Science.gov

Sample records for accelerating plasma wave

  1. Plasma Beat-Wave Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Christopher E.

    2002-04-01

    Among all the advanced accelerator concepts that use lasers as the power source, most of the effort to date has been with the idea of using a laser pulse to excite a accelerating mode in a plasma. Within this area, there are a variety of approaches for creating the accelerating mode, as indicated by the other talks in this session. What is common to these approaches is the physics of how a laser pulse pushes on plasma electrons to organize electron-density perturbations, the sources of the ultra-high (> GeV/M) accelerating gradients. It is the "ponderomotive force", proportional to the local gradient of the of the laser intensity, that pushes plasma electrons forward (on the leading edge of the pulse) and backwards (on the trailing edge) which leads to harmonic motion of the electrons. As the laser pulse moves through the plasma at group velocity Vg c, the oscillating electrons show up macroscopically as a plasma mode or wave with frequency w equal to the plasma frequency and k = w/Vg. For short laser pulses, this is the Laser Wakefield Accelerator (LWFA) concept. Closely related is the Plasma Beat-Wave Acceleration (PBWA) concept. Here, the laser pulse that perturbs the plasma is composed of two closely-spaced frequencies that "beat", i.e., periodically constructively and destructively interfere, forming an electromagnetic beat wave. One can visualize this as a train of short pulses. If this beating frequency is set to the plasma frequency, then each pulse in the train will reinforce the density perturbation caused by the previous pulse. The principal advantage of multiple pulses driving up the plasma wave as opposed to a single pulse is in efficiency, allowing for the production of relatively large diameter (more 1-D like) accelerating modes. In this talk I will discuss past, current and planned PBWA experiments which are taking place at UCLA, RAL in England, and LULI in France.

  2. Photon acceleration in plasma wake wave

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, Zhigang; Shen, Baifei Yi, Longqing; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Shan; Li, Shun

    2015-04-15

    The photon acceleration effect in a laser wake field is investigated based on photon Hamiltonian dynamics. A test laser pulse is injected into a plasma wave at an incident angle θ{sub i}, which could slow down the photon velocity along the propagating direction of the wake wave so as to increase the acceleration distance for the photons. The photon trapping condition is analyzed in detail, and the maximum frequency shift of the trapped photon is obtained. The acceleration gradient and dephasing length are emphatically studied. The compression of the test laser pulse is examined and used to interpret the acceleration process. The limit of finite transverse width of the wake wave on photon acceleration is also discussed.

  3. Acceleration of injected electrons by the plasma beat wave accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, C.; Clayton, C. E.; Marsh, K. A.; Dyson, A.; Everett, M.; Lal, A.; Leemans, W. P.; Williams, R.; Katsouleas, T.; Mori, W. B.

    1992-07-01

    In this paper we describe the recent work at UCLA on the acceleration of externally injected electrons by a relativistic plasma wave. A two frequency laser was used to excite a plasma wave over a narrow range of static gas pressures close to resonance. Electrons with energies up to our detection limit of 9.1 MeV were observed when 2.1 MeV electrons were injected in the plasma wave. No accelerated electrons above the detection threshold were observed when the laser was operated on a single frequency or when no electrons were injected. Experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions, and future prospects for the plasma beat wave accelerator are discussed.

  4. Channeled particle acceleration by plasma waves in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.; Noble, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A solid state accelerator concept utilizing particle acceleration along crystal channels by longitudinal electron plasma waves in a metal is presented. Acceleration gradients of order 100 GV/cm are theoretically possible. Particle dechanneling due to electron multiple scattering can be eliminated with a sufficiently high acceleration gradient. Plasma wave dissipation and generation in metals are also discussed.

  5. Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G. P.; Filippi, F.; Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Ferrario, M.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10-100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10-100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC_LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.

  6. Ion Acceleration in Plasmas with Alfven Waves

    SciTech Connect

    O.Ya. Kolesnychenko; V.V. Lutsenko; R.B. White

    2005-06-15

    Effects of elliptically polarized Alfven waves on thermal ions are investigated. Both regular oscillations and stochastic motion of the particles are observed. It is found that during regular oscillations the energy of the thermal ions can reach magnitudes well exceeding the plasma temperature, the effect being largest in low-beta plasmas (beta is the ratio of the plasma pressure to the magnetic field pressure). Conditions of a low stochasticity threshold are obtained. It is shown that stochasticity can arise even for waves propagating along the magnetic field provided that the frequency spectrum is non-monochromatic. The analysis carried out is based on equations derived by using a Lagrangian formalism. A code solving these equations is developed. Steady-state perturbations and perturbations with the amplitude slowly varying in time are considered.

  7. Method of accelerating photons by a relativistic plasma wave

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, John M.; Wilks, Scott C.

    1990-01-01

    Photons of a laser pulse have their group velocity accelerated in a plasma as they are placed on a downward density gradient of a plasma wave of which the phase velocity nearly matches the group velocity of the photons. This acceleration results in a frequency upshift. If the unperturbed plasma has a slight density gradient in the direction of propagation, the photon frequencies can be continuously upshifted to significantly greater values.

  8. Electron Beam Transport in Advanced Plasma Wave Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ronald L

    2013-01-31

    The primary goal of this grant was to develop a diagnostic for relativistic plasma wave accelerators based on injecting a low energy electron beam (5-50keV) perpendicular to the plasma wave and observing the distortion of the electron beam's cross section due to the plasma wave's electrostatic fields. The amount of distortion would be proportional to the plasma wave amplitude, and is the basis for the diagnostic. The beat-wave scheme for producing plasma waves, using two CO2 laser beam, was modeled using a leap-frog integration scheme to solve the equations of motion. Single electron trajectories and corresponding phase space diagrams were generated in order to study and understand the details of the interaction dynamics. The electron beam was simulated by combining thousands of single electrons, whose initial positions and momenta were selected by random number generators. The model was extended by including the interactions of the electrons with the CO2 laser fields of the beat wave, superimposed with the plasma wave fields. The results of the model were used to guide the design and construction of a small laboratory experiment that may be used to test the diagnostic idea.

  9. Magnetospheric plasma - Sources, wave-particle interactions and acceleration mechanisms.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speiser, T. W.

    1971-01-01

    Some of the basic problems associated with magnetospheric physics are reviewed. The sources of magnetospheric plasma, with auroral particles included as a subset, are discussed. The possible ways in which the solar wind plasma can gain access to the magnetosphere are outlined. Some important consequences of wave-particle interactions are examined. Finally, the basic mechanisms which energize or accelerate particles by reconnection and convection are explained.

  10. Method for generating a plasma wave to accelerate electrons

    DOEpatents

    Umstadter, D.; Esarey, E.; Kim, J.K.

    1997-06-10

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for generating large amplitude nonlinear plasma waves, driven by an optimized train of independently adjustable, intense laser pulses. In the method, optimal pulse widths, interpulse spacing, and intensity profiles of each pulse are determined for each pulse in a series of pulses. A resonant region of the plasma wave phase space is found where the plasma wave is driven most efficiently by the laser pulses. The accelerator system of the invention comprises several parts: the laser system, with its pulse-shaping subsystem; the electron gun system, also called beam source, which preferably comprises photo cathode electron source and RF-LINAC accelerator; electron photo-cathode triggering system; the electron diagnostics; and the feedback system between the electron diagnostics and the laser system. The system also includes plasma source including vacuum chamber, magnetic lens, and magnetic field means. The laser system produces a train of pulses that has been optimized to maximize the axial electric field amplitude of the plasma wave, and thus the electron acceleration, using the method of the invention. 21 figs.

  11. Method for generating a plasma wave to accelerate electrons

    DOEpatents

    Umstadter, Donald; Esarey, Eric; Kim, Joon K.

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides a method and apparatus for generating large amplitude nonlinear plasma waves, driven by an optimized train of independently adjustable, intense laser pulses. In the method, optimal pulse widths, interpulse spacing, and intensity profiles of each pulse are determined for each pulse in a series of pulses. A resonant region of the plasma wave phase space is found where the plasma wave is driven most efficiently by the laser pulses. The accelerator system of the invention comprises several parts: the laser system, with its pulse-shaping subsystem; the electron gun system, also called beam source, which preferably comprises photo cathode electron source and RF-LINAC accelerator; electron photo-cathode triggering system; the electron diagnostics; and the feedback system between the electron diagnostics and the laser system. The system also includes plasma source including vacuum chamber, magnetic lens, and magnetic field means. The laser system produces a train of pulses that has been optimized to maximize the axial electric field amplitude of the plasma wave, and thus the electron acceleration, using the method of the invention.

  12. The ''phase velocity'' of nonlinear plasma waves in the laser beat-wave accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, W.L.

    1985-04-01

    A calculational scheme for beat-wave accelerators is introduced that includes all orders in velocity and in plasma density, and additionally accounts for the influence of plasma nonlinearities on the wave's phase velocity. The main assumption is that the laser frequencies are very large compared to the plasma frequency - under which it is possible to sum up all orders of forward Raman scattering. It is found that the nonlinear plasma wave does not have simply a single phase velocity, but that the beat-wave which drives it is usefully described by a non-local ''effective phase velocity'' function. A time-space domain approach is followed. (LEW)

  13. Progress on plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1986-05-01

    Several plasma accelerator concepts are reviewed, with emphasis on the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA) and the Plasma Wake Field Accelerator (PWFA). Various accelerator physics issues regarding these schemes are discussed, and numerical examples on laboratory scale experiments are given. The efficiency of plasma accelerators is then revealed with suggestions on improvements. Sources that cause emittance growth are discussed briefly.

  14. Strongly Enhanced Laser Absorption and Electron Acceleration via Resonant Excitation of Surface Plasma Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynaud, M.; Riconda, C.; Adam, J. C.; Heron, A.

    2010-02-01

    The possibility of creating enhanced fast electron bunches via the excitation of surface plasma waves (SPW) in laser overdense plasma interaction has been investigated by mean of relativistic one dimension motion of a test electron in the field of the surface plasma wave study and with two-dimensional (2D) Particle-In-Cell (PIC) numerical simulations. Strong electron acceleration together with a dramatic increase, up to 70%, of light absorption by the plasma is observed.

