09-15

    We consider exact/quasi-exact solvability of Dirac equation with a Lorentz scalar potential based on factorizability of the equation. Exactly solvable and sl (2)-based quasi-exactly solvable potentials are discussed separately in Cartesian coordinates for a pure Lorentz potential depending only on one spatial dimension, and in spherical coordinates in the presence of a Dirac monopole.

  14. Relativistic Landau-Aharonov-Casher quantization based on the Lorentz symmetry violation background

    SciTech Connect

    Bakke, K.; Belich, H.; Silva, E. O.

    2011-06-15

    Based on the discussions about the Aharonov-Casher effect in the Lorentz symmetry violation background, we show that the analogue of the relativistic Landau quantization in the Aharonov-Casher setup can be achieved in the Lorentz-symmetry violation background.

  15. A Measurement of the muon neutrino charged current quasielastic interaction and a test of Lorentz violation with the MiniBooNE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Katori, Teppei

    2008-12-01

    The Mini-Booster neutrino experiment (MiniBooNE) at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) is designed to search for vμ → ve appearance neutrino oscillations. Muon neutrino charged-current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interactions (vμ + n → μ + p) make up roughly 40% of our data sample, and it is used to constrain the background and cross sections for the oscillation analysis. Using high-statistics MiniBooNE CCQE data, the muon-neutrino CCQE cross section is measured. The nuclear model is tuned precisely using the MiniBooNE data. The measured total cross section is σ = (1.058 ± 0.003 (stat) ± 0.111 (syst)) x 10-38 cm2 at the MiniBooNE muon neutrino beam energy (700-800 MeV). ve appearance candidate data is also used to search for Lorentz violation. Lorentz symmetry is one of the most fundamental symmetries in modern physics. Neutrino oscillations offer a new method to test it. We found that the MiniBooNE result is not well-described using Lorentz violation, however further investigation is required for a more conclusive result.

  16. Propagation of a radial phased-locked Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoquan

    2011-11-21

    A radial phased-locked (PL) Lorentz beam array provides an appropriate theoretical model to describe a coherent diode laser array, which is an efficient radiation source for high-power beaming use. The propagation of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere is investigated. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral and some mathematical techniques, analytical formulae for the average intensity and the effective beam size of a radial PL Lorentz beam array are derived in turbulent atmosphere. The average intensity distribution and the spreading properties of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere are numerically calculated. The influences of the beam parameters and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere are discussed in detail.

  17. Lorentz invariance and quantum gravity: an additional fine-tuning problem?

    PubMed

    Collins, John; Perez, Alejandro; Sudarsky, Daniel; Urrutia, Luis; Vucetich, Héctor

    2004-11-05

    Trying to combine standard quantum field theories with gravity leads to a breakdown of the usual structure of space time at around the Planck length, 1.6x10(-35) m, with possible violations of Lorentz invariance. Calculations of preferred-frame effects in quantum gravity have further motivated high precision searches for Lorentz violation. Here, we explain that combining known elementary particle interactions with a Planck-scale preferred frame gives rise to Lorentz violation at the percent level, some 20 orders of magnitude higher than earlier estimates, unless the bare parameters of the theory are unnaturally strongly fine tuned. Therefore an important task is not just the improvement of the precision of searches for violations of Lorentz invariance, but also the search for theoretical mechanisms for automatically preserving Lorentz invariance.

  18. CONSTRAINTS ON THE LORENTZ INVARIANCE VIOLATION WITH GAMMA-RAY BURSTS VIA A MARKOV CHAIN MONTE CARLO APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Yu; Gong, Yungui; Cao, Shuo; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Gao, He

    2015-07-20

    In the quantum theory of gravity, for photons we expect the Lorentz Invariance Violation (LIV) and the modification of the dispersion relation between energy and momentum. The effect of the energy-dependent velocity due to the modified dispersion relation for photons was studied in the standard cosmological context by using a sample of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this paper we mainly discuss the possible LIV effect of using different cosmological models for the accelerating universe. Due to the degeneracies among model parameters, the GRBs’ time delay data are combined with the cosmic microwave background data from the Planck first-year release, the baryon acoustic oscillation data at six different redshifts, and Union2 Type Ia supernovae data to constrain both the model parameters and the LIV effect. We find no evidence of the LIV.

  19. Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below-Blue Force Tracking (FBCB2-BFT). A Case Study in the Accelerated Acquisition of a Digital Command and Control System during Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Command CIB Controlled Image Base COA Course of Action COTS Commercial off the Shelf CP Command Post CPX Command Post Exercise CTIS Combat Terrain...Command Brigade and Below FCS Future Combat System FRP Full Rate Production FY Fiscal Year G3 Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations and Training...Graphic User Interface HTI Horizontal Technology Insertion IMETS Integrated Meteorological System IMTF Information Management Task Force IOT &E

  20. Noninvariance of space- and time-scale ranges under a Lorentz Transformation and the implications for the study of relativistic interactions.

    PubMed

    Vay, J-L

    2007-03-30

    We present an analysis which shows that the ranges of space and time scales spanned by a system are not invariant under Lorentz transformation. This implies the existence of a frame of reference which minimizes an aggregate measure of the range of space and time scales. Such a frame is derived, for example, for the following cases: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beams interacting with electron clouds. The implications for experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies are discussed. The most immediate relevance is the reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times for such systems.

  1. Noninvariance of Space and Time Scale Ranges under a Lorentz Transformation and the Implications for the Numerical Study of Relativistic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.; Vay, J.-L.

    2007-11-12

    We present an analysis which shows that the ranges of space and time scales spanned by a system are not invariant under the Lorentz transformation. This implies the existence of a frame of reference which minimizes an aggregate measure of the range of space and time scales. Such a frame is derived for example cases: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beam interacting with electron clouds. Implications for experimental, theoretical and numerical studies are discussed. The most immediate relevance is the reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times for such systems.

  2. Noninvariance of Space- and Time-Scale Ranges under a Lorentz Transformation and the Implications for the Study of Relativistic Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Vay, J.-L.

    2007-03-30

    We present an analysis which shows that the ranges of space and time scales spanned by a system are not invariant under Lorentz transformation. This implies the existence of a frame of reference which minimizes an aggregate measure of the range of space and time scales. Such a frame is derived, for example, for the following cases: free electron laser, laser-plasma accelerator, and particle beams interacting with electron clouds. The implications for experimental, theoretical, and numerical studies are discussed. The most immediate relevance is the reduction by orders of magnitude in computer simulation run times for such system000.

  3. Decay of a Linear Pendulum in a Free-Molecular Gas and in a Special Lorentz Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Tetsuro; Aoki, Kazuo

    2012-02-01

    A circular disk without thickness is placed in a gas, and an external force, obeying Hooke's law, is acting perpendicularly on the disk. If the disk is displaced perpendicularly from its equilibrium position and released, then it starts an oscillatory or non-oscillatory unsteady motion, which decays as time goes on because of the drag exerted by the gas molecules. This unsteady motion, i.e., the decay of this linear pendulum, is investigated numerically, under the diffuse reflection condition on the surface of the disk, with special interest in the manner of its decay, for two kinds of gases: one is a collisionless gas (or Knudsen gas) and the other is a special Lorentz gas interacting with a background. It is shown that the decay of the displacement of the disk is slow and is in proportion to an inverse power of time for the collisionless gas. The result complements the existing mathematical study of a similar problem (Caprino et al. in Math. Models Methods Appl. Sci. 17:1369-1403, 2007) in the case of non-oscillatory decay. It is also shown that the manner of the decay changes significantly for the special Lorentz gas.

  4. An analytical drilling force model and GPU-accelerated haptics-based simulation framework of the pilot drilling procedure for micro-implants surgery training.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fei; Lu, Wen Feng; Wong, Yoke San; Foong, Kelvin Weng Chiong

    2012-12-01

    The placement of micro-implants is a common but relatively new surgical procedure in clinical dentistry. This paper presents a haptics-based simulation framework for the pilot drilling of micro-implants surgery to train orthodontists to successfully perform this essential procedure by tactile sensation, without damaging tooth roots. A voxel-based approach was employed to model the inhomogeneous oral tissues. A preprocessing pipeline was designed to reduce imaging noise, smooth segmentation results and construct an anatomically correct oral model from patient-specific data. In order to provide a physically based haptic feedback, an analytical drilling force model based on metal cutting principles was developed and adapted for the voxel-based approach. To improve the real-time response, the parallel computing power of Graphics Processing Units is exploited through extra efforts for data structure design, algorithms parallelization, and graphic memory utilization. A prototype system has been developed based on the proposed framework. Preliminary results show that, by using this framework, proper drilling force can be rendered at different tissue layers with reduced cycle time, while the visual display has also been enhanced.

