NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, H. G.; Sotnikov, V. I.; Burke, W. J.; Huang, C. Y.
1999-10-01
Simultaneous measurements of transmitted 500 kHz electric fields and of electron fluxes nonlinearly energized by those fields were made during the ionospheric flight of the rocket double payload OEDIPUS C. Given the local plasma parameters, 500 kHz corresponded to the whistler mode of cold-plasma propagation. As the separation between each payload end increased from 153 to 537 m, enhanced electron fluxes were detected at energies up to 20 keV, at the receiver end of the tether. Rf (radio frequency) electric fields created by the OEDIPUS-C transmitter have been computed for positions close to the whistler-mode group resonance cone and also for locations very close to the active dipoles. Test-particle trajectory tracings show that linear acceleration can account for the energy increases of electrons with starting energies up to about 100 eV. Neither resonant field-particle interactions of background energetic electrons nor strong turbulence of the background thermal particles explain the creation of sounder-accelerated electrons at 1-10 keV. The calculated magnitudes of the very near potentials, up to 550 V, point to acceleration by intense fields in the rf sheath region.
Radio frequency accelerating cavity having slotted irises for damping certain electromagnetic modes
Palmer, Robert B.
1991-01-01
An accelerating cavity having one or more iris structures mounted therein for strongly damping unwanted frequencies that are generated in the cavity by bunches of particles in a particle beam that is accelerated through the cavity during its operation. Each of the iris structures is characterized by containing a plurality of radial slots therein that extend from the central aperture through the iris member to the perimeter thereof. The outer end of each of the radial slots includes an enlarged portion that is effective to prevent undesired frequencies from being reflected back into the center aperture of the iris member. Waveguide means connect the outer ends of the radial slots to frequency damping means or to a dump or dumps.
Radio frequency accelerating cavity having slotted irises for damping certain electromagnetic modes
Palmer, R.B.
1991-05-21
An accelerating cavity is disclosed having one or more iris structures mounted therein for strongly damping unwanted frequencies that are generated in the cavity by bunches of particles in a particle beam that is accelerated through the cavity during its operation. Each of the iris structures is characterized by containing a plurality of radial slots therein that extend from the central aperture through the iris member to the perimeter thereof. The outer end of each of the radial slots includes an enlarged portion that is effective to prevent undesired frequencies from being reflected back into the center aperture of the iris member. Waveguide means connect the outer ends of the radial slots to frequency damping means or to a dump or dumps. 17 figures.
Multi-Mode Cavity Accelerator Structure
Jiang, Yong; Hirshfield, Jay Leonard
2016-11-10
This project aimed to develop a prototype for a novel accelerator structure comprising coupled cavities that are tuned to support modes with harmonically-related eigenfrequencies, with the goal of reaching an acceleration gradient >200 MeV/m and a breakdown rate <10^{-7}/pulse/meter. Phase I involved computations, design, and preliminary engineering of a prototype multi-harmonic cavity accelerator structure; plus tests of a bimodal cavity. A computational procedure was used to design an optimized profile for a bimodal cavity with high shunt impedance and low surface fields to maximize the reduction in temperature rise ΔT. This cavity supports the TM010 mode and its 2nd harmonic TM011 mode. Its fundamental frequency is at 12 GHz, to benchmark against the empirical criteria proposed within the worldwide High Gradient collaboration for X-band copper structures; namely, a surface electric field E_{sur}^{max}< 260 MV/m and pulsed surface heating ΔT^{max}< 56 °K. With optimized geometry, amplitude and relative phase of the two modes, reductions are found in surface pulsed heating, modified Poynting vector, and total RF power—as compared with operation at the same acceleration gradient using only the fundamental mode.
Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity
Giordano, Salvatore
1985-01-01
A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.
Monochromatic radio frequency accelerating cavity
Giordano, S.
1984-02-09
A radio frequency resonant cavity having a fundamental resonant frequency and characterized by being free of spurious modes. A plurality of spaced electrically conductive bars are arranged in a generally cylindrical array within the cavity to define a chamber between the bars and an outer solid cylindrically shaped wall of the cavity. A first and second plurality of mode perturbing rods are mounted in two groups at determined random locations to extend radially and axially into the cavity thereby to perturb spurious modes and cause their fields to extend through passageways between the bars and into the chamber. At least one body of lossy material is disposed within the chamber to damp all spurious modes that do extend into the chamber thereby enabling the cavity to operate free of undesired spurious modes.
The Nature of Accelerating Modes in PBG Fibers
Noble, TRobert J.; /SLAC
2011-05-19
Transverse magnetic (TM) modes with phase velocities at or just below the speed of light, c, are intended to accelerate relativistic particles in hollow-core, photonic band gap (PBG) fibers. These are so-called 'surface defect modes', being lattice modes perturbed by the defect to have their frequencies shifted into the band gap, and they can have any phase velocity. PBG fibers also support so-called 'core defect modes' which are characterized as having phase velocities always greater than c and never cross the light line. In this paper we explore the nature of these two classes of accelerating modes and compare their properties.
Calculation of structural dynamic forces and stresses using mode acceleration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blelloch, Paul
1989-01-01
While the standard mode acceleration formulation in structural dynamics has often been interpreted to suggest that the reason for improved convergence obtainable is that the dynamic correction factor is divided by the modal frequencies-squared, an alternative formulation is presented which clearly indicates that the only difference between mode acceleration and mode displacement data recovery is the addition of a static correction term. Attention is given to the advantages in numerical implementation associated with this alternative, as well as to an illustrative example.
Chebyshev acceleration for lambda mode calculations
Belchior, A. Jr.; Moreira, J.M.L. )
1992-01-01
Coordenadoria para Projetos Especals (COPESP) has been making an effort to develop a power distribution mapping system utilizing self-powered neutron detectors. The scheme adopted to estimate the power distribution is based on an expansion of lambda modes for a given reactor state. Two-dimensional lambda modes were obtained previously with a modified version of the CITATION code. The method was based on the orthogonality properties of the lambda modes. Several modes could be obtained, but the convergence was slow because of the lack of an appropriate accelerating scheme in the CITATION code for calculating lambda modes. This work presents the acceleration scheme implemented into the CITATION code to obtain lambda modes.
Failure Mode Effects Analysis for an Accelerator Control System
Hartman, Steven M
2009-01-01
Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) has been used in industry for design, manufacturing and assembly process quality control. It describes a formal approach for categorizing how a process may fail and for prioritizing failures based on their severity, frequency and likelihood of detection. Experience conducting a partial FMEA of an accelerator subsystem and its related control system will be reviewed. The applicability of the FMEA process to an operational accelerator control system will be discussed.
Radio frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator
Moretti, Alfred
1985-01-01
An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.
Electron acceleration by Landau resonance with whistler mode wave packets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gurnett, D. A.; Reinleitner, L. A.
1983-01-01
Recent observations of electrostatic waves associated with whistler mode chorus emissions provide evidence that electrons are being trapped by Landau resonance interactions with the chorus. In this paper, the trapping, acceleration and escape of electrons in Landau resonance with a whistler mode wave packet are discussed. It is shown that acceleration can occur by both inhomogeneous and dispersive effects. The maximum energy gained is controlled by the points where trapping and escape occur. Large energy changes are possible if the frequency of the wave packet or the magnetic field strength increase between the trapping and escape points. Various trapping and escape mechanisms are discussed.
Multi-mode radio frequency device
Gilbert, Ronald W.; Carrender, Curtis Lee; Anderson, Gordon A.; Steele, Kerry D.
2007-02-13
A transponder device having multiple modes of operation, such as an active mode and a passive mode, wherein the modes of operation are selected in response to the strength of a received radio frequency signal. A communication system is also provided having a transceiver configured to transmit a radio frequency signal and to receive a responsive signal, and a transponder configured to operate in a plurality of modes and to activate modes of operation in response to the radio frequency signal. Ideally, each mode of operation is activated and deactivated independent of the other modes, although two or more modes may be concurrently operational.
Investigation of Superdetonative Ram Accelerator Drive Modes
1989-12-15
s) 31 atm IV 0.6 C2 H 4 -20 2 - 3.3 CO2 291 (m/s) 16 atm I IFig. 11 Velocity profile in thermally choked and superdetonative ram accelerator modes...Accelerator Concept," Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Aeronautics \\& Astronautics, University of Washington, Oct. 1989. I 22. Stull, D.R. and Prophet ...Physical Gas Dynamics, Wiley, New 3 York, 1985, Chap. VII. 2. Stull, D.R. and Prophet , H., "JANAF Thermochemical Tables, 2nd. Ed.," NSRDS- I Report 37
Design, development, and acceleration trials of radio-frequency quadrupole
Rao, S. V. L. S. Jain, Piyush; Pande, Rajni; Roy, Shweta; Mathew, Jose V.; Kumar, Rajesh; Pande, Manjiri; Krishnagopal, S.; Gupta, S. K.; Singh, P.
2014-04-15
A deuteron radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed, fabricated, and tested at BARC, which will be used for neutron generation. The RFQ operates at a frequency of 350 MHz and needs an inter-vane voltage of 44 kV to accelerate the deuteron beam to 400 keV within a length of 1.03 m. The error analysis shows that the offset of two opposite vanes in the same direction by 100 μm leads to a change in resonant frequency by 1.3 MHz and a significant change of fields in the quadrants (∼±40% with respect to average field). From the 3D analysis, we have observed that the unwanted dipole mode frequencies are very near to the quadrupole mode frequency which will make structure sensitive to the perturbations. In order to move the dipole modes away from the quadrupole modes, we have used the dipole stabilizer rods. The 5 wire transmission line theory was used to study the perturbative analysis of the RFQ and based on this a computer program has been written to tune the cavity to get required field distribution. Based on these studies, a 1.03 m long RFQ made of OFE copper has been fabricated and tested. Even though the RFQ was designed for deuteron (D{sup +}) beam, we tested it by accelerating both the proton (H{sup +}) and D{sup +} beams. The RFQ was operated in pulsed mode and accelerated both H{sup +} and D{sup +} beams to designed values of 200 and 400 keV, respectively. The measured parameters are in good agreement with the designed values validating our simulations and fabrication processes. In this paper, simulations, RF measurements, and beam commissioning results are presented.
Experiment to Detect Accelerating Modes in a Photonic Bandgap Fiber
England, R.J.; Colby, E.R.; Ischebeck, R.; McGuinness, C.M.; Noble, R.; Plettner, T.; Sears, C.M.S.; Siemann, R.H.; Spencer, J.E.; Walz, D.; /SLAC
2011-11-21
An experimental effort is currently underway at the E-163 test beamline at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center to use a hollow-core photonic bandgap (PBG) fiber as a high-gradient laser-based accelerating structure for electron bunches. For the initial stage of this experiment, a 50pC, 60 MeV electron beam will be coupled into the fiber core and the excited modes will be detected using a spectrograph to resolve their frequency signatures in the wakefield radiation generated by the beam. They will describe the experimental plan and recent simulation studies of candidate fibers.
Experiment to Detect Accelerating Modes in a Photonic Bandgap Fiber
England, R. J.; Colby, E. R.; McGuinness, C. M.; Noble, R.; Plettner, T.; Siemann, R. H.; Spencer, J. E.; Walz, D.; Ischebeck, R.; Sears, C. M. S.
2009-01-22
An experimental effort is currently underway at the E-163 test beamline at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center to use a hollow-core photonic bandgap (PBG) fiber as a high-gradient laser-based accelerating structure for electron bunches. For the initial stage of this experiment, a 50 pC, 60 MeV electron beam will be coupled into the fiber core and the excited modes will be detected using a spectrograph to resolve their frequency signatures in the wakefield radiation generated by the beam. We will describe the experimental plan and recent simulation studies of candidate fibers.
RF Breakdown in High Frequency Accelerators
Doebert, S
2004-05-27
RF breakdown in high-frequency accelerators appears to limit the maximum achievable gradient as well as the reliability of such devices. Experimental results from high power tests, obtained mostly in the framework of the NLC/GLC project at 11 GHz and from the CLIC study at 30 GHz, will be used to illustrate the important issues. The dependence of the breakdown phenomena on rf pulse length, operating frequency and fabrication material will be described. Since reliability is extremely important for large scale accelerators such as a linear collider, the measurements of breakdown rate as a function of the operating gradient will be highlighted.
Two-beam, Multi-mode Detuned Accelerating Structure
Kazakov, S. Yu.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Hirshfield, J. L.
2009-01-22
A two-beam accelerator structure is described having several novel features including all metal construction, no transfer structures required between the drive and accelerator channels, symmetric fields at the axes of each channel, RF micropulse widths on cavity irises that are less than half those for a conventional cavity at the same fundamental frequency by virtue of using several harmonically-related cavity modes, and a transformer ratio much greater than unity by the use of detuned cavities. Detuning is also shown to allow either parallel or anti-parallel directions for the drive and accelerated beams. A preliminary calculation for the dilution of emittance due to short-range wakes for drive beam parameters similar to those for CLIC shows this effect to be acceptably small.
Vacuum electron acceleration by using two variable frequency laser pulses
Saberi, H.; Maraghechi, B.
2013-12-15
A method is proposed for producing a relativistic electron bunch in vacuum via direct acceleration by using two frequency-chirped laser pulses. We consider the linearly polarized frequency-chiped Hermit-Gaussian 0, 0 mode lasers with linear chirp in which the local frequency varies linearly in time and space. Electron motion is investigated through a numerical simulation using a three-dimensional particle trajectory code in which the relativistic Newton's equations of motion with corresponding Lorentz force are solved. Two oblique laser pulses with proper chirp parameters and propagation angles are used for the electron acceleration along the z-axis. In this way, an electron initially at rest located at the origin could achieve high energy, γ=319 with the scattering angle of 1.02{sup ∘} with respect to the z-axis. Moreover, the acceleration of an electron in different initial positions on each coordinate axis is investigated. It was found that this mechanism has the capability of producing high energy electron microbunches with low scattering angles. The energy gain of an electron initially located at some regions on each axis could be greatly enhanced compared to the single pulse acceleration. Furthermore, the scattering angle will be lowered compared to the acceleration by using laser pulses propagating along the z-axis.
Jain, V.; Joshi, S. C.; Bhandarkar, U. V.; Krishnagopal, S.
2013-08-15
Resonance between circulating beam frequencies and RF cavity Higher Order Modes (HOMs) of accelerators can lead to coupled-bunch instabilities. Shifting these HOMs to avoid the resonance is a topic of active interest. A study has been carried out for the accelerating cavities of the INDUS-2. For quantitative measure of deciding which modes have to be moved and by how much, we introduce a new index called the matching index (I{sub M}), as a measure of how close a HOM is to the nearest beam mode. Depending on the value of I{sub M}, the operating scenarios are classified as safe and unsafe.
Radio frequency noise from clinical linear accelerators.
Burke, B; Lamey, M; Rathee, S; Murray, B; Fallone, B G
2009-04-21
There is a great deal of interest in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), and to advance the state of IGRT, an integrated linear accelerator-magnetic resonance (linac-MR) system has been proposed. Knowledge of the radiofrequency (RF) emissions near a linac is important for the design of appropriate RF shielding to facilitate the successful integration of these two devices. The frequency spectra of both electric and magnetic fields of RF emission are measured using commercially available measurement probes near the treatment couch in three clinical linac vaults with distinct physical layouts. The magnitude spectrum of the RF power emitted from these three linacs is then estimated. The electric field spectrum was also measured at several distances from the linac modulator in order to assess the effects of variations in spatial location in the treatment vault. A large fraction of RF power is emitted at frequencies below 5 MHz. However, the measured RF power at the Larmor frequency (8.5 MHz) of the proposed 0.2 T MR in the linac-MR (0.4-14.6 microW m(-2)) is still large enough to cause artifacts in MR images. Magnetron-based linacs generally emit much larger RF power than klystron-based linacs. In the frequency range of 1-50 MHz, only slight variation in the measured electric field is observed as a function of measurement position. This study suggests that the RF emissions are strong enough to cause image artifacts in MRI systems.
Sounder-accelerated electrons radiate slow-Z-mode waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, G.
During the OEDIPUS-C (OC) double-payload rocket experiment, waves were transmitted from a 19-m dipole on one subpayload and received at a distance of 1200 m on a similar dipole. Bistatic propagation was obtained in the slow-Z mode of propagation, i.e., at frequencies f in max{fc, fp} < quad f quad < quad fuh, where fc is the electron gyrofrequency, fp the plasma frequency and fuh the upper-hybrid-resonance frequency. Auroral hiss is generated in the slow-Z mode. In OC, the separation vector between the transmitter and receiver lay along a direction at about 5 from the axis of the Earth's magnetic field B. The Z-mode pulses were strong and significantly dispersed. Propagation near the upper oblique resonance cone was investigated using solutions of the complete electromagnetic hot-plasma dispersion relation. No solutions were found at the operating frequencies with the observed group delays and ray directions. An explanation has been proposed involving incoherent radiation from sounder-accelerated electrons (SAE). Published observations of SAE on OC show that the OC transmitting dipole produces strong SAE at energies from 10 eV up to 10 keV when the transmitting frequency sweeps through Z-mode frequency range. The near field of the transmitting dipole pushes SAE helically downward in the general direction of the receiver. At every instant, each SAE particle creates radiation that obeys the resonance condition f - mfc = (nf/c)cosθ Vcosα , where m is a signed integer, n the Z-mode refractive index, θ the angle between the direction of propagation of the radiation and B, V the electron speed and α its pitch angle. Using the reported SAE energies, it is found that time delays like those observed can be explained with Z-mode n and θ values, for m = 0, 1 or 2. The resonance condition and dispersion relation together require θ values near the upper-oblique resonance cone. Test-particle theory combined with the hot-plasma dispersion solution is used to predict the
Tuning vibrational mode localization with frequency windowing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Xiaolu; Talbot, Justin J.; Steele, Ryan P.
2016-09-01
Local-mode coordinates have previously been shown to be an effective starting point for anharmonic vibrational spectroscopy calculations. This general approach borrows techniques from localized-orbital machinery in electronic structure theory and generates a new set of spatially localized vibrational modes. These modes exhibit a well-behaved spatial decay of anharmonic mode couplings, which, in turn, allows for a systematic, a priori truncation of couplings and increased computational efficiency. Fully localized modes, however, have been found to lead to unintuitive mixtures of characteristic motions, such as stretches and bends, and accordingly large bilinear couplings. In this work, a very simple, tunable localization frequency window is introduced, in order to realize the transition from normal modes to fully localized modes. Partial localization can be achieved by localizing only pairs of modes within this traveling frequency window, which allows for intuitive interpretation of modes. The optimal window size is suggested to be a few hundreds of wave numbers, based on small- to medium-sized test systems, including water clusters and polypeptides. The new sets of partially localized coordinates retain their spatial coupling decay behavior while providing a reduced number of potential energy evaluations for convergence of anharmonic spectra.
Extraction and absorption of higher order modes in room temperature accelerators
Rimmer, R.A.
1993-02-01
This paper describes methods for extracting and absorbing unwanted higher-order modes (HOMs) from normal-conducting accelerator structures. An introduction to the problems caused by HOMs is followed by a brief history of the development of techniques to suppress them, and some examples taken from existing and planned accelerators. These include damped radio frequency (RF) cavities for storage rings such as the proposed PEP-II B factory and accelerating structures for future linear collider projects.
Radio-Frequency Pulse Compression for Linear Accelerators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nantista, Christopher Dennis
Recent efforts to develop plans for an electron -positron linear collider with center-of-mass energy approaching a TeV have highlighted the need for sources capable of delivering hundreds of megawatts of peak rf drive power at X-band frequencies. This need has driven work in the area of rf pulse compression, which enhances the peak power available from pulsed rf tubes by compressing their output pulses in time, accumulating the available energy into shorter pulses. The classic means of rf pulse compression for linear accelerators is SLED. This technique is described, and the problem it presents for multibunch acceleration explained. Other pulse compression schemes, capable of producing suitable output pulses are explored, both theoretically and experimentally, in particular Binary Pulse Compression and SLED-II. The merits of each are considered with regard to gain, efficiency, complexity, size and cost. The development of some novel system components, along with the theory behind their design, is also discussed. The need to minimize copper losses in long waveguide runs led to the use of the circular TE_{01} propagation mode in over-moded guide, requiring much attention to mechanisms of coupling power between modes. The construction and commissioning of complete, high-power pulse compression systems is reported on, as well as their use in the testing of X-band accelerating structures, which, along with the X-band klystrons used, were developed at SLAC in parallel with the pulse compression work. The focus of the dissertation is on SLED-II, the favored scheme in some current linear accelerator designs. In addition to our experimental results, practical implementation considerations and design improvements are presented. The work to date has led to detailed plans for SLED-II systems to be used in the Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator, now under construction at SLAC. The prototype of the upgraded system is near completion. Descriptions of various rf pulse
Frequency-Domain Identification Of Aeroelastic Modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acree, C. W., Jr.; Tischler, Mark B.
1991-01-01
Report describes flight measurements and frequency-domain analyses of aeroelastic vibrational modes of wings of XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft. Begins with description of flight-test methods. Followed by brief discussion of methods of analysis, which include Fourier-transform computations using chirp z transformers, use of coherence and other spectral functions, and methods and computer programs to obtain frequencies and damping coefficients from measurements. Includes brief description of results of flight tests and comparisions among various experimental and theoretical results. Ends with section on conclusions and recommended improvements in techniques.
Radio-frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator
Moretti, A.
1982-10-19
An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.
Improvement of Space Shuttle Main Engine Low Frequency Acceleration Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stec, Robert C.
1999-01-01
The noise floor of low frequency acceleration data acquired on the Space Shuttle Main Engines is higher than desirable. Difficulties of acquiring high quality acceleration data on this engine are discussed. The approach presented in this paper for reducing the acceleration noise floor focuses on a search for an accelerometer more capable of measuring low frequency accelerations. An overview is given of the current measurement system used to acquire engine vibratory data. The severity of vibration, temperature, and moisture environments are considered. Vibratory measurements from both laboratory and rocket engine tests are presented.
Frequency multiplying oscillator with an electron beam accelerated in a drift space
Jang, Kyu-Ha; Lee, Kitae; Hee Park, Seong; Uk Jeong, Young; Miginsky, S.
2012-07-02
In a uniform acceleration region, the behavior of a velocity-modulated electron beam has been analyzed using a particle-in-cell code. By making use of one of the accelerated harmonic components of the velocity-modulated electron beam, we demonstrate a frequency multiplying oscillator for a compact THz emitter, which employs multiple electron beams and a higher order mode resonator to modulate the electron beam without an additional driving source.
Mode coupling of Schwarzschild perturbations: Ringdown frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pazos, Enrique; Brizuela, David; Martín-García, José M.; Tiglio, Manuel
2010-11-01
Within linearized perturbation theory, black holes decay to their final stationary state through the well-known spectrum of quasinormal modes. Here we numerically study whether nonlinearities change this picture. For that purpose we study the ringdown frequencies of gauge-invariant second-order gravitational perturbations induced by self-coupling of linearized perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes. We do so through high-accuracy simulations in the time domain of first and second-order Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli type equations, for a variety of initial data sets. We consider first-order even-parity (ℓ=2, m=±2) perturbations and odd-parity (ℓ=2, m=0) ones, and all the multipoles that they generate through self-coupling. For all of them and all the initial data sets considered we find that—in contrast to previous predictions in the literature—the numerical decay frequencies of second-order perturbations are the same ones of linearized theory, and we explain the observed behavior. This would indicate, in particular, that when modeling or searching for ringdown gravitational waves, appropriately including the standard quasinormal modes already takes into account nonlinear effects.
Radio frequency focused interdigital linear accelerator
Swenson, Donald A.; Starling, W. Joel
2006-08-29
An interdigital (Wideroe) linear accelerator employing drift tubes, and associated support stems that couple to both the longitudinal and support stem electromagnetic fields of the linac, creating rf quadrupole fields along the axis of the linac to provide transverse focusing for the particle beam. Each drift tube comprises two separate electrodes operating at different electrical potentials as determined by cavity rf fields. Each electrode supports two fingers, pointing towards the opposite end of the drift tube, forming a four-finger geometry that produces an rf quadrupole field distribution along its axis. The fundamental periodicity of the structure is equal to one half of the particle wavelength .beta..lamda., where .beta. is the particle velocity in units of the velocity of light and .lamda. is the free space wavelength of the rf. Particles are accelerated in the gaps between drift tubes. The particle beam is focused in regions inside the drift tubes.
Lattice vibrational modes and their frequency shifts in semiconductor nanowires.
Yang, Li; Chou, M Y
2011-07-13
We have performed first-principles calculations to study the lattice vibrational modes and their Raman activities in silicon nanowires (SiNWs). Two types of characteristic vibrational modes are examined: high-frequency optical modes and low-frequency confined modes. Their frequencies have opposite size dependence with a red shift for the optical modes and a blue shift for the confined modes as the diameter of SiNWs decreases. In addition, our calculations show that these vibrational modes can be detected by Raman scattering measurements, providing an efficient way to estimate the size of SiNWs.
Time evolution of low frequency plasma modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gratton, Fausto T.; Gnavi, Graciela; Biernat, Helfried K.; Heyn, Martin F.; Rijnbeek, Richard P.
The time evolution of linear, low frequency, plasma waves in the emission region is studied via theoretical properties and numerical solutions of Volterra integral equations of the second kind. Bounds for the growth rates of unstable plasmas, with arbitrary distribution functions, are established. The asymptotic value of the electric field E(infinity) is found by means of the Paley-Wiener theorem for stable plasmas. For initial perturbations of the distribution function f1(0) which are square integrable, E(infinity) = 0 (Landau damping). When f1(0) contains beams of particles (it is not square integrable) E(infinity) does not equal O. The arbitrariness of the time decay of the electric field is obtained straightforwardly. Some examples of numerical solutions for electron plasma waves and electron Bernstein modes are given.
Low-frequency quadrature mode birdcage resonator.
Borsboom, H M; Claasen-Vujcić, T; Gaykema, H J; Mehlkopf, T
1997-03-01
The birdcage resonator is frequently used in conventional MRI because of its excellent attributes. Its use in low-field MRI is restricted to field strengths higher than, for example, 0.1 T, dependent on the size of the coil. This is because of the intrinsically low inductance value of the birdcage coils. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the birdcage at low field strengths is significantly lower when compared to, for example, the solenoid. Both problems can be overcome with the multiturn technique and a novel wound birdcage coil. The quadrature mode wound birdcage coil presented in this paper can be used at frequencies as low as 100 kHz. Its sensitivity is also increased when compared to the conventional strip-ring birdcage. Homogeneity, effective volume, and methods to increase the resonator bandwidth to match the signal bandwidth are left intact. The latter is a typical low-field problem.
A Hilbert-Vlasov code for the study of high-frequency plasma beatwave accelerator
Ghizzo, A.; Bertrand, P.; Begue, M.L.; Johnston, T.W.; Shoucri, M.
1996-04-01
High-frequency beatwave simulations relevant to the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) experiment with relativistic eulerian hybrid Vlasov code are presented. These Hilbert-Vlasov simulations revealed a rich variety of phenomena associated with the fast particle dynamics induced by beatwave experiment for a high ratio of driver frequency to plasma frequency {omega}{sub pump}/{omega}{sub pump} {approx} 33. The present model allows one to extend detailed modeling to frequency ratios greater than the current practical maximum of 10 or so, for Vlasov or particle-in-cell (PIC) codes, by replacing the Maxwell equations by mode equations for the electromagnetic Vlasov code. Numerical results, including beat frequency chirping (i.e., pump frequency linearly decreasing with time), show that the amplitude limit due to relativistic detuning can be enhanced with accelerated particles up to the ultrarelativistic energies with a high-acceleration gradient of more than 25 GeV/m.
LONGITUDINAL DYNAMICS IN HIGH FREQUENCY FFAG RECIRCULATING ACCELERATORS.
BERG,J.S.
2002-04-08
A recirculating accelerator accelerates the beam by passing through accelerating cavities multiple times. An FFAG recirculating accelerator uses a single arc to connect the linacs together, as opposed to multiple arcs for the different energies. For most scenarios using high-frequency RF, it is impractical to change the phase of the RF on each pass, at least for lower energy accelerators. Ideally, therefore, the WAG arc will be isochronous, so that the particles come back to the same phase (on-crest) on each linac pass. However, it is not possible to make the FFAG arcs isochronous (compared to the RF period) over a large energy range. This paper demonstrates that one can nonetheless make an WAG recirculating accelerator work. Given the arc's path length as a function of energy and the number of turns to accelerate for, one can find the minimum voltage (and corresponding initial conditions) required to accelerate a reference particle to the desired energy. I also briefly examine how the longitudinal acceptance varies with the number of turns that one accelerates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Wei; Lu, Liang; Xu, Xianbo; Sun, Liepeng; Zhang, Zhouli; Dou, Weiping; Li, Chenxing; Shi, Longbo; He, Yuan; Zhao, Hongwei
2017-03-01
An 81.25 MHz continuous wave (CW) radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator has been designed for the Low Energy Accelerator Facility (LEAF) at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) of the Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). In the CW operating mode, the proposed RFQ design adopted the conventional four-vane structure. The main design goals are providing high shunt impendence with low power losses. In the electromagnetic (EM) design, the π-mode stabilizing loops (PISLs) were optimized to produce a good mode separation. The tuners were also designed and optimized to tune the frequency and field flatness of the operating mode. The vane undercuts were optimized to provide a flat field along the RFQ cavity. Additionally, a full length model with modulations was set up for the final EM simulations. Following the EM design, thermal analysis of the structure was carried out. In this paper, detailed EM design and thermal simulations of the LEAF-RFQ will be presented and discussed. Structure error analysis was also studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chembo, Yanne K.; Baumgartel, Lukas; Grudinin, Ivan; Strekalov, Dmitry; Thompson, Robert; Yu, Nan
2012-01-01
Whispering gallery mode resonators are attracting increasing interest as promising frequency reference cavities. Unlike commonly used Fabry-Perot cavities, however, they are filled with a bulk medium whose properties have a significant impact on the stability of its resonance frequencies. In this context that has to be reduced to a minimum. On the other hand, a small monolithic resonator provides opportunity for better stability against vibration and acceleration. this feature is essential when the cavity operates in a non-laboratory environment. In this paper, we report a case study for a crystalline resonator, and discuss the a pathway towards the inhibition of vibration-and acceleration-induced frequency fluctuations.
Modeling electron cloud dynamics in high-frequency accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veitzer, Seth A.; Stoltz, Peter H.
2017-03-01
The dynamics of electron cloud buildup, saturation, and dissipation represent a complex interaction between accelerator and beam parameters. In many accelerators bunch charges are large and beam frequencies are small. In this case electrons have a good probability of being accelerated to the opposite side of the beam pipe before the next bunch crossing. If the time for electrons to drift across the beam pipe is less than the time to the next bunch crossing the cloud density can build up rapidly under this scenario. However, in accelerators where buch charges are small and beam frequencies are large, electrons created by secondary electron emission will not be accelerated to the opposite wall before the next bunch crossing. In this case the time for a cloud to build up is larger, but the amount of electron cloud that exists close to the beam may be increased. In this paper, we report simulation results for modeling of electron cloud buildup and dynamics in high-frequency accelerators. We model parameters relevant to the JLab Electron-Ion Collider (JLEIC) that is currently being designed. We consider beam frequencies up to 476 MHz for a variety of different ions, from protons up to Pb (82+), and with bunch charges ranging from 4.2 × 109 (p) to 0.05 × 109 (Pb) ions per bunch, and ion energies from 100 (p) - 40 (Pb) GeV/u. We compare simulations of electron cloud buildup and dynamics for these different cases, and contrast with similar simulations of proton-driven electron cloud buildup in the Fermilab recycler under the PIP-II upgrade scenario, with a frequency of 52.8 MHz, bunch charge of 80 × 109 p/bunch, and energies ranging from 8 - 20 GeV.
Attempt to accelerate asymmetric species with unequal frequencies in RHIC
Liu, C.; Luo, Y.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Smith, K.; Mernick, K.; Hayes, T.; Severino, F.
2015-07-09
This report summarizes the beam studies on accelerating asymmetric beams with unequal frequencies, during the proton-Gold/Aluminum run in 2015. The experiment failed due to modulated beam-beam effects even though the beams were separated by at least 15 mm.
New modes of particle accelerations techniques and sources. Formal report
Parsa, Z.
1996-12-31
This Report includes copies of transparencies and notes from the presentations made at the Symposium on New Modes of Particle Accelerations - Techniques and Sources, August 19-23, 1996 at the Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara California, that was made available by the authors. Editing, reduction and changes to the authors contributions were made only to fulfill the printing and publication requirements. We would like to take this opportunity and thank the speakers for their informative presentations and for providing copies of their transparencies and notes for inclusion in this Report.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawant, M.; Christou, A.
2012-12-01
While use of LEDs in Fiber Optics and lighting applications is common, their use in medical diagnostic applications is not very extensive. Since the precise value of light intensity will be used to interpret patient results, understanding failure modes [1-4] is very important. We used the Failure Modes and Effects Criticality Analysis (FMECA) tool to identify the critical failure modes of the LEDs. FMECA involves identification of various failure modes, their effects on the system (LED optical output in this context), their frequency of occurrence, severity and the criticality of the failure modes. The competing failure modes/mechanisms were degradation of: active layer (where electron-hole recombination occurs to emit light), electrodes (provides electrical contact to the semiconductor chip), Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) surface layer (used to improve current spreading and light extraction), plastic encapsulation (protective polymer layer) and packaging failures (bond wires, heat sink separation). A FMECA table is constructed and the criticality is calculated by estimating the failure effect probability (β), failure mode ratio (α), failure rate (λ) and the operating time. Once the critical failure modes were identified, the next steps were generation of prior time to failure distribution and comparing with our accelerated life test data. To generate the prior distributions, data and results from previous investigations were utilized [5-33] where reliability test results of similar LEDs were reported. From the graphs or tabular data, we extracted the time required for the optical power output to reach 80% of its initial value. This is our failure criterion for the medical diagnostic application. Analysis of published data for different LED materials (AlGaInP, GaN, AlGaAs), the Semiconductor Structures (DH, MQW) and the mode of testing (DC, Pulsed) was carried out. The data was categorized according to the materials system and LED structure such as AlGaInP-DH-DC, Al
Engineering functionality gradients by dip coating process in acceleration mode.
Faustini, Marco; Ceratti, Davide R; Louis, Benjamin; Boudot, Mickael; Albouy, Pierre-Antoine; Boissière, Cédric; Grosso, David
2014-10-08
In this work, unique functional devices exhibiting controlled gradients of properties are fabricated by dip-coating process in acceleration mode. Through this new approach, thin films with "on-demand" thickness graded profiles at the submillimeter scale are prepared in an easy and versatile way, compatible for large-scale production. The technique is adapted to several relevant materials, including sol-gel dense and mesoporous metal oxides, block copolymers, metal-organic framework colloids, and commercial photoresists. In the first part of the Article, an investigation on the effect of the dip coating speed variation on the thickness profiles is reported together with the critical roles played by the evaporation rate and by the viscosity on the fluid draining-induced film formation. In the second part, dip-coating in acceleration mode is used to induce controlled variation of functionalities by playing on structural, chemical, or dimensional variations in nano- and microsystems. In order to demonstrate the full potentiality and versatility of the technique, original graded functional devices are made including optical interferometry mirrors with bidirectional gradients, one-dimensional photonic crystals with a stop-band gradient, graded microfluidic channels, and wetting gradient to induce droplet motion.
Laser-PlasmaWakefield Acceleration with Higher Order Laser Modes
Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Mullowney, P.; Paul, K.; Cary, J.R.; Leemans, W.P.
2010-06-01
Laser-plasma collider designs point to staging of multiple accelerator stages at the 10 GeV level, which are to be developed on the upcoming BELLA laser, while Thomson Gamma source designs use GeV stages, both requiring efficiency and low emittance. Design and scaling of stages operating in the quasi-linear regime to address these needs are presented using simulations in the VORPAL framework. In addition to allowing symmetric acceleration of electrons and positrons, which is important for colliders, this regime has the property that the plasma wakefield is proportional to the transverse gradient of the laser intensity profile. We demonstrate use of higher order laser modes to tailor the laser pulse and hence the transverse focusing forces in the plasma. In particular, we show that by using higher order laser modes, we can reduce the focusing fields and hence increase the matched electron beam radius, which is important to increased charge and efficiency, while keeping the low bunch emittance required for applications.
A PVDF transducer for low-frequency acceleration measurements.
Daku, Brian L F; Mohamed, Enas M A; Prugger, Arnfinn F
2004-07-01
A unique acceleration transducer, using piezoelectric PVDF, has been developed for low-frequency vibration monitoring. The paper develops the theoretical model for this low-cost, robust sensor. The theoretical model is validated using experimental results from laboratory tests. The sensor was also installed in an underground potash mine alongside a commercial geophone for a three-month in-mine test producing results that show a close correspondence between the two transducers.
Plasma acceleration using a radio frequency self-bias effect
Rafalskyi, D.; Aanesland, A.
2015-06-15
In this work plasma acceleration using a RF self-bias effect is experimentally studied. The experiments are conducted using a novel plasma accelerator system, called Neptune, consisting of an inductively coupled plasma source and a RF-biased set of grids. The plasma accelerator can operate in a steady state mode, producing a plasma flow with separately controlled plasma flux and velocity without any magnetic configuration. The operating pressure at the source output is as low as 0.2 mTorr and can further be decreased. The ion and electron flows are investigated by measuring the ion and electron energy distribution functions both space resolved and with different orientations with respect to the flow direction. It is found that the flow of electrons from the source is highly anisotropic and directed along the ion flow and this global flow of accelerated plasma is well localized in the plasma transport chamber. The maximum flux is about 7.5·10{sup 15} ions s{sup −1} m{sup −2} (at standard conditions) on the axis and decreasing to almost zero at a radial distances of more than 15 cm from the flow axis. Varying the RF acceleration voltage in the range 20–350 V, the plasma flow velocity can be changed between 10 and 35 km/s. The system is prospective for different technology such as space propulsion and surface modification and also interesting for fundamental studies for space-related plasma simulations and investigation of the dynamo effect using accelerated rotating plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdoli-Arani, A.; Moghaddasi, M.
2016-07-01
Acceleration of an externally injected electron inside the collisional plasma-filled cylindrical waveguide during its motion in the fields of the ? mode excited by microwave radiation is studied. The effect of the electron collision frequency with background ions on the deflection angle and energy gain of electron, when it is injected along the direction of the mode propagation is investigated. The fields for the mode, the deflection angle of electron trajectory, due to these fields, and the electron energy gradient are obtained. The results for collisionless and collisional plasma are graphically presented. The numerical results illustrate that the presence of the electron collision term in the dielectric permittivity can reduce the electron's energy gain in the configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nima Mahmoodi, S.; Craft, Michael J.; Southward, Steve C.; Ahmadian, Mehdi
2011-03-01
Modified acceleration feedback (MAF) control, an active vibration control method that uses collocated piezoelectric actuators and accelerometer is developed and its gains optimized using an optimal controller. The control system consists of two main parts: (1) frequency adaptation that uses Adaptive Line Enhancer (ALE) and (2) an optimized controller. Frequency adaptation method tracks the frequency of vibrations using ALE. The obtained frequency is then fed to MAF compensators. This provides a unique feature for MAF, by extending its domain of capabilities from controlling a certain mode of vibrations to any excited mode. The optimized MAF controller can provide optimal sets of gains for a wide range of frequencies, based on the characteristics of the system. The experimental results show that the frequency tracking method works quite well and fast enough to be used in a real-time controller. ALE parameters are numerically and experimentally investigated and tuned for optimized frequency tracking. The results also indicate that the MAF can provide significant vibration reduction using the optimized controller. The control power varies for vibration suppression at different resonance frequencies; however, it is always optimized.
PULSATION FREQUENCIES AND MODES OF GIANT EXOPLANETS
Le Bihan, Bastien; Burrows, Adam E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu
2013-02-10
We calculate the eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of the acoustic oscillations of giant exoplanets and explore the dependence of the characteristic frequency {nu}{sub 0} and the eigenfrequencies on several parameters: the planet mass, the planet radius, the core mass, and the heavy element mass fraction in the envelope. We provide the eigenvalues for degree l up to 8 and radial order n up to 12. For the selected values of l and n, we find that the pulsation eigenfrequencies depend strongly on the planet mass and radius, especially at high frequency. We quantify this dependence through the calculation of the characteristic frequency {nu}{sub 0} which gives us an estimate of the scale of the eigenvalue spectrum at high frequency. For the mass range 0.5 M{sub J} {<=} M{sub P} {<=} 15 M{sub J} , and fixing the planet radius to the Jovian value, we find that {nu}{sub 0} {approx} 164.0 Multiplication-Sign (M{sub P} /M{sub J} ){sup 0.48}{mu}Hz, where M{sub P} is the planet mass and M{sub J} is Jupiter's mass. For the radius range from 0.9 to 2.0 R{sub J} , and fixing the planet's mass to the Jovian value, we find that {nu}{sub 0} {approx} 164.0 Multiplication-Sign (R{sub P} /R{sub J} ){sup -2.09}{mu}Hz, where R{sub P} is the planet radius and R{sub J} is Jupiter's radius. We explore the influence of the presence of a dense core on the pulsation frequencies and on the characteristic frequency of giant exoplanets. We find that the presence of heavy elements in the envelope affects the eigenvalue distribution in ways similar to the presence of a dense core. Additionally, we apply our formalism to Jupiter and Saturn and find results consistent with both the observational data of Gaulme et al. and previous theoretical work.
Design and development of mode launcher for high frequency Gyrotron
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alaria, Mukesh Kumar; Sinha, A. K.; Khatun, H.
2016-03-01
In this paper, we describe the design and development of helical cut smooth wall mode launcher for high frequency and high power Gyrotron. A Vlasov-type helical cut mode launcher for converting TE22,6 mode to a Gaussian mode has been designed for 120 GHz, 1 MW Gyrotron. The initial design of mode launcher has been optimized using LOT/SURF-3D software. The mode launcher diameter and length are optimized considering the minimum return loss and the minimum insertion loss by using CST microwave studio. The return loss (S11) and insertion loss (S21) performance of helical cut smooth wall mode launcher have been obtained using CST-Microwave Studio. The fabrication of Vlasov-type helical cut mode launcher for 120 GHz Gyrotron has also been carried out.
Effect of high-frequency modes on singlet fission dynamics.
Fujihashi, Yuta; Chen, Lipeng; Ishizaki, Akihito; Wang, Junling; Zhao, Yang
2017-01-28
Singlet fission is a spin-allowed energy conversion process whereby a singlet excitation splits into two spin-correlated triplet excitations residing on adjacent molecules and has a potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaics. Recent time-resolved nonlinear spectra of pentacene derivatives have shown the importance of high frequency vibrational modes in efficient fission. In this work, we explore impacts of vibration-induced fluctuations on fission dynamics through quantum dynamics calculations with parameters from fitting measured linear and nonlinear spectra. We demonstrate that fission dynamics strongly depends on the frequency of the intramolecular vibrational mode. Furthermore, we examine the effect of two vibrational modes on fission dynamics. Inclusion of a second vibrational mode creates an additional fission channel even when its Huang-Rhys factor is relatively small. Addition of more vibrational modes may not enhance the fission per se, but can dramatically affect the interplay between fission dynamics and the dominant vibrational mode.
Effect of high-frequency modes on singlet fission dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujihashi, Yuta; Chen, Lipeng; Ishizaki, Akihito; Wang, Junling; Zhao, Yang
2017-01-01
Singlet fission is a spin-allowed energy conversion process whereby a singlet excitation splits into two spin-correlated triplet excitations residing on adjacent molecules and has a potential to dramatically increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaics. Recent time-resolved nonlinear spectra of pentacene derivatives have shown the importance of high frequency vibrational modes in efficient fission. In this work, we explore impacts of vibration-induced fluctuations on fission dynamics through quantum dynamics calculations with parameters from fitting measured linear and nonlinear spectra. We demonstrate that fission dynamics strongly depends on the frequency of the intramolecular vibrational mode. Furthermore, we examine the effect of two vibrational modes on fission dynamics. Inclusion of a second vibrational mode creates an additional fission channel even when its Huang-Rhys factor is relatively small. Addition of more vibrational modes may not enhance the fission per se, but can dramatically affect the interplay between fission dynamics and the dominant vibrational mode.
Wu, Ziran; Lee, Chunghun H.; Wootton, Kent P.; ...
2016-03-01
Silicon woodpile photonic crystals provide a base structure that can be used to build a three-dimensional dielectric waveguide system for high-gradient laser driven acceleration. A new woodpile waveguide design that hosts a phase synchronous, centrally confined accelerating mode is proposed. Comparing with previously discovered silicon woodpile accelerating modes, this mode shows advantages in terms of better electron beam loading and higher achievable acceleration gradient. Several traveling-wave coupler design schemes developed for multi-cell RF cavity accelerators are adapted to the woodpile power coupler design for this new accelerating mode. Design of a forward coupled, highly efficient silicon woodpile accelerator is achieved.more » Simulation shows high efficiency of over 75% of the drive laser power coupled to this fundamental accelerating mode, with less than 15% backward wave scattering. The estimated acceleration gradient, when the coupler structure is driven at the damage threshold fluence of silicon at its operating 1.506 μm wavelength, can reach 185 MV/m. Lastly, a 17-layer woodpile waveguide structure was successfully fabricated, and the measured bandgap is in excellent agreement with simulation.« less
Wu, Ziran; Lee, Chunghun H.; Wootton, Kent P.; Ng, Cho -Kuen; Qi, Minghao H.; England, Robert J.
2016-03-01
Silicon woodpile photonic crystals provide a base structure that can be used to build a three-dimensional dielectric waveguide system for high-gradient laser driven acceleration. A new woodpile waveguide design that hosts a phase synchronous, centrally confined accelerating mode is proposed. Comparing with previously discovered silicon woodpile accelerating modes, this mode shows advantages in terms of better electron beam loading and higher achievable acceleration gradient. Several traveling-wave coupler design schemes developed for multi-cell RF cavity accelerators are adapted to the woodpile power coupler design for this new accelerating mode. Design of a forward coupled, highly efficient silicon woodpile accelerator is achieved. Simulation shows high efficiency of over 75% of the drive laser power coupled to this fundamental accelerating mode, with less than 15% backward wave scattering. The estimated acceleration gradient, when the coupler structure is driven at the damage threshold fluence of silicon at its operating 1.506 μm wavelength, can reach 185 MV/m. Lastly, a 17-layer woodpile waveguide structure was successfully fabricated, and the measured bandgap is in excellent agreement with simulation.
Modal vector estimation for closely spaced frequency modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Craig, R. R., Jr.; Chung, Y. T.; Blair, M.
1982-01-01
Techniques for obtaining improved modal vector estimates for systems with closely spaced frequency modes are discussed. In describing the dynamical behavior of a complex structure modal parameters are often analyzed: undamped natural frequency, mode shape, modal mass, modal stiffness and modal damping. From both an analytical standpoint and an experimental standpoint, identification of modal parameters is more difficult if the system has repeated frequencies or even closely spaced frequencies. The more complex the structure, the more likely it is to have closely spaced frequencies. This makes it difficult to determine valid mode shapes using single shaker test methods. By employing band selectable analysis (zoom) techniques and by employing Kennedy-Pancu circle fitting or some multiple degree of freedom (MDOF) curve fit procedure, the usefulness of the single shaker approach can be extended.
Localized radio frequency communication using asynchronous transfer mode protocol
Witzke, Edward L.; Robertson, Perry J.; Pierson, Lyndon G.
2007-08-14
A localized wireless communication system for communication between a plurality of circuit boards, and between electronic components on the circuit boards. Transceivers are located on each circuit board and electronic component. The transceivers communicate with one another over spread spectrum radio frequencies. An asynchronous transfer mode protocol controls communication flow with asynchronous transfer mode switches located on the circuit boards.
Slow Z-mode radiation from sounder-accelerated electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
James, H. G.
2004-12-01
Quasi-electrostatic Z-mode waves created by the transmitting part of the OEDIPUS-C payload were measured on the receiving part at 1200 m distance. Solutions of the complete electromagnetic dispersion relation for a hot magnetoplasma reveal, however, that there is no solution that provides direct ray paths along the transmitter-receiver separation direction with the observed signal group delays. An interpretive model is therefore proposed in which sounder-accelerated electrons (SAE) radiate incoherently as they spiral along the magnetic field direction in the general direction of the receiving subpayload. Test-particle theory combined with the hot-plasma dispersion solution is used to predict the total electric field for previously reported SAE flux levels. It is found that voltage levels measured on the receiving dipoles have about the same order of magnitude as the predicted ones.
Compact Superconducting Radio-frequency Accelerators and Innovative RF Systems
Kephart, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Swaapan; Milton, Stephen
2015-04-10
We will present several new technical and design breakthroughs that enable the creation of a new class of compact linear electron accelerators for industrial purposes. Use of Superconducting Radio-Frequency (SRF) cavities allow accelerators less than 1.5 M in length to create electron beams beyond 10 MeV and with average beam powers measured in 10’s of KW. These machines can have the capability to vary the output energy dynamically to produce brehmstrahlung x-rays of varying spectral coverage for applications such as rapid scanning of moving cargo for security purposes. Such compact accelerators will also be cost effective for many existing and new industrial applications. Examples include radiation crosslinking of plastics and rubbers, creation of pure materials with surface properties radically altered from the bulk, modification of bulk or surface optical properties of materials, sterilization of medical instruments animal solid or liquid waste, and destruction of organic compounds in industrial waste water effluents. Small enough to be located on a mobile platform, such accelerators will enable new remediation methods for chemical and biological spills and/or in-situ crosslinking of materials. We will describe one current design under development at Fermilab including plans for prototype and value-engineering to reduce costs. We will also describe development of new nano-structured field-emitter arrays as sources of electrons, new methods for fabricating and cooling superconducting RF cavities, and a new novel RF power source based on magnetrons with full phase and amplitude control.
A water-filled radio frequency accelerating cavity
Faehl, R.J.; Keinigs, R.K.; Pogue, E.W.
1998-12-31
This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to study water-filled resonant cavities as a high-energy density source to drive high-current accelerator configurations. Basic considerations lead to the expectation that a dielectric-filled cavity should be able to store up to e/e{sub o} as much energy as a vacuum one with the same dimensions and thus be capable of accelerating a proportionately larger amount of charge before cavity depletion occurs. During this project, we confirmed that water-filled cavities with e/e{sub o} = 60-80 did indeed behave with the expected characteristics, in terms of resonant TM modes and cavity Q. We accomplished this result with numerical cavity eigenvalue codes; fully electromagnetic, two-dimensional, particle-in-cell codes; and, most significantly, with scaled experiments performed in water-filled aluminum cavities. The low-power experiments showed excellent agreement with the numerical results. Simulations of the high-field, high-current mode of operation indicated that charged-particle loss on the dielectric windows, which separate the cavity from the beamline, must be carefully controlled to avoid significant distortion of the axial fields.
High-Frequency Normal Mode Propagation in Aluminum Cylinders
Lee, Myung W.; Waite, William F.
2009-01-01
Acoustic measurements made using compressional-wave (P-wave) and shear-wave (S-wave) transducers in aluminum cylinders reveal waveform features with high amplitudes and with velocities that depend on the feature's dominant frequency. In a given waveform, high-frequency features generally arrive earlier than low-frequency features, typical for normal mode propagation. To analyze these waveforms, the elastic equation is solved in a cylindrical coordinate system for the high-frequency case in which the acoustic wavelength is small compared to the cylinder geometry, and the surrounding medium is air. Dispersive P- and S-wave normal mode propagations are predicted to exist, but owing to complex interference patterns inside a cylinder, the phase and group velocities are not smooth functions of frequency. To assess the normal mode group velocities and relative amplitudes, approximate dispersion relations are derived using Bessel functions. The utility of the normal mode theory and approximations from a theoretical and experimental standpoint are demonstrated by showing how the sequence of P- and S-wave normal mode arrivals can vary between samples of different size, and how fundamental normal modes can be mistaken for the faster, but significantly smaller amplitude, P- and S-body waves from which P- and S-wave speeds are calculated.
Mode trap for absorbing transverse modes of an accelerated electron beam
Chojnacki, E.P.
1994-05-31
A mode trap to trap and absorb transverse modes formed by a beam in a linear accelerator includes a waveguide having a multiplicity of electrically conductive (preferably copper) irises and rings, each iris and ring including an aperture, and the irises and rings being stacked in a side-by-side, alternating fashion such that the apertures of the irises and rings are concentrically aligned. An absorbing material layer such as a dielectric is embedded in each iris and ring, and this absorbing material layer encircles, but is circumferentially spaced from its respective aperture. Each iris and ring includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced slots around its aperture and extending radially out toward its absorbing material layer. 9 figs.
Mode trap for absorbing transverse modes of an accelerated electron beam
Chojnacki, Eric P.
1994-01-01
A mode trap to trap and absorb transverse modes formed by a beam in a linear accelerator includes a waveguide having a multiplicity of electrically conductive (preferably copper) irises and rings, each iris and ring including an aperture, and the irises and rings being stacked in a side-by-side, alternating fashion such that the apertures of the irises and rings are concentrically aligned. An absorbing material layer such as a dielectric is embedded in each iris and ring, and this absorbing material layer encircles, but is circumferentially spaced from its respective aperture. Each iris and ring includes a plurality of circumferentially spaced slots around its aperture and extending radially out toward its absorbing material layer.
Spectroscopic mode identification of γ Doradus stars: frequencies, modes, rotation and wave leakage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pollard, Karen R.; Brunsden, E.; Davie, M.; Greenwood, A.; Cottrell, P. L.
The gravity modes present in γ Doradus stars probe the deep stellar interiors and are thus of particular interest in asteroseismology. The MUSICIAN programme at the University of Canterbury has been successfully identifying frequencies and pulsation modes in many γ Doradus stars using hundreds of precise, high resolution spectroscopic observations obtained with the 1.0 m telescope and HERCULES spectrograph at the Mt John Observatory in New Zealand. In this paper we present a summary of our spectroscopic frequency and mode identifications. Of particular interest from our spectroscopic analyses are: the prevalence of (l, m) = 1, 1 modes in many γ Dor stars; the importance of stellar rotation in the interpretation of the frequency and mode identification; and finally, possible evidence of wave leakage in one of these stars.
Time-Frequency Analysis of the Dispersion of Lamb Modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, W. H.; Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.
1999-01-01
Accurate knowledge of the velocity dispersion of Lamb modes is important for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods used in detecting and locating flaws in thin plates and in determining their elastic stiffness coefficients. Lamb mode dispersion is also important in the acoustic emission technique for accurately triangulating the location of emissions in thin plates. In this research, the ability to characterize Lamb mode dispersion through a time-frequency analysis (the pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution) was demonstrated. A major advantage of time-frequency methods is the ability to analyze acoustic signals containing multiple propagation modes, which overlap and superimpose in the time domain signal. By combining time-frequency analysis with a broadband acoustic excitation source, the dispersion of multiple Lamb modes over a wide frequency range can be determined from as little as a single measurement. In addition, the technique provides a direct measurement of the group velocity dispersion. The technique was first demonstrated in the analysis of a simulated waveform in an aluminum plate in which the Lamb mode dispersion was well known. Portions of the dispersion curves of the AO, A I , So, and S2 Lamb modes were obtained from this one waveform. The technique was also applied for the analysis of experimental waveforms from a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite plate. Measurements were made both along and perpendicular to the fiber direction. In this case, the signals contained only the lowest order symmetric and antisymmetric modes. A least squares fit of the results from several source to detector distances was used. Theoretical dispersion curves were calculated and are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results.
Time-Frequency Analysis of the Dispersion of Lamb Modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prosser, W. H.; Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.
1999-01-01
Accurate knowledge of the velocity dispersion of Lamb modes is important for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods used in detecting and locating flaws in thin plates and in determining their elastic stiffness coefficients. Lamb mode dispersion is also important in the acoustic emission technique for accurately triangulating the location of emissions in thin plates. In this research, the ability to characterize Lamb mode dispersion through a time-frequency analysis (the pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution) was demonstrated. A major advantage of time-frequency methods is the ability to analyze acoustic signals containing multiple propagation modes, which overlap and superimpose in the time domain signal. By combining time-frequency analysis with a broadband acoustic excitation source, the dispersion of multiple Lamb modes over a wide frequency range can be determined from as little as a single measurement. In addition, the technique provides a direct measurement of the group velocity dispersion. The technique was first demonstrated in the analysis of a simulated waveform in an aluminum plate in which the Lamb mode dispersion was well known. Portions of the dispersion curves of the A(sub 0), A(sub 1), S(sub 0), and S(sub 2)Lamb modes were obtained from this one waveform. The technique was also applied for the analysis of experimental waveforms from a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite plate. Measurements were made both along, and perpendicular to the fiber direction. In this case, the signals contained only the lowest order symmetric and antisymmetric modes. A least squares fit of the results from several source to detector distances was used. Theoretical dispersion curves were calculated and are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results.
Low frequency mechanical modes of viruses with atomic detail
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dykeman, Eric; Sankey, Otto
2008-03-01
The low frequency mechanical modes of viruses can provide important insights into the large global motions that a virus may exhibit. Recently it has been proposed that these large global motions may be excited using impulsive stimulated Raman scattering producing permanent damage to the virus. In order to understand the coupling of external probes to the capsid, vibrational modes with atomic detail are essential. The standard approach to find the atomic modes of a molecule with N atoms requires the formation and diagonlization of a 3Nx3N matrix. As viruses have 10^5 or more atoms, the standard approach is difficult. Using ideas from electronic structure theory, we have developed a method to construct the mechanical modes of large molecules such as viruses with atomic detail. Application to viruses such as the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, satellite tobacco necrosis virus, and M13 bacteriophage show a fairly complicated picture of the mechanical modes.
Distributed coupling and multi-frequency microwave accelerators
Tantawi, Sami G.; Li, Zenghai; Borchard, Philipp
2016-07-05
A microwave circuit for a linear accelerator has multiple metallic cell sections, a pair of distribution waveguide manifolds, and a sequence of feed arms connecting the manifolds to the cell sections. The distribution waveguide manifolds are connected to the cell sections so that alternating pairs of cell sections are connected to opposite distribution waveguide manifolds. The distribution waveguide manifolds have concave modifications of their walls opposite the feed arms, and the feed arms have portions of two distinct widths. In some embodiments, the distribution waveguide manifolds are connected to the cell sections by two different types of junctions adapted to allow two frequency operation. The microwave circuit may be manufactured by making two quasi-identical parts, and joining the two parts to form the microwave circuit, thereby allowing for many manufacturing techniques including electron beam welding, and thereby allowing the use of un-annealled copper alloys, and hence greater tolerance to high gradient operation.
Ghosh, Abhijit; Saha, S. K.; Chowdhury, S.; Janaki, M. S.
2015-12-15
In a RF produced magnetized argon plasma expanding into a larger expansion chamber, electrostatic modes propagating azimuthally in the direction of the electron diamagnetic drift and frequency greater than the ion cyclotron frequency are observed. In the radial direction, the mode amplitude peaks at a location where the radial density gradient is maximum. The modes are detected at axial locations up to 16 cm away from the entrance aperture. For fixed values of the neutral pressure and magnetic field, the mode frequency is found to be independent of the location at which it is measured. The modes exhibit drift wave characteristics revealing a radial structure with the azimuthal mode number m = 1 at the lower radial locations (r ∼ 3.0 cm) while the m = 2 mode is located in the outer region. Theoretical modeling using a local dispersion relation based on the fluid equations predicts destabilization of the modes with frequency greater than the ion-cyclotron frequency by electron-neutral collisions and exhibiting other drift wave features.