  15. Excitation of Accelerating Plasma Waves by Counter-propagating Laser Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gennady Shvets; Nathaniel J. Fisch; and Alexander Pukhov

    2001-08-30

    Generation of accelerating plasma waves using two counter-propagating laser beams is considered. Colliding-beam accelerator requires two laser pulses: the long pump and the short timing beam. We emphasize the similarities and differences between the conventional laser wakefield accelerator and the colliding-beam accelerator (CBA). The highly nonlinear nature of the wake excitation is explained using both nonlinear optics and plasma physics concepts. Two regimes of CBA are considered: (i) the short-pulse regime, where the timing beam is shorter than the plasma period, and (ii) the parametric excitation regime, where the timing beam is longer than the plasma period. Possible future experiments are also outlined.

  16. Trapped electron acceleration by a laser-driven relativistic plasma wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, M.; Lal, A.; Gordon, D.; Clayton, C. E.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C.

    1994-04-01

    THE aim of new approaches for high-energy particle acceleration1 is to push the acceleration rate beyond the limit (~100 MeV m-1) imposed by radio-frequency breakdown in conventional accelerators. Relativistic plasma waves, having phase velocities very close to the speed of light, have been proposed2-6 as a means of accelerating charged particles, and this has recently been demonstrated7,8. Here we show that the charged particles can be trapped by relativistic plasma waves-a necessary condition for obtaining the maximum amount of energy theoretically possible for such schemes. In our experiments, plasma waves are excited in a hydrogen plasma by beats induced by two collinear laser beams, the difference in whose frequencies matches the plasma frequency. Electrons with an energy of 2 MeV are injected into the excited plasma, and the energy spectrum of the exiting electrons is analysed. We detect electrons with velocities exceeding that of the plasma wave, demonstrating that some electrons are 'trapped' by the wave potential and therefore move synchronously with the plasma wave. We observe a maximum energy gain of 28 MeV, corresponding to an acceleration rate of about 2.8 GeV m-1.

  17. Ladder Climbing and Autoresonant Acceleration of Plasma Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, I.; Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2015-08-01

    When the background density in a bounded plasma is modulated in time, discrete modes become coupled. Interestingly, for appropriately chosen modulations, the average plasmon energy might be made to grow in a ladderlike manner, achieving upconversion or downconversion of the plasmon energy. This reversible process is identified as a classical analog of the effect known as quantum ladder climbing, so that the efficiency and the rate of this process can be written immediately by analogy to a quantum particle in a box. In the limit of a densely spaced spectrum, ladder climbing transforms into continuous autoresonance; plasmons may then be manipulated by chirped background modulations much like electrons are autoresonantly manipulated by chirped fields. By formulating the wave dynamics within a universal Lagrangian framework, similar ladder climbing and autoresonance effects are predicted to be achievable with general linear waves in both plasma and other media.

  18. Ladder Climbing and Autoresonant Acceleration of Plasma Waves.

    PubMed

    Barth, I; Dodin, I Y; Fisch, N J

    2015-08-14

    When the background density in a bounded plasma is modulated in time, discrete modes become coupled. Interestingly, for appropriately chosen modulations, the average plasmon energy might be made to grow in a ladderlike manner, achieving upconversion or downconversion of the plasmon energy. This reversible process is identified as a classical analog of the effect known as quantum ladder climbing, so that the efficiency and the rate of this process can be written immediately by analogy to a quantum particle in a box. In the limit of a densely spaced spectrum, ladder climbing transforms into continuous autoresonance; plasmons may then be manipulated by chirped background modulations much like electrons are autoresonantly manipulated by chirped fields. By formulating the wave dynamics within a universal Lagrangian framework, similar ladder climbing and autoresonance effects are predicted to be achievable with general linear waves in both plasma and other media.

  19. Ultrahigh-gradient acceleration of injected eletrons by laser-excited relativistic electron plasma waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, C. E.; Marsh, K. A.; Dyson, A.; Everett, M.; Lal, A.; Leemans, W. P.; Williams, R.; Joshi, C.

    1993-01-01

    High-gradient acceleration of externally injected 2.1-MeV electrons by a laser beat wave driven relativistic plasma wave has been demonstrated for the first time. Electrons with energies up to the detection limit of 9.1 MeV were detected when such a plasma wave was resonantly excited using a two-frequency laser. This implies a gradient of 0.7 GeV/m, corresponding to a plasma-wave amplitude of more than 8%. The electron signal was below detection threshold without injection or when the laser was operated on a single frequency.

  20. Ionospheric electron acceleration by electromagnetic waves near regions of plasma resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalon, Elena

    1989-03-01

    Electron acceleration by electromagnetic fields propagating in the inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma is investigated. It is found that high-amplitude short wavelength electrostatic waves are generated by the incident electromagnetic fields that penetrate the radio window. These waves can very efficiently transfer their energy to the electrons if the incident frequency is near the second harmonic of the cyclotron frequency.

  1. Ladder Climbing and Autoresonant Acceleration of Plasma Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Ido; Dodin, Ilya; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    When the background density in a bounded plasma is modulated in time, discrete modes become coupled. Interestingly, for appropriately chosen modulations, the average plasmon energy might be made to grow in a ladder-like manner, achieving up-conversion or down-conversion of the plasmon energy. This reversible process is identified as a classical analog of the effect known as quantum ladder climbing, so that the efficiency and the rate of this process can be written immediately by analogy to a quantum particle in a box. In the limit of densely spaced spectrum, ladder climbing transforms into continuous autoresonance; plasmons may then be manipulated by chirped background modulations much like electrons are autoresonantly manipulated by chirped fields. By formulating the wave dynamics within a universal Lagrangian framework, similar ladder climbing and autoresonance effects are predicted to be achievable with general linear waves in both plasma and other media. Supported by NNSA grant DE274-FG52-08NA28553, DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466, and DTRA grant HDTRA1-11-1-0037.

  2. Simple scalings for various regimes of electron acceleration in surface plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Riconda, C.; Vialis, T.; Raynaud, M.; Grech, M.

    2015-07-15

    Different electron acceleration regimes in the evanescent field of a surface plasma wave are studied by considering the interaction of a test electron with the high-frequency electromagnetic field of a surface wave. The non-relativistic and relativistic limits are investigated. Simple scalings are found demonstrating the possibility to achieve an efficient conversion of the surface wave field energy into electron kinetic energy. This mechanism of electron acceleration can provide a high-frequency pulsed source of relativistic electrons with a well defined energy. In the relativistic limit, the most energetic electrons are obtained in the so-called electromagnetic regime for surface waves. In this regime, the particles are accelerated to velocities larger than the wave phase velocity, mainly in the direction parallel to the plasma-vacuum interface.

  3. Laser-wakefield acceleration of monoenergetic electron beams in the first plasma-wave period.

    PubMed

    Mangles, S P D; Thomas, A G R; Kaluza, M C; Lundh, O; Lindau, F; Persson, A; Tsung, F S; Najmudin, Z; Mori, W B; Wahlström, C-G; Krushelnick, K

    2006-06-02

    Beam profile measurements of laser-wakefield accelerated electron bunches reveal that in the monoenergetic regime the electrons are injected and accelerated at the back of the first period of the plasma wave. With pulse durations ctau >or= lambda(p), we observe an elliptical beam profile with the axis of the ellipse parallel to the axis of the laser polarization. This increase in divergence in the laser polarization direction indicates that the electrons are accelerated within the laser pulse. Reducing the plasma density (decreasing ctau/lambda(p)) leads to a beam profile with less ellipticity, implying that the self-injection occurs at the rear of the first period of the plasma wave. This also demonstrates that the electron bunches are less than a plasma wavelength long, i.e., have a duration <25 fs. This interpretation is supported by 3D particle-in-cell simulations.

  4. Acceleration of energetic electrons by waves in inhomogeneous solar wind plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A.

    2017-04-01

    The paper studies the influence of the background plasma density fluctuations on the dynamics of the Langmuir turbulence generated by electron beams, for parameters typical for solar type III beams and plasmas near 1 AU. A self-consistent Hamiltonian model based on the Zakharov and the Newton equations is used, which presents several advantages compared to the Vlasov approach. Beams generating Langmuir turbulence can be accelerated as a result of wave transformation effects or/and decay cascade processes; in both cases, the beam-driven Langmuir waves transfer part of their energy to waves of smaller wavenumbers, which can be reabsorbed later on by beam particles of higher velocities. As a consequence, beams can conserve a large part of their initial kinetic energy while propagating and radiating wave turbulence over long distances in inhomogeneous plasmas. Beam particles can also be accelerated in quasi-homogeneous plasmas due to the second cascade of wave decay, the wave transformation processes being very weak in this case. The net gains and losses of energy of a beam and the wave turbulence it radiates are calculated as a function of the average level of plasma density fluctuations and the beam parameters. The results obtained provide relevant information on the mechanism of energy reabsorption by beams radiating Langmuir turbulence in solar wind plasmas.

  5. Plasma accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Zhehui; Barnes, Cris W.

    2002-01-01

    There has been invented an apparatus for acceleration of a plasma having coaxially positioned, constant diameter, cylindrical electrodes which are modified to converge (for a positive polarity inner electrode and a negatively charged outer electrode) at the plasma output end of the annulus between the electrodes to achieve improved particle flux per unit of power.

  6. Non-linear interactions of plasma waves in the context of solar particle acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos-Cruz, A.; Perez-Peraza, J.

    2001-08-01

    Stochastic particle acceleration in plasmas by means of MHD turbulence in-volves a wide range of alternatives according to, the specific wave mode, the frequency regime of the turbulence, the kind of particles to be accelerated, the assumed plasma model and so on. At present most of the alternatives have been studied with relatively deepness, though some features are not yet com-pletely understood. One of them is the delimitation of the real importance of non-lineal effects of turbulence waves in the process of particle acceleration. In this work we analyse such effects taking into account the temporal evolution of the turbulence. For illustration we exemplify our analysis with the fast MHD mode. Our results show that in some specific stages of the turbulence evolu-tion, non-linear interactions have important effects in the process of particle acceleration.