  5. Constraints and stability in vector theories with spontaneous Lorentz violation

    SciTech Connect

    Bluhm, Robert; Gagne, Nolan L.; Potting, Robertus; Vrublevskis, Arturs

    2008-06-15

    Vector theories with spontaneous Lorentz violation, known as bumblebee models, are examined in flat spacetime using a Hamiltonian constraint analysis. In some of these models, Nambu-Goldstone modes appear with properties similar to photons in electromagnetism. However, depending on the form of the theory, additional modes and constraints can appear that have no counterparts in electromagnetism. An examination of these constraints and additional degrees of freedom, including their nonlinear effects, is made for a variety of models with different kinetic and potential terms, and the results are compared with electromagnetism. The Hamiltonian constraint analysis also permits an investigation of the stability of these models. For certain bumblebee theories with a timelike vector, suitable restrictions of the initial-value solutions are identified that yield ghost-free models with a positive Hamiltonian. In each case, the restricted phase space is found to match that of electromagnetism in a nonlinear gauge.

  6. Lorentz violating p-form gauge theories in superspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker; Shah, Mushtaq B.; Ganai, Prince A.

    2017-03-01

    Very special relativity (VSR) keeps the main features of special relativity but breaks rotational invariance due to an intrinsic preferred direction. We study the VSR-modified extended BRST and anti-BRST symmetry of the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) actions corresponding to the p=1,2,3-form gauge theories. Within the VSR framework, we discuss the extended BRST invariant and extended BRST and anti-BRST invariant superspace formulations for these BV actions. Here we observe that the VSR-modified extended BRST invariant BV actions corresponding to the p=1,2,3-form gauge theories can be written in a manifestly covariant manner in a superspace with one Grassmann coordinate. Moreover, two Grassmann coordinates are required to describe the VSR-modified extended BRST and extended anti-BRST invariant BV actions in a superspace. These results are consistent with the Lorentz-invariant (special relativity) formulation.

  7. Test of Lorentz Invariance with Spin Precession of Ultracold Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Altarev, I.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Baker, C. A.; Iaydjiev, P.; Ivanov, S. N.; Ban, G.; Lefort, T.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Quemener, G.; Bodek, K.; Kistryn, S.; Zejma, J.; Daum, M.; Henneck, R.; Kirch, K.; Knecht, A.; Lauss, B.; Mtchedlishvili, A.; Petzoldt, G.

    2009-08-21

    A clock comparison experiment, analyzing the ratio of spin precession frequencies of stored ultracold neutrons and {sup 199}Hg atoms, is reported. No daily variation of this ratio could be found, from which is set an upper limit on the Lorentz invariance violating cosmic anisotropy field b{sub perpendicular}<2x10{sup -20} eV (95% C.L.). This is the first limit for the free neutron. This result is also interpreted as a direct limit on the gravitational dipole moment of the neutron |g{sub n}|<0.3 eV/c{sup 2} m from a spin-dependent interaction with the Sun. Analyzing the gravitational interaction with the Earth, based on previous data, yields a more stringent limit |g{sub n}|<3x10{sup -4} eV/c{sup 2} m.

  8. Dual properties of spacetime under an alternative Lorentz transformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, T.; Torr, D. G.

    1988-01-01

    A coordinate time, t(A), with absolute synchronization is defined as an alternative fourth spatial coordinate for model universes with flat space-time, and the theoretical implications of t(A) are explored in detail. Particular attention is given to a t(A)-based reformulation of the Lorentz transformation, the generalized Galilean transformation, which is found to offer significant advantages in understanding special-relativistic phenomena such as length contraction, time dilation, and the interaction of objects with the physical vacuum. With respect to astrophysical observations of superluminal motion, it is shown that the problem of causality violation can be avoided; the theory also predicts that weak anisotropic effects may be detectable in the earth reference frame.

  9. Spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry in (2 +ɛ )-dimensional QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssen, Lukas

    2016-11-01

    The phase diagram of massless quantum electrodynamics in three space-time dimensions as a function of fermion flavor number N exhibits two well-known phases: at large N >Ncconf the system is in a conformal gapless state, while for small N Ncχ SB. There is therefore an intermediate range of values of N at which a third phase is stabilized. We demonstrate that this phase is characterized by spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry, in which a composite vector boson field acquires a vacuum expectation value with the fermions and the photon remaining massless.

  10. New methods of testing Lorentz violation in electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Tobar, Michael Edmund; Fowler, Alison; Hartnett, John Gideon; Wolf, Peter

    2005-01-15

    We investigate experiments that are sensitive to the scalar and parity-odd coefficients for Lorentz violation in the photon sector of the standard model extension (SME). We show that of the classic tests of special relativity, Ives-Stilwell (IS) experiments are sensitive to the scalar coefficient, but at only parts in 10{sup 5} for the state-of-the-art experiment. We then propose asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers with different electromagnetic properties in the two arms, including recycling techniques based on travelling wave resonators to improve the sensitivity. With present technology we estimate that the scalar and parity-odd coefficients may be measured with a sensitivity better than parts in 10{sup 11} and 10{sup 15} respectively.

  11. Lorentz effect imaging of ionic currents in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, Trong-Kha; Avram, Alexandru; Song, Allen W.

    2008-03-01

    Current functional MRI techniques relying on hemodynamic modulations are inherently limited in their ability to accurately localize neural activity in space and time. To address these limitations, we previously proposed a novel technique based on the Lorentz effect and demonstrated its ability to directly image minute electrical activity with a millisecond temporal resolution in gel phantoms containing conductive wires as well as in the human median nerve in vivo. To better characterize its contrast mechanism and ultimately further improve its sensitivity for in vivo applications, we now apply this technique to image ionic currents in solution, which serve as a better model for neural conduction in biological systems than the electronic currents in conductive wires used in previous phantom studies. Our results demonstrate that ionic currents with durations and current densities on the same order of magnitude as those induced by neuroelectric activity in nerve fibers and in the brain can be detected.

  12. Singular Lorentz-violating Lagrangians and associated Finsler structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colladay, Don; McDonald, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Several Lagrangians associated with classical limits of Lorentz-violating fermions in the standard model extension (SME) have been shown to yield Finsler functions when the theory is expressed in Euclidean space. When spin couplings are present, the Lagrangian can develop singularities that obstruct the construction of a globally defined Legendre transformation, leading to singular Finsler spaces. A specific sector of the SME where such problems arise is studied. It is found that the singular behavior can be eliminated by an appropriate lifting of the problem to an associated algebraic variety. This provides a smooth classical model for the singular problem. In Euclidean space, the procedure involves combining two related singular Finsler functions into a single smooth function with a semi-positive-definite quadratic form defined on a desingularized variety.

  13. Diagnosing particle acceleration in relativistic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, Markus; Baring, Matthew G.; Liang, Edison P.; Summerlin, Errol J.; Fu, Wen; Smith, Ian A.; Roustazadeh, Parisa

    2015-03-01

    The high-energy emission from blazars and other relativistic jet sources indicates that electrons are accelerated to ultra-relativistic (GeV - TeV) energies in these systems. This paper summarizes recent results from numerical studies of two fundamentally different particle acceleration mechanisms potentially at work in relativistic jets: Magnetic-field generation and relativistic particle acceleration in relativistic shear layers, which are likely to be present in relativistic jets, is studied via Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations. Diffusive shock acceleration at relativistic shocks is investigated using Monte-Carlo simulations. The resulting magnetic-field configurations and thermal + non-thermal particle distributions are then used to predict multi-wavelength radiative (synchrotron + Compton) signatures of both acceleration scenarios. In particular, we address how anisotropic shear-layer acceleration may be able to circumvent the well-known Lorentz-factor crisis, and how the self-consistent evaluation of thermal + non-thermal particle populations in diffusive shock acceleration simulations provides tests of the bulk Comptonization model for the Big Blue Bump observed in the SEDs of several blazars.

  14. Modeling lateral acceleration effects on pilot performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korn, J.; Kleinan, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    Attendant to the direct side force maneuver of a Vectored Force Fighter is the transverse acceleration imposed on the pilot. This lateral acceleration (Gy), when combind with a positive Gz stress, is a potential source of pilot tracking performance impairment. A research effort to investigate these performance decrements includes experimental as well as anaytical pilot performance modeling using the Optimal Control Model.

  15. The Radiation Magnetic Force (FmR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousif, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    The detection of Circular Magnetic Field (CMF), associated with electrons movement, not incorporated in theoretical works; is introduced as elements of attraction and repulsion for magnetic force between two conductors carrying electric currents; it also created magnetic force between charged particles and magnetic field, or Lorentz force; CMF contain energy of Electromagnetic Radiation (EM-R); a relationship has been established between the magnetic part of the EM-R, and radiation force, showing the magnetic force as a frequency controlled entity, in which a Radiation Magnetic Force formula is derived, the force embedded EM-Wave, similar to Electromagnetic Radiation Energy given by Planck's formula; the force is accountable for electron removal from atom in the Photoelectric Effects, stabilizing orbital atoms, excitation and ionization atoms, initiating production of secondary EM-R in Compton Effect mechanism; the paper aimed at reviving the wave nature of EM-R, which could reflects in a better understanding of the microscopic-world.