Radio Frequency Station - Beam Dynamics Interaction in Circular Accelerators
Mastoridis, Themistoklis
2010-08-01
The longitudinal beam dynamics in circular accelerators is mainly defined by the interaction of the beam current with the accelerating Radio Frequency (RF) stations. For stable operation, Low Level RF (LLRF) feedback systems are employed to reduce coherent instabilities and regulate the accelerating voltage. The LLRF system design has implications for the dynamics and stability of the closed-loop RF systems as well as for the particle beam, and is very sensitive to the operating range of accelerator currents and energies. Stability of the RF loop and the beam are necessary conditions for reliable machine operation. This dissertation describes theoretical formalisms and models that determine the longitudinal beam dynamics based on the LLRF implementation, time domain simulations that capture the dynamic behavior of the RF station-beam interaction, and measurements from the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) that validate the models and simulations. These models and simulations are structured to capture the technical characteristics of the system (noise contributions, non-linear elements, and more). As such, they provide useful results and insight for the development and design of future LLRF feedback systems. They also provide the opportunity to study diverse longitudinal beam dynamics effects such as coupled-bunch impedance driven instabilities and single bunch longitudinal emittance growth. Coupled-bunch instabilities and RF station power were the performance limiting effects for PEP-II. The sensitivity of the instabilities to individual LLRF parameters, the effectiveness of alternative operational algorithms, and the possible tradeoffs between RF loop and beam stability were studied. New algorithms were implemented, with significant performance improvement leading to a world record current during the last PEP-II run of 3212 mA for the Low Energy Ring. Longitudinal beam emittance growth due to RF noise is a major concern for LHC
High-frequency modes of a magnetic antivortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asmat-Uceda, Martin; Riley, Grant; Haldar, Arabinda; Buchanan, Kristen
2015-03-01
Magnetic vortices have attracted considerable attention in recent years not only because of their interesting physical properties but also due to their potential for applications. The magnetic antivortex (AV), the topological counterpart of the magnetic vortex, possesses similarly rich dynamics and its spin configuration may prove advantageous for spin-wave-based devices, however, it has not been studied as intensely. Recent experiments show that AV's will form naturally at the intersections of patterned pound-key-like nanostructures that are magnetically soft. Here we present micromagnetic simulations of the dynamics of AV's in these structures. The simulations show that pound-key-like structures made of 30-nm thick Permalloy exhibit a complex dynamic profile that includes a number of discrete high-frequency modes (>1 GHz). Spatial maps of the dynamic modes that were constructed using Fourier analysis of the simulation results show modes that are in similar in character to the radial and azimuthal modes observed for magnetic vortices but the spin dynamics also differ from those of a vortex due to the presence of the elongated nanowires in the pound-key-like structure. The frequencies of the observed modes tend to decrease with increasing sample size, however, the general features of the modes remains relatively unaffected by the structure size. The simulations will be compared to Brillouin Light Scattering (BLS) experimental results. This work was supported by the US DOE-BES Award #ER 46854.
Jia, Guozhang; Xiang, Nong; Huang, Yueheng; Wang, Xueyi; Lin, Yu
2016-01-15
The propagation and mode conversion of lower hybrid waves in an inhomogeneous plasma are investigated by using the nonlinear δf algorithm in a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation code based on the gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion (GeFi) scheme [Lin et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 47, 657 (2005)]. The characteristics of the simulated waves, such as wavelength, frequency, phase, and group velocities, agree well with the linear theoretical analysis. It is shown that a significant reflection component emerges in the conversion process between the slow mode and the fast mode when the scale length of the density variation is comparable to the local wavelength. The dependences of the reflection coefficient on the scale length of the density variation are compared with the results based on the linear full wave model for cold plasmas. It is indicated that the mode conversion for the waves with a frequency of 2.45 GHz (ω ∼ 3ω{sub LH}, where ω{sub LH} represents the lower hybrid resonance) and within Tokamak relevant amplitudes can be well described in the linear scheme. As the frequency decreases, the modification due to the nonlinear term becomes important. For the low-frequency waves (ω ∼ 1.3ω{sub LH}), the generations of the high harmonic modes and sidebands through nonlinear mode-mode coupling provide new power channels and thus could reduce the reflection significantly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Guozhang; Xiang, Nong; Wang, Xueyi; Huang, Yueheng; Lin, Yu
2016-01-01
The propagation and mode conversion of lower hybrid waves in an inhomogeneous plasma are investigated by using the nonlinear δf algorithm in a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation code based on the gyrokinetic electron and fully kinetic ion (GeFi) scheme [Lin et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 47, 657 (2005)]. The characteristics of the simulated waves, such as wavelength, frequency, phase, and group velocities, agree well with the linear theoretical analysis. It is shown that a significant reflection component emerges in the conversion process between the slow mode and the fast mode when the scale length of the density variation is comparable to the local wavelength. The dependences of the reflection coefficient on the scale length of the density variation are compared with the results based on the linear full wave model for cold plasmas. It is indicated that the mode conversion for the waves with a frequency of 2.45 GHz (ω ˜ 3ωLH, where ωLH represents the lower hybrid resonance) and within Tokamak relevant amplitudes can be well described in the linear scheme. As the frequency decreases, the modification due to the nonlinear term becomes important. For the low-frequency waves (ω ˜ 1.3ωLH), the generations of the high harmonic modes and sidebands through nonlinear mode-mode coupling provide new power channels and thus could reduce the reflection significantly.
Present and Future Modes of Low Frequency Climate Variability
Cane, Mark A.
2014-02-20
This project addressed area (1) of the FOA, “Interaction of Climate Change and Low Frequency Modes of Natural Climate Variability”. Our overarching objective is to detect, describe and understand the changes in low frequency variability between model simulations of the preindustrial climate and simulations of a doubled CO2 climate. The deliverables are a set of papers providing a dynamical characterization of interannual, decadal, and multidecadal variability in coupled models with attention to the changes in this low frequency variability between pre-industrial concentrations of greenhouse gases and a doubling of atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The principle mode of analysis, singular vector decomposition, is designed to advance our physical, mechanistic understanding. This study will include external natural variability due to solar and volcanic aerosol variations as well as variability internal to the climate system. An important byproduct is a set of analysis tools for estimating global singular vector structures from the archived output of model simulations.
Frequency stabilization via the mixed mode in three mode HeNe lasers
Ellis, J D; Joo, K; Buice, E S; Spronck, J W; Munnig Schmidt, R H
2010-02-05
This paper describes a three mode HeNe laser frequency stabilization technique using the mixed mode frequency to obtain a fractional frequency stability of 2 x 10{sup -11}. The mixed mode frequency occurs due to optical nonlinear interactions with the adjacent modes at each of the three modes. In precision displacement interferometry systems, the laser source frequency must be stabilized to provide an accurate conversion ratio between phase change and displacement. In systems, such as lithography applications, which require high speed, high accuracy and low data age uncertainty, it is also desirable to avoid periodic nonlinearities, which reduces computation time and errors. One method to reduce periodic nonlinearity is to spatially separate the measurement and reference beams to prevent optical mixing, which has been shown for several systems. Using spatially separated beams and the proper optical configuration, the interferometer can be fiber fed, which can increase the interferometer's stability by reducing the number of beam steering optical elements. Additionally, as the number of measurement axes increases, a higher optical power from the laser source is necessary.
Thermal heat-balance mode flow-to-frequency converter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pawlowski, Eligiusz
2016-11-01
This paper presents new type of thermal flow converter with the pulse frequency output. The integrating properties of the temperature sensor have been used, which allowed for realization of pulse frequency modulator with thermal feedback loop, stabilizing temperature of sensor placed in the flowing medium. The system assures balancing of heat amount supplied in impulses to the sensor and heat given up by the sensor in a continuous way to the flowing medium. Therefore the frequency of output impulses is proportional to the heat transfer coefficient from sensor to environment. According to the King's law, the frequency of those impulses is a function of medium flow velocity around the sensor. The special feature of presented solution is total integration of thermal sensor with the measurement signal conditioning system. Sensor and conditioning system are not the separate elements of the measurement circuit, but constitute a whole in form of thermal heat-balance mode flow-to-frequency converter. The advantage of such system is easiness of converting the frequency signal to the digital form, without using any additional analogue-to-digital converters. The frequency signal from the converter may be directly connected to the microprocessor input, which with use of standard built-in counters may convert the frequency into numerical value of high precision. Moreover, the frequency signal has higher resistance to interference than the voltage signal and may be transmitted to remote locations without the information loss.
Frequency Tuning of Collapse-Mode Capacitive Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer.
Pekař, Martin; Dittmer, Wendy U; Mihajlović, Nenad; van Soest, Gijs; de Jong, Nico
2017-02-01
The information in an ultrasound image depends on the frequency that is used. In a clinical examination it may therefore be beneficial to generate ultrasound images acquired at multiple frequencies, which is difficult to achieve with conventional transducers. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) offer a frequency response that is tunable by the bias voltage. In this study we investigate this frequency tunability for ultrasonic imaging. We characterized a CMUT array operated at bias voltages up to three times higher than the collapse-voltage. All elements of the array were connected to a single transmit and receive channel through a bias circuit. We quantified the transmit-receive and transmit sensitivity as a function of frequency for a range of bias voltages. Impulse response measurements show that the center frequency is modifiable between 8.7MHz and 15.3MHz with an applied bias voltage of -50V to -170V. The maximum transmit sensitivity is 52kPa/V at a center frequency of 9.0MHz with an applied bias voltage of -105V. The -3dB transmit range in center frequency accessible with the variable bias voltage is 6.7-15.5MHz. This study shows that a collapse-mode CMUT can operate efficiently at multiple center frequencies when the driving pulse and the bias voltage are optimized. We demonstrate the usefulness of frequency tuning by comparing images at different optimal combinations of driving frequency and bias voltage, acquired by linearly moving the transducer across a tissue mimicking phantom.
Acoustic localization of breakdown in radio frequency accelerating cavities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lane, Peter
Current designs for muon accelerators require high-gradient radio frequency (RF) cavities to be placed in solenoidal magnetic fields. These fields help contain and efficiently reduce the phase space volume of source muons in order to create a usable muon beam for collider and neutrino experiments. In this context and in general, the use of RF cavities in strong magnetic fields has its challenges. It has been found that placing normal conducting RF cavities in strong magnetic fields reduces the threshold at which RF cavity breakdown occurs. To aid the effort to study RF cavity breakdown in magnetic fields, it would be helpful to have a diagnostic tool which can localize the source of breakdown sparks inside the cavity. These sparks generate thermal shocks to small regions of the inner cavity wall that can be detected and localized using microphones attached to the outer cavity surface. Details on RF cavity sound sources as well as the hardware, software, and algorithms used to localize the source of sound emitted from breakdown thermal shocks are presented. In addition, results from simulations and experiments on three RF cavities, namely the Aluminum Mock Cavity, the High-Pressure Cavity, and the Modular Cavity, are also given. These results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the described technique for acoustic localization of breakdown.
Accoustic Localization of Breakdown in Radio Frequency Accelerating Cavities
Lane, Peter Gwin
2016-07-01
Current designs for muon accelerators require high-gradient radio frequency (RF) cavities to be placed in solenoidal magnetic fields. These fields help contain and efficiently reduce the phase space volume of source muons in order to create a usable muon beam for collider and neutrino experiments. In this context and in general, the use of RF cavities in strong magnetic fields has its challenges. It has been found that placing normal conducting RF cavities in strong magnetic fields reduces the threshold at which RF cavity breakdown occurs. To aid the effort to study RF cavity breakdown in magnetic fields, it would be helpful to have a diagnostic tool which can localize the source of breakdown sparks inside the cavity. These sparks generate thermal shocks to small regions of the inner cavity wall that can be detected and localized using microphones attached to the outer cavity surface. Details on RF cavity sound sources as well as the hardware, software, and algorithms used to localize the source of sound emitted from breakdown thermal shocks are presented. In addition, results from simulations and experiments on three RF cavities, namely the Aluminum Mock Cavity, the High-Pressure Cavity, and the Modular Cavity, are also given. These results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the described technique for acoustic localization of breakdown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colpitts, C. A.; Cattell, C. A.; Engebretson, M.; Broughton, M.; Tian, S.; Wygant, J.; Breneman, A.; Thaller, S.
2016-11-01
We present observations of higher-frequency ( 50-2500 Hz, 0.1-0.7 fce) wave modes modulated at the frequency of colocated lower frequency (0.5-2 Hz, on the order of fci) waves. These observations come from the Van Allen Probes Electric Field and Waves instrument's burst mode data and represent the first observations of coupling between waves in these frequency ranges. The higher-frequency wave modes, typically whistler mode hiss and chorus or magnetosonic waves, last for a few to a few tens of seconds but are in some cases observed repeatedly over several hours. The higher-frequency waves are observed to be unmodulated before and after the presence of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, but when the EMIC waves are present, the amplitude of the higher-frequency waves drops to the instrument noise level once every EMIC wave cycle. Such modulation could significantly impact wave-particle interactions such as acceleration and pitch angle scattering, which are crucial in the formation and depletion of the radiation belts. We present one case study with broadband, high-frequency waves observed to be modulated by EMIC waves repeatedly over a 2 h time span on both spacecraft. Finally, we show two additional case studies where other high-frequency wave modes exhibit similar modulation.
Travel Mode Detection with Varying Smartphone Data Collection Frequencies
Shafique, Muhammad Awais; Hato, Eiji
2016-01-01
Smartphones are becoming increasingly popular day-by-day. Modern smartphones are more than just calling devices. They incorporate a number of high-end sensors that provide many new dimensions to smartphone experience. The use of smartphones, however, can be extended from the usual telecommunication field to applications in other specialized fields including transportation. Sensors embedded in the smartphones like GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope can collect data passively, which in turn can be processed to infer the travel mode of the smartphone user. This will solve most of the shortcomings associated with conventional travel survey methods including biased response, no response, erroneous time recording, etc. The current study uses the sensors’ data collected by smartphones to extract nine features for classification. Variables including data frequency, moving window size and proportion of data to be used for training, are dealt with to achieve better results. Random forest is used to classify the smartphone data among six modes. An overall accuracy of 99.96% is achieved, with no mode less than 99.8% for data collected at 10 Hz frequency. The accuracy is observed to decrease with decrease in data frequency, but at the same time the computation time also decreases. PMID:27213380
Identification of trapped electron modes in frequency fluctuation spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnichand, H.; Citrin, J.; Hacquin, S.; Sabot, R.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Garbet, X.; Bourdelle, C.; Bottereau, C.; Clairet, F.; Giacalone, J. C.; Guimarães-Filho, Z. O.; Guirlet, R.; Hornung, G.; Lebschy, A.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Medvedeva, A.; Molina, D.; Nikolaeva, V.; Prisiazhniuk, D.; Tore Supra, the; the ASDEX Upgrade Teams
2016-01-01
Ion temperature gradient (ITG) and trapped electron modes (TEM) are two important micro-instabilities in the plasma core region of fusion devices (r/a≤slant 0.9 ). They usually coexist in the same range of spatial scale (around 0.1<{{k}\\bot}{ρi}<1 ), which makes their discrimination difficult. To investigate them, one can perform gyrokinetic simulations, transport analysis and phase velocity estimations. In Tore Supra, the identification of trapped electron modes (TEM) is made possible due to measured frequency fluctuation spectra. Indeed, turbulent spectra generally expected to be broad-band, can become narrow in case of TEM turbulence, inducing ‘quasi-coherent’ (QC) modes named QC-TEM. Therefore the analysis of frequency fluctuation spectra becomes a possible tool to differentiate TEM from ITG. We have found indications that the TEM can have a QC signature by comparing frequency fluctuation spectra from reflectometry measurements, gyrokinetic simulations and synthetic diagnostic results. Then the scope of the analysis of QC-TEM are discussed and an application is shown, namely transitions between TEM turbulence and MHD fluctuations.
Center Frequency Stabilization in Planar Dual-Mode Resonators during Mode-Splitting Control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naji, Adham; Soliman, Mina H.
2017-03-01
Shape symmetry in dual-mode planar electromagnetic resonators results in their ability to host two degenerate resonant modes. As the designer enforces a controllable break in the symmetry, the degeneracy is removed and the two modes couple, exchanging energy and elevating the resonator into its desirable second-order resonance operation. The amount of coupling is controlled by the degree of asymmetry introduced. However, this mode coupling (or splitting) usually comes at a price. The centre frequency of the perturbed resonator is inadvertently drifted from its original value prior to coupling. Maintaining centre frequency stability during mode splitting is a nontrivial geometric design problem. In this paper, we analyse the problem and propose a novel method to compensate for this frequency drift, based on field analysis and perturbation theory, and we validate the solution through a practical design example and measurements. The analytical method used works accurately within the perturbational limit. It may also be used as a starting point for further numerical optimization algorithms, reducing the required computational time during design, when larger perturbations are made to the resonator. In addition to enabling the novel design example presented, it is hoped that the findings will inspire akin designs for other resonator shapes, in different disciplines and applications.
Center Frequency Stabilization in Planar Dual-Mode Resonators during Mode-Splitting Control
Naji, Adham; Soliman, Mina H.
2017-01-01
Shape symmetry in dual-mode planar electromagnetic resonators results in their ability to host two degenerate resonant modes. As the designer enforces a controllable break in the symmetry, the degeneracy is removed and the two modes couple, exchanging energy and elevating the resonator into its desirable second-order resonance operation. The amount of coupling is controlled by the degree of asymmetry introduced. However, this mode coupling (or splitting) usually comes at a price. The centre frequency of the perturbed resonator is inadvertently drifted from its original value prior to coupling. Maintaining centre frequency stability during mode splitting is a nontrivial geometric design problem. In this paper, we analyse the problem and propose a novel method to compensate for this frequency drift, based on field analysis and perturbation theory, and we validate the solution through a practical design example and measurements. The analytical method used works accurately within the perturbational limit. It may also be used as a starting point for further numerical optimization algorithms, reducing the required computational time during design, when larger perturbations are made to the resonator. In addition to enabling the novel design example presented, it is hoped that the findings will inspire akin designs for other resonator shapes, in different disciplines and applications. PMID:28272422
Peng, Shixiang; Chen, Jia; Ren, Haitao; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Ailing; Xia, Wenlong; Gao, Shuli; Wang, Zhi; Luo, Yuting; Guo, Zhiyu; Chen, Jia'er
2014-02-01
A project to study a new type of acceleration structure has been launched at Peking University, in which a traditional radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a separated function radio frequency quadrupole are coupled in one cavity to accelerate the He+ beam. A helium injector for this project is developed. The injector consists of a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source and a 1.16 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT). The commissioning of this injector was carried out and an onsite test was held in June 2013. A 14 mA He+ beam with the energy of 30 keV has been delivered to the end of the LEBT, where a diaphragm with the diameter of 7 mm is located. The position of the diaphragm corresponds to the entrance of the RFQ electrodes. The beam emittance and fraction were measured after the 7 mm diaphragm. Its rms emittance is about 0.14 π mm mrad and the fraction of He+ is about 99%.
Peng, Shixiang Chen, Jia; Ren, Haitao; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Xia, Wenlong; Gao, Shuli; Wang, Zhi; Luo, Yuting; Guo, Zhiyu; Zhang, Ailing; Chen, Jia'er
2014-02-15
A project to study a new type of acceleration structure has been launched at Peking University, in which a traditional radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a separated function radio frequency quadrupole are coupled in one cavity to accelerate the He+ beam. A helium injector for this project is developed. The injector consists of a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source and a 1.16 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT). The commissioning of this injector was carried out and an onsite test was held in June 2013. A 14 mA He+ beam with the energy of 30 keV has been delivered to the end of the LEBT, where a diaphragm with the diameter of 7 mm is located. The position of the diaphragm corresponds to the entrance of the RFQ electrodes. The beam emittance and fraction were measured after the 7 mm diaphragm. Its rms emittance is about 0.14 π mm mrad and the fraction of He+ is about 99%.
Yu, L.-L. Li, F.-Y.; Chen, M.; Weng, S.-M.; Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Sheng, Z.-M.
2014-12-15
Control of transverse wakefields in the nonlinear laser-driven bubble regime using a combination of Hermite-Gaussian laser modes is proposed. By controlling the relative intensity ratio of the two laser modes, the focusing force can be controlled, enabling matched beam propagation for emittance preservation. A ring bubble can be generated with a large longitudinal accelerating field and a transverse focusing field suitable for positron beam focusing and acceleration.
Frequency chirping for resonance-enhanced electron energy during laser acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, D. N.; Suk, H.
2006-04-01
The model given by Singh-Tripathi [Phys. Plasmas 11, 743 (2004)] for laser electron acceleration in a magnetic wiggler is revisited by including the effect of laser frequency chirping. Laser frequency chirp helps to maintain the resonance condition longer, which increases the electron energy gain. A significant enhancement in electron energy gain during laser acceleration is observed.
Radio frequency systems for present and future accelerators
Raka, E.C.
1987-01-01
Rf systems are described for the FNAL Main Ring and Tevatron Ring, CERN SPS and LEP, and HERA proton acceleration system, CERN PS e/sup +/e/sup minus/ acceleration system, and CERN EPA monochromatic cavity. Low impedance rf systems in CERN ISR, the Brookhaven CBA, and SSC are also discussed.
Preferential amplification of rising versus falling frequency whistler mode signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, J. D.; Harid, V.; Spasojevic, M.; Gołkowski, M.; Inan, U. S.
2015-01-01
Analysis of ground-based ELF/VLF observations of injected whistler mode waves from the 1986 Siple Station experiment demonstrates the preferential magnetospheric amplification of rising over descending frequency-time ramps. From examining conjugate region receptions of ±1 kHz/s frequency-time ramps, we find that rising ramps generate an average total power 1.9 times higher than that of falling frequency ramps when both are observed during a transmission. And in 17% of receptions, only rising ramps are observed above the noise floor. Furthermore, the amplification ratio inversely correlates with the noise and total signal power. Using a narrowband Vlasov-Maxwell numerical simulation, we explore the preferential amplification due to differences in linear growth rate as a function of frequency, relative to the frequency which maximizes the linear growth rate for a given anisotropy, and in nonlinear phase trapping. These results contribute to the understanding of magnetospheric wave amplification and the preference for structured rising elements in chorus.
Ciocca, Mario; Cantone, Marie-Claire; Veronese, Ivan; Cattani, Federica; Pedroli, Guido; Molinelli, Silvia; Vitolo, Viviana; Orecchia, Roberto
2012-02-01
Purpose: Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) represents a prospective approach for risk assessment. A multidisciplinary working group of the Italian Association for Medical Physics applied FMEA to electron beam intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) delivered using mobile linear accelerators, aiming at preventing accidental exposures to the patient. Methods and Materials: FMEA was applied to the IORT process, for the stages of the treatment delivery and verification, and consisted of three steps: 1) identification of the involved subprocesses; 2) identification and ranking of the potential failure modes, together with their causes and effects, using the risk probability number (RPN) scoring system, based on the product of three parameters (severity, frequency of occurrence and detectability, each ranging from 1 to 10); 3) identification of additional safety measures to be proposed for process quality and safety improvement. RPN upper threshold for little concern of risk was set at 125. Results: Twenty-four subprocesses were identified. Ten potential failure modes were found and scored, in terms of RPN, in the range of 42-216. The most critical failure modes consisted of internal shield misalignment, wrong Monitor Unit calculation and incorrect data entry at treatment console. Potential causes of failure included shield displacement, human errors, such as underestimation of CTV extension, mainly because of lack of adequate training and time pressures, failure in the communication between operators, and machine malfunctioning. The main effects of failure were represented by CTV underdose, wrong dose distribution and/or delivery, unintended normal tissue irradiation. As additional safety measures, the utilization of a dedicated staff for IORT, double-checking of MU calculation and data entry and finally implementation of in vivo dosimetry were suggested. Conclusions: FMEA appeared as a useful tool for prospective evaluation of patient safety in radiotherapy. The
High efficiency in mode-selective frequency conversion.
Quesada, Nicolás; Sipe, J E
2016-01-15
Frequency conversion (FC) is an enabling process in many quantum information protocols. Recently, it has been observed that upconversion efficiencies in single-photon, mode-selective FC are limited to around 80%. In this Letter, we argue that these limits can be understood as time-ordering corrections (TOCs) that modify the joint conversion amplitude of the process. Furthermore, using a simple scaling argument, we show that recently proposed cascaded FC protocols that overcome the aforementioned limitations act as "attenuators" of the TOCs. This observation allows us to argue that very similar cascaded architectures can be used to attenuate TOCs in photon generation via spontaneous parametric downconversion. Finally, by using the Magnus expansion, we argue that the TOCs, which are usually considered detrimental for FC efficiency, can also be used to increase the efficiency of conversion in partially mode-selective FC.
Magneto-hydrodynamics simulation study of deflagration mode in co-axial plasma accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Raja, Laxminarayan L.
2014-01-01
Experimental studies by Poehlmann et al. [Phys. Plasmas 17(12), 123508 (2010)] on a coaxial electrode magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma accelerator have revealed two modes of operation. A deflagration or stationary mode is observed for lower power settings, while higher input power leads to a detonation or snowplow mode. A numerical modeling study of a coaxial plasma accelerator using the non-ideal MHD equations is presented. The effect of plasma conductivity on the axial distribution of radial current is studied and found to agree well with experiments. Lower conductivities lead to the formation of a high current density, stationary region close to the inlet/breech, which is a characteristic of the deflagration mode, while a propagating current sheet like feature is observed at higher conductivities, similar to the detonation mode. Results confirm that plasma resistivity, which determines magnetic field diffusion effects, is fundamentally responsible for the two modes.
Magneto-hydrodynamics simulation study of deflagration mode in co-axial plasma accelerators
Sitaraman, Hariswaran; Raja, Laxminarayan L.
2014-01-15
Experimental studies by Poehlmann et al. [Phys. Plasmas 17(12), 123508 (2010)] on a coaxial electrode magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma accelerator have revealed two modes of operation. A deflagration or stationary mode is observed for lower power settings, while higher input power leads to a detonation or snowplow mode. A numerical modeling study of a coaxial plasma accelerator using the non-ideal MHD equations is presented. The effect of plasma conductivity on the axial distribution of radial current is studied and found to agree well with experiments. Lower conductivities lead to the formation of a high current density, stationary region close to the inlet/breech, which is a characteristic of the deflagration mode, while a propagating current sheet like feature is observed at higher conductivities, similar to the detonation mode. Results confirm that plasma resistivity, which determines magnetic field diffusion effects, is fundamentally responsible for the two modes.
Comparison of Calculated Plasma Mode Frequencies with Experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tobler, Samuel; Peterson, Bryan G.; Hart, Grant W.
2004-11-01
We have measured the diocotron and Trivelpiece-Gould mode frequencies, radial density profile and central temperature in a long (0.6 m), cylindrical Malmberg-Penning electron trap at four different magnetic field strengths. The total particle count varied by a factor of 10 and the magnetic field varied by a factor of 3.5. The temperatures were fairly constant. Using an equilibrium code (EQUILSOR), a 2-D particle-in-cell code (RATTLE), and a 3-D particle-in-cell code (INFERNO) we have calculated the frequencies corresponding to the experimental conditions. We will discuss the limitations of the codes and the conditions in which they agree with experimental results.
A quantitative mode-resolved frequency comb spectrometer.
Hébert, Nicolas Bourbeau; Scholten, Sarah K; White, Richard T; Genest, Jérôme; Luiten, Andre N; Anstie, James D
2015-06-01
We have developed a frequency-comb spectrometer that records 35-nm (4 THz) spectra with 2-pm (250 MHz) spectral sampling and an absolute frequency accuracy of 2 kHz. We achieve a signal-to-noise ratio of ~400 in a measurement time of 8.2 s. The spectrometer is based on a commercial frequency comb decimated by a variable-length, low-finesse Fabry Pérot filter cavity to fully resolve the comb modes as imaged by a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA), diffraction grating and near-IR camera. By tuning the cavity length, spectra derived from all unique decimated combs are acquired and then interleaved to achieve frequency sampling at the comb repetition rate of 250 MHz. We have validated the performance of the spectrometer by comparison with a previous high-precision absorption measurement of H^{13}C^{14}N near 1543 nm. We find excellent agreement, with deviations from the expected line centers and widths of, at most, 1 pm (125 MHz) and 3 pm (360 MHz), respectively.
Mode Selection for a Single-Frequency Fiber Laser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Jian
2010-01-01
A superstructured fiber-grating-based mode selection filter for a single-frequency fiber laser eliminates all free-space components, and makes the laser truly all-fiber. A ring cavity provides for stable operations in both frequency and power. There is no alignment or realignment required. After the fibers and components are spliced together and packaged, there is no need for specially trained technicians for operation or maintenance. It can be integrated with other modules, such as telescope systems, without extra optical alignment due to the flexibility of the optical fiber. The filter features a narrow line width of 1 kHz and side mode suppression ratio of 65 dB. It provides a high-quality laser for lidar in terms of coherence length and signal-to-noise ratio, which is 20 dB higher than solid-state or microchip lasers. This concept is useful in material processing, medical equipment, biomedical instrumentation, and optical communications. The pulse-shaping fiber laser can be directly used in space, airborne, and satellite applications including lidar, remote sensing, illuminators, and phase-array antenna systems.
Electron acceleration by Z-mode waves associated with cyclotron maser instability
Lee, K. H.; Lee, L. C.; Omura, Y.
2012-12-15
We demonstrate by a particle simulation that Z-mode waves generated by the cyclotron maser instability can lead to a significant acceleration of energetic electrons. In the particle simulation, the initial electron ring distribution leads to the growth of Z-mode waves, which then accelerate and decelerate the energetic ring electrons. The initial ring distribution evolves into an X-like pattern in momentum space, which can be related to the electron diffusion curves. The peak kinetic energy of accelerated electrons can reach 3 to 6 times the initial kinetic energy. We further show that the acceleration process is related to the 'nonlinear resonant trapping' in phase space, and the test-particle calculations indicate that the maximum electron energy gain {Delta}{epsilon}{sub max} is proportional to B{sub w}{sup 0.57}, where B{sub w} is the wave magnetic field.
Mode-locked frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brookman, J. S.
1976-01-01
The design, fabrication, test, and delivery of two mode-locked, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser systems are described. Each system was comprised of two units, the laser head and optics on an Invar plate and the electronics control unit in a relay rack chassis panel. Laser number one operated at a repetition rate of 400 MHz and was designed for use in an optical communication system. Laser number two operated at 200 MHz repetition rate and was designed for optical ranging and target signature experiments. Both lasers had a pulse width of 200 ps at the 10% amplitude points at 1.064 micrometer wavelength (150 ps at 0.532 micrometers) with an amplitude stability of + or - 4%. Output power exceeded the design goals.
Acceleration of FDTD mode solver by high-performance computing techniques.
Han, Lin; Xi, Yanping; Huang, Wei-Ping
2010-06-21
A two-dimensional (2D) compact finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) mode solver is developed based on wave equation formalism in combination with the matrix pencil method (MPM). The method is validated for calculation of both real guided and complex leaky modes of typical optical waveguides against the bench-mark finite-difference (FD) eigen mode solver. By taking advantage of the inherent parallel nature of the FDTD algorithm, the mode solver is implemented on graphics processing units (GPUs) using the compute unified device architecture (CUDA). It is demonstrated that the high-performance computing technique leads to significant acceleration of the FDTD mode solver with more than 30 times improvement in computational efficiency in comparison with the conventional FDTD mode solver running on CPU of a standard desktop computer. The computational efficiency of the accelerated FDTD method is in the same order of magnitude of the standard finite-difference eigen mode solver and yet require much less memory (e.g., less than 10%). Therefore, the new method may serve as an efficient, accurate and robust tool for mode calculation of optical waveguides even when the conventional eigen value mode solvers are no longer applicable due to memory limitation.
An Evaluation of High Frequency Acceleration Test at XLPE Cable’s Insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwasaki, Kimihiro; Nakade, Masahiko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Tanimoto, Mihoko; Okashita, Minoru; Ito, Kazumi
We investigated whether a high frequency acceleration method has validity at the degradation of XLPE in case of no influence of water for realizing a lifetime test at near the operating electric field. The tests was carried out at 50Hz, 1000Hz, and 3000Hz frequency using Recessed specimen and the specimen under Needle-plane electrode system, time-to-breakdown was measured. A clear property of frequency acceleration was checked in both results of tests, and the validity of the frequency acceleration technique was shown. And we realize that frequency acceleration factor is lower than the frequency ratio at both tests of specimens. We think the reason is that the amount of accumulation of the space charge per cycle at a defect or a tree tip at high frequency is less than the accumulation at 50Hz. Moreover, tree growth time effects at the time to breakdown of Needle-plane system specimen, but it effects a little at Recessed specimen, so there is difference of acceleration rate between both specimens. The lifetime exponent of V-t characteristic, n, increases at a 3000Hz examination, so it is suggested that n has a frequency dependence.
Sampling frequency affects the processing of Actigraph raw acceleration data to activity counts.
Brønd, Jan Christian; Arvidsson, Daniel
2016-02-01
ActiGraph acceleration data are processed through several steps (including band-pass filtering to attenuate unwanted signal frequencies) to generate the activity counts commonly used in physical activity research. We performed three experiments to investigate the effect of sampling frequency on the generation of activity counts. Ideal acceleration signals were produced in the MATLAB software. Thereafter, ActiGraph GT3X+ monitors were spun in a mechanical setup. Finally, 20 subjects performed walking and running wearing GT3X+ monitors. Acceleration data from all experiments were collected with different sampling frequencies, and activity counts were generated with the ActiLife software. With the default 30-Hz (or 60-Hz, 90-Hz) sampling frequency, the generation of activity counts was performed as intended with 50% attenuation of acceleration signals with a frequency of 2.5 Hz by the signal frequency band-pass filter. Frequencies above 5 Hz were eliminated totally. However, with other sampling frequencies, acceleration signals above 5 Hz escaped the band-pass filter to a varied degree and contributed to additional activity counts. Similar results were found for the spinning of the GT3X+ monitors, although the amount of activity counts generated was less, indicating that raw data stored in the GT3X+ monitor is processed. Between 600 and 1,600 more counts per minute were generated with the sampling frequencies 40 and 100 Hz compared with 30 Hz during running. Sampling frequency affects the processing of ActiGraph acceleration data to activity counts. Researchers need to be aware of this error when selecting sampling frequencies other than the default 30 Hz.
Frequency Domain Tomography Of Evolving Laser-Plasma Accelerator Structures
Dong Peng; Reed, Stephen; Kalmykov, Serguei; Shvets, Gennady; Downer, Mike
2009-01-22
Frequency Domain Holography (FDH), a technique for visualizing quasistatic objects propagating near the speed of light, has produced 'snapshots' of laser wakefields, but they are averaged over structural variations that occur during propagation through the plasma medium. Here we explore via simulations a generalization of FDH--that we call Frequency Domain Tomography (FDT)--that can potentially record a time sequence of quasistatic snapshots, like the frames of a movie, of the wake structure as it propagates through the plasma. FDT utilizes a several probe-reference pulse pairs that propagate obliquely to the drive pulse and wakefield, along with tomographic reconstruction algorithms similar to those used in medical CAT scans.
Transmission and Propagation of an Accelerating Mode in a Photonic Bandgap Fiber
Ng, C.-K.; England, R.J.; Lee, L.-Q.; Noble, R.; Rawat, V.; Spencer, J.; /SLAC
2010-08-26
A hollow core photonic bandgap (PBG) lattice in a dielectric fiber can provide high gradient acceleration in the optical regime, where the accelerating mode resulting from a defect in the PBG fiber can be excited by high-power lasers. Efficient methods of coupling laser power into the PBG fiber are an area of active research. In this paper, we develop a simulation method using the parallel finite-element electromagnetic suite ACE3P to study the propagation of the accelerating mode in the PBG fiber and determine the radiation pattern into free space at the end of the PBG fiber. The far-field radiation will be calculated and the mechanism of coupling power from an experimental laser setup will be discussed.
Matsumoto, Taro; Naitou, Hiroshi; Tokuda, Shinji; Kishimoto, Yasuaki
2005-09-15
The behavior of the collisionless magnetohydrodynamics modes is investigated by the gyrokinetic particle simulation in a cylindrical tokamak plasma in the parameter region where the effects of electron inertia and electron parallel compressibility are competitive for magnetic reconnection. Although the linear growth of the m=1 internal kink-tearing mode is dominated by the electron inertia, it is found that the growth rate can be nonlinearly accelerated due to the electron parallel compressibility proportional to the ion sound Larmor radius {rho}{sub s}. It is also found that, as decreasing the electron skin depth {delta}{sub e}, the maximum growth rate before the internal collapse saturates independently of the microscopic scales such as {delta}{sub e} and {rho}{sub s}. The acceleration of growth rate is also observed in the nonlinear phase of the m=2 double tearing mode.
Laser nitriding for niobium superconducting radio-frequency accelerator cavities
Senthilraja Singaravelu, John Klopf, Gwyn Williams, Michael Kelley
2010-10-01
Particle accelerators are a key tool for scientific research ranging from fundamental studies of matter to analytical studies at light sources. Cost-forperformance is critical, both in terms of initial capital outlay and ongoing operating expense, especially for electricity. It depends on the niobium superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) accelerator cavities at the heart of most of these machines. Presently Nb SRF cavities operate near 1.9 K, well (and expensively) below the 4.2 K atmospheric boiling point of liquid He. Transforming the 40 nm thick active interior surface layer from Nb to delta NbN (Tc = 17 K instead of 9.2 K) appears to be a promising approach. Traditional furnace nitriding appears to have not been successful for this. Further, exposing a complete SRF cavity to the time-temperature history required for nitriding risks mechanical distortion. Gas laser nitriding instead has been applied successfully to other metals [P.Schaaf, Prog. Mat. Sci. 47 (2002) 1]. The beam dimensions and thermal diffusion length permit modeling in one dimension to predict the time course of the surface temperature for a range of per-pulse energy densities. As with the earlier work, we chose conditions just sufficient for boiling as a reference point. We used a Spectra Physics HIPPO nanosecond laser (l = 1064 nm, Emax= 0.392 mJ, beam spot@ 34 microns, PRF =15 – 30 kHz) to obtain an incident fluence of 1.73 - 2.15 J/cm2 for each laser pulse at the target. The target was a 50 mm diameter SRF-grade Nb disk maintained in a nitrogen atmosphere at a pressure of 550 – 625 torr and rotated at a constant speed of 9 rpm. The materials were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM images show a sharp transition with fluence from a smooth, undulating topography to significant roughening, interpreted here as the onset of ablation. EPMA measurements of N/Nb atom ratio as a function of depth found a constant
RFQ (radio-frequency quadrupole) accelerator tuning system
Bolie, V.W.
1988-04-12
A cooling system is provided for maintaining a preselected operating temperature in a device, which may be an RFQ accelerator, having a variable heat removal requirement, by circulating a cooling fluid through a cooling system remote from the device. Internal sensors in the device enable an estimated error signal to be generated from parameters which are indicative of the heat removal requirement from the device. Sensors are provided at predetermined locations in the cooling system for outputting operational temperature signals. Analog and digital computers define a control signal functionally related to the temperature signals and the estimated error signal, where the control signal is defined effective to return the device to the preselected operating temperature in a stable manner. The cooling system includes a first heat sink responsive to a first portion of the control signal to remove heat from a major portion of the circulating fluid. A second heat sink is responsive to a second portion of the control to remove heat from a minor portion of the circulating fluid. The cooled major and minor portions of the circulating fluid are mixed in responsive to a mixing portion of the control signal, which is effective to proportion the major and minor portions of the circulating fluid to establish a mixed fluid temperature which is effective to define the preselected operating temperature for the remote device. 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Comparisons of radio frequency technology for superconducting accelerating structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimber, Andrew J.
2015-12-01
Since the introduction of radiofrequency (RF) accelerating cavities, normal conducting as well as superconducting, there has been a need to drive them with RF power. At first glance, the function of an RF drive system may seem simple and straightforward, but this belies subtleties that greatly affect the performance of the cavity itself, diminishing efforts in perfecting techniques in design and manufacture. It can also contribute to a significant portion of the initial capital and ongoing running costs of a facility, maintenance labor, downtime and future expenditure as the system ages. The RF `system', should be thought of as just that, the entire collection of components from wall plug to cavity. Following this integrated approach will enable the system to meet or exceed its design goals. This paper seeks to review the current state of RF technology for superconducting structures and to compare these technologies, looking at what has traditionally been used, developments that have enabled higher efficiencies and higher reliabilities as well as looking towards future technologies. It will concentrate on superconducting applications, but much of the narrative is equally applicable to normal conducting structures as well.
Hsu, Hung-Yao
2016-01-01
Bone cells are deformed according to mechanical stimulation they receive and their mechanical characteristics. However, how osteoblasts are affected by mechanical vibration frequency and acceleration amplitude remains unclear. By developing 3D osteoblast finite element (FE) models, this study investigated the effect of cell shapes on vibration characteristics and effect of acceleration (vibration intensity) on vibrational responses of cultured osteoblasts. Firstly, the developed FE models predicted natural frequencies of osteoblasts within 6.85–48.69 Hz. Then, three different levels of acceleration of base excitation were selected (0.5, 1, and 2 g) to simulate vibrational responses, and acceleration of base excitation was found to have no influence on natural frequencies of osteoblasts. However, vibration response values of displacement, stress, and strain increased with the increase of acceleration. Finally, stress and stress distributions of osteoblast models under 0.5 g acceleration in Z-direction were investigated further. It was revealed that resonance frequencies can be a monotonic function of cell height or bottom area when cell volumes and material properties were assumed as constants. These findings will be useful in understanding how forces are transferred and influence osteoblast mechanical responses during vibrations and in providing guidance for cell culture and external vibration loading in experimental and clinical osteogenesis studies. PMID:28074178
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiebold, Matthew D.
Time-averaged plasma potential differences up to ˜ 165 V over several hundred Debye lengths are observed in low pressure (pn < 1 mTorr) expanding argon plasmas in the Madison Helicon Experiment. The potential gradient leads to ion acceleration exceeding Ei ≈ 7 kTe in some cases. Up to 1 kW of 13.56 MHz RF power is supplied to a half-turn, double-helix antenna in the presence of a nozzle magnetic field up to 1 kG. An RPA measures the IEDF and an emissive probe measures the plasma potential. Single and double probes measure the electron density and temperature. Two distinct mode hops, the capacitive-inductive (E-H) and inductive-helicon (H-W) transitions, are identified by jumps in electron density as RF power is increased. In the capacitive mode, large fluctuations of the plasma potential (Vp--p ≳ 140 V, Vp--p/Vp ≈ 150%) exist at the RF frequency, leading to formation of a self-bias voltage. The mobile electrons can flow from the upstream region during an RF cycle whereas ions cannot, leading to an initial imbalance of flux, and the self-bias voltage builds as a result. The plasma potential in the expansion chamber is held near the floating potential for argon (Vp ≈ 5kTe/e). In the capacitive mode, the ion acceleration is not well described by an ambipolar relation. The accelerated population decay is consistent with that predicted by charge-exchange collisions. Grounding the upstream endplate increases the self-bias voltage compared to a floating endplate. In the inductive and helicon modes, the ion acceleration more closely follows an ambipolar relation, a result of decreased capacitive coupling due to the decreased RF skin depth. The scaling of the potential gradient with the argon flow rate, magnetic field and RF power are investigated, with the highest potential gradients observed for the lowest flow rates in the capacitive mode. The magnitude of the self-bias voltage agrees well with that predicted for RF sheaths. Use of the self-bias effect in a
High sensitivity of p-modes near the acoustic cutoff frequency to solar model parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guenther, D. B.
1991-01-01
The p-mode frequencies of low l have been calculated for solar models with initial helium mass fraction varying from Y = 0.2753-0.2875. The differences in frequency of the p-modes in the frequency range, 2500-4500 microHz, do not exceed 1-5 microHz among the models. But in the vicinity of the acoustic cutoff frequency, near 5000 microHz the p-mode frequency differences are enhanced by a factor of 4. The enhanced sensitivity of p-modes near the acoustic cutoff frequency was further tested by calculating and comparing p-mode frequencies of low l for two solar models one incorporating the Eddington T-tau relation and the other the Krishna Swamy T-tau relation. Again, it is found that p-modes with frequencies near the acoustic cutoff frequency show a significant increase in sensitivity to the different T-tau relations, compared to lower frequency p-modes. It is noted that frequencies above the acoustic cutoff frequency are complex, hence, cannot be modeled by the adiabatic pulsation code (assumes real eigenfrequencies) used in these calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aied, H.; González, A.; Cantero, D.
2016-01-01
The growth of heavy traffic together with aggressive environmental loads poses a threat to the safety of an aging bridge stock. Often, damage is only detected via visual inspection at a point when repairing costs can be quite significant. Ideally, bridge managers would want to identify a stiffness change as soon as possible, i.e., as it is occurring, to plan for prompt measures before reaching a prohibitive cost. Recent developments in signal processing techniques such as wavelet analysis and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) have aimed to address this need by identifying a stiffness change from a localised feature in the structural response to traffic. However, the effectiveness of these techniques is limited by the roughness of the road profile, the vehicle speed and the noise level. In this paper, ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) is applied by the first time to the acceleration response of a bridge model to a moving load with the purpose of capturing sudden stiffness changes. EEMD is more adaptive and appears to be better suited to non-linear signals than wavelets, and it reduces the mode mixing problem present in EMD. EEMD is tested in a variety of theoretical 3D vehicle-bridge interaction scenarios. Stiffness changes are successfully identified, even for small affected regions, relatively poor profiles, high vehicle speeds and significant noise. The latter is due to the ability of EEMD to separate high frequency components associated to sudden stiffness changes from other frequency components associated to the vehicle-bridge interaction system.
Accelerating thermal deposition modeling at terahertz frequencies using GPUs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doroski, Michael; Knight, Michael; Payne, Jason; Grundt, Jessica E.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Thomas, Robert; Roach, William P.; Wilmink, Gerald J.
2011-03-01
Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods are widely used to model the propagation of electromagnetic radiation in biological tissues. High-performance central processing units (CPUs) can execute FDTD simulations for complex problems using 3-D geometries and heterogeneous tissue material properties. However, when FDTD simulations are employed at terahertz (THz) frequencies excessively long processing times are required to account for finer resolution voxels and larger computational modeling domains. In this study, we developed and tested the performance of 2-D and 3-D FDTD thermal propagation code executed on a graphics processing unit (GPU) device, which was coded using an extension of the C language referred to as CUDA. In order to examine the speedup provided by GPUs, we compared the performance (speed, accuracy) for simulations executed on a GPU (Tesla C2050), a high-performance CPU (Intel Xeon 5504), and supercomputer. Simulations were conducted to model the propagation and thermal deposition of THz radiation in biological materials for several in vitro and in vivo THz exposure scenarios. For both the 2-D and 3-D in vitro simulations, we found that the GPU performed 100 times faster than runs executed on a CPU, and maintained comparable accuracy to that provided by the supercomputer. For the in vivo tissue damage studies, we found that the GPU executed simulations 87x times faster than the CPU. Interestingly, for all exposure duration tested, the CPU, GPU, and supercomputer provided comparable predictions for tissue damage thresholds (ED50). Overall, these results suggest that GPUs can provide performance comparable to a supercomputer and at speeds significantly faster than those possible with a CPU. Therefore, GPUs are an affordable tool for conducting accurate and fast simulations for computationally intensive modeling problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beaton, K. H.; Holly, J. E.; Clement, G. R.; Wood, Scott J.
2009-01-01
Previous studies have demonstrated an effect of frequency on the gain of tilt and translation perception. Results from different motion paradigms are often combined to extend the stimulus frequency range. For example, Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR) and Variable Radius Centrifugation (VRC) are useful to test low frequencies of linear acceleration at amplitudes that would require impractical sled lengths. The purpose of this study was to compare roll-tilt and lateral translation motion perception in 12 healthy subjects across four paradigms: OVAR, VRC, sled translation and rotation about an earth-horizontal axis. Subjects were oscillated in darkness at six frequencies from 0.01875 to 0.6 Hz (peak acceleration equivalent to 10 deg, less for sled motion below 0.15 Hz). Subjects verbally described the amplitude of perceived tilt and translation, and used a joystick to indicate the direction of motion. Consistent with previous reports, tilt perception gain decreased as a function of stimulus frequency in the motion paradigms without concordant canal tilt cues (OVAR, VRC and Sled). Translation perception gain was negligible at low stimulus frequencies and increased at higher frequencies. There were no significant differences between the phase of tilt and translation, nor did the phase significantly vary across stimulus frequency. There were differences in perception gain across the different paradigms. Paradigms that included actual tilt stimuli had the larger tilt gains, and paradigms that included actual translation stimuli had larger translation gains. In addition, the frequency at which there was a crossover of tilt and translation gains appeared to vary across motion paradigm between 0.15 and 0.3 Hz. Since the linear acceleration in the head lateral plane was equivalent across paradigms, differences in gain may be attributable to the presence of linear accelerations in orthogonal directions and/or cognitive aspects based on the expected motion paths.
Determining XV-15 aeroelastic modes from flight data with frequency-domain methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acree, C. W., Jr.; Tischler, Mark B.
1993-01-01
The XV-15 tilt-rotor wing has six major aeroelastic modes that are close in frequency. To precisely excite individual modes during flight test, dual flaperon exciters with automatic frequency-sweep controls were installed. The resulting structural data were analyzed in the frequency domain (Fourier transformed). All spectral data were computed using chirp z-transforms. Modal frequencies and damping were determined by fitting curves to frequency-response magnitude and phase data. The results given in this report are for the XV-15 with its original metal rotor blades. Also, frequency and damping values are compared with theoretical predictions made using two different programs, CAMRAD and ASAP. The frequency-domain data-analysis method proved to be very reliable and adequate for tracking aeroelastic modes during flight-envelope expansion. This approach required less flight-test time and yielded mode estimations that were more repeatable, compared with the exponential-decay method previously used.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ng, Y. S.
1977-01-01
A theoretical analysis of constant momentum mass spectrometry was made. A maximum resolving power for the decelerating mode constant momentum mass spectrometer was shown theoretically to exist for a beam of ions of known energy. A vacuum system and an electron beam ionization source was constructed. Supporting electronics for a residual gas analyzer were built. Experimental investigations of various types of accelerating and decelerating impulsive modes of a constant momentum mass spectrometer as applied to a residual gas analyzer were made. The data indicate that the resolving power for the decelerating mode is comparable to that of the accelerating mode.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khutoryan, Eduard M.; Idehara, Toshitaka; Melnikova, Maria M.; Ryskin, Nikita M.; Dumbrajs, Olgierd
2017-03-01
Effect of delayed reflection on operation of a second-harmonic terahertz (THz)-band gyrotron is studied. Theoretical analyses, numerical calculations, and experimental observations for the 0.394-THz Fukui University (FU) and continuous wave (CW) IIB gyrotron are presented. The reflections decrease starting current and expand frequency tunability range owing to excitation of high-order axial modes. They also increase frequency stability, i.e., reduce frequency change due to variation of the magnetic field. In addition, the reflections strongly affect mode competition causing suppress of the second-harmonic mode by the fundamental one and vice versa or, in the case of cooperative mode interaction, mutual power increase.
R-mode frequencies of rapidly and differentially rotating relativistic neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chirenti, Cecilia; Jasiulek, Michael
2017-01-01
R-modes are a promising source of gravitational waves for ground based detectors. If the precise frequency is known, guided gravitational wave searches with higher detectability are possible. Many authors have calculated the r-mode frequency because of its physical importance. For the dominant mode its value is 4/3 times the angular velocity of the star, subject to various corrections, of which the most important are relativistic and rotational corrections. Here we extend the results from previous works and investigate the effect of rapid rotation and differential rotation on the r-mode frequency. We evolve the perturbation equations in Cowling approximation in time using finite differencing methods to compute the r-mode frequency for sequences of rotating neutron stars with polytropic equations of state. The results presented here are relevant to the design of gravitational wave and electromagnetic r-mode searches.
Injection locking of a two-mode electron oscillator with close frequencies
Starodubova, E. N.; Usacheva, S. A.; Ryskin, N. M.; Novozhilova, Y. V.; Nusinovich, G. S.
2015-03-15
Theory of injection locking is developed for a two-mode electron maser with close frequencies, when the driving signal affects both modes. There exist two regimes of phase locking in which either first or second mode dominates. Hard transitions between the two regimes are observed with variation of the driving frequency. The results of numerical simulations are presented for the case of driving by a signal with linear frequency chirp, as well as by a signal with sinusoidal frequency modulation. The effect of bifurcation delay is observed with the increase of chirp rate.
Single-mode waveguide optical isolator based on direction-dependent cutoff frequency.
Tang, Lingling; Drezdzon, Samuel M; Yoshie, Tomoyuki
2008-09-29
A single-mode-waveguide optical isolator based on propagation direction dependent cut-off frequency is proposed. The isolation bandwidth is the difference between the cut-off frequencies of the lowest forward and backward propagating modes. Perturbation theory is used for analyzing the correlation between the material distribution and the bandwidth. The mode profile determines an appropriate distribution of non-reciprocal materials.
Voice Relative Fundamental Frequency via Neck-Skin Acceleration in Individuals with Voice Disorders
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lien, Yu-An S.; Calabrese, Carolyn R.; Michener, Carolyn M.; Murray, Elizabeth Heller; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Hillman, Robert E.; Noordzij, J. Pieter; Stepp, Cara E.
2015-01-01
Purpose: This study investigated the use of neck-skin acceleration for relative fundamental frequency (RFF) analysis. Method: Forty individuals with voice disorders associated with vocal hyperfunction and 20 age- and sex-matched control participants were recorded with a subglottal neck-surface accelerometer and a microphone while producing speech…
Low-frequency vibrational modes and infrared absorbance of red, blue and green opsin.
Thirumuruganandham, Saravana Prakash; Urbassek, Herbert M
2009-08-01
Vibrational excitations of low-frequency collective modes are essential for functionally important conformational transitions in proteins. We carried out an analysis of the low-frequency modes in the G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) family of cone opsins based on both normal-mode analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Power spectra obtained by MD can be compared directly with normal modes. In agreement with existing experimental evidence related to transmembrane proteins, cone opsins have functionally important transitions that correspond to approximately 950 modes and are found below 80 cm(-1). This is in contrast to bacteriorhodopsin and rhodopsin, where the important low-frequency transition modes are below 50 cm(-1). We find that the density of states (DOS) profile of blue opsin in a solvent (e.g. water) has increased populations in the very lowest frequency modes (<15 cm(-1)); this is indicative of the increased thermostability of blue opsin. From our work we found that, although light absorption behaves differently in blue, green and red opsins, their low-frequency vibrational motions are similar. The similarities and differences in the domain motions of blue, red and green opsins are discussed for several representative modes. In addition, the influence of the presence of a solvent is reported and compared with vacuum spectra. We thus demonstrate that terahertz spectroscopy of low-frequency modes might be relevant for identifying those vibrational degrees of freedom that correlate to known conformational changes in opsins.
Using frequency-domain methods to identify XV-15 aeroelastic modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acree, C. W., Jr.; Tischler, Mark B.
1987-01-01
The XV-15 Tilt-Rotor wing has six major aeroelastic modes that are close in frequency. To precisely excite individual modes during flight test, dual flaperon exciters with automatic frequency-sweep controls were installed. The resulting structural data were analyzed in the frequency domain (Fourier transformed) with cross spectral and transfer function methods. Modal frequencies and damping were determined by performing curve fits to transfer function magnitude and phase data and to cross spectral magnitude data. Results are given for the XV-15 with its original metal rotor blades. Frequency and damping values are also compared with earlier predictions.
Identification of XV-15 aeroelastic modes using frequency-domain methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acree, Cecil W., Jr.; Tischler, Mark B.
1989-01-01
The XV-15 Tilt-Rotor wing has six major aeroelastic modes that are close in frequency. To precisely excite individual modes during flight test, dual flaperon exciters with automatic frequency-sweep controls were installed. The resulting structural data were analyzed in the frequency domain (Fourier transformed) with cross spectral and transfer function methods. Modal frequencies and damping were determined by performing curve fits to transfer function magnitude and phase data and to cross spectral magnitude data. Results are given for the XV-15 with its original metal rotor blades. Frequency and damping values are also compared with earlier predictions.
Destabilization of Internal Kink Modes at High Frequency by Energetic Circulating Ions
Wang, Shaojie
2001-06-04
A theoretical model is proposed to interpret the high-frequency fishbone instability observed in tangential neutral-beam-injection discharges in a tokamak. It is shown that, when the beam ion beta exceeds a critical value, energetic circulating ions can indeed destabilize the internal kink mode through circulation resonance at a high frequency comparable to the circulation frequency of the energetic ions. The critical beta value of the energetic ions, the real frequency, and the growth rate of the mode are in general agreement with the high-frequency fishbone instability observed in experiments.
Awida, M. H.; Gonin, I.; Passarelli, D.; Sukanov, A.; Khabiboulline, T.; Yakovlev, V.
2016-01-22
Multiphysics analyses for superconducting cavities are essential in the course of cavity design to meet stringent requirements on cavity frequency detuning. Superconducting RF cavities are the core accelerating elements in modern particle accelerators whether it is proton or electron machine, as they offer extremely high quality factors thus reducing the RF losses per cavity. However, the superior quality factor comes with the challenge of controlling the resonance frequency of the cavity within few tens of hertz bandwidth. In this paper, we investigate how the multiphysics analysis plays a major role in proactively minimizing sources of frequency detuning, specifically; microphonics and Lorentz Force Detuning (LFD) in the stage of RF design of the cavity and mechanical design of the niobium shell and the helium vessel.
Low-Frequency Interlayer Breathing Modes in Few-Layer Black Phosphorus
Ling, Xi; Liang, Liangbo; Huang, Shengxi; ...
2015-05-08
As a new two-dimensional layered material, black phosphorus (BP) is a very promising material for nanoelectronics and nano-optoelectronics. We use Raman spectroscopy and first-principles theory to characterize and understand low-frequency (LF) interlayer breathing modes (<100 cm-1) in few-layer BP for the first time. Using laser polarization dependence study and group theory analysis the breathing modes are assigned to Ag symmetry. Compared to the high-frequency (HF) Raman modes, the LF breathing modes are considerably more sensitive to interlayer coupling and thus their frequencies show stronger dependence on the number of layers. Hence, they constitute an effective means to probe both themore » crystalline orientation and thickness of few-layer BP. Furthermore, the temperature dependence shows that the breathing modes have a harmonic behavior, in contrast to HF Raman modes which exhibit anharmonicity.« less
Low-Frequency Interlayer Breathing Modes in Few-Layer Black Phosphorus
Ling, Xi; Liang, Liangbo; Huang, Shengxi; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kong, Jing; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.
2015-05-08
As a new two-dimensional layered material, black phosphorus (BP) is a very promising material for nanoelectronics and nano-optoelectronics. We use Raman spectroscopy and first-principles theory to characterize and understand low-frequency (LF) interlayer breathing modes (<100 cm-1) in few-layer BP for the first time. Using laser polarization dependence study and group theory analysis the breathing modes are assigned to Ag symmetry. Compared to the high-frequency (HF) Raman modes, the LF breathing modes are considerably more sensitive to interlayer coupling and thus their frequencies show stronger dependence on the number of layers. Hence, they constitute an effective means to probe both the crystalline orientation and thickness of few-layer BP. Furthermore, the temperature dependence shows that the breathing modes have a harmonic behavior, in contrast to HF Raman modes which exhibit anharmonicity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Panapakkam, V.; Anthur, A.; Vujicic, V.; Gaimard, Q.; Merghem, K.; Aubin, G.; Lelarge, F.; Viktorov, E.; Barry, L. P.; Ramdane, A.
2016-10-01
We experimentally investigate the corner frequency in the 1/f frequency noise of the longitudinal modes of an InAs/InP quantum-dash based single-section passive mode-locked laser. The corner frequency features a strong asymmetry across the optical frequency comb with the values ranging from 10 MHz in the low-frequency side to 180 MHz in the high-frequency side. Actively mode-locking the laser induces a reduction in the corner frequency as it changes from 3 MHz in the low-frequency side to 70 MHz in the high-frequency side and the asymmetry persists.
Frequency comb generation by CW laser injection into a quantum-dot mode-locked laser.
Pinkert, T J; Salumbides, E J; Tahvili, M S; Ubachs, W; Bente, E A J M; Eikema, K S E
2012-09-10
We report on frequency comb generation at 1.5 μm by injection of a CW laser in a hybridly mode-locked InAs/InP two-section quantum-dot laser (HMLQDL). The generated comb has > 60 modes spaced by ∼ 4.5 GHz and a -20 dBc width of > 100 GHz (23 modes) at > 30 dB signal to background ratio. Comb generation was observed with the CW laser (red) detuned more than 20 nm outside the HMLQDL spectrum, spanning a large part of the gain spectrum of the quantum dot material. It is shown that the generated comb is fully coherent with the injected CW laser and RF frequency used to drive the hybrid mode-locking. This method of comb generation is of interest for the creation of small and robust frequency combs for use in optical frequency metrology, high-frequency (> 100 GHz) RF generation and telecommunication applications.
Geometric origin of excess low-frequency vibrational modes in weakly connected amorphous solids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wyart, M.; Nagel, S. R.; Witten, T. A.