  7. Current-driven plasma acceleration versus current-driven energy dissipation. I - Wave stability theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.; Choueiri, E. Y.

    1990-01-01

    The dominant unstable electrostatic wave modes of an electromagnetically accelerated plasma are investigated. The study is the first part of a three-phase program aimed at characterizing the current-driven turbulent dissipation degrading the efficiency of Lorentz force plasma accelerators such as the MPD thruster. The analysis uses a kinetic theory that includes magnetic and thermal effects as well as those of an electron current transverse to the magnetic field and collisions, thus combining all the features of previous models. Analytical and numerical solutions allow a detailed description of threshold criteria, finite growth behavior, destabilization mechanisms and maximized-growth characteristics of the dominant unstable modes. The lower hybrid current-driven instability is implicated as dominant and was found to preserve its character in the collisional plasma regime.

  8. Experimental Validation of a Branched Solution Model for Magnetosonic Ionization Waves in Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Thomas; Loebner, Keith; Cappelli, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Detailed measurements of the thermodynamic and electrodynamic plasma state variables within the plume of a pulsed plasma accelerator are presented. A quadruple Langmuir probe operating in current-saturation mode is used to obtain time resolved measurements of the plasma density, temperature, potential, and velocity along the central axis of the accelerator. This data is used in conjunction with a fast-framing, intensified CCD camera to develop and validate a model predicting the existence of two distinct types of ionization waves corresponding to the upper and lower solution branches of the Hugoniot curve. A deviation of less than 8% is observed between the quasi-steady, one-dimensional theoretical model and the experimentally measured plume velocity. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Stewardship Science Academic Program in addition to the National Defense Science Engineering Graduate Fellowship.

  9. Shock wave acceleration of protons in inhomogeneous plasma interacting with ultrashort intense laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Lecz, Zs.; Andreev, A.

    2015-04-15

    The acceleration of protons, triggered by solitary waves in expanded solid targets is investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. The near-critical density plasma is irradiated by ultrashort high power laser pulses, which generate the solitary wave. The transformation of this soliton into a shock wave during propagation in plasma with exponentially decreasing density profile is described analytically, which allows to obtain a scaling law for the proton energy. The high quality proton bunch with small energy spread is produced by reflection from the shock-front. According to the 2D simulations, the mechanism is stable only if the laser pulse duration is shorter than the characteristic development time of the parasitic Weibel instability.

  10. Nonlinear surface plasma wave induced target normal sheath acceleration of protons

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C. S.; Tripathi, V. K. Shao, Xi; Liu, T. C.

    2015-02-15

    The mode structure of a large amplitude surface plasma wave (SPW) over a vacuum–plasma interface, including relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities, is deduced. It is shown that the SPW excited by a p-polarized laser on a rippled thin foil target can have larger amplitude than the transmitted laser amplitude and cause stronger target normal sheath acceleration of protons as reported in a recent experiment. Substantial enhancement in proton number also occurs due to the larger surface area covered by the SPW.

  11. Electron acceleration in relativistic plasma waves generated by a single frequency short-pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdale, C.A.; Darrow, C.B.; Decker, C.D.; Mori, W.B.; Tzeng, K.C., Clayton, C.E.; Marsh, K.A.; Joshi, C.

    1995-04-27

    Experimental evidence for the acceleration of electrons in a relativistic plasma wave generated by Raman forward scattering (SRS-F) of a single-frequency short pulse laser are presented. A 1.053 {mu}m, 600 fsec, 5 TW laser was focused into a gas jet with a peak intensity of 8{times}10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. At a plasma density of 2{times}10{sup 19} cm{sup {minus}3}, 2 MeV electrons were detected and their appearance was correlated with the anti-Stokes laser sideband generated by SRS-F. The results are in good agreement with 2-D PIC simulations. The use of short pulse lasers for making ultra-high gradient accelerators is explored.

  12. Blast Wave Formation by Laser-Sustained Nonequilibrium Plasma in the Laser-Driven In-Tube Accelerator Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, Yousuke; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Sawada, Keisuke; Sasoh, Akihiro

    2006-05-02

    Understanding the dynamics of laser-produced plasma is essentially important for increasing available thrust force in a gas-driven laser propulsion system such as laser-driven in-tube accelerator. A computer code is developed to explore the formation of expanding nonequilibrium plasma produced by laser irradiation. Various properties of the blast wave driven by the nonequilibrium plasma are examined. It is found that the blast wave propagation is substantially affected by radiative cooling effect for lower density case.

  13. Experimental identification of electrostatic plasma waves within ion conic acceleration regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintner, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    The identification of electrostatic modes in the ionospheric and magnetospheric plasma is a difficult process. Some success has been achieved with electrostatic hydrogen cyclotron waves where Doppler broadening is insignificant and with zero-frequency turbulence where the spectrum is entirely Doppler shifted. However, it is not yet possible to identify specific modes in regions of transverse ion acceleration. If the modes are assumed to exist, some limits can be placed on their electric field amplitudes. An experimental technique to measure wavelength directly, thereby circumventing problems created by Doppler shifting, is reviewed.

  14. Electron acceleration during the decay of nonlinear Whistler waves in low-beta electron-ion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Umeda, Takayuki; Saito, Shinji; Nariyuki, Yasuhiro E-mail: saito@stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2014-10-10

    Relativistic electron acceleration through dissipation of a nonlinear, short-wavelength, and monochromatic electromagnetic whistler wave in low-beta plasma is investigated by utilizing a one-dimensional fully relativistic electromagnetic particle-in-cell code. The nonlinear (large-amplitude) parent whistler wave decays through the parametric instability which enhances electrostatic ion acoustic waves and electromagnetic whistler waves. These waves satisfy the condition of three-wave coupling. Through the decay instability, the energy of electron bulk velocity supporting the parent wave is converted to the thermal energy perpendicular to the background magnetic field. Increase of the perpendicular temperature triggers the electron temperature anisotropy instability which generates broadband whistler waves and heats electrons in the parallel direction. The broadband whistler waves are inverse-cascaded during the relaxation of the electron temperature anisotropy. In lower-beta conditions, electrons with a pitch angle of about 90° are successively accelerated by inverse-cascaded whistler waves, and selected electrons are accelerated to over a Lorentz factor of 10. The result implies that the nonlinear dissipation of a finite-amplitude and short-wavelength whistler wave plays an important role in producing relativistic nonthermal electrons over a few MeV especially at lower beta plasmas.

  15. Improved plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  16. Enhanced acceleration of injected electrons in a laser-beat-wave-induced plasma channel.

    PubMed

    Tochitsky, S Ya; Narang, R; Filip, C V; Musumeci, P; Clayton, C E; Yoder, R B; Marsh, K A; Rosenzweig, J B; Pellegrini, C; Joshi, C

    2004-03-05

    Enhanced energy gain of externally injected electrons by a approximately 3 cm long, high-gradient relativistic plasma wave (RPW) is demonstrated. Using a CO2 laser beat wave of duration longer than the ion motion time across the laser spot size, a laser self-guiding process is initiated in a plasma channel. Guiding compensates for ionization-induced defocusing (IID) creating a longer plasma, which extends the interaction length between electrons and the RPW. In contrast to a maximum energy gain of 10 MeV when IID is dominant, the electrons gain up to 38 MeV energy in a laser-beat-wave-induced plasma channel.

  17. Auroral plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    A review is given of auroral plasma wave phenomena, starting with the earliest ground-based observations and ending with the most recent satellite observations. Two types of waves are considered, electromagnetic and electrostatic. Electromagnetic waves include auroral kilometric radiation, auroral hiss, ELF noise bands, and low-frequency electric and magnetic noise. Electrostatic waves include upper hybrid resonance emissions, electron cyclotron waves, lower hybrid waves, ion cyclotron waves and broadband electrostatic noise. In each case, a brief overview is given describing the observations, the origin of the instability, and the role of the waves in the physics of the auroral acceleration region.

  18. Recent Advances in Plasma Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Hogan, Mark

    2007-03-19

    The costs and the time scales of colliders intended to reach the energy frontier are such that it is important to explore new methods of accelerating particles to high energies. Plasma-based accelerators are particularly attractive because they are capable of producing accelerating fields that are orders of magnitude larger than those used in conventional colliders. In these accelerators a drive beam, either laser or particle, produces a plasma wave (wakefield) that accelerates charged particles. The ultimate utility of plasma accelerators will depend on sustaining ultra-high accelerating fields over a substantial length to achieve a significant energy gain. More than 42 GeV energy gain was achieved in an 85 cm long plasma wakefield accelerator driven by a 42 GeV electron drive beam in the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB) Facility at SLAC. Most of the beam electrons lose energy to the plasma wave, but some electrons in the back of the same beam pulse are accelerated with a field of {approx}52 GV/m. This effectively doubles their energy, producing the energy gain of the 3 km long SLAC accelerator in less than a meter for a small fraction of the electrons in the injected bunch. Prospects for a drive-witness bunch configuration and high-gradient positron acceleration experiments planned for the SABER facility will be discussed.

  19. A study of ion acceleration, asymmetric optical pumping and low frequency waves in two expanding helicon plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xuan

    This work concerns measurements of parallel ion flow, optical pumping, and low frequency waves in expanding plasmas generated by two different helicon plasma sources. The measurements confirm numerical predictions of the formation of a current-free double layer in a region of diverging magnetic field. With laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), the double layer structure in both helicon plasma sources was investigated through measurements of the bulk parallel ion flow speed. Both double layers have a total potential drop of 3-4 kTe and length scales smaller than ion-neutral mean-free-path. A stronger double layer, with a potential drop of ˜ 6kTe , was created in a uniform magnetic field region with a plasma limiting aperture plate. During the investigations of ion acceleration in expanding plasmas, a new phenomenon, asymmetrical optical pumping (AOP) due to the acceleration of ions in magnetic field gradient, was observed. The signature of AOP is a difference in the LIF emission amplitude from a pair of Zeeman-split ion states. A model that reproduces the dependence of the AOP on magnetic-field and ion-velocity gradients is described. With magnetic fluctuation probes, low frequency, transverse, electromagnetic waves were also identified in the expanding helicon plasma. The wave is localized to the vicinity of the maximum plasma density gradient and appears only at low neutral pressure. Based on the scaling of the wave frequency and amplitude with magnetic field strength, the wave was identified as the resistive drift Alfven wave.