  16. Traces of Lorentz symmetry breaking in a hydrogen atom at ground state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, L. H. C.; Barone, F. A.

    2016-02-01

    Some traces of a specific Lorentz symmetry breaking scenario in the ground state of the hydrogen atom are investigated. We use standard Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory in order to obtain the corrections to the ground state energy and the wave function. It is shown that an induced four-pole moment arises, due to the Lorentz symmetry breaking. The model considered is the one studied in Borges et al. (Eur Phys J C 74:2937, 2014), where the Lorentz symmetry is broken in the electromagnetic sector.

  17. Time delay and Doppler tests of the Lorentz symmetry of gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Quentin G.

    2009-08-15

    Modifications to the classic time-delay effect and Doppler shift in general relativity (GR) are studied in the context of the Lorentz-violating standard-model extension (SME). We derive the leading Lorentz-violating corrections to the time-delay and Doppler shift signals, for a light ray passing near a massive body. It is demonstrated that anisotropic coefficients for Lorentz violation control a time-dependent behavior of these signals that is qualitatively different from the conventional case in GR. Estimates of sensitivities to gravity-sector coefficients in the SME are given for current and future experiments, including the recent Cassini solar conjunction experiment.

  18. Laboratory test of Newton's second law for small accelerations.

    PubMed

    Gundlach, J H; Schlamminger, S; Spitzer, C D; Choi, K-Y; Woodahl, B A; Coy, J J; Fischbach, E

    2007-04-13

    We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton's second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton's second law at accelerations as small as 5 x 10(-14) m/s(2).

  19. Laboratory Test of Newton's Second Law for Small Accelerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach, J. H.; Schlamminger, S.; Spitzer, C. D.; Choi, K.-Y.; Woodahl, B. A.; Coy, J. J.; Fischbach, E.

    2007-04-13

    We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton's second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton's second law at accelerations as small as 5x10{sup -14} m/s{sup 2}.

  20. Laboratory Test of Newton's Second Law for Small Accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodahl, Brian; Gundlach, Jens; Schlamminger, Stephan; Spitzer, Chris; Choi, Ki; Coy, Jen; Fischbach, Ephraim

    2009-10-01

    We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton's second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton's second law at accelerations as small as 5 x 10-14 m/s^2.

  1. Laboratory Test of Newton's Second Law for Small Accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundlach, J. H.; Schlamminger, S.; Spitzer, C. D.; Choi, K.-Y.; Woodahl, B. A.; Coy, J. J.; Fischbach, E.

    2007-04-01

    We have tested the proportionality of force and acceleration in Newton’s second law, F=ma, in the limit of small forces and accelerations. Our tests reach well below the acceleration scales relevant to understanding several current astrophysical puzzles such as the flatness of galactic rotation curves, the Pioneer anomaly, and the Hubble acceleration. We find good agreement with Newton’s second law at accelerations as small as 5×10-14m/s2.

  2. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  3. Elementary Particles and Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigg, Chris

    1985-01-01

    Discusses subatomic particles (quarks, leptons, and others) revealed by higher accelerator energies. A connection between forces at this subatomic level has been established, and prospects are good for a description of forces that encompass binding atomic nuclei. Colors, fundamental interactions, screening, camouflage, electroweak symmetry, and…

  4. ACCELERATION INTEGRATING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Wilkes, D.F.

    1961-08-29

    An acceleration responsive device is described. A housing has at one end normally open electrical contacts and contains a piston system with a first part of non-magnetic material having metering orifices in the side walls for forming an air bearing between it and the walls of the housing; this first piston part is normally held against the other end of the housing from the noted contacts by a second piston or reset part. The reset part is of partly magnetic material, is separable from the flrst piston part, and is positioned within the housing intermediate the contacts and the first piston part. A magnet carried by the housing imposes a retaining force upon the reset part, along with a helical compression spring that is between the reset part and the end with the contacts. When a predetermined acceleration level is attained, the reset part overcomes the bias or retaining force provided by the magnet and the spring'' snaps'' into a depression in the housing adjacent the contacts. The first piston part is then free to move toward the contacts with its movement responsive tc acceleration forces and the metering orifices. (AEC)

  5. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  6. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  7. ION ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Bell, J.S.

    1959-09-15

    An arrangement for the drift tubes in a linear accelerator is described whereby each drift tube acts to shield the particles from the influence of the accelerating field and focuses the particles passing through the tube. In one embodiment the drift tube is splii longitudinally into quadrants supported along the axis of the accelerator by webs from a yoke, the quadrants. webs, and yoke being of magnetic material. A magnetic focusing action is produced by energizing a winding on each web to set up a magnetic field between adjacent quadrants. In the other embodiment the quadrants are electrically insulated from each other and have opposite polarity voltages on adjacent quadrants to provide an electric focusing fleld for the particles, with the quadrants spaced sufficienily close enough to shield the particles within the tube from the accelerating electric field.

  8. Wilson polynomials and the Lorentz transformation properties of the parity operator

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Wang Qinghai

    2005-05-01

    The parity operator for a parity-symmetric quantum field theory transforms as an infinite sum of irreducible representations of the homogeneous Lorentz group. These representations are connected with Wilson polynomials.

  9. Testing Lorentz invariance using an odd-parity asymmetric optical resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Baynes, Fred N.; Luiten, Andre N.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2011-10-15

    We present the first experimental test of Lorentz invariance using the frequency difference between counter-propagating modes in an asymmetric odd-parity optical resonator. This type of test is {approx}10{sup 4} more sensitive to odd-parity and isotropic (scalar) violations of Lorentz invariance than equivalent conventional even-parity experiments due to the asymmetry of the optical resonator. The disadvantages of odd-parity resonators have been negated by the use of counter-propagating modes, delivering a high level of immunity to environmental fluctuations. With a nonrotating experiment our result limits the isotropic Lorentz violating parameter {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} to 3.4{+-}6.2x10{sup -9}, the best reported constraint from direct measurements. Using this technique the bounds on odd-parity and scalar violations of Lorentz invariance can be improved by many orders of magnitude.

  10. Two-pion exchange NN potential from Lorentz-invariant $\\chi$EFT

    SciTech Connect

    Higa, Renato; Robilotta, Manoel; da Rocha, Carlos A

    2006-10-12

    We outline the progress made in the past five years by the Sao Paulo group in the development of a two-pion exchange nucleon-nucleon potential within a Lorentz-invariant framework of (baryon) chiral perturbation theory.

  11. Testing Lorentz Invariance with Laser-Cooled Cesium Atomic Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klipstein, William M.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Lorentz invariance testing during the proposed PARCS experiment. It includes information on the primary atomic reference clock in space (PARCS), cesium, laser cooling, and the vision for the future.

  12. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  13. Observation of flux-creep in direction opposite to the Lorentz force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawh, R.-P.; Weinstein, R.; Carpenter, K.; Parks, D.; Davey, K.

    2017-04-01

    The conclusion that free fluxoids move in the direction of \\mathop{{\\boldsymbol{F}}}\\limits \\rightharpoonup ={\\mathop{J}\\limits \\rightharpoonup }{{c}}× \\mathop{{\\boldsymbol{B}}}\\limits \\rightharpoonup is broadly accepted. For certain spatial distributions of flux in HTS bulks, this requires free fluxoids to collect at the center of the bulk. Here, we report experiments in which such spatial distributions are created by means of zero-field-cool partial magnetization of the bulk, and the temporal changes in flux are measured. We report that the direction of the flux creep is observed to be opposite to \\mathop{{\\boldsymbol{F}}}\\limits \\rightharpoonup ={\\mathop{J}\\limits \\rightharpoonup }{{c}}× \\mathop{{\\boldsymbol{B}}.}\\limits \\rightharpoonup

  14. Joulean Heating and Lorentz Force Effects on Gaseous Detonation Flow Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1966-09-01

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1964) Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Science at the...Massachusetts Institute of Technology September, 1966 Signature of Author . . . . Department of Mechanical Engineering September 12, 1966 Certified by Thesis...AND ADDRESS(ES) Massachusetts Institute of Technology ,77 Massachusetts Avenue,Cambridge,MA,02139 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9

  15. Lyapunov Exponents and Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy for the Lorentz Gas at Low Densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beijeren, Henk; Dorfman, J. R.

    1995-05-01

    The Lyapunov exponents and the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy for a two-dimensional Lorentz gas at low densities are defined for general nonequilibrium states and calculated with the use of a Lorentz-Boltzmann type equation. In equilibrium the density dependence of these quantities, predicted by Krylov, is recovered and explicit expressions are obtained. The relationship between KS entropy, Lyapunov exponents, and diffusion coefficients, developed by Gaspard and Nicolis, is generalized to a wide class of nonequilibrium states.