2005-11-01
Glasses have an excess number of low-frequency vibrational modes in comparison with most crystalline solids. We show that such a feature necessarily occurs in solids with low coordination. In particular, we analyze the density D(ω) of normal-mode frequencies ω and the nature of the low-frequency normal modes of a recently simulated system (O'Hern C., Silbert L. E., Liu A. J. and Nagel S. R., Phys. Rev. E, 68 (2003) 011306) comprised of weakly compressed spheres at zero temperature. We account for the observed a) convergence of D(ω) toward a non-zero constant as the frequency goes to zero, b) appearance of a low-frequency cutoff ω*, and c) power law increase of ω* with compression. We introduce a length scale l* which characterizes the vibrational modes that appear at ω*.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rezaei-Pandari, M.; Niknam, A. R.; Massudi, R.; Jahangiri, F.; Hassaninejad, H.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M.
2017-02-01
The nonlinear interaction of an ultra-short intense frequency-chirped laser pulse with an underdense plasma is studied. The effects of plasma inhomogeneity and laser parameters such as chirp, pulse duration, and intensity on plasma density and wakefield evolutions, and electron acceleration are examined. It is found that a properly chirped laser pulse could induce a stronger laser wakefield in an inhomogeneous plasma and result in higher electron acceleration energy. It is also shown that the wakefield amplitude is enhanced by increasing the slope of density in the inhomogeneous plasma.
The geometry and frequency content of planetary gear single-mode vibration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooley, Christopher G.; Parker, Robert G.
2013-10-01
The geometry and frequency content of single-mode vibrations of spur planetary gears are investigated in the rotating carrier-fixed and the stationary reference frames. Planetary gears with equally spaced or diametrically opposed planets have exactly three mode types, called planet, rotational, and translational modes. The properties of these vibration modes lead to response with well-defined geometry. The frequency content of the motion differs between the rotating carrier-fixed and stationary bases. The results from this work assist the analysis of experimental planetary gear measurements.
Effect of axial load on mode shapes and frequencies of beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shaker, F. J.
1975-01-01
An investigation of the effect of axial load on the natural frequencies and mode shapes of uniform beams and of a cantilevered beam with a concentrated mass at the tip is presented. Characteristic equations which yield the frequencies and mode shape functions for the various cases are given. The solutions to these equations are presented by a series of graphs so that frequency as a function of axial load can readily be determined. The effect of axial load on the mode shapes are also depicted by another series of graphs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, David S.; Richardson, David J.; Slavík, Radan
2013-05-01
Optical injection locking can be used to isolate and amplify individual comb modes from an optical frequency comb (OFC). However, it has been observed that for narrow spaced OFCs (e.g. 250 MHz), the adjacent comb modes are still present in the output of the locked laser. These residual modes experience some amplification relative to the injected signal, however the gain is significantly less than for the locked mode. We report the measurement of this sidemode amplification for a semiconductor laser injection locked to a 250 MHz spaced OFC. It was found that this amplification can be well suppressed by tuning the frequency difference between the free running laser and the OFC mode it was locked to. The sidemode amplification was then investigated numerically by solving the laser rate equations under optical injection. It was found that the main contribution to the sidemode amplification was due to phase modulation induced by the residual comb modes. The detuning dependent suppression occurs due to destructive interference between pairs of equidistant comb modes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bortolon, A.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; Nagy, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Baylor, L. R.; Commaux, N.; Jackson, G. L.; Gilson, E. P.; Lunsford, R.; Parks, P. B.; Chrystal, C.; Grierson, B. A.; Groebner, R.; Haskey, S. R.; Makowski, M. J.; Lasnier, C. J.; Nazikian, R.; Osborne, T.; Shiraki, D.; Van Zeeland, M. A.
2016-05-01
A newly installed Lithium Granule Injector (LGI) was used to pace edge localized modes (ELM) in DIII-D. ELM pacing efficiency was studied injecting lithium granules of nominal diameter 0.3-0.9 mm, speed of 50-120 m s-1 and average injection rates up to 100 Hz for 0.9 mm granules and up to 700 Hz for 0.3 mm granules. The efficiency of ELM triggering was found to depend strongly on size of the injected granules, with triggering efficiency close to 100% obtained with 0.9 mm diameter granules, lower with smaller sizes, and weakly depending on granule velocity. Robust ELM pacing was demonstrated in ITER-like plasmas for the entire shot length, at ELM frequencies 3-5 times larger than the ‘natural’ ELM frequency observed in reference discharges. Within the range of ELM frequencies obtained, the peak ELM heat flux at the outer strike point was reduced with increasing pacing frequency. The peak heat flux reduction at the inner strike point appears to saturate at high pacing frequency. Lithium was found in the plasma core, with a concurrent reduction of metallic impurities and carbon. Overall, high frequency ELM pacing using the lithium granule injection appears to be compatible with both H-mode energy confinement and attractive H-mode pedestal characteristics, but further assessment is needed to determine whether the projected heat flux reduction required for ITER can be met.
Bortolon, A.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; Nagy, A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Baylor, L. R.; Commaux, N.; Jackson, G. L.; Gilson, E. P.; Lunsford, R.; Parks, P. B.; Chrystal, C.; Grierson, B. A.; Groebner, R.; Haskey, S. R.; Makowski, M. J.; Lasnier, C. J.; Nazikian, R.; Osborne, T.; Shiraki, D.; Van Zeeland, M. A.
2016-04-08
A newly installed Lithium Granule Injector (LGI) was used to pace edge localized modes (ELM) in DIII-D. ELM pacing efficiency was studied injecting lithium granules of nominal diameter 0.3–0.9mm, speed of 50–120 m s^{-1} and average injection rates up to 100 Hz for 0.9mm granules and up to 700 Hz for 0.3mm granules. The efficiency of ELM triggering was found to depend strongly on size of the injected granules, with triggering efficiency close to 100% obtained with 0.9mm diameter granules, lower with smaller sizes, and weakly depending on granule velocity. Robust ELM pacing was demonstrated in ITER-like plasmas for the entire shot length, at ELM frequencies 3–5 times larger than the ‘natural’ ELM frequency observed in reference discharges. Within the range of ELM frequencies obtained, the peak ELM heat flux at the outer strike point was reduced with increasing pacing frequency. The peak heat flux reduction at the inner strike point appears to saturate at high pacing frequency. Lithium was found in the plasma core, with a concurrent reduction of metallic impurities and carbon. Altogether, high frequency ELM pacing using the lithium granule injection appears to be compatible with both H-mode energy confinement and attractive H-mode pedestal characteristics, but further assessment is need
Bortolon, A.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; ...
2016-04-08
A newly installed Lithium Granule Injector (LGI) was used to pace edge localized modes (ELM) in DIII-D. ELM pacing efficiency was studied injecting lithium granules of nominal diameter 0.3–0.9mm, speed of 50–120 m s-1 and average injection rates up to 100 Hz for 0.9mm granules and up to 700 Hz for 0.3mm granules. The efficiency of ELM triggering was found to depend strongly on size of the injected granules, with triggering efficiency close to 100% obtained with 0.9mm diameter granules, lower with smaller sizes, and weakly depending on granule velocity. Robust ELM pacing was demonstrated in ITER-like plasmas for themore » entire shot length, at ELM frequencies 3–5 times larger than the ‘natural’ ELM frequency observed in reference discharges. Within the range of ELM frequencies obtained, the peak ELM heat flux at the outer strike point was reduced with increasing pacing frequency. The peak heat flux reduction at the inner strike point appears to saturate at high pacing frequency. Lithium was found in the plasma core, with a concurrent reduction of metallic impurities and carbon. Altogether, high frequency ELM pacing using the lithium granule injection appears to be compatible with both H-mode energy confinement and attractive H-mode pedestal characteristics, but further assessment is need« less
Frequency spectra of nonlinear elastic pulse-mode waves
Kadish, A.; TenCate, J.A.; Johnson, P.A.
1996-09-01
The frequency spectrum of simple waves is used to derive a closed form analytical representation for the frequency spectrum of damped nonlinear pulses in elastic materials. The damping modification of simple wave theory provides an efficient numerical method for calculating propagating wave forms. The spectral representation, which is neither pulse length nor amplitude limited, is used to obtain estimates for parameters of the nonlinear state relation for a sandstone sample from published experimental data, and the results are compared with those of other theories. The method should have broad application to many solids.
Design of 10 GeV laser wakefield accelerator stages with shaped laser modes
Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Leemans, W.P.; Bruhwiler, D.L.; Cowan, B.; Paul, K.
2009-09-25
We present particle-in-cell simulations, using the VORPAL framework, of 10 GeV laser plasma wakefield accelerator stages. Scaling of the physical parameters with the plasma density allows us to perform these simulations at reasonable cost and to design high performance stages. In particular we show that, by choosing to operate in the quasi-linear regime, we can use higher order laser modes to tailor the focusing forces. This makes it possible to increase the matched electron beam radius and hence the total charge in the bunch while preserving the low bunch emittance required for applications.
Modes and cutoff frequencies of crossed rectangular waveguides
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tham, Q. C.
1977-01-01
One complete solution is presented for determining the electromagnetic field of a generalized crossed rectangular waveguide. The method adopted is that of partial regions. Cutoff frequencies of symmetrical crossed waveguides are presented as an example. The results, even for low-order approximations, correspond well with the only experimental results available in the literature.
Low-Frequency Interlayer Raman Modes to Probe Interface of Twisted Bilayer MoS2.
Huang, Shengxi; Liang, Liangbo; Ling, Xi; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kong, Jing; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S
2016-02-10
van der Waals homo- and heterostructures assembled by stamping monolayers together present optoelectronic properties suitable for diverse applications. Understanding the details of the interlayer stacking and resulting coupling is crucial for tuning these properties. We investigated the low-frequency interlayer shear and breathing Raman modes (<50 cm(-1)) in twisted bilayer MoS2 by Raman spectroscopy and first-principles modeling. Twisting significantly alters the interlayer stacking and coupling, leading to notable frequency and intensity changes of low-frequency modes. The frequency variation can be up to 8 cm(-1) and the intensity can vary by a factor of ∼5 for twisting angles near 0° and 60°, where the stacking is a mixture of high-symmetry stacking patterns and is thus sensitive to twisting. For twisting angles between 20° and 40°, the interlayer coupling is nearly constant because the stacking results in mismatched lattices over the entire sample. It follows that the Raman signature is relatively uniform. Note that for some samples, multiple breathing mode peaks appear, indicating nonuniform coupling across the interface. In contrast to the low-frequency interlayer modes, high-frequency intralayer Raman modes are much less sensitive to interlayer stacking and coupling. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of low-frequency Raman modes for probing the interfacial coupling and environment of twisted bilayer MoS2 and potentially other two-dimensional materials and heterostructures.
Detecting chaos in particle accelerators through the frequency map analysis method.
Papaphilippou, Yannis
2014-06-01
The motion of beams in particle accelerators is dominated by a plethora of non-linear effects, which can enhance chaotic motion and limit their performance. The application of advanced non-linear dynamics methods for detecting and correcting these effects and thereby increasing the region of beam stability plays an essential role during the accelerator design phase but also their operation. After describing the nature of non-linear effects and their impact on performance parameters of different particle accelerator categories, the theory of non-linear particle motion is outlined. The recent developments on the methods employed for the analysis of chaotic beam motion are detailed. In particular, the ability of the frequency map analysis method to detect chaotic motion and guide the correction of non-linear effects is demonstrated in particle tracking simulations but also experimental data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, C. S.; Lin, C. S.; Wong, H. K.; Tsai, S. T.; Zhou, R. L.
1981-01-01
An investigation is presented of two cases: (1) weakly relativistic electrons with a loss-cone type distribution, and (2) electrons with a drift velocity parallel to the ambient magnetic field. Numerical computations are given for physical parameters close to those in the polar region of the earth magnetosphere and laboratory experiments, with attention to the fast extraordinary-mode radiation whose frequency is near that of the electron cyclotron frequency. The fast extraordinary mode can escape from a strong field region to the weaker field region and may therefore be measured outside the plasma. It is found that the X mode radiation can be amplified by means of a cyclotron maser effect when the electrons have a loss-cone distribution, and it is concluded that, when the electron energy is sufficiently high, the X mode cutoff frequency may be lower than the cyclotron frequency.
Li, Feng; Zhang, Aiqin; Feng, Xinhuan; Wai, P K A
2013-12-16
In a harmonically mode locked laser, the supermode noise peaks in the RF spectrum can be observed directly because they are separated from the driving frequency and its harmonics of the active mode locker. Using a simple theoretical model, we showed that the intensities of the supermode noise peaks will decrease if the coherence of the laser output decreases. We harmonically mode locked a Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) fiber laser to the third order. We observed that the supermode noise peak intensities decrease significantly when the detune between the sweeping frequency of the tunable filter and the cavity resonant frequency increases. It is therefore possible to use the supermode noise peaks to monitor the frequency detune of the tunable filter for auto-calibration of FDML fiber lasers.
Effect of magnetic bending on the EBT high-frequency modes
El-Nadi, A.M.; Hiroe, S.; Whitson, J.C.; Hassen, H.F.; Kirolous, H.A.
1986-02-01
The high-frequency stability of the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) device is studied when the wave vector has a finite component along the magnetic field lines. Unstable modes exist for any finite hot electron density. 9 refs., 1 fig.
Rotational IMRT delivery using a digital linear accelerator in very high dose rate 'burst mode'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salter, Bill J.; Sarkar, Vikren; Wang, Brian; Shukla, Himanshu; Szegedi, Martin; Rassiah-Szegedi, Prema
2011-04-01
Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in arc-based IMRT, through the use of 'conventional' multileaf collimator (MLC) systems that can treat large tumor volumes in a single, or very few pass(es) of the gantry. Here we present a novel 'burst mode' modulated arc delivery approach, wherein 2000 monitor units per minute (MU min-1) high dose rate bursts of dose are facilitated by a flattening-filter-free treatment beam on a Siemens Artiste (Oncology Care Systems, Siemens Medical Solutions, Concord, CA, USA) digital linear accelerator in a non-clinical configuration. Burst mode delivery differs from continuous mode delivery, used by Elekta's VMAT (Elekta Ltd, Crawley, UK) and Varian's RapidArc (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) implementations, in that dose is not delivered while MLC leaves are moving. Instead, dose is delivered in bursts over very short arc angles and only after an MLC segment shape has been completely formed and verified by the controller. The new system was confirmed to be capable of delivering a wide array of clinically relevant treatment plans, without machine fault or other delivery anomalies. Dosimetric accuracy of the modulated arc platform, as well as the Prowess (Prowess Inc., Concord, CA, USA) prototype treatment planning version utilized here, was quantified and confirmed, and delivery times were measured as significantly brief, even with large hypofractionated doses. The burst mode modulated arc approach evaluated here appears to represent a capable, accurate and efficient delivery approach.
Rotational IMRT delivery using a digital linear accelerator in very high dose rate 'burst mode'.
Salter, Bill J; Sarkar, Vikren; Wang, Brian; Shukla, Himanshu; Szegedi, Martin; Rassiah-Szegedi, Prema
2011-04-07
Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in arc-based IMRT, through the use of 'conventional' multileaf collimator (MLC) systems that can treat large tumor volumes in a single, or very few pass(es) of the gantry. Here we present a novel 'burst mode' modulated arc delivery approach, wherein 2000 monitor units per minute (MU min(-1)) high dose rate bursts of dose are facilitated by a flattening-filter-free treatment beam on a Siemens Artiste (Oncology Care Systems, Siemens Medical Solutions, Concord, CA, USA) digital linear accelerator in a non-clinical configuration. Burst mode delivery differs from continuous mode delivery, used by Elekta's VMAT (Elekta Ltd, Crawley, UK) and Varian's RapidArc (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA, USA) implementations, in that dose is not delivered while MLC leaves are moving. Instead, dose is delivered in bursts over very short arc angles and only after an MLC segment shape has been completely formed and verified by the controller. The new system was confirmed to be capable of delivering a wide array of clinically relevant treatment plans, without machine fault or other delivery anomalies. Dosimetric accuracy of the modulated arc platform, as well as the Prowess (Prowess Inc., Concord, CA, USA) prototype treatment planning version utilized here, was quantified and confirmed, and delivery times were measured as significantly brief, even with large hypofractionated doses. The burst mode modulated arc approach evaluated here appears to represent a capable, accurate and efficient delivery approach.
Low-Frequency Interlayer Raman Modes to Probe Interface of Twisted Bilayer MoS 2
Huang, Shengxi; Liang, Liangbo; Ling, Xi; ...
2016-02-21
A variety of van der Waals homo- and hetero- structures assembled by stamping monolayers together present optoelectronic properties suitable for diverse applications. Understanding the details of the interlayer stacking and resulting coupling is crucial for tuning these properties. Twisted bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides offer a great platform for developing a precise understanding of the structure/property relationship. Here, we study the low-frequency interlayer shear and breathing Raman modes (<50 cm-1) in twisted bilayer MoS2 by Raman spectroscopy and first-principles modeling. Twisting introduces both rotational and translational shifts and significantly alters the interlayer stacking and coupling, leading to notable frequency and intensitymore » changes of low-frequency modes. The frequency variation can be up to 8 cm-1 and the intensity can vary by a factor of ~5 for twisting near 0 and 60 , where the stacking is a mixture of multiple high-symmetry stacking patterns and is thus especially sensitive to twisting. Moreover, for twisting angles between 20 and 40 , the interlayer coupling is nearly constant since the stacking results in mismatched lattices over the entire sample. It follows that the Raman signature is relatively uniform. Interestingly, unlike the breathing mode, the shear mode is extremely sensitive to twisting: it disappears between 20 and 40 as its frequency drops to almost zero due to the stacking-induced mismatch. Note that for some samples, multiple breathing mode peaks appear, indicating non-uniform coupling across the interface. In contrast to the low-frequency interlayer modes, high-frequency intralayer Raman modes are much less sensitive to interlayer stacking and coupling, showing negligible changes upon twisting. Our research demonstrates the effectiveness of low-frequency Raman modes for probing the interfacial coupling and environment of twisted bilayer MoS2, and potentially other two-dimensional materials and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dykeman, Eric C.; Sankey, Otto F.
2010-02-01
We describe a technique for calculating the low-frequency mechanical modes and frequencies of a large symmetric biological molecule where the eigenvectors of the Hessian matrix are determined with full atomic detail. The method, which follows order N methods used in electronic structure theory, determines the subset of lowest-frequency modes while using group theory to reduce the complexity of the problem. We apply the method to three icosahedral viruses of various T numbers and sizes; the human viruses polio and hepatitis B, and the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus, a plant virus. From the normal-mode eigenvectors, we use a bond polarizability model to predict a low-frequency Raman scattering profile for the viruses. The full atomic detail in the displacement patterns combined with an empirical potential-energy model allows a comparison of the fully atomic normal modes with elastic network models and normal-mode analysis with only dihedral degrees of freedom. We find that coarse-graining normal-mode analysis (particularly the elastic network model) can predict the displacement patterns for the first few (˜10) low-frequency modes that are global and cooperative.
Molecular fingerprinting with the resolved modes of a femtosecond laser frequency comb.
Diddams, Scott A; Hollberg, Leo; Mbele, Vela
2007-02-08
The control of the broadband frequency comb emitted from a mode-locked femtosecond laser has permitted a wide range of scientific and technological advances--ranging from the counting of optical cycles for next-generation atomic clocks to measurements of phase-sensitive high-field processes. A unique advantage of the stabilized frequency comb is that it provides, in a single laser beam, about a million optical modes with very narrow linewidths and absolute frequency positions known to better than one part in 10(15) (ref. 5). One important application of this vast array of highly coherent optical fields is precision spectroscopy, in which a large number of modes can be used to map internal atomic energy structure and dynamics. However, an efficient means of simultaneously identifying, addressing and measuring the amplitude or relative phase of individual modes has not existed. Here we use a high-resolution disperser to separate the individual modes of a stabilized frequency comb into a two-dimensional array in the image plane of the spectrometer. We illustrate the power of this technique for high-resolution spectral fingerprinting of molecular iodine vapour, acquiring in a few milliseconds absorption images covering over 6 THz of bandwidth with high frequency resolution. Our technique for direct and parallel accessing of stabilized frequency comb modes could find application in high-bandwidth spread-spectrum communications with increased security, high-resolution coherent quantum control, and arbitrary optical waveform synthesis with control at the optical radian level.
Frequency-Shaped Sliding Mode Control for Rudder Roll Damping System of Robotic Boat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, Xinping; Yu, Zhenyu; Nonami, Kenzo
In this paper, a robotic boat model of combined yaw and roll rate is obtained by a system identification approach. The identified system is designed with frequency-shaped sliding mode control. The control scheme is composed of a sliding mode observer and a sliding mode controller. The stability and reachability of the switching function are proved by Lyapunov theory. Computer simulations and experiment carried out at INAGE offshore show that successful course keeping and roll reduction results are achieved.
Ahn, T; Moon, S; Youk, Y; Jung, Y; Oh, K; Kim, D
2005-05-30
A novel mode analysis method and differential mode delay (DMD) measurement technique for a multimode optical fiber based on optical frequency domain reflectometry has been proposed for the first time. We have used a conventional OFDR with a tunable external cavity laser and a Michelson interferometer. A few-mode optical multimode fiber was prepared to test our proposed measurement technique. We have also compared the OFDR measurement results with those obtained using a traditional time-domain measurement method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yunqiao; Wang, Qianxi
2016-06-01
The dynamics of encapsulated microbubbles (EMBs) subject to an ultrasound wave have wide and important medical applications, including sonography, drug delivery, and sonoporation. The nonspherical shape oscillation of an EMB, termed as shape modes, is one of the core mechanisms of these applications and therefore its natural frequency is a fundamentally important parameter. Based on the linear stability theory, we show that shape modes of an EMB in a viscous Newtonian liquid are stable. We derive an explicit expression for the natural frequency of shape modes, in terms of the equilibrium radius of an EMB, and the parameters of the external liquid, coating, and internal gases. The expression is validated by comparing to the numerical results obtained from the dynamic equations of shape modes of an EMB. The natural frequency of shape modes shifts appreciably due to the viscosity of the liquid, and this trend increases with the mode number. The significant viscous effects are due to the no-slip condition for the liquid flow at the surface of an EMB. Our results show that when subject to an acoustic wave, the shape instability for an EMB is prone to appear if 2ωk/ωd = n, where ωk is the natural frequency of shape modes, ωd is the driving frequency of the acoustic wave, and n is a natural number. The effects of viscosity on the natural frequency is thus critical in setting the driving frequency of ultrasound to avoid or activate shape modes of EMBs, which should be considered in the applications of medical ultrasound.
Simulation study of high-frequency energetic particle driven geodesic acoustic mode
Wang, Hao Ido, Takeshi; Osakabe, Masaki; Todo, Yasushi
2015-09-15
High-frequency energetic particle driven geodesic acoustic modes (EGAM) observed in the large helical device plasmas are investigated using a hybrid simulation code for energetic particles and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Energetic particle inertia is incorporated in the MHD momentum equation for the simulation where the beam ion density is comparable to the bulk plasma density. Bump-on-tail type beam ion velocity distribution created by slowing down and charge exchange is considered. It is demonstrated that EGAMs have frequencies higher than the geodesic acoustic modes and the dependence on bulk plasma temperature is weak if (1) energetic particle density is comparable to the bulk plasma density and (2) charge exchange time (τ{sub cx}) is sufficiently shorter than the slowing down time (τ{sub s}) to create a bump-on-tail type distribution. The frequency of high-frequency EGAM rises as the energetic particle pressure increases under the condition of high energetic particle pressure. The frequency also increases as the energetic particle pitch angle distribution shifts to higher transit frequency. It is found that there are two kinds of particles resonant with EGAM: (1) trapped particles and (2) passing particles with transit frequency close to the mode frequency. The EGAMs investigated in this work are destabilized primarily by the passing particles whose transit frequencies are close to the EGAM frequency.
Simultaneous multi-frequency topological edge modes between one-dimensional photonic crystals.
Choi, Ka Hei; Ling, C W; Lee, K F; Tsang, Y H; Fung, Kin Hung
2016-04-01
We show theoretically that, in the limit of weak dispersion, one-dimensional binary centrosymmetric photonic crystals can support topological edge modes in all photonic bandgaps. By analyzing their bulk band topology, these "harmonic" topological edge modes can be designed in a way that they exist at all photonic bandgaps opened at the center of the Brillouin zone, at all gaps opened at the zone boundaries, or both. The results may suggest a new approach to achieve robust multi-frequency coupled modes for applications in nonlinear photonics, such as frequency upconversion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Naoya; Tanigawa, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Kenichiro
2013-04-01
Resonators based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have received considerable attention for their applications for wireless equipment. The requirements for this application include small size, high frequency, wide bandwidth and high portability. However, few MEMS resonators with wide-frequency tuning have been reported. A fishbone-shaped resonator has a resonant frequency with a maximum response that can be changed according to the location and number of several exciting electrodes. Therefore, it can be expected to provide wide-frequency tuning. The resonator has three types of electrostatic forces that can be generated to deform a main beam. We evaluate the vibrational modes caused by each exciting electrodes by comparing simulated results with measured ones. We then successfully demonstrate the frequency tuning of the first to fifth resonant modes by using the algorithm we propose here. The resulting frequency tuning covers 178 to 1746 kHz. In addition, we investigate the suppression of the anchor loss to enhance the Q-factor. An experiment shows that tapered-shaped anchors provide a higher Q-factor than rectangular-shaped anchors. The Q-factor of the resonators supported by suspension beams is also discussed. Because the suspension beams cause complicated vibrational modes for higher frequencies, the enhancement of the Q-factor for high vibrational modes cannot be obtained here. At present, the tapered-anchor resonators are thought to be most suitable for frequency tuning applications.
Inelastic ultraviolet scattering from high frequency acoustic modes in glasses.
Masciovecchio, C; Gessini, A; Di Fonzo, S; Comez, L; Santucci, S C; Fioretto, D
2004-06-18
The dynamic structure factor of vitreous silica and glycerol has been measured as a function of temperature and of the momentum transfer up to Q=0.105 nm(-1) using a novel experimental technique, the inelastic ultraviolet scattering. As in the case of Brillouin light scattering and ultrasonic measurements, the temperature dependence of the acoustic attenuation shows a plateau below the glass transition whose amplitude scales as Q2. Moreover, a slight temperature dependence of attenuation has been found in vitreous silica at about 130 K, which seems to be reminiscent of the peak measured at lower Qs. These two findings strongly support the idea that anharmonicity is responsible for sound attenuation at ultrasonic and hypersonic frequencies. Finally, we demonstrate that the attenuation mechanism should show a change of regime between 0.105 and 1 nm(-1).
Psikal, J.; Klimo, O.; Weber, S.; Margarone, D.
2014-07-15
The influence of laser frequency on laser-driven ion acceleration is investigated by means of two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. When ultrashort intense laser pulse at higher harmonic frequency irradiates a thin solid foil, the target may become re lativistically transparent for significantly lower laser pulse intensity compared with irradiation at fundamental laser frequency. The relativistically induced transparency results in an enhanced heating of hot electrons as well as increased maximum energies of accelerated ions and their numbers. Our simulation results have shown the increase in maximum proton energy and increase in the number of high-energy protons by a factor of 2 after the interaction of an ultrashort laser pulse of maximum intensity 7 × 10{sup 21 }W/cm{sup 2} with a fully ionized plastic foil of realistic density and of optimal thickness between 100 nm and 200 nm when switching from the fundamental frequency to the third harmonics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; New, R.
2011-06-01
We have studied solar-cycle changes in the large frequency separations that can be observed in Birmingham Solar Oscillations Network (BiSON) data. The large frequency separation is often one of the first outputs from asteroseismic studies because it can help constrain stellar properties like mass and radius. We have used three methods for estimating the large separations: use of individual p-mode frequencies, computation of the autocorrelation of frequency-power spectra, and computation of the power spectrum of the power spectrum. The values of the large separations obtained by the different methods are offset from each other and have differing sensitivities to the realization noise. A simple model was used to predict solar-cycle variations in the large separations, indicating that the variations are due to the well-known solar-cycle changes to mode frequency. However, this model is only valid over a restricted frequency range. We discuss the implications of these results for asteroseismology.
Energy and frequency dependence of the alpha particle redistribution produced by internal kink modes
Farengo, R.; Ferrari, H. E.; Garcia-Martinez, P. L.; Firpo, M.-C.; Ettoumi, W.; Lifschitz, A. F.
2014-08-15
The redistribution of alpha particles due to internal kink modes is studied. The exact particle trajectories in the total fields, equilibrium plus perturbation, are calculated. The equilibrium has circular cross section and the plasma parameters are similar to those expected in ITER. The alpha particles are initially distributed according to a slowing down distribution function and have energies between 18 keV and 3.5 MeV. The (1, 1), (2, 2), and (2, 1) modes are included and the effect of changing their amplitude and frequency is studied. When only the (1, 1) mode is included, the spreading of high energy (E≳1 MeV) alpha particles increases slowly with the energy and mode frequency. At lower energies, the redistribution is more sensitive to the mode frequency and particle energy. When a (2, 1) mode is added, the spreading increases significantly and particles can reach the edge of the plasma. Trapped particles are the most affected and the redistribution parameter can have maxima above 1 MeV, depending on the mode frequency. These results can have important implications for ash removal.
Baboi, N.; Kreps, G.; Schlarb, H.; Wendt, M.; Frisch, J.; McCormick, D.; Ross, M.; Smith, T.; Napoly, O.; Paparella, R.G.; /DSM, DAPNIA, Saclay
2006-04-10
The TESLA Test Facility (TTF) is a user facility for intense VUV-FEL light. The facility is densely equipped with diagnostics, essential in obtaining the necessary beam parameters, in particular the low emittance. However there is no dedicated component for alignment of the beam in the accelerating modules, each containing eight superconducting cavities. Large beam offsets can lead to an increase of the beam emittance. The centering of the beam in these modules is therefore important, mostly at the low energy end. A misalignment of the first TTF module with respect to the gun axis has already been observed using cavity dipole modes. This paper presents the experimental results of the optimization of the beam injection into the first module, based on the monitoring of dipole modes through the couplers installed for wakefield damping. For this we use a spectrum analyzer together with a multiplexer. By scanning the beam position and tilt with two pairs of steerers, we can find the trajectory which minimizes the dipole modes amplitude. The impact of the beam steering in the module on the beam is discussed. A time domain setup is also being presented.
Haji, Mohsin; Hou, Lianping; Kelly, Anthony E; Akbar, Jehan; Marsh, John H; Arnold, John M; Ironside, Charles N
2012-01-30
Optical self seeding feedback techniques can be used to improve the noise characteristics of passively mode-locked laser diodes. External cavities such as fiber optic cables can increase the memory of the phase and subsequently improve the timing jitter. In this work, an improved optical feedback architecture is proposed using an optical fiber loop delay as a cavity extension of the mode-locked laser. We investigate the effect of the noise reduction as a function of the loop length and feedback power. The well known composite cavity technique is also implemented for suppressing supermode noise artifacts presented due to harmonic mode locking effects. Using this method, we achieve a record low radio frequency linewidth of 192 Hz for any high frequency (>1 GHz) passively mode-locked laser to date (to the best of the authors' knowledge), making it promising for the development of high frequency optoelectronic oscillators.
Inversion of high frequency surface waves with fundamental and higher modes
Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Park, C.B.; Tian, G.
2003-01-01
The phase velocity of Rayleigh-waves of a layered earth model is a function of frequency and four groups of earth parameters: compressional (P)-wave velocity, shear (S)-wave velocity, density, and thickness of layers. For the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves, analysis of the Jacobian matrix for high frequencies (2-40 Hz) provides a measure of dispersion curve sensitivity to earth model parameters. S-wave velocities are the dominant influence of the four earth model parameters. This thesis is true for higher modes of high frequency Rayleigh waves as well. Our numerical modeling by analysis of the Jacobian matrix supports at least two quite exciting higher mode properties. First, for fundamental and higher mode Rayleigh wave data with the same wavelength, higher modes can "see" deeper than the fundamental mode. Second, higher mode data can increase the resolution of the inverted S-wave velocities. Real world examples show that the inversion process can be stabilized and resolution of the S-wave velocity model can be improved when simultaneously inverting the fundamental and higher mode data. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Dong, Shan; Zhang, Anmin; Liu, Kai; ...
2016-02-26
The recent renaissance of black phosphorus (BP) as a two-dimensional (2D) layered material has generated tremendous interest, but its unique structural characters underlying many of its outstanding properties still need elucidation. Here we report Raman measurements that reveal an ultralow-frequency collective compression mode (CCM) in BP, which is unprecedented among similar 2D layered materials. This novel CCM indicates an unusually strong interlayer coupling, and this result is quantitatively supported by a phonon frequency analysis and first-principles calculations. Moreover, the CCM and another branch of low-frequency Raman modes shift sensitively with changing number of layers, allowing an accurate determination of themore » thickness up to tens of atomic layers, which is considerably higher than previously achieved by using high-frequency Raman modes. Lastly, these findings offer fundamental insights and practical tools for further exploration of BP as a highly promising new 2D semiconductor.« less
Dong, Shan; Zhang, Anmin; Liu, Kai; Ji, Jianting; Ye, Y. G.; Luo, X. G.; Chen, X. H.; Ma, Xiaoli; Jie, Yinghao; Chen, Changfeng; Wang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Qingming
2016-02-26
The recent renaissance of black phosphorus (BP) as a two-dimensional (2D) layered material has generated tremendous interest, but its unique structural characters underlying many of its outstanding properties still need elucidation. Here we report Raman measurements that reveal an ultralow-frequency collective compression mode (CCM) in BP, which is unprecedented among similar 2D layered materials. This novel CCM indicates an unusually strong interlayer coupling, and this result is quantitatively supported by a phonon frequency analysis and first-principles calculations. Moreover, the CCM and another branch of low-frequency Raman modes shift sensitively with changing number of layers, allowing an accurate determination of the thickness up to tens of atomic layers, which is considerably higher than previously achieved by using high-frequency Raman modes. Lastly, these findings offer fundamental insights and practical tools for further exploration of BP as a highly promising new 2D semiconductor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Shan; Zhang, Anmin; Liu, Kai; Ji, Jianting; Ye, Y. G.; Luo, X. G.; Chen, X. H.; Ma, Xiaoli; Jie, Yinghao; Chen, Changfeng; Wang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Qingming
2016-02-01
The recent renaissance of black phosphorus (BP) as a two-dimensional (2D) layered material has generated tremendous interest, but its unique structural characters underlying many of its outstanding properties still need elucidation. Here we report Raman measurements that reveal an ultralow-frequency collective compression mode (CCM) in BP, which is unprecedented among similar 2D layered materials. This novel CCM indicates an unusually strong interlayer coupling, and this result is quantitatively supported by a phonon frequency analysis and first-principles calculations. Moreover, the CCM and another branch of low-frequency Raman modes shift sensitively with changing number of layers, allowing an accurate determination of the thickness up to tens of atomic layers, which is considerably higher than previously achieved by using high-frequency Raman modes. These findings offer fundamental insights and practical tools for further exploration of BP as a highly promising new 2D semiconductor.
Photon frequency-mode matching using acousto-optic frequency beam splitters
Jones, Nick S.; Stace, T. M.
2006-03-15
It is a difficult engineering task to create distinct solid state single photon sources which nonetheless emit photons at the same frequency. It is also hard to create entangled photon pairs from quantum dots. In the spirit of quantum engineering we propose a simple optical circuit which can, in the right circumstances, make frequency distinguishable photons frequency indistinguishable. Our circuit can supply a downstream solution to both problems, opening up a large window of allowed frequency mismatches between physical mechanisms. The only components used are spectrum analysers or prisms and an acousto-optic modulator. We also note that an acousto-optic modulator can be used to obtain Hong-Ou-Mandel two photon interference effects from the frequency distinguishable photons generated by distinct sources.
Ultrafast spectroscopy of super high frequency mechanical modes of doubly clamped beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ristow, Oliver; Merklein, Moritz; Grossmann, Martin; Hettich, Mike; Schubert, Martin; Bruchhausen, Axel; Grebing, Jochen; Erbe, Artur; Mounier, Denis; Gusev, Vitalyi; Scheer, Elke; Dekorsy, Thomas; Barretto, Elaine C. S.
2013-12-01
We use ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy to study the mechanical vibrations in the time domain of doubly clamped silicon nitride beams. Beams with two different clamping conditions are investigated. Finite element method calculations are performed to analyse the mode spectra of both structures. By calculating the strain integral on the surface of the resonators, we are able to reproduce the effect of the detection mechanism and identify all the measured modes. We show that our spectroscopy technique combined with our modelling tools allow the investigation of several different modes in the super high frequency range (3-30 GHz) and above, bringing more information about the vibration modes of nanomechanical resonators.
Oscillations of a vertically stratified dissipative atmosphere. II. Low frequency trapped modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rudenko, G. V.; Dmitrienko, I. S.
2016-05-01
Trapped atmosphere waves, such as IGW waveguide modes and Lamb modes, are described using dissipative solution above source (DSAS) (Dmitrienko and Rudenko, 2016). According to this description, the modes are disturbances penetrating without limit in the upper atmosphere and dissipating their energy throughout the atmosphere; leakage from a trapping region to the upper atmosphere is taken into consideration. The DSAS results are compared to those based on both accurate and WKB approximated dissipationless equations. It is shown that the spatial and frequency characteristics of modes in the upper atmosphere calculated by any of the methods are close to each other and are in good agreement with the observed characteristics of traveling ionospheric disturbances.
Cyclotron mode frequencies and resonant absorption in multi-species ion plasmas
Affolter, M.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Driscoll, C. F.
2015-05-15
Cyclotron mode frequencies are studied on trapped rigid-rotor multi-species ion plasmas. Collective effects and radial electric fields shift the mode frequencies away from the “bare” cyclotron frequencies 2πF{sub c}{sup (s)}≡(q{sub s}B/M{sub s}c) for each species s. These frequency shifts are measured on the distinct cyclotron modes (m=0,1, and 2) with cos(mθ) azimuthal dependence. We find that for radially uniform plasmas the frequency shifts corroborate a simple theory expression, in which collective effects enter only through the E × B rotation frequency f{sub E} and the species fraction δ{sub s}. The m = 1 center-of-mass mode is in agreement with a simple “clump” model. Additionally, ultra-cold ion plasmas exhibit centrifugal separation by mass, and additional frequency shifts are observed, in agreement with a more general theory.
Statistics and Properties of Low-Frequency Vibrational Modes in Structural Glasses.
Lerner, Edan; Düring, Gustavo; Bouchbinder, Eran
2016-07-15
Low-frequency vibrational modes play a central role in determining various basic properties of glasses, yet their statistical and mechanical properties are not fully understood. Using extensive numerical simulations of several model glasses in three dimensions, we show that in systems of linear size L sufficiently smaller than a crossover size L_{D}, the low-frequency tail of the density of states follows D(ω)∼ω^{4} up to the vicinity of the lowest Goldstone mode frequency. We find that the sample-to-sample statistics of the minimal vibrational frequency in systems of size L
High frequency core localized modes in neutral beam heated plasmas on TFTR
Nazikian, R.; Chang, Z.; Fredrickson, E.D.
1995-11-01
A band of high frequency modes in the range 50--150 kHz with intermediate toroidal mode numbers 4 < n < 10 are commonly observed in the core of supershot plasmas on TFTR. Two distinct varieties of MHD modes are identified corresponding to a flute-like mode predominantly appearing around the q = 1 surface and an outward ballooning mode for q > 1. The flute-like modes have nearly equal amplitude on the high field and low field side of the magnetic axis and are mostly observed in moderate performance supershot plasmas with {tau}{sub E} < 2{tau}{sub L} while the ballooning-like modes have enhanced amplitude on the low field side of the magnetic axis and tend to appear in higher performance supershot plasmas with {tau}{sub E} > 2{tau}{sub L}, where {tau}{sub L} is the equivalent L-mode confinement time. The modes propagate in the ion diamagnetic drift direction and are highly localized with radial widths {Delta}r {approximately} 5--10 cm, fluctuation levels {tilde n}/n, {tilde T}{sub e}/T{sub e} < 0.01, and radial displacements {zeta}{sub r} {approximately} 0.1 cm. Unlike the toroidally localized high-n activity observed just prior to major and minor disruptions on TFTR, these modes are typically much weaker, more benign, and may be indicative of kinetic ballooning modes destabilized by resonant circulating neutral beam ions.
Electron acceleration in relativistic plasma waves generated by a single frequency short-pulse laser
Coverdale, C.A.; Darrow, C.B.; Decker, C.D.; Mori, W.B.; Tzeng, K.C., Clayton, C.E.; Marsh, K.A.; Joshi, C.
1995-04-27
Experimental evidence for the acceleration of electrons in a relativistic plasma wave generated by Raman forward scattering (SRS-F) of a single-frequency short pulse laser are presented. A 1.053 {mu}m, 600 fsec, 5 TW laser was focused into a gas jet with a peak intensity of 8{times}10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. At a plasma density of 2{times}10{sup 19} cm{sup {minus}3}, 2 MeV electrons were detected and their appearance was correlated with the anti-Stokes laser sideband generated by SRS-F. The results are in good agreement with 2-D PIC simulations. The use of short pulse lasers for making ultra-high gradient accelerators is explored.
Development and beam test of a continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole accelerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ostroumov, P. N.; Mustapha, B.; Barcikowski, A.; Dickerson, C.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Kondrashev, S. A.; Luo, Y.; Paskvan, D.; Perry, A.; Schrage, D.; Sharamentov, S. I.; Sommer, R.; Toter, W.; Zinkann, G.
2012-11-01
The front end of any modern ion accelerator includes a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ). While many pulsed ion linacs successfully operate RFQs, several ion accelerators worldwide have significant difficulties operating continuous wave (CW) RFQs to design specifications. In this paper we describe the development and results of the beam commissioning of a CW RFQ designed and built for the National User Facility: Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). Several innovative ideas were implemented in this CW RFQ. By selecting a multisegment split-coaxial structure, we reached moderate transverse dimensions for a 60.625-MHz resonator and provided a highly stabilized electromagnetic field distribution. The accelerating section of the RFQ occupies approximately 50% of the total length and is based on a trapezoidal vane tip modulation that increased the resonator shunt impedance by 60% in this section as compared to conventional sinusoidal modulation. To form an axially symmetric beam exiting the RFQ, a very short output radial matcher with a length of 0.75βλ was developed. The RFQ is designed as a 100% oxygen-free electronic (OFE) copper structure and fabricated with a two-step furnace brazing process. The radio frequency (rf) measurements show excellent rf properties for the resonator, with a measured intrinsic Q equal to 94% of the simulated value for OFE copper. An O5+ ion beam extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source was used for the RFQ commissioning. In off-line beam testing, we found excellent coincidence of the measured beam parameters with the results of beam dynamics simulations performed using the beam dynamics code TRACK, which was developed at Argonne. These results demonstrate the great success of the RFQ design and fabrication technology developed here, which can be applied to future CW RFQs.
Resonant oscillation modes of sympathetically cooled ions in a radio-frequency trap
Hasegawa, Taro; Shimizu, Tadao
2002-12-01
Sympathetic cooling of Ca{sup +}, Zn{sup +}, Sr{sup +}, Ba{sup +}, and Yb{sup +} as guest ions with laser-cooled {sup 24}Mg{sup +} as host ions in a rf ion trap is carried out, and resonant frequencies of their motion in the trap potential are measured. Various oscillation modes of the sympathetically cooled ions are observed. The resonant frequency of the oscillation mode is different from the frequency of either the collective oscillation frequency of the trapped ions or the oscillation frequency of each ion without host ions. This difference is well explained by a theoretical model in which coupled equations of motion of the host ion cloud with a single guest ion are considered.
Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ya-Jun; Cheng, Qian; Qian, Meng-Lu
2010-05-01
Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions.
Excitation of Single-Mode Lamb Waves at High-Frequency-Thickness Products.
Khalili, Pouyan; Cawley, Peter
2016-02-01
Guided wave inspection is used extensively in petrochemical plants to check for defects such as corrosion. Long-range low-frequency inspection can be used to detect relatively large defects, while higher frequency inspection provides improved sensitivity to small defects, but the presence of multiple dispersive modes makes it difficult to implement. This paper investigates the possibility of exciting a single-mode Lamb wave with low dispersion at a frequency thickness of around 20 MHz-mm. It is shown by finite element (FE) analysis backed up by experiments that a signal dominated by the A1 mode can be generated, even in a region where many modes have similar phase velocities. The A1 mode has relatively little motion at the plate surface which means that only a small reflection is generated at features such as T-joints; this is verified numerically. It is also expected that it will be relatively unaffected by surface roughness or attenuative coatings. These features are very similar to those of the higher order mode cluster (HOMC) reported by other authors, and it is shown that the A1 mode shape is very similar to the deflected shape reported in HOMC.
Behavior of a new type quantum accelerator mode in phase-modulated optical potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, Wakun; Wimberger, Sandro; Dadras, Siamak; Ni, Jiating; Summy, Gil
2015-05-01
It has been shown that the delta-kicked rotor (DKR) with a Bose-Einstein Condensate is a powerful model for studying the dynamics of many-body systems. Many efforts based on this model have been made in study of dynamical localization, quantum accelerator mode (QAM), to name but a few. QAM is a dynamical phenomenon in which the momentum of atoms exposed to a pulsed accelerating optical standing wave manifest linear growth. In many applications, we expect high transport rate to suppress localization. A recent technique utilizing the phase modulation on the optical potential to produce transport islands has been discussed. In this presentation we study the stability of such islands in classical phase space of a modified DKR system in which the phase of the optical potential is modulated by a certain phase on each kick. Numerical simulations testify the existence of QAM even in small phase perturbation. We also investigate the momentum distribution numerically and report a new type of QAM which exposed in stationary optical potential instead. The interesting structure of the area of the transport islands against wide range of dynamical parameters is observed to be quite distinct to the regular one.
Behavior of a new type quantum accelerator mode in phase-modulated optical potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, Wakun; Wimberger, Sandro; Dadras, Siamak; Ni, Jiating; Summy, Gil; Department of Physics, Oklahoma State University Collaboration; Dipartimento di Fisica E Science Della Terra, Università di Parma Collaboration
2014-05-01
Many efforts based on this model have been made in study of dynamical localization, quantum accelerator mode (QAM), to name but a few. QAM is a dynamical phenomenon in which the momentum of atoms exposed to a pulsed accelerating optical standing wave manifest linear growth. In many applications, we expect to improve the transport rate and suppress localization. A recent technique utilizing the phase modulation on the optical potential to produce transporting islands [PRE 68, 026209 (2003) and PRA 87, 013631 (2013)] has been discussed. In this presentation we study the stability of such islands in classical phase space of a modified DKR system in which the phase of the optical potential is modulated by a certain phase in each kick. Numerically simulations testify the existence of QAM even in small perturbation on the modulated phase. We also investigate the momentum distribution experimentally and numerically and report a new type of QAM which exposed in stationary optical potential instead. The interesting structure of the area of the transport islands against wide range of dynamical parameters in phase space is observed to be quite distinct to the regular one.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modak, S. V.
2013-12-01
Operational Modal Analysis (OMA) is used to extract modal parameters of a structure on the basis of their output response measured during operation. OMA, when applied to mechanical engineering structures is often faced with the problem of harmonics present in the output response. A complex structure may have many dominant frequency components in its response frequency spectrum. These may contain frequency components associated with resonant frequencies of the structure, which and the associated mode shapes and the damping factors represent the data of interest, but may also contain frequencies or harmonics associated with the excitation sources. Since in OMA the characteristics of the excitation sources are not known, one of the problems lies in separating the resonant frequencies from the harmonic excitation frequencies. Any error in this regard may lead to an error in modal identification with the consequence that a harmonic may be construed as a structural mode and vice versa. This issue is addressed in this paper and a method is presented for separating resonant frequencies from harmonic excitation frequencies using random decrement of the response. The principle of the method is presented using an analytical study on a single degree of freedom system. The effectiveness of the method is then demonstrated through numerical studies on a lumped parameter multi-degree of freedom system and a simulated plate structure. Detection of single and multiple harmonics in the response that are well separated as well as close to resonant frequencies are considered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guenther, D. B.
1994-01-01
The nonadiabatic frequencies of a standard solar model and a solar model that includes helium diffusion are discussed. The nonadiabatic pulsation calculation includes physics that describes the losses and gains due to radiation. Radiative gains and losses are modeled in both the diffusion approximation, which is only valid in optically thick regions, and the Eddington approximation, which is valid in both optically thin and thick regions. The calculated pulsation frequencies for modes with l less than or equal to 1320 are compared to the observed spectrum of the Sun. Compared to a strictly adiabatic calculation, the nonadiabatic calculation of p-mode frequencies improves the agreement between model and observation. When helium diffusion is included in the model the frequencies of the modes that are sensitive to regions near the base of the convection zone are improved (i.e., brought into closer agreement with observation), but the agreement is made worse for other modes. Cyclic variations in the frequency spacings of the Sun as a function of frequency of n are presented as evidence for a discontinuity in the structure of the Sun, possibly located near the base of the convection zone.
Davila-Rodriguez, Josue; Ozdur, Ibrahim; Williams, Charles; Delfyett, Peter J
2010-12-15
We report a frequency-stabilized semiconductor-based mode-locked laser that uses a phase modulator and an intracavity Fabry-Perot etalon for both active mode-locking and optical frequency stabilization. A twofold multiplication of the repetition frequency of the laser is inherently obtained in the process. The residual timing jitter of the mode-locked pulse train is 13 fs (1 Hz to 100 MHz), measured after regenerative frequency division of the photodetected pulse train.
Smooth and flat phase-locked Kerr frequency comb generation by higher order mode suppression.
Huang, S-W; Liu, H; Yang, J; Yu, M; Kwong, D-L; Wong, C W
2016-05-16
High-Q microresonator is perceived as a promising platform for optical frequency comb generation, via dissipative soliton formation. In order to achieve a higher quality factor and obtain the necessary anomalous dispersion, multi-mode waveguides were previously implemented in Si3N4 microresonators. However, coupling between different transverse mode families in multi-mode waveguides results in periodic disruption of dispersion and quality factor, and consequently causes perturbation to dissipative soliton formation and amplitude modulation to the corresponding spectrum. Careful choice of pump wavelength to avoid the mode crossing region is thus critical in conventional Si3N4 microresonators. Here, we report a novel design of Si3N4 microresonator in which single-mode operation, high quality factor, and anomalous dispersion are attained simultaneously. The novel microresonator is consisted of uniform single-mode waveguides in the semi-circle region, to eliminate bending induced mode coupling, and adiabatically tapered waveguides in the straight region, to avoid excitation of higher order modes. The intrinsic quality factor of the microresonator reaches 1.36 × 10(6) while the group velocity dispersion remains to be anomalous at -50 fs(2)/mm. With this novel microresonator, we demonstrate that broadband phase-locked Kerr frequency combs with flat and smooth spectra can be generated by pumping at any resonances in the optical C-band.
Smooth and flat phase-locked Kerr frequency comb generation by higher order mode suppression
Huang, S.-W.; Liu, H.; Yang, J.; Yu, M.; Kwong, D.-L.; Wong, C. W.
2016-01-01
High-Q microresonator is perceived as a promising platform for optical frequency comb generation, via dissipative soliton formation. In order to achieve a higher quality factor and obtain the necessary anomalous dispersion, multi-mode waveguides were previously implemented in Si3N4 microresonators. However, coupling between different transverse mode families in multi-mode waveguides results in periodic disruption of dispersion and quality factor, and consequently causes perturbation to dissipative soliton formation and amplitude modulation to the corresponding spectrum. Careful choice of pump wavelength to avoid the mode crossing region is thus critical in conventional Si3N4 microresonators. Here, we report a novel design of Si3N4 microresonator in which single-mode operation, high quality factor, and anomalous dispersion are attained simultaneously. The novel microresonator is consisted of uniform single-mode waveguides in the semi-circle region, to eliminate bending induced mode coupling, and adiabatically tapered waveguides in the straight region, to avoid excitation of higher order modes. The intrinsic quality factor of the microresonator reaches 1.36 × 106 while the group velocity dispersion remains to be anomalous at −50 fs2/mm. With this novel microresonator, we demonstrate that broadband phase-locked Kerr frequency combs with flat and smooth spectra can be generated by pumping at any resonances in the optical C-band. PMID:27181420
Frequency resonances in a two-mode He--Ne/I/sub 2/ laser
Gonchukov, S.A.; Kireev, S.V.; Protsenko, E.D.
1984-09-01
The first results are given of investigations of frequency resonances of a /sup 3/He--/sup 20/Ne//sup 127/I/sub 2/ laser (0.63 ..mu.. wavelength) emitting two modes with parallel polarizations. Investigations were made of the resolution, of the amplitudes of the frequency resonances and their shifts, and of the influence of the temperature on the frequency pedestal. It is shown that the high signal-to-noise ratio makes frequency resonances promising for use in laser spectroscopy.
Continuous-variable quantum computing in optical time-frequency modes using quantum memories.
Humphreys, Peter C; Kolthammer, W Steven; Nunn, Joshua; Barbieri, Marco; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A
2014-09-26
We develop a scheme for time-frequency encoded continuous-variable cluster-state quantum computing using quantum memories. In particular, we propose a method to produce, manipulate, and measure two-dimensional cluster states in a single spatial mode by exploiting the intrinsic time-frequency selectivity of Raman quantum memories. Time-frequency encoding enables the scheme to be extremely compact, requiring a number of memories that are a linear function of only the number of different frequencies in which the computational state is encoded, independent of its temporal duration. We therefore show that quantum memories can be a powerful component for scalable photonic quantum information processing architectures.
Flute mode waves near the lower hybrid frequency excited by ion rings in velocity space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cattell, C.; Hudson, M.
1982-01-01
Discrete emissions at the lower hybrid frequency are often seen on the S3-3 satellite. Simultaneous observation of perpendicularly heated ions suggests that these ions may provide the free energy necessary to drive the instability. Studies of the dispersion relation for flute modes excited by warm ion rings in velocity space show that waves are excited with real frequencies near the lower hybrid frequency and with growth rates ranging from about 0.01 to 1 times the ion cyclotron frequency. Numerical results are therefore consistent with the possibility that the observed ions are the free energy source for the observed waves.
Kamino, Yuichiro; Tsukuda, Kazuhiro; Kokubo, Masaki; Miura, Sadao; Hirai, Etsuro; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Junzo
2007-08-01
We are developing a four-dimensional, image-guided radiotherapy system with a gimbaled x-ray head. The system has pursuing irradiation capability in addition to precise irradiation capability, owing to its agile x-ray head. The moving x-ray head requires a very small C-band accelerator guide. The heat intensity of the accelerator guide is much higher than that of conventional S-band medical linear accelerators. The resonance frequency varies over almost 1.0 MHz with a thermal time constant of about 30 s. An automatic frequency controller (AFC) is employed to compensate for this variation in resonance frequency. Furthermore, we noted that fast AFC response is important for step-and-shoot intensity modulation radiotherapy (IMRT), in which the beam is turned on and off frequently. Therefore, we invented a digital AFC, based on a new concept, to provide effective compensation for the thermal characteristics of the accelerator guide and to ensure stable and optimized x-ray treatment. An important aspect of the performance of the AFC is the capture-frequency range over which the AFC can seek, lock on to, and track the resonance frequency. The conventional, analog AFC used in S-band medical linear accelerators would have a capture-frequency range of about 0.9 MHz, if applied to our accelerator guide, and would be inappropriate. Conversely, our new AFC has a capture-frequency range of 24 MHz, which is well suited to our accelerator guide. The design concept behind this new AFC has been developed and verified. A full prototype system was constructed and tested on an existing accelerator guide at the rated x-ray output (500 cGy/min) of our radiotherapy system, with a pulse-repetition frequency of 300 Hz. The AFC acquired the resonance frequency of the accelerator guide within 0.15 s after beam-on, and provided stable tracking and adjustment of the frequency of the microwave source to the resonance frequency of the accelerator guide. With a planned improvement of the
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ancellet, G. M.; Menzies, R. T.; Brothers, A. M.
1987-01-01
Longitudinal mode selection by injection has been demonstrated as a viable technique for TEA-CO2 lasers with pulse energies of a Joule or greater. Once reliable generation of single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) pulses is obtained, the characteristics and the causes of intrapulse frequency variation can be studied. These include the effect of the decaying plasma, the thermal gradient due to the energy dissipation associated with the laser mechanism itself, and the pressure shift of the center frequency of the laser transition. The use of the positive-branch unstable resonator as an efficient means of coupling a discharge with large spatial dimensions to an optical cavity mode introduces another concern: namely, what can be done to emphasize transverse mode discrimination in an unstable resonator cavity while maintaining high coupling efficiency. These issues are discussed in this paper, and relevant experimental results are included.
On the application of frequency selective common mode feedback for multifrequency EIT.
Langlois, Peter J; Wu, Yu; Bayford, Richard H; Demosthenous, Andreas
2015-06-01
Common mode voltages are frequently a problem in electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and other bioimpedance applications. To reduce their amplitude common mode feedback is employed. Formalised analyses of both current and voltage feedback is presented in this paper for current drives. Common mode effects due to imbalances caused by the current drives, the electrode connections to the body load and the introduction of the body impedance to ground are considered. Frequency selective narrowband common mode feedback previously proposed to provide feedback stability is examined. As a step towards multifrequency applications the use of narrowband feedback is experimentally demonstrated for two simultaneous current drives. Measured results using standard available components show a reduction of 62 dB for current feedback and 31 dB for voltage feedback. Frequencies ranged from 50 kHz to 1 MHz.
Frequencies of Nonaxisymmetric F-Modes in Rapidly Rotating Polytropes in Full General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zink, Burkhard; Stergioulas, Nikolaos; Korobkin, Oleg; Schnetter, Erik; Diener, Peter; Tiglio, Manuel
The computation of frequencies of nonaxisymmetric f-modes in rapidly rotating stars in full general relativity is a long-standing problem that has not been solved, to date, without resorting to some approximation, such as the slow-rotation approximation or the Cowling approximation. We present the first computation of such frequencies in full general relativity and rapid rotation, without any such approximation. We achieve this by using long-term simulations of oscillating polytropic models with a nonlinear numerical code, where spacetime is evolved in the harmonic formulation. We compare our results to previous results for zero-frequency (neutral modes) that were obtained with a perturbative method, and comment on the relevance of our work to the gravitational-radiation-driven (CFS) secular instability of nonaxisymmetric f-modes.
Kadoya, Y.; Abe, H.
1988-04-01
A two- and one-half-dimensional electromagnetic particle code (PS2M) (H. Abe and S. Nakajima, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 53, xxx (1987)) is used to study how an electric field applied parallel to the magnetic field affects the radio frequency stabilization of flute modes in a tandem mirror plasma. The parallel electric field E/sub parallel/ perturbs the electron velocity v/sub parallel/ parallel to the magnetic field and also induces a perpendicular magnetic field perturbation B/sub perpendicular/. The unstable growth of the flute mode in the absence of such a radio frequency electric field is first studied as a basis for comparison. The ponderomotive force originating from the time-averaged product
Kubo, Minoru; Gruia, Flaviu; Benabbas, Abdelkrim; Barabanschikov, Alexander; Montfort, William R.; Maes, Estelle M.; Champion, Paul M.
2009-01-01
The low-frequency mode activity of metalloporphyrins has been studied for iron porphine-halides (Fe(P)(X), X = Cl, Br) and nitrophorin 4 (NP4) using femtosecond coherence spectroscopy (FCS) in combination with polarized resonance Raman spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT). It is confirmed that the mode symmetry selection rules for FCS are the same as for Raman scattering and that both Franck-Condon and Jahn-Teller mode activities are observed for Fe(P)(X) under Soret resonance conditions. The DFT-calculated low-frequency (20-400 cm-1) modes, and their frequency shifts upon halide substitution, are in good agreement with experimental Raman and coherence data, so that mode assignments can be made. The doming mode is located at ~80 cm-1 for Fe(P)(Cl) and at ~60 cm-1 for Fe(P)(Br). NP4 is also studied with coherence techniques, and the NO-bound species of ferric and ferrous NP4 display a mode at ~30-40 cm-1 that is associated with transient heme doming motion following NO photolysis. The coherence spectra of three ferric derivatives of NP4 with different degrees of heme ruffling distortion are also investigated. We find a mode at ~60 cm-1 whose relative intensity in the coherence spectra depends quadratically on the magnitude of the ruffling distortion. To quantitatively account for this correlation, a new “distortion-induced” Raman enhancement mechanism is presented. This mechanism is unique to low-frequency “soft modes” of the molecular framework that can be distorted by environmental forces. These results demonstrate the potential of FCS as a sensitive probe of dynamic and functionally important nonplanar heme vibrational excitations that are induced by the protein environmental forces or by the chemical reactions in the aqueous phase. PMID:18597456
Qualitative analysis of collective mode frequency shifts in L-alanine using terahertz spectroscopy.