  20. Basic concepts in plasma accelerators.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Robert

    2006-03-15

    In this article, we present the underlying physics and the present status of high gradient and high-energy plasma accelerators. With the development of compact short pulse high-brightness lasers and electron and positron beams, new areas of studies for laser/particle beam-matter interactions is opening up. A number of methods are being pursued vigorously to achieve ultra-high-acceleration gradients. These include the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) mechanism which uses conventional long pulse ( approximately 100 ps) modest intensity lasers (I approximately 10(14)-10(16) W cm(-2)), the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) which uses the new breed of compact high-brightness lasers (<1 ps) and intensities >10(18) W cm(-2), self-modulated laser wakefield accelerator (SMLWFA) concept which combines elements of stimulated Raman forward scattering (SRFS) and electron acceleration by nonlinear plasma waves excited by relativistic electron and positron bunches the plasma wakefield accelerator. In the ultra-high intensity regime, laser/particle beam-plasma interactions are highly nonlinear and relativistic, leading to new phenomenon such as the plasma wakefield excitation for particle acceleration, relativistic self-focusing and guiding of laser beams, high-harmonic generation, acceleration of electrons, positrons, protons and photons. Fields greater than 1 GV cm(-1) have been generated with monoenergetic particle beams accelerated to about 100 MeV in millimetre distances recorded. Plasma wakefields driven by both electron and positron beams at the Stanford linear accelerator centre (SLAC) facility have accelerated the tail of the beams.

  1. The heating and acceleration actions of the solar plasma wave by QFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    solar plasma will left-right separate by Lorentz force and by the feedback mechanism of Lorentz force the positive - negative charge will left-right vibrate. The plasma on the move will accompany with up-down and left-right vibrating and become the wave. Though the frequent of the plasma wave is not high, but its heating and acceleration actions will be not less then that of the microwave and laser because of its mass and energy far large then that of the microwave and laser.

  2. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    ScienceCinema

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2016-07-12

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  3. Accelerating Particles with Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Litos, Michael; Hogan, Mark

    2014-11-05

    Researchers at SLAC explain how they use plasma wakefields to accelerate bunches of electrons to very high energies over only a short distance. Their experiments offer a possible path for the future of particle accelerators.

  4. Plasma physics. Stochastic electron acceleration during spontaneous turbulent reconnection in a strong shock wave.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Y; Amano, T; Kato, T N; Hoshino, M

    2015-02-27

    Explosive phenomena such as supernova remnant shocks and solar flares have demonstrated evidence for the production of relativistic particles. Interest has therefore been renewed in collisionless shock waves and magnetic reconnection as a means to achieve such energies. Although ions can be energized during such phenomena, the relativistic energy of the electrons remains a puzzle for theory. We present supercomputer simulations showing that efficient electron energization can occur during turbulent magnetic reconnection arising from a strong collisionless shock. Upstream electrons undergo first-order Fermi acceleration by colliding with reconnection jets and magnetic islands, giving rise to a nonthermal relativistic population downstream. These results shed new light on magnetic reconnection as an agent of energy dissipation and particle acceleration in strong shock waves.

  5. Solar system plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

  6. Analysis of the dependence of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave in space plasma on the particle momentum along the wave front

    SciTech Connect

    Erokhin, A. N.; Zol’nikova, N. N.; Erokhin, N. S.

    2016-01-15

    Based on the numerical solution of the nonlinear nonstationary second-order equation for the wave phase on the particle trajectory, the dynamics of surfatron acceleration of electrons by an electromagnetic wave propagating across the external magnetic field in space plasma is analyzed as a function of the electron momentum along the wave front. Numerical calculations show that, for strongly relativistic initial values of the electron momentum component along the wave front g{sub y}(0) (the other parameters of the problem being the same), electrons are trapped into the regime of ultrarelativistic surfatron acceleration within a certain interval of the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory. It is assumed in the calculations that vertical bar Ψ(0) vertical bar ≤ π. For strongly relativistic values of g{sub y}(0), electrons are immediately trapped by the wave for 19% of the initial values of the phase Ψ(0) (favorable phases). For the rest of the values of Ψ(0), trapping does not occur even at long times. This circumstance substantially simplifies estimations of the wave damping due to particle acceleration in subsequent calculations. The dynamics of the relativistic factor and the components of the electron velocity and momentum under surfatron acceleration is also analyzed. The obtained results are of interest for the development of modern concepts of possible mechanisms of generation of ultrarelativistic particle fluxes in relatively calm space plasma, as well as for correct interpretation of observational data on the fluxes of such particles and explanation of possible reasons for the deviation of ultrarelativistic particle spectra detected in the heliosphere from the standard power-law scalings and the relation of these variations to space weather and large-scale atmospheric processes similar to tropical cyclones.

  7. Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C. I.; Hafizi, B.; Ting, A.; Burris, H. R.; Sprangle, P.; Esarey, E.; Ganguly, A.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    1997-11-01

    The Vacuum Beat Wave Accelerator (VBWA) is a particle acceleration scheme which uses the non-linear ponderomotive beating of two different frequency laser beams to accelerate electrons. A proof-of-principle experiment to demonstrate the VBWA is underway at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). This experiment will use the beating of a 1054 nm and 527 nm laser pulse from the NRL T-cubed laser to generate the beat wave and a 4.5 MeV RF electron gun as the electron source. Simulation results and the experimental design will be presented. The suitability of using axicon or higher order Gaussian laser beams will also be discussed.

  8. EDITORIAL: Laser and plasma accelerators Laser and plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Robert

    2009-02-01

    This special issue on laser and plasma accelerators illustrates the rapid advancement and diverse applications of laser and plasma accelerators. Plasma is an attractive medium for particle acceleration because of the high electric field it can sustain, with studies of acceleration processes remaining one of the most important areas of research in both laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. The rapid advance in laser and accelerator technology has led to the development of terawatt and petawatt laser systems with ultra-high intensities and short sub-picosecond pulses, which are used to generate wakefields in plasma. Recent successes include the demonstration by several groups in 2004 of quasi-monoenergetic electron beams by wakefields in the bubble regime with the GeV energy barrier being reached in 2006, and the energy doubling of the SLAC high-energy electron beam from 42 to 85 GeV. The electron beams generated by the laser plasma driven wakefields have good spatial quality with energies ranging from MeV to GeV. A unique feature is that they are ultra-short bunches with simulations showing that they can be as short as a few femtoseconds with low-energy spread, making these beams ideal for a variety of applications ranging from novel high-brightness radiation sources for medicine, material science and ultrafast time-resolved radiobiology or chemistry. Laser driven ion acceleration experiments have also made significant advances over the last few years with applications in laser fusion, nuclear physics and medicine. Attention is focused on the possibility of producing quasi-mono-energetic ions with energies ranging from hundreds of MeV to GeV per nucleon. New acceleration mechanisms are being studied, including ion acceleration from ultra-thin foils and direct laser acceleration. The application of wakefields or beat waves in other areas of science such as astrophysics and particle physics is beginning to take off, such as the study of cosmic accelerators considered

  9. Plasma-based accelerator structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl B.

    1999-12-01

    Plasma-based accelerators have the ability to sustain extremely large accelerating gradients, with possible high-energy physics applications. This dissertation further develops the theory of plasma-based accelerators by addressing three topics: the performance of a hollow plasma channel as an accelerating structure, the generation of ultrashort electron bunches, and the propagation of laser pulses is underdense plasmas.

  10. Tapered plasma channels to phase-lock accelerating and focusing forces in laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Rittershofer, W.; Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Gruner, F.J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-05-17

    Tapered plasma channels are considered for controlling dephasing of a beam with respect to a plasma wave driven by a weakly-relativistic, short-pulse laser. Tapering allows for enhanced energy gain in a single laser plasma accelerator stage. Expressions are derived for the taper, or longitudinal plasma density variation, required to maintain a beam at a constant phase in the longitudinal and/or transverse fields of the plasma wave. In a plasma channel, the phase velocities of the longitudinal and transverse fields differ, and, hence, the required tapering differs. The length over which the tapered plasma density becomes singular is calculated. Linear plasma tapering as well as discontinuous plasma tapering, which moves beams to adjacent plasma wave buckets, are also considered. The energy gain of an accelerated electron in a tapered laser-plasma accelerator is calculated and the laser pulse length to optimize the energy gain is determined.

  11. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1989-01-01

    The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass. The goal of the present program is to demonstrate feasibility of the EPA thruster concept through experimental and theoretical investigations of the EPA acceleration mechanism and discharge chamber performance. Experimental investigations will include operating the test bed ion (TBI) engine as an EPA thruster and parametrically varying the thruster geometry and operating conditions to quantify the electrostatic plasma acceleration effect. The theoretical investigations will include the development of a discharge chamber model which describes the relationships between the engine size, plasma properties, and overall performance. For the EPA thruster to be a viable propulsion concept, overall thruster efficiencies approaching 30% with specific impulses approaching 1000 s must be achieved.

  12. Physics of Laser-driven plasma-based acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, Eric; Schroeder, Carl B.

    2003-06-30

    The physics of plasma-based accelerators driven by short-pulse lasers is reviewed. This includes the laser wake-field accelerator, the plasma beat wave accelerator, the self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator, and plasma waves driven by multiple laser pulses. The properties of linear and nonlinear plasma waves are discussed, as well as electron acceleration in plasma waves. Methods for injecting and trapping plasma electrons in plasma waves are also discussed. Limits to the electron energy gain are summarized, including laser pulse direction, electron dephasing, laser pulse energy depletion, as well as beam loading limitations. The basic physics of laser pulse evolution in underdense plasmas is also reviewed. This includes the propagation, self-focusing, and guiding of laser pulses in uniform plasmas and plasmas with preformed density channels. Instabilities relevant to intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions, such as Raman, self-modulation, and hose instabilities, are discussed. Recent experimental results are summarized.