  16. New parametrization of lorentz transformations and tachyonic motion in special theory of relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Kapuscik, E.

    2011-06-15

    Assuming the existence of an invariant velocity a slightly generalized form of Lorentz transformations is derived. The group of these transformations has a simpler composition law than the group of standard Lorentz transformations has. It is shown that this new form allows the description of both subluminal and superluminal motions. It also allows to find all velocity-dependent tensors. In particular, the tachyonic momentum as a function of superluminal velocity is derived.

  17. Radiatively induced Lorentz-violating operator of mass dimension five in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Mariz, T.

    2011-02-15

    The first higher derivative term of the photon sector of Lorentz-violating QED, with an operator of mass dimension d=5, is radiatively induced from the fermion sector, which contains a derivative term with the dimensionless coefficient g{sup {lambda}{mu}{nu}}. The calculation is performed perturbatively in the coefficient for Lorentz violation, and, due to the fact that the contributions are quadratically divergent, we adopt dimensional regularization.

  18. Computer simulation of some dynamical properties of the Lorentz gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joslin, C. G.; Egelstaff, P. A.

    1989-07-01

    We carried out molecular dynamics simulations of a Lorentz gas, consisting of a lone hydrogen molecule moving in a sea of stationary argon atoms. A Lennard-Jones form was assumed for the H2-Ar potential. The calculations were performed at a reduced temperature K * = kT/ɛH 2-Ar = 4.64 and at reduced densities ρ *= ρ Arσ{Ar/3} in the range 0.074-0.414. The placement of Ar atoms was assumed to be random rather than dictated by equilibrium considerations. We followed the trajectories of many H2 molecules, each of which is assigned in turn a velocity given by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution at the temperature of the simulation. Solving the equations of motion classically, we obtained the translational part of the incoherent dynamic structure factor for the H2 molecule, S tr( q, ω). This was convoluted with the rotational structure factor S rot( q, ω) calculated assuming unhindered rotation to obtain the total structure factor S( q, ω). Our results agree well with experimental data on this function obtained by Egelstaff et al. At the highest density ( ρ *=0.414) we studied the dependence of S( q, ω) on system size (number of Ar atoms), number of H2 molecules for which trajectories are generated, and the length of time over which these trajectories are followed.

  19. Dynamic-structure-factor measurements on a model Lorentz gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egelstaff, P. A.; Eder, O. J.; Glaser, W.; Polo, J.; Renker, B.; Soper, A. K.

    1990-02-01

    A model system for the Lorentz gas can be made [Eder, Chen, and Egelstaff, Proc. Phys. Soc. London 89, 833 (1966); McPherson and Egelstaff, Can. J. Phys. 58, 289 (1980)] by mixing small quantities of hydrogen with an argon host. For neutron-scattering experiments the large H-to-Ar cross section ratio (~200) makes the argon relatively invisible. Dynamic-structure-factor [S(Q,ω) for H2] measurements at room temperature have been made on this system using the IN4 spectrometer at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, France. Argon densities between 1.9 and 10.5 atoms/nm3 were used for 0.4

  20. Effective photon mass by Super and Lorentz symmetry breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Luca; dos Santos Filho, Luís R.; Helayël-Neto, José A.; Spallicci, Alessandro D. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    In the context of Standard Model Extensions (SMEs), we analyse four general classes of Super Symmetry (SuSy) and Lorentz Symmetry (LoSy) breaking, leading to observable imprints at our energy scales. The photon dispersion relations show a non-Maxwellian behaviour for the CPT (Charge-Parity-Time reversal symmetry) odd and even sectors. The group velocities exhibit also a directional dependence with respect to the breaking background vector (odd CPT) or tensor (even CPT). In the former sector, the group velocity may decay following an inverse squared frequency behaviour. Thus, we extract a massive Carroll-Field-Jackiw photon term in the Lagrangian and show that the effective mass is proportional to the breaking vector and moderately dependent on the direction of observation. The breaking vector absolute value is estimated by ground measurements and leads to a photon mass upper limit of 10-19 eV or 2 ×10-55 kg, and thereby to a potentially measurable delay at low radio frequencies.

  1. Completing Lorentz violating massive gravity at high energies

    SciTech Connect

    Blas, D.; Sibiryakov, S.

    2015-03-15

    Theories with massive gravitons are interesting for a variety of physical applications, ranging from cosmological phenomena to holographic modeling of condensed matter systems. To date, they have been formulated as effective field theories with a cutoff proportional to a positive power of the graviton mass m{sub g} and much smaller than that of the massless theory (M{sub P} ≈ 10{sup 19} GeV in the case of general relativity). In this paper, we present an ultraviolet completion for massive gravity valid up to a high energy scale independent of the graviton mass. The construction is based on the existence of a preferred time foliation combined with spontaneous condensation of vector fields. The perturbations of these fields are massive and below their mass, the theory reduces to a model of Lorentz violating massive gravity. The latter theory possesses instantaneous modes whose consistent quantization we discuss in detail. We briefly study some modifications to gravitational phenomenology at low-energies. The homogeneous cosmological solutions are the same as in the standard cosmology. The gravitational potential of point sources agrees with the Newtonian one at distances small with respect to m{sub g}{sup −1}. Interestingly, it becomes repulsive at larger distances.

  2. A test of local Lorentz invariance with Compton scattering asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanmurthy, Prajwal; Narayan, Amrendra; Dutta, Dipangkar

    2016-11-01

    We report on a measurement of the constancy and anisotropy of the speed of light relative to the electrons in photon-electron scattering. We used the Compton scattering asymmetry measured by the new Compton polarimeter in Hall C at Jefferson Lab (JLab) to test for deviations from unity of the vacuum refractive index (n). For photon energies in the range of 9-46 MeV, we obtain a new limit of 1 - n < 1.4 × 10-8. In addition, the absence of sidereal variation over the six-month period of the measurement constrains any anisotropies in the speed of light. These constitute the first study of Lorentz invariance (LI) using Compton asymmetry. Within the minimal Standard Model extension (MSME) framework, our result yield limits on the photon and electron coefficients κ˜0+Y Z, cTX, κ˜0+ZX and cTY. Although these limits are several orders of magnitude larger than the current best limits, they demonstrate the feasibility of using Compton asymmetry for tests of LI. Future parity-violating electron-scattering experiments at JLab will use higher energy electrons enabling better constraints.

  3. Direct terrestrial test of Lorentz symmetry in electrodynamics to 10−18

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Moritz; Parker, Stephen R.; Kovalchuk, Evgeny V.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Hartnett, John G.; Ivanov, Eugene N.; Peters, Achim; Tobar, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Lorentz symmetry is a foundational property of modern physics, underlying the standard model of particles and general relativity. It is anticipated that these two theories are low-energy approximations of a single theory that is unified and consistent at the Planck scale. Many unifying proposals allow Lorentz symmetry to be broken, with observable effects appearing at Planck-suppressed levels; thus, precision tests of Lorentz invariance are needed to assess and guide theoretical efforts. Here we use ultrastable oscillator frequency sources to perform a modern Michelson–Morley experiment and make the most precise direct terrestrial test to date of Lorentz symmetry for the photon, constraining Lorentz violating orientation-dependent relative frequency changes Δν/ν to 9.2±10.7 × 10−19 (95% confidence interval). This order of magnitude improvement over previous Michelson–Morley experiments allows us to set comprehensive simultaneous bounds on nine boost and rotation anisotropies of the speed of light, finding no significant violations of Lorentz symmetry. PMID:26323989

  4. Direct terrestrial test of Lorentz symmetry in electrodynamics to 10(-18).

    PubMed

    Nagel, Moritz; Parker, Stephen R; Kovalchuk, Evgeny V; Stanwix, Paul L; Hartnett, John G; Ivanov, Eugene N; Peters, Achim; Tobar, Michael E

    2015-09-01

    Lorentz symmetry is a foundational property of modern physics, underlying the standard model of particles and general relativity. It is anticipated that these two theories are low-energy approximations of a single theory that is unified and consistent at the Planck scale. Many unifying proposals allow Lorentz symmetry to be broken, with observable effects appearing at Planck-suppressed levels; thus, precision tests of Lorentz invariance are needed to assess and guide theoretical efforts. Here we use ultrastable oscillator frequency sources to perform a modern Michelson-Morley experiment and make the most precise direct terrestrial test to date of Lorentz symmetry for the photon, constraining Lorentz violating orientation-dependent relative frequency changes Δν/ν to 9.2±10.7 × 10(-19) (95% confidence interval). This order of magnitude improvement over previous Michelson-Morley experiments allows us to set comprehensive simultaneous bounds on nine boost and rotation anisotropies of the speed of light, finding no significant violations of Lorentz symmetry.

  5. Direct terrestrial test of Lorentz symmetry in electrodynamics to 10-18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagel, Moritz; Parker, Stephen R.; Kovalchuk, Evgeny V.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Hartnett, John G.; Ivanov, Eugene N.; Peters, Achim; Tobar, Michael E.