Taulbee, Anita R; Heuser, Justin A; Spendel, Wolfgang U; Pacey, Gilbert E
2009-04-01
We have observed collective mode frequency shifts in deuterium-substituted L-alanine, three of which have previously only been calculated. Terahertz (THz) absorbance spectra were acquired at room temperature in the spectral range of 66-90 cm(-1), or 2.0-2.7 THz, for L-alanine (L-Ala) and four L-Ala compounds in which hydrogen atoms (atomic mass = 1 amu) were substituted with deuterium atoms (atomic mass = 2 amu): L-Ala-2-d, L-Ala-3,3,3-d(3), L-Ala-2,3,3,3-d(4), and L-Ala-d(7). The absorbance maxima of two L-Ala collective modes in this spectral range were recorded for multiple spectral measurements of each compound, and the magnitude of each collective mode frequency shift due to increased mass of these specific atoms was evaluated for statistical significance. Calculations were performed which predict the THz absorbance frequencies based on the estimated reduced mass of the modes. The shifts in absorbance maxima were correlated with the location(s) of the substituted deuterium atom(s) in the L-alanine molecule, and the atoms contributing to the absorbing delocalized mode in the crystal structure were deduced using statistics described herein. The statistical analyses presented also indicate that the precision of the method allows reproducible frequency shifts as small as 1 cm(-1) or 0.03 THz to be observed and that these shifts are not random error in the measurement.
Lattice Dynamics at Low Frequency: Resonant and Excess Modes in Amorphous Silicon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feldman, J. L.; Allen, Philip B.; Bickham, S. R.
1998-03-01
We study lattice vibrations in amorphous silicon by simulations and exact diagonalizations on finite-size models (216, 1000, and 4096 atoms) built by Wooten using the algorithm of Wooten, Winer, and Weaire. The lowest energy vibrations are at (9.1, 5.4, and 3.4meV) respectively, close to the relevant energy range where ``excess modes'' (``Excess modes'' appear in what is sometimes called the ``Boson peak.'') are found in many glasses. The finite size causes a discrete spectrum rather than the continuous spectrum of a macroscopic sample. Because Q is an approximate quantum number at low frequency, modes tend to bunch into quasi-degenerate groups corresponding to the degeneracies of the small size-quantized Q's. However, approximately 10--20% of low energy modes have frequencies split off from quasi-degenerate groups, and eigenvectors with no good Q, but instead ``quasilocalized'' or ``resonant.'' There is a possible connection with the ``excess vibrations'' and also with anomalously big Grüneisen constants deduced from thermal expansion. Here we report our efforts to extrapolate macroscopic information about low frequency modes. We find a satisfactory fit using an extrapolation which yields only propagating damped acoustic waves with no ``excess modes.'' Therefore we suggest that either amorphous silicon has no excess vibrations or else that excess vibrations are associated with mesoscopic defects such as voids which are absent in our model.
Low-frequency Raman modes and electronic excitations in atomically thin MoS2 films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Hualing; Zhu, Bairen; Liu, Kai; Fan, Jiahe; Cui, Xiaodong; Zhang, Q. M.
2012-12-01
Atomically thin MoS2 crystals have been recognized as quasi-two-dimensional semiconductors with remarkable physical properties. We report our Raman scattering measurements on multilayer and monolayer MoS2, especially in the low-frequency range (<50 cm-1). We find two low-frequency Raman modes with a contrasting thickness dependence. When increasing the number of MoS2 layers, one mode shows a significant increase in frequency while the other decreases following a 1/N (N denotes the number of unit layers) trend. With the aid of first-principles calculations we assign the former as the shear mode E2g2. The latter is distinguished as the compression vibrational mode, similar to the surface vibration of other epitaxial thin films. The opposite evolution of the two modes with thickness demonstrates vibrational modes in an atomically thin crystal as well as a more precise way to characterize the thickness of atomically thin MoS2 films. In addition, we observe a broad feature around 38 cm-1(5 meV) which is visible only under near-resonance excitation and pinned at a fixed energy, independent of thickness. We interpret the feature as an electronic Raman scattering associated with the spin-orbit coupling induced splitting in a conduction band at K points in their Brillouin zone.
Hirose, Akira; Asano, Yasufumi; Hamano, Toshihiko
2006-11-01
We propose a developmental learning architecture with which a motion-control system learns multiple tasks similar to each other or advanced ones incrementally and efficiently by tuning its behavioral mode. The system is based on a coherent neural network whose carrier frequency works as a mode-tuning parameter. In our experiments, we consider two tasks related to bicycle riding. The first is to ride as temporally long as the system can before it falls down (task 1). The second is an advanced one, i.e., to ride as far as possible in a certain direction (task 2). We compare developmental learning to learn task 2 after task 1 with the direct learning of task 2. We also examine the effect of the mode tuning by comparing variable-mode learning (VML), where the carrier frequency is set free to move, with fixed-mode learning (FML), where the frequency is unchanged. We find that VML developmental learning results in the most efficient learning among the possible combinations. We discuss the effects of the incremental task assignment as well as the behavioral mode tuning in developmental learning.
Study of high frequency MHD modes from ECE radiometer in Tore Supra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elbeze, D.; Guimarães-Filho, Z. O.; Molina, D.; Ségui, J.-L.; Benkadda, S.; Dubuit, N.; Garbet, X.; Sabot, R.
2012-09-01
Tore Supra ECE diagnostic has been recently upgraded to study MHD modes driven by energetic particles up to 400 kHz. To improve the measurement sensitivity, the ECE signals of the 32 channels radiometer were amplified just below the saturation limit and sources of noise were investigated in order to keep it as low as possible. With such an improvement, fast particle driven modes with frequencies up to 200 kHz were detected. A 4-channel correlation ECE system using YIG filters with tuneable frequency was also installed. It allows fine radial scans of MHD modes and correlation length measurements. For the two kinds of YIG filter in use, the minimum frequency separation between two ECE channels that could be achieved was established measuring the correlation coefficient between the respective radiation noises. Finally, by modelling the ECE radiometer taking into account the antenna radiation pattern and the vertical position of the ECE beam relative to the plasma centre we improved the data analysis tools, thus giving a better determination of the phase radial structure of ECE oscillations. The poloidal structure of MHD modes can then be identified from ECE data and, for off axis ECE lines of sight, the direction of the plasma rotation can also be determined. This method allows identifying the occurrence of an inverse cascade of electron fishbone modes ranging from m/n=4/4 to 1/1 (m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively) which appears in lower hybrid current drive plasmas.
Common mode frequency instability in internally phase-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers.
Wanke, M C; Grine, A D; Fuller, C T; Nordquist, C D; Cich, M J; Reno, J L; Lee, Mark
2011-11-21
Feedback from a diode mixer integrated into a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) was used to phase lock the difference frequencies (DFs) among the Fabry-Perot (F-P) longitudinal modes of a QCL. Approximately 40% of the DF power was phase locked, consistent with feedback loop bandwidth of 10 kHz and phase noise bandwidth ~0.5 MHz. While the locked DF signal has ≤ 1 Hz linewidth and negligible drift over ~30 min, mixing measurements between two QCLs and between a QCL and molecular gas laser show that the common mode frequency stability is no better than a free-running QCL.
Beam Wiggler operating in high frequency and single-pulse modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goltsov, A. Y.; Kolomiysky, Arkadiy N.; Kovalsky, N. G.; Kryzhko, V. V.; Manes, Kenneth R.; Pergament, Michael I.
1999-07-01
The possibility to control an intensity distribution in the far field of a powerful laser system by rapid motion of a focal spot is considered. Quadruple electro optic deflector on the base of LiNgO3 crystal installed in resonance capacity with 1 cm clear aperture has been developed, constructed and tested both in high frequency and single pulse operation modes. The main parameters of the device are as follows: amplitude of the angular deflection +/- 4 dif. limits at 6.5 GHz operation frequency, total angular deflection 12 dif. limits in the single ns-pulse operation mode. Results of the Beam Wiggler dynamic testing are presented and discussed.
Spoof surface plasmon modes on doubly corrugated metal surfaces at terahertz frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yong-Qiang; Kong, Ling-Bao; Du, Chao-Hai; Liu, Pu-Kun
2016-06-01
Spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) have many potential applications such as imaging and sensing, communications, innovative leaky wave antenna and many other passive devices in the microwave and terahertz (THz) spectrum. The extraordinary properties of SSPs (e.g. extremely strong near field, enhanced beam-wave interaction) make them especially attractive for developing novel THz electronic sources. SSP modes on doubly corrugated metal surfaces are investigated and analyzed both theoretically and numerically in this paper. The analytical SSP dispersion expressions of symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are obtained with a simplified modal field expansion method; the results are also verified by the finite integration method. Additionally, the propagation losses are also considered for real copper surfaces with a limited constant conductivity in a THz regime. It is shown that the asymptotical frequency of the symmetric mode at the Brillouin boundary decreases along with the decreased gap size between these two corrugated metal surfaces while the asymptotical frequency increases for the anti-symmetric mode. The anti-symmetric mode demonstrates larger propagation losses than the symmetric mode. Further, the losses for both symmetric and anti-symmetric modes decrease when this gap size enlarges. By decreasing groove depth, the asymptotical frequency increases for both the symmetric and the anti-symmetric mode, but the variation of propagation losses is more complicated. Propagation losses increase along with the increased period. Our studies on the dispersion characteristics and propagation losses of SSP modes on this doubly corrugated metallic structure with various parameters is instructive for numerous applications such as waveguides, circuitry systems with high integration, filters and powerful electronic sources in the THz regime.
Baboi, Nicoleta
2002-09-19
Dipole modes are the main cause of transverse emittance dilution in the Japanese Linear Collider/Next Linear Collider (JLC/NLC). A diagnostic setup has been built in order to investigate them. The method is based on using a coaxial wire to excite and measure electromagnetic modes of accelerating structures. This method can offer a more efficient and less expensive procedure than the ASSET facility. Initial measurements have been made and are presented in this paper.
Mode-resolved 10-GHz frequency comb from a femtosecond optical parametric oscillator.
Zhang, Zhaowei; Balskus, Karolis; McCracken, Richard A; Reid, Derryck T
2015-06-15
We report a 10-GHz frequency comb generated by filtering a 333.3-MHz OPO frequency comb with a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity, which was directly stabilized to the incident fundamental comb. This result is supported by a detailed analysis of the Vernier-effect-induced multiple peaks in the transmitted comb power as the FP cavity spacing is detuned. Modes of the generated 10-GHz comb were clearly resolved by a Fourier transform spectrometer with a spectral resolution of 830 MHz, considerably better than the Nyquist sampling limit. The potentially broad tuning range of this mode-resolved OPO frequency comb opens unique opportunities for precise frequency metrology and high-precision spectroscopy.
Mode-resolved frequency comb interferometry for high-accuracy long distance measurement
van den Berg, Steven. A.; van Eldik, Sjoerd; Bhattacharya, Nandini
2015-01-01
Optical frequency combs have developed into powerful tools for distance metrology. In this paper we demonstrate absolute long distance measurement using a single femtosecond frequency comb laser as a multi-wavelength source. By applying a high-resolution spectrometer based on a virtually imaged phased array, the frequency comb modes are resolved spectrally to the level of an individual mode. Having the frequency comb stabilized against an atomic clock, thousands of accurately known wavelengths are available for interferometry. From the spectrally resolved output of a Michelson interferometer a distance is derived. The presented measurement method combines spectral interferometry, white light interferometry and multi-wavelength interferometry in a single scheme. Comparison with a fringe counting laser interferometer shows an agreement within <10−8 for a distance of 50 m. PMID:26419282
Mode-resolved frequency comb interferometry for high-accuracy long distance measurement.
van den Berg, Steven A; van Eldik, Sjoerd; Bhattacharya, Nandini
2015-09-30
Optical frequency combs have developed into powerful tools for distance metrology. In this paper we demonstrate absolute long distance measurement using a single femtosecond frequency comb laser as a multi-wavelength source. By applying a high-resolution spectrometer based on a virtually imaged phased array, the frequency comb modes are resolved spectrally to the level of an individual mode. Having the frequency comb stabilized against an atomic clock, thousands of accurately known wavelengths are available for interferometry. From the spectrally resolved output of a Michelson interferometer a distance is derived. The presented measurement method combines spectral interferometry, white light interferometry and multi-wavelength interferometry in a single scheme. Comparison with a fringe counting laser interferometer shows an agreement within <10(-8) for a distance of 50 m.
Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M.; Koga, J. K.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Rosanov, N. N.; Zhidkov, A. G.
2011-01-04
We formulate the Flying Mirror Concept for relativistic interaction of ultra-intense electromagnetic waves with plasmas, present its theoretical description and the results of computer simulations and laboratory experiments. In collisionless plasmas, the relativistic flying mirrors are thin and dense electron or electron-ion layers accelerated by the high intensity electromagnetic waves up to velocity close to the speed of light in vacuum; in nonlinear-media and in nonlinear vacuum they are the ionization fronts and the refraction index modulations induced by a strong electromagnetic wave. The reflection of the electromagnetic wave at the relativistic mirror results in its energy and frequency change due to the double Doppler effect. In the co-propagating configuration, in the radiation pressure dominant regime, the energy of the electromagnetic wave is transferred to the ion energy providing a highly efficient acceleration mechanism. In the counter-propagation configuration the frequency of the reflected wave is multiplied by the factor proportional to the gamma-factor squared. If the relativistic mirror performs an oscillatory motion as in the case of the electron motion at the plasma-vacuum interface, the reflected light spectrum is enriched with high order harmonics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuczynski, W. A.
1972-01-01
The completion of the High Advance Ratio Research Program is reported. The primary objectives of the program were to experimentally determine the rotor frequency response to shaft pitching and rolling oscillations and to acquire steady response and frequency response data at high advance ratios for hingeless rotors with typical, full-scale, first flap mode natural frequencies. Secondary objectives of the program included the further evaluation of both the hub moment feedback control system and the simplified rigid blade flapping theory with respect to shaft oscillations. The bulk of the text is devoted to the presentation and examination of representative experimental results. All the analyzed test data are documented in tabular and/or graphical formats.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Childs, D. W.
1991-01-01
An algorithm is developed for calculating complex eigenvalues and eigenvectors associated with the fluid resonances and is used to analyze the perturbed flow in the leakage path between a shrouded-pump impeller and its housing. The eigenvalues obtained are consistent with the forced-response curves. First- and second-natural-frequency eigensolutions are presented for mode shapes corresponding to lateral excitations, and first-natural-frequency eigensolutions are presented for mode shapes corresponding to axial excitation.
On the propagation and mode conversion of auroral medium frequency bursts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broughton, M. C.; LaBelle, J.; Kim, E.-H.; Yoon, P. H.; Johnson, J. R.; Cairns, I. H.
2016-02-01
Auroral medium frequency (MF) bursts are broadband, impulsive radio emissions associated with local substorm onsets. MF bursts consist of a characteristic fine structure whereby the higher frequencies arrive 10-100 ms before the lower frequencies. LaBelle (2011a) proposed that MF bursts originate as Langmuir/Z mode waves on the topside of the ionosphere that mode-convert to LO mode waves and propagate to ground level, with the fine structure resulting by propagation delays due to the topside ionospheric density profile. We investigate three aspects of this mechanism. First, full-wave calculations are used to simulate the MF burst fine structure using a realistic ionospheric density profile. The delay between the highest and lowest frequencies is 21 ms. This value is smaller than the experimentally determined delays of ˜100 ms presented in Bunch and LaBelle (2009), but differences between the topside electron number density profile used in the simulations and the number density profile during disturbed conditions make comparisons only approximate. Second, the Landau damping of Langmuir/Z mode waves on the topside ionosphere is calculated, assuming the electron distribution function consists of a cold background population (ne0) and a warm secondary population (nse). The Landau damping is small when nse/ne0 = 0.04% (consistent with Maggs and Lotko (1981)) but is significant when nse/ne0 > 0.4%. Finally, full-wave calculations are used to determine the mode conversion efficiency from Langmuir/Z mode waves to LO mode waves. These imply that waves would suffer an attenuation of wave energy density of approximately 5-10% if they are generated with their wave vectors in a narrow cone centered around the local magnetic field. Taken together, these calculations suggest that for small values of nse/ne0 <0.4%, the mechanism proposed by LaBelle (2011a) is a plausible explanation for the origin of MF bursts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khutoryan, E. M.; Idehara, T.; Kuleshov, A. N.; Tatematsu, Y.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Matsuki, Y.; Fujiwara, T.
2017-03-01
In this paper, we present the results of simultaneous stabilization of both the frequency and the output power by a double PID feedback control on the acceleration and anode voltages in the 460-GHz gyrotron FU CW GVI, also known as "Gyrotron FU CW GO-1" (according to the nomenclature adopted at Osaka University). The approach used in the experiments is based on the modulation of the cyclotron frequency and the pitch factor (velocity ratio) of the electron beam by varying the acceleration and the anode voltages, respectively. In a long-term experiment, the frequency and power stabilities were made to be better than ±10-6 and ±1%, respectively.
Šmíd, Radek; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej
2015-01-12
We present a method of noise suppression of laser diodes by an unbalanced Michelson fiber interferometer. The unstabilized laser source is represented by compact planar waveguide external cavity laser module, ORIONTM (Redfern Integrated Optics, Inc.), working at 1540.57 nm with a 1.5-kHz linewidth. We built up the unbalanced Michelson interferometer with a 2.09 km-long arm based on the standard telecommunication single-mode fiber (SMF-28) spool to suppress the frequency noise by the servo-loop control by 20 dB to 40 dB within the Fourier frequency range, remaining the tuning range of the laser frequency.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ashour-Abdalla, M.; Okuda, H.
1984-01-01
It is shown by means of plasma numerical simulations that long-wavelength ordinary mode electromagnetic radiation can be generated from short-wavelength electrostatic waves near the upper hybrid resonance frequency in an inhomogeneous plasma. A possible relation of this process to nonthermal continuum radiation in the magnetosphere is discussed.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thompson, Blair; Mazer, Joseph P.
2012-01-01
Parent-teacher communication represents a primary form of parental support, a phenomenon meriting significant attention given the connections between support and academic achievement (Thompson, 2008b). A series of studies advance the Parental Academic Support Scale (PASS) to assess the frequency, importance, and modes parents use to communicate…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thompson, Blair; Mazer, Joseph P.
2009-01-01
Research suggests that student academic support plays a vital role at the college level as students often view communication with peers as their primary source of academic support (Thompson, 2008). This research advances the Student Academic Support Scale (SASS) as a method of assessing the frequency, importance, and mode of communicating academic…
Pressure dependence of intramolecular mode frequencies in solid N2, O2, and CO2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Etters, R. D.; Helmy, A.
1983-01-01
A microscopic description of the pressure dependence of intramolecular vibrational modes in simple molecular crystals has been formulated using a classical perturbation theory. Quantitative agreement with experiment is demonstrated and it is shown that frequency changes at phase transitions are large enough to be observed optically.
Computational imaging using a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies
Fromenteze, Thomas; Decroze, Cyril; Carsenat, David; Yurduseven, Okan; Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Gollub, Jonah; Smith, David R.
2015-05-11
We present a 3D computational imaging system based on a mode-mixing cavity at microwave frequencies. The core component of this system is an electrically large rectangular cavity with one corner re-shaped to catalyze mode mixing, often called a Sinai Billiard. The front side of the cavity is perforated with a grid of periodic apertures that sample the cavity modes and project them into the imaging scene. The radiated fields are scattered by the scene and are measured by low gain probe antennas. The complex radiation patterns generated by the cavity thus encode the scene information onto a set of frequency modes. Assuming the first Born approximation for scattering dynamics, the received signal is processed using computational methods to reconstruct a 3D image of the scene with resolution determined by the diffraction limit. The proposed mode-mixing cavity is simple to fabricate, exhibits low losses, and can generate highly diverse measurement modes. The imaging system demonstrated in this letter can find application in security screening and medical diagnostic imaging.
On the r-mode spectrum of relativistic stars in the low-frequency approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruoff, Johannes; Kokkotas, Kostas D.
2001-12-01
The axial modes for non-barotropic relativistic rotating neutron stars with uniform angular velocity are studied, using the slow-rotation formalism together with the low-frequency approximation, first investigated by Kojima. The time-independent form of the equations leads to a singular eigenvalue problem, which admits a continuous spectrum. We show that for l=2, it is nevertheless also possible to find discrete mode solutions (the r modes). However, under certain conditions related to the equation of state and the compactness of the stellar model, the eigenfrequency lies inside the continuous band and the associated velocity perturbation is divergent; hence these solutions have to be discarded as being unphysical. We corroborate our results by explicitly integrating the time-dependent equations. For stellar models admitting a physical r-mode solution, it can indeed be excited by arbitrary initial data. For models admitting only an unphysical mode solution, the evolutions do not show any tendency to oscillate with the respective frequency. For higher values of l it seems that in certain cases there are no mode solutions at all.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Javeed, Mehzad; Russell, James W.
1996-01-01
This report summarizes results of force and moment measurements of the Space Acceleration Measurement System 2 (SAMS 2) Tape Drive Assembly (TDA) over the frequency range from 0.35 Hz to 256 Hz for steady state operations including write, read, rewind, and fast forward. Time domain force results are presented for transient TDA operations that include software eject, manual eject, and manual load. Three different mounting configurations were employed for attaching the inner box with the tape drive unit to the outer box. Two configurations employed grommet sets with spring rates of 42 and 62 pounds per inch respectively. The third configuration employed a set of metallic washers. For all four steady state operations the largest average forces were on the Y axis with the metallic washers and were less than 0.005 pounds. The largest average moments were on the X axes with the washers and were less than 0.030 pound inches. At the third octave centerband frequency of 31.5 Hz, the 42 pound per inch grommets showed the greatest forces and moments for read and write operations. At the third octave centerband frequency of 49.6 Hz, the 62 pound per inch grommets showed the greatest forces and moments for rewind operation. Transient operation forces ranged from 0.75 pounds for the software eject to greater than 1 pound for manual load and eject.
A Comparison of Solar p-Mode Parameters from MDI and Gong: Mode Frequencies and Structure Inversions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Basu, S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Howe, R.; Schou, J.; Thompson, M. J.; Hill, F.; Komm, R.
2003-01-01
Helioseismic analysis of solar global oscillations allows investigation of the internal structure of the Sun. One important test of the reliability of the inferences from helioseismology is that the results from independent sets of contemporaneous data are consistent with one another. Here we compare mode frequencies from the Global Oscillation Network Group and Michelson Doppler Imager on board SOHO and resulting inversion results on the Sun's internal structure. The average relative differences between the data sets are typically less than 1 x 10(exp -5) substantially smaller than the formal errors in the differences; however, in some cases the frequency differences show a systematic behavior that might nonetheless influence the inversion results. We find that the differences in frequencies are not a result of instrumental effects but are almost entirely related to the data pipeline software. Inversion of the frequencies shows that their differences do not result in any significant effects on the resulting inferences on solar structure. We have also experimented with fitting asymmetric profiles to the oscillation power spectra and find that, compared with the symmetric fits, this causes no significant change in the inversion results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maisonneuve, F.; Pollard, K. R.; Cottrell, P. L.; Wright, D. J.; De Cat, P.; Mantegazza, L.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Suárez, J. C.; Rainer, M.; Poretti, E.
2011-08-01
Gravity modes present in γ Doradus stars probe the deep stellar interiors and are thus of particular interest in asteroseismology. Mode identification will improve the knowledge of these stars considerably and allow an understanding of the issues with current pulsational models. A frequency analysis followed by a mode identification were done based on the high-resolution spectroscopic data of two γ Doradus stars: HD 189631 and HD 40745. Extensive spectroscopic data sets are obtained by three instruments: HARPS, FEROS and HERCULES. We obtained 422 spectra for HD 189631 and 248 spectra for HD 40745. The pulsational frequencies were determined by four methods: analysis of the variation in equivalent width, variation in radial velocity, asymmetry of the line profile and the pixel-by-pixel frequency analysis. The mode identification was done using the recently developed Fourier Parameter Fit method. Without achieving the same degree of confidence for all results, we report the identification of four pulsational modes in HD 189631: (ℓ= 1; m =+1) at f1= 1.67 d-1; (3; -2) at f2= 1.42 d-1; (2; -2) at f3= 0.07 d-1; and (4; +1) at f4= 1.82 d-1; and two modes in HD 40745: (2; -1) at f1= 0.75 d-1 and (3; -3) at f2= 1.09 d-1. This study provides the first pulsational analysis based on spectroscopy of HD 189631 and HD 40745. We discuss the performance of current methods of analysis and outline the difficulties presented by γ Doradus stars. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Mount John University Observatory (HERCULES), and with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Observatories under the Normal Programme 081.D-0610 (HARPS) and the Large Programmes 178.D-0361 (FEROS) and 182.D-0356 (HARPS). Mode identification results were obtained with the software package FAMIAS developed in the framework of the FP6 European Coordination Action HELAS ().
Leon-Salas, Walter D.; Rizk, Hatem; Mo, Chenglin; Weisleder, Noah; Brotto, Leticia; Abreu, Eduardo; Brotto, Marco
2013-01-01
This paper presents the design and test of a dual-mode electric and magnetic biological stimulator (EM-Stim). The stimulator generates pulsing electric and magnetic fields at programmable rates and intensities. While electric and magnetic stimulators have been reported before, this is the first device that combines both modalities. The ability of the dual stimulation to target bone and muscle tissue simultaneously has the potential to improve the therapeutic treatment of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. The device is fully programmable, portable and easy to use, and can run from a battery or a power supply. The device can generate magnetic fields of up to 1.6 mT and output voltages of +/−40 V. The EM-Stim accelerated myogenic differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes as evidenced by morphometric, gene expression, and protein content analyses. Currently, there are many patents concerned with the application of single electrical or magnetic stimulation, but none that combine both simultaneously. However, we applied for and obtained a provisional patent for new device to fully explore its therapeutic potential in pre-clinical models. PMID:23445453
Cost Based Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) for Systems of Accelerator Magnets.
Spencer, Cherrill M
2003-06-02
The proposed Next Linear Collider (NLC) has a proposed 85% overall availability goal, the availability specifications for all its 7200 magnets and their 6167 power supplies are 97.5% each. Thus all of the electromagnets and their power supplies must be highly reliable or quickly repairable. Improved reliability or repairability comes at a higher cost. We have developed a set of analysis procedures for magnet designers to use as they decide how much effort to exert, i.e. how much money to spend, to improve the reliability of a particular style of magnet. We show these procedures being applied to a standard SLAC electromagnet design in order to make it reliable enough to meet the NLC availability specs. First, empirical data from SLAC's accelerator failure database plus design experience are used to calculate MTBF for failure modes identified through a FMEA. Availability for one particular magnet can be calculated. Next, labor and material costs to repair magnet failures are used in a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the total cost of all failures over a 30-year lifetime. Opportunity costs are included. Engineers choose from amongst various designs by comparing lifecycle costs.
Computing frequency by using generalized zero-crossing applied to intrinsic mode functions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)
2006-01-01
This invention presents a method for computing Instantaneous Frequency by applying Empirical Mode Decomposition to a signal and using Generalized Zero-Crossing (GZC) and Extrema Sifting. The GZC approach is the most direct, local, and also the most accurate in the mean. Furthermore, this approach will also give a statistical measure of the scattering of the frequency value. For most practical applications, this mean frequency localized down to quarter of a wave period is already a well-accepted result. As this method physically measures the period, or part of it, the values obtained can serve as the best local mean over the period to which it applies. Through Extrema Sifting, instead of the cubic spline fitting, this invention constructs the upper envelope and the lower envelope by connecting local maxima points and local minima points of the signal with straight lines, respectively, when extracting a collection of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) from a signal under consideration.
Mode properties of low-frequency waves: Kinetic theory versus Hall-MHD
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krauss-Varban, D.; Omidi, N.; Quest, K. B.
1994-01-01
In fluid theory, the ordering of low-frequency modes in a homogeneous plasma is based on the phase velocity, since modes do not intersect each other in dispersion diagrams as a function of wavenumber or other parameters. In linear kinetic theory, modes cross each other. Thus a consistent and useful classification should be based on the physical properties of the modes instead. This paper attempts such a classification by documeting the dispersion and general mode properties of the low-frequency waves (omega much less than (OMEGA(sub ci) OMEGA(sub ce) (exp 1/2)), where OMEGA(sub ci), OMEGA(sub ce) are the cyclotron frequencies of the ions and electrons, respectively) in kinetic theory, and by comparing them to the results of two-fluid theory. Kinetic theory gives a seperate Alfven/ion-cyclotron (A/IC) wave with phase speed Omega/k approximately = v(sub A) cos theta for omega much less than OMEGA(sub ci), where v(sub A) is the Alfven velocity and theta the angle of propagation between wave vector k and background magnetic field B(sub o). For a given wavenumber, the magnetosonic mode is a double-valued solution with a singular point in theta, beta parameter space, where beta is the ratio of thermal pressure to magnetic pressure. It is shown that a branch cut starting at the singular point theta approximately 30 deg, beta approximately 3 and leading to larger beta gives a practical and consitent seperation of this double-valued magnetosonic solution. Selection of this branch cut results in a moderately damped fast/magnetos onic and a heavily damped slow/sound wave. A comprehensive review of the polarization, compressibility and other mode properties is given and shown to be consistent with the selected branch cut. At small wavenumbers, the kinetic mode properties typically start to deviate significantly from their fluid counterparts at beta approximately 0.5. At larger beta, there is no longer a consistent correspondence between the fluid and kinetic modes. Kinetic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, He; Chen, Sheng-Ping; Si, Lei; Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Zong-Fu
2015-10-01
We report the results of our recent experimental investigation of the modulation frequency detuning effect on the output pulse dynamics in a pulse modulated actively mode-locked ytterbium doped fiber laser. The experimental study shows the existence of five different mode-locking states that mainly depend on the modulation frequency detuning, which are: (a) amplitude-even harmonic/fundamental mode-locking, (b) Q-switched harmonic/fundamental mode-locking, (c) sinusoidal wave modulation mode, (d) pulses bundle state, and (e) noise-like state. A detailed experimental characterization of the output pulses dynamics in each operating mode is presented.
Superconducting NbTiN thin films for superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavity applications
Burton, Matthew C.; Beebe, Melissa R.; Yang, Kaida; ...
2016-02-12
Current superconducting radio frequency technology, used in various particle accelerator facilities across the world, is reliant upon bulk niobium superconducting cavities. Due to technological advancements in the processing of bulk Nb cavities, the facilities have reached accelerating fields very close to a material-dependent limit, which is close to 50 MV/m for bulk Nb. One possible solution to improve upon this fundamental limitation was proposed a few years ago by Gurevich [Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012511 (2006)], consisting of the deposition of alternating thin layers of superconducting and insulating materials on the interior surface of the cavities. The use of type-IImore » superconductors with Tc > TcNb and Hc > HcNb, (e.g., Nb3Sn, NbN, or NbTiN) could potentially greatly reduce the surface resistance (Rs) and enhance the accelerating field, if the onset of vortex penetration is increased above HcNb, thus enabling higher field gradients. Although Nb3Sn may prove superior, it is not clear that it can be grown as a suitable thin film for the proposed multilayer approach, since very high temperature is typically required for its growth, hindering achieving smooth interfaces and/or surfaces. On the other hand, since NbTiN has a smaller lower critical field (Hc1) and higher critical temperature (Tc) than Nb and increased conductivity compared to NbN, it is a promising candidate material for this new scheme. Here, the authors present experimental results correlating filmmicrostructure with superconducting properties on NbTiN thin film coupon samples while also comparing filmsgrown with targets of different stoichiometry. In conclusion, it is worth mentioning that the authors have achieved thin films with bulk-like lattice parameter and transition temperature while also achieving Hc1 values larger than bulk for films thinner than their London penetration depths.« less
Laser polishing of niobium for superconducting radio-frequency accelerator applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Liang; Klopf, J. Michael; Reece, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael J.
2014-08-01
Interior surfaces of niobium cavities used in superconducting radio frequency accelerators are now obtained by buffered chemical polish and/or electropolish. Laser polishing is a potential alternative, having advantages of speed, freedom from noxious chemistry and availability of in-process inspection. We studied the influence of the laser power density and laser beam raster rate on the surface topography. These two factors need to be combined carefully to smooth the surface without damage. Computational modeling was used to estimate the surface temperature and gain insight into the mechanism of laser polishing. Power spectral density analysis of surface topography measurements shows that laser polishing can produce smooth topography similar to that obtained by electropolish. This is a necessary first step toward introducing laser polishing as an alternative to the currently practiced chemical polishing.
Jin, Q. Y.; Li, Zh. M.; Liu, W.; Zhao, H. Y. Zhang, J. J.; Sha, Sh.; Zhang, Zh. L.; Zhang, X. Zh.; Sun, L. T.; Zhao, H. W.
2014-07-15
The direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS) has been being studied at Institute of Modern Physics since several years ago. A C{sup 6+} beam with peak current of 13 mA, energy of 593 keV/u has been successfully achieved after acceleration with DPIS method. To understand the process of DPIS, some simulations have been done as follows. First, with the total current intensity and the relative yields of different charge states for carbon ions measured at the different distance from the target, the absolute current intensities and time-dependences for different charge states are scaled to the exit of the laser ion source in the DPIS. Then with these derived values as the input parameters, the extraction of carbon beam from the laser ion source to the radio frequency quadrupole with DPIS is simulated, which is well agreed with the experiment results.
C. Tennant, S.V. Benson, D. Douglas, P. Evtushenko, R.A. Legg
2011-09-01
We describe an electron bunch compression scheme suitable for use in a light source driven by a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) linac. The key feature is the use of a recirculating linac to perform the initial bunch compression. Phasing of the second pass beam through the linac is chosen to de-chirp the electron bunch prior to acceleration to the final energy in an SRF linac ('afterburner'). The final bunch compression is then done at maximum energy. This scheme has the potential to circumvent some of the most technically challenging aspects of current longitudinal matches; namely transporting a fully compressed, high peak current electron bunch through an extended SRF environment, the need for a RF harmonic linearizer and the need for a laser heater. Additional benefits include a substantial savings in capital and operational costs by efficiently using the available SRF gradient.
Design of high power radio frequency radial combiner for proton accelerator.
Jain, Akhilesh; Sharma, Deepak Kumar; Gupta, Alok Kumar; Hannurkar, P R
2009-01-01
A simplified design method has been proposed for systematic design of novel radio frequency (rf) power combiner and divider, incorporating radial slab-line structure, without using isolation resistor and external tuning mechanism. Due to low insertion loss, high power capability, and rigid mechanical configuration, this structure is advantageous for modern solid state rf power source used for feeding rf energy to superconducting accelerating structures. Analysis, based on equivalent circuit and radial transmission line approximation, provides simple design formula for calculating combiner parameters. Based on this method, novel 8-way and 16-way power combiners, with power handling capability of 4 kW, have been designed, as part of high power solid state rf amplifier development. Detailed experiments showed good performance in accordance with theory.
Jin, Q Y; Zhao, H Y; Zhang, J J; Sha, Sh; Zhang, Zh L; Li, Zh M; Liu, W; Zhang, X Zh; Sun, L T; Zhao, H W
2014-07-01
The direct plasma injection scheme (DPIS) has been being studied at Institute of Modern Physics since several years ago. A C(6+) beam with peak current of 13 mA, energy of 593 keV/u has been successfully achieved after acceleration with DPIS method. To understand the process of DPIS, some simulations have been done as follows. First, with the total current intensity and the relative yields of different charge states for carbon ions measured at the different distance from the target, the absolute current intensities and time-dependences for different charge states are scaled to the exit of the laser ion source in the DPIS. Then with these derived values as the input parameters, the extraction of carbon beam from the laser ion source to the radio frequency quadrupole with DPIS is simulated, which is well agreed with the experiment results.
Performance report on the ground test accelerator radio-frequency quadrupole
Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Brown, S.; Cole, R.; Connolly, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Garnett, R.; Guy, F.W.; Ingalls, W.B.
1994-09-01
The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) uses a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) to bunch and accelerate a 35 keV input beam to a final energy of 2.5 MeV. Most measured parameters of the GTA RFQ agreed with simulated predictions. The relative shape of the transmission versus the vane-voltage relationship and the Courant-Snyder (CS) parameters of the output beam`s transverse and longitudinal phase spaces agreed well with predictions. However, the transmission of the RFQ was significantly lower than expected. Improved simulation studies included image charges and multipole effects in the RFQ. Most of the predicted properties of the RFQ, such as input matched-beam conditions and output-beam shapes were unaffected by these additional effects. However, the comparison of measured with predicted absolute values of transmitted beam was much improved by the inclusion of these effects in the simulations. The comparison implied a value for the input emittance that is consistent with measurements.
Low-frequency modes and nonbarotropic effects in pseudo-Newtonian accretion disks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ipser, James R.
1994-01-01
A recently developed formalism is used to reexamine the question of the existence of hydrodynamical modes that pulsate with very low frequencies in the inner regions of accretion disks. The formalism is valid in an exact sense for the adiabatic pulsations of rotating Newtonian fluids that are generally nonbarotropic (such as those with 'nonadiabatic temperature gradients,' for example), and hence its application in the present context represents an improvement over previous analyses that are more approximate. The formalism is applied to thin non-self-gravitating disks, with the gravitational potential of the central source modified in the usual way in order to simulate relativistic effects. In the barotropic limit, the analyses indicate that in many cases nearly Keplerian disks exhibit nonaxisymmetric modes of pulsation that are trapped in the inner disk regions, with pulsation periods much longer than the dynamical timescale. These results are similar to those of earlier calculations that assume disks pulsate without changing the temperature distribution. A method is developed for including lowest order nonbarotropic effects. Previous analyses have been incapable of accurately treating the nonbarotropic regime. The application of the present method to the low-frequency modes reveals that, due to unexpected cancellations among terms, the nonbarotropic correction to the pusation frequency omega is only of order tilde-omega(sub BV exp 2) omega, where tilde-omega(sub BV) is the appropriate dimensionless Brunt-Vaisala frequency. This correction is much smaller than the expected correction of order tilde-omega(sub BV) Omega, where Omega is the rotation angular velocity. The important conclusion drawn from this is that nonbarotropic corrections are generally small and hence that low-frequency modes persist into the nonbarotropic regime. For disk temperatures appropriate to X-ray emission, the adiabatic frequencies of trapped modes are of the same order as the frequencies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hallock, Ashley K.; Choueiri, Edgar Y.; Polzin, Kurt A.
2007-01-01
The inductive formation of current sheets in a conical theta pinch FARAD (Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge) thruster is investigated experimentally with time-integrated photography. The goal is to help in understanding the mechanisms and conditions controlling the strength and extent of the current sheet, which are two indices important for FARAD as a propulsion concept. The profiles of these two indices along the inside walls of the conical acceleration coil are assumed to be related to the profiles of the strength and extent of the luminosity pattern derived from photographs of the discharge. The variations of these profiles as a function of uniform back-fill neutral pressure (with no background magnetic field and all parameters held constant) provided the first clues on the nature and qualitative dependencies of current sheet formation. It was found that there is an optimal pressure for which both indices reach a maximum and that the rate of change in these indices with pressure differs on either side of this optimal pressure. This allowed the inference that current sheet formation follows a Townsend-like breakdown mechanism modified by the existence of a finite pressure-dependent radio-frequency-generated electron density background. The observation that the effective location of the luminosity pattern favors the exit-half of the conical coil is explained as the result of the tendency of the inductive discharge circuit to operate near its minimal self-inductance. Movement of the peak in the luminosity pattern towards the upstream side of the cone with increasing pressure is believed to result from the need of the circuit to compensate for the increase in background plasma resistivity due to increasing pressure.
Two Novel Measurements for the Drive-Mode Resonant Frequency of a Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope
Wang, Ancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Luo, Bing; Jiang, Mingming; He, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kanghua
2013-01-01
To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG), one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method. PMID:24256977
Saesen, S.; Briquet, M.; Aerts, C.; Carrier, F.; Miglio, A.
2013-10-01
Recent progress in the seismic interpretation of field β Cep stars has resulted in improvements of the physical description in the stellar structure and evolution model computations of massive stars. Further asteroseismic constraints can be obtained from studying ensembles of stars in a young open cluster, which all have similar age, distance, and chemical composition. We present an observational asteroseismology study based on the discovery of numerous multi-periodic and mono-periodic B stars in the open cluster NGC 884. We describe a thorough investigation of the pulsational properties of all B-type stars in the cluster. Overall, our detailed frequency analysis resulted in 115 detected frequencies in 65 stars. We found 36 mono-periodic, 16 bi-periodic, 10 tri-periodic, and 2 quadru-periodic stars and one star with nine independent frequencies. We also derived the amplitudes and phases of all detected frequencies in the U, B, V, and I filter, if available. We achieved unambiguous identifications of the mode degree for 12 of the detected frequencies in nine of the pulsators. Imposing the identified degrees and measured frequencies of the radial, dipole, and quadrupole modes of five pulsators led to a seismic cluster age estimate of log (age/yr) = 7.12-7.28 from a comparison with stellar models. Our study is a proof-of-concept for and illustrates the current status of ensemble asteroseismology of a young open cluster.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Imaouchen, Yacine; Kedadouche, Mourad; Alkama, Rezak; Thomas, Marc
2017-01-01
Signal processing techniques for non-stationary and noisy signals have recently attracted considerable attentions. Among them, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) which is an adaptive and efficient method for decomposing signals from high to low frequencies into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Ensemble EMD (EEMD) is proposed to overcome the mode mixing problem of the EMD. In the present paper, the Complementary EEMD (CEEMD) is used for bearing fault detection. As a noise-improved method, the CEEMD not only overcomes the mode mixing, but also eliminates the residual of added white noise persisting into the IMFs and enhance the calculation efficiency of the EEMD method. Afterward, a selection method is developed to choose relevant IMFs containing information about defects. Subsequently, a signal is reconstructed from the sum of relevant IMFs and a Frequency-Weighted Energy Operator is tailored to extract both the amplitude and frequency modulations from the selected IMFs. This operator outperforms the conventional energy operator and the enveloping methods, especially in the presence of strong noise and multiple vibration interferences. Furthermore, simulation and experimental results showed that the proposed method improves performances for detecting the bearing faults. The method has also high computational efficiency and is able to detect the fault at an early stage of degradation.
Spectroscopic pulsational frequency identification and mode determination of γ Doradus star HD 12901
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brunsden, E.; Pollard, K. R.; Cottrell, P. L.; Wright, D. J.; De Cat, P.
2012-12-01
Using multisite spectroscopic data collected from three sites, the frequencies and pulsational modes of the γ Doradus star HD 12901 were identified. A total of six frequencies in the range 1-2 d-1 were observed, their identifications supported by multiple line-profile measurement techniques and previously published photometry. Five frequencies were of sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for mode identification, and all five displayed similar three-bump standard deviation profiles which were fitted well with (l,m) = (1,1) modes. These fits had reduced χ2 values of less than 18. We propose that this star is an excellent candidate to test models of non-radially pulsating γ Doradus stars as a result of the presence of multiple (1,1) modes. This paper includes data taken at the Mount John University Observatory of the University of Canterbury (New Zealand), the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin (Texas, USA) and the European Southern Observatory at La Silla (Chile).
FREQUENCY SHIFTS OF RESONANT MODES OF THE SUN DUE TO NEAR-SURFACE CONVECTIVE SCATTERING
Bhattacharya, J.; Hanasoge, S.; Antia, H. M.
2015-06-20
Measurements of oscillation frequencies of the Sun and stars can provide important independent constraints on their internal structure and dynamics. Seismic models of these oscillations are used to connect structure and rotation of the star to its resonant frequencies, which are then compared with observations, the goal being that of minimizing the difference between the two. Even in the case of the Sun, for which structure models are highly tuned, observed frequencies show systematic deviations from modeled frequencies, a phenomenon referred to as the “surface term.” The dominant source of this systematic effect is thought to be vigorous near-surface convection, which is not well accounted for in both stellar modeling and mode-oscillation physics. Here we bring to bear the method of homogenization, applicable in the asymptotic limit of large wavelengths (in comparison to the correlation scale of convection), to characterize the effect of small-scale surface convection on resonant-mode frequencies in the Sun. We show that the full oscillation equations, in the presence of temporally stationary three-dimensional (3D) flows, can be reduced to an effective “quiet-Sun” wave equation with altered sound speed, Brünt–Väisäla frequency, and Lamb frequency. We derive the modified equation and relations for the appropriate averaging of 3D flows and thermal quantities to obtain the properties of this effective medium. Using flows obtained from 3D numerical simulations of near-surface convection, we quantify their effect on solar oscillation frequencies and find that they are shifted systematically and substantially. We argue therefore that consistent interpretations of resonant frequencies must include modifications to the wave equation that effectively capture the impact of vigorous hydrodynamic convection.
Frequency shifts of resonant modes of the Sun due to near-surface convective scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, J.; Hanasoge, S. M.; Antia, H. M.
Measurements of oscillation frequencies of the Sun and stars can provide important independent constraints on their internal structure and dynamics. Seismic models of these oscillations are used to connect structure and rotation of the star to its resonant frequencies, which are then compared with observations, the goal being that of minimizing the difference between the two. Even in the case of the Sun, for which structure models are highly tuned, observed frequencies show systematic deviations from modeled frequencies, a phenomenon referred to as the ``surface term.'' The dominant source of this systematic effect is thought to be vigorous near-surface convection, which is not well accounted for in both stellar modeling and mode-oscillation physics. Here we bring to bear the method of homogenization, applicable in the asymptotic limit of large wavelengths (in comparison to the correlation scale of convection), to characterize the effect of small-scale surface convection on resonant-mode frequencies in the Sun. We show that the full oscillation equations, in the presence of temporally stationary 3D flows, can be reduced to an effective ``quiet-Sun'' wave equation with altered sound speed, Brünt-Väisäla frequency, and Lamb frequency. We derive the modified equation and relations for the appropriate averaging of 3D flows and thermal quantities to obtain the properties of this effective medium. Using flows obtained from 3D numerical simulations of near-surface convection, we quantify their effect on solar oscillation frequencies and find that they are shifted systematically and substantially. We argue therefore that consistent interpretations of resonant frequencies must include modifications to the wave equation that effectively capture the impact of vigorous hydrodynamic convection.
Investigation of pulsed mode operation with the frequency tuned CAPRICE ECRIS
Maimone, F. Tinschert, K.; Endermann, M.; Hollinger, R.; Kondrashev, S.; Lang, R.; Mäder, J.; Patchakui, P. T.; Spädtke, P.
2016-02-15
In order to increase the intensity of the highly charged ions produced by the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs), techniques like the frequency tuning and the afterglow mode have been developed and in this paper the effect on the ion production is shown for the first time when combining both techniques. Recent experimental results proved that the tuning of the operating frequency of the ECRIS is a promising technique to achieve higher ion currents of higher charge states. On the other hand, it is well known that the afterglow mode of the ECRIS operation can provide more intense pulsed ion beams in comparison with the continuous wave (cw) operation. These two techniques can be combined by pulsing the variable frequency signal driving the traveling wave tube amplifier which provides the high microwave power to the ECRIS. In order to analyze the effect of these two combined techniques on the ion source performance, several experiments were carried out on the pulsed frequency tuned CAPRICE (Compacte source A Plusiers Résonances Ionisantes Cyclotron Electroniques)-type ECRIS. Different waveforms and pulse lengths have been investigated under different settings of the ion source. The results of the pulsed mode have been compared with those of cw operation.
Investigation of pulsed mode operation with the frequency tuned CAPRICE ECRIS.
Maimone, F; Tinschert, K; Endermann, M; Hollinger, R; Kondrashev, S; Lang, R; Mäder, J; Patchakui, P T; Spädtke, P
2016-02-01
In order to increase the intensity of the highly charged ions produced by the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs), techniques like the frequency tuning and the afterglow mode have been developed and in this paper the effect on the ion production is shown for the first time when combining both techniques. Recent experimental results proved that the tuning of the operating frequency of the ECRIS is a promising technique to achieve higher ion currents of higher charge states. On the other hand, it is well known that the afterglow mode of the ECRIS operation can provide more intense pulsed ion beams in comparison with the continuous wave (cw) operation. These two techniques can be combined by pulsing the variable frequency signal driving the traveling wave tube amplifier which provides the high microwave power to the ECRIS. In order to analyze the effect of these two combined techniques on the ion source performance, several experiments were carried out on the pulsed frequency tuned CAPRICE (Compacte source A Plusiers Résonances Ionisantes Cyclotron Electroniques)-type ECRIS. Different waveforms and pulse lengths have been investigated under different settings of the ion source. The results of the pulsed mode have been compared with those of cw operation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rowland, H. L.; Palmadesso, P. J.
1983-01-01
Large amplitude ion cyclotron waves have been observed on auroral field lines. In the presence of an electric field parallel to the ambient magnetic field these waves prevent the acceleration of the bulk of the plasma electrons leading to the formation of a runaway tail. It is shown that low-frequency turbulence can also limit the acceleration of high-velocity runaway electrons via pitch angle scattering at the anomalous Doppler resonance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Moran; Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Pfister, Olivier
2014-03-01
We report the experimental realization and characterization of one 60-mode copy and of two 30-mode copies of a dual-rail quantum-wire cluster state in the quantum optical frequency comb of a bimodally pumped optical parametric oscillator. This is the largest entangled system ever created whose subsystems are all available simultaneously. The entanglement proceeds from the coherent concatenation of a multitude of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen pairs by a single beam splitter, a procedure which is also a building block for the realization of hypercubic-lattice cluster states for universal quantum computing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmid, V. S.; Themeßl, N.; Breger, M.; Degroote, P.; Aerts, C.; Beck, P. G.; Tkachenko, A.; Van Reeth, T.; Bloemen, S.; Debosscher, J.; Castanheira, B. G.; McArthur, B. E.; Pápics, P. I.; Fritz, V.; Falcon, R. E.
2014-10-01
More than 40 years of ground-based photometric observations of the δ Sct star 4 CVn has revealed 18 independent oscillation frequencies, including radial as well as non-radial p-modes of low spherical degree ℓ ≤ 2. From 2008 to 2011, more than 2000 spectra were obtained at the 2.1 m Otto-Struve telescope at the McDonald Observatory. We present the analysis of the line-profile variations, based on the Fourier-parameter fit method, detected in the absorption lines of 4 CVn, which carry clear signatures of the pulsations. From a non-sinusoidal, periodic variation of the radial velocities, we discover that 4 CVn is an eccentric binary system with an orbital period Porb = 124.44 ± 0.03 d and an eccentricity e = 0.311 ± 0.003. We detect 20 oscillation frequencies, 9 of which previously unseen in photometric data; attempt mode identification for the two dominant modes, f1 = 7.3764 d-1 and f2 = 5.8496 d-1; and determine the prograde or retrograde nature of 7 of the modes. The projected rotational velocity of the star, veqsini ≃ 106.7 km s-1, translates to a rotation rate of veq/vcrit ≥ 33%. This relatively high rotation rate hampers unique mode identification, since higher order effects of rotation are not included in the current methodology. We conclude that, in order to achieve unambiguous mode identification for 4 CVn, a complete description of rotation and the use of blended lines have to be included in mode-identification techniques. This paper includes data taken at The McDonald Observatory of The University of Texas at Austin.The software package FAMIAS, developed in the framework of the FP6 European Coordination Action HELAS (http://www.helas-eu.org/), has been used in this research.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sidorin, Anatoly
2010-01-01
In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.
Frequency-Domain Tomography for Single-shot, Ultrafast Imaging of Evolving Laser-Plasma Accelerators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang, Xiaoming; Downer, Michael
2011-10-01
Intense laser pulses propagating through plasma create plasma wakefields that often evolve significantly, e.g. by expanding and contracting. However, such dynamics are known in detail only through intensive simulations. Laboratory visualization of evolving plasma wakes in the ``bubble'' regime is important for optimizing and scaling laser-plasma accelerators. Recently snap-shots of quasi-static wakes were recorded using frequency-domain holography (FDH). To visualize the wake's evolution, we have generalized FDH to frequency-domain tomography (FDT), which uses multiple probes propagating at different angles with respect to the pump pulse. Each probe records a phase streak, imprinting a partial record of the evolution of pump-created structures. We then topographically reconstruct the full evolution from all phase streaks. To prove the concept, a prototype experiment visualizing nonlinear index evolution in glass is demonstrated. Four probes propagating at 0, 0.6, 2, 14 degrees to the index ``bubble'' are angularly and temporally multiplexed to a single spectrometer to achieve cost-effective FDT. From these four phase streaks, an FDT algorithm analogous to conventional CT yields a single-shot movie of the pump's self-focusing dynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hung, R. J.; Shyu, K. L.
1992-01-01
The objective of the cryogenic fluid management of the spacecraft propulsion system is to develop the technology necessary for acquisition or positioning of liquid and vapor within a tank in reduced gravity to enable liquid outflow or vapor venting. The requirement to settle or to position liquid fuel over the outlet end of the spacecraft propellant tank prior to main engine restart poses a microgravity fluid behavior problem. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the stability of the most efficient technique for propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage and weight penalties. In this study slosh wave excitation induced by the resettling flow field activated by 0.1 Hz low frequency, impulsive reverse gravity acceleration, during reorientation with the initiation of geyser for liquid fill levels of 30, 50, 65, 70 and 80 percent, have been studied. Characteristics of slosh waves with various frequencies excited are discussed. Slosh wave excitation shift the fluid mass distribution in the container which impose time dependent variations in spacecraft moment of inertia. This information is important for the spacecraft control during the course of liquid reorientation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mo, Qingkai; Zhang, Tao; Yan, Yining
2016-10-01
There are contradictions among speediness, anti-disturbance performance, and steady-state accuracy caused by traditional PID controller in the existing light source systems of thermal frequency stabilizing laser with double longitudinal modes. In this paper, a new kind of fuzzy adaptive PID controller was designed by combining fuzzy PID control technology and expert system to make frequency stabilizing system obtain the optimal performance. The experiments show that the frequency stability of the designed PID controller is similar to the existing PID controller (the magnitude of frequency stability is less than 10-9 in constant temperature and 10-7 in open air). But the preheating time is shortened obviously (from 10 minutes to 5 minutes) and the anti-disturbance capability is improved significantly (the recovery time needed after strong interference is reduced from 1 minute to 10 seconds).
Manifold damping of the NLC detuned accelerating structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kroll, N.; Thompson, K.; Bane, K.; Gluckstern, R.; Ko, K.; Miller, R.; Ruth, R.
1995-06-01
In order to mitigate the reappearance of the HOM wakefield of a detuned accelerator structure and relax tolerance requirements, we propose to provide low level damping by coupling all cavities to several identical and symmetrically located waveguides (manifolds) which run parallel to each accelerator structure and are terminated at each end by matched loads. The waveguides are designed such that all modes which couple to the acceleration mode are non-propagating at the acceleration mode frequency. Hence the coupling irises can be designed to provide large coupling to higher frequency modes without damping the acceleration mode. Because the higher order modes are detuned, they are localized and have a broad spectrum of phase velocities of both signs. They are therefore capable of coupling effectively to all propagating modes in the waveguides. Methods of analyzing and results obtained for the very complex system of modes in the accelerating structure and manifolds are presented.
Manifold damping of the NLC detuned accelerating structure
Kroll, N.; Thompson, K.; Bane, K.; Ko, K.; Miller, R.; Ruth, R.; Gluckstern, R.
1994-09-01
In order to investigate the reappearance of the HOM wakefield of a detuned accelerator structure and relax tolerance requirements, we propose to provide low level damping by coupling all cavities to several identical and symmetrically located waveguides (manifolds) which run parallel to each accelerator structure and are terminated at each end by matched loads. The waveguides are designed such that all modes which couple to the acceleration mode are non-propagating at the acceleration mode frequency. Hence the coupling irises can be designed to provide large coupling to higher frequency modes without damping the acceleration mode. Because the higher order modes are detuned, they are localized and have a broad spectrum of phase velocities of both signs. They are therefore capable of coupling effectively to all propagating modes in the waveguides. Methods of analyzing and results obtained for the very complex system of modes in the accelerating structure and manifolds are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howe, R.; Basu, S.; Davies, G. R.; Ball, W. H.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Komm, R.
2017-02-01
The solar-cycle variation of acoustic mode frequencies has a frequency dependence related to the inverse mode inertia. The discrepancy between model predictions and measured oscillation frequencies for solar and solar-type stellar acoustic modes includes a significant frequency-dependent term known as the surface term, which is also related to the inverse mode inertia. We parametrize both the surface term and the frequency variations for low-degree solar data from Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) and medium-degree data from the Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) using the mode inertia together with cubic and inverse frequency terms. We find that for the central frequency of rotationally split multiplets, the cubic term dominates both the average surface term and the temporal variation, but for the medium-degree case, the inverse term improves the fit to the temporal variation. We also examine the variation of the even-order splitting coefficients for the medium-degree data and find that, as for the central frequency, the latitude-dependent frequency variation, which reflects the changing latitudinal distribution of magnetic activity over the solar cycle, can be described by the combination of a cubic and an inverse function of frequency scaled by inverse mode inertia. The results suggest that this simple parametrization could be used to assess the activity-related frequency variation in solar-like asteroseismic targets.
Enhanced ultra-low-frequency interlayer shear modes in folded graphene layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cong, Chunxiao; Yu, Ting
2014-08-01
Few-layer graphene has attracted tremendous attention owing to its exceptional electronic properties inherited from single-layer graphene and new features led by introducing extra freedoms such as interlayer stacking sequences or rotations. Effectively probing interlayer shear modes are critical for unravelling mechanical and electrical properties of few-layer graphene and further developing its practical potential. Unfortunately, shear modes are extremely weak and almost fully blocked by a Rayleigh rejecter in Raman measurements. This greatly hinders investigations of shear modes in few-layer graphene. Here, we demonstrate enhancing of shear modes by properly folding few-layer graphene. As a direct benefit of the strong signal, enhancement mechanism, vibrational symmetry, anharmonicity and electron-phonon coupling of the shear modes are uncovered through studies of Raman mapping, polarization- and temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy. This work complements Raman studies of graphene layers, and paves an efficient way to exploit low-frequency shear modes of few-layer graphene and other two-dimensional layered materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keiderling, Michael C.; Kojima, Harry
2009-03-01
We have extended our studies on the non-classical behavior of solid ^4He contained in compound torsional oscillator (TO) cell below 1 K. Our unique TO design allows observations on the identical sample at two distinct frequencies(f1=493 and f2=1165 Hz). The sample was grown by blocked capillary method in an annular cell(id = 8.0 mm, od = 10.0 mm, height = 9.0 mm). We focus here on experiments in which the two modes are excited simultaneously. While keeping the drive of f2 mode at a very low level, the drive of f1 mode was varied from high to low levels to produce substantial variations in the non-classical rotation inertia fraction (NCRIf). When the NCRIf seen by f1 mode is reduced by 89, 91 and 94 % at 9.7, 23.5 and 56.5 mK, respectively, the NCRIf seen by f2 mode (driven at low level) is reduced by 62, 68 and 80 %. The discrepancies and their temperature dependence in the observed reductions in NCRIf are not yet understood. Similar Measurements with the roles of the drive levels of the modes reversed as well as the changes in the dissipation of the torsional oscillator during the simultaneous drive will be reported.
Rodgers, J.E.; Elebi, M.
2011-01-01
The 1994 Northridge earthquake caused brittle fractures in steel moment frame building connections, despite causing little visible building damage in most cases. Future strong earthquakes are likely to cause similar damage to the many un-retrofitted pre-Northridge buildings in the western US and elsewhere. Without obvious permanent building deformation, costly intrusive inspections are currently the only way to determine if major fracture damage that compromises building safety has occurred. Building instrumentation has the potential to provide engineers and owners with timely information on fracture occurrence. Structural dynamics theory predicts and scale model experiments have demonstrated that sudden, large changes in structure properties caused by moment connection fractures will cause transient dynamic response. A method is proposed for detecting the building-wide level of connection fracture damage, based on observing high-frequency, fracture-induced transient dynamic responses in strong motion accelerograms. High-frequency transients are short (<1 s), sudden-onset waveforms with frequency content above 25 Hz that are visually apparent in recorded accelerations. Strong motion data and damage information from intrusive inspections collected from 24 sparsely instrumented buildings following the 1994 Northridge earthquake are used to evaluate the proposed method. The method's overall success rate for this data set is 67%, but this rate varies significantly with damage level. The method performs reasonably well in detecting significant fracture damage and in identifying cases with no damage, but fails in cases with few fractures. Combining the method with other damage indicators and removing records with excessive noise improves the ability to detect the level of damage. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, Scott A; Pinnick, David A; Anderson, A
2014-12-01
High-pressure Raman spectroscopy has been used to study the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the vibrational modes of crystalline adenosine at 295 K by evaluating the logarithmic derivative of the vibrational frequency with respect to pressure: [Formula: see text]. Crystalline samples of molecular materials such as adenosine will have vibrational modes that are localized within a molecular unit ("internal" modes) as well as modes in which the molecular units vibrate against each other ("external" modes). The value of the logarithmic derivative is found to be a diagnostic probe of the nature of the eigenvector of the vibrational modes. Stretching modes which are predominantly internal to the molecule have low logarithmic derivatives while external modes have higher logarithmic derivatives. Particular interest is paid to the low-frequency (≤150 cm(-1)) modes. Based on the pressure dependence of its logarithmic derivative, a mode near 49 cm(-1) is identified as internal mode. The other modes below 400 cm(-1) have pressure dependences of their logarithmic derivatives consistent with being either (1) modes which are mainly external, meaning that the molecules of the unit cell vibrate against each other in translational or librational motions (or linear combinations thereof), or (2) torsional or bending modes involving a large number of atoms, mainly within a molecule. The modes above 400 cm(-1) all have pressure dependences of their logarithmic derivatives consistent with being mainly internal modes.