  13. Auroral plasma acceleration processes at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, R.; Barabash, S.; Winningham, D.

    2012-09-01

    Following the first Mars Express (MEX) findings of auroral plasma acceleration above Martian magnetic anomalies[1, 2], a more detailed analysis is carried out regarding the physical processes that leads to plasma acceleration, and how they connect to the dynamo-, and energy source regions. The ultimate energy source for Martian plasma acceleration is the solar wind. The question is, by what mechanisms is solar wind energy and momentum transferred into the magnetic flux tubes that connect to Martian magnetic anomalies? What are the key plasma acceleration processes that lead to aurora and the associated ionospheric plasma outflow from Mars? The experimental setup on MEX limits our capability to carry out "auroral physics" at Mars. However, with knowledge acquired from the Earth, we may draw some analogies with terrestrial auroral physics. Using the limited data set available, consisting of primarily ASPERA and MARSIS data, an interesting picture of aurora at Mars emerges. There are some strong similarities between accelerated/heated electrons and ions in the nightside high altitude region above Mars and the electron/ion acceleration above Terrestrial discrete aurora. Nearly monoenergetic downgoing electrons are observed in conjunction with nearly monoenergetic upgoing ions. Monoenergetic counterstreaming ions and electrons is the signature of plasma acceleration in quasi-static electric fields. However, compared to the Earth's aurora, with auroral process guided by a dipole field, aurora at Mars is expected to form complex patterns in the multipole environment governed by the Martian crustal magnetic field regions. Moreover, temporal/spatial scales are different at Mars. It is therefore of interest to mention another common characteristics that exist for Earth and Mars, plasma acceleration by waves. Low-frequency, Alfvén, waves is a very powerful means of plasma acceleration in the Earth's magnetosphere. Low-frequency waves associated with plasma acceleration

  14. Plasma accelerator experiments in Yugoslavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purić, J.; Astashynski, V. M.; Kuraica, M. M.; Dojčinovié, I. P.

    2002-12-01

    An overview is given of the results obtained in the Plasma Accelerator Experiments in Belgrade, using quasi-stationary high current plasma accelerators constructed within the framework of the Yugoslavia-Belarus Joint Project. So far, the following plasma accelerators have been realized: Magnetoplasma Compressor type (MPC); MPC Yu type; one stage Erosive Plasma Dynamic System (EPDS) and, in final stage of construction two stage Quasi-Stationary High Current Plasma Accelerator (QHPA).

  15. Wave and particle dynamics of the beat-wave accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, P. )

    1989-10-15

    We present two-dimensional wave-envelope studies of the interaction between a plasma beat-wave and the laser pumps which drive it. A new method of focusing is demonstrated which requires the plasma wave to be driven slightly below its resonant frequency. Test particles are employed to investigate possible means of extending the accelerator stage length. {copyright} 1989 American Institute of Physics

  16. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-10-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  17. Physical Processes of the Interaction Between Laser-Generated Plasma and Blast Wave Appearing in Laser-Driven In-Tube Accelerator Configuration

    SciTech Connect

    Sasoh, Akihiro; Mori, Koichi; Ohtani, Toshiro; Ohnishi, Naofumi; Ogino, Yosuke; Sawada, Keisuke

    2006-05-02

    Flow visualizations of the interaction between a laser-pulse-generated plasma and a shock wave driven by it have been experimentally conducted. The configuration of the experimental set-up corresponds to the laser-driven, in-tube accelerator. Primary-mode deformation of the plasma is governed by Richtmyer-Meshkov instability which is produced by the vector product between the pressure and density gradients, which in turn correspond to a reflected shock wave and to the plasma, respectively. Higher-mode contact surface deformations are supposedly originated in Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the shrinkage phase of the plasma, and is enhanced due to the passage of the reflected shock wave.

  18. Generation of quasi-monoenergetic heavy ion beams via staged shock wave acceleration driven by intense laser pulses in near-critical plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. L.; Qiao, B.; Shen, X. F.; You, W. Y.; Huang, T. W.; Yan, X. Q.; Wu, S. Z.; Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T.

    2016-09-01

    Laser-driven ion acceleration potentially offers a compact, cost-effective alternative to conventional accelerators for scientific, technological, and health-care applications. A novel scheme for heavy ion acceleration in near-critical plasmas via staged shock waves driven by intense laser pulses is proposed, where, in front of the heavy ion target, a light ion layer is used for launching a high-speed electrostatic shock wave. This shock is enhanced at the interface before it is transmitted into the heavy ion plasmas. Monoenergetic heavy ion beam with much higher energy can be generated by the transmitted shock, comparing to the shock wave acceleration in pure heavy ion target. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that quasi-monoenergetic {{{C}}}6+ ion beams with peak energy 168 MeV and considerable particle number 2.1 × {10}11 are obtained by laser pulses at intensity of 1.66 × {10}20 {{W}} {{cm}}-2 in such staged shock wave acceleration scheme. Similarly a high-quality {{Al}}10+ ion beam with a well-defined peak with energy 250 MeV and spread δ E/{E}0=30 % can also be obtained in this scheme.

  19. Pulsed Plasma Accelerator Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, M.; Kazeminezhad, F.; Owens, T.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the main results of the modeling task of the PPA project. The objective of this task is to make major progress towards developing a new computational tool with new capabilities for simulating cylindrically symmetric 2.5 dimensional (2.5 D) PPA's. This tool may be used for designing, optimizing, and understanding the operation of PPA s and other pulsed power devices. The foundation for this task is the 2-D, cylindrically symmetric, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code PCAPPS (Princeton Code for Advanced Plasma Propulsion Simulation). PCAPPS was originally developed by Sankaran (2001, 2005) to model Lithium Lorentz Force Accelerators (LLFA's), which are electrode based devices, and are typically operated in continuous magnetic field to the model, and implementing a first principles, self-consistent algorithm to couple the plasma and power circuit that drives the plasma dynamics.

  20. The effect of plasma inhomogeneities on (i) radio emission generation by non-gyrotropic electron beams and (ii) particle acceleration by Langmuir waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiklauri, David

    2015-04-01

    Extensive particle-in-cell simulations of fast electron beams injected in a background magnetised plasma with a decreasing density profile were carried out. These simulations were intended to further shed light on a newly proposed mechanism for the generation of electromagnetic waves in type III solar radio bursts [1]. Here recent progress in an alternative to the plasma emission model using Particle-In-Cell, self-consistent electromagnetic wave emission simulations of solar type III radio bursts will be presented. In particular, (i) Fourier space drift (refraction) of non-gyrotropic electron beam-generated wave packets, caused by the density gradient [1,2], (ii) parameter space investigation of numerical runs [3], (iii) concurrent generation of whistler waves [4] and a separate problem of (iv) electron acceleration by Langmuir waves in a background magnetised plasma with an increasing density profile [5] will be discussed. In all considered cases the density inhomogeneity-induced wave refraction plays a crucial role. In the case of non-gyrotropic electron beam, the wave refraction transforms the generated wave packets from standing into freely escaping EM radiation. In the case of electron acceleration by Langmuir waves, a positive density gradient in the direction of wave propagation causes a decrease in the wavenumber, and hence a higher phase velocity vph = ω/k. The k-shifted wave is then subject to absorption by a faster electron by wave-particle interaction. The overall effect is an increased number of high energy electrons in the energy spectrum. [1] D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052903 (2011); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3590928 [2] H. Schmitz, D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 20, 062903 (2013); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4812453 [3] R. Pechhacker, D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 19, 112903 (2012); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4768429 [4] M. Skender, D. Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 21, 042904 (2014); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4871723 [5] R. Pechhacker, D. Tsiklauri

  1. Plasma heating and acceleration due to Landau damping of hydromagnetic waves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, A.; Hung, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    We analyze energy and momentum exchange associated with Landau damping of hydromagnetic waves, from a macroscopic viewpoint, and compare the conclusions with those of the resonant quasi-linear theory. It is found that the heating of protons and electrons is correctly given by the resonant theory, but that the momentum exchange is not correctly described by the resonant theory.

  2. Planetary plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1993-01-01

    The primary types of plasma waves observed in the vicinity of the planets Venus, Mars, Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are described. The observations are organized according to the various types of plasma waves observed, ordered according to decreasing distance from the planet, starting from the sunward side of the planet, and ending in the region near the closest approach. The plasma waves observed include: electron plasma oscillations and ion acoustic waves; trapped continuum radiation; electron cyclotron and upper hybrid waves; whistler-mode emissions; electrostatic ion cyclotron waves; and electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves.

  3. Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brophy, John R.; Aston, Graeme

    1995-01-01

    The application of electric propulsion to communications satellites, however, has been limited to the use of hydrazine thrusters with electric heaters for thrust and specific impulse augmentation. These electrothermal thrusters operate at specific impulse levels of approximately 300 s with heater powers of about 500 W. Low power arcjets (1-3 kW) are currently being investigated as a way to increase specific impulse levels to approximately 500 s. Ion propulsion systems can easily produce specific impulses of 3000 s or greater, but have yet to be applied to communications satellites. The reasons most often given for not using ion propulsion systems are their high level of overall complexity, low thrust with long burn times, and the difficulty of integrating the propulsion system into existing commercial spacecraft busses. The Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) is a thruster concept which promises specific impulse levels between low power arcjets and those of the ion engine while retaining the relative simplicity of the arcjet. The EPA thruster produces thrust through the electrostatic acceleration of a moderately dense plasma. No accelerating electrodes are used and the specific impulse is a direct function of the applied discharge voltage and the propellant atomic mass.