    2015-09-01

    Lorentz symmetry is a foundational property of modern physics, underlying the standard model of particles and general relativity. It is anticipated that these two theories are low-energy approximations of a single theory that is unified and consistent at the Planck scale. Many unifying proposals allow Lorentz symmetry to be broken, with observable effects appearing at Planck-suppressed levels; thus, precision tests of Lorentz invariance are needed to assess and guide theoretical efforts. Here we use ultrastable oscillator frequency sources to perform a modern Michelson-Morley experiment and make the most precise direct terrestrial test to date of Lorentz symmetry for the photon, constraining Lorentz violating orientation-dependent relative frequency changes Δν/ν to 9.2+/-10.7 × 10-19 (95% confidence interval). This order of magnitude improvement over previous Michelson-Morley experiments allows us to set comprehensive simultaneous bounds on nine boost and rotation anisotropies of the speed of light, finding no significant violations of Lorentz symmetry.

  6. Potential Application of Magnetohydrodynamic Acceleration to Hypersonic Environmental Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-08-01

    plasma dynamics and electrodynamics that are unique and demand multidimensional consideration to be fully understood. 4.5.1 The MHD Flow Field The flow... electrodynamics . This coupling is through the presence of the Lorentz body force term (J x B) in the momentum equation and the MHD power term (J - E) in...Eqs. (16) through (22). These equations describe both the gas dynamics and electrodynamics for a steady process subject to standard approximations

  7. THE ACCELERATING JET OF 3C 279

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, S. D.; Fromm, C. M.; Ros, E.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the proper motions of the subparsec scale jet of the quasar 3C 279 at 15 GHz with the Very Long Baseline Array shows significant accelerations in four of nine superluminal features. Analysis of these motions is combined with the analysis of flux density light curves to constrain values of Lorentz factor and viewing angle (and their derivatives) for each component. The data for each of these components are consistent with significant changes to the Lorentz factor, viewing angle, and azimuthal angle, suggesting jet bending with changes in speed. We see that for these observed components Lorentz factors are in the range {Gamma} = 10-41, viewing angles are in the range thetav = 0. Degree-Sign 1-5. Degree-Sign 0, and intrinsic (source frame) flux density is in the range, F{sub {nu},int} 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}-1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Jy. Considering individual components, the Lorentz factors vary from {Gamma} = 11-16 for C1, {Gamma} = 31-41 for C5, {Gamma} = 29-41 for C6, and {Gamma} = 9-12 for C8, indicating that there is no single underlying flow speed to the jet and likely we are seeing pattern speeds from shocks in the jet. The viewing angles vary in time from 0. Degree-Sign 6 to 1. Degree-Sign 5 in the case of C1 (the least extreme example), from 0. Degree-Sign 5 to 5. Degree-Sign 0 in the case of C8, and from 0. Degree-Sign 1 to 0. Degree-Sign 9 for C5 (the last two being the most extreme examples). The intrinsic flux density varies by factors from 1.4 for C8 and 430 for C5. Theoretical analysis of the accelerations also indicates potential jet bending. In addition, for one component, C5, polarization measurements also set limits to the trajectory of the jet.

  8. Thrust Stand Measurements of the Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Emsellem, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma thrusters [1-3] are spacecraft propulsion devices in which electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil. This type of pulsed thruster is electrodeless, with a time-varying current in the coil interacting with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current. Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10-100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, pulsed inductive plasma thrusters require high pulse energies to inductively ionize propellant. The Microwave Assisted Dis- charge Inductive Plasma Accelerator (MAD-IPA), shown in Fig. 1, is a pulsed inductive plasma thruster that addressees this issue by partially ionizing propellant inside a conical inductive coil before the main current pulse via an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge. The ECR plasma is produced using microwaves and a static magnetic field from a set of permanent magnets arranged to create a thin resonance region along the inner surface of the coil, restricting plasma formation, and in turn current sheet formation, to a region where the magnetic coupling between the plasma and the theta-pinch coil is high. The use of a conical theta-pinch coil also serves to provide neutral propellant containment and plasma plume focusing that is improved relative to the more common planar geometry of the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT) [1, 2]. In this paper, we describe thrust stand measurements performed to characterize the performance (specific impulse, thrust efficiency) of the MAD-IPA thruster. Impulse data are obtained at various pulse energies, mass flow rates and inductive coil geometries. Dependencies on these experimental parameters are discussed in the context of the current sheet formation and electromagnetic plasma

  9. Computational studies and optimization of wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Tsung, Frank S.; Bruhwiler, David L.; Cary, John R.; Esarey, Eric H.; Mori, Warren B.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Martins, Samuel F.; Katsouleas, Tom; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Fawley, William M.; Huang, Chengkun; Wang, Xiadong; Cowan, Ben; Decyk, Victor K.; Fonseca, Ricardo A.; Lu, Wei; Messmer, Peter; Mullowney, Paul; Nakamura, Kei; Paul, Kevin; Plateau, Guillaume R.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Silva, Luis O.; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, C.G.R.; Tzoufras, Michael; Antonsen, Tom; Vieira, Jorge; Leemans, Wim P.

    2008-06-16

    Laser- and particle beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerators produce accelerating fields thousands of times higher than radio-frequency accelerators, offering compactness and ultrafast bunches to extend the frontiers of high energy physics and to enable laboratory-scale radiation sources. Large-scale kinetic simulations provide essential understanding of accelerator physics to advance beam performance and stability and show and predict the physics behind recent demonstration of narrow energy spread bunches. Benchmarking between codes is establishing validity of the models used and, by testing new reduced models, is extending the reach of simulations to cover upcoming meter-scale multi-GeV experiments. This includes new models that exploit Lorentz boosted simulation frames to speed calculations. Simulations of experiments showed that recently demonstrated plasma gradient injection of electrons can be used as an injector to increase beam quality by orders of magnitude. Simulations are now also modeling accelerator stages of tens of GeV, staging of modules, and new positron sources to design next-generation experiments and to use in applications in high energy physics and light sources.

  10. Acceleration Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work to support the NASA MSFC Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP) was performed. Four tasks (analysis development, analysis research, analysis documentation, and acceleration analysis) were addressed by parallel projects. Work concentrated on preparation for and implementation of near real-time SAMS data analysis during the USMP-1 mission. User support documents and case specific software documentation and tutorials were developed. Information and results were presented to microgravity users. ACAP computer facilities need to be fully implemented and networked, data resources must be cataloged and accessible, future microgravity missions must be coordinated, and continued Orbiter characterization is necessary.

  11. A Flux-Rope Scaling of CME and Prominence Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marque, C.; Chen, J.; Vourlidas, A.; Krall, J.; Schuck, P.

    2005-12-01

    It has been known that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and eruptive prominences (EPs) are closely associated with each other. A major question concerning CMEs and EPS is the magnetic geometry that underlies the eruptive plasma structures. It is now well established that many CMEs can be explained as erupting magnetic flux ropes. However, the coronal magnetic field cannot be directly measured at this time, and therefore the flux rope hypothesis has not been confirmed by magnetic field data. A second unresolved question is the structural relationship between the closely associated CMEs and EPs. Recently, it was theoretically found [1] that the height at which a CME or an EP attains maximum acceleration scales with the footpoint separation distance (S_f) of the underlying magnetic flux rope. This scaling law is characteristic of an erupting flux rope and is universal in that it depends only the flux rope geometry and the Lorentz force acting on the structure. It was shown to be well satisfied based on comparison with a small number of CMEs and EPs, indicating that the erupting structures in these events were initially flux ropes or evolved into flux ropes early enough. In the present paper, we present results of a study using a larger sample of events. In this study, we have analyzed CME events detected by LASCO, for which footpoints are determined by observational proxies such as magnetic neutral line length, and EPs seen in Hα and radio data, for which footpoint locations are observable. We find that CMEs and EPs in this large sample also satisfy the flux-rope scaling law. The results are consistent with the model structure with the bright CME rim at Z+2a and the prominence at Z-a, where Z is the height of the centroid and a is the minor radius of the flux rope, both defined at the apex of the flux rope. 1. Chen, J. and J. Krall, JGR, 108 (A11), 2003

  12. Conditions for Lorentz-invariant superluminal information transfer without signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grössing, G.; Fussy, S.; Mesa Pascasio, J.; Schwabl, H.