High-frequency Born synthetic seismograms based on coupled normal modes
Pollitz, F.
2011-01-01
High-frequency and full waveform synthetic seismograms on a 3-D laterally heterogeneous earth model are simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The set of coupled integral equations that describe the 3-D response are simplified into a set of uncoupled integral equations by using the Born approximation to calculate scattered wavefields and the pure-path approximation to modulate the phase of incident and scattered wavefields. This depends upon a decomposition of the aspherical structure into smooth and rough components. The uncoupled integral equations are discretized and solved in the frequency domain, and time domain results are obtained by inverse Fourier transform. Examples show the utility of the normal mode approach to synthesize the seismic wavefields resulting from interaction with a combination of rough and smooth structural heterogeneities. This approach is applied to an ~4 Hz shallow crustal wave propagation around the site of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD). ?? The Author Geophysical Journal International ?? 2011 RAS.
Frequency band of the f-mode Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz instability
Zink, Burkhard; Korobkin, Oleg; Schnetter, Erik; Stergioulas, Nikolaos
2010-04-15
Rapidly rotating neutron stars can be unstable to the gravitational-wave-driven Chandrasekhar-Friedman-Schutz (CFS) mechanism if they have a neutral point in the spectrum of nonaxisymmetric f-modes. We investigate the frequencies of these modes in two sequences of uniformly rotating polytropes using nonlinear simulations in full general relativity, determine the approximate locations of the neutral points, and derive limits on the observable frequency band available to the instability in these sequences. We find that general relativity enhances the detectability of a CFS-unstable neutron star substantially, both by widening the instability window and enlarging the band into the optimal range for interferometric detectors like LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO-600.
General Applicable Frequency Map for the Amide-I Mode in β-Peptides.
Cai, Kaicong; Du, Fenfen; Zheng, Xuan; Liu, Jia; Zheng, Renhui; Zhao, Juan; Wang, Jianping
2016-02-18
In this work, a general applicable amide-I vibrational frequency map (GA map) for β-peptides in a number of common solvents was constructed, based on a peptide derivative, N-ethylpropionamide (NEPA). The map utilizes force fields at the ab initio computational level to accurately describe molecular structure and solute-solvent interactions, and also force fields at the molecular mechanics level to take into account long-range solute-solvent interactions. The results indicate that the GA map works reasonably for mapping the vibrational frequencies of the amide-I local-modes for β-peptides, holding promises for understanding the complicated infrared spectra of the amide-I mode in β-polypeptides.
Comment on "Mode Conversion of Waves In The Ion-Cyclotron Frequency Range in Magnetospheric Plasmas"
Kim, Eun; Johnson, J. R.
2014-02-01
Recently, Kazakov and Fulop [1] studied mode conversion (MC) at the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance in planetary magnetospheric plasmas by simplifying the dispersion relation of the fast wave (FW) modes to describe a cutoff-resonance (CR) pair near the IIH resonance, which can be reduced to a Budden problem. They suggested that when the IIH resonance frequency (ωS) approaches the crossover frequency (ωcr), and the parallel wavenumber (k∥) is close to the critical wavenumber k* ∥(ωS = ωcr), MC can be efficient for arbitrary heavy ion density ratios. In this Comment, we argue that (a) the FW dispersion relation cannot be simplified to the CR pair especially near ωcr because in many parameter regimes there is a cutoff-resonance-cutoff (CRC) triplet that completely changes the wave absorption; and (b) the maximum MC efficiency does not always occur near k∥ ≈ k*∥∥.
High-frequency Born synthetic seismograms based on coupled normal modes
Pollitz, Fred F.
2011-01-01
High-frequency and full waveform synthetic seismograms on a 3-D laterally heterogeneous earth model are simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The set of coupled integral equations that describe the 3-D response are simplified into a set of uncoupled integral equations by using the Born approximation to calculate scattered wavefields and the pure-path approximation to modulate the phase of incident and scattered wavefields. This depends upon a decomposition of the aspherical structure into smooth and rough components. The uncoupled integral equations are discretized and solved in the frequency domain, and time domain results are obtained by inverse Fourier transform. Examples show the utility of the normal mode approach to synthesize the seismic wavefields resulting from interaction with a combination of rough and smooth structural heterogeneities. This approach is applied to an ∼4 Hz shallow crustal wave propagation around the site of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD).
Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kühnle, Angelika; Rahe, Philipp
2014-04-15
In frequency modulated non-contact atomic force microscopy, the change of the cantilever frequency (Δf) is used as the input signal for the topography feedback loop. Around the Δf(z) minimum, however, stable feedback operation is challenging using a standard proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback design due to the change of sign in the slope. When operated under liquid conditions, it is furthermore difficult to address the attractive interaction regime due to its often moderate peakedness. Additionally, the Δf signal level changes severely with time in this environment due to drift of the cantilever frequency f{sub 0} and, thus, requires constant adjustment. Here, we present an approach overcoming these obstacles by using the derivative of Δf with respect to z as the input signal for the topography feedback loop. Rather than regulating the absolute value to a preset setpoint, the slope of the Δf with respect to z is regulated to zero. This new measurement mode not only makes the minimum of the Δf(z) curve directly accessible, but it also benefits from greatly increased operation stability due to its immunity against f{sub 0} drift. We present isosurfaces of the Δf minimum acquired on the calcite CaCO{sub 3}(101{sup ¯}4) surface in liquid environment, demonstrating the capability of our method to image in the attractive tip-sample interaction regime.
High efficiency in Mode Selective Frequency Conversion for Optical Quantum Information Processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quesada, Nicolas; Sipe, J. E.
Mode selective Frequency conversion (FC) is an enabling process in many quantum information protocols. Recently, it has been observed that upconversion efficiencies in single-photon, mode-selective FC are limited to around 80%. In this contribution we show that these limits can be understood as time ordering corrections (TOCs) that modify the joint conversion amplitude of the process. Furthermore we show, using a simple scaling argument, that recently proposed cascaded FC protocols that overcome the aforementioned limitations act as ``attenuators'' of the TOCs. This observation allows us to argue that very similar cascaded architectures can be used to attenuate TOCs in photon generation via spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Finally, by using the Magnus expansion, we argue that the TOCs, which are usually considered detrimental for FC efficiency, can also be used to increase the efficiency of conversion in partially mode selective FC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tkach, Igor; Sicoli, Giuseppe; Höbartner, Claudia; Bennati, Marina
2011-04-01
We present a dual-mode resonator operating at/near 94 GHz (W-band) microwave frequencies and supporting two microwave modes with the same field polarization at the sample position. Numerical analysis shows that the frequencies of both modes as well as their frequency separation can be tuned in a broad range up to GHz. The resonator was constructed to perform pulsed ELDOR experiments with a variable separation of "pump" and "detection" frequencies up to Δ ν = 350 MHz. To examine its performance, test ESE/PELDOR experiments were performed on a representative biradical system.
Energetic Particle Effects Can Explain the Low Frequency of Alfvin Modes in the DIII-D Tokamak
Gorelenkov, N.N.; Heidbrink, W.W.
2001-01-31
During beam injection in the DIII-D tokamak, modes with lower frequencies than expected for toroidicity-induced Alfvin eigenmodes (TAE) are often observed. We present the analysis of one of these ''beta-induced Alfvin eigenmodes'' (BAE) with a high-n stability code HINST that includes the effect of the energetic ions on the mode frequency. It shows that the ''BAE'' could be the theoretically predicted resonant-TAE (RTAE), which is also called an energetic-particle mode (EPM).
Clustered frequency analysis of shear Alfvén modes in stellarators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spong, D. A.; D'Azevedo, E.; Todo, Y.
2010-02-01
The shear Alfvén spectrum in three-dimensional configurations, such as stellarators and rippled tokamaks, is more densely populated due to the larger number of mode couplings caused by the variation in the magnetic field in the toroidal dimension. This implies more significant computational requirements that can rapidly become prohibitive as more resolution is requested. Alfvén eigenfrequencies and mode structures are a primary point of contact between theory and experiment. A new algorithm based on the Jacobi-Davidson method is developed here and applied for a reduced magnetohydrodynamics model to several stellarator configurations. This technique focuses on finding a subset of eigenmodes clustered about a specified input frequency. This approach can be especially useful in modeling experimental observations, where the mode frequency can generally be measured with good accuracy and several different simultaneous frequency lines may be of interest. For cases considered in this paper, it can be a factor of 102-103 times faster than more conventional methods.
Joint inversion of high-frequency surface waves with fundamental and higher modes
Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Liu, J.; Liu, Q.; Xu, S.
2007-01-01
Joint inversion of multimode surface waves for estimating the shear (S)-wave velocity has received much attention in recent years. In this paper, we first analyze sensitivity of phase velocities of multimodes of surface waves for a six-layer earth model, and then we invert surface-wave dispersion curves of the theoretical model and a real-world example. Sensitivity analysis shows that fundamental mode data are more sensitive to the S-wave velocities of shallow layers and are concentrated on a very narrow frequency band, while higher mode data are more sensitive to the parameters of relatively deeper layers and are distributed over a wider frequency band. These properties provide a foundation of using a multimode joint inversion to define S-wave velocities. Inversion results of both synthetic data and a real-world example demonstrate that joint inversion with the damped least-square method and the singular-value decomposition technique to invert high-frequency surface waves with fundamental and higher mode data simultaneously can effectively reduce the ambiguity and improve the accuracy of S-wave velocities. ?? 2007.
Breger, M.; Montgomery, M. H.
2014-03-10
In the theory of resonant mode coupling, the parent and child modes are directly related in frequency and phase. The oscillations present in the fast rotating δ Sct star KIC 8054146 allow us to test the most general and generic aspects of such a theory. The only direct way to separate the parent and coupled (child) modes is to examine the correlations in amplitude variability between the different frequencies. For the dominant family of related frequencies, only a single mode and a triplet are the origins of nine dominant frequency peaks ranging from 2.93 to 66.30 cycles day{sup –1} (as well as dozens of small-amplitude combination modes and a predicted and detected third high-frequency triplet). The mode-coupling model correctly predicts the large amplitude variations of the coupled modes as a product of the amplitudes of the parent modes, while the phase changes are also correctly modeled. This differs from the behavior of 'normal' combination frequencies in that the amplitudes are three orders of magnitude larger and may exceed even the amplitudes of the parent modes. We show that two dominant low frequencies at 5.86 and 2.93 cycles day{sup –1} in the gravity-mode region are not harmonics of each other, and their properties follow those of the almost equidistant high-frequency triplet. We note that the previously puzzling situation of finding two strong peaks in the low-frequency region related by nearly a factor of two in frequency has been seen in other δ Sct stars as well.
Superconducting NbTiN thin films for superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavity applications
Burton, Matthew C.; Beebe, Melissa R.; Yang, Kaida; Lukaszew, Rosa A.; Valente-Feliciano, Anne -Marie; Reece, Charles
2016-02-12
Current superconducting radio frequency technology, used in various particle accelerator facilities across the world, is reliant upon bulk niobium superconducting cavities. Due to technological advancements in the processing of bulk Nb cavities, the facilities have reached accelerating fields very close to a material-dependent limit, which is close to 50 MV/m for bulk Nb. One possible solution to improve upon this fundamental limitation was proposed a few years ago by Gurevich [Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 012511 (2006)], consisting of the deposition of alternating thin layers of superconducting and insulating materials on the interior surface of the cavities. The use of type-II superconductors with Tc > Tc_{Nb} and H_{c} > HcNb, (e.g., Nb_{3}Sn, NbN, or NbTiN) could potentially greatly reduce the surface resistance (Rs) and enhance the accelerating field, if the onset of vortex penetration is increased above Hc_{Nb}, thus enabling higher field gradients. Although Nb_{3}Sn may prove superior, it is not clear that it can be grown as a suitable thin film for the proposed multilayer approach, since very high temperature is typically required for its growth, hindering achieving smooth interfaces and/or surfaces. On the other hand, since NbTiN has a smaller lower critical field (H_{c1}) and higher critical temperature (T_{c}) than Nb and increased conductivity compared to NbN, it is a promising candidate material for this new scheme. Here, the authors present experimental results correlating filmmicrostructure with superconducting properties on NbTiN thin film coupon samples while also comparing filmsgrown with targets of different stoichiometry. In conclusion, it is worth mentioning that the authors have achieved thin films with bulk-like lattice parameter and transition temperature while also achieving H_{c1} values larger than bulk for films thinner than their London penetration depths.
SU-E-T-627: Failure Modes and Effect Analysis for Monthly Quality Assurance of Linear Accelerator
Xie, J; Xiao, Y; Wang, J; Peng, J; Lu, S; Hu, W
2014-06-15
Purpose: To develop and implement a failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) on routine monthly Quality Assurance (QA) tests (physical tests part) of linear accelerator. Methods: A systematic failure mode and effect analysis method was performed for monthly QA procedures. A detailed process tree of monthly QA was created and potential failure modes were defined. Each failure mode may have many influencing factors. For each factor, a risk probability number (RPN) was calculated from the product of probability of occurrence (O), the severity of effect (S), and detectability of the failure (D). The RPN scores are in a range of 1 to 1000, with higher scores indicating stronger correlation to a given influencing factor of a failure mode. Five medical physicists in our institution were responsible to discuss and to define the O, S, D values. Results: 15 possible failure modes were identified and all RPN scores of all influencing factors of these 15 failue modes were from 8 to 150, and the checklist of FMEA in monthly QA was drawn. The system showed consistent and accurate response to erroneous conditions. Conclusion: The influencing factors of RPN greater than 50 were considered as highly-correlated factors of a certain out-oftolerance monthly QA test. FMEA is a fast and flexible tool to develop an implement a quality management (QM) frame work of monthly QA, which improved the QA efficiency of our QA team. The FMEA work may incorporate more quantification and monitoring fuctions in future.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Peng; Bai, Xian-Xu; Qian, Li-Jun
2016-03-01
This paper presents an experimental investigation on the behavior of magnetorheological (MR) fluids in high-frequency oscillatory squeeze mode and proposes a mathematical model to reveal the MR mechanism. A specific MR squeeze structure avoiding the cavitation effect is designed for the experimental tests. The magnetic field- and gap distance-dependent damping force of the MR squeeze structure is presented and compared with the dramatically large damping force under quasi-static excitations, a moderate damping force is observed at high frequencies. Subsequently, in order to interpret the behavior of MR fluids at high frequencies, employing the continuum media theory, a mathematical model is established with consideration of the fluid inertia and hysteresis property. The damping force comparison between the model and experimental tests indicates that in high-frequency oscillatory squeeze mode, the squeeze-strengthen effect does not work and the shear yield stress can be applied well to characterize the flow property of MR fluids. In addition, the hysteresis property has a significant influence on the damping performance.
Mode transition and hysteresis in inductively coupled radio frequency argon discharge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wegner, Th.; Küllig, C.; Meichsner, J.
2016-02-01
This contribution presents experimental results about the mode transition of an inductively coupled radio frequency (RF) (13.56 MHz) argon discharge at different total gas pressures. In particular, the positive ion saturation current and the line integrated electron density are measured by Langmuir probe and 160 GHz microwave interferometer, respectively. The mode transition strongly depends on the total gas pressure and can appear stepwise or continuously. The space resolved positive ion saturation current is separately shown for the E- and H-mode at different total gas pressures. Therewith, the pressure dependency of the RF sheath thickness indicates a collisional sheath. The hysteresis phenomenon during the E-H and the inverse H-E transition is discussed within the framework of the matching situation for different total gas pressures. The hysteresis width is analyzed using the absorbed power as well as the coil voltage and current. As a result, the width strongly increases with pressure regarding the power and the coil voltage in the E-mode and remains constant in the H-mode. In addition, the phase shift between the coil voltage and current shows a hysteresis effect, too.
A multi-mode screech frequency prediction formula for circular supersonic jets.
Gao, J H; Li, X D
2010-03-01
A time evolution analysis is presented for the interaction between the instability waves, shock cells, and screech tones based on the authors' previous numerical simulation database. An attachment and reinforcement process of the upstream propagating screech waves with the downstream hydrodynamic waves is identified and recognized as part of the screech loop. The first five shock cells are recognized as the effective sound source region. Through an analysis of the phase variation in the dominant pressure fluctuations for several typical Mach number screeching jets, it is found that the total number of the instability waves and the upstream feedback sound waves in the effective source region can be identified as 5 for the A1, B, and D modes and 6 for A2 and C modes, respectively. A screech tone frequency prediction formula is thus proposed based on this relation. The predicted screech wavelengths or Strouhal numbers of cold and hot jets all agree well with the experimental data by other researchers, except for a small discrepancy for the B mode. It is also noticed that the measured two A0 modes by Ponton et al. [NASA Technical Memorandum No. 113137, Langley Research Center (1997)] can be classified to A1 and A2 modes, respectively, according to the proposed formula.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chillara, Vamshi Krishna; Pantea, Cristian; Sinha, Dipen N.
2017-02-01
We present a very simple approach to generate a collimated ultrasonic beam that exploits the natural Bessel-like vibration pattern of the radial modes of a piezoelectric disc with lateral clamping. This eliminates the need for the conventional annular Bessel pattern of the electrodes with individual electrode excitation on the piezo-disc, thus simplifying the transducer design. Numerical and experimental studies are carried out to investigate the Bessel-like vibration patterns of these radial modes showing an excellent agreement between these two studies. Measured ultrasonic beam-profiles in water from the radial modes confirm the profile to be a Bessel beam. Collimated beam generation from radial modes is investigated using a coupled electromechanical finite-element model. It is found that clamping the lateral edges of piezoelectric transducers results in a high-degree of collimation with practically no side-lobes similar to a parametric array beam. Ultrasonic beam-profile measurements in water with both free and clamped piezoelectric transducer are presented. The collimated beam generation using the present technique of using the laterally clamped radial modes finds significant applications in low-frequency imaging through highly attenuating materials.
Šmíd, Radek; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej
2015-01-01
We present a method of noise suppression of laser diodes by an unbalanced Michelson fiber interferometer. The unstabilized laser source is represented by compact planar waveguide external cavity laser module, ORIONTM (Redfern Integrated Optics, Inc.), working at 1540.57 nm with a 1.5-kHz linewidth. We built up the unbalanced Michelson interferometer with a 2.09 km-long arm based on the standard telecommunication single-mode fiber (SMF-28) spool to suppress the frequency noise by the servo-loop control by 20 dB to 40 dB within the Fourier frequency range, remaining the tuning range of the laser frequency. PMID:25587980
Distance measurement using frequency scanning interferometry with mode-hoped laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medhat, M.; Sobee, M.; Hussein, H. M.; Terra, O.
2016-06-01
In this paper, frequency scanning interferometry is implemented to measure distances up to 5 m absolutely. The setup consists of a Michelson interferometer, an external cavity tunable diode laser, and an ultra-low expansion (ULE) Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity to measure the frequency scanning range. The distance is measured by acquiring simultaneously the interference fringes from, the Michelson and the FP interferometers, while scanning the laser frequency. An online fringe processing technique is developed to calculate the distance from the fringe ratio while removing the parts result from the laser mode-hops without significantly affecting the measurement accuracy. This fringe processing method enables accurate distance measurements up to 5 m with measurements repeatability ±3.9×10-6 L. An accurate translation stage is used to find the FP cavity free-spectral-range and therefore allow accurate measurement. Finally, the setup is applied for the short distance calibration of a laser distance meter (LDM).
Localized Mode DFT-S-OFDMA Implementation Using Frequency and Time Domain Interpolation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viholainen, Ari; Ihalainen, Tero; Rinne, Mika; Renfors, Markku
2009-12-01
This paper presents a novel method to generate a localized mode single-carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) waveform. Instead of using DFT-spread OFDMA (DFT-S-OFDMA) processing, the new structure called SCiFI-FDMA relies on frequency and time domain interpolation followed by a user-specific frequency shift. SCiFI-FDMA can provide signal waveforms that are compatible to DFT-S-OFDMA. In addition, it provides any resolution of user bandwidth allocation for the uplink multiple access with comparable computational complexity, because the DFT is avoided. Therefore, SCiFI-FDMA allows a flexible choice of parameters appreciated in broadband mobile communications in the future.
Preferential Amplification of Rising Versus Falling Frequency Whistler-Mode Signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, J.; Harid, V.; Spasojevic, M.; Golkowski, M.; Inan, U.
2014-12-01
Analysis of ground-based ELF/VLF observations of injected whistler-mode waves from the 1986 Siple Station experiment indicate a distinct preference for the magnetospheric amplification of rising frequency-time ramps over descending frequency-time ramps. In examining conjugate region receptions of ±1 kHz/sec frequency ramps, we find that the rising ramps generate a total power that is on average 1.9 times higher than that of falling frequency ramps when both are observed within a given transmission. Also, in 17% of receptions, only the rising frequency ramps are observed, and the descending ramps are below the detectable signal level. Using a narrowband Vlasov-Maxwell numerical simulation, we explore the preferential amplification of rising ramps due to differences in the linear growth rate as a function of frequency and the onset and duration of nonlinear phase trapping. These results contribute to the understanding of magnetospheric wave amplification and the formation of structured rising elements in chorus.
Gender and vocal production mode discrimination using the high frequencies for speech and singing.
Monson, Brian B; Lotto, Andrew J; Story, Brad H
2014-01-01
Humans routinely produce acoustical energy at frequencies above 6 kHz during vocalization, but this frequency range is often not represented in communication devices and speech perception research. Recent advancements toward high-definition (HD) voice and extended bandwidth hearing aids have increased the interest in the high frequencies. The potential perceptual information provided by high-frequency energy (HFE) is not well characterized. We found that humans can accomplish tasks of gender discrimination and vocal production mode discrimination (speech vs. singing) when presented with acoustic stimuli containing only HFE at both amplified and normal levels. Performance in these tasks was robust in the presence of low-frequency masking noise. No substantial learning effect was observed. Listeners also were able to identify the sung and spoken text (excerpts from "The Star-Spangled Banner") with very few exposures. These results add to the increasing evidence that the high frequencies provide at least redundant information about the vocal signal, suggesting that its representation in communication devices (e.g., cell phones, hearing aids, and cochlear implants) and speech/voice synthesizers could improve these devices and benefit normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manurkar, Paritosh
Most of the existing protocols for quantum communication operate in a two-dimensional Hilbert space where their manipulation and measurement have been routinely investigated. Moving to higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces is desirable because of advantages in terms of longer distance communication capabilities, higher channel capacity and better information security. We can exploit the spatio-temporal degrees of freedom for the quantum optical signals to provide the higher-dimensional signals. But this necessitates the need for measurement and manipulation of multidimensional quantum states. To that end, there have been significant theoretical studies based on quantum frequency conversion (QFC) in recent years even though the experimental progress has been limited. QFC is a process that allows preservation of the quantum information while changing the frequency of the input quantum state. It has deservedly garnered a lot of attention because it serves as the connecting bridge between the communications band (C-band near 1550 nm) where the fiber-optic infrastructure is already established and the visible spectrum where high efficiency single-photon detectors and optical memories have been demonstrated. In this experimental work, we demonstrate mode-selective frequency conversion as a means to measure and manipulate photonic signals occupying d -dimensional Hilbert spaces where d=2 and 4. In the d=2 case, we demonstrate mode contrast between two temporal modes (TMs) which serves as the proof-of-concept demonstration. In the d=4 version, we employ six different TMs for our detailed experimental study. These TMs also include superposition modes which are a crucial component in many quantum key distribution protocols. Our method is based on producing pump pulses which allow us to upconvert the TM of interest while ideally preserving the other modes. We use MATLAB simulations to determine the pump pulse shapes which are subsequently produced by controlling the amplitude and
Piot, P; Behrens, C; Gerth, C; Dohlus, M; Lemery, F; Mihalcea, D; Stoltz, P; Vogt, M
2012-01-20
We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radio frequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced ~700-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Ampère. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and, in particular, its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasilinear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak accelerating electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Linnik, A. F.; Onishchenko, I. N.; Pristupa, V. I.
2017-02-01
We have experimentally studied the excitation of wake fields in a dielectric structure by a train of relativistic electron bunches and the acceleration of subsequent bunches of the same train due to detuning of the bunch repetition frequency relative to that of the wake field excited in the dielectric structure at the Cherenkov resonance. Electron bunches of the first (leading) part of the train excite the wake wave, and bunches of the second (trailing) part of this train are shifted to the accelerating phase of the wake wave so as to gain additional energy. The possibility of controlling the number (repetition frequency) of bunches exciting the wake field in the dielectric structure and the number of subsequently accelerated bunches has been investigated by changing the value of detuning.
Mission Assessment of the Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge (FARAD)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dankanich, John W.; Polzin, Kurt A.
2008-01-01
Pulsed inductive thrusters have typically been considered for future, high-power, missions requiring nuclear electric propulsion. These high-power systems, while promising equivalent or improved performance over state-of-the-art propulsion systems, presently have no planned missions for which they are well suited. The ability to efficiently operate an inductive thruster at lower energy and power levels may provide inductive thrusters near term applicability and mission pull. The Faraday Accelerator with Radio-frequency Assisted Discharge concept demonstrated potential for a high-efficiency, low-energy pulsed inductive thruster. The added benefits of energy recapture and/or pulse compression are shown to enhance the performance of the pulsed inductive propulsion system, yielding a system that con compete with and potentially outperform current state-of-the-art electric propulsion technologies. These enhancements lead to mission-level benefits associated with the use of a pulsed inductive thruster. Analyses of low-power near to mid-term missions and higher power far-term missions are undertaken to compare the performance of pulsed inductive thrusters with that delivered by state-of-the-art and development-level electric propulsion systems.
Li Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang Xiaoming; Reed, Stephen; Dong Peng; Downer, Michael C.
2010-11-04
We demonstrate a prototype Frequency Domain Streak Camera (FDSC) that can capture the picosecond time evolution of the plasma accelerator structure in a single shot. In our prototype Frequency-Domain Streak Camera, a probe pulse propagates obliquely to a sub-picosecond pump pulse that creates an evolving nonlinear index 'bubble' in fused silica glass, supplementing a conventional Frequency Domain Holographic (FDH) probe-reference pair that co-propagates with the 'bubble'. Frequency Domain Tomography (FDT) generalizes Frequency-Domain Streak Camera by probing the 'bubble' from multiple angles and reconstructing its morphology and evolution using algorithms similar to those used in medical CAT scans. Multiplexing methods (Temporal Multiplexing and Angular Multiplexing) improve data storage and processing capability, demonstrating a compact Frequency Domain Tomography system with a single spectrometer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhengyan; Zgadzaj, Rafal; Wang, Xiaoming; Reed, Stephen; Dong, Peng; Downer, Michael C.
2010-11-01
We demonstrate a prototype Frequency Domain Streak Camera (FDSC) that can capture the picosecond time evolution of the plasma accelerator structure in a single shot. In our prototype Frequency-Domain Streak Camera, a probe pulse propagates obliquely to a sub-picosecond pump pulse that creates an evolving nonlinear index "bubble" in fused silica glass, supplementing a conventional Frequency Domain Holographic (FDH) probe-reference pair that co-propagates with the "bubble". Frequency Domain Tomography (FDT) generalizes Frequency-Domain Streak Camera by probing the "bubble" from multiple angles and reconstructing its morphology and evolution using algorithms similar to those used in medical CAT scans. Multiplexing methods (Temporal Multiplexing and Angular Multiplexing) improve data storage and processing capability, demonstrating a compact Frequency Domain Tomography system with a single spectrometer.
Self-accelerating fronts in passively-mode-locked fiber lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derevyanko, Stanislav A.
2017-01-01
We present a family of self-accelerating stable pulses propagating in optical fiber and connecting a slowly-modulated quasi-cw background to an unstable zero level. Such solutions represent a generalization of the self-accelerating Airy beams observed in the linear regime to a nonlinear dissipative system modeled by a standard complex cubic Ginzburg-Landau equation corresponding to linear gain and a (fast) saturable absorber. They can also be viewed as a generalization of the well-studied problem of pulled fronts to include acceleration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roh, Y.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.
2004-10-01
An X-mode swept frequency modulation (FM) reflectometry system has been designed to measure the electron density profiles of the "initial" KSTAR plasma. Fast swept HTO oscillators are employed to avoid density fluctuation effects, and frequency quadruplers are utilized to expand the HTO frequency range of 8-18 GHz to completely cover the X-mode cutoff frequency range of 33-66 GHz. The system can also be utilized to measure the edge profiles of the "Day One" KSTAR plasma by either switching from X- to O-mode reflectometry or by employing higher frequency millimeter-wave components and retaining the X-mode reflectometry configuration. To facilitate engineering design and optimization, a 3D drawing tool is utilized to effectively deal with any technical problems that may happen under actual KSTAR conditions. Details of the KSTAR FM reflectometry system are described together with important design issues.
High-frequency ultrasound M-mode monitoring of HIFU ablation in cardiac tissue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumon, R. E.; Gudur, M. S. R.; Zhou, Y.; Deng, C. X.
2012-10-01
Effective real-time HIFU lesion detection is important for expanded use of HIFU in interventional electrophysiology (e.g., epicardial ablation of cardiac arrhythmia). The goal of this study was to investigate rapid, high-frequency M-mode ultrasound imaging for monitoring spatiotemporal changes in tissue during HIFU application. The HIFU application (4.33 MHz, 1000 Hz PRF, 50% duty cycle, 1 s exposure, 6100 W/cm2) was perpendicularly applied to porcine cardiac tissue with a high-frequency imaging system (Visualsonics Vevo 770, 55 MHz, 4.5 mm focal distance) confocally aligned. Radiofrequency (RF) M-mode data (1 kHz PRF, 4 s × 7 mm) was acquired before, during, and after HIFU treatment. Gross lesions were compared with M-mode data to correlate lesion and cavity formation. Integrated backscatter, echo-decorrelation parameters, and their cumulative extrema over time were analyzed for automatically identifying lesion width and bubble formation. Cumulative maximum integrated backscatter showed the best results for identifying the final lesion width, and a criterion based on line-to-line decorrelation was proposed for identification of transient bubble activity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George; Mukhter, Ali
2006-01-01
Satellite observations in the auroral plasma have revealed that extremely low frequency (ELF) waves play a dominant role in the acceleration of electrons and ions in the auroral plasma. The electromagnetic components of the ELF (EMELF) waves are the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves below the cyclotron frequency of the lightest ion species in a multi-ion plasma. Shear Alfv6n waves (SAWS) constitute the lowest frequency components of the ELF waves below the ion cyclotron frequency of the heaviest ion. The -2 mechanism for the transfer of energy from such EMELF waves to ions affecting transverse ion heating still remains a matter of debate. A very ubiquitous fe8ture of ELF waves now observed in several rocket and satellite experiments is that they occur in conjunction with high-frequency electrostatic waves. The frequency spectrum of the composite wave turbulence extends from the low frequency of the Alfvenic waves to the high frequency of proton plasma frequency and/or the lower hybrid frequency. The spectrum does not show any feature organized by the ion cyclotron frequencies and their harmonics. Such broadband waves consisting of both the EM and ES waves are now popularly referred as BBELF waves. We present results here from 2.5-D particle-in-cell simulations showing that the ES components are directly generated by cross- field plasma instabilities driven by the drifts of the ions and electrons in the EM component of the BBELF waves.
Frequency Reuse, Cell Separation, and Capacity Analysis of VHF Digital Link Mode 3 TDMA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shamma, Mohammed A.; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Apaza, Rafael D.
2003-01-01
The most recent studies by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the aviation industry have indicated that it has become increasingly difficult to make new VHF frequency or channel assignments to meet the aviation needs for air-ground communications. FAA has planned for several aggressive improvement measures to the existing systems, but these measures would not meet the projected voice communications needs beyond 2009. FAA found that since 1974 there has been, on the average, a 4 percent annual increase in the number of channel assignments needed to satisfy the air-ground communication traffic (approximately 300 new channel assignments per year). With the planned improvement measures, the channel assignments are expected to reach a maximum number of 16615 channels by about 2010. Hence, the FAA proposed the use of VDL Mode 3 as a new integrated digital voice and data communications systems to meet the future air traffic demand. This paper presents analytical results of frequency reuse; cell separation and capacity estimation of VDL Mode 3 TDMA systems that FAA has planned to implement the future VHF air-ground communications system by the year 2010. For TDMA, it is well understood that the frequency reuse factor is a crucial parameter for capacity estimation. Formulation of this frequency reuse factor is shown, taking into account the limitation imposed by the requirement to have a sufficient Signal to Co-Channel Interference Ratio. Several different values for the Signal to Co-Channel Interference Ratio were utilized corresponding to the current analog VHF DSB-AM systems, and the future digital VDL Mode 3. The required separation of Co-Channel cells is computed for most of the Frequency Protected Service Volumes (FPSV's) currently in use by the FAA. Additionally, the ideal cell capacity for each FPSV is presented. Also, using actual traffic for the Detroit air space, a FPSV traffic distribution model is used to generate a typical cell for channel capacity
Jiang, Weiman; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yishan; Zhao, Wei; Duan, Yixiang
2013-07-15
A one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model was employed to investigate the effect of the driving frequency on the discharge modes in atmospheric-pressure argon discharge with multiple current pulses. The discharge mode was discussed in detail not only at current peaks but also between two adjacent peaks. The simulation results show that different transitions between the Townsend and glow modes during the discharge take place with the driving frequency increased. A complicated transition from the Townsend mode, through glow, Townsend, and glow, and finally back to the Townsend one is found in the discharge with the driving frequency of 8 kHz. There is a tendency of transition from the Townsend to glow mode for the discharge both at the current peaks and troughs with the increasing frequency. The discharge in the half period can all along operate in the glow mode with the driving frequency high enough. This is resulted from the preservation of more electrons in the gas gap and acquisition of more electron energy from the swiftly varying electric field with the increase in driving frequency. Comparison of the spatial and temporal evolutions of the electron density at different driving frequencies indicates that the increment of the driving frequency allows the plasma chemistry to be enhanced. This electrical characteristic is important for the applications, such as surface treatment and biomedical sterilization.
Dennis, Elise A; Gundlach-Graham, Alexander W; Ray, Steven J; Enke, Christie G; Barinaga, Charles J; Koppenaal, David W; Hieftje, Gary M
2014-11-01
In this study, we demonstrate the performance of a new mass spectrometry concept called zoom time-of-flight mass spectrometry (zoom-TOFMS). In our zoom-TOFMS instrument, we combine two complementary types of TOFMS: conventional, constant-energy acceleration (CEA) TOFMS and constant-momentum acceleration (CMA) TOFMS to provide complete mass-spectral coverage as well as enhanced resolution and duty factor for a narrow, targeted mass region, respectively. Alternation between CEA- and CMA-TOFMS requires only that electrostatic instrument settings (i.e., reflectron and ion optics) and ion acceleration conditions be changed. The prototype zoom-TOFMS instrument has orthogonal-acceleration geometry, a total field-free distance of 43 cm, and a direct-current glow-discharge ionization source. Experimental results demonstrate that the CMA-TOFMS "zoom" mode offers resolution enhancement of 1.6 times over single-stage acceleration CEA-TOFMS. For the atomic mass range studied here, the maximum resolving power at full-width half-maximum observed for CEA-TOFMS was 1,610 and for CMA-TOFMS the maximum was 2,550. No difference in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio was observed between the operating modes of zoom-TOFMS when both were operated at equivalent repetition rates. For a 10-kHz repetition rate, S/N values for CEA-TOFMS varied from 45 to 990 and from 67 to 10,000 for CMA-TOFMS. This resolution improvement is the result of a linear TOF-to-mass scale and the energy-focusing capability of CMA-TOFMS. Use of CMA also allows ions outside a given m/z range to be rejected by simple ion-energy barriers to provide a substantial improvement in duty factor.
Causal Modes in the Low-frequency variability of Mediterranean and Middle-Eastern climates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casagrande, Erik; Zampieri, Matteo; Artale, Vincenzo; Gualdi, Silvio; Molini, Annalisa
2015-04-01
In the last three decades, the Mediterranean and the Middle East experienced a phase of warming larger than the one that could be expected from global warming, and largely ascribable to natural (e.g. internal) climate variability. To better understand this process we explore here the presence of causal relationships among the diverse modes of variability of the climate system, focusing in particular on inter-annual and decadal scales of variability, influencing the climate of Mediterranean and Middle-Eastern regions. Causality measures used in this study include time and frequency-domain Granger causality (GC) and the phase slope index (Ψ), a directional coupling statistic developed by Nolte et. al. in 2007. GC metrics are applied to signals before and after the filtering of high frequency (inter-annual) components, while Ψ is designed to discern between low-frequency causal flow and higher frequency components. To assure the necessary sample size, the analysis is based on the preindustrial runs of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), which are free from external perturbation and last some hundred years. We selected the runs based on ENSO stationarity - to ensure that the simulations reached the equilibrium - and the consistent representation of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which is considered one of the main drivers for the low-frequency (decadal) climate variability of the Mediterranean and the Middle East in summer. Finally, we discuss the potential of causality metrics for the predictability of future decadal variability in these regions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hanson, Donald B.
1999-01-01
A reduced order modeling scheme has been developed for the unsteady acoustic and vortical coupling between blade rows of a turbomachine. The essential behavior of the system is governed by modal scattering coefficients (i.e., reflection and transmission coefficients) of the rotor, stator, inlet and nozzle, which are calculated as if they were connected to non-reflecting ducts. The objective of this report is to identify fundamental behavior of these scattering coefficients for a better understanding of the role of blade row reflection and transmission in noise generation. A 2D flat plate unsteady cascade model is used for the analysis with the expectation that the general behavior presented herein will carry over to models that include more realistic flow and geometry. It is shown that stators scatter input waves into many modes at the same frequency whereas rotors scatter on frequency, or harmonic order. Important cases are shown here the rotor reflection coefficient is greater than unity; a mode at blade passing frequency (BPF) traveling from the stator with unit sound power is reflected by the rotor with more than unit power at 2xBPF and 3xBPE Analysis is presented to explain this unexpected phenomenon. Scattering curves are presented in a format chosen for design use and for physical interpretation. To aid in interpretation of the curves, formulas are derived for special condition where waveforms are parallel to perpendicular to the rotor.
Stress-dependent normal-mode frequencies from the effective mass of granular matter.
Hu, Yanqing; Johnson, David L; Valenza, John J; Santibanez, Francisco; Makse, Hernán A
2014-06-01
A zero-temperature critical point has been invoked to control the anomalous behavior of granular matter as it approaches jamming or mechanical arrest. Criticality manifests itself in an anomalous spectrum of low-frequency normal modes and scaling behavior near the jamming transition. The critical point may explain the peculiar mechanical properties of dissimilar systems such as glasses and granular materials. Here we study the critical scenario via an experimental measurement of the normal modes frequencies of granular matter under stress from a pole decomposition analysis of the effective mass. We extract a complex-valued characteristic frequency which displays scaling |ω (σ)| ∼ σΩ' with vanishing stress σ for a variety of granular systems. The critical exponent is smaller than that predicted by mean-field theory opening new challenges to explain the exponent for frictional and dissipative granular matter. Our results shed light on the anomalous behavior of stress-dependent acoustics and attenuation in granular materials near the jamming transition.
Bifurcation and chaos in high-frequency peak current mode Buck converter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang-Yuan, Chang; Xin, Zhao; Fan, Yang; Cheng-En, Wu
2016-07-01
Bifurcation and chaos in high-frequency peak current mode Buck converter working in continuous conduction mode (CCM) are studied in this paper. First of all, the two-dimensional discrete mapping model is established. Next, reference current at the period-doubling point and the border of inductor current are derived. Then, the bifurcation diagrams are drawn with the aid of MATLAB. Meanwhile, circuit simulations are executed with PSIM, and time domain waveforms as well as phase portraits in i L-v C plane are plotted with MATLAB on the basis of simulation data. After that, we construct the Jacobian matrix and analyze the stability of the system based on the roots of characteristic equations. Finally, the validity of theoretical analysis has been verified by circuit testing. The simulation and experimental results show that, with the increase of reference current I ref, the corresponding switching frequency f is approaching to low-frequency stage continuously when the period-doubling bifurcation happens, leading to the converter tending to be unstable. With the increase of f, the corresponding I ref decreases when the period-doubling bifurcation occurs, indicating the stable working range of the system becomes smaller. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61376029), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China, and the College Graduate Research and Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. SJLX15_0092).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Mingxiang; Hu, Zhengliang; Xu, Pan; Hu, Yongming
2014-06-01
Mode instability acts as a common feature in single-frequency fiber ring lasers. The mechanism of coherence collapse by mode instability is theoretically analyzed and demonstrated with an unbalanced fiber Michelson interferometer utilizing phase modulation, which is illuminated by a single-frequency erbium-doped fiber ring laser. Multiform mode instability phenomena accompanied with coherence collapse are observed and discussed in detail by tracing the dynamics of the interference fringe visibility. The results show that mode instability would introduce extra phase noises like a false alarm to interferometric fiber optic sensing systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Liangbo; Puretzky, Alexander; Sumpter, Bobby; Meunier, Vincent; Geohegan, David; David B. Geohegan Team; Vincent Meunier Team
The tunable optoelectronic properties of stacked two-dimensional (2D) crystal monolayers are determined by their stacking orientation, order, and atomic registry. Atomic-resolution Z-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (AR-Z-STEM) can be used to determine the exact atomic registration between different layers in few-layer 2D stacks; however, fast and relatively inexpensive optical characterization techniques are essential for rapid development of the field. Using two- and three-layer MoSe2 and WSe2 crystals synthesized by chemical vapor deposition, we show that the generally unexplored low-frequency (LF) Raman modes (<50 cm-1) that originate from interlayer vibrations can serve as fingerprints to characterize not only the number of layers, but also their stacking configurations [Puretzky and Liang et al, ACS Nano 2015, 9, 6333]. First-principles Raman calculations and group theory analysis corroborate the experimental assignments determined by AR-Z-STEM and show that the calculated LF mode fingerprints are related to the 2D crystal symmetries. Our combined experimental/theoretical work demonstrates the LF Raman modes potentially more effective than HF Raman modes to probe the layer stacking and interlayer interaction for 2D materials. The authors acknowledge support from Eugene P. Wigner Fellowship at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, a DOE Office of Science User Facility.
High-accuracy absolute distance measurement with a mode-resolved optical frequency comb
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voigt, Dirk; van den Berg, Steven A.; Lešundák, Adam; van Eldik, Sjoerd; Bhattacharya, Nandini
2016-04-01
Optical interferometry enables highly accurate non-contact displacement measurement. The optical phase ambiguity needs to be resolved for absolute distance ranging. In controlled laboratory conditions and for short distances it is possible to track a non-interrupted displacement from a reference position to a remote target. With large distances covered in field applications this may not be feasible, e.g. in structure monitoring, large scale industrial manufacturing or aerospace navigation and attitude control. We use an optical frequency comb source to explore absolute distance measurement by means of a combined spectral and multi-wavelength homodyne interferometry. This relaxes the absolute distance ambiguity to a few tens of centimeters, covered by simpler electronic distance meters, while maintaining highly accurate optical phase measuring capability. A virtually imaged phased array spectrometer records a spatially dispersed interferogram in a single exposure and allows for resolving the modes of our near infrared comb source with 1 GHz mode separation. This enables measurements with direct traceability of the atomic clock referenced comb source. We observed agreement within 500 nm in comparison with a commercial displacement interferometer for target distances up to 50 m. Furthermore, we report on current work toward applicability in less controlled conditions. A filter cavity decimates the comb source to an increased mode separation larger than 20 GHz. A simple grating spectrometer then allows to record mode-resolved interferograms.
Plasma turbulence measured with fast frequency swept reflectometry in JET H-mode plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clairet, F.; Sirinelli, A.; Meneses, L.; Contributors, JET
2016-12-01
In this work we present recent achievements to provide precise measurements of turbulence on JET H-mode plasmas using frequency sweeping reflectometry diagnostic. The plasma density fluctuations retrieved from swept reflected signals, first initiated with the Tore Supra reflectometry (Heuraux et al 2003 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74 1501, Vermare et al 2006 Nucl. Fusion 46 S743, Gerbaud et al 2006 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77 10E928), provides a radial profile of the density fluctuation level and its spectral structure. Using the complete set of the JET X-mode fast sweeping heterodyne reflectometers we have determined the temporal dynamic of the density fluctuation profile from the edge to the center during an H-mode discharge. At the L-H transition, the turbulence reduction seems to occur, at first, simultaneously from the edge to the center then deepens at the edge at ρ ~ 0.95 and this deepening propagates toward the center with a steepening of the wavenumber spectra. During an edge localized mode (ELM) event, a substantial density fluctuations increase has been observed with a localized turbulent wave front propagating toward the center accompanying a particle transport. We also show that type-III ELMs sustain a steady and high level of plasma turbulence compare to type-I.
Dual-frequency plasmon lasing modes in active three-layered bimetallic Ag/Au nanoshells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, DaJian; Wu, XueWei; Cheng, Ying; Jin, BiaoBing; Liu, XiaoJun
2015-11-01
The optical properties of three-layered silver-gold-silica (SGS) nanoshells with gain have been investigated theoretically by using Mie theory. Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser) phenomena can be observed at two plasmon modes of the active SGS nanoshell in the visible region. It is found with the decrease in the radius of the inner Ag core that the critical value of ɛg″(ωg ) for the super-resonance of the low-energy mode increases first and then decreases while that for the high-energy mode decreases. An interesting overlap between the two curves for the critical value of ɛg″(ωg ) can be found at a special core radius. At this point, two super-resonances can be achieved concurrently at the low- and high-energy modes of the active SGS nanoshell with the same gain coefficient. This dual-frequency spaser based on the bimetallic Ag/Au nanoshell may be an efficient candidate for designing the nanolaser.
Frequency-independent radiation modes of interior sound radiation: An analytical study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hesse, C.; Vivar Perez, J. M.; Sinapius, M.
2017-03-01
Global active control methods of sound radiation into acoustic cavities necessitate the formulation of the interior sound field in terms of the surrounding structural velocity. This paper proposes an efficient approach to do this by presenting an analytical method to describe the radiation modes of interior sound radiation. The method requires no knowledge of the structural modal properties, which are often difficult to obtain in control applications. The procedure is exemplified for two generic systems of fluid-structure interaction, namely a rectangular plate coupled to a cuboid cavity and a hollow cylinder with the fluid in its enclosed cavity. The radiation modes are described as a subset of the acoustic eigenvectors on the structural-acoustic interface. For the two studied systems, they are therefore independent of frequency.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shao, X.; Fung, S. F.; Tan, L. C.; Sharma, A. S.
2010-01-01
Understanding the origin and acceleration of magnetospheric relativistic electrons (MREs) in the Earth's radiation belt during geomagnetic storms is an important subject and yet one of outstanding questions in space physics. It has been statistically suggested that during geomagnetic storms, ultra-low-frequency (ULF) Pc-5 wave activities in the magnetosphere are correlated with order of magnitude increase of MRE fluxes in the outer radiation belt. Yet, physical and observational understandings of resonant interactions between ULF waves and MREs remain minimum. In this paper, we show two events during storms on September 25, 2001 and November 25, 2001, the solar wind speeds in both cases were > 500 km/s while Cluster observations indicate presence of strong ULF waves in the magnetosphere at noon and dusk, respectively, during a approx. 3-hour period. MRE observations by the Los Alamos (LANL) spacecraft show a quadrupling of 1.1-1.5 MeV electron fluxes in the September 25, 2001 event, but only a negligible increase in the November 2.5, 2001 event. We present a detailed comparison between these two events. Our results suggest that the effectiveness of MRE acceleration during the September 25, 2001 event can be attributed to the compressional wave mode with strong ULF wave activities and the physical origin of MRE acceleration depends more on the distribution of toroidal and poloidal ULF waves in the outer radiation belt.
An approach to detect afterslips in giant earthquakes in the normal-mode frequency band
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanimoto, Toshiro; Ji, Chen; Igarashi, Mitsutsugu
2012-08-01
An approach to detect afterslips in the source process of giant earthquakes is presented in the normal-mode frequency band (0.3-2.0 mHz). The method is designed to avoid a potential systematic bias problem in the determination of earthquake moment by a typical normal-mode approach. The source of bias is the uncertainties in Q (modal attenuation parameter) which varies by up to about ±10 per cent among published studies. A choice of Q values within this range affects amplitudes in synthetic seismograms significantly if a long time-series of about 5-7 d is used for analysis. We present an alternative time-domain approach that can reduce this problem by focusing on a shorter time span with a length of about 1 d. Application of this technique to four recent giant earthquakes is presented: (1) the Tohoku, Japan, earthquake of 2011 March 11, (2) the 2010 Maule, Chile earthquake, (3) the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and (4) the Solomon earthquake of 2007 April 1. The Global Centroid Moment Tensor (GCMT) solution for the Tohoku earthquake explains the normal-mode frequency band quite well. The analysis for the 2010 Chile earthquake indicates that the moment is about 7-10 per cent higher than the moment determined by its GCMT solution but further analysis shows that there is little evidence of afterslip; the deviation in moment can be explained by an increase of the dip angle from 18° in the GCMT solution to 19°. This may be a simple trade-off problem between the moment and dip angle but it may also be due to a deeper centroid in the normal-mode frequency band data, as a deeper source could have steeper dip angle due to changes in geometry of the Benioff zone. For the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the five point-source solution by Tsai et al. explains most of the signals but a sixth point-source with long duration improves the fit to the normal-mode frequency band data. The 2007 Solomon earthquake shows that the high-frequency part of our analysis (above 1 mHz) is
Spong, Donald A
2013-01-01
The dynamics of energetic particle destabilized Alfve n frequency sweeping modes in tokamak reversed-shear safety factor discharges are modelled using a new Landau-closure model that includes coupling to geodesic acoustic wave dynamics and closure relations optimized for energetic particle Alfve n mode resonances. Profiles and equilibria are based upon reconstructions of a DIII-D discharge (#142111) in which a long sequence of frequency sweeping modes were observed. This model (TAEFL) has recently been included in a verification and validation study of n = 3 frequency sweeping modes for this case along with two gyrokinetic codes, GTC and GYRO. This paper provides a more detailed documentation of the equations and methods used in the TAEFL model and extends the earlier calculation to a range of toroidal mode numbers: n = 2 to 6. By considering a range of toroidal mode numbers and scanning over a range of safety factor profiles with varying qmin, both up-sweeping frequency (reversed-shear Alfve n eigenmode) and down-sweeping frequency (toriodal Alfve n eigenmode) modes are present in the results and show qualitative similarity with the frequency variations observed in the experimental spectrograms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spong, D. A.
2013-05-01
The dynamics of energetic particle destabilized Alfvén frequency sweeping modes in tokamak reversed-shear safety factor discharges are modelled using a new Landau-closure model that includes coupling to geodesic acoustic wave dynamics and closure relations optimized for energetic particle-Alfvén mode resonances. Profiles and equilibria are based upon reconstructions of a DIII-D discharge (#142111) in which a long sequence of frequency sweeping modes were observed. This model (TAEFL) has recently been included in a verification and validation study of n = 3 frequency sweeping modes for this case along with two gyrokinetic codes, GTC and GYRO. This paper provides a more detailed documentation of the equations and methods used in the TAEFL model and extends the earlier calculation to a range of toroidal mode numbers: n = 2 to 6. By considering a range of toroidal mode numbers and scanning over a range of safety factor profiles with varying qmin, both up-sweeping frequency (reversed-shear Alfvén eigenmode) and down-sweeping frequency (toriodal Alfvén eigenmode) modes are present in the results and show qualitative similarity with the frequency variations observed in the experimental spectrograms.
Synthesize Modes and Correlate
Mayes, Randall Lee; Hensley, Daniel P.
2005-10-01
SMAC is an automated experimental modal parameter extraction package which determines the natural frequencies of vibration, viscous damping ratios and mode shapes from experimental accelerance frequency response functions (FRFs). It is written in the MATLAB interpretive matrix language and has a graphical user interface.
Theoretical problems in accelerator physics. Progress report
Kroll, N.M.
1993-08-01
This report discusses the following topics in accelerator physics: radio frequency pulse compression and power transport; computational methods for the computer analysis of microwave components; persistent wakefields associated with waveguide damping of higher order modes; and photonic band gap cavities.
Modified High Frequency Radial Spin Wave Mode Spectrum in a Chirality-Controlled Nanopillar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolthammer, J. E.; Rudge, J.; Choi, B. C.; Hong, Y. K.
2016-09-01
Circular magnetic spin valve nanopillars in a dual vortex configuration have dynamic characteristics strongly dependent on the interlayer dipole coupling. We report here on frequency domain properties of such nanopillars obtained by micromagnetic simulations. After the free layer is chirality switched with spin transfer torque, a radial spin wave eigenmode spectrum forms in the free layer with unusually large edge amplitude. The structure of these modes indicate a departure from the magnetostatic processes typically observed experimentally and treated analytically in low aspect ratio isolated disks. Our findings give new details of dynamic chirality control and relxation in nanopillars and raise potential signatures for experiments.
Spencer, C
2004-02-19
The next generation of particle accelerators will be one-of-a-kind facilities, and to meet their luminosity goals they must have guaranteed availability over their several decade lifetimes. The Next Linear Collider (NLC) is one viable option for a 1 TeV electron-positron linear collider, it has an 85% overall availability goal. We previously showed how a traditional Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) of a SLAC electromagnet leads to reliability-enhancing design changes. Traditional FMEA identifies failure modes with high risk but does not consider the consequences in terms of cost, which could lead to unnecessarily expensive components. We have used a new methodology, ''Life Cost-Based FMEA'', which measures risk of failure in terms of cost, in order to evaluate and compare two different technologies that might be used for the 8653 NLC magnets: electromagnets or permanent magnets. The availabilities for the two different types of magnet systems have been estimated using empirical data from SLAC's accelerator failure database plus expert opinion on permanent magnet failure modes and industry standard failure data. Labor and material costs to repair magnet failures are predicted using a Monte Carlo simulation of all possible magnet failures over a 30-year lifetime. Our goal is to maximize up-time of the NLC through magnet design improvements and the optimal combination of electromagnets and permanent magnets, while reducing magnet system lifecycle costs.
Normal vibrational modes of phospholipid bilayers observed by low-frequency Raman scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Surovtsev, N. V.; Dmitriev, A. A.; Dzuba, S. A.
2017-03-01
Low-frequency Raman spectra of multilamellar vesicles made either of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-s n -glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-s n -glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) have been studied in a wide temperature range. Below 0 ∘C two peaks are found at frequencies around 8-9 and 14 -17 c m -1 and attributed to the normal vibrational modes of the phospholipid bilayer, which are determined by the bilayer thickness and stiffness (elastic modulus). The spectral positions of the peaks depend on the temperature and the bilayer composition. It is suggested that the ratio of the intensities of the first and second peaks can serve as a measure of the interleaflet elastic coupling. The addition of cholesterol to the phospholipid bilayer leads to peak shift and broadening, which may be assigned to the composition heterogeneities commonly attributed to the lipid raft formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nordquist, Christopher D.; Branch, Darren W.; Pluym, Tammy; Choi, Sukwon; Nguyen, Janet H.; Grine, Alejandro; Dyck, Christopher W.; Scott, Sean M.; Sing, Molly N.; Olsson, Roy H., III
2016-10-01
Switching of transducer coupling in aluminum nitride contour-mode resonators provides an enabling technology for future tunable and reconfigurable filters for multi-function RF systems. By using microelectromechanical capacitive switches to realize the transducer electrode fingers, coupling between the metal electrode finger and the piezoelectric material is modulated to change the response of the device. On/off switched width extensional resonators with an area of <0.2 mm2 demonstrate a Q of 2000, K 2 of 0.72, and >24 dB switching ratio at a resonator center frequency of 635 MHz. Other device examples include a 63 MHz resonator with switchable impedance and a 470 MHz resonator with 127 kHz of fine center frequency tuning accomplished by mass loading of the resonator with the MEMS switches.
Nonlinear mode interactions and frequency-jump effects in a doubly tuned oscillator configuration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grun, J.; Lashinsky, H.
1980-05-01
Frequency-jump effects associated with nonlinear mode competition are investigated in an oscillator configuration consisting of a passive linear resonance system coupled to an active nonlinear resonance system. These effects give rise to a hysteresis pattern whose height and width can be related to system parameters such as the resonance frequencies, dissipation, coupling coefficient, etc. It is noted that these effects offer a novel means of determining these parameters in cases in which conventional techniques may not be desirable or as advantageous. The analysis provides an qualitative explanation of empirical observations in a recent nuclear magnetic resonance experiment (Timsit and Daniels, 1976). The results also apply to other nonlinear resonance systems such as lasers, microwave generators, and electronic oscillators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramaprabhu, Praveen; Karkhanis, Varad; Banerjee, Rahul; Varshochi, Hilda; Khan, Manoranjan; Lawrie, Andrew; Variable g RT Collaboration
2015-11-01
From detailed numerical simulations of the single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability driven by time-varying acceleration histories, we report on several findings of relevance to the performance of Inertial Confinement Fusion capsules. The incompressible, Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) were performed in two- and three-dimensions, and over a range of density ratios of the fluid combinations (characterized by the Atwood number). We have investigated several acceleration histories, including acceleration profiles g(t) of the general form tn, with n > -2. For the 2D flow, results from numerical simulations are compared with a potential flow model developed and reported as part of this work. When the simulations are extended to three dimensions, bubble and spike growth rates are in agreement with an extension to the drag buoyancy model with modifications for time-dependent acceleration histories. We have come up with simple analytic solutions to the Drag Buoyancy model for variable g flows, and compared the solution with the 2D and 3D DNS results. This work was supported in part by the (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA2-5396.
solarFLAG hare and hounds: estimation of p-mode frequencies from Sun-as-star helioseismology data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; Chaplin, W. J.; García, R. A.; Appourchaux, T.; Baudin, F.; Boumier, P.; Elsworth, Y.; Fletcher, S. T.; Lazrek, M.; Leibacher, J. W.; Lochard, J.; New, R.; Régulo, C.; Salabert, D.; Toutain, T.; Verner, G. A.; Wachter, R.
2008-10-01
We report on the results of the latest solarFLAG hare-and-hounds exercise, which was concerned with testing methods for extraction of frequencies of low-degree solar p modes from data collected by Sun-as-a-star observations. We have used the new solarFLAG simulator, which includes the effects of correlated mode excitation and correlations with background noise, to make artificial time-series data that mimic Doppler velocity observations of the Sun-as-a-star. The correlations give rise to asymmetry of mode peaks in the frequency power spectrum. 10 members of the group (the hounds) applied their `peak-bagging' codes to a 3456-d data set, and the estimated mode frequencies were returned to the hare (who was WJC) for comparison. Analysis of the results reveals a systematic bias in the estimated frequencies of modes above ~1.8mHz. The bias is negative, meaning the estimated frequencies systematically underestimate the input frequencies. We identify two sources that are the dominant contributions to the frequency bias. Both sources involve failure to model accurately subtle aspects of the observed power spectral density in the part (window) of the frequency power spectrum that is being fitted. One source of bias arises from a failure to account for the power spectral density coming from all those modes whose frequencies lie outside the fitting windows. The other source arises from a failure to account for the power spectral density of the weak l = 4 and 5 modes, which are often ignored in Sun-as-a-star analysis. The Sun-as-a-star peak-bagging codes need to allow for both sources, otherwise the frequencies are likely to be biased.
Dykeman, Eric C; Sankey, Otto F
2009-01-21
We present a theoretical study of the low frequency vibrational modes of the M13 bacteriophage using a fully atomistic model. Using ideas from electronic structure theory, the few lowest vibrational modes of the M13 bacteriophage are determined using classical harmonic analysis. The relative Raman intensity is estimated for each of the mechanical modes using a bond polarizability model. Comparison of the atomic mechanical modes calculated here with modes derived from elastic continuum theory shows that a much richer spectrum emerges from an atomistic picture.
Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators
Sheffield, Richard L.
2015-06-01
Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current,more » 90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.« less
Enabling cost-effective high-current burst-mode operation in superconducting accelerators
Sheffield, Richard L.
2015-06-01
Superconducting (SC) accelerators are very efficient for CW or long-pulse operation, and normal conducting (NC) accelerators are cost effective for short-pulse operation. The addition of a short NC linac section to a SC linac can correct for the energy droop that occurs when pulsed high-current operation is required that exceeds the capability of the klystrons to replenish the cavity RF fields due to the long field fill-times of SC structures, or a requirement to support a broad range of beam currents results in variable beam loading. This paper describes the implementation of this technique to enable microseconds of high beam-current, 90 mA or more, in a 12 GeV SC long-pulse accelerator designed for the MaRIE 42-keV XFEL proposed for Los Alamos National Laboratory.
High Resolution Switching Mode Inductance-to-Frequency Converter with Temperature Compensationti
Matko, Vojko; Milanović, Miro
2014-01-01
This article proposes a novel method for the temperature-compensated inductance-to-frequency converter with a single quartz crystal oscillating in the switching oscillating circuit to achieve better temperature stability of the converter. The novelty of this method lies in the switching-mode converter, the use of additionally connected impedances in parallel to the shunt capacitances of the quartz crystal, and two inductances in series to the quartz crystal. This brings a considerable reduction of the temperature influence of AT-cut crystal frequency change in the temperature range between 10 and 40 °C. The oscillator switching method and the switching impedances connected to the quartz crystal do not only compensate for the crystal's natural temperature characteristics but also any other influences on the crystal such as ageing as well as from other oscillating circuit elements. In addition, the method also improves frequency sensitivity in inductance measurements. The experimental results show that through high temperature compensation improvement of the quartz crystal characteristics, this switching method theoretically enables a 2 pH resolution. It converts inductance to frequency in the range of 85–100 μH to 2–560 kHz. PMID:25325334
Austin, T.M.; Cary, J.R.; Werner, G.R.; Bellantoni, L.; /Fermilab
2009-06-01
Recent developments have shown that one can get around the difficulties of finding the eigenvalues and eigenmodes of the large systems studied with high performance computation by using broadly filtered diagonalization [G. R. Werner and J. R. Cary, J. Compo Phys. 227, 5200 (2008)]. This method can be used in conjunction with any time-domain computation, in particular those that scale very well up to 10000s of processors and beyond. Here we present results that show that this method accurately obtains both modes and frequencies of electromagnetic cavities, even when frequencies are nearly degenerate. The application was to a well-characterized Kaon separator cavity, the A15. The computations are shown to have a precision to a few parts in 10{sup 5}. Because the computed frequency differed from the measured frequency by more than this amount, a careful validation study to determine all sources of difference was undertaken. Ultimately, more precise measurements of the cavity showed that the computations were correct, with remaining differences accounted for by uncertainties in cavity dimensions and atmospheric and thermal conditions. Thus, not only was the method validated, but it was shown to have the ability to predict differences in cavity dimensions from fabrication specifications.
Mode decision acceleration for H.264/AVC to SVC temporal video transcoding
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeh, Chia-Hung; Tseng, Wen-Yu; Wu, Shih-Tse
2012-12-01
This study presents a fast video transcoding architecture that overcomes the complexity of different coding structures between H.264/AVC and SVC. The proposed algorithms simplify the mode decision process in SVC owing to its heavy computations. Two scenarios namely transcoding with the same quantization parameter and bitrate reduction are considered. In the first scenario, SVC's modes are determined by the probability models, including conditional probability, Bayesian theorem, and Markov chain. The second scenario measures MB activity to determine SVC's modes. Experimental results indicate that our algorithm saves significant coding time with negligible PSNR loss over that when using a cascaded pixel-domain transcoder.
Low-Frequency Interlayer Raman Modes to Probe Interface of Twisted Bilayer MoS _{2}
Huang, Shengxi; Liang, Liangbo; Ling, Xi; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kong, Jing; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S.
2016-02-21
A variety of van der Waals homo- and hetero- structures assembled by stamping monolayers together present optoelectronic properties suitable for diverse applications. Understanding the details of the interlayer stacking and resulting coupling is crucial for tuning these properties. Twisted bilayer transition metal dichalcogenides offer a great platform for developing a precise understanding of the structure/property relationship. Here, we study the low-frequency interlayer shear and breathing Raman modes (<50 cm-1) in twisted bilayer MoS_{2} by Raman spectroscopy and first-principles modeling. Twisting introduces both rotational and translational shifts and significantly alters the interlayer stacking and coupling, leading to notable frequency and intensity changes of low-frequency modes. The frequency variation can be up to 8 cm-1 and the intensity can vary by a factor of ~5 for twisting near 0 and 60 , where the stacking is a mixture of multiple high-symmetry stacking patterns and is thus especially sensitive to twisting. Moreover, for twisting angles between 20 and 40 , the interlayer coupling is nearly constant since the stacking results in mismatched lattices over the entire sample. It follows that the Raman signature is relatively uniform. Interestingly, unlike the breathing mode, the shear mode is extremely sensitive to twisting: it disappears between 20 and 40 as its frequency drops to almost zero due to the stacking-induced mismatch. Note that for some samples, multiple breathing mode peaks appear, indicating non-uniform coupling across the interface. In contrast to the low-frequency interlayer modes, high-frequency intralayer Raman modes are much less sensitive to interlayer stacking and coupling, showing negligible changes upon twisting. Our research demonstrates the effectiveness of low-frequency Raman modes for probing the interfacial coupling and environment of twisted bilayer MoS2, and potentially other two-dimensional materials and
Nakazawa, Masataka; Yoshida, Masato
2008-05-15
We have succeeded in achieving independent control of the repetition rate and optical frequency of a pulse laser by employing a regenerative mode-locking technique. By adopting a voltage-controlled microwave phase shifter or an optical delay line in a regenerative feedback loop we can control the repetition rate of the laser without directly disturbing the optical frequencies. We experimentally show how this independent control can be realized by employing a 40 GHz harmonically and regeneratively mode-locked fiber laser.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
London, Yosef; Diamandi, Hilel Hagai; Zadok, Avi
2017-04-01
An opto-electronic radio-frequency oscillator that is based on forward scattering by the guided acoustic modes of a standard single-mode optical fiber is proposed and demonstrated. An optical pump wave is used to stimulate narrowband, resonant guided acoustic modes, which introduce phase modulation to a co-propagating optical probe wave. The phase modulation is converted to an intensity signal at the output of a Sagnac interferometer loop. The intensity waveform is detected, amplified, and driven back to modulate the optical pump. Oscillations are achieved at a frequency of 319 MHz, which matches the resonance of the acoustic mode that provides the largest phase modulation of the probe wave. Oscillations at the frequencies of competing acoustic modes are suppressed by at least 40 dB. The linewidth of the acoustic resonance is sufficiently narrow to provide oscillations at a single longitudinal mode of the hybrid cavity. Competing longitudinal modes are suppressed by at least 38 dB as well. Unlike other opto-electronic oscillators, no radio-frequency filtering is required within the hybrid cavity. The frequency of oscillations is entirely determined by the fiber opto-mechanics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Liming; Chen, Wei; Ding, Xuantong; Ji, Xiaoquan; Shi, Zhongbing; Yu, Deliang; Jiang, Min; Li, Dong; Li, Jiaxian; Li, Yonggao; Zhou, Yan; Ma, Rui; Li, Wei; Feng, Beibin; Huang, Yuan; Song, Xianming; Cao, Jianyong; Rao, Jun; Dong, Jiaqi; Xu, Min; Liu, Yi; Yan, Longwen; Yang, Qingwei; Xu, Yuhong; Duan, Xuru
2017-02-01
The strong fishbone mode (FB) and long-lived mode (LLM) have been observed during neutral beam injection (NBI) on the HL-2A tokamak. The FB and LLM can transit between each other. The LLM is identified as an internal kink mode (IKM) with the mode structure obtained using a newly developed electron cyclotron emission radiometer imaging (ECEI) system. The frequency of the LLM (fLLM) is higher than the toroidal rotation frequency (ft) near the q = 1 surface (r ˜ 10 cm). Experimental results show that the LLM is likely to be excited at a higher line-averaged electron density (bar{n}e) than that of the FB when the NBI power is fixed. It is found that the FB and its harmonic as seed magnetic islands can trigger tearing modes (TMs). The mode numbers for the low-frequency and high-frequency TMs are m/n = 2/1 and 3/2, respectively. By further investigation, it is found that there is an m/n = 1/1 IKM coexisting at the same time and with the same frequency as the m/n = 2/1 TM, and the m = 1 mode structure of the IKM in the radial cross section is obtained by the Bayesian tomography method utilizing soft X-ray arrays. The nonlinear coupling conditions are satisfied among the two TMs and IKM.
Piot, P.; Behrens, C.; Gerth, C.; Dohlus, M.; Lemery, F.; Mihalcea, D.; Stoltz, P.; Vogt, M.
2011-09-07
We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radiofrequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced {approx} 700-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Ampere. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and in particular its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasi-linear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak accelerating electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.
Frequency response of laminated composite plates and shells with matrix cracks type of damage mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emam, Aly A.
The present study has been designed to tackle a new set of problems for structural composites, as these materials are finding new applications in civil engineering field. An attempt has been made to study the frequency response of laminated polymer composite plates and shallow shells containing matrix cracks type of damage with arbitrary support conditions and free vibratory motions. The shell governing equations are derived using a simplified shallow shell theory based on a first order shear deformation field. The continuum damage mechanics approach has been used to model the matrix cracks in a damaged region within the plates and shallow shells. In such approach, the damage is accounted for in the laminate constitutive equations by using a set of second order tensor internal state variables which are strain-like quantities. The simplified damage model was then used to study the changes in frequency response of laminated composite plates and shallow cylindrical shells. The Ritz method and a finite element method have been proposed and developed as approximate solution procedures to quantify the change in the free vibration frequencies due to matrix cracks type of damage under both material as well as geometrical variables such as size, shape and extent of damage, degree of curvature, ratio of orthotropy, thickness ratio as well as support conditions. The analysis of various plates and shells with a centrally located damaged-zone depicts a typical trend of reduction in the vibration frequencies. This reduction is more pronounced for higher frequency modes and it shows greater sensitivity toward the size of the damaged region and density of cracks. The results also show that the changes in the frequency, especially for the fundamental mode, appear to be less sensitive to the shell boundary conditions as well as small values of curvature. The investigation of various undamaged plates and shallow shells demonstrates the importance of a first-order shear deformation
Yudanov, Vladislav V; Mikhailova, Valentina A; Ivanov, Anatoly I
2012-04-26
The possibility of the multichannel stochastic model to adequately describe all principal regularities observed in thermal electron transfer kinetics has been demonstrated. The most important are as follows: (i) the model predicts the solvent controlled regime in the Marcus normal region and its almost full suppression in the Marcus inverted region as well as a continuous transition between them in the vicinity of the activationless region; (ii) the suppression of dynamic solvent effect (DSE) is principally caused by the reorganization of high frequency vibrational modes; (iii) an additional factor of the DSE suppression stems from fast solvent relaxation component; (iv) in the inverted region, the multichannel stochastic model predicts the apparent activation energy to be much less than that calculated with Marcus equation. The exploration of the multichannel stochastic model has allowed one to conclude that the reorganization of high frequency vibrational modes can (i) raise the maximum rate constant above the solvent controlled limit by 2 and more orders of magnitude, (ii) shift the rate constant maximum to larger values of the free energy gap, and (iii) approach the electron transfer kinetics to the nonadiabatic regime.
Source models of great earthquakes from ultra low-frequency normal mode data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lentas, K.; Ferreira, A. M. G.; Clévédé, E.; Roch, J.
2014-08-01
We present a new earthquake source inversion technique based on normal mode data for the simultaneous determination of the rupture duration, length and moment tensor of large earthquakes with unilateral rupture. We use ultra low-frequency (f <1 mHz) mode singlets and multiplets which are modelled using Higher Order Perturbation Theory (HOPT), taking into account the Earth’s rotation, ellipticity and lateral heterogeneities. A Monte Carlo exploration of the model space is carried out, enabling the assessment of source parameter tradeoffs and uncertainties. We carry out synthetic tests to investigate errors in the source inversions due to: (i) unmodelled 3-D Earth structure; (ii) noise in the data; (iii) uncertainties in spatio-temporal earthquake location; and, (iv) neglecting the source finiteness in point source inversions. We find that unmodelled 3-D structure is the most serious source of errors for rupture duration and length determinations especially for the lowest magnitude events. The errors in moment magnitude and fault mechanism are generally small, with the rake angle showing systematically larger errors (up to 20°). We then investigate five real thrust earthquakes (Mw⩾8.5): (i) Sumatra-Andaman (26th December 2004); (ii) Nias, Sumatra (28th March 2005); (iii) Bengkulu (12th September 2007); (iv) Tohoku, Japan (11th March 2011); (v) Maule, Chile (27th February 2010); and, (vi) the 24 May 2013 Mw 8.3 Okhotsk Sea, Russia, deep (607 km) event. While finite source inversions for rupture length, duration, magnitude and fault mechanism are possible for the Sumatra-Andaman and Tohoku events, for all the other events their lower magnitudes only allow stable point source inversions of mode multiplets. We obtain the first normal mode finite source model for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which yields a fault length of 461 km, a rupture duration of 151 s, and hence an average rupture velocity of 3.05 km/s, giving an independent confirmation of the compact nature of
Lall, Pradeep; Sakalaukus, Peter; Davis, Lynn
2015-02-19
An investigation of an off-the-shelf solid-state lighting device with the primary focus on the accompanied light-emitting diode (LED) electrical driver (ED) has been conducted. A set of 10 EDs were exposed to temperature humidity life testing of 85% RH and 85 C (85/85) without an electrical bias per the JEDEC standard JESD22-A101C in order to accelerate the ingress of moisture into the aluminum electrolytic capacitor (AEC) and the EDs in order to assess the reliability of the LED drivers for harsh environment applications. The capacitance and equivalent series resistance for each AEC inside the ED were measured using a handheld LCR meter as possible leading indications of failure. The photometric quantities of a single pristine light engine were monitored in order to investigate the interaction between the light engine and the EDs. These parameters were used in assessing the overall reliability of the EDs. In addition, a comparative analysis has been conducted between the 85/85 accelerated test data and a previously published high-temperature storage life accelerated test of 135°C. The results of the 85/85 acceleration test and the comparative analysis are presented in this paper.
Lall, Pradeep; Sakalaukus, Peter; Davis, Lynn
2015-02-19
An investigation of an off-the-shelf solid-state lighting device with the primary focus on the accompanied light-emitting diode (LED) electrical driver (ED) has been conducted. A set of 10 EDs were exposed to temperature humidity life testing of 85% RH and 85 C (85/85) without an electrical bias per the JEDEC standard JESD22-A101C in order to accelerate the ingress of moisture into the aluminum electrolytic capacitor (AEC) and the EDs in order to assess the reliability of the LED drivers for harsh environment applications. The capacitance and equivalent series resistance for each AEC inside the ED were measured using a handheldmore » LCR meter as possible leading indications of failure. The photometric quantities of a single pristine light engine were monitored in order to investigate the interaction between the light engine and the EDs. These parameters were used in assessing the overall reliability of the EDs. In addition, a comparative analysis has been conducted between the 85/85 accelerated test data and a previously published high-temperature storage life accelerated test of 135°C. The results of the 85/85 acceleration test and the comparative analysis are presented in this paper.« less
Oblique Bernstein Mode Generation Near the Upper-hybrid Frequency in Solar Pre-flare Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kryshtal, A.; Fedun, V.; Gerasimenko, S.; Voitsekhovska, A.
2015-11-01
We study analytically the generation process of the first harmonics of the pure electron weakly oblique Bernstein modes. This mode can appear as a result of the rise and development of a corresponding instability in a solar active region. We assume that this wave mode is modified by the influence of pair Coulomb collisions and a weak large-scale sub-Dreicer electric field in the pre-flare chromosphere near the footpoints of a flare loop. To describe the pre-flare plasma we used the model of the solar atmosphere developed by Fontenla, Avrett, and Loeser ( Astrophys. J. 406, 319, 1993). We show that the generated first harmonic is close to the upper-hybrid frequency. This generation process begins at the very low threshold values of the sub-Dreicer electric field and well before the beginning of the preheating phase of a flare. We investigate the necessary conditions for the existence of non-damped first harmonics of oblique Bernstein waves with small amplitudes in the flare area.
Fesenyuk, O. P.; Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.
2013-12-15
This work generalizes recent results [O. P. Fesenyuk et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 085014 (2012)] to plasmas with elongated cross section. It suggests new expressions for the frequencies of the geodesic acoustic mode and Alfvén gap modes in tokamaks, with a large ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure and a large safety factor (q≫1, which takes place in discharges with reversed-shear configuration and, especially, in hollow-current discharges)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramaprabhu, P.; Karkhanis, V.; Banerjee, R.; Varshochi, H.; Khan, M.; Lawrie, A. G. W.
2016-01-01
From nonlinear models and direct numerical simulations we report on several findings of relevance to the single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability driven by time-varying acceleration histories. The incompressible, direct numerical simulations (DNSs) were performed in two (2D) and three dimensions (3D), and at a range of density ratios of the fluid combinations (characterized by the Atwood number). We investigated several acceleration histories, including acceleration profiles of the general form g (t ) ˜tn , with n ≥0 and acceleration histories reminiscent of the linear electric motor experiments. For the 2D flow, results from numerical simulations compare well with a 2D potential flow model and solutions to a drag-buoyancy model reported as part of this work. When the simulations are extended to three dimensions, bubble and spike growth rates are in agreement with the so-called level 2 and level 3 models of Mikaelian [K. O. Mikaelian, Phys. Rev. E 79, 065303(R) (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevE.79.065303], and with corresponding 3D drag-buoyancy model solutions derived in this article. Our generalization of the RT problem to study variable g (t ) affords us the opportunity to investigate the appropriate scaling for bubble and spike amplitudes under these conditions. We consider two candidates, the displacement Z and width s2, but find the appropriate scaling is dependent on the density ratios between the fluids—at low density ratios, bubble and spike amplitudes are explained by both s2 and Z , while at large density differences the displacement collapses the spike data. Finally, for all the acceleration profiles studied here, spikes enter a free-fall regime at lower Atwood numbers than predicted by all the models.
Interaction of High Frequency Acoustic Waves and Optical Waves Propagating in Single Mode Fibers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Paula, Ramon Perez
This paper develops a frequency dependent model for the acousto-optic interaction with a single mode fiber of acoustic waves having wavelengths comparable to the fiber diameter. This paper also presents optical techniques for experimental observation and measurement of such effects. The acoustic waves are both normally and obliquelly incident on the fiber. The solutions to the elastic problem studied here are constructed using scalar and vector potentials. The principal strains induced by a plane wave propagating in a fluid is calculated through the solution of the wave equation and the associated boundary condition. The optical beam propagation is analyzed starting with Maxwell's, equations and the required solution for single mode (degenerate double mode) propagation is presented. For the perturbed fiber the anisotropic solution is discussed. The optical indicatrix is derived from the electric energy density, with the major axis parallel to the induced principal strains obtained from the solution of the elastic problem. The solution of the optical indicatrix equation (index ellipsoid) yields two independent propagation modes that are linear polarized plane waves with two different propagation velocities. The induced phase shift and birefringence are calculated from the index ellipsoid. The birefringence and phase shift are also measured experimentally using a fiber optic interferometer and a fiber optic polariscope. The experimental apparatus is discussed in detail and the techniques used to make the measurements are presented. The results are separated into two parts: first, the results for ultrasonic waves of normal incidence are presented, theoretical and experimental results are discussed, and the two compared; second, the results for angular incidence are presented in the same format as above, and compared with the results for perpendicular incidence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boardsen, S. A.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Kletzing, C.; Santolik, O.; Wygant, J. R.; MacDonald, E.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Kurth, W. S.; Khazanov, G. V.
2015-12-01
The fast magnetosonic mode, also referred to as equatorial noise, occurs at frequencies mainly between the proton cyclotron frequency (fcp) and the lower hybrid frequency. The wave properties of this mode are characterized by a strong magnetic compressional component. These waves are observed around the magnetic equator in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. Case studies of the spectra of these waves have found the emissions to be composed of 1) harmonics, usually with spacing near the local fcp, 2) broad band hiss-like structure, or 3) a superposition of the two spectral types. No statistical studies of the frequency structure of these waves have been made. Using ~600,000 burst mode wave captures from the EMFISIS Wave Form Receiver and the EFW instrument on the Van Allen Probes spacecraft this mode will be identified in the high resolution frequency spectra and its frequency structure will be characterized. The variation of the frequency structure will be investigated as a function of normalized frequency, location, and geomagnetic conditions, and with spacecraft separation. The frequency structure will be compared with path integrated gain using proton ring distributions as the wave source. Recently the modulation of the fast magnetosonic mode has been reported, with modulation periods in the range of 30s to 240s. It has been proposed that frequency drift observed during each modulation is due to strong inward diffusion in energy of the proton ring distributions that generate these waves. As the inner edge of the ring distribution diffuses towards lower energies the band of unstable harmonics increases in frequency. If in the source region, for modulations with periods greater than say 100s, the inward energy diffusion should be observable in the HOPE proton data which has a cycle time of 24s.
Dependence of vestibular reactions on frequency of action of sign-variable accelerations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lapayev, E. V.; Vorobyev, O. A.; Ivanov, V. V.
1980-01-01
It was revealed that during the tests with continuous action of sign variable Coriolis acceleration the development of kinetosis was proportionate to the time of head inclinations in the range of 1 to 4 seconds while illusions of rocking in sagittal plane was more expressed in fast inclinations. The obtained data provided the evidence of sufficient dependence of vestibulovegetative and vestibulosensory reactions on the period of repetition of sign variable Coriolis acceleration.
Improved dichotomous search frequency offset estimator for burst-mode continuous phase modulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Wen-Chao; Li, Zan; Si, Jiang-Bo; Bai, Jun
2015-11-01
A data-aided technique for carrier frequency offset estimation with continuous phase modulation (CPM) in burst-mode transmission is presented. The proposed technique first exploits a special pilot sequence, or training sequence, to form a sinusoidal waveform. Then, an improved dichotomous search frequency offset estimator is introduced to determine the frequency offset using the sinusoid. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that our estimator is noteworthy in the following aspects. First, the estimator can operate independently of timing recovery. Second, it has relatively low outlier, i.e., the minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) required to guarantee estimation accuracy. Finally, the most important property is that our estimator is complexity-reduced compared to the existing dichotomous search methods: it eliminates the need for fast Fourier transform (FFT) and modulation removal, and exhibits faster convergence rate without accuracy degradation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61301179), the Doctorial Programs Foundation of the Ministry of Education, China (Grant No. 20110203110011), and the Programme of Introducing Talents of Discipline to Universities, China (Grant No. B08038).
Painting biological low-frequency vibrational modes from small peptides to proteins.
Perticaroli, S; Russo, D; Paolantoni, M; Gonzalez, M A; Sassi, P; Nickels, J D; Ehlers, G; Comez, L; Pellegrini, E; Fioretto, D; Morresi, A
2015-05-07
Protein low-frequency vibrational modes are an important portion of a proteins' dynamical repertoire. Yet, it is notoriously difficult to isolate specific vibrational features in the spectra of proteins. Given an appropriately chosen model peptide, and using different experimental conditions, we can simplify the system and gain useful insights into the protein vibrational properties. Combining neutron scattering, depolarized light scattering, and molecular dynamics simulations, we analyse the low frequency vibrations of biological molecules, comparing the results from a small globular protein, lysozyme, and an amphiphilic peptide, NALMA, both in solution and in powder states. Lysozyme and NALMA present similar spectral features in the frequency range between 1 and 10 THz. With the aid of MD simulations, we assign the spectral features to methyl groups' librations (1-5 THz) and hindered torsions (5-10 THz) in NALMA. Our data also show that, while proteins display boson peak vibrations in both powder and solution forms, NALMA exhibits boson peak vibrations in powder form only. This provides insight into the nature of this feature, suggesting a connection of BP collective motions to a characteristic length scale of heterogeneities present in the system. These results provide context for the use of model peptide systems to study protein dynamics; demonstrating both their utility, and the great care that has to be used in extrapolating results observed in powder to solutions.
Constancy of intermediate-degree p-mode frequencies during the declining phase of solar cycle 21
Rhodes, E.J. Jr.; Woodard, M.F.; Cacciani, A.; Tomczyk, S.; Korzennik, S.G.
1988-03-01
A comparison was made between two sets of frequencies of intermediate-degree solar p-mode oscillations obtained in late 1981 and mid-1984. Good agreement was found at the 0.02 microHz level despite the 2.6 yr interval separating the two sets of observations. In particular, a comparison was made between the frequencies of 573 modes obtained at the South Pole during December 24-25, 1981 and those of the same modes as observed at the Mount Wilson Observatory 60-ft Solar Tower during July 29-August 13, 1984. The present results are consistent with no change in intermediate-degree p-mode frequencies between late 1981 and mid-1985. 17 references.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Woodard, Martin F.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Tomczyk, Steven; Korzennik, Sylvain G.
1988-01-01
A comparison was made between two sets of frequencies of intermediate-degree solar p-mode oscillations obtained in late 1981 and mid-1984. Good agreement was found at the 0.02 microHz level despite the 2.6 yr interval separating the two sets of observations. In particular, a comparison was made between the frequencies of 573 modes obtained at the South Pole during December 24-25, 1981 and those of the same modes as observed at the Mount Wilson Observatory 60-ft Solar Tower during July 29-August 13, 1984. The present results are consistent with no change in intermediate-degree p-mode frequencies between late 1981 and mid-1985.
Daramola, Damilola A; Muthuvel, Madhivanan; Botte, Gerardine G
2010-07-29
Geometry and vibration properties for monoclinic zirconium oxide were studied using Gaussian basis sets and LDA, GGA, and B3LYP functionals. Bond angles, bond lengths, lattice parameters, and Raman frequencies were calculated and compared to experimental values. Bond angles and lengths were found to agree within experimental standard deviations. The B3LYP gave the best performance of all three functionals with a percent error of 1.35% for the lattice parameters while the average difference between experimental and calculated Raman frequency values was -3 cm(-1). The B3LYP functional was then used to assign the atomic vibrations causing each frequency mode using isotopic substitution of (93.40)Zr for (91.22)Zr and (18.00)O for (16.00)O. This resulted in seven modes assigned to the Zr atom, ten modes to the O atom, and one mode being a mixture of both.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekine, Akiko
2016-08-01
Our recent results on the photochromic reactions in dual mode cobaloxime crystals containing azobenzene derivatives are briefly reviewed. This work represents the first step toward the design of functional materials which can be controlled by two independent external stimuli, one by visible light and the other by UV radiation.
Radio frequency-power and the ring-mode to red-mode transition in an inductively coupled plasma
Coffer, J. G.; Camparo, J. C.
2012-04-15
The optical output of an alkali-metal inductively coupled plasma (alkali-ICP) plays an important role in both atomic magnetometers and atomic clocks, producing these devices' atomic signals through optical pumping. Unfortunately, though the alkali-ICP's optical pumping efficiency grows exponentially with temperature, at relatively high temperatures ({approx}140 deg. C) the discharge transitions from ''ring mode'' to ''red mode'', which is a spectral change in the plasma's output that corresponds broadly to a transition from ''good emission'' for optical pumping to ''poor emission.'' Recently, evidence has accumulated pointing to radiation trapping as the mechanism driving the ring-mode to red-mode transition, suggesting that the phenomenon is primarily linked to the alkali vapor's temperature. However, observations of the transition made in the 1960 s, demonstrating that the ICP temperature associated with the transition depended on rf-power, would appear to cast doubt on this mechanism. Here, we carefully investigate the influence of rf-power on the ring-mode to red-mode transition, finding that rf-power only affects the transition through discharge heating. Thus, the present work shows that the primary effect of rf-power on the ring-mode to red-mode transition can be understood in terms of the radiation trapping mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Ping; Fan, Juping; Teng, Yan; Shi, Yanchao; Deng, Yuqun; Sun, Jun
2014-10-01
This paper presents an efficient approach to realizing the frequency tunability of a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) over three frequency bands by mode transition without changing the slow wave structure (SWS). It is figured out that the transition of the operation mode in the RBWO can be efficiently achieved by using the strong end reflection of the SWS. This mode transition results in the tunability of the RBWO over three frequency bands at high power and high efficiency without changing the SWS. In numerical simulation, the output frequency of the RBWO can jump over 7.9 GHz in C-band, 9.9 GHz in X-band, and 12.4 GHz in Ku-band with output power exceeding 3.0 GW and conversion efficiency higher than 35% by just reasonably transforming the structures of the front and post resonant reflectors which provide the strong end reflection for the SWS.
Source models of great earthquakes from ultra low-frequency normal mode data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lentas, Konstantinos; Ferreira, Ana; Clévédé, Eric
2014-05-01
We present a new earthquake source inversion technique based on normal mode data for the simultaneous determination of the rupture duration, length and moment tensor of large earthquakes with unilateral rupture. We use ultra low-frequency (f < 1 mHz) normal mode spheroidal multiplets and the phases of split free oscillations, which are modelled using Higher Order Perturbation Theory (HOPT), taking into account the Earth's rotation, ellipticity and lateral heterogeneities. A Monte Carlo exploration of the model space is carried out, enabling the assessment of source parameter tradeoffs and uncertainties. We carry out synthetic tests for four different realistic artificial earthquakes with different faulting mechanisms and magnitudes (Mw 8.1-9.3) to investigate errors in the source inversions due to: (i) unmodelled 3-D Earth structure; (ii) noise in the data; (iii) uncertainties in spatio-temporal earthquake location; and, (iv) neglecting the source finiteness in point source moment tensor inversions. We find that unmodelled 3-D structure is the most serious source of errors for rupture duration and length determinations especially for the lowest magnitude artificial events. The errors in moment magnitude and fault mechanism are generally small, with the rake angle showing systematically larger errors (up to 20 degrees). We then carry out source inversions of five giant thrust earthquakes (Mw ≥ 8.5): (i) the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake; (ii) the 28 March 2005 Nias, Sumatra earthquake; (iii) the 12 September 2007 Bengkulu earthquake; (iv) the Tohoku, Japan earthquake of 11 March 2011; (v) the Maule, Chile earthquake of 27 February 2010; and (vi) the recent 24 May 2013 Mw 8.3 Okhotsk Sea, Russia, deep (607 km) earthquake. While finite source inversions for rupture length, duration, magnitude and fault mechanism are possible for the Sumatra-Andaman and Tohoku events, for all the other events their lower magnitudes do not allow stable inversions of mode
Observation of ion-cyclotron-frequency mode-conversion flow drive in tokamak plasmas.
Lin, Y; Rice, J E; Wukitch, S J; Greenwald, M J; Hubbard, A E; Ince-Cushman, A; Lin, L; Porkolab, M; Reinke, M L; Tsujii, N
2008-12-05
Strong toroidal flow (Vphi) and poloidal flow (Vtheta) have been observed in D-3He plasmas with ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) mode-conversion (MC) heating on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The toroidal flow scales with the rf power Prf (up to 30 km/s per MW), and is significantly larger than that in ICRF minority heated plasmas at the same rf power or stored energy. The central Vphi responds to Prf faster than the outer regions, and the Vphi(r) profile is broadly peaked for r/a < or =0.5. Localized (0.3 < or = r/a < or =0.5) Vtheta appears when Prf > or =1.5 MW and increases with power (up to 0.7 km/s per MW). The experimental evidence together with numerical wave modeling suggests a local flow drive source due to the interaction between the MC ion cyclotron wave and 3He ions.
Radiation hard mode-locked laser suitable as a spaceborne frequency comb.
Buchs, Gilles; Kundermann, Stefan; Portuondo-Campa, Erwin; Lecomte, Steve
2015-04-20
We report ground-level gamma and proton radiation tests of a passively mode-locked diode-pumped solid-state laser (DPSSL) with Yb:KYW gain medium. A total gamma dose of 170 krad(H(2)O) applied in 5 days generates minor changes in performances while maintaining solitonic regime. Pre-irradiation specifications are fully recovered over a day to a few weeks timescale. A proton fluence of 9.76·10(10) cm(-2) applied in few minutes shows no alteration of the laser performances. Furthermore, complete stabilization of the laser shows excellent noise properties. From our results, we claim that the investigated femtosecond DPSSL technology can be considered rad-hard and would be suitable for generating frequency combs compatible with long duration space missions.
Optical sum-frequency generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Kowligy, Abijith S.; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem
2014-05-01
We demonstrate sum-frequency generation between a telecom wavelength and the Rb D2 line, achieved through natural phase matching in a nonlinear whispering gallery mode resonator. Due to the strong optical field confinement and ultra high Q of the cavity, the process saturates already at sub-mW pump peak power, at least two orders of magnitude lower than in existing waveguide-based devices. The experimental data are in agreement with the nonlinear dynamics and phase matching theory based on spherical geometry. Our experimental and theoretical results point toward a new platform for manipulating the color and quantum states of light waves for applications such as atomic memory based quantum networking and logic operations with optical signals.
Mode selection and frequency tuning by injection in pulsed TEA-CO2 lasers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flamant, P. H.; Menzies, R. T.
1983-01-01
An analytical model characterizing pulsed-TEA-CO2-laser injection locking by tunable CW-laser radiation is presented and used to explore the requirements for SLM pulse generation. Photon-density-rate equations describing the laser mechanism are analyzed in terms of the mode competition between photon densities emitted at two frequencies. The expression derived for pulsed dye lasers is extended to homogeneously broadened CO2 lasers, and locking time is defined as a function of laser parameters. The extent to which injected radiation can be detuned from the CO2 line center and continue to produce SLM pulses is investigated experimentally in terms of the analytical framework. The dependence of locking time on the detuning/pressure-broadened-halfwidth ratio is seen as important for spectroscopic applications requiring tuning within the TEA-laser line-gain bandwidth.
Eames, Matthew D C; Reck, Theodore J; Kilroy, Joseph P; Hossack, John A
2011-12-01
A selectable, dual-frequency, capacitive micro- machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) designed for both high-frequency imaging and low-frequency therapeutic effect is presented. A validated finite element analysis (FEA) CMUT model was used to examine the performance of the proposed dual-frequency transducer. CMUT device simulations were used to design a hybrid device incorporating stand-off structures that divide a large, low-frequency membrane into smaller, high-frequency sub-membranes when the membrane is partially collapsed so that the stand-offs contact the substrate. In low-frequency operation, simulations indicated that the peak negative pressure achieved by the hybrid device, when biased by 30.0 VDC and excited by a 2-MHz signal with 30.0 V amplitude, exceeded 190 kPa, which is sufficient for microbubble rupture. Low-frequency mode bandwidth was 93% at a center frequency of 2.1 MHz. In the high-frequency mode of operation, the device was excited by 175 Vdc and 87.5 Vac, which generated a peak negative pressure of 247 kPa. Device center frequency was 44.1 MHz with a - 6-dB fractional bandwidth of 42%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Francia, P.; Villante, U.
1997-01-01
A statistical analysis of the power spectra of the geomagnetic field components H and D for periods ranging between 3 min and 1 h was conducted at a low-latitude observatory (LÁquila, L=1.6) at the minimum and maximum of the solar cycle. For both components, during daytime intervals, we found evidence of power enhancements at frequencies predicted for global modes of the Earthś magnetosphere and occasionally observed at auroral latitudes in the F-region drift velocities (approximately at 1.3, 1.9, 2.6, and 3.4 mHz). Nighttime observations reveal a relative low frequency H enhancement associated with the bay occurrence together with a peak in the H/D power ratio which sharply emerges at 1.2 mHz in the premidnight sector. The strong similarity between solar minimum and maximum suggests that these modes can be considered permanent magnetospheric features. A separate analysis on a two-month interval shows that the observed spectral characteristics are amplified by conditions of high-velocity solar wind. Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to Prof. D. J. Southwood (Imperial College, London), J. C. Samson (University of Alberta, Edmonton), L. J. Lanzerotti (AT&T Bell Laboratories), A. Wolfe (New York City Technical College) and to Dr. M. Vellante (University of LÁquila) for helpful discussions. They also thank Dr. A. Meloni (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Roma) who made available geomagnetic field observations from LÁquila Geomagnetic Observatory. This research activity at LÁquila is supported by MURST (40% and 60% contracts) and by GIFCO/CNR. Topical Editor K.-H. Glaßmeier thanks C. Waters and S. Fujita for their help in evaluating this paper.->
Kobayashi, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Riki; Matsuhashi, Masao; Usami, Kiyohide; Shimotake, Akihiro; Kunieda, Takeharu; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio
2015-01-01
Physiological high frequency activities (HFA) are related to various brain functions. Factors, however, regulating its frequency have not been well elucidated in humans. To validate the hypothesis that different propagation modes (thalamo-cortical vs. cortico-coritcal projections), or different terminal layers (layer IV vs. layer II/III) affect its frequency, we, in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), compared HFAs induced by median nerve stimulation with those induced by electrical stimulation of the cortex connecting to SI. We employed 6 patients who underwent chronic subdural electrode implantation for presurgical evaluation. We evaluated the HFA power values in reference to the baseline overriding N20 (earliest cortical response) and N80 (late response) of somatosensory evoked potentials (HFASEP(N20) and HFASEP(N80)) and compared those overriding N1 and N2 (first and second responses) of cortico-cortical evoked potentials (HFACCEP(N1) and HFACCEP(N2)). HFASEP(N20) showed the power peak in the frequency above 200 Hz, while HFACCEP(N1) had its power peak in the frequency below 200 Hz. Different propagation modes and/or different terminal layers seemed to determine HFA frequency. Since HFACCEP(N1) and HFA induced during various brain functions share a similar broadband profile of the power spectrum, cortico-coritcal horizontal propagation seems to represent common mode of neural transmission for processing these functions. PMID:26087042
Kobayashi, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Riki; Matsuhashi, Masao; Usami, Kiyohide; Shimotake, Akihiro; Kunieda, Takeharu; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Susumu; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio
2015-01-01
Physiological high frequency activities (HFA) are related to various brain functions. Factors, however, regulating its frequency have not been well elucidated in humans. To validate the hypothesis that different propagation modes (thalamo-cortical vs. cortico-coritcal projections), or different terminal layers (layer IV vs. layer II/III) affect its frequency, we, in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), compared HFAs induced by median nerve stimulation with those induced by electrical stimulation of the cortex connecting to SI. We employed 6 patients who underwent chronic subdural electrode implantation for presurgical evaluation. We evaluated the HFA power values in reference to the baseline overriding N20 (earliest cortical response) and N80 (late response) of somatosensory evoked potentials (HFA(SEP(N20)) and HFA(SEP(N80))) and compared those overriding N1 and N2 (first and second responses) of cortico-cortical evoked potentials (HFA(CCEP(N1)) and HFA(CCEP(N2))). HFA(SEP(N20)) showed the power peak in the frequency above 200 Hz, while HFA(CCEP(N1)) had its power peak in the frequency below 200 Hz. Different propagation modes and/or different terminal layers seemed to determine HFA frequency. Since HFA(CCEP(N1)) and HFA induced during various brain functions share a similar broadband profile of the power spectrum, cortico-coritcal horizontal propagation seems to represent common mode of neural transmission for processing these functions.
Multipolar universal relations between f -mode frequency and tidal deformability of compact stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, T. K.; Sham, Y.-H.; Leung, P. T.; Lin, L.-M.
2014-12-01
Though individual stellar parameters of compact stars usually demonstrate obvious dependence on the equation of state (EOS), EOS-insensitive universal formulas relating these parameters remarkably exist. In the present paper, we explore the interrelationship between two such formulas, namely the f -I relation connecting the f -mode quadrupole oscillation frequency ω2 and the moment of inertia I , and the I -Love-Q relations relating I , the quadrupole tidal deformability λ2, and the quadrupole moment Q , which have been proposed by Lau, Leung, and Lin [Astrophys. J. 714, 1234 (2010)] and Yagi and Yunes [Science 341, 365 (2013)], respectively. A relativistic universal relation between ωl and λl with the same angular momentum l =2 ,3 ,… , the so-called "diagonal f -Love relation" that holds for realistic compact stars and stiff polytropic stars, is unveiled here. An in-depth investigation in the Newtonian limit is further carried out to pinpoint its underlying physical mechanism and hence leads to a unified f -I -Love relation. We reach the conclusion that these EOS-insensitive formulas stem from a common physical origin—compact stars can be considered as quasiincompressible when they react to slow time variations introduced by f -mode oscillations, tidal forces and rotations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maheshwari, Prateek
Niobium (Nb) is the material of choice for Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Cavities used in particle accelerators owing to its high critical temperature (Tc = 9.2 K) and critical magnetic field (≈ 200mT). However, niobium tends to harbor interstitial impurities such as H, C, O and N, which are detrimental to cavity performance. Since the magnetic field penetration depth (lambda) of niobium is 40nm, it is important to characterize these impurities using surface characterization techniques. Also, it is known that certain heat treatments improve cavity efficiency via interstitial impurity removal from the surface of niobium. Thus, a systematic study on the effect of these heat treatments on the surface impurity levels is needed. In this work, surface analysis of both heat treated and non heat treated (120°C-1400°C) large grain (single crystal) bulk niobium samples was performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Impurity levels were compared on the surface using SIMS after various types of heat treatments expected to improve cavity performance, and the effect of these heat treatments on the surface impurities were examined. SIMS characterization of ion implanted standards of C, N, O, D showed that quantification of C, N and O impurities in Nb is achievable and indicated that H is very mobile in Nb. It was hence determined that quantification of H in Nb is not possible using SIMS due to its high diffusivity in Nb. However, a comparative study of the high temperature heat treated (600°C-1400°C) and non heat treated (control) samples revealed that hydrogen levels decreased by upto a factor of 100. This is attributed to the dissociation of the niobium surface oxide layer, which acts as a passivating film on the surface, and subsequent desorption of hydrogen. Reformation of this oxide layer on cool down disallows any re-absorption of hydrogen, indicating that the oxide acts as a surface barrier for
Frequency jump phenomena of e-fishbone mode during high-power ECRH on HL-2A
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, L. M.; Ding, X. T.; Chen, W.; Chen, S. Y.; Dong, Y. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Zhang, Y. P.; Shi, Z. B.; Liu, Yi.; Li, J. X.; Li, Y. G.; Zhou, Y.; Huang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Huan, M.; Rao, J.; Cao, J. Y.; Lei, G. J.; Zhong, W. L.; Cui, Z. Y.; Dong, J. Q.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; the HL-2A Team
2013-05-01
Fishbone instability excited by energetic electrons during electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) is identified on HL-2A. With high-power ECRH, periodic frequency jump phenomena are observed by soft x-ray arrays. Soft x-ray tomography shows that the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers are 1/1 and 2/2 with the frequency jump. There is an ECRH power threshold for the frequency jump phenomena, which is generally about 0.9 MW. The frequencies of the two modes increase with the ECRH power. Experiments show that trapped particles are dominant in the low-density high-power ECRH plasma. The precessional frequency of the energetic trapped electrons is calculated with different discharge parameters. The results indicate that the energy of resonant electrons is in agreement with the hard x-ray measurement.
Effects of Frequency Spreads on Beam Breakup Instabilities in Linear Accelerators
1989-05-11
22209 Attn: Dr. R. Patrick Attn: Mr. Ira F. Kuhn Dr. Dennis Reilly Dr. Nancy Chesser Ballistic Missile Def. Ad. Tech. Ctr. Fermi Natl. Accelerator...Perry Wilson Albuquerque, NM 87131 Dr. M. V. Chodorow Dr. Ron Ruth Dr. Howard Jory Dr. K. Thompson Varian Associates, Bldg. 1 Dr. Roger Miller 611
Detonation mode and frequency analysis under high loss conditions for stoichiometric propane-oxygen
Jackson, Scott I.; Lee, Bok Jik; Shepherd, Joseph E.
2016-03-24
In this paper, the propagation characteristics of galloping detonations were quantified with a high-time-resolution velocity diagnostic. Combustion waves were initiated in 30-m lengths of 4.1-mm inner diameter transparent tubing filled with stoichiometric propane–oxygen mixtures. Chemiluminescence from the resulting waves was imaged to determine the luminous wave front position and velocity every 83.3 μ. As the mixture initial pressure was decreased from 20 to 7 kPa, the wave was observed to become increasingly unsteady and transition from steady detonation to a galloping detonation. While wave velocities averaged over the full tube length smoothly decreased with initial pressure down to half ofmore » the Chapman–Jouguet detonation velocity (DCJ) at the quenching limit, the actual propagation mechanism was seen to be a galloping wave with a cycle period of approximately 1.0 ms, corresponding to a cycle length of 1.3–2.0 m or 317–488 tube diameters depending on the average wave speed. The long test section length of 7300 tube diameters allowed observation of up to 20 galloping cycles, allowing for statistical analysis of the wave dynamics. In the galloping regime, a bimodal velocity distribution was observed with peaks centered near 0.4 DCJ and 0.95 DCJ. Decreasing initial pressure increasingly favored the low velocity mode. Galloping frequencies ranged from 0.8 to 1.0 kHz and were insensitive to initial mixture pressure. Wave deflagration-to-detonation transition and detonation failure trajectories were found to be repeatable in a given test and also across different initial mixture pressures. The temporal duration of wave dwell at the low and high velocity modes during galloping was also quantified. It was found that the mean wave dwell duration in the low velocity mode was a weak function of initial mixture pressure, while the mean dwell time in the high velocity mode depended exponentially on initial mixture pressure. Analysis of the velocity
Detonation mode and frequency analysis under high loss conditions for stoichiometric propane-oxygen
Jackson, Scott I.; Lee, Bok Jik; Shepherd, Joseph E.
2016-03-24
In this paper, the propagation characteristics of galloping detonations were quantified with a high-time-resolution velocity diagnostic. Combustion waves were initiated in 30-m lengths of 4.1-mm inner diameter transparent tubing filled with stoichiometric propane–oxygen mixtures. Chemiluminescence from the resulting waves was imaged to determine the luminous wave front position and velocity every 83.3 μ. As the mixture initial pressure was decreased from 20 to 7 kPa, the wave was observed to become increasingly unsteady and transition from steady detonation to a galloping detonation. While wave velocities averaged over the full tube length smoothly decreased with initial pressure down to half of the Chapman–Jouguet detonation velocity (D_{CJ}) at the quenching limit, the actual propagation mechanism was seen to be a galloping wave with a cycle period of approximately 1.0 ms, corresponding to a cycle length of 1.3–2.0 m or 317–488 tube diameters depending on the average wave speed. The long test section length of 7300 tube diameters allowed observation of up to 20 galloping cycles, allowing for statistical analysis of the wave dynamics. In the galloping regime, a bimodal velocity distribution was observed with peaks centered near 0.4 D_{CJ} and 0.95 D_{CJ}. Decreasing initial pressure increasingly favored the low velocity mode. Galloping frequencies ranged from 0.8 to 1.0 kHz and were insensitive to initial mixture pressure. Wave deflagration-to-detonation transition and detonation failure trajectories were found to be repeatable in a given test and also across different initial mixture pressures. The temporal duration of wave dwell at the low and high velocity modes during galloping was also quantified. It was found that the mean wave dwell duration in the low velocity mode was a weak function of initial mixture pressure, while the mean dwell time in the high velocity mode depended exponentially on initial mixture pressure. Analysis
Piot, P.; Behrens, C.; Gerth, C.; ...
2011-09-07
We report on the successful experimental generation of electron bunches with ramped current profiles. The technique relies on impressing nonlinear correlations in the longitudinal phase space using a superconducing radiofrequency linear accelerator operating at two frequencies and a current-enhancing dispersive section. The produced {approx} 700-MeV bunches have peak currents of the order of a kilo-Ampere. Data taken for various accelerator settings demonstrate the versatility of the method and in particular its ability to produce current profiles that have a quasi-linear dependency on the longitudinal (temporal) coordinate. The measured bunch parameters are shown, via numerical simulations, to produce gigavolt-per-meter peak acceleratingmore » electric fields with transformer ratios larger than 2 in dielectric-lined waveguides.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Gang; Yang, Bin; Hou, Cheng; Li, Guimiao; Liu, Jingquan; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chunsheng
2016-12-01
Recently, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) have been paid a lot of attention by many researchers to convert mechanical energy into electrical and low level vibration. Currently, most of PEHs worked under high frequency and low level vibration. In this paper, we propose a micro cantilever generator based on the bonding of bulk PZT wafer and phosphor bronze, which is fabricated by MEMS technology, such as mechanical chemical thinning and etching. The experimental results show that the open-circuit output voltage, output power and power density of this fabricated prototype are 35 V, 321 μW and 8664 μW cm‑3 at the resonant frequency of 100.8 Hz, respectively, when it matches an optimal loading resistance of 140 kΩ under the excitation of 3.0 g acceleration. The fabricated micro generator can obtain the open-circuit stable output voltage of 61.2 V when the vibration acceleration arrives at 7.0 g. Meanwhile, when this device is pasted on the vibrating vacuum pump, the output voltage is about 11 V. It demonstrates that this novel proposed device can scavenge high vibration level energy at low frequency for powering the inertial sensors in internet of things application.
Tang, Gang; Yang, Bin; Hou, Cheng; Li, Guimiao; Liu, Jingquan; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chunsheng
2016-12-08
Recently, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) have been paid a lot of attention by many researchers to convert mechanical energy into electrical and low level vibration. Currently, most of PEHs worked under high frequency and low level vibration. In this paper, we propose a micro cantilever generator based on the bonding of bulk PZT wafer and phosphor bronze, which is fabricated by MEMS technology, such as mechanical chemical thinning and etching. The experimental results show that the open-circuit output voltage, output power and power density of this fabricated prototype are 35 V, 321 μW and 8664 μW cm(-3) at the resonant frequency of 100.8 Hz, respectively, when it matches an optimal loading resistance of 140 kΩ under the excitation of 3.0 g acceleration. The fabricated micro generator can obtain the open-circuit stable output voltage of 61.2 V when the vibration acceleration arrives at 7.0 g. Meanwhile, when this device is pasted on the vibrating vacuum pump, the output voltage is about 11 V. It demonstrates that this novel proposed device can scavenge high vibration level energy at low frequency for powering the inertial sensors in internet of things application.
Tang, Gang; Yang, Bin; Hou, Cheng; Li, Guimiao; Liu, Jingquan; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Chunsheng
2016-01-01
Recently, piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) have been paid a lot of attention by many researchers to convert mechanical energy into electrical and low level vibration. Currently, most of PEHs worked under high frequency and low level vibration. In this paper, we propose a micro cantilever generator based on the bonding of bulk PZT wafer and phosphor bronze, which is fabricated by MEMS technology, such as mechanical chemical thinning and etching. The experimental results show that the open-circuit output voltage, output power and power density of this fabricated prototype are 35 V, 321 μW and 8664 μW cm−3 at the resonant frequency of 100.8 Hz, respectively, when it matches an optimal loading resistance of 140 kΩ under the excitation of 3.0 g acceleration. The fabricated micro generator can obtain the open-circuit stable output voltage of 61.2 V when the vibration acceleration arrives at 7.0 g. Meanwhile, when this device is pasted on the vibrating vacuum pump, the output voltage is about 11 V. It demonstrates that this novel proposed device can scavenge high vibration level energy at low frequency for powering the inertial sensors in internet of things application. PMID:27929139
Smith, Ryan P.; Roos, Peter A.; Wahlstrand, Jared K.; Pipis, Jessica A.; Rivas, Maria Belmonte; Cundiff, Steven T.
2007-01-01
We perform optical frequency metrology of an iodine-stabilized He-Ne laser using a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser frequency comb that is stabilized using quantum interference of photocurrents in a semiconductor. Using this technique, we demonstrate carrier-envelope offset frequency fluctuations of less than 5 mHz using a 1 s gate time. With the resulting stable frequency comb, we measure the optical frequency of the iodine transition [127I2 R(127) 11-5 i component] to be 473 612 214 712.96 ± 0.66 kHz, well within the uncertainty of the CIPM recommended value. The stability of the quantum interference technique is high enough such that it does not limit the measurements. PMID:27110472
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stragier, X. F. D.; Luiten, O. J.; van der Geer, S. B.; van der Wiel, M. J.; Brussaard, G. J. H.
2011-07-01
A purpose-built RF-photogun as external electron injector for a laser wakefield accelerator has been thoroughly tested. Different properties of the RF-photogun have been measured such as energy, energy spread and transverse emittance. The focus of this study is the investigation of the smallest possible focus spot and focus stability at the entrance of the plasma channel. For an electron bunch with 10 pC charge and 3.7 MeV kinetic energy, the energy spread was 0.5% with a shot-to-shot stability of 0.05%. After focusing the bunch by a pulsed solenoid lens at 140 mm from the middle of the lens, the focal spot was 40 μm with a shot-to-shot stability of 5 μm. Higher charge leads to higher energy spread and to a larger spot size, due to space charge effects. All properties were found to be close to design values. Given the limited energy of 3.7 MeV, the properties are sufficient for this gun to serve as injector for one particular version of laser wakefield acceleration, i.e., injection ahead of the laser pulse. These measured electron bunch properties were then used as input parameters for simulations of electron bunch injection in a laser wakefield accelerator. The arrival time jitter was deduced from measurements of the energy fluctuation, in combination with earlier measurements using THz coherent transition radiation, and is around 150 fs in the present setup. The bunch length in the focus, simulated using particle tracking, depends on the accelerated charge and goes from 100 fs at 0.1 pC to 1 ps at 50 pC. When simulating the injection of the 3.7 MeV electron bunch of 10 pC in front of a 25 TW laser pulse with a waist of 30 μm in a plasma with a density of 0.7 × 1024 m-3, the maximum accelerated charge was found to be 1.2 pC with a kinetic energy of ˜900 MeV and an energy spread of ˜5%. The experiments combined with the simulations show the feasibility of external injection and give a prediction of the output parameters that can be expected from a laser
Nong, Hanond Markmann, Sergej; Hekmat, Negar; Jukam, Nathan; Pal, Shovon; Mohandas, Reshma A.; Dean, Paul; Li, Lianhe; Linfield, Edmund H.; Giles Davies, A.; Wieck, Andreas D.
2014-09-15
A periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal with multiple poling periods is used to generate tunable narrow-bandwidth THz pulses for injection seeding a quantum cascade laser (QCL). We demonstrate that longitudinal modes of the quantum cascade laser close to the gain maximum can be selected or suppressed according to the seed spectrum. The QCL emission spectra obtained by electro-optic sampling from the quantum cascade laser, in the most favorable case, shows high selectivity and amplification of the longitudinal modes that overlap the frequency of the narrow-band seed. Proper selection of the narrow-band THz seed from the PPLN crystal discretely tunes the longitudinal mode emission of the quantum cascade laser. Moreover, the THz wave build-up within the laser cavity is studied as a function of the round-trip time. When the seed frequency is outside the maximum of the gain spectrum the laser emission shifts to the preferential longitudinal mode.
McFerran, J. J.
2009-05-10
Details for constructing an astronomical frequency comb suitable as a wavelength reference for echelle spectrographs associated with optical telescopes are outlined. The source laser for the frequency comb is a harmonically mode-locked fiber laser with a central wavelength of 1.56 {mu}m. The means of producing a repetition rate greater than 7 GHz and a peak optical power of {approx}8 kW are discussed. Conversion of the oscillator light into the visible can occur through a two-step process of (i) nonlinear conversion in periodically poled lithium niobate and (ii) spectral broadening in photonic crystal fiber. While not necessarily octave spanning in spectral range to permit the use of an f -to- 2f interferometer for offset frequency control, the frequency comb can be granted accuracy by linking the mode spacing and a comb tooth to separate frequency references. The design avoids the use of a Fabry-Perot cavity to increase the mode spacing of the frequency comb; however, the level of supermode suppression and sideband asymmetry in the fiber oscillator and in the subsequent frequency conversion stages are aspects that need to be experimentally tested.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polzin, Kurt A.; Hallock, Ashley K.; Choueiri, Edgar Y.
2008-01-01
Data from an inductive conical theta pinch accelerator are presented to gain insight into the process of inductive current sheet formation in the presence of a preionized background gas produced by a steady-state RF-discharge. The presence of a preionized plasma has been previously shown to allow for current sheet formation at lower discharge voltages and energies than those found in other pulsed inductive accelerator concepts, leading to greater accelerator efficiencies at lower power levels. Time-resolved magnetic probe measurements are obtained for different background pressures and pulse energies to characterize the effects of these parameters on current sheet formation. Indices are defined that describe time-resolved current sheet characteristics, such as the total current owing in the current sheet, the time-integrated total current ('strength'), and current sheet velocity. It is found that for a given electric field strength, maximums in total current, strength, and velocity occur for one particular background pressure. At other pressures, these current sheet indices are considerably smaller. The trends observed in these indices are explained in terms of the principles behind Townsend breakdown that lead to a dependence on the ratio of the electric field to the background pressure. Time-integrated photographic data are also obtained at the same experimental conditions, and qualitatively they compare quite favorably with the time-resolved magnetic field data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lai, Yeh-Hung; Fly, Gerald W.
2015-01-01
With increasing availability of more durable membrane materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells, there is a need for a more stressful test that combines chemical and mechanical stressors to enable accelerated screening of promising membrane candidates. Equally important is the need for in-situ diagnostic methods with sufficient spatial resolution that can provide insights into how membranes degrade to facilitate the development of durable fuel cell systems. In this article, we report an accelerated membrane stress test and a degradation diagnostic method that satisfy both needs. By applying high-amplitude cycles of electrical load to a fuel cell fed with low-RH reactant gases, a wide range of mechanical and chemical stressful conditions can be created within the cell which leads to rapid degradation of a mechanically robust Ion Power™ N111-IP membrane. Using an in-situ shorting/crossover diagnostic method on a segmented fuel cell fixture that provides 100 local current measurements, we are able to monitor the progression and map the degradation modes of shorting, thinning, and crossover leak over the entire membrane. Results from this test method have been validated by conventional metrics of fluoride release rates, physical crossover leak rates, pinhole mapping, and cross-sectional measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Qing-Hai; Zhang, Xin; Luo, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Jun; Tan, Ping-Heng
2017-03-01
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted extensive attention due to their many novel properties. The atoms within each layer in two-dimensional TMDs are joined together by covalent bonds, while van der Waals interactions combine the layers together. This makes its lattice dynamics layer-number dependent. The evolutions of ultralow frequency (< 50 cm‑1) modes, such as shear and layer-breathing modes have been well-established. Here, we review the layer-number dependent high-frequency (> 50 cm‑1) vibration modes in few-layer TMDs and demonstrate how the interlayer coupling leads to the splitting of high-frequency vibration modes, known as Davydov splitting. Such Davydov splitting can be well described by a van der Waals model, which directly links the splitting with the interlayer coupling. Our review expands the understanding on the effect of interlayer coupling on the high-frequency vibration modes in TMDs and other two-dimensional materials. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2016YFA0301200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11225421, 11474277, 11434010, 61474067, 11604326, 11574305 and 51527901), and the National Young 1000 Talent Plan of China.
First Observation of a (1,0) Mode Frequency Shift of an Electron Plasma at Antiproton Beam Injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuroda, N.; Mohri, A.; Torii, H. A.; Nagata, Y.; Shibata, M.
2014-07-01
The frequency shift of the center-of-mass oscillation, known as the (1,0) mode, of a trapped electron plasma and, furthermore, its time evolution were observed during the cooling of an injected antiproton beam for the first time. Here, antiprotons mixed with the electrons did not follow faster electron oscillations but contributed to the modification of the effective potential. The time evolution of the plasma temperature, deduced from the frequency shift of the excited (3,0) mode, suggested that there was an abnormal energy deposition of the antiproton beam in the electron plasma before thermalization.
Effect of microbubble size on fundamental mode high frequency ultrasound imaging in mice.