  4. Induced emission of Alfvén waves in inhomogeneous streaming plasma: implications for solar corona heating and solar wind acceleration.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, V L; Shevchenko, V I

    2013-07-05

    The results of a self-consistent kinetic model of heating the solar corona and accelerating the fast solar wind are presented for plasma flowing in a nonuniform magnetic field configuration of near-Sun conditions. The model is based on a scale separation between the large transit or inhomogeneity scales and the small dissipation scales. The macroscale instability of the marginally stable particle distribution function compliments the resonant frequency sweeping dissipation of transient Alfvén waves by their induced emission in inhomogeneous streaming plasma that provides enough energy for keeping the plasma temperature decaying not faster than r(-1) in close agreement with in situ heliospheric observations.

  5. Acceleration of solitary ion-acoustic surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, L.; Gradov, O. M.

    1991-10-01

    We consider the interaction between long-wavelength ion-acoustic and electron-plasma surface waves on a semi-infinite plasma. It then turns out that an ion-acoustic solitary wave can be accelerated when the amplitude of the electron-plasma surface wave varies in time.

  6. Trapping and dark current in plasma-based accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Schroder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Shadwick, B.A.; Leemans, W.P.

    2004-06-01

    The trapping of thermal electrons in a nonlinear plasma wave of arbitrary phase velocity is investigated. The threshold plasma wave amplitude for trapping plasma electrons is calculated, thereby determining the fraction trapped and the expected dark current in a plasma-based accelerator. It is shown that the presence of a laser field (e.g., trapping in the self-modulated regime of the laser wakefield accelerator) increases the trapping threshold. Implications for experimental and numerical laser-plasma studies are discussed.

  7. Comment on "PIC simulations of circularly polarised Alfvén wave phase mixing: a new mechanism for electron acceleration in collisionless plasmas" by Tsiklauri et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottez, F.; Génot, V.; Louarn, P.

    2006-04-01

    Tsiklauri et al. recently published a theoretical model of electron acceleration by Alfvén waves in a nonuniform collisionless plasmas. We compare their work with a series of results published earlier by an another team, of which Tsiklauri et al. were probably unaware. We show that these two series of works, apparently conducted independently, lead to the same conclusions. This reinforces the theoretical consistency of the model.

  8. Application of Plasma Waveguides to High Energy Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Milchberg, Howard

    2016-07-01

    This grant supported basic experimental, theoretical and computer simulation research into developing a compact, high pulse repetition rate laser accelerator using the direct laser acceleration mechanism in plasma-based slow wave structures.

  9. Electron cyclotron harmonic wave acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Menyuk, C. R.; Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear analysis of particle acceleration in a finite bandwidth, obliquely propagating electromagnetic cyclotron wave is presented. It has been suggested by Sprangle and Vlahos in 1983 that the narrow bandwidth cyclotron radiation emitted by the unstable electron distribution inside a flaring solar loop can accelerate electrons outside the loop by the interaction of a monochromatic wave propagating along the ambient magnetic field with the ambient electrons. It is shown here that electrons gyrating and streaming along a uniform, static magnetic field can be accelerated by interacting with the fundamental or second harmonic of a monochromatic, obliquely propagating cyclotron wave. It is also shown that the acceleration is virtually unchanged when a wave with finite bandwidth is considered. This acceleration mechanism can explain the observed high-energy electrons in type III bursts.

  10. Critical Issues in Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, M.; Hosokai, T.

    2004-10-01

    Updated achievements and critical issues in plasma accelerators are summarized. As to laser plasma accelerators, we cover the results of plasma cathodes by U.Michigan, LBNL, LOA and U.Tokyo. Although many new results of accelerated electrons have been reported, the electrons do not yet form a bunch with narrow energy spread. Several injection schemes and measurements to verify ultrashort bunch (tens fs) with narrow energy spread, low emittance and many charges are planned. E-162 experiments by UCLA / USC / SLAC and a newly proposed experiment on density transition trapping are introduced for electron beam driven plasma accelerators. Their main purpose is realization of GeV plasma accelerator, but application to pump-and-probe analysis for investigation of ultrafast quantum phenomena is also promising.

  11. Surfatron laser-plasma accelerator: prospects and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, C.

    1983-01-01

    The surfatron laser-plasma accelerator is an extension of the plasma beat wave accelerator scheme. It utilizes very intense electric fields, 10/sup 9/ to 10/sup 10/ V/cm, associated with focussed laser beams to accelerate particles. (GHT)

  12. Laser Plasma Particle Accelerators: Large Fields for Smaller Facility Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, Cameron G.R.; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Esarey, Eric H.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Leemans, Wim P.; Bruhwiler, David L.; Cary, John R.; Cowan, Ben; Durant, Marc; Hamill, Paul; Messmer, Peter; Mullowney, Paul; Nieter, Chet; Paul, Kevin; Shasharina, Svetlana; Veitzer, Seth; Weber, Gunther; Rubel, Oliver; Ushizima, Daniela; Bethel, Wes; Wu, John

    2009-03-20

    Compared to conventional particle accelerators, plasmas can sustain accelerating fields that are thousands of times higher. To exploit this ability, massively parallel SciDAC particle simulations provide physical insight into the development of next-generation accelerators that use laser-driven plasma waves. These plasma-based accelerators offer a path to more compact, ultra-fast particle and radiation sources for probing the subatomic world, for studying new materials and new technologies, and for medical applications.

  13. Compact plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A compact plasma accelerator having components including a cathode electron source, an anodic ionizing gas source, and a magnetic field that is cusped. The components are held by an electrically insulating body having a central axis, a top axial end, and a bottom axial end. The cusped magnetic field is formed by a cylindrical magnet having an axis of rotation that is the same as the axis of rotation of the insulating body, and magnetized with opposite poles at its two axial ends; and an annular magnet coaxially surrounding the cylindrical magnet, magnetized with opposite poles at its two axial ends such that a top axial end has a magnetic polarity that is opposite to the magnetic polarity of a top axial end of the cylindrical magnet. The ionizing gas source is a tubular plenum that has been curved into a substantially annular shape, positioned above the top axial end of the annular magnet such that the plenum is centered in a ring-shaped cusp of the magnetic field generated by the magnets. The plenum has one or more capillary-like orifices spaced around its top such that an ionizing gas supplied through the plenum is sprayed through the one or more orifices. The plenum is electrically conductive and is positively charged relative to the cathode electron source such that the plenum functions as the anode; and the cathode is positioned above and radially outward relative to the plenum.

  14. Dusty-Plasma Particle Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2005-01-01

    A dusty-plasma apparatus is being investigated as means of accelerating nanometer- and micrometer-sized particles. Applications for the dusty-plasma particle accelerators fall into two classes: Simulation of a variety of rapidly moving dust particles and micrometeoroids in outer-space environments that include micrometeoroid streams, comet tails, planetary rings, and nebulae and Deposition or implantation of nanoparticles on substrates for diverse industrial purposes that could include hardening, increasing thermal insulation, altering optical properties, and/or increasing permittivities of substrate materials. Relative to prior apparatuses used for similar applications, dusty-plasma particle accelerators offer such potential advantages as smaller size, lower cost, less complexity, and increased particle flux densities. A dusty-plasma particle accelerator exploits the fact that an isolated particle immersed in plasma acquires a net electric charge that depends on the relative mobilities of electrons and ions. Typically, a particle that is immersed in a low-temperature, partially ionized gas, wherein the average kinetic energy of electrons exceeds that of ions, causes the particle to become negatively charged. The particle can then be accelerated by applying an appropriate electric field. A dusty-plasma particle accelerator (see figure) includes a plasma source such as a radio-frequency induction discharge apparatus containing (1) a shallow cup with a biasable electrode to hold the particles to be accelerated and (2) a holder for the substrate on which the particles are to impinge. Depending on the specific design, a pair of electrostatic-acceleration grids between the substrate and discharge plasma can be used to both collimate and further accelerate particles exiting the particle holder. Once exposed to the discharge plasma, the particles in the cup quickly acquire a negative charge. Application of a negative voltage pulse to the biasable electrode results in the

  15. Sequentially pulsed traveling wave accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George J.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.

    2009-08-18

    A sequentially pulsed traveling wave compact accelerator having two or more pulse forming lines each with a switch for producing a short acceleration pulse along a short length of a beam tube, and a trigger mechanism for sequentially triggering the switches so that a traveling axial electric field is produced along the beam tube in synchronism with an axially traversing pulsed beam of charged particles to serially impart energy to the particle beam.

  16. Einige Bemerkungen ueber die Erzeugung von Elektromagnetischen Wanderwellen und Stehenden Wellen zur Induktiven Plasmabeschleunigung (Some Comments Concerning the Generation of Traveling and Standing Electromagnetic Waves for Inductive Plasma Acceleration),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Some comments are made for the generation of electromagnetic travelling and standing waves used for inductive plasma acceleration. Resulting from a...simple mathematical formulation the different features lead to a non-conventional method for travelling wave generation, which is compared with the

  17. Role of DC Electric Fields and Wave Heating in Cavity Profiles of Depleted Density and Transverse Ion Acceleration in Laboratory and Space Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepke, M. E.; Reynolds, E. W.; Knudsen, D. J.

    2007-05-01

    Laboratory experiments on the WVU Q Machine, test-particle simulations, and Monte Carlo simulations are shown to provide evidence for explaining the inhomogeneity in both the plasma-density profile and the ion- temperature profile associated with cylindrically symmetric lower-hybrid cavities observed by the GEODESIC sounding rocket, the OEDIPUS-C sounding rocket, and the Freja satellite. Two potential contributions to the inhomogeneous profiles are identified. Both mechanisms (one dc and the other ac) rely on finite values of the Larmor radius and can result in nonlocal effects that deplete ion density within the cavity and enhance ion density immediately outside the cavity to form ion-gyroradius-scale shoulders encircling the cavity perimeter. In the absence of waves, a cylindrically symmetric, radial, DC electric field can be responsible for a polarization shift that produces such inhomogeneity in the density profile [1]. In the presence of waves, wave-induced transverse ion acceleration occurring within the cavity can produce such inhomogeneity in the density profile [2]. In combination, the two effects are shown to be comparable, necessitating an interpretation that includes both mechanisms for quantitative agreement. For the lab data, laser-induced fluorescence techniques provide high resolution in coordinate space and velocity space. [1] Reynolds et al., Inhomogeneity scale lengths in a magnetized, low temperature, collisionless, Q-machine plasma column containing perpendicular-velocity shear, Phys. Plasmas 13, 092106 (2006). [2] Knudsen et al., Lower-hybrid cavity density depletions as a result of transverse ion acceleration localized on the gyroradius scale, J. Geophys. Res. 109, A04212 (2004). This research is supported by NSF.