    2016-03-01

    We understand emergent quantum mechanics in the sense that quantum mechanics describes processes of physical emergence relating an assumed sub-quantum physics to macroscopic boundary conditions. The latter can be shown to entail top-down causation, in addition to usual bottom-up scenarios. With this example it is demonstrated that definitions of “realism” in the literature are simply too restrictive. A prevailing manner to define realism in quantum mechanics is in terms of pre-determination independent of the measurement. With our counter-example, which actually is ubiquitous in emergent, or self-organizing, systems, we argue for realism without pre-determination. We refer to earlier results of our group showing how the guiding equation of the de Broglie-Bohm interpretation can be derived from a theory with classical ingredients only. Essentially, this corresponds to a “quantum mechanics without wave functions” in ordinary 3-space, albeit with nonlocal correlations. This, then, leads to the central question of how to deal with the nonlocality problem in a relativistic setting. We here show that a basic argument discussing the allegedly paradox time ordering of events in EPR-type two-particle experiments falls short of taking into account the contextuality of the experimental setup. Consequently, we then discuss under which circumstances (i.e. physical premises) superluminal information transfer (but not signaling) may be compatible with a Lorentz-invariant theory. Finally, we argue that the impossibility of superluminal signaling - despite the presence of superluminal information transfer - is not the result of some sort of conspiracy (á la “Nature likes to hide”), but the consequence of the impossibility to exactly reproduce in repeated experimental runs a state's preparation, or of the no-cloning theorem, respectively.

  13. Direct measurement of Lorentz transformation with Doppler effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    , r is the unit vector from lamphouse point to counters. Or: L (0) L (pi) =L0 (1+(v/c)) L0 (1 - (v/c)) =L0 2 y2 =L2 Or: L ≡ [L(0)L(pi)]1/2 =L0 y , which y ≡ (1 - (v/c)2 )1/2 is just Fitzgerald-Lorentzian contraction-factor. Also, when a light-wave period p is defined as time unit, from Doppler's frequency-shift the count N with p of one period T of moving-clock is: T(q) = N(q) p = T0 /(1+(v/c) cos q) Or: T ≡ (T(0) T(pi))1/2 = T 0 /y , where T0 is the proper period when v = 0, which is just the moving-clock-slower effect. Let r from clock point to lamp-house ((v/c) symbol reverse), Doppler formula in the usual form is: f (q) = 1/T(q) = f0 (1 - (v/c) cos q). Therefore, Lorentz transformation is the square root average of positive and negative directions twice metrical results of Doppler's frequency-shift, which Doppler's once items ( positive and negative v/c ) are counteract only residual twice item (v/c)2 (relativity-factor). Then Lorentz transformation can be directly measured by Doppler's frequency-shift method. The half-life of moving mu-meson is statistical average of many particles, the usual explanation using relativity-factor y is correct. An airship moving simultaneously along contrary directions is impossible, which makes that the relativity-factor y and the twin-paradox are inexistent in the macroscopical movement. Thereby, in the navigations of airship or satellite only use the measurement of Doppler's frequency-shift but have no use for Lorentz transformation.

  14. Transverse optical forces for manipulating nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharov, Alexander A.; Zharov, Alexander A.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Zharova, Nina A.

    2016-12-01

    We study optical forces acting on a subwavelength particle with anisotropic polarizability and discover an optomechanical effect that resembles the Hall effect for electrons. While in the classical Hall effect the transverse Lorentz force and the transverse voltage appear due to the static magnetic field which induces the nondiagonal components of the electric conductivity tensor; in our case the imaginary parts of the nondiagonal elements of the polarizability tensor are responsible for the transverse scattering force. We calculate this force for the examples of the ellipsoidal plasmonic nanoparticles and the spherical particle with gyromagnetic properties, and show that the transverse force depends on the physical origin of the anisotropy of the polarizability, and on the electromagnetic wave structure around the particle. Moreover, this force primarily occurs in the inhomogeneous field only.

  15. Current-induced forces: a simple derivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorov, Tchavdar N.; Dundas, Daniel; Lü, Jing-Tao; Brandbyge, Mads; Hedegård, Per

    2014-11-01

    We revisit the problem of forces on atoms under current in nanoscale conductors. We derive and discuss the five principal kinds of force under steady-state conditions from a simple standpoint that—with the help of background literature—should be accessible to physics undergraduates. The discussion aims at combining methodology with an emphasis on the underlying physics through examples. We discuss and compare two forces present only under current—the non-conservative electron wind force and a Lorentz-like velocity-dependent force. It is shown that in metallic nanowires both display significant features at the wire surface, making it a candidate for the nucleation of current-driven structural transformations and failure. Finally we discuss the problem of force noise and the limitations of Ehrenfest dynamics.

  16. Particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlahos, L.; Machado, M. E.; Ramaty, R.; Murphy, R. J.; Alissandrakis, C.; Bai, T.; Batchelor, D.; Benz, A. O.; Chupp, E.; Ellison, D.

    1986-01-01

    Data is compiled from Solar Maximum Mission and Hinothori satellites, particle detectors in several satellites, ground based instruments, and balloon flights in order to answer fundamental questions relating to: (1) the requirements for the coronal magnetic field structure in the vicinity of the energization source; (2) the height (above the photosphere) of the energization source; (3) the time of energization; (4) transistion between coronal heating and flares; (5) evidence for purely thermal, purely nonthermal and hybrid type flares; (6) the time characteristics of the energization source; (7) whether every flare accelerates protons; (8) the location of the interaction site of the ions and relativistic electrons; (9) the energy spectra for ions and relativistic electrons; (10) the relationship between particles at the Sun and interplanetary space; (11) evidence for more than one acceleration mechanism; (12) whether there is single mechanism that will accelerate particles to all energies and also heat the plasma; and (13) how fast the existing mechanisms accelerate electrons up to several MeV and ions to 1 GeV.

  17. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  18. Accelerated Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the accelerated associate degree program at Ivy Tech Community College (Indiana) in which low-income students will receive an associate degree in one year. The three-year pilot program is funded by a $2.3 million grant from the Lumina Foundation for Education in Indianapolis and a $270,000 grant from the Indiana Commission…

  19. ACCELERATION INTEGRATOR

    DOEpatents

    Pope, K.E.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to an improved acceleration integrator and more particularly to apparatus of this nature which is gyrostabilized. The device may be used to sense the attainment by an airborne vehicle of a predetermined velocitv or distance along a given vector path. In its broad aspects, the acceleration integrator utilizes a magnetized element rotatable driven by a synchronous motor and having a cylin drical flux gap and a restrained eddy- current drag cap deposed to move into the gap. The angular velocity imparted to the rotatable cap shaft is transmitted in a positive manner to the magnetized element through a servo feedback loop. The resultant angular velocity of tae cap is proportional to the acceleration of the housing in this manner and means may be used to measure the velocity and operate switches at a pre-set magnitude. To make the above-described dcvice sensitive to acceleration in only one direction the magnetized element forms the spinning inertia element of a free gyroscope, and the outer housing functions as a gimbal of a gyroscope.

  20. Investigation of radiative bow-shocks in magnetically accelerated plasma flows

    SciTech Connect

    Bott-Suzuki, S. C. Caballero Bendixsen, L. S.; Cordaro, S. W.; Blesener, I. C.; Hoyt, C. L.; Cahill, A. D.; Kusse, B. R.; Hammer, D. A.; Gourdain, P. A.; Seyler, C. E.; Greenly, J. B.; Chittenden, J. P.; Niasse, N.; Lebedev, S. V.; Ampleford, D. J.

    2015-05-15

    We present a study of the formation of bow shocks in radiatively cooled plasma flows. This work uses an inverse wire array to provide a quasi-uniform, large scale hydrodynamic flow accelerated by Lorentz forces to supersonic velocities. This flow impacts a stationary object placed in its path, forming a well-defined Mach cone. Interferogram data are used to determine a Mach number of ∼6, which may increase with radial position suggesting a strongly cooling flow. Self-emission imaging shows the formation of a thin (<60 μm) strongly emitting shock region, where T{sub e} ∼ 40–50 eV, and rapid cooling behind the shock. Emission is observed upstream of the shock position which appears consistent with a radiation driven phenomenon. Data are compared to 2-dimensional simulations using the Gorgon MHD code, which show good agreement with the experiments. The simulations are also used to investigate the effect of magnetic field in the target, demonstrating that the bow-shocks have a high plasma β, and the influence of B-field at the shock is small. This consistent with experimental measurement with micro bdot probes.

  1. Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology scale up using cos-theta dipole coils

    SciTech Connect

    Nobrega, F.; Andreev, N.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Chlachidze, G.; Feher, S.; Kashikhin, V.S.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Lamm, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Fermilab is working on the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets using shell-type dipole coils and the wind-and-react method. As a part of the first phase of technology development, Fermilab built and tested six 1 m long dipole model magnets and several dipole mirror configurations. The last three dipoles and two mirrors reached their design fields of 10-11 T. The technology scale up phase has started by building 2 m and 4 m dipole coils and testing them in a mirror configuration in which one of the two coils is replaced by a half-cylinder made of low carbon steel. This approach allows for shorter fabrication times and extensive instrumentation preserving almost the same level of magnetic field and Lorentz forces in the coils as in a complete dipole model magnet. This paper presents details on the 2 m (HFDM07) and 4 m long (HFDM08) Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole mirror magnet design and fabrication technology, as well as the magnet test results which are compared with 1 m long models.