Sirsi, Shashank; Feshitan, Jameel; Kwan, James; Homma, Shunichi; Borden, Mark
2010-06-01
High-frequency ultrasound imaging using microbubble (MB) contrast agents is becoming increasingly popular in pre-clinical and small animal studies of anatomy, flow and vascular expression of molecular epitopes. Currently, in vivo imaging studies rely on highly polydisperse microbubble suspensions, which may provide a complex and varied acoustic response. To study the effect of individual microbubble size populations, microbubbles of 1-2 microm, 4-5 microm and 6-8 microm diameter were isolated using the technique of differential centrifugation. Size-selected microbubbles were imaged in the mouse kidney over a range of concentrations using a Visualsonics Vevo 770 ultrasound imaging system (Visualsonics, Toronto, Ontario, Canada) with a 40-MHz probe in fundamental mode. Results demonstrate that contrast enhancement and circulation persistence are strongly dependent on microbubble size and concentration. Large microbubbles (4-5 and 6-8 microm) strongly enhanced the ultrasound image with positive contrast, while 1-2 microm microbubbles showed little enhancement. For example, the total integrated contrast enhancement, measured by the area under the time-intensity curve (AUC), increased 16-fold for 6-8 microm diameter microbubbles at 5 x 10(7) MB/bolus compared with 4-5 microm microbubbles at the same concentration. Interestingly, 1-2 microm diameter microbubbles, at any concentration, did not measurably enhance the integrated ultrasound signal at tissue depth, but did noticeably attenuate the signal, indicating that they had a low scattering-to-attenuation ratio. When concentration matched, larger microbubbles were more persistent in circulation. However, when volume matched, all microbubble sizes had a similar circulation half-life. These results indicated that dissolution of the gas core plays a larger role in contrast elimination than filtering by the lungs and spleen. The results of this study show that microbubbles can be tailored for optimal contrast enhancement in
Effect of Microbubble Size on Fundamental Mode High Frequency Ultrasound Imaging in Mice
Sirsi, Shashank; Feshitan, Jameel; Kwan, James; Homma, Shunichi; Borden, Mark
2010-01-01
High-frequency ultrasound imaging using microbubble (MB) contrast agents is becoming increasingly popular in pre-clinical and small animal studies of anatomy, flow and vascular expression of molecular epitopes. Currently, in vivo imaging studies rely on highly polydisperse microbubble suspensions, which may provide a complex and varied acoustic response. In order to study the effect of individual microbubble size populations, microbubbles of 1-2 μm, 4-5 μm, and 6-8 μm diameter were isolated using the technique of differential centrifugation. Size-selected microbubbles were imaged in the mouse kidney over a range of concentrations using a Visualsonics Vevo 770 ultrasound imaging system with a 40-MHz probe in fundamental mode. Results demonstrate that contrast enhancement and circulation persistence are strongly dependent on microbubble size and concentration. Large microbubbles (4-5 and 6-8 μm) strongly enhanced the ultrasound image with positive contrast, while 1-2 μm microbubbles showed little enhancement. For example, the total integrated contrast enhancement, measured by the area under the time-intensity curve (AUC), increased 16-fold for 6-8 μm diameter microbubbles at 5×107 MB/bolus compared to 4-5 μm microbubbles at the same concentration. Interestingly, 1-2 μm diameter microbubbles, at any concentration, did not measurably enhance the integrated ultrasound signal at tissue depth, but did noticeably attenuate the signal, indicating that they had a low scattering-to-attenuation ratio. When concentration matched, larger microbubbles were more persistent in circulation. However, when volume matched, all microbubble sizes had a similar circulation half-life. These results indicated that dissolution of the gas core plays a larger role in contrast elimination than filtering by the lungs and spleen. The results of this study show that microbubbles can be tailored for optimal contrast enhancement in fundamental mode imaging. PMID:20447755
Liu, Yueqiang; Sabbagh, S. A.; Chapman, I. T.; ...
2016-08-12
The high-frequency noise measured by magnetic sensors, at levels above the typical frequency of resistive wall modes, is analyzed across a range of present tokamak devices including DIII-D, JET, MAST, ASDEX Upgrade, JT-60U, and NSTX. A high-pass filter enables identification of the noise component with Gaussian-like statistics that shares certain common characteristics in all devices considered. A conservative prediction is made for ITER plasma operation of the high-frequency noise component of the sensor signals, to be used for resistive wall mode feedback stabilization, based on the multimachine database. The predicted root-mean-square n = 1 (n is the toroidal mode number)more » noise level is 104 to 105 G/s for the voltage signal, and 0.1 to 1 G for the perturbed magnetic field signal. The lower cutoff frequency of the Gaussian pickup noise scales linearly with the sampling frequency, with a scaling coefficient of about 0.1. As a result, these basic noise characteristics should be useful for the modeling-based design of the feedback control system for the resistive wall mode in ITER.« less
Liu, Yueqiang; Sabbagh, S. A.; Chapman, I. T.; Gerasimov, S.; Gribov, Y.; Hender, T. C.; Igochine, V.; Maraschek, M.; Matsunaga, G.; Okabayashi, M.; Strait, E. J.
2016-08-12
The high-frequency noise measured by magnetic sensors, at levels above the typical frequency of resistive wall modes, is analyzed across a range of present tokamak devices including DIII-D, JET, MAST, ASDEX Upgrade, JT-60U, and NSTX. A high-pass filter enables identification of the noise component with Gaussian-like statistics that shares certain common characteristics in all devices considered. A conservative prediction is made for ITER plasma operation of the high-frequency noise component of the sensor signals, to be used for resistive wall mode feedback stabilization, based on the multimachine database. The predicted root-mean-square n = 1 (n is the toroidal mode number) noise level is 10^{4} to 10^{5} G/s for the voltage signal, and 0.1 to 1 G for the perturbed magnetic field signal. The lower cutoff frequency of the Gaussian pickup noise scales linearly with the sampling frequency, with a scaling coefficient of about 0.1. As a result, these basic noise characteristics should be useful for the modeling-based design of the feedback control system for the resistive wall mode in ITER.
Arkhipov, Ievgen I.; Peřina Jr., Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria
2016-01-01
Multipartite entanglement and nonclassicality of four-mode Gaussian states generated in two simultaneous nonlinear processes involving parametric down-conversion and frequency up-conversion are analyzed assuming the vacuum as the initial state. Suitable conditions for the generation of highly entangled states are found. Transfer of the entanglement from the down-converted modes into the up-converted ones is also suggested. The analysis of the whole set of states reveals that sub-shot-noise intensity correlations between the equally-populated down-converted modes, as well as the equally-populated up-converted modes, uniquely identify entangled states. They represent a powerful entanglement identifier also in other cases with arbitrarily populated modes. PMID:27658508
Charles Reece, Hui Tian, Michael Kelley, Chen Xu
2012-04-01
Microroughness is viewed as a critical issue for attaining optimum performance of superconducting radio frequency accelerator cavities. The principal surface smoothing methods are buffered chemical polish (BCP) and electropolish (EP). The resulting topography is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power spectral density (PSD) of AFM data provides a more thorough description of the topography than a single-value roughness measurement. In this work, one dimensional average PSD functions derived from topography of BCP and EP with different controlled starting conditions and durations have been fitted with a combination of power law, K correlation, and shifted Gaussian models to extract characteristic parameters at different spatial harmonic scales. While the simplest characterizations of these data are not new, the systematic tracking of scale-specific roughness as a function of processing is new and offers feedback for tighter process prescriptions more knowledgably targeted at beneficial niobium topography for superconducting radio frequency applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kojima, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Omura, Y.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1989-01-01
An ion beam resonates with R-mode waves at a high-frequency RH mode and a low-frequency RL mode. The nonlinear evolution of ion beam-generated RH waves is studied here by one-dimensional hybrid computer experiments. Both wave-particle and subsequent wave-wave interactions are examined. The competing process among coexisting RH and RL mode beam instabilities and repeated decay instabilities triggered by the beam-excited RH mode waves is clarified. It is found that the quenching of the RH instability is not caused by a thermal spreading of the ion beam, but by the nonlinear wave-wave coupling process. The growing RH waves become unstable against the decay instability. This instability involves a backward-traveling RH electromagnetic wave and a forward-traveling longitudinal sound wave. The inverse cascading process is found to occur faster than the growth of the RL mode. Wave spectra decaying from the RH waves weaken as time elapses and the RL mode waves become dominant at the end of the computer experiment.
Chembo, Yanne K; Yu, Nan
2010-08-15
Octave-spanning optical frequency combs are especially interesting in optical metrology owing to the ability of self-referencing. We report a theoretical study on the generation of octave-spanning combs in the whispering gallery modes of a microresonator. Through a modal expansion model simulation in a calcium fluoride microcavity, we show that a combination of suitable pump power, Kerr nonlinearity, and dispersion profile can lead to stable and robust octave-spanning optical frequency combs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Cat, P.; Briquet, M.; Aerts, C.; Goossens, K.; Saesen, S.; Cuypers, J.; Yakut, K.; Scuflaire, R.; Dupret, M.-A.; Uytterhoeven, K.; van Winckel, H.; Raskin, G.; Davignon, G.; Le Guillou, L.; van Malderen, R.; Reyniers, M.; Acke, B.; De Meester, W.; Vanautgaerden, J.; Vandenbussche, B.; Verhoelst, T.; Waelkens, C.; Deroo, P.; Reyniers, K.; Ausseloos, M.; Broeders, E.; Daszyńska-Daszkiewicz, J.; Debosscher, J.; De Ruyter, S.; Lefever, K.; Decin, G.; Kolenberg, K.; Mazumdar, A.; van Kerckhoven, C.; De Ridder, J.; Drummond, R.; Barban, C.; Vanhollebeke, E.; Maas, T.; Decin, L.
2007-02-01
Aims: We selected a large sample of O-B stars that were considered as (candidate) slowly pulsating B, β Cep, and Maia stars after the analysis of their hipparcos data. We analysed our new seven passband geneva data collected for these stars during the first three years of scientific operations of the mercator telescope. We performed a frequency analysis for 28 targets with more than 50 high-quality measurements to improve their variability classification. For the pulsating stars, we tried both to identify the modes and to search for rotationally split modes. Methods: We searched for frequencies in all the geneva passbands and colours by using two independent frequency analysis methods and we applied a 3.6 S/N-level criterion to locate the significant peaks in the periodograms. The modes were identified by applying the method of photometric amplitudes for which we calculated a large, homogeneous grid of equilibrium models to perform a pulsational stability analysis. When both the radius and the projected rotational velocity of an object are known, we determined a lower limit for the rotation frequency to estimate the expected frequency spacings in rotationally split pulsation modes. Results: We detected 61 frequencies, among which 33 are new. We classified 21 objects as pulsating variables (7 new confirmed pulsating stars, including 2 hybrid β Cep/SPB stars), 6 as non-pulsating variables (binaries or spotted stars), and 1 as photometrically constant. All the Maia candidates were reclassified into other variability classes. We performed mode identification for the pulsating variables for the first time. The most probable ℓ value is 0, 1, 2, and 4 for 1, 31, 9, and 5 modes, respectively, including only 4 unambiguous identifications. For 7 stars we cannot rule out that some of the observed frequencies belong to the same rotationally split mode. For 4 targets we may begin to resolve close frequency multiplets. Based on observations collected with the p7 photometer
Ion beam generated modes in the lower hybrid frequency range in a laboratory magnetoplasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Compernolle, Bart; Tripathi, Shreekrishna Kp; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick; Colestock, Patrick
2012-10-01
The interaction of a fast ion beam with a low β plasma has been studied in the laboratory. Experiments were performed at the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. The experiments were done in a Helium plasma (n ˜10^12 cm-3, B0 = 1000 G - 1800 G, fpe/fce˜1 - 5, Te= 0.25 eV, vtevA). The ion beam is a Helium beam with energies ranging from 5 keV to 18 keV. The fast ion velocity is on the order of the Alfv'en velocity. The beam is injected from the end of the machine, and spirals down the linear device. Waves were observed below fci in the shear Alfv'en wave regime, and in a broad spectrum above fci in the lower hybrid frequency range, the focus of this paper. The wave spectra have distinct peaks close to ion cyclotron harmonics, extending out to the 100th harmonic in some cases. The wave generation was studied for various plasma parameters, as well as for different beam energies and pitch angles. The waves were measured with 3-axis electric and magnetic probes. Detailed measurements of the perpendicular mode structure will be shown. Langmuir probes were used to measure density and temperature evolution due to the beam-plasma interaction. Retarding field energy analyzers captured the ion beam profiles.
Ion beam generated modes in the lower hybrid frequency range in a laboratory magnetoplasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Compernolle, Bart; Tripathi, Shreekrishna; Gekelman, Walter; Pribyl, Patrick
2013-10-01
The interaction of a fast ion beam with a low β plasma has been studied in the laboratory. Experiments were performed at the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. The experiments were done in a Helium plasma (n ~=1012cm-3 , B0 = 1000 G - 1800 G, fpe /fce ~= 1 - 5 , Te ~= 4eV , vte <
Theory of relaxation dynamics within carotenoids via high frequency stretching modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balevicius, Vytautas; Abramavicius, Darius
2015-03-01
Carotenoids are ubiquitous natural pigment molecules acting as light harvesters in the blue-green region of the spectrum, and at the same time ensuring the photoprotection against excessive light by quenching the triplet state of chlorophylls and singlet oxygen. However, their photophysics is still not fully understood, because the absorption takes place not into the optically dark lowest excited state S1, but to the short-lived higher-lying state S2. This leads to complicated intramolecular energy redistribution schemes within carotenoids. From the transient absorption experiments it is known that the S1 state is populated shortly after the excitation of the S2 state (on the time-scale of tens of femtoseconds). The corresponding excited state absorption signal is blue-shifting and narrowing at early times, which is attributed to the vibrational cooling of the S1 state. We apply the secular density matrix theory to take into account both the internal conversion from the S2 into the S1 state and the subsequent relaxation within the manifold of high-frequency vibrational states corresponding to the carbon-carbon stretching modes (C-C and C=C). It allows us to obtain relevant pump-probe spectra in the time range from femto- to picoseconds.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cosentino, Alberto; Mondello, Alessia; Sapia, Adalberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Brotini, Mauro; Nava, Enzo; Stucchi, Emanuele; Trespidi, Franco; Mariottini, Cristina; Wazen, Paul; Falletto, Nicolas; Fruit, Michel
2004-06-01
This paper describes the laser transmitter assembly used in the ALADIN instrument currently in C/D development phase for the ESA ADM-AEOLUS mission (EADS Astrium as prime contractor for the satellite and the instrument). The Laser Transmitter Assembly (TXA), based on a diode pumped tripled Nd:YAG laser, is used to generate tunable laser pulses of 150 mJ at a nominal wavelength of 355 nm. This laser is operated in burst mode, with a pulse repetition cycle of 100 Hz. The TXA is composed of the following units: a diode-pumped CW Nd:YAG Laser named Reference Laser Head (RLH), used to inject a diode-pumped, Q-switched, amplified and frequency tripled Nd:YAG Laser working in the third harmonic referred as Power Laser Head (PLH) and a Transmitter Laser Electronics (TLE) containing all the control and power electronics needed for PLH and RLH operation. The TXA is made by an European consortium under the leadership of Galileo Avionica (It), and including CESI (It), Quantel (Fr), TESAT (Ge) and Thales (Fr).
Very low frequency waves stimulated by an electron accelerator in the auroral ionosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holtet, J. A.; Pran, B. K.; Egeland, A.; Grandal, B.; Jacobsen, T. A.; Maehlum, B. N.; Troim, J.
1981-01-01
The sounding rocket, Polar 5, carrying a 10 keV electron accelerator in a mother-daughter configuration and other diagnostic instruments, was launched into a slightly disturbed ionosphere with weak auroral activity on February 1, 1976 from Northern Norway to study VLF wave phenomena. The rocket trajectory crossed two auroral regions: one, between 86 and 111 s flight time, and a secondary region between 230 and 330 s. The daughter, carrying the accelerator, was separated axially from the mother in a forward direction at an altitude of 90 km. The VLF experiment, carried by the mother payload, recorded both electromagnetic and electrostatic waves. The receiving antenna was an electric dipole, 0.3 m tip-to-tip, oriented 90 degrees to the rocket spin axis. The onboard particle detector recorded increased electron fluxes in the two auroral regions. A double peaked structure was observed in the fluxes of 4-5 and 12-27 keV electrons within the northern auroral form. The number density of thermal plasma varied during the flight, with maximum density within the main auroral region. To the north of this aurora a slow, steady decrease in the density was observed, with no enhancement in the region of the second aurora.
High Frequency, High Gradient Dielectric Wakefield Acceleration Experiments at SLAC and BNL
Rosenzweig, James; Travish, Gil; Hogan, Mark; Muggli, Patric; /Southern California U.
2012-07-05
Given the recent success of >GV/m dielectric wakefield accelerator (DWA) breakdown experiments at SLAC, and follow-on coherent Cerenkov radiation production at the UCLA Neptune, a UCLA-USC-SLAC collaboration is now implementing a new set of experiments that explore various DWA scenarios. These experiments are motivated by the opportunities presented by the approval of FACET facility at SLAC, as well as unique pulse-train wakefield drivers at BNL. The SLAC experiments permit further exploration of the multi-GeV/m envelope in DWAs, and will entail investigations of novel materials (e.g. CVD diamond) and geometries (Bragg cylindrical structures, slab-symmetric DWAs), and have an over-riding goal of demonstrating >GeV acceleration in {approx}33 cm DWA tubes. In the nearer term before FACET's commissioning, we are planning measurements at the BNL ATF, in which we drive {approx}50-200 MV/m fields with single pulses or pulse trains. These experiments are of high relevance to enhancing linear collider DWA designs, as they will demonstrate potential for efficient operation with pulse trains.
Accelerator structure work for NLC
Miller, R.H.; Adolphsen, C.; Bane, K.L.F.; Deruyter, H.; Farkas, Z.D.; Hoag, H.A.; Holtkamp, N.; Lavine, T.; Loew, G.A.; Nelson, E.M.; Palmer, R.B.; Paterson, J.M.; Ruth, R.D.; Thompson, K.A.; Vlieks, A.; Wang, J.W.; Wilson, P.B.; Gluckstern, R.; Ko, K.; Kroll, N. |
1992-07-01
The NLC design achieves high luminosity with multiple bunches in each RF pulse. Acceleration of a train of bunches without emittance growth requires control of long range dipole wakefields. SLAC is pursuing a structure design which suppresses the effect of wakefields by varying the physical dimensions of successive cells of the disk-loaded traveling wave structure in a manner which spreads the frequencies of the higher mode while retaining the synchronism between the electrons and the accelerating mode. The wakefields of structures incorporating higher mode detuning have been measured at the Accelerator Test Facility at Argonne. Mechanical design and brazing techniques which avoid getting brazing alloy into the interior of the accelerator are being studied. A test facility for high-power testing of these structures is complete and high power testing has begun.
Higher modes in the coupling cells of coaxial and annular-ring coupled linac structures
Hoffswell, R.A.; Laszewski, R.M.
1983-08-01
Dipole- and quadrupole-like modes in the coupling cells of coaxial and annular-ring coupled structures have been examined up to a frequency of 4 GHz. The quadrupole mode frequencies appear to lie high enough above the frequency of the accelerating mode to make coupling between the two unlikely. In the annular-ring case, however, a dipole mode was found very near the accelerating mode frequency. Evidence is presented which suggests that some power may couple between these two modes in a real cavity.
Jenni, Raoul; Oechslin, Mathias S; James, Clara E
2017-04-24
Processing western tonal music may yield distinct brain responses depending on the mode of the musical compositions. Although subjective feelings in response to major and minor mode are well described, the underlying brain mechanisms and their development with increasing expertise have not been thoroughly examined. Using high-density electroencephalography, the present study investigated neuronal activities in the frequency domain in response to polyphone musical compositions in major and minor mode in non-musicians, amateurs and experts. During active listening decrease of theta- and gamma-frequency range activities occurred with increasing expertise in right posterior regions, possibly reflecting enhanced processing efficiency. Moreover, minor and major compositions distinctively modulated synchronization of neuronal activities in high frequency ranges (beta and gamma) in frontal regions, with increased activity in response to minor compositions in musicians and in experts in particular. These results suggest that high-frequency electroencephalographic (EEG) activities carry information about musical mode, showing gradual increase of processing efficiency and sensitivity with musical expertise.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, A.; Ghatak, A. K.
1981-06-01
A simple numerical method for calculating the cutoff frequency of single-mode operation in optical fibers with an arbitrary index-profile is presented. The method does not involve any approximation other than the scalar approximation and is applicable even to numerical data from index-profile measurements. The calculations are simple and can be carried out even on a programmable calculator.
Chen, Ke; Manning, M L; Yunker, Peter J; Ellenbroek, Wouter G; Zhang, Zexin; Liu, Andrea J; Yodh, A G
2011-09-02
We investigate correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and rearrangements in two-dimensional colloidal glasses composed of thermosensitive microgel particles, which readily permit variation of the sample packing fraction. At each packing fraction, the particle displacement covariance matrix is measured and used to extract the vibrational spectrum of the "shadow" colloidal glass (i.e., the particle network with the same geometry and interactions as the sample colloid but absent damping). Rearrangements are induced by successive, small reductions in the packing fraction. The experimental results suggest that low-frequency quasilocalized phonon modes in colloidal glasses, i.e., modes that present low energy barriers for system rearrangements, are spatially correlated with rearrangements in this thermal system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clayton, Christopher E.
2002-04-01
Among all the advanced accelerator concepts that use lasers as the power source, most of the effort to date has been with the idea of using a laser pulse to excite a accelerating mode in a plasma. Within this area, there are a variety of approaches for creating the accelerating mode, as indicated by the other talks in this session. What is common to these approaches is the physics of how a laser pulse pushes on plasma electrons to organize electron-density perturbations, the sources of the ultra-high (> GeV/M) accelerating gradients. It is the "ponderomotive force", proportional to the local gradient of the of the laser intensity, that pushes plasma electrons forward (on the leading edge of the pulse) and backwards (on the trailing edge) which leads to harmonic motion of the electrons. As the laser pulse moves through the plasma at group velocity Vg c, the oscillating electrons show up macroscopically as a plasma mode or wave with frequency w equal to the plasma frequency and k = w/Vg. For short laser pulses, this is the Laser Wakefield Accelerator (LWFA) concept. Closely related is the Plasma Beat-Wave Acceleration (PBWA) concept. Here, the laser pulse that perturbs the plasma is composed of two closely-spaced frequencies that "beat", i.e., periodically constructively and destructively interfere, forming an electromagnetic beat wave. One can visualize this as a train of short pulses. If this beating frequency is set to the plasma frequency, then each pulse in the train will reinforce the density perturbation caused by the previous pulse. The principal advantage of multiple pulses driving up the plasma wave as opposed to a single pulse is in efficiency, allowing for the production of relatively large diameter (more 1-D like) accelerating modes. In this talk I will discuss past, current and planned PBWA experiments which are taking place at UCLA, RAL in England, and LULI in France.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
LaBelle, J.; McAdams, K. L.; Trimpi, M. L.
High bandwidth electric field waveform measurements on a recent auroral sounding rocket reveal structured whistler mode signals at 400-800 kHz. These are observed intermittently between 300 and 500 km with spectral densities 0-10 dB above the detection threshold of 1.5×10-11V2/m2Hz. The lack of correlation with local particle measurements suggests a remote source. The signals are composed of discrete structures, in one case having bandwidths of about 10 kHz and exhibiting rapid frequency variations of the order of 200 kHz per 100 ms. In one case, emissions near the harmonic of the whistler mode signals are detected simultaneously. Current theories of auroral zone whistler mode emissions have not been applied to explain quantitatively the fine structure of these signals, which resemble auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) rather than auroral hiss.
Effect of magnetic configuration on frequency of NBI-driven Alfvén modes in TJ-II
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Melnikov, A. V.; Ochando, M.; Ascasibar, E.; Castejon, F.; Cappa, A.; Eliseev, L. G.; Hidalgo, C.; Krupnik, L. I.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Liniers, M.; Lysenko, S. E.; de Pablos, J. L.; Perfilov, S. V.; Sharapov, S. E.; Spong, D. A.; Jimenez, J. A.; Ufimtsev, M. V.; Breizman, B. N.; HIBP Group; the TJ-II Team
2014-12-01
Excitation of modes in the Alfvénic frequency range, 30 kHz < fAE < 300 kHz, was observed in hydrogen plasma heated by hydrogen neutral beam injection (NBI) in the TJ-II heliac. Co-field and counter-field NBI were injected, and the components of the poloidal magnetic field were varied one by one and in combinations, in order to investigate the beam-driven modes over an extended range of the rotational transform values, 1.51<\\unicode{7548} (0)<1.67 . Taking advantage of the unique TJ-II capabilities, a dynamic magnetic configuration experiment with \\unicode{7548} (ρ , t) variation during discharges has shown strong effects on the mode frequency via both vacuum \\unicode{7548} changes and induced net plasma current. A drastic frequency increase from ˜50 to ˜250 kHz was observed for some modes when plasma current as low as ±2 kA was induced by small (10%) changes in the vertical field. A comprehensive set of diagnostics including a heavy ion beam probe, magnetic probes and a multi-chord bolometer made it possible to identify the spatial spread of the modes and deduce the internal amplitudes of their plasma density and magnetic field perturbations. A simple analytical model for fAE, based on the local Alfvén eigenmode (AE) dispersion relation, was proposed to characterize the observation. It was shown that all the observations, including vacuum iota and plasma current variations, may be fitted by the model, so the linear mode frequency dependence on \\unicode{7548} (plasma current) and one over square root density dependence present the major features of the NBI-induced AEs in TJ-II, and provide the framework for further experiment-to-theory comparison.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Xuan
This work concerns measurements of parallel ion flow, optical pumping, and low frequency waves in expanding plasmas generated by two different helicon plasma sources. The measurements confirm numerical predictions of the formation of a current-free double layer in a region of diverging magnetic field. With laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), the double layer structure in both helicon plasma sources was investigated through measurements of the bulk parallel ion flow speed. Both double layers have a total potential drop of 3-4 kTe and length scales smaller than ion-neutral mean-free-path. A stronger double layer, with a potential drop of ˜ 6kTe , was created in a uniform magnetic field region with a plasma limiting aperture plate. During the investigations of ion acceleration in expanding plasmas, a new phenomenon, asymmetrical optical pumping (AOP) due to the acceleration of ions in magnetic field gradient, was observed. The signature of AOP is a difference in the LIF emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split ion states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the AOP on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With magnetic fluctuation probes, low frequency, transverse, electromagnetic waves were also identified in the expanding helicon plasma. The wave is localized to the vicinity of the maximum plasma density gradient and appears only at low neutral pressure. Based on the scaling of the wave frequency and amplitude with magnetic field strength, the wave was identified as the resistive drift Alfven wave.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Presas, Alexandre; Valentin, David; Egusquiza, Eduard; Valero, Carme; Seidel, Ulrich
2015-08-01
To avoid resonance problems in rotating turbomachinery components such as impellers, it is of paramount importance to determine the natural frequencies of these parts when they are under operation. Nevertheless, most of these rotating structures are inaccessible and in some cases submerged and confined. To measure the natural frequencies of submerged impellers from the rotating frame is complicated, because sensors have to be well fixed, withstand with large pressure and centrifugal forces. Furthermore, the signals have to be transmitted to the stationary frame. For this reason it may be advantageous to measure the natural frequencies with sensors placed on the casing. In this paper, the analysis of rotating disk-like structures submerged and confined has been performed from the stationary frame. Previously, an analytical model to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the disk from the rotating frame is presented. Once natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained in the rotating frame, the transmission to the stationary frame has been deduced. A rotating disk test rig has been used for the experimental study. It consist of a rotating disk that has been excited from the rotating frame with a piezoelectric patch and it response has been measured from both rotating and stationary frame. Results shows that for rotating submerged structures in heavy fluids such as water, not only the structural modes of the rotating part are different than for rotating structures in air, but also the transmission from the rotating to the stationary frame.
Zhao, Dan
2011-03-01
Perforated liners with a narrow frequency range are widely used as acoustic dampers to stabilize combustion systems. When the frequency of unstable modes present in the combustion system is within the effective frequency range, the liners can efficiently dissipate acoustic waves. The fraction of the incident waves being absorbed (known as power absorption coefficient) is generally used to characterize the liners damping. To estimate it, plane waves either side of the liners need to be decomposed and characterized. For this, a real-time algorithm is developed. Emphasis is being placed on its ability to online decompose plane waves at multiple mode frequencies. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated first in a numerical model with two unstable modes. It is then experimentally implemented in an acoustically driven pipe system with a lined section attached. The acoustic damping of perforated liners is continuously characterized in real-time. Comparison is then made between the results from the algorithm and those from the short-time fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based techniques, which are typically used in industry. It was found that the real-time algorithm allows faster tracking of the liners damping, even when the forcing frequency was suddenly changed.
Gustavsson, B; Leyser, T B; Kosch, M; Rietveld, M T; Steen, A; Brändström, B U E; Aso, T
2006-11-10
Optical emissions and incoherent scatter radar data obtained during high-frequency electromagnetic pumping of the ionospheric plasma from the ground give data on electron energization in an energy range from 2 to 100 eV. Optical emissions at 4278 A from N2+ that require electrons with energies above the 18 eV ionization energy give the first images ever of pump-induced ionization of the thermosphere. The intensity at 4278 A is asymmetric around the ionospheric electron gyroharmonic, being stronger above the gyroresonance. This contrasts with emissions at 6300 A from O(1D) and of electron temperature enhancements, which have minima at the gyroharmonic but have no apparent asymmetry. This direct evidence of pump-induced ionization contradicts previous indirect evidence, which indicated that ionization is most efficiently produced when the pump frequency was below the gyroharmonic.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, K.; Sun, X. Q.; Fu, S. N.; Wu, J.; Hong, X. B.; Shum, Perry; Lin, J. T.
2010-04-01
A photonic approach for microwave/millimeter-wave (MMW) frequency measurement is proposed and demonstrated based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of a 20-km standard single mode fiber (SSMF). After the MMW signal is modulated to a laser source with two sidebands using optical carrier suppression (OCS) modulation, its frequency can be easily measured by monitoring the SBS-induced amplification with a power meter. Due to the 1-pm resolution of a tunable pump laser source, a frequency measurement range of 1-40 GHz is demonstrated in our experiment with a frequency resolution of 125 MHz. We believe the frequency measurement range can be further extended to satisfy photonic radar front-end processing application.
Zhang, Feng; Wang, Houng-Wei; Tominaga, Keisuke; Hayashi, Michitoshi
2015-03-26
This paper presents a theoretical analysis of the low-frequency phonons of L-alanine by using the solid-state density functional theory at the Γ point. We are particularly interested in the intramolecular vibrations accessing low-frequency phonons via harmonic coupling with intermolecular vibrations. A new mode-analysis method is introduced to quantify the vibrational characteristics of such intramolecular vibrations. We find that the torsional motions of COO(-) are involved in low-frequency phonons, although COO(-) is conventionally assumed to undergo localized torsion. We also find the broad distributions of intramolecular vibrations relevant to important functional groups of amino acids, e.g., the COO(-) and NH3(+) torsions, in the low-frequency phonons. The latter finding is illustrated by the concept of frequency distribution of vibrations. These findings may lead to immediate implications in other amino acid systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, R. L.
1975-01-01
The analytical techniques and computer program developed in the fully-coupled rotor vibration study are described. The rotor blade natural frequency and mode shape analysis was implemented in a digital computer program designated DF1758. The program computes collective, cyclic, and scissor modes for a single blade within a specified range of frequency for specified values of rotor RPM and collective angle. The analysis includes effects of blade twist, cg offset from reference axis, and shear center offset from reference axis. Coupled inplane, out-of-plane, and torsional vibrations are considered. Normalized displacements, shear forces and moments may be printed out and Calcomp plots of natural frequencies as a function of rotor RPM may be produced.
Vagia, Marialena
2012-03-01
In the present article, a sliding mode controller is proposed for a micro-cantilever beam (μCB) with fringing and squeezed film damping effects. The narrow micro-cantilever beam can move via the application of an external electrically induced force. The introduction of the squeezed film parameters results in a frequency-dependent nonlinear system. Particular attention, has been paid, in order to approximate the frequency dependent μCB model, with a valid, frequency independent one, that would be incorporated in the design of a robust sliding mode controller. The suggested control technique enables compact realization of a robust controller tolerant in device characteristics' variations, nonlinearities and types of inherent instabilities. Robustness of the proposed control scheme against disturbances is proved by Lyapunov's second method. In addition, bifurcation analysis is carried on the beam's nonlinear model, and numerous simulation test cases are presented in order to test the suggested modeling and control techniques.
Ghizzo, A.; Palermo, F.
2015-08-15
We address the mechanisms underlying low-frequency zonal flow generation in turbulent system and the associated intermittent regime of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) turbulence. This model is in connection with the recent observation of quasi periodic zonal flow oscillation at a frequency close to 2 kHz, at the low-high transition, observed in the ASDEX Upgrade [Conway et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 065001 (2011)] and EAST tokamak [Xu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 107, 125001 (2011)]. Turbulent bursts caused by the coupling of Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) driven shear flows with trapped ion modes (TIMs) were investigated by means of reduced gyrokinetic simulations. It was found that ITG turbulence can be regulated by low-frequency meso-scale zonal flows driven by resonant collisionless trapped ion modes (CTIMs), through parametric-type scattering, a process in competition with the usual KH instability.
Zaka-ul-Islam, M.; Niemi, K.; Gans, T.; O'Connell, D.
2011-07-25
Space and phase resolved optical emission spectroscopic measurements reveal that in certain parameter regimes, inductively coupled radio-frequency driven plasmas exhibit three distinct operation modes. At low powers, the plasma operates as an alpha-mode capacitively coupled plasma driven through the dynamics of the plasma boundary sheath potential in front of the antenna. At high powers, the plasma operates in inductive mode sustained through induced electric fields due to the time varying currents and associated magnetic fields from the antenna. At intermediate powers, close to the often observed capacitive to inductive (E-H) transition regime, energetic electron avalanches are identified to play a significant role in plasma sustainment, similar to gamma-mode capacitively coupled plasmas. These energetic electrons traverse the whole plasma gap, potentially influencing plasma surface interactions as exploited in technological applications.
Abe, H.; Kadoya, Y.
1988-10-01
A two-and-a-half-dimensional electromagnetic particle code PS2M (J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 56, 3899 (1987)) is used to study how an electric field applied perpendicularly to the magnetic field affects the radio frequency stabilization of flute modes in a tandem mirror plasma. The electric field perpendicular to the magnetic field stabilizes or destabilizes the flute mode through the mechanism of the ponderomotive force acting on electrons and ions and through the mechanism of sideband coupling. In the simulations two typical examples have been shown: (i) when the sideband coupling effects (in which the electron terms are dominant) stabilize the flute modes and (ii) when the perpendicular ponderomotive force acting on the electrons destabilizes the flute modes.
Ion beam generated modes in the lower hybrid frequency range in a laboratory magnetoplasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Compernolle, B.; Tripathi, S.; Gekelman, W. N.; Colestock, P. L.; Pribyl, P.
2012-12-01
The generation of waves by ion ring distributions is of great importance in many instances in space plasmas. They occur naturally in the magnetosphere through the interaction with substorms, or they can be man-made in ionospheric experiments by photo-ionization of neutral atoms injected perpendicular to the earth's magnetic field. The interaction of a fast ion beam with a low β plasma has been studied in the laboratory. Experiments were performed at the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. The experiments were done in a Helium plasma (n ≃ 1012 \\ cm-3, B0 = 1000 G - 1800 G, fpe}/f{ce ≃ 1 - 5, Te = 0.25\\ eV, vte ≤ vA). The ion beam \\cite{Tripathi_ionbeam} is a Helium beam with energies ranging from 5 keV to 18 keV. The fast ion velocity is on the order of the Alfvén velocity. The beam is injected from the end of the machine, and spirals down the linear device. Waves were observed below fci in the shear Alfvén wave regime, and in a broad spectrum above fci in the lower hybrid frequency range, the focus of this paper. The wave spectra have distinct peaks close to ion cyclotron harmonics, extending out to the 100th harmonic in some cases. The wave generation was studied for various magnetic fields and background plasma densities, as well as for different beam energies and pitch angles. The waves were measured with 3-axis electric and magnetic probes. Detailed measurements of the perpendicular mode structure will be shown. Langmuir probes were used to measure density and temperature evolution due to the beam-plasma interaction. Retarding field energy analyzers captured the ion beam profiles. The work was performed at the LArge Plasma Device at the Basic Plasma Science Facility (BaPSF) at UCLA, funded by DOE/NSF.
Raghukumar, Kaustubha; Colosi, John A
2014-07-01
Using transport theory and Monte Carlo numerical simulation, the statistical properties of mode propagation at a frequency of 1 kHz are studied in a shallow water environment with random sound-speed perturbations from linear internal waves. The environment is typical of summer conditions in the mid-Atlantic bight during the Shallow Water 2006 experiment. Observables of interest include the second and fourth moments of the mode amplitudes, which are relevant to full-field mean intensity and scintillation index. It is found that mode phase randomization has a strong adiabatic component while at the same time mode coupling rates are significant. As a consequence, a computationally efficient transport theory is presented, which models cross-mode correlation adiabatically, but accounts for mode coupling using the mode energy equations of Creamer [(1996). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 2825-2838]. The theory also has closed-form expressions for the internal wave scattering matrix and a correction for an edge effect. The hybrid transport theory is shown to accurately reproduce many statistical quantities from the Monte Carlo simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bakala, P.; Goluchová, K.; Török, G.; Šrámková, E.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Vincent, F. H.; Mazur, G. P.
2015-09-01
Context. High-frequency (millisecond) quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) are observed in the X-ray power-density spectra of several microquasars and low-mass X-ray binaries. Two distinct QPO peaks, so-called twin peak QPOs, are often detected simultaneously exhibiting their frequency ratio close or equal to 3:2. A widely discussed class of proposed QPOs models is based on oscillations of accretion toroidal structures orbiting in the close vicinity of black holes or neutron stars. Aims: Following the analytic theory and previous studies of observable spectral signatures, we aim to model the twin peak QPOs as a spectral imprint of specific dual oscillation regime defined by a combination of the lowest radial and vertical oscillation mode of slender tori. We consider the model of an optically thick slender accretion torus with constant specific angular momentum. We examined power spectra and fluorescent Kα iron line profiles for two different simulation setups with the mode frequency relations corresponding to the epicyclic resonance HF QPOs model and modified relativistic precession QPOs model. Methods: We used relativistic ray-tracing implemented in the parallel simulation code LSDplus. In the background of the Kerr spacetime geometry, we analyzed the influence of the distant observer inclination and the spin of the central compact object. Relativistic optical projection of the oscillating slender torus is illustrated by images in false colours related to the frequency shift. Results: We show that performed simulations yield power spectra with the pair of dominant peaks that correspond to the frequencies of radial and vertical oscillation modes and with the peak frequency ratio equal to the proper value 3:2 on a wide range of inclinations and spin values. We also discuss exceptional cases of a very low and very high inclination, as well as unstable high spin relativistic precession-like configurations that predict a constant frequency ratio equal to 1:2. We
Frequency Shift of Polar Whispering Gallery Modes Caused by Uniaxial Stress
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, H.-P.; Schmitzer, H.; Lutti, J.; Borri, P.; Langbein, W.
2010-03-01
Optical whispering gallery modes in small spheres -so called microcavity optical resonators- have been investigated in the past years because they are promising as single virus or single bacterium detectors and as pressure sensors for microfluidic applications. Due to high Q-factors whispering gallery modes are very sensitive to changes of the shape and the refractive index of the sphere. Both can be caused by mechanical stress. A small exerted compressive force will therefore lead to an energy shift of the resonant modes. The relationship between this energy shift and the exerted force depends on the geometry of the experimental setup. We investigated the energy shift of polar modes in polystyrene beads of 45 micron diameter applying an uniaxial force. With increasing force we find a shift to higher energy for resonator modes with different mode order n and number l. The observed results will be compared with model calculations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, R.; Filippetto, D.; Papadopoulos, C. F.; Qian, H.; Sannibale, F.; Zolotorev, M.
2015-01-01
We report on measurements and analysis of a field-emitted electron current in the very-high-frequency (VHF) gun, a room temperature rf gun operating at high field and continuous wave (CW) mode at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The VHF gun is the core of the Advanced Photo-injector Experiment (APEX) at LBNL, geared toward the development of an injector for driving the next generation of high average power x-ray free electron lasers. High accelerating fields at the cathode are necessary for the high-brightness performance of an electron gun. When coupled with CW operation, such fields can generate a significant amount of field-emitted electrons that can be transported downstream the accelerator forming the so-called "dark current." Elevated levels of a dark current can cause radiation damage, increase the heat load in the downstream cryogenic systems, and ultimately limit the overall performance and reliability of the facility. We performed systematic measurements that allowed us to characterize the field emission from the VHF gun, determine the location of the main emitters, and define an effective strategy to reduce and control the level of dark current at APEX. Furthermore, the energy spectra of isolated sources have been measured. A simple model for energy data analysis was developed that allows one to extract information on the emitter from a single energy distribution measurement.
Zhang Pei; Baboi, Nicoleta; Jones, Roger M.; Shinton, Ian R. R.; Flisgen, Thomas; Glock, Hans-Walter
2012-08-15
We investigate the feasibility of beam position diagnostics using higher order mode (HOM) signals excited by an electron beam in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, three modal choices have been narrowed down to fulfill different diagnostics requirements. These are localized dipole beam-pipe modes, trapped cavity modes from the fifth dipole band, and propagating modes from the first two dipole bands. These modes are treated with various data analysis techniques: modal identification, direct linear regression (DLR), and singular value decomposition (SVD). Promising options for beam diagnostics are found from all three modal choices. This constitutes the first prediction, subsequently confirmed by experiments, of trapped HOMs in third harmonic cavities, and also the first direct comparison of DLR and SVD in the analysis of HOM-based beam diagnostics.
Zhang, Pei; Baboi, Nicoleta; Jones, Roger M; Shinton, Ian R R; Flisgen, Thomas; Glock, Hans-Walter
2012-08-01
We investigate the feasibility of beam position diagnostics using higher order mode (HOM) signals excited by an electron beam in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH. After careful theoretical and experimental assessment of the HOM spectrum, three modal choices have been narrowed down to fulfill different diagnostics requirements. These are localized dipole beam-pipe modes, trapped cavity modes from the fifth dipole band, and propagating modes from the first two dipole bands. These modes are treated with various data analysis techniques: modal identification, direct linear regression (DLR), and singular value decomposition (SVD). Promising options for beam diagnostics are found from all three modal choices. This constitutes the first prediction, subsequently confirmed by experiments, of trapped HOMs in third harmonic cavities, and also the first direct comparison of DLR and SVD in the analysis of HOM-based beam diagnostics.
Nguyen, C.; Garbet, X.; Smolyakov, A. I.
2008-11-15
In the present paper, we compare two modes with frequencies belonging to the acoustic frequency range: the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) and the Beta Alfven eigenmode (BAE). For this, a variational gyrokinetic energy principle coupled to a Fourier sidebands expansion is developed. High order finite Larmor radius and finite orbit width effects are kept. Their impact on the mode structures and on the Alfven spectrum is calculated and discussed. We show that in a local analysis, the degeneracy of the electrostatic GAM and the BAE dispersion relations is verified to a high order and based in particular on a local poloidal symmetry of the two modes. When a more global point of view is taken, and the full radial structures of the modes are computed, differences appear. The BAE structure is shown to have an enforced localization, and to possibly connect to a large magnetohydrodynamic structure. On the contrary, the GAM is seen to have a wavelike, nonlocalized structure, as long as standard slowly varying monotonic profiles are considered.
Ardhuin, Fabrice; Lavanant, Thibaut; Obrebski, Mathias; Marié, Louis; Royer, Jean-Yves; d'Eu, Jean-François; Howe, Bruce M; Lukas, Roger; Aucan, Jerome
2013-10-01
The generation of ultra-low frequency acoustic noise (0.1 to 1 Hz) by the nonlinear interaction of ocean surface gravity waves is well established. More controversial are the quantitative theories that attempt to predict the recorded noise levels and their variability. Here a single theoretical framework is used to predict the noise level associated with propagating pseudo-Rayleigh modes and evanescent acoustic-gravity modes. The latter are dominant only within 200 m from the sea surface, in shallow or deep water. At depths larger than 500 m, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and the Kerguelen islands reveal: (a) Deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, in which the presence of the ocean bottom amplifies the noise by 10 to 20 dB; (b) in agreement with previous results, the local maxima in the noise spectrum support the theoretical prediction for the vertical structure of acoustic modes; and (c) noise level and variability are well predicted for frequencies up to 0.4 Hz. Above 0.6 Hz, the model results are less accurate, probably due to the poor estimation of the directional properties of wind-waves with frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz.
Wu, Ping; Deng, Yuqun; Fan, Juping; Teng, Yan; Shi, Yanchao; Sun, Jun
2014-10-15
This paper presents an efficient approach to realizing the frequency tunability of a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) over three frequency bands by mode transition without changing the slow wave structure (SWS). It is figured out that the transition of the operation mode in the RBWO can be efficiently achieved by using the strong end reflection of the SWS. This mode transition results in the tunability of the RBWO over three frequency bands at high power and high efficiency without changing the SWS. In numerical simulation, the output frequency of the RBWO can jump over 7.9 GHz in C-band, 9.9 GHz in X-band, and 12.4 GHz in Ku-band with output power exceeding 3.0 GW and conversion efficiency higher than 35% by just reasonably transforming the structures of the front and post resonant reflectors which provide the strong end reflection for the SWS.
Frequency-stabilization of mode-locked laser-based photonic microwave oscillator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yu, Nan; Tu, Meirong; Salik, Ertan; Maleki, Lute
2005-01-01
In this paper, we will describe our recent phase-noise measurements of photonic microwave oscillators. We will aslo discuss our investigation of the frequency stability link between the optical and microwave frequencies in the coupled oscillator.
Cheng, H. C. Wu, Q. Y.; Pan, C. H.; Lee, C. P.; Lin, G.
2013-11-18
Passively mode-locked quantum dot lasers with a grating-coupled external cavity arrangement are investigated. A broad repetition-rate tuning range of fundamental mode-locking from 2 GHz to a record-low frequency of 79.3 MHz is achieved with selecting the wavelength at 1.28 μm. A narrow RF linewidth of ∼25 Hz and an intrinsic linewidth as low as 0.15 Hz are also obtained.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, X. Y.; Hu, J. T.; Liu, J. H.; Xiong, Z. L.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P.; Shi, J. J.
2012-07-01
The discharge mode transition from uniform plasma across the gas gap to the α mode happens at the rising phase of the pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma (PRF CCP). This transition is attributed to the fast increasing stochastic heating at the edge of sheath. In the second stage with the stable current and voltage amplitude, the consistency between experimental and numerical spatial-temporal 777 nm emission profile suggests that He* and He2* dominate the production of O(5p1) through dissociation and excitation of O2. Finally, the sterilization efficiency of PRF CCP is found to be higher than that of plasma jet.
2007-11-01
weighting delf (n,1)=sqrt((f_ana(n)-f_exp(n))^2/f_exp(n)^2); % del freq end % % J_all=ones(1,nmode)* delf ; % without mode shape weighting...J_all=mac’* delf ; % with mode shape weighting % %-------------------------------------------------------------------------- % convergence history
O-X mode conversion in a non-symmetric torus at electron cyclotron frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weitzner, Harold
2017-02-01
Previous work on this topic, [Weitzner, Phys. Plasmas 11, 866 (2004)], applicable in a system with toroidal symmetry, is extended to the case of a non-symmetric background equilibrium state. Maxwell's equations with the cold plasma dielectric tensor are used to represent the plasma-electromagnetic wave interaction. Away from the mode conversion region, geometrical optics adequately characterizes the wave propagation. A new, simpler derivation of the wave equations in the mode conversion region is given. Aside from one very special case in which a general plasma equilibrium behaves like a stratified medium, the previous results apply and highly effective mode conversion is found. The matching of the mode conversion solution to the geometrical optics solution, not previously examined, is discussed. A relatively weak condition on the perpendicular wave number near the resonance layer is found. Provided that the perpendicular wave number is small, it tends to zero at the mode conversion layer and the solutions match effectively.
Raghukumar, Kaustubha; Colosi, John A
2015-05-01
In an earlier article, the statistical properties of mode propagation were studied at a frequency of 1 kHz in a shallow water environment with random sound-speed perturbations from linear internal waves, using a hybrid transport theory and Monte Carlo numerical simulations. Here, the analysis is extended to include the effects of random linear surface waves, in isolation and in combination with internal waves. Mode coupling rates for both surface and internal waves are found to be significant, but strongly dependent on mode number. Mode phase randomization by surface waves is found to be dominated by coupling effects, and therefore a full transport theory treatment of the range evolution of the cross mode coherence matrix is needed. The second-moment of mode amplitudes is calculated using transport theory, thereby providing the mean intensity while the fourth-moment is calculated using Monte Carlo simulations, which provides the scintillation index. The transport theory results for second-moment statistics are shown to closely reproduce Monte Carlo simulations. Both surface waves and internal waves strongly influence the acoustic field fluctuations.
Hui Tian, Guilhem Ribeill, Chen Xu, Charles E. Reece, Michael J. Kelley
2011-03-01
As superconducting niobium radio-frequency (SRF) cavities approach fundamental material limits, there is increased interest in understanding the details of topographical influences on realized performance limitations. Micro- and nano-roughness are implicated in both direct geometrical field enhancements as well as complications of the composition of the 50 nm surface layer in which the super-currents typically flow. Interior surface chemical treatments such as buffered chemical polishing (BCP) and electropolishing (EP) used to remove mechanical damage leave surface topography, including pits and protrusions of varying sharpness. These may promote RF magnetic field entry, locally quenching superconductivity, so as to degrade cavity performance. A more incisive analysis of surface topography than the widely used average roughness is needed. In this study, a power spectral density (PSD) approach based on Fourier analysis of surface topography data acquired by both stylus profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) is introduced to distinguish the scale-dependent smoothing effects, resulting in a novel qualitative and quantitative description of Nb surface topography. The topographical evolution of the Nb surface as a function of different steps of well-controlled EP is discussed. This study will greatly help to identify optimum EP parameter sets for controlled and reproducible surface levelling of Nb for cavity production.
Radio frequency pulse compression experiments at SLAC (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center)
Farkas, Z.D.; Lavine, T.L.; Menegat, A.; Miller, R.H.; Nantista, C.; Spalek, G.; Wilson, P.B.
1991-01-01
Proposed future positron-electron linear colliders would be capable of investigating fundamental processes of interest in the 0.5--5 TeV beam-energy range. At the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) gradient of about 20 MV/m this would imply prohibitive lengths of about 50--250 kilometers per linac. We can reduce the length by increasing the gradient but this implies high peak power, on the order of 400-- to 1000-MW at X-Band. One possible way to generate high peak power is to generate a relatively long pulse at a relatively low power and compress it into a short pulse with higher peak power. It is possible to compress before DC to RF conversion, as is done using magnetic switching for induction linacs, or after DC to RF conversion, as is done for the SLC. Using RF pulse compression it is possible to boost the 50-- to 100-MW output that has already been obtained from high-power X-Band klystrons the levels required by the linear colliders. In this note only radio frequency pulse compression (RFPC) is considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozdur, Ibrahim; Ozharar, Sarper; Delfyett, Peter J.
2014-10-01
A regeneratively mode-locked laser with simultaneous low noise radio frequency (RF) tone and optical comb generation is presented. The laser does not need any external RF signal and emits a pulse train at ˜10 GHz repetition rate with a 1.5-ps optical pulse width after compression. The generated RF tone has a signal-to-noise ratio of 121 dB/Hz and an RF fluctuation of 10-9 over 0.1 s. The optical frequency comb spacing is also at ˜10 GHz and the optical comb tooth has a linewidth of <1 kHz.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lorenzo, C. F.
1974-01-01
Tests were conducted to determine the dynamic characteristics of the Centaur/RL-10 oxygen and hydrogen feedlines. The fundamental-mode resonant frequencies were determined by applying power spectral methods to noise-generated data from hot firings of the RL-10 engine. The effect of net positive suction pressure of the main feed pumps on resonant frequency characteristics was determined to be a straight-line relation. Power spectral methods were also used to determine the dynamic characteristics of the boost pumps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, F.; Pan, L.; Watanabe, M.
2005-05-01
The two-way interaction between synoptic eddy and low-frequency flow (SELF), which we will refer to as the SELF interaction, has been recognized for decades to play an important role in the dynamics of the low-frequency variability of the atmospheric circulation. We propose a new framework for studying the dynamics of the SELF interaction and the low-frequency variability in a stormy background flow. By considering a Gaussian flow as a surrogate for the stormy background flow, we expand the traditional climatological basic flow to a synthetic stochastic basic flow. Its ensemble mean is the observed climatological mean flow while its prescribed variance/covariance fields represent the climatological variance/covariance fields of the observed synoptic eddies. Low-frequency anomalies in the traditional month-to-seasonal mean flow and in the variance/covariance fields of the transient eddy flow are viewed as equivalent to the anomalies in the first and second moments of the quasi-stationary stochastic flow ensemble. The linear dynamics of SELF interaction are described by the coupling among the anomalies in first and second moments. Under the assumption that slow changes in the second moments are in quasi-equilibrium with the anomalies in the first moment, an analytical non-local dynamical closure for SELF interaction is obtained. Using this framework, we show that leading low-frequency modes earn their dominance because they can effective organizing the turbulent synoptic flow such that they get reinforced by positive SELF interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefan, V. Alexander
2011-04-01
Stimulated Raman scattering in the electron cyclotron frequency range of the X-Mode and O-Mode driver with the ITER plasma leads to the ``tail heating'' via the generation of suprathermal electrons and energetic ions. The scattering off Trivelpiece-Gould (T-G) modes is studied for the gyrotron frequency of 170GHz; X-Mode and O-Mode power of 24 MW CW; on-axis B-field of 10T. The synergy between the two-plasmon decay and Raman scattering is analyzed in reference to the bulk plasma heating. Supported in part by Nikola TESLA Labs, La Jolla, CA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdelazim, Abdelrahman; Mein, Stephen J.; Varley, Martin R.; Ait-Boudaoud, Djamel
2011-07-01
The H.264 video coding standard achieves high performance compression and image quality at the expense of increased encoding complexity. Consequently, several fast mode decision and motion estimation techniques have been developed to reduce the computational cost. These approaches successfully reduce the computational time by reducing the image quality and/or increasing the bitrate. In this paper we propose a novel fast mode decision and motion estimation technique. The algorithm utilizes preprocessing frequency domain motion estimation in order to accurately predict the best mode and the search range. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly reduces the motion estimation time by up to 97%, while maintaining similar rate distortion performance when compared to the Joint Model software.
Experiment-theory comparison for low frequency BAE modes in the strongly shaped H-1NF stellarator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haskey, S. R.; Blackwell, B. D.; Nührenberg, C.; Könies, A.; Bertram, J.; Michael, C.; Hole, M. J.; Howard, J.
2015-09-01
Recent advances in the modeling, analysis, and measurement of fluctuations have significantly improved the diagnosis and understanding of Alfvén eigenmodes in the strongly shaped H-1NF helical axis stellarator. Experimental measurements, including 3D tomographic inversions of high resolution visible light images, are in close agreement with beta-induced Alfvén eigenmodes (BAEs) calculated using the compressible ideal MHD code, CAS3D. This is despite the low β in H-1NF, providing experimental evidence that these modes can exist due to compression that is induced by the strong shaping in stellarators, in addition to high β, as is the case in tokamaks. This is confirmed using the CONTI and CAS3D codes, which show significant gap structures at lower frequencies which contain BAE and beta-acoustic Alfvén eigenmodes (BAAEs). The BAEs are excited in the absence of a well confined energetic particle source, further confirming previous studies that thermal particles, electrons, or even radiation fluctuations can drive these modes. Datamining of magnetic probe data shows the experimentally measured frequency of these modes has a clear dependence on the rotational transform profile, which is consistent with a frequency dependency due to postulated confinement related temperature variations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weng, Yi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi
2016-02-01
Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission systems utilizing few-mode fibers (FMF) have been intensively explored to sustain continuous traffic growth. The key challenges of MDM systems are inter-modal crosstalk due to random mode coupling (RMC), and largely-accumulated differential mode group delay (DMGD), whilst hinders mode-demultiplexer implementation. The adaptive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) frequency-domain equalization (FDE) can dynamically compensate DMGD using digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. The frequency-domain least-mean squares (FD-LMS) algorithm has been universally adopted for high-speed MDM communications, mainly for its relatively low computational complexity. However, longer training sequence is appended for FD-LMS to achieve faster convergence, which incurs prohibitively higher system overhead and reduces overall throughput. In this paper, we propose a fast-convergent single-stage adaptive frequency-domain recursive least-squares (FD-RLS) algorithm with reduced complexity for DMGD compensation at MDM coherent receivers. The performance and complexity comparison of FD-RLS, with signal-PSD-dependent FD-LMS method and conventional FD-LMS approach, are performed in a 3000 km six-mode transmission system with 65 ps/km DMGD. We explore the convergence speed of three adaptive algorithms, including the normalized mean-square-error (NMSE) per fast Fourier transform (FFT) block at 14-30 dB OSNR. The fast convergence of FD-RLS is exploited at the expense of slightly-increased necessary tap numbers for MIMO equalizers, and it can partially save the overhead of training sequence. Furthermore, we demonstrate adaptive FD-RLS can also be used for chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation without increasing the filter tap length, thus prominently reducing the DSP implementation complexity for MDM systems.
Renormalization of the diffusion tensor for high-frequency, electromagnetic modes
Litwin, C.; Sudan, R.N.
1987-08-01
The resonance broadening theory is used to derive the diffusion tensor for resonant particles in a spectrum of electromagnetic modes propagating parallel to the magnetic field. The magnetic trapping limit for saturation of wave amplitudes is discussed.
Farnesi, Daniele; Righini, Giancarlo; Nunzi Conti, Gualtiero; Soria, Silvia
2017-01-01
We report on nonlinear optical effects on phoxonic cavities based on hollow whispering gallery mode resonators pumped with a continuous wave laser. We observed stimulated scattering effects such as Brillouin and Raman, Kerr effects such as degenerated and non-degenerated four wave mixing, and dispersive wave generation. These effects happened concomitantly. Hollow resonators give rise to a very rich nonlinear scenario due to the coexistence of several family modes. PMID:28266641
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Degroote, P.; Aerts, C.; Michel, E.; Briquet, M.; Pápics, P. I.; Amado, P.; Mathias, P.; Poretti, E.; Rainer, M.; Lombaert, R.; Hillen, M.; Morel, T.; Auvergne, M.; Baglin, A.; Baudin, F.; Catala, C.; Samadi, R.