  18. Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason T.; Markusic, Tom E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A major shift in paradigm in driving pulsed plasma thruster is necessary if the original goal of accelerating a plasma sheet efficiently to high velocities as a plasma "slug" is to be realized. Firstly, the plasma interior needs to be highly collisional so that it can be dammed by the plasma edge layer not (upstream) adjacent to the driving 'vacuum' magnetic field. Secondly, the plasma edge layer needs to be strongly magnetized so that its Hall parameter is of the order of unity in this region to ensure excellent coupling of the Lorentz force to the plasma. Thirdly, to prevent and/or suppress the occurrence of secondary arcs or restrike behind the plasma, the region behind the plasma needs to be collisionless and extremely magnetized with sufficiently large Hall parameter. This places a vacuum requirement on the bore conditions prior to the shot. These requirements are quantified in the paper and lead to the introduction of three new design parameters corresponding to these three plasma requirements. The first parameter, labeled in the paper as gamma (sub 1), pertains to the permissible ratio of the diffusive excursion of the plasma during the course of the acceleration to the plasma longitudinal dimension. The second parameter is the required Hall parameter of the edge plasma region, and the third parameter the required Hall parameter of the region behind the plasma. Experimental research is required to quantify the values of these design parameters. Based upon fundamental theory of the transport processes in plasma, some theoretical guidance on the choice of these parameters are provided to help designing the necessary experiments to acquire these data.

  19. Laser-driven plasma beat-wave propagation in a density-modulated plasma.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devki Nandan; Nam, In Hyuk; Suk, Hyyong

    2011-11-01

    A laser-driven plasma beat wave, propagating through a plasma with a periodic density modulation, can generate two sideband plasma waves. One sideband moves with a smaller phase velocity than the pump plasma wave and the other propagates with a larger phase velocity. The plasma beat wave with a smaller phase velocity can accelerate modest-energy electrons to gain substantial energy and the electrons are further accelerated by the main plasma wave. The large phase velocity plasma wave can accelerate these electrons to higher energies. As a result, the electrons can attain high energies during the acceleration by the plasma waves in the presence of a periodic density modulation. The analytical results are compared with particle-in-cell simulations and are found to be in reasonable agreement.

  20. Three dimensional particle-in-cell simulation of particle acceleration by circularly polarised inertial Alfven waves in a transversely inhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiklauri, D.

    2012-08-15

    The process of particle acceleration by left-hand, circularly polarised inertial Alfven waves (IAW) in a transversely inhomogeneous plasma is studied using 3D particle-in-cell simulation. A cylindrical tube with, transverse to the background magnetic field, inhomogeneity scale of the order of ion inertial length is considered on which IAWs with frequency 0.3{omega}{sub ci} are launched that are allowed to develop three wavelength. As a result time-varying parallel electric fields are generated in the density gradient regions which accelerate electrons in the parallel to magnetic field direction. Driven perpendicular electric field of IAWs also heats ions in the transverse direction. Such numerical setup is relevant for solar flaring loops and earth auroral zone. This first, 3D, fully kinetic simulation demonstrates electron acceleration efficiency in the density inhomogeneity regions, along the magnetic field, of the order of 45% and ion heating, in the transverse to the magnetic field direction, of 75%. The latter is a factor of two times higher than the previous 2.5D analogous study and is in accordance with solar flare particle acceleration observations. We find that the generated parallel electric field is localised in the density inhomogeneity region and rotates in the same direction and with the same angular frequency as the initially launched IAW. Our numerical simulations seem also to suggest that the 'knee' often found in the solar flare electron spectra can alternatively be interpreted as the Landau damping (Cerenkov resonance effect) of IAWs due to the wave-particle interactions.

  1. Electron Acceleration by High Power Radio Waves in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Paul

    2012-10-01

    At the highest ERP of the High Altitude Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, high frequency (HF) electromagnetic (EM) waves in the ionosphere produce artificial aurora and electron-ion plasma layers. Using HAARP, electrons are accelerated by high power electrostatic (ES) waves to energies >100 times the thermal temperature of the ambient plasma. These ES waves are driven by decay of the pump EM wave tuned to plasma resonances. The most efficient acceleration process occurs near the harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency in earth's magnetic field. Mode conversion plays a role in transforming the ES waves into EM signals that are recorded with ground receivers. These diagnostic waves, called stimulated EM emissions (SEE), show unique resonant signatures of the strongest electron acceleration. This SEE also provides clues about the ES waves responsible for electron acceleration. The electron gas is accelerated by high frequency modes including Langmuir (electron plasma), upper hybrid, and electron Bernstein waves. All of these waves have been identified in the scattered EM spectra as downshifted sidebands of the EM pump frequency. Parametric decay is responsible low frequency companion modes such as ion acoustic, lower hybrid, and ion Bernstein waves. The temporal evolution of the scattered EM spectrum indicates development of field aligned irregularities that aid the mode conversion process. The onset of certain spectral features is strongly correlated with glow plasma discharge structures that are both visible with the unaided eye and detectable using radio backscatter techniques at HF and UHF frequencies. The primary goals are to understand natural plasma layers, to study basic plasma physics in a unique ``laboratory with walls,'' and to create artificial plasma structures that can aid radio communications.

  2. Investigations of the plasma and structure based accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Shvets, Gennady

    2012-08-30

    The objective of our research during the reported period was three-fold: (a) theoretical investigation of novel mechanisms of injection into laser wake field accelerators; (b) theoretical investigation of single-shot frequency domain diagnostics of relativistic plasma wakes, specifically in the context of spatio-temporal evolution of the plasma bubble;(c) experimental and theoretical investigation of laser-driven accelerating structure, specifically in the context of the Surface Wave Accelerator Based on SiC (SWABSIC).

  3. Pulsed electromagnetic acceleration of exploded wire plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Peratt, A.L.; Koert, P.

    1983-11-01

    A simple analysis of the dynamic state of a current-conducting high-density plasma column, resulting from an exploded wire between the conductors of a rail-gun accelerator or one or more wires strung between the anode and cathode conductors in a pulsed-power generator diode, is given on the basis of a one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics model. Spatial distributions of the current density, magnetic field, temperature, and particle density are calculated as well as the temporal current, voltage, and impedance histories. The model self-consistently treats the accelerator load transition through its solid, melt, vapor, and plasma states in the presence of its supply source and feed network. Once formed and accelerated, the plasma state calculations show expansion cooling across the self-induced magnetic field if the Bennett condition is not satisfied. The model predictions are compared to two experimental situations. The first involves the delivery of some hundreds of Joules of stored energy to the wire load. For this case, good agreement between the calculated and observed plasma state is obtained. The second situation involves the delivery of many thousands of Joules to the wire load. For this case and dependent upon the wire mass, diameter, number of wires exploded, their separation, and the pulsed energy electrical wave shapes, the magnetohydrodynamic results can be qualitatively incorrect. The necessity of an electromagnetic particle simulation approach is indicated in order to resolve the magnetic rope-like structure and filamentation observed in the very energetic plasmas.

  4. Undamped electrostatic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Veltri, P.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Morrison, P. J.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2012-09-15

    Electrostatic waves in a collision-free unmagnetized plasma of electrons with fixed ions are investigated for electron equilibrium velocity distribution functions that deviate slightly from Maxwellian. Of interest are undamped waves that are the small amplitude limit of nonlinear excitations, such as electron acoustic waves (EAWs). A deviation consisting of a small plateau, a region with zero velocity derivative over a width that is a very small fraction of the electron thermal speed, is shown to give rise to new undamped modes, which here are named corner modes. The presence of the plateau turns off Landau damping and allows oscillations with phase speeds within the plateau. These undamped waves are obtained in a wide region of the (k,{omega}{sub R}) plane ({omega}{sub R} being the real part of the wave frequency and k the wavenumber), away from the well-known 'thumb curve' for Langmuir waves and EAWs based on the Maxwellian. Results of nonlinear Vlasov-Poisson simulations that corroborate the existence of these modes are described. It is also shown that deviations caused by fattening the tail of the distribution shift roots off of the thumb curve toward lower k-values and chopping the tail shifts them toward higher k-values. In addition, a rule of thumb is obtained for assessing how the existence of a plateau shifts roots off of the thumb curve. Suggestions are made for interpreting experimental observations of electrostatic waves, such as recent ones in nonneutral plasmas.

  5. Chaotic ion motion in magnetosonic plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varvoglis, H.

    1984-01-01

    The motion of test ions in a magnetosonic plasma wave is considered, and the 'stochasticity threshold' of the wave's amplitude for the onset of chaotic motion is estimated. It is shown that for wave amplitudes above the stochasticity threshold, the evolution of an ion distribution can be described by a diffusion equation with a diffusion coefficient D approximately equal to 1/v. Possible applications of this process to ion acceleration in flares and ion beam thermalization are discussed.