  2. Lorentz-Lorenz coefficient, critical point constants, and coexistence curve of 1,1-difluoroethylene.

    PubMed

    Fameli, Nicola; Balzarini, David A

    2005-11-01

    We report measurements of the Lorentz-Lorenz coefficient density dependence L(rho), the critical temperature Tc, and the critical density rho c of the fluid 1,1-difluoroethylene H2C2F2. Lorentz-Lorenz coefficient data were obtained by measuring refractive index n, and density rho of the same fluid sample independently of one another. Accurate determination of the Lorentz-Lorenz coefficient is necessary for the transformation of refractive index data into density data from optics-based experiments on critical phenomena of fluid systems done with different apparatuses, with which independent measurement of n and rho is not possible. Measurements were made along the coexistence curve of the fluid and span the density range 0.01 to 0.80 g cm(-3). The Lorentz-Lorenz coefficient results show a stronger density dependence along the coexistence curve than previously observed in other fluids, with a monotonic decrease from a density of about onward, and an overall variation of about 2.5% in the density range studied. No anomaly in the Lorentz-Lorenz function was observed near the critical density. The critical temperature is measured at Tc=(302.964+/-0.002) K (29.814 degrees C) and the measured critical density is rho c=(0.4195+/-0.0018) g cm(-3).

  3. Beam propagation factors and kurtosis parameters of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guoquan

    2014-06-01

    Based on the second-order and the higher-order moments, analytical expressions for the beam propagation factors of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam with l=1 have been derived, and analytical propagation expressions for the kurtosis parameters of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam with l=1 through a paraxial and real ABCD optical system have also been presented. The M² factor is determined by the parameters a and b and decreases with increasing the parameter a or b. The M² factor is validated to be larger than 2. The kurtosis parameters depend on the diffraction-free ranges of the Lorentz part, the parameters a and b, and the ratio A/B. The kurtosis parameters of a Lorentz-Gauss vortex beam propagating in free space are demonstrated in different reference planes. In the far field, the kurtosis parameter K decreases with increasing one of the parameters a and b. Upon propagation, the kurtosis parameter K first decreases, then increases, and finally tends to a saturated value. In any case, the kurtosis parameter K is larger than 2. This research is beneficial to optical trapping, guiding, and manipulation of microscopic particles and atoms using Lorentz-Gauss vortex beams.

  4. Nonparaxial propagation of Lorentz-Gauss beams in uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xun; Liu, Zhirong; Zhao, Daomu

    2014-04-01

    Analytical expressions for the three components of nonparaxial propagation of a polarized Lorentz-Gauss beam in uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis are derived and used to investigate its propagation properties in uniaxial crystal. The influences of the initial beam parameters and the parameters of the uniaxial crystal on the evolution of the beam-intensity distribution in the uniaxial crystal are examined in detail. Results show that the statistical properties of a nonparaxial Lorentz-Gauss beam in a uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis are closely determined by the initial beam's parameters and the parameters of the crystal: the beam waist sizes-w(0), w(0x), and w(0y)-not only affect the size and shape of the beam profile in uniaxial crystal but also determine the nonparaxial effect of a Lorentz-Gauss beam; the beam profile of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in uniaxial crystal is elongated in the x or y direction, which is determined by the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index; with increasing deviation of the ratio from unity, the extension of the beam profile augments. The results indicate that uniaxial crystal provides an effective and convenient method for modulating the Lorentz-Gauss beams. Our results may be valuable in some fields, such as optical trapping and nonlinear optics, where a light beam with a special profile and polarization is required.

  5. White matter shifts in MRI: Rehabilitating the Lorentz sphere in magnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbara, Thomas M.

    2016-09-01

    A thorough exposition and analysis of the role of the Lorentz sphere in magnetic resonance is presented from the fundamental standpoint of macroscopic magnetostatics. The analysis will be useful to those interested in understanding susceptibility and chemical shift contributions to frequency shifts in magnetic resonance. Though the topic is mature, recent research on white matter shifts in the brain promotes the notion of replacing the Lorentz sphere with a generalized Lorentzian cylinder, and has put into question the long standing spherical approach when elongated structures are present. The cavity shape issue can be resolved by applying Helmholtz's theorem, which can be expressed in a differential and an integral formulation. The general validity of the Lorentz sphere for any situation is confirmed. Furthermore, a clear exposition of the "generalized approach" is offered, using the language of Lorentz's theory. With the rehabilitation of the Lorentz sphere settled, one must consider alternative contributions to white matter shifts and a likely candidate is the effect of molecular environment on chemical shifts.

  6. Cosmological constraints on deviations from Lorentz invariance in gravity and dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Audren, B.; Lesgourgues, J.; Sibiryakov, S.; Ivanov, M.M. E-mail: diego.blas@cern.ch E-mail: Julien.Lesgourgues@cern.ch

    2015-03-01

    We consider a scenario where local Lorentz invariance is violated by the existence of a preferred time direction at every space-time point. This scenario can arise in the context of quantum gravity and its description at low energies contains a unit time-like vector field which parameterizes the preferred direction. The particle physics tests of Lorentz invariance preclude a direct coupling of this vector to the fields of the Standard Model, but do not bear implications for dark matter. We discuss how the presence of this vector and its possible coupling to dark matter affect the evolution of the Universe. At the level of homogeneous cosmology the only effect of Lorentz invariance violation is a rescaling of the expansion rate. The physics is richer at the level of perturbations. We identify three effects crucial for observations: the rescaling of the matter contribution to the Poisson equation, the appearance of an extra contribution to the anisotropic stress and the scale-dependent enhancement of dark matter clustering. These effects result in distinctive features in the power spectra of the CMB and density fluctuations. Making use of the data from Planck and WiggleZ we obtain the most stringent cosmological constraints to date on departures from Lorentz symmetry. Our analysis provides the first direct bounds on deviations from Lorentz invariance in the dark matter sector.

  7. Eikonal approximation, Finsler structures, and implications for Lorentz-violating photons in weak gravitational fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the current article, the classical analog of the minimal photon sector in the Lorentz-violating Standard-Model extension (SME) is investigated. The analysis is based on describing a photon classically by a geometric ray that satisfies the eikonal equation. The action principle, which leads to the eikonal equation in conventional optics, is demonstrated to work in most (but not all) Lorentz-violating cases as well. Furthermore it is found that the integrands of the action functional correspond to Finsler structures. Based on these results, Lorentz-violating light rays in a weak gravitational background are treated through the use of the minimal-coupling principle. This allows for obtaining sensitivities on Lorentz violation in the photon sector by measurements of light bending at massive bodies such as the Sun. The computations are carried out for the currently running ESA mission GAIA and the planned NASA/ESA mission LATOR. Finally, a range of aspects of explicit Lorentz violation for photons is discussed in the Finsler setting.

  8. Particle Accelerators in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuang; Fang, Shouxian

    As the special machines that can accelerate charged particle beams to high energy by using electromagnetic fields, particle accelerators have been widely applied in scientific research and various areas of society. The development of particle accelerators in China started in the early 1950s. After a brief review of the history of accelerators, this article describes in the following sections: particle colliders, heavy-ion accelerators, high-intensity proton accelerators, accelerator-based light sources, pulsed power accelerators, small scale accelerators, accelerators for applications, accelerator technology development and advanced accelerator concepts. The prospects of particle accelerators in China are also presented.

  9. Analytic electrical-conductivity tensor of a nondegenerate Lorentz plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stygar, W. A.; Gerdin, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.

    2002-10-01

    We have developed explicit quantum-mechanical expressions for the conductivity and resistivity tensors of a Lorentz plasma in a magnetic field. The expressions are based on a solution to the Boltzmann equation that is exact when the electric field is weak, the electron-Fermi-degeneracy parameter Θ>>1, and the electron-ion Coulomb-coupling parameter Γ/Z<<1. (Γ is the ion-ion coupling parameter and Z is the ion charge state.) Assuming a screened 1/r electron-ion scattering potential, we calculate the Coulomb logarithm in the second Born approximation. The ratio of the term obtained in the second approximation to that obtained in the first is used to define the parameter regime over which the calculation is valid. We find that the accuracy of the approximation is determined by Γ/Z and not simply the temperature, and that a quantum-mechanical description can be required at temperatures orders of magnitude less than assumed by Spitzer [Physics of Fully Ionized Gases (Wiley, New York, 1962)]. When the magnetic field B=0, the conductivity is identical to the Spitzer result except the Coulomb logarithm ln Λ1=(ln χ1- 1/2)+[(2Ze2/λmev2e1)(ln χ1-ln 24/3)], where χ1≡2meve1λ/ħ, me is the electron mass, ve1≡(7kBT/me)1/2, kB is the Boltzmann constant, T is the temperature, λ is the screening length, ħ is Planck's constant divided by 2π, and e is the absolute value of the electron charge. When the plasma Debye length λD is greater than the ion-sphere radius a, we assume λ=λD otherwise we set λ=a. The B=0 conductivity is consistent with measurements when Z>~1, Θ>~2, and Γ/Z<~1, and in this parameter regime appears to be more accurate than previous analytic models. The minimum value of ln Λ1 when Z>=1, Θ>=2, and Γ/Z<=1 is 1.9. The expression obtained for the resistivity tensor (B≠0) predicts that η⊥/η∥ (where η⊥ and η∥ are the resistivities perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field) can be as much as 40% less than previous analytic