2012-06-01
Context. B-type stars are promising targets for asteroseismic modelling, since their frequency spectrum is relatively simple. Aims: We deduce and summarise observational constraints for the hybrid pulsator, HD 50230, earlier reported to have deviations from a uniform period spacing of its gravity modes. The combination of spectra and a high-quality light curve measured by the CoRoT satellite allow a combined approach to fix the position of HD 50230 in the HR diagram. Methods: To describe the observed pulsations, classical Fourier analysis was combined with short-time Fourier transformations and frequency spacing analysis techniques. Visual spectra were used to constrain the projected rotation rate of the star and the fundamental parameters of the target. In a first approximation, the combined information was used to interpret multiplets and spacings to infer the true surface rotation rate and a rough estimate of the inclination angle. Results: We identify HD 50230 as a spectroscopic binary and characterise the two components. We detect the simultaneous presence of high-order g modes and low-order p and g-modes in the CoRoT light curve, but were unable to link them to line profile variations in the spectroscopic time series. We extract the relevant information from the frequency spectrum, which can be used for seismic modelling, and explore possible interpretations of the pressure mode spectrum. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. Based on observations made with the ESO telescopes at La Silla Observatory under the ESO Large Programme LP182.D-0356, and on observations made with the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and on observations obtained with the HERMES
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nan, Qi; Fan, Chen; Lingwei, Zhang; Xiaoman, Wang; Baoyong, Chi
2013-09-01
A reconfigurable multi-mode direct-conversion transmitter (TX) with integrated frequency synthesizer (FS) is presented. The TX as well as the FS is designed with a flexible architecture and frequency plan, which helps to support all the 433/868/915 MHz ISM band signals, with the reconfigurable bandwidth from 250 kHz to 2 MHz. In order to save power and chip area, only one 1.8 GHz VCO is adopted to cover the whole frequency range. All the operation modes can be regulated in real time by configuring the integrated register-bank through an SPI interface. Implemented in 180 nm CMOS, the FS achieves a frequency coverage of 320-460 MHz and 620-920 MHz. The lowest phase noise can be -107 dBc/Hz at a 100 kHz offset and -126 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset. The transmitter features a + 10.2 dBm peak output power with a +9.5 dBm 1-dB-compression point and 250 kHz/500 kHz/1 MHz/2 MHz reconfigurable signal bandwidth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jung Yeol; Verboncoeur, John; Lee, Hae June
2016-09-01
Over the past twenty years, micro plasma technology including dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) brought great enhancement of stable and high density plasma sources in atmospheric pressure environment. However, the experimental diagnostics are difficult to use in atmospheric pressure micro plasmas, and thus the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is a good tool to investigate the nonlinear and kinetic effects of the plasma dynamics. In this study, PIC simulation results show that time-dependent parameters compare well with theoretical estimates like energy diffusion theory in the RF frequency ranges up to 500 MHz in atmospheric pressure plasmas for a set of controllable input parameters. Here, alpha-gamma heating mode transition is observed when the driving frequency matches the maximum of energy relaxation frequency by electron impact excitation. The inflection point in a semi-log scaled electron energy probability function (EEPF) is also explained by energy diffusion theory, which corresponds to a transition point of heating mode. Moreover, it was found that extra results in low gas pressure have the same solution at lower input frequency. For this reason, temporal differential term generates non-stationary EEPF in a specific energy range in Boltzmann kinetics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pires, Carlos; Perdigão, Rui
2013-04-01
We assess the Shannon multivariate mutual information (MI) and interaction information (IT), either on a simultaneous or on a time-lagged (up to 3 months) basis, between low-frequency modes of an atmospheric, T63, 3-level, perpetual winter forced, quasi-geostrophic model. For that purpose, Principal Components (PCs) of the spherical-harmonic components of the monthly-mean stream-functions are used. Every single PC time-series (of 1000 years length) is subjected to a prior Gaussian anamorphosis before computing MI and IT. That allows for unambiguously decomposing MI into the positive Gaussian (depending on the Gaussian correlation) and the non-Gaussian MI terms. We use a kernel-based MI estimator. Since marginal Gaussian PDFs are imposed, that makes MI estimation very robust even when using short data. Statistically significant non-Gaussian bivariate MI appears between the variance-dominating PC-pairs of larger space and time-scales with evidence in the bivariate PDF of the mixing of PDFs centered at different weather regimes. The corresponding residual Gaussian MI is due to PCs being uncorrelated and to the weak non-Gaussianity of monthly-based PCs. The Gaussianized PCs in the tail's variance spectrum (of faster variability) do not much differ from Gaussian independent white noises. Trivariate MI I(A,B,C) (also known as total correlation) is computed among simultaneous and time-lagged PCs: A,B,C as well as the interaction information: IT(A,B,C)=I(A,B|C)-I(A,B)=I(A,C|B)-I(A,C)=I(B,C|A)-I(B,C) along with their Gaussian and non-Gaussian counterparts where conditional MI is used. The corresponding non-Gaussian term allows for quantifying nonlinear predictability and causality. For example, we find interactive variable triads of positive non-Gaussian IT where A=X(t+tau), B=Y(t+tau), C=Z(t) where t is time, tau is time-lag and X,Y,Z are arbitrary PCs. Typically it works when X,Y are nearly independent while Z(t) is a mediator variable taking the role of a precursor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Upadhyay, Ganesh; Devi, Th. Gomti; Singh, Ranjan K.; Singh, A.; Alapati, P. R.
2013-05-01
The isotropic and anisotropic Raman peak frequencies of Sdbnd O stretching mode of Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) have been discussed in different chemical and isotopic solvent molecules using different mechanisms. The shifting of peak frequency in further dilution of DMSO with solvent molecule is observed for all solvents. Transition dipole - transition dipole interaction and hydrogen bonding may play a major role in shifting of peak frequencies. The non-coincidence effect (NCE) of DMSO was determined for all the solvents and compared with four theoretical models such as McHale's model, Mirone's modification of McHale's model, Logan's model and Onsager-Fröhlich dielectric continuum model respectively. Most of the theoretical models are largely consistent with our experimental data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sérazin, Guillaume; Penduff, Thierry; Terray, Laurent; Grégorio, Sandy; Barnier, Bernard; Molines, Jean-Marc
2015-04-01
Ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes are particularly strong in Western Boundary Current (WBC) regions where SST front variations influence basin-scale climate variability. Observed low-frequency fluctuations in latitude and strength of these oceanic jets are classically thought to be essentially atmospherically-driven by wind stress curl variability via the oceanic Rossby wave adjustment. Yet academic eddy-resolving process-oriented models with double-gyre configurations have revealed that an idealized WBC may exhibit low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations without low-frequency external forcing (e.g. Berloff et al., 2007, Dijkstra and Ghil, 2005, etc). Experiments with eddying Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs) have also shown that the amount of low-frequency Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) variability is largely intrinsic in WBCs (Penduff et al. 2011; Sérazin et al 2014) and that the frontal-scale (<10°) pattern of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) variability is similar to intrinsic modes (Taguchi et al. 2010). Based on a pair of atmospherically-forced 1/12° OGCM experiments that simulate with accuracy either the intrinsic variability (seasonally-forced) or the observed total variability (forced with the full range of atmospheric timescales), Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis is performed on zonally-averaged SLA fields of four main WBCs (e.g. Gulf Stream, Kuroshio Extension, Agulhas Current and East Australian Current). The first two modes of the KE and GS exhibit a similar spatial structure that is shaped by oceanic intrinsic processes. The frequency content is however different between the intrinsic and total Principal Components, the former containing a wide range of timescales similar to a red noise and the latter being more autocorrelated at interannual-to-decadal timescales. These modes are compared with those obtained from the 20 years of altimetry observation and relationships with low-frequency westward propagative features in the respective oceanic basin are
High frequency electromagnetic modes in a weakly magnetized relativistic electron plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbas, Gohar; Murtaza, G.; Kingham, R. J.
2010-07-01
Using the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell model, the polarization tensor for a weakly magnetized electron plasma is derived. For isotropic relativistic Maxwellian velocity distribution function, dispersion relations are obtained for both parallel and perpendicular propagations. The integrals (called Meijer G functions) that arise due to relativistic effects are examined in various limits and dispersion relations are derived for the nonrelativistic, weakly, strongly, and ultrarelativistic Maxwellian velocity distributions. It is generally observed that the propagation domains of the modes are enlarged as one proceeds from the nonrelativistic to the highly relativistic regime. Resultantly, due to the relativistic effects, the Whistler mode is suppressed in the R-wave, the nonpropagation band of X-mode is reduced, and the X-mode itself approaches the O-mode. Further, the results derived in the ultra- and nonrelativistic limits found to be in agreement with the earlier calculations [G. Abbas et al. Phys. Scr. 76, 649 (2007); F. F. Chen, Introduction to Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Plenum, New York, 1984), Vol. 1].
Xu, Tianhong; Cao, Juncheng; Montrosset, Ivo
2015-01-01
The dynamical regimes and performance optimization of quantum dot monolithic passively mode-locked lasers with extremely low repetition rate are investigated using the numerical method. A modified multisection delayed differential equation model is proposed to accomplish simulations of both two-section and three-section passively mode-locked lasers with long cavity. According to the numerical simulations, it is shown that fundamental and harmonic mode-locking regimes can be multistable over a wide current range. These dynamic regimes are studied, and the reasons for their existence are explained. In addition, we demonstrate that fundamental pulses with higher peak power can be achieved when the laser is designed to work in a region with smaller differential gain.
O-X mode conversion in a non-symmetric torus at electron cyclotron frequencies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weitzner, Harold
2016-10-01
Earlier work on linear wave propagation over a symmetric background state, is simplified and extended to non-symmetric equilibria. With the exception of one special case, which reduces to the case of a perpendicularly stratified medium, it is shown that mode conversion in symmetric or non-symmetric equilibria satisfies the same set of equations. An examination of the coupling of the geometrical ray optics solution to the mode conversion system provides a relatively simple and physical characterization of the incoming wave structure necessary to achieve effective mode conversion. Part of the work was done while visiting the Max=Planck-Insititute-for Plasmaphysics, Greifswald , Germany. its support is gratefully acknowledged. DE-FG-86ER53223.
X-mode HF Pump-induced Phenomena at High Heater Frequencies in the High Latitude Ionosphere F-region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blagoveshchenskaya, N. F.; Borisova, T. D.; Kalishin, A. S.; Yeoman, T. K.; Häggström, I.
2015-12-01
Experimental results concentrating on X-mode HF-induced phenomena in the high latitude ionosphere F region are discussed. Experiments have been carried out at the HF Heating facility at Tromsø with an effective radiated power of 450 - 650 MW at high heater frequencies of 6.2 - 8.0 MHz. Multi-instriment diagnostics included the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT) UHF radar at 931 MHz at Tromsø, the Finland CUTLASS (Co-operative UK Twin Located Auroral Sounding System) radar, the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) equipment at Tromsø, and the HF receiver near St. Petersburg for the observations of narrow band SEE features. The key parameter considered is the ratio between the heater frequency and critical frequency of the F2 layer (fH/foF2). We have analyzed the behaviors of small-scale artificial field-aligned irregularities (FAIs) and HF-enhanced plasma and ion lines (HFPLs and HFILs) depending on the pump proximity to the critical frequency. It was shown that the HFPLs and HFILs coexisted with FAIs throughout the whole heater pulse when fH/foF2 > 1 as well as fH/foF2 ≤ 1. It is indicative that parametric decay instability was not quenched by fully developed FAIs. The comparison between contrasting O/X mode HF-induced phenomena, when the heater frequency is below or near the critical frequency of F2 layer, is made. It was found that an X-mode HF pumping is able to excite different narrow band spectral components in the SEE spectra (within 1 kHz of pump frequency), such as ion acoustic, electrostatic ion cyclotron, and electrostatic ion cyclotron harmonic waves (otherwise known as neutralized ion Bernstein waves) observed at a long distance from the HF Heating facility. It was suggested that these spectral component can be attributed to the stimulated Brillion scatter (SBS) process. The results obtained show that an X-polarized electromagnetic wave scattered by SBS can propagate more than one thousand km without significant attenuation.
Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of a Nonlinear, Uniform Cantilevered Beam
2006-09-01
performed to measure natural frequencies and create a nonlinear elastic deformation model to improve helicopter main beam designs. These experiments used...element model in Nastran . 3 2. Literature Review 2.1 The Princeton Beam Experiments In 1975, Dowell and Traybar completed a series of... modeling and analysis capabilities, including [...] vibration” [12]. Nastran can analyze a structure’s natural frequencies with the geometry and material
Ricker, R E; Myneni, G R
2010-01-01
During the fabrication of niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) particle accelerator cavities procedures are used that chemically or mechanically remove the passivating surface film of niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5). Removal of this film will expose the underlying niobium metal and allow it to react with the processing environment. If these reactions produce hydrogen at sufficient concentrations and rates, then hydrogen will be absorbed and diffuse into the metal. High hydrogen activities could result in supersaturation and the nucleation of hydride phases. If the metal repassivates at the conclusion of the processing step and the passive film blocks hydrogen egress, then the absorbed hydrogen or hydrides could be retained and alter the performance of the metal during subsequent processing steps or in-service. This report examines the feasibility of this hypothesis by first identifying the postulated events, conditions, and reactions and then determining if each is consistent with accepted scientific principles, literature, and data. Established precedent for similar events in other systems was found in the scientific literature and thermodynamic analysis found that the postulated reactions were not only energetically favorable, but produced large driving forces. The hydrogen activity or fugacity required for the reactions to be at equilibrium was determined to indicate the propensity for hydrogen evolution, absorption, and hydride nucleation. The influence of processing conditions and kinetics on the proximity of hydrogen surface coverage to these theoretical values is discussed. This examination found that the hypothesis of hydrogen absorption during SRF processing is consistent with published scientific literature and thermodynamic principles.
Wu, Chi-Hsun; Chang, Hsiang-Chih; Lee, Po-Lei; Li, Kuen-Shing; Sie, Jyun-Jie; Sun, Chia-Wei; Yang, Chia-Yen; Li, Po-Hung; Deng, Hua-Ting; Shyu, Kuo-Kai
2011-03-15
This paper presents an empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and refined generalized zero crossing (rGZC) approach to achieve frequency recognition in steady-stated visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain computer interfaces (BCIs). Six light emitting diode (LED) flickers with high flickering rates (30, 31, 32, 33, 34, and 35 Hz) functioned as visual stimulators to induce the subjects' SSVEPs. EEG signals recorded in the Oz channel were segmented into data epochs (0.75 s). Each epoch was then decomposed into a series of oscillation components, representing fine-to-coarse information of the signal, called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The instantaneous frequencies in each IMF were calculated by refined generalized zero-crossing (rGZC). IMFs with mean instantaneous frequencies (f(GZC)) within 29.5 Hz and 35.5 Hz (i.e., 29.5≤f(GZC)≤35.5 Hz) were designated as SSVEP-related IMFs. Due to the time-locked and phase-locked characteristics of SSVEP, the induced SSVEPs had the same frequency as the gazing visual stimulator. The LED flicker that contributed the majority of the frequency content in SSVEP-related IMFs was chosen as the gaze target. This study tests the proposed system in five male subjects (mean age=25.4±2.07 y/o). Each subject attempted to activate four virtual commands by inputting a sequence of cursor commands on an LCD screen. The average information transfer rate (ITR) and accuracy were 36.99 bits/min and 84.63%. This study demonstrates that EMD is capable of extracting SSVEP data in SSVEP-based BCI system.
Chen, Jiusheng; Hunter, Kendall S; Shandas, Robin
2009-10-01
The theoretical understanding of encapsulated microbubble response to high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) excitation is still limited although some novel experimental HFUS contrast imaging techniques have been well developed. In this paper, the higher-order modal (HOM) contributions to the scattered field are studied for such microbubbles driven by 1-100 MHz ultrasound. An exact solution of all small-amplitude vibrational modes of a single encapsulated microbubble in water is given by the wave scattering theory (WST) method and compared to results obtained from Church's Rayleigh-Plesset-like model for the small-amplitude radial oscillation of a microbubble in an incompressible fluid. From numerical results, we show that the HOM field contribution is significant for scattering properties from individual Nycomed microbubbles with normalized frequency > or = 0.2. It is also shown that the multiple scattering is strengthened for monodispersed Definity microbubbles of 3 microm radius at frequencies >40 MHz. However, comparisons between the authors' analyses and known experimental data for polydispersed Definity microbubbles indicate that the HOM contributions are insignificant in attenuation estimation at frequencies <50 MHz. In conclusion, the WST model analysis suggests that HOM scattering is an important consideration for single bubbles but may be less critical in the modeling of polydispersed Definity bubbles at high frequencies.
McFerran, J J; Nenadovic, L; Swann, W C; Schlager, J B; Newbury, N R
2007-10-01
We demonstrate a fundamentally mode-locked fiber laser with a repetition frequency in excess of 2 GHz at a central wavelength of 1.535 mum. Co-doped ytterbium-erbium fiber provides the gain medium for the laser, affording high gain per unit length, while a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SAM) provides the pulse shaping mechanism in a standing wave cavity. Results are shown confirming cw mode-locking for 1 GHz and 2 GHz repetition frequency systems. The response of the frequency comb output to pump power variations is shown to follow a single pole response. The timing jitter of a 540MHz repetition-rate laser has been suppressed to below 100 fs through phase-lead compensated feedback to the pump power. Alternatively, a single comb line of a 850MHz repetition-rate laser has been phase-locked to a narrow linewidth cw laser with an in-loop phase jitter of 0.06 rad(2). The laser design is compatible with low-noise oscillator applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Tzu-Fang; Jao, Kuan-Hsuan; Hung, Yao-Chen
2014-09-01
Phase synchronization (PS) in a periodically pump-modulated two-mode solid state laser is investigated. Although PS in the laser system has been demonstrated in response to a periodic modulation with the main relaxation oscillation (RO) frequency of the free-running laser, little is known about the case of modulation with minor RO frequencies. In this Letter, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method is utilized to decompose the laser time series into a set of orthogonal modes and to examine the intrinsic PS near the frequency of the second RO. The degree of PS is quantified by means of a histogram of phase differences and the analysis of Shannon entropy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Guozhang; Gao, Zhe
2017-02-01
The linear conversion from a fast extraordinary mode to a Bernstein mode (XB) in the electron cyclotron range of frequency is revisited numerically by using a simplified kinetic model. The corresponding wave equations are solved as a standard two-point boundary value problem, where the self-consistent boundary conditions are applied and the scattering coefficients are calculated accordingly. The numerical calculation of the XB conversion efficiency is compared with the analytical formula for the normal incidence (along the direction perpendicular to the equilibrium magnetic field and parallel to the density gradient), where a reasonable agreement is found. The effects of incident angles represented by refractive indexes on the conversion efficiency are analyzed. It is shown that as the incident angle deviates from the normal incidence, the efficiency of XB conversion decreases significantly. The results also indicate that the power loss in the XB process can be ascribed to the reflected fast extraordinary mode and the reflected-converted ordinary mode. The symmetry of the conversion efficiency about the incident angle is discussed, and the rigid restriction on the scale length of the density variation for effective XB conversions can be possibly alleviated through altering the injection direction in realistic experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kung, L. E.; Soedel, W.; Yang, T. Y.; Charek, L. T.
1985-10-01
Natural frequencies and mode shapes of a radial tire have been obtained by using an efficient, 12 degree of freedom, doubly curved thin shell finite element of revolution with smeared-out properties of laminate composite materials. The finite element formulation includes the geometrical non-linearities so that the prestressed state of the tire due to inflation is taken into account. While the basic formulation follows that of earlier work done at Purdue University, a general and efficient computational procedure and program have been developed, with a main feature being integration with computer graphics. Thus the complex tire geometry can be modeled more accurately and the free vibration mode shapes can be displayed graphically. This allows an interpretation and classification of mode shapes beyond the classical mode shapes of tires that have been presented in the literature. It allows further insight into the relationship between transverse and tangential motions beyond what has been conceived at the present state of the art of experimentation. Theoretical results are compared with experimental results obtained from modal analysis and good agreement is shown.
New Trends in Induction Accelerator Technology
Caporaso, G J
2002-12-05
Recent advances in solid-state modulators now permit the design of a new class of high current accelerators. These new accelerators will be able to operate in burst mode at frequencies of several MHz with unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format. These new modulators can drive accelerators to high average powers that far exceed those of any other technology and can be used to enable precision beam manipulations. New insulator technology combined with novel pulse forming lines and switching may enable the construction of a new type of high gradient, high current accelerator. Recent developments in these areas will be reviewed.
Broadband frequency-domain near-infrared spectral tomography using a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser
Wang, Jia; Jiang, Shudong; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.
2009-01-01
Frequency-domain near-infrared (NIR) diffuse spectral tomography with a mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser is presented, providing tunable multiwavelength quantitative spectroscopy with maximal power for thick tissue imaging. The system was developed to show that intrinsically high stability can be achieved with many wavelengths in the NIR range, using a mode-locked signal of 80 MHz with heterodyned lock-in detection. The effect of cumulative noise from multiple wavelengths of data on the reconstruction process was studied, and it was shown that inclusion of more wavelengths can reduce skew in the noise distribution. This normalization of the data variance then minimizes errors in estimation of chromophore concentrations. Simulations and tissue phantom experiments were used to quantify this improvement in image accuracy for recovery of tissue hemoglobin and oxygen saturation. PMID:19340109
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kato, Takumi; Chen-Jinnai, Akitoshi; Nagano, Takuma; Kobatake, Tomoya; Suzuki, Ryo; Yoshiki, Wataru; Tanabe, Takasumi
2016-07-01
A numerical and experimental study of Kerr frequency comb generation in a silica toroid microcavity is presented. We use a generalized mean-field Lugiato-Lefever equation and solve it with the split-step Fourier method. We observe that a stable mode-locked regime can be accessed when we reduce the input power after strong pumping due to the bistable nature of the nonlinear cavity system used. The experimental results agree well with the results of the numerical analysis, where we obtain a low-noise Kerr comb spectrum by gradually reducing the pumping input after strong pumping. This finding complements the results obtained by a previous wavelength scanning method and clarifies the procedure for achieving mode-locked states in such high-Q microcavity systems.
Frequencies and Normal Modes of Vibration of Benz[a]anthracene Radical Ions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubba, Rehab M.; Al-ani, Raghida I.; Shanshal, Muthana
2005-03-01
MINDO/3-FORCES calculations were carried out for the radical ions of benz[a]anthracene. Both ions exhibit Cs symmetry with C-C bond alternation in all four rings. The obtained equilibrium geometry was applied for the calculation of all 3N - 6 vibration frequencies of each ion, and for the analysis of their normal coordinates. The so calculated frequencies of the radical cation were close to the experimental frequencies and those of the ab initio calculations. They fall in the ranges νCHstr. (3034 - 3087 cm-1), νCCstr. (1237 - 1609 cm-1), δCH (1142 - 1216 cm-1). Interesting correlations could be obtained for the frequencies of similar vibrations, e. g. νsymCHstr. >νasymCHstr. Exception is the frequency of vibration of CHα in ring A for the radical cation and the same bond in ring D for the radical anion. The vibration frequencies for the CH bonds depend on the σ -electron densities of the corresponding carbon atoms, i. e. νCH.+str. >νCHstr. >νCH.-str., where σ -ρĊ+ >σ -ρC >σ -ρĊ- . For the C-C stretching vibrations the relation ν(C-C)str. >ν(C-C).-str. >ν(C-C).+str. holds, with the exception of the Cβ -Cβ bond, for which the relation ν(C-C)str. >ν(C-C).+str. >ν(C-C).-str. is found. As for the in-plane and out of-plane deformations, the following general correlations δ (CH) >δ (CH).- >δ (CH).+ and γ (CC) >γ (CC).- >γ (CC).+.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Šmíd, Radek; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Lazar, Josef; Číp, Ondrej
2014-05-01
We present a method of noise suppression of laser diodes by unbalanced Michelson fiber interferometer. The unstabilized laser source is represented by compact planar waveguide external cavity laser module ORION (Redfern Integrated Optics, Inc.) working at 1040.57 nm with < 3 kHz linewidth. We built Michelson interferometer with 1 km long arm based on SMF-28 fiber spool to suppress the frequency noise by fast PI servo-loop up to 33 kHz of laser injection current modulation. We were able to decrease the noise level by -60 dBc/Hz up to 1.5 kHz noise frequency of the laser.
Observation of Ω mode electron heating in dusty argon radio frequency discharges
Killer, Carsten; Bandelow, Gunnar; Schneider, Ralf; Melzer, André; Matyash, Konstantin
2013-08-15
The time-resolved emission of argon atoms in a dusty plasma has been measured with phase-resolved optical emission spectroscopy using an intensified charge-coupled device camera. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a capacitively coupled rf argon discharge with the help of thermophoretic levitation. While electrons are exclusively heated by the expanding sheath (α mode) in the dust-free case, electron heating takes place in the entire plasma bulk when the discharge volume is filled with dust particles. Such a behavior is known as Ω mode, first observed in electronegative plasmas. Furthermore, particle-in-cell simulations have been carried out, which reproduce the trends of the experimental findings. These simulations support previous numerical models showing that the enhanced atomic emission in the plasma can be attributed to a bulk electric field, which is mainly caused by the reduced electrical conductivity due to electron depletion.
Ackemann, T.; Sondermann, M.
2001-06-04
Polarization selection in small-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers is studied experimentally in dependence of injection current and substrate temperature in the vicinity of the minimum threshold condition. Polarization switching from the low to the high frequency fundamental spatial mode is demonstrated. The effective birefringence displays a minimum in the transition region. The observation of dynamical transition states hints to the relevance of nonlinear effects. A comparison to the predictions of the San Miguel{endash}Feng{endash}Moloney model based on phase-amplitude coupling is given. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ichii, Takashi; Hosokawa, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi
2009-03-01
Lead phthalocyanine molecules on MoS2(0001) substrates were imaged using an ultrahigh-vacuum AFM apparatus equipped with an optical beam deflection (OBD) sensor. The second flexural mode was employed to utilize its high effective spring constant in order to reduce the oscillation amplitude to 0.5 nm without oscillation instability. Submolecular-resolution images were obtained when a shorter cantilever, which had a very high resonance frequency and a low noise equivalent deflection in the OBD sensor, was used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omar, Murad; Soliman, Dominik; Gateau, Jérôme; Ntziachristos, Vasilis
2015-03-01
We developed a reflection-mode, raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy system, based on a custom-made ultrasonic detector, with an ultra wide bandwidth of 20-180 MHz. To optimally use this bandwidth, we implemented multifrequency reconstruction. System characterization reveals a 4 μm axial, and 18 μm transverse resolution, at penetration depths reaching 5 mm. After characterization, the system was applied to image a zebrafish ex vivo, and an excised mouse ear. In the zebrafish, the lateral line, intestines, eyes, and melanocytes are seen, while in the mouse ear, multi-frequency reconstruction recovered the small vessels, otherwise not seen on the image.
Zhang, Quan-Zhi; Wang, You-Nian; Bogaerts, Annemie
2014-06-14
Computer simulations based on the particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collision method are performed to study the plasma characteristics and especially the transition in electron heating mechanisms in a hybrid direct current (dc)/dual-frequency (DF) capacitively coupled CF{sub 4} discharge. When applying a superposed dc voltage, the plasma density first increases, then decreases, and finally increases again, which is in good agreement with experiments. This trend can be explained by the transition between the four main heating modes, i.e., DF coupling, dc and DF coupling, dc source dominant heating, and secondary electron dominant heating.
HIGHER MODE FREQUENCY EFFECTS ON RESONANCE IN MACHINERY, STRUCTURES, AND PIPE SYSTEMS
Leishear, R.
2010-05-02
The complexities of resonance in multi-degree of freedom systems (multi-DOF) may be clarified using graphic presentations. Multi-DOF systems represent actual systems, such as beams or springs, where multiple, higher order, natural frequencies occur. Resonance occurs when a cyclic load is applied to a structure, and the frequency of the applied load equals one of the natural frequencies. Both equations and graphic presentations are available in the literature for single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems, which describe the response of spring-mass-damper systems to harmonically applied, or cyclic, loads. Loads may be forces, moments, or forced displacements applied to one end of a structure. Multi-DOF systems are typically described only by equations in the literature, and while equations certainly permit a case by case analysis for specific conditions, graphs provide an overall comprehension not gleaned from single equations. In fact, this collection of graphed equations provides novel results, which describe the interactions between multiple natural frequencies, as well as a comprehensive description of increased vibrations near resonance.
Frequency Stabilization of a Single Mode Terahertz Quantum Cascade Laser to the Kilohertz Level
2009-04-27
line phase-locked quntum cascade laser in the 9.2 µm range,” Opt. Lett. 32, (2007). 14. D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards...Eur. Micro. Conf. 14th, 248 – 253 (1984). 1. Introduction THz quantum cascade lasers [1] (TQCL) are a fast growing field with many potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzyuba, A.; Romanenko, A.; Cooley, L. D.
2010-12-01
A model for the onset of the reduction in superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity quality factor, the so-called Q-drop, at high accelerating electric fields is presented. Since magnetic fields at the cavity equator are tied to accelerating electric fields by a simple geometric factor, the onset of magnetic flux penetration determines the onset of Q-drop. We consider breakdown of the surface barrier at triangular grooves to predict the magnetic field of first flux penetration Hpen. Such defects were argued to be the worst case by Buzdin and Daumens (1998 Physica C 294 257), whose approach, moreover, incorporates both the geometry of the groove and local contamination via the Ginzburg-Landau parameter κ. Since previous Q-drop models focused on either topography or contamination alone, the proposed model allows new comparisons of one effect in relation to the other. The model predicts equivalent reduction of Hpen when either roughness or contamination were varied alone, so smooth but dirty surfaces limit cavity performance about as much as rough but clean surfaces do. Still lower Hpen was predicted when both effects were combined, i.e. contamination should exacerbate the negative effects of roughness and vice versa. To test the model with actual data, coupons were prepared by buffered chemical polishing and electropolishing, and stylus profilometry was used to obtain distributions of angles. From these data, curves for surface resistance generated by simple flux flow as a function of magnetic field were generated by integrating over the distribution of angles for reasonable values of κ. This showed that combined effects of roughness and contamination indeed reduce the Q-drop onset field by ~ 20%, and that contamination contributes to Q-drop as much as roughness. The latter point may be overlooked by SRF cavity research, since access to the cavity interior by spectroscopy tools is very difficult, whereas optical images have become commonplace. The model was
Jun, Chang Su; Kim, Byoung Yoon
2011-03-28
We describe experimental investigation of pulsed output from a multi-wavelength fiber ring laser incorporating low frequency phase modulation with large modulation amplitude. The Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser generated more than 8 wavelength channels with the help of a phase modulator operating at 26.2 kHz and a periodic intra-cavity filter. For most cases, the laser output is pulsed in the form of mode-locking at 5.62 MHz and/or Q-switching at harmonic and sub-harmonic of the phase modulation frequency. Chaotic pulse output is also observed. The behavior of the output pulses are described as functions of pump power and phase modulation amplitude. The relative intensity noise (RIN) value of a single wavelength channel is measured to be under -100 dB/Hz (-140 dB/Hz beyond 1.5 GHz).
Sesnic, S.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Bell, R.E.; Bernabei, S.; Chance, M.S.; Hatcher, R.E.; Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.F.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Holland, A.; Asakura, N.; Duperrex, P.A.; Fonck, R.J.; Gammel, G.M.; Greene, G.J.; Jiang, T.W.; Levinton, F.M.; Powell, E.T.; Roberts, D.W.; Qin, Y.
1993-06-01
High-frequency pressure-driven modes have been observed in high-poloidal-{beta} discharges in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M). These modes are excited in a non-axisymmetric equilibrium characterized by a large, low frequency m{sub 1}=1/n{sub 1}=1 island, and they are capable of expelling fast ions. The modes reside on or very close to the q=1 surface, and have mode numbers with either m{sub h}=n{sub h} or (less probably) m{sub h}/n{sub h}=m{sub h}/(m{sub h}-1), with m{sub h} varying between 3 and 10. Occasionally, these modes are, simultaneously localized in the vicinity of the m{sub 1}=2/n{sub 1}=1 island. The high frequency modes near the q=1 surface also exhibit a ballooning character, being significantly stronger on the large major radius side of the plasma. When a large m{sub 1}=1/n{sub 1}=1 island is present the mode is poloidally localized in the immediate vicinity of the x-point of the island. The modes, which occur exclusively in high-{beta} discharges, appear to be driven by the plasma pressure or pressure gradient. They can thus be a manifestation of either a toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmode (TAE) at q=(2m{sub h}+ 1)/2n{sub h}, a kinetic ballooning mode (KBM), or some other type of pressure-driven mode. Theory predicts that the TAE mode is a gap mode, but the high frequency modes in PBX-M are found exclusively on or in the immediate neighborhood of magnetic surfaces with low rational numbers.
Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Fazelzadeh, S Ahmad; Rafii-Tabar, Hashem
2017-02-01
Raman radial breathing-like mode (RBLM) frequencies of an infinite nanopeapods are calculated within the framework of a continuum-molecular based model. The nanotube-fullerene interaction is modeled via the Lennard-Jones interatomic potential. An analytical formulation is developed and is justified due to its good agreement with the experimental and atomistic-based results. Furthermore, we propose new relationships for the van der Waals (vdW) interaction coefficients between the atoms of this hybrid nanostructure. Numerical results are also obtained for various nanopeapods on the basis of the present formulation. The RBLM frequency upshifts are predicted for small single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The frequency shifts can be adequately explained by the vdW intermolecular interactions acting between the fullerene and the SWCNTs atoms. To the best of our knowledge, a simple theoretical method which can predict the Raman RBLM frequencies of the nanopeapods with high precision has not been provided hitherto. We believe that the present study is likely to fill the gap.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Korzennik, Sylvain G.
1988-01-01
The initial frequency splitting results of solar p-mode oscillations obtained from the 1988 helioseismology program at the Mt. Wilson Observatory are presented. The frequency splittings correspond to the rotational splittings of sectoral harmonics which range in degree between 10 and 598. They were obtained from a cross-correlation analysis of the prograde and retrograde portions of a two-dimensional (t - v) power spectrum. This power spectrum was computed from an eight-hour sequence of full-disk Dopplergrams obtained on July 2, 1988, at the 60-foot tower telescope with a Na magneto-optical filter and a 1024x1024 pixel CCD camera. These frequency splittings have an inherently larger scatter than did the splittings obtained from earlier 16-day power spectra. These splittings are consistent with an internal solar rotational velocity which is independent of radius along the equatorial plane. The normalized frequency splittings averaged 449 + or - 3 nHz, a value which is very close to the observed equatorial rotation rate of the photospheric gas of 451.7 nHz.
Sub-picosecond ultra-low frequency passively mode-locked fiber laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuadrado-Laborde, Christian; Cruz, José L.; Díez, Antonio; Andrés, Miguel V.
2016-11-01
We developed a nonlinear polarization rotation all-fiber mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser, with the purpose to reach a sub-picosecond and sub-megahertz light pulse emission. In the process, we observed three different emission regimes as the net birefringence is changed, namely high-power dissipative soliton resonance, low-power soliton regime, and a mixed combination of both. In the pure solitonic regime, a 0.961 MHz train of chirp-free Gaussian pulses was obtained, with a time width of 0.919 ps at 1564.3 nm.
High-frequency acoustic modes in liquid gallium at the melting point.
Scopigno, T; Filipponi, A; Krisch, M; Monaco, G; Ruocco, G; Sette, F
2002-12-16
The microscopic dynamics in liquid gallium at melting has been studied by inelastic x-ray scattering. We demonstrate the existence of acousticlike modes up to wave vectors above one-half of the first maximum of the static structure factor, at variance with earlier results from inelastic neutron scattering [F. J. Bermejo et al., Phys. Rev. E 49, 3133 (1994)]. Despite structural (extremely rich polymorphism) and electronic (mixed valence) peculiarities, the collective dynamics is strikingly similar to the one of van der Waals and metallic fluids. This result speaks in favor of the universality of the short time dynamics in monatomic liquids rather than of system-specific dynamics.
The source of solar high-frequency acoustic modes - Theoretical expectations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Timothy M.
1991-01-01
The source exciting the solar p-modes is likely to be acoustic noise generated in the top part of the sun's convection zone. If so, then simple arguments suggest that most of the emitted energy may come from rare localized events that are well separated from one another in space and time. This note describes the acoustic emission that would be expected from such events, based on a ray-theory analysis. Most of the acoustic energy is found to emerge very close to the source, so that observations to identify emission events will require high spatial resolution.
Progress Toward NLC/GLC Prototype Accelerator Structures
Wang, J
2004-09-13
The accelerator structure groups for NLC (Next Linear Collider) and GLC (Global Linear Colliders) have successfully collaborated on the research and development of a major series of advanced accelerator structures based on room-temperature technology at X-band frequency. The progress in design, simulation, microwave measurement and high gradient tests are summarized in this paper. The recent effort in design and fabrication of the accelerator structure prototype for the main linac is presented in detail including HOM (High Order Mode) suppression and design of HOM couplers and fundamental mode couplers, optimized accelerator cavities as well as plans for future structures.
Reentrant behavior of the breathing-mode-oscillation frequency in a one-dimensional Bose gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gudyma, A. Iu.; Astrakharchik, G. E.; Zvonarev, Mikhail B.
2015-08-01
Exciting temporal oscillations of the density distribution is a high-precision method for probing ultracold trapped atomic gases. Interaction effects in their many-body dynamics are particularly puzzling and counter-intuitive in one spatial dimension (1D) due to enhanced quantum correlations. We consider 1D quantum Bose gas in a parabolic trap at zero temperature and explain, analytically and numerically, how oscillation frequency depends on the number of particles, their repulsion, and the trap strength. We identify the frequency with the energy difference between the ground state and a particular excited state. This way we avoided resolving the dynamical evolution of the system, simplifying the problem immensely. We find an excellent quantitative agreement of our results with the data from the Innsbruck experiment [Science 325, 1224 (2009), 10.1126/science.1175850].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipovsky, Bradley P.; Dunham, Eric M.
2015-02-01
Oscillatory seismic signals arising from resonant vibrations of hydraulic fractures are observed in many geologic systems, including volcanoes, glaciers and ice sheets, and hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. To better quantify the physical dimensions of fluid-filled cracks and properties of the fluids within them, we study wave motion along a thin hydraulic fracture waveguide. We present a linearized analysis, valid at wavelengths greater than the fracture aperture, that accounts for quasi-static elastic deformation of the fracture walls, as well as fluid viscosity, inertia, and compressibility. In the long-wavelength limit, anomalously dispersed guided waves known as crack or Krauklis waves propagate with restoring force from fracture wall elasticity. At shorter wavelengths, the waves become sound waves within the fluid channel. Wave attenuation in our model is due to fluid viscosity, rather than seismic radiation from crack tips or fracture wall roughness. We characterize viscous damping at both low frequencies, where the flow is always fully developed, and at high frequencies, where the flow has a nearly constant velocity profile away from viscous boundary layers near the fracture walls. Most observable seismic signals from resonating fractures likely arise in the boundary layer crack wave limit, where fluid-solid coupling is pronounced and attenuation is minimal. We present a method to estimate the aperture and length of a resonating hydraulic fracture using both the seismically observed quality factor and characteristic frequency. Finally, we develop scaling relations between seismic moment and characteristic frequency that might be useful when interpreting the statistics of hydraulic fracture events.
Ricker, R. E.; Myneni, G. R.
2010-01-01
During the fabrication of niobium superconducting radio frequency (SRF) particle accelerator cavities procedures are used that chemically or mechanically remove the passivating surface film of niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5). Removal of this film will expose the underlying niobium metal and allow it to react with the processing environment. If these reactions produce hydrogen at sufficient concentrations and rates, then hydrogen will be absorbed and diffuse into the metal. High hydrogen activities could result in supersaturation and the nucleation of hydride phases. If the metal repassivates at the conclusion of the processing step and the passive film blocks hydrogen egress, then the absorbed hydrogen or hydrides could be retained and alter the performance of the metal during subsequent processing steps or in-service. This report examines the feasibility of this hypothesis by first identifying the postulated events, conditions, and reactions and then determining if each is consistent with accepted scientific principles, literature, and data. Established precedent for similar events in other systems was found in the scientific literature and thermodynamic analysis found that the postulated reactions were not only energetically favorable, but produced large driving forces. The hydrogen activity or fugacity required for the reactions to be at equilibrium was determined to indicate the propensity for hydrogen evolution, absorption, and hydride nucleation. The influence of processing conditions and kinetics on the proximity of hydrogen surface coverage to these theoretical values is discussed. This examination found that the hypothesis of hydrogen absorption during SRF processing is consistent with published scientific literature and thermodynamic principles. PMID:27134791
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neise, W.; Koopmann, G. H.
1991-01-01
A previously developed (e.g., Neise and Koopmann, 1984; Koopmann et al., 1988) active noise control technique in which the unwanted acoustic signals from centrifugal fans are suppressed by placing two externally driven sources near the cutoff of the casing was applied to the frequency region where not only plane sound waves are propagational in the fan ducts but also higher-order acoustic modes. Using a specially designed fan noise testing facility, the performance of two fans (280-mm impeller diam and 508 mm diam) was monitored with static pressure taps mounted peripherally around the inlet nozzle. Experimental results show that the aerodynamically generated source pressure field around the cutoff is too complex to be successfully counterimaged by only two active sources introduced in this region. It is suggested that, for an efficient application of this noise control technique in the higher-order mode frequency regime, it is neccessary to use an active source involving larger number of individually driven loudspeakers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malekinejad, Mohsen; Rahgozar, Reza; Malekinejad, Ali; Rahgozar, Peyman
2016-09-01
In this paper, a continuous-discrete approach based on the concept of lumped mass and equivalent continuous approach is proposed for free vibration analysis of combined system of framed tube, shear core and outrigger-belt truss in high-rise buildings. This system is treated as a continuous system (i.e., discrete beams and columns are replaced with equivalent continuous membranes) and a discrete system (or lumped mass system) at different stages of dynamic analysis. The structure is discretized at each floor of the building as a series of lumped masses placed at the center of shear core. Each mass has two transitional degrees of freedom (lateral and axial( and one rotational. The effect of shear core and outrigger-belt truss on framed tube system is modeled as a rotational spring placed at the location of outrigger-belt truss system along structure's height. By solving the resulting eigen problem, natural frequencies and mode-shapes are obtained. Numerical examples are presented to show acceptable accuracy of the procedure in estimating the fundamental frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of the combined system as compared to finite element analysis of the complete structure. The simplified proposed method is much faster and should be more suitable for rapid interactive design.
Yang, Honglei; Wu, Xuejian; Zhang, Hongyuan; Zhao, Shijie; Yang, Lijun; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan
2016-12-01
We present an optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with a broad repetition rate tuning range based on a hybrid mode-locked oscillator. We lock two comb modes to narrow-linewidth reference lasers in turn to investigate the best performance of control loops. The control bandwidth of fast and slow piezoelectric transducers reaches 70 kHz, while that of pump current modulation with phase-lead compensation is extended to 32 kHz, exceeding laser intrinsic response. Eventually, simultaneous lock of both loops is realized to totally phase-stabilize the comb, which will facilitate precision dual-comb spectroscopy, laser ranging, and timing distribution. In addition, a 1.8-MHz span of the repetition rate is achieved by an automatic optical delay line that is helpful in manufacturing a secondary comb with a similar repetition rate. The oscillator is housed in a homemade temperature-controlled box with an accuracy of ±0.02 K, which not only keeps high signal-to-noise ratio of the beat notes with reference lasers, but also guarantees self-starting at the same mode-locking every time.
Chen, Z.
2001-01-01
The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron scattering research facility. The linear accelerator (linac) is the principal accelerating structure and divided into a room-temperature linac and a superconducting linac. The normal conducting linac system that consists of a Drift Tube Linac (DTL) and a Coupled Cavity Linac (CCL) is to be built by Los Alamos National Laboratory. The CCL structure is 55.36-meters long. It accelerates H- beam from 86.8 Mev to 185.6 Mev at operating frequency of 805 MHz. This side coupled cavity structure has 8 cells per segment, 12 segments and 11 bridge couplers per module, and 4 modules total. A 5-MW klystron powers each module. The number 3 and number 9 bridge coupler of each module are connected to the 5-MW RF power supply. The bridge coupler with length of 2.5 {beta}{gamma} is a three-cell structure and located between the segments and allows power flow through the module. The center cell of each bridge coupler is excited during normal operation. To obtain a uniform electromagnetic filed and meet the resonant frequency shift, the RF induced heat must be removed. Thus, the thermal deformation and frequency shift studies are performed via numerical simulations in order to have an appropriate cooling design and predict the frequency shift under operation. The center cell of the bridge coupler also contains a large 4-inch slug tuner and a tuning post that used to provide bulk frequency adjustment and field intensity adjustment, so that produce the proper total field distribution in the module assembly.
Pulse width dependence of Brillouin frequency in single mode optical fibers.
Cho, Seok-Beom; Kim, Young-Gyu; Heo, Jin-Seok; Lee, Jung-Ju
2005-11-14
Stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers can be used to measure strain or temperature in a distributed manner. Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) is the most common sensor system based on the Brillouin scattering. This paper presents the experimental analysis of the characteristics of Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS) influenced by the width of launched pulse. Brillouin strain coefficient is also examined for the different pulse widths, which is important to apply a Brillouin scattering-based sensor to a structural health monitoring. Experimental results showed that not only the Brillouin linewidth and gain but also the Brillouin frequency were dependent on the pulse widths.
High-Frequency Acoustic Modes in Liquid Gallium at the Melting Point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scopigno, T.; Filipponi, A.; Krisch, M.; Monaco, G.; Ruocco, G.; Sette, F.
2002-12-01
The microscopic dynamics in liquid gallium at melting has been studied by inelastic x-ray scattering. We demonstrate the existence of acousticlike modes up to wave vectors above one-half of the first maximum of the static structure factor, at variance with earlier results from inelastic neutron scattering [F. J. Bermejo et al.,
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Norihito; Akagawa, Kazuyuki; Ito, Mayumi; Takazawa, Akira; Hayano, Yutaka; Saito, Yoshihiko; Ito, Meguru; Takami, Hideki; Iye, Masanori; Wada, Satoshi
2007-07-01
We report on a sodium D2 resonance coherent light source achieved in single-pass sum-frequency generation in periodically poled MgO-doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate with actively mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers. Mode-locked pulses at 1064 and 1319 nm are synchronized with a time resolution of 37 ps with the phase adjustment of the radio frequencies fed to acousto-optic mode lockers. An output power of 4.6 W at 589.1586 nm is obtained, and beam quality near the diffraction limit is also achieved in a simple design.
Saito, Norihito; Akagawa, Kazuyuki; Ito, Mayumi; Takazawa, Akira; Hayano, Yutaka; Saito, Yoshihiko; Ito, Meguru; Takami, Hideki; Iye, Masanori; Wada, Satoshi
2007-07-15
We report on a sodium D(2) resonance coherent light source achieved in single-pass sum-frequency generation in periodically poled MgO-doped stoichiometric lithium tantalate with actively mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers. Mode-locked pulses at 1064 and 1319 nm are synchronized with a time resolution of 37 ps with the phase adjustment of the radio frequencies fed to acousto-optic mode lockers. An output power of 4.6 W at 589.1586 nm is obtained, and beam quality near the diffraction limit is also achieved in a simple design.
1988-10-22
MVC; ( c ) Subjects pain tolerance is contingent upon the stimulating frequency and the amplitude of stimulation. Variations in either burst mode or...Body Weight and Force Data ..... ............. .132 C . Suoject Pain Ratings for all Combinations of Bursts and Carrier Frequencies...work supports the "size principle’ espoused by Henneman (1965) and confirmed by electromyographic studies using fine wire electrodes (Hannez, 1974
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quinlan, F.; Ozharar, S.; Gee, S.; Delfyett, P. J.
2009-10-01
Recent experimental work on semiconductor-based harmonically mode-locked lasers geared toward low noise applications is reviewed. Active, harmonic mode-locking of semiconductor-based lasers has proven to be an excellent way to generate 10 GHz repetition rate pulse trains with pulse-to-pulse timing jitter of only a few femtoseconds without requiring active feedback stabilization. This level of timing jitter is achieved in long fiberized ring cavities and relies upon such factors as low noise rf sources as mode-lockers, high optical power, intracavity dispersion management and intracavity phase modulation. When a high finesse etalon is placed within the optical cavity, semiconductor-based harmonically mode-locked lasers can be used as optical frequency comb sources with 10 GHz mode spacing. When active mode-locking is replaced with regenerative mode-locking, a completely self-contained comb source is created, referenced to the intracavity etalon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuevas, Mauro; Riso, Máximo A.; Depine, Ricardo A.
2016-04-01
In this work we study the modal characteristics of localized surface plasmons in graphene-coated, circular cross-section wires. Localized surface plasmons are represented in terms of cylindrical multipole partial waves characterized by discrete, complex frequencies that depend on the size of the wire and can be dynamically tuned via a gate voltage. We consider both intrinsically nonplasmonic wires and intrinsically plasmonic wires. In the first case the localized surface plasmons are introduced by the graphene coating, whereas in the second case the localized eigenmodes of the graphene coating are expected to hybridize those already existing in the bare wire. We show that the approach presented here, valid for particle sizes where the retardation effects can be significant, is in good agreement with analytical expressions obtained in the limit when particle size is very small compared to the wavelength of the eigenmode and with results indirectly determined from scattering cross-section spectra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuisset, Arnaud; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale
2010-06-01
In addition to its importance for industrial and environmental studies, the monitoring of DiMethylSulfOxyde (DMSO, (CH_3)_2SO) concentrations is of considerable interest for civil protection. The existing high resolution gas phase spectroscopic data of DMSO only concerned the pure rotational transitions in the ground state. In the Far-IR domain, the low-frequency rovibrational transitions have never previously resolved. The high brightness of the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and the instrumental sensitivity provided by the multipass cell allowed to measure for the first time these transitions. 1581 A-type and C-type transitions in the ν11 band have been assigned and 25 molecular constants of Watson's s-form hamiltonian developed to degree 8 have been fitted within the experimental accuracy. The use of then synchrotron radiation has opened many possibilities for new spectroscopic studies. Together with several other recent studies, our successful measurement and analysis of DMSO convincingly demonstrates the potential of the AILES beamline for high resolution FIR spectroscopy. Thus our present work is just at the beginning of unraveling the rovibrational structure of low frequency bending and torsional vibrational states of DMSO and yielding important comprehensive structural and spectroscopic information on this molecule. L. Margules, R. A. Motienko, E. A. Alekseev, J. Demaison, J. Molec. Spectrosc., 260(23),2009 V. Typke, M. Dakkouri, J. Molec. Struct., 599(177),2001 A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, D. Sadovskii, Chem. Phys. Lett., accepted for publication
Zhang, X. J.; Wan, B. N. Zhao, Y. P.; Ding, B. J.; Xu, G. S.; Gong, X. Z.; Li, J. G.; Lin, Y.; Wukitch, S.; Taylor, G.; Noterdaeme, J. M.; Braun, F.; Magne, R.; Litaudon, X.; Kumazawa, R.; Kasahara, H.
2014-06-15
An ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) system with power up to 6.0 MW and a lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system up to 4 MW have been applied for heating and current drive experiments in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokomak (EAST). Significant progress has been made with ICRF heating and LHCD for realizing the H-mode plasma operation in EAST. During 2010 and 2012 experimental campaigns, ICRF heating experiments were carried out at the fixed frequency of 27MHz, achieving effective ions and electrons heating with the H minority heating (H-MH) mode. The H-MH mode produced good plasma performance, and realized H-mode using ICRF power alone in 2012. In 2010, H-modes were generated and sustained by LHCD alone, where lithium coating and gas puffing near the mouth of the LH launcher were applied to improve the LHCD power coupling and penetration into the core plasmas of H-modes. In 2012, the combination of LHCD and ICRH power extended the H-mode duration up to over 30 s. H-modes with various types of edge localized modes (ELMs) have been achieved with H{sub IPB98}(y, 2) ranging from 0.7 to over unity. A brief overview of LHCD and ICRF Heating experiment and their application in achieving H-mode operation during these two campaigns will be presented.
Huang, Shichun; Geng, Rongli
2015-09-01
Reliable acceleration of low- to medium-beta proton or heavy ion species is needed for future high-current superconducting radio frequency (SRF) accelerators. Due to the high-Q nature of an SRF resonator, it is sensitive to many factors such as electron loading (from either the accelerated beam or from parasitic field emitted electrons), mechanical vibration, and liquid helium bath pressure fluctuation etc. To increase the stability against those factors, a mechanically strong and stable RF structure is desirable. Guided by this consideration, multi-fold symmetry element-loaded SRF structures (MFSEL), cylindrical tanks with multiple (n>=3) rod-shaped radial elements, are being explored. The top goal of its optimization is to improve mechanical stability. A natural consequence of this structure is a lowered ratio of the peak surface electromagnetic field to the acceleration gradient as compared to the traditional spoke cavity. A disadvantage of this new structure is an increased size for a fixed resonant frequency and optimal beta. This paper describes the optimization of the electro-magnetic (EM) design and preliminary mechanical analysis for such structures.
Pseudo-single-bunch with adjustable frequency: a new operation mode for synchrotron light sources.
Sun, C; Portmann, G; Hertlein, M; Kirz, J; Robin, D S
2012-12-28
We present the concept and results of pseudo-single-bunch (PSB) operation--a new operational mode at the advanced light source--that can greatly expand the capabilities of synchrotron light sources to carry out dynamics and time-of-flight experiments. In PSB operation, a single electron bunch is displaced transversely from the other electron bunches using a short-pulse, high-repetition-rate kicker magnet. Experiments that require light emitted only from a single bunch can stop the light emitted from the other bunches using a collimator. Other beam lines will only see a small reduction in flux due to the displaced bunch. As a result, PSB eliminates the need to schedule multibunch and timing experiments during different running periods. Furthermore, the time spacing of PSB pulses can be adjusted from milliseconds to microseconds with a novel "kick-and-cancel" scheme, which can significantly alleviate complications of using high-power choppers and substantially reduce the rate of sample damage.
Pseudo-Single-Bunch with Adjustable Frequency: A New Operation Mode for Synchrotron Light Sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, C.; Portmann, G.; Hertlein, M.; Kirz, J.; Robin, D. S.
2012-12-01
We present the concept and results of pseudo-single-bunch (PSB) operation—a new operational mode at the advanced light source—that can greatly expand the capabilities of synchrotron light sources to carry out dynamics and time-of-flight experiments. In PSB operation, a single electron bunch is displaced transversely from the other electron bunches using a short-pulse, high-repetition-rate kicker magnet. Experiments that require light emitted only from a single bunch can stop the light emitted from the other bunches using a collimator. Other beam lines will only see a small reduction in flux due to the displaced bunch. As a result, PSB eliminates the need to schedule multibunch and timing experiments during different running periods. Furthermore, the time spacing of PSB pulses can be adjusted from milliseconds to microseconds with a novel “kick-and-cancel” scheme, which can significantly alleviate complications of using high-power choppers and substantially reduce the rate of sample damage.
Global mode and frequency response analysis of low-density jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coenen, W.; Lesshafft, L.; Garnaud, X.; Sevilla, A.
2014-11-01
We present a global stability analysis of a low-density jet, where the wavepacket structures are temporal eigenmodes of the linearized equations of motion in a 2D domain. As a base state we employ a numerical solution of the low-Mach number Navier-Stokes equations. The jet is characterized through the jet-to-ambient density ratio, the Reynolds number, and the momentum thickness of the velocity profile at the jet exit plane. The linear global mode analysis shows that for certain combinations of the control parameters, an isolated eigenmode dominates the eigenvalue spectrum. Its associated growth rate can be used to construct a neutral curve in the parameter space that agrees well with the experimentally observed onset of self-sustained oscillations (Hallberg & Strykowski, JFM, 2006). However, for high values of the Reynolds number, the construction of a neutral curve based on the spectrum loses validity, since for these cases the spectrum is dominated by a continuous branch of eigenvalues, sensitive to changes in domain length and grid refinement. Finally, the flow response to external forcing in a globally stable setting is investigated through the computation of the pseudospectrum, and is found to be dominated by a resonance of the stable eigenmode. Supported by Spanish MINECO under Project DPI 2011-28356-C03-02.
1985-01-01
percent (see Fig. 12). 16 mrad +0~--~--~~--~~-1----+ ---~ -O,G -0,¥ -0,2 0 0,2 0,¥ CH Abscissa- particle displacement from the accelarator axis...ARPA." 1. Proton accelerators. 2. Ion bombardment-Research -Soviet Union. 3. Linear accelerators. 4. Particle beams-Technique. I. United States...present author on the sub- ject of generating and accelerating intense ion and neutral particle beams. The first report was The Development of High
A finite different field solver for dipole modes
Nelson, E.M.
1992-08-01
A finite element field solver for dipole modes in axisymmetric structures has been written. The second-order elements used in this formulation yield accurate mode frequencies with no spurious modes. Quasi-periodic boundaries are included to allow travelling waves in periodic structures. The solver is useful in applications requiring precise frequency calculations such as detuned accelerator structures for linear colliders. Comparisons are made with measurements and with the popular but less accurate field solver URMEL.
Low-frequency vibrational modes of DL-homocysteic acid and related compounds.
Yang, Limin; Zhao, Guozhong; Li, Weihong; Liu, Yufeng; Shi, Xiaoxi; Jia, Xinfeng; Zhao, Kui; Lu, Xiangyang; Xu, Yizhuang; Xie, Datao; Wu, Jinguang; Chen, Jia'er
2009-09-01
In this paper several polycrystalline molecules with sulfonate groups and some of their metal complexes, including DL-homocysteic acid (DLH) and its Sr- and Cu-complexes, pyridine-3-sulphonic acid and its Co- and Ni-complexes, sulfanilic acid and L-cysteic acid were investigated using THz time-domain methods at room temperature. The results of THz absorption spectra show that the molecules have characteristic bands in the region of 0.2-2.7 THz (6-90 cm(-1)). THz technique can be used to distinguish different molecules with sulfonate groups and to determine the bonding of metal ions and the changes of hydrogen bond networks. In the THz region DLH has three bands: 1.61, 1.93 and 2.02 THz; and 0.85, 1.23 and 1.73 THz for Sr-DLH complex, 1.94 THz for Cu-DLH complex, respectively. The absorption bands of pyridine-3-sulphonic acid are located at 0.81, 1.66 and 2.34 THz; the bands at 0.96, 1.70 and 2.38 THz for its Co-complex, 0.76, 1.26 and 1.87 THz for its Ni-complex. Sulphanilic acid has three bands: 0.97, 1.46 and 2.05 THz; and the absorption bands of l-cysteic acid are at 0.82, 1.62, 1.87 and 2.07 THz, respectively. The THz absorption spectra after complexation are different from the ligands, which indicate the bonding of metal ions and the changes of hydrogen bond networks. M-O and other vibrations appear in the FIR region for those metal-ligand complexes. The bands in the THz region were assigned to the rocking, torsion, rotation, wagging and other modes of different groups in the molecules. Preliminary assignments of the bands were carried out using Gaussian program calculation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, J.; Thompson, L.; Li, G.
2016-12-01
A semi-analytical model for determining the equilibrium configuration and the radial breathing mode (RBM) frequency of single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is presented. By taking advantage of the symmetry characteristics, a CNT structure is represented by five independent variables. A line search optimization procedure is employed to determine the equilibrium values of these variables by minimizing the potential energy. With the equilibrium configuration obtained, the semi-analytical model enables an efficient calculation of the RBM frequency of the CNTs. The radius and radial breathing mode frequency results obtained from the semi-analytical approach are compared with those from molecular dynamics (MD) and ab initio calculations. The results demonstrate that the semi-analytical approach offers an efficient and accurate way to determine the equilibrium structure and radial breathing mode frequency of CNTs.
qPlus magnetic force microscopy in frequency-modulation mode with millihertz resolution.
Schneiderbauer, Maximilian; Wastl, Daniel; Giessibl, Franz J
2012-01-01
Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) allows one to image the domain structure of ferromagnetic samples by probing the dipole forces between a magnetic probe tip and a magnetic sample. The magnetic domain structure of the sample depends on the alignment of the individual atomic magnetic moments. It is desirable to be able to image both individual atoms and domain structures with a single probe. However, the force gradients of the interactions responsible for atomic contrast and those causing domain contrast are orders of magnitude apart, ranging from up to 100 Nm(-1) for atomic interactions down to 0.0001 Nm(-1) for magnetic dipole interactions. Here, we show that this gap can be bridged with a qPlus sensor, with a stiffness of 1800 Nm(-1) (optimized for atomic interaction), which is sensitive enough to measure millihertz frequency contrast caused by magnetic dipole-dipole interactions. Thus we have succeeded in establishing a sensing technique that performs scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy and MFM with a single probe.
qPlus magnetic force microscopy in frequency-modulation mode with millihertz resolution
Wastl, Daniel; Giessibl, Franz J
2012-01-01
Summary Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) allows one to image the domain structure of ferromagnetic samples by probing the dipole forces between a magnetic probe tip and a magnetic sample. The magnetic domain structure of the sample depends on the alignment of the individual atomic magnetic moments. It is desirable to be able to image both individual atoms and domain structures with a single probe. However, the force gradients of the interactions responsible for atomic contrast and those causing domain contrast are orders of magnitude apart, ranging from up to 100 Nm−1 for atomic interactions down to 0.0001 Nm−1 for magnetic dipole interactions. Here, we show that this gap can be bridged with a qPlus sensor, with a stiffness of 1800 Nm−1 (optimized for atomic interaction), which is sensitive enough to measure millihertz frequency contrast caused by magnetic dipole–dipole interactions. Thus we have succeeded in establishing a sensing technique that performs scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy and MFM with a single probe. PMID:22428108
Low-frequency wiggler modes in the free-electron laser with a dusty magnetoplasma medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jafari, S.
2015-07-01
An advanced incremental scheme for generating tunable coherent radiation in a free-electron laser has been presented: the basic concept is the use of a relativistic electron beam propagating through a magnetized dusty plasma channel where dust helicon, dust Alfven and coupled dust cyclotron-Alfven waves can play a role as a low-frequency wiggler, triggering coherent emissions. The wiggler wavelength at the sub-mm level allows one to reach the wavelength range from a few nm down to a few Å with moderately relativistic electrons of kinetic energies of a few tens/hundreds of MeV. The laser gain and the effects of beam self-electric and self-magnetic fields on the gain have been estimated and compared with findings of the helical magnetic and electromagnetic wigglers in vacuum. To study the chaotic regions of the electron motion in the dusty plasma wave wiggler, a time independent Hamiltonian has been obtained. The Poincare surface of a section map has been used numerically to analyze the nonintegrable system where chaotic regions in phase-space emerge. This concept opens a path toward a new generation of synchrotron sources based on compact plasma structures.