  10. Modified entropic force

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Changjun

    2010-04-15

    The theory of statistical thermodynamics tells us the equipartition law of energy does not hold in the limit of very low temperatures. It is found the Debye model is very successful in explaining the experimental results for most of the solid objects. Motivated by this fact, we modify the entropic force formula which is proposed very recently. Since the Unruh temperature is proportional to the strength of the gravitational field, so the modified entropic force formula is an extension of the Newtonian gravity to the weak field. On the contrary, general relativity extends Newtonian gravity to the strong field case. Corresponding to Debye temperature, there exists a Debye acceleration g{sub D}. It is found the Debye acceleration is g{sub D}=10{sup -15} N kg{sup -1}. This acceleration is very much smaller than the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -4} N kg{sup -1} which is felt by Neptune and the gravitational acceleration 10{sup -10} N kg{sup -1} felt by the Sun. Therefore, the modified entropic force can be very well approximated by the Newtonian gravity in the Solar System and in the Galaxy. With this Debye acceleration, we find the current cosmic speeding up can be explained without invoking any kind of dark energy.

  11. Compact accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2007-02-06

    A compact linear accelerator having at least one strip-shaped Blumlein module which guides a propagating wavefront between first and second ends and controls the output pulse at the second end. Each Blumlein module has first, second, and third planar conductor strips, with a first dielectric strip between the first and second conductor strips, and a second dielectric strip between the second and third conductor strips. Additionally, the compact linear accelerator includes a high voltage power supply connected to charge the second conductor strip to a high potential, and a switch for switching the high potential in the second conductor strip to at least one of the first and third conductor strips so as to initiate a propagating reverse polarity wavefront(s) in the corresponding dielectric strip(s).

  12. A variable acceleration calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas H.

    2011-12-01

    A variable acceleration calibration system that applies loads using gravitational and centripetal acceleration serves as an alternative, efficient and cost effective method for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances. Two proof-of-concept variable acceleration calibration systems are designed, fabricated and tested. The NASA UT-36 force balance served as the test balance for the calibration experiments. The variable acceleration calibration systems are shown to be capable of performing three component calibration experiments with an approximate applied load error on the order of 1% of the full scale calibration loads. Sources of error are indentified using experimental design methods and a propagation of uncertainty analysis. Three types of uncertainty are indentified for the systems and are attributed to prediction error, calibration error and pure error. Angular velocity uncertainty is shown to be the largest indentified source of prediction error. The calibration uncertainties using a production variable acceleration based system are shown to be potentially equivalent to current methods. The production quality system can be realized using lighter materials and a more precise instrumentation. Further research is needed to account for balance deflection, forcing effects due to vibration, and large tare loads. A gyroscope measurement technique is shown to be capable of resolving the balance deflection angle calculation. Long term research objectives include a demonstration of a six degree of freedom calibration, and a large capacity balance calibration.

  13. Laser acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  14. BICEP's acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Contaldi, Carlo R.

    2014-10-01

    The recent Bicep2 [1] detection of, what is claimed to be primordial B-modes, opens up the possibility of constraining not only the energy scale of inflation but also the detailed acceleration history that occurred during inflation. In turn this can be used to determine the shape of the inflaton potential V(φ) for the first time — if a single, scalar inflaton is assumed to be driving the acceleration. We carry out a Monte Carlo exploration of inflationary trajectories given the current data. Using this method we obtain a posterior distribution of possible acceleration profiles ε(N) as a function of e-fold N and derived posterior distributions of the primordial power spectrum P(k) and potential V(φ). We find that the Bicep2 result, in combination with Planck measurements of total intensity Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies, induces a significant feature in the scalar primordial spectrum at scales k∼ 10{sup -3} Mpc {sup -1}. This is in agreement with a previous detection of a suppression in the scalar power [2].

  15. High average power induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, J.C.

    1985-10-01

    The induction accelerator is discussed with respect to general background and concept, beam transport, scaling, pulse power technology, and the electron beam injector. A discussion of the factors which affect the scaling of the intensity of the beam is given. Limiting factors include collective forces in the beam, virtual cathode formation, surroundings, and beam breakup instability. 24 refs., 11 figs. (WRF)

  16. Microphonics and Lorentz Transfer Function Measurements on the SNS Cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Jean Delayen; G. Davis

    2003-09-01

    As part of the acceptance tests, we have performed a number of measurements of microphonics levels and frequency spectra on the SNS cryomodules. These measurements are particularly important since those cryomodules may be used in the high-energy section of the RIA driver, a low-current CW accelerator. Measurements of the complete transfer functions between rf field modulation and cavity resonant frequency have also been performed.

  17. Fokker-Planck analysis of the Langevin-Lorentz equation: Application to ligand-receptor binding under electromagnetic exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moggia, Elsa; Chiabrera, Alessandro; Bianco, Bruno

    1997-11-01

    The statistical properties of the solution of the Langevin-Lorentz equation are analyzed by means of the Fokker-Planck approach. The equation describes the dynamics of an ion that is attracted by a central field and is interacting with a time-varying magnetic field and with the thermal bath. If the endogenous force is assumed to be elastic, then a closed-form expression for the probability density of the process can be obtained, in the case of constant magnetic exposure and, for the time-varying case, at least asymptotically. In the general case, a numerical integration of the resulting set of differential equations with periodically time-varying coefficients has been implemented. A framework for studying the possible effects of low-frequency, low-intensity electromagnetic fields on biological systems has been developed on the basis of the equation. The model assumes that an exogenous electromagnetic field may affect the binding of a messenger attracted by the endogenous force field of its receptor protein. The results are applicable to the analysis of experiments, e.g., exposing a Petri dish, containing a biological sample, to a periodically time-varying magnetic field generated by a pair of Helmholtz coils, most widely used in the scientific literature. The proposed model provides a theoretical mean for evaluating the biological effectiveness of low-frequency, low-intensity electromagnetic exposure.

  18. Search for a Lorentz-violating sidereal signal with atmospheric neutrinos in IceCube

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube; etal, Abbasi, R,

    2010-11-11

    A search for sidereal modulation in the flux of atmospheric muon neutrinos in IceCube was performed. Such a signal could be an indication of Lorentz-violating physics. Neutrino oscillationmodels, derivable from extensions to the Standard Model, allow for neutrino oscillations that depend on the neutrino's direction of propagation. No such direction-dependent variation was found. Adiscrete Fourier transform method was used to constrain the Lorentz and CPT-violating coefficients in one of these models. Due to the unique high energy reach of IceCube, it was possible to improveconstraints on certain Lorentz-violating oscillations by three orders of magnitude with respect to limits set by other experiments.

  19. Low-energy phenomenology of scalarless standard-model extensions with high-energy Lorentz violation

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmi, Damiano; Ciuffoli, Emilio

    2011-03-01

    We consider renormalizable standard model extensions that violate Lorentz symmetry at high energies, but preserve CPT, and do not contain elementary scalar fields. A Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism gives masses to fermions and gauge bosons and generates composite Higgs fields at low energies. We study the effective potential at the leading order of the large-N{sub c} expansion, prove that there exists a broken phase, and study the phase space. In general, the minimum may break invariance under boosts, rotations, and CPT, but we give evidence that there exists a Lorentz invariant phase. We study the spectrum of composite bosons and the low-energy theory in the Lorentz phase. Our approach predicts relations among the parameters of the low-energy theory. We find that such relations are compatible with the experimental data within theoretical errors. We also study the mixing among generations, the emergence of the CKM matrix, and neutrino oscillations.

  20. Vacuum Cherenkov radiation in quantum electrodynamics with high-energy Lorentz violation

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmi, Damiano; Taiuti, Martina

    2011-03-01

    We study phenomena predicted by a renormalizable, CPT invariant extension of the standard model that contains higher-dimensional operators and violates Lorentz symmetry explicitly at energies greater than some scale {Lambda}{sub L}. In particular, we consider the Cherenkov radiation in vacuo. In a rather general class of dispersion relations, there exists an energy threshold above which radiation is emitted. The threshold is enhanced in composite particles by a sort of kinematic screening mechanism. We study the energy loss and compare the predictions of our model with known experimental bounds on Lorentz violating parameters and observations of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays. We argue that the scale of Lorentz violation {Lambda}{sub L} (with preserved CPT invariance) can be smaller than the Planck scale, actually as small as 10{sup 14}-10{sup 15} GeV. Our model also predicts the Cherenkov radiation of neutral particles.