  6. Wave Detection in Acceleration Plethysmogram

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Acceleration plethysmogram (APG) obtained from the second derivative of photoplethysmography (PPG) is used to predict risk factors for atherosclerosis with age. This technique is promising for early screening of atherosclerotic pathologies. However, extraction of the wave indices of APG signals measured from the fingertip is challenging. In this paper, the development of a wave detection algorithm including a preamplifier based on a microcontroller that can detect the a, b, c, and d wave indices is proposed. Methods The 4th order derivative of a PPG under real measurements of an APG waveform was introduced to clearly separate the components of the waveform, and to improve the rate of successful wave detection. A preamplifier with a Sallen-Key low pass filter and a wave detection algorithm with programmable gain control, mathematical differentials, and a digital IIR notch filter were designed. Results The frequency response of the digital IIR filter was evaluated, and a pulse train consisting of a specific area in which the wave indices existed was generated. The programmable gain control maintained a constant APG amplitude at the output for varying PPG amplitudes. For 164 subjects, the mean values and standard deviation of the a wave index corresponding to the magnitude of the APG signal were 1,106.45 and ±47.75, respectively. Conclusions We conclude that the proposed algorithm and preamplifier designed to extract the wave indices of an APG in real-time are useful for evaluating vascular aging in the cardiovascular system in a simple healthcare device. PMID:25995963

  7. Energy Measurement in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Ischebeck, R

    2007-07-06

    In the E-167 plasma wakefield acceleration experiment, electrons with an initial energy of 42GeV are accelerated in a meter-scale lithium plasma. Particles are leaving plasma with a large energy spread. To determine the spectrum of the accelerated particles, a two-plane spectrometer has been set up.

  8. Demonstration of the hollow channel plasma wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Gessner, Spencer J.

    2016-09-17

    A plasma wakefield accelerator is a device that converts the energy of a relativistic particle beam into a large-amplitude wave in a plasma. The plasma wave, or wakefield, supports an enormous electricfield that is used to accelerate a trailing particle beam. The plasma wakefield accelerator can therefore be used as a transformer, transferring energy from a high-charge, low-energy particle beam into a high-energy, low-charge particle beam. This technique may lead to a new generation of ultra-compact, high-energy particle accelerators. The past decade has seen enormous progress in the field of plasma wakefield acceleration with experimental demonstrations of the acceleration of electron beams by several gigaelectron-volts. The acceleration of positron beams in plasma is more challenging, but also necessary for the creation of a high-energy electron-positron collider. Part of the challenge is that the plasma responds asymmetrically to electrons and positrons, leading to increased disruption of the positron beam. One solution to this problem, first proposed over twenty years ago, is to use a hollow channel plasma which symmetrizes the response of the plasma to beams of positive and negative charge, making it possible to accelerate positrons in plasma without disruption. In this thesis, we describe the theory relevant to our experiment and derive new results when needed. We discuss the development and implementation of special optical devices used to create long plasma channels. We demonstrate for the first time the generation of meter-scale plasma channels and the acceleration of positron beams therein.

  9. A free-wave accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, John G.; Kreisler, Michael N.; Kerman, Arthur K.

    1996-02-01

    We present one- and three-dimensional calculations of the motion of relativistic electrons under the influence of an intense, linearly polarized laser and a static magnetic field, where strong acceleration of electrons is obtained. The electron dynamics in the case of a focused laser beam are compared to that of a pure plane wave. The focused laser beam tends to eject the electron due to the strong transverse ponderomotive force. It is shown that by depressing the laser beam's central intensity the electron will remain within the focus.

  10. Staging and laser acceleration of ions in underdense plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Antonio; Hafizi, Bahman; Helle, Michael; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Gordon, Daniel; Kaganovich, Dmitri; Polyanskiy, Mikhail; Pogorelsky, Igor; Babzien, Markus; Miao, Chenlong; Dover, Nicholas; Najmudin, Zulfikar; Ettlinger, Oliver

    2017-03-01

    Accelerating ions from rest in a plasma requires extra considerations because of their heavy mass. Low phase velocity fields or quasi-electrostatic fields are often necessary, either by operating above or near the critical density or by applying other slow wave generating mechanisms. Solid targets have been a favorite and have generated many good results. High density gas targets have also been reported to produce energetic ions. It is interesting to consider acceleration of ions in laser-driven plasma configurations that will potentially allow continuous acceleration in multiple consecutive stages. The plasma will be derived from gaseous targets, producing plasma densities slightly below the critical plasma density (underdense) for the driving laser. Such a plasma is experimentally robust, being repeatable and relatively transparent to externally injected ions from a previous stage. When optimized, multiple stages of this underdense laser plasma acceleration mechanism can progressively accelerate the ions to a high final energy. For a light mass ion such as the proton, relativistic velocities could be reached, making it suitable for further acceleration by high phase velocity plasma accelerators to energies appropriate for High Energy Physics applications. Negatively charged ions such as antiprotons could be similarly accelerated in this multi-staged ion acceleration scheme.

  11. Current driven instabilities of an electromagnetically accelerated plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chouetri, E. Y.; Kelly, A. J.; Jahn, R. G.

    1988-01-01

    A plasma instability that strongly influences the efficiency and lifetime of electromagnetic plasma accelerators was quantitatively measured. Experimental measurements of dispersion relations (wave phase velocities), spatial growth rates, and stability boundaries are reported. The measured critical wave parameters are in excellent agreement with theoretical instability boundary predictions. The instability is current driven and affects a wide spectrum of longitudinal (electrostatic) oscillations. Current driven instabilities, which are intrinsic to the high-current-carrying magnetized plasma of the magnetoplasmadynmic (MPD) accelerator, were investigated with a kinetic theoretical model based on first principles. Analytical limits of the appropriate dispersion relation yield unstable ion acoustic waves for T(i)/T(e) much less than 1 and electron acoustic waves for T(i)/T(e) much greater than 1. The resulting set of nonlinear equations for the case of T(i)/T(e) = 1, of most interest to the MPD thruster Plasma Wave Experiment, was numerically solved to yield a multiparameter set of stability boundaries. Under certain conditions, marginally stable waves traveling almost perpendicular to the magnetic field would travel at a velocity equal to that of the electron current. Such waves were termed current waves. Unstable current waves near the upper stability boundary were observed experimentally and are in accordance with theoretical predictions. This provides unambiguous proof of the existence of such instabilites in electromagnetic plasma accelerators.

  12. Design of a plasma discharge circuit for particle wakefield acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anania, M. P.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Ferrario, M.; Flora, F.; Gallerano, G. P.; Ghigo, A.; Marocchino, A.; Massimo, F.; Mostacci, A.; Mezi, L.; Musumeci, P.; Serio, M.

    2014-03-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10-100 GV m-1), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimetres. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators; radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in the accelerating field (10-100 MV m-1) requiring therefore kilometric distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. Combining high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC-LAB [1,2]. In particular, here we focus on the ionization process; we show a simplified model to study the evolution of plasma induced by discharge, very useful to design the discharge circuit able to fully ionize the gas and bring the plasma at the needed temperature and density.

  13. Spectroscopic measurements of plasma emission light for plasma-based acceleration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Zigler, A.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced particle accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves driven by either electron or laser beams. Future experiments scheduled at the SPARC_LAB test facility aim to demonstrate the acceleration of high brightness electron beams through the so-called resonant Plasma Wakefield Acceleration scheme in which a train of electron bunches (drivers) resonantly excites wakefields into a preformed hydrogen plasma; the last bunch (witness) injected at the proper accelerating phase gains energy from the wake. The quality of the accelerated beam depends strongly on plasma density and its distribution along the acceleration length. The measurements of plasma density of the order of 1016-1017 cm-3 can be performed with spectroscopic measurements of the plasma-emitted light. The measured density distribution for hydrogen filled capillary discharge with both Balmer alpha and Balmer beta lines and shot-to-shot variation are here reported.

  14. Probing electron acceleration and x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Thaury, C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Corde, S.; Brijesh, P.; Lambert, G.; Malka, V.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Bloom, M. S.; Kneip, S.

    2013-06-15

    While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam, is focused on the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion, which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction length to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied.

  15. Charged particle acceleration in nonuniform plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, S.V.; Naumova, N.M.; Dudnikova, G.I.; Vshivkov, V.A.; Pegoraro, F.; Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1996-11-01

    The high-gradient electron acceleration schemes that have been demonstrated using LWFA appear promising for the development of plasma-based laser accelerators into practical devices. However, a question still exists: how to avoid the wake field deterioration and the loss of the phase synchronism between the plasma wave and the electrons that prevent them from being accelerated up to the theoretical limit. In order to obtain the highest possible values of the wake electric field one must use as intense laser pulses as possible i.e., pulses with dimensionless amplitudes a {much_gt} 1. Pulses that have a dimensionless amplitude larger than one tend to be subject to a host of instabilities, such as relativistic self-focusing, self modulation and stimulated Raman scattering, that affect their propagation in the plasma. Such processes could be beneficial, in so far as they increase the pulse energy density, enhance the wake field generation, and provide the mechanism for transporting the laser radiation over several Rayleigh lengths without diffraction spreading. However, it is still far from certain that these processes can be exploited in a controlled form and can lead to regular, stationary wake fields. It is known that, in order to create good quality wake fields, it would be preferable to use laser pulses with steep fronts of order {lambda}{sub p}. The present paper aims at analyzing the influence of the laser pulse shape and of the plasma nonuniformity on the charged particle acceleration. This study is based on the results obtained with one dimensional PIC simulations.

  16. Tunable Laser Plasma Accelerator based on Longitudinal Density Tailoring

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shiraishi, Satomi; Sokollik, Thomas; Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-15

    Laser plasma accelerators have produced high-quality electron beams with GeV energies from cm-scale devices and are being investigated as hyperspectral fs light sources producing THz to {gamma}-ray radiation and as drivers for future high-energy colliders. These applications require a high degree of stability, beam quality and tunability. Here we report on a technique to inject electrons into the accelerating field of a laser-driven plasma wave and coupling of this injector to a lower-density, separately tunable plasma for further acceleration. The technique relies on a single laser pulse powering a plasma structure with a tailored longitudinal density profile, to produce beams that can be tuned in the range of 100-400 MeV with percent-level stability, using laser pulses of less than 40 TW. The resulting device is a simple stand-alone accelerator or the front end for a multistage higher-energy accelerator.

  17. Preliminary tests of the electrostatic plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.; Acker, T.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of a program to verify an electrostatic plasma acceleration concept and to identify those parameters most important in optimizing an Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) thruster based upon this thrust mechanism. Preliminary performance measurements of thrust, specific impulse and efficiency were obtained using a unique plasma exhaust momentum probe. Reliable EPA thruster operation was achieved using one power supply.

  18. Design Considerations for Plasma Accelerators Driven by Lasers or Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Benedetti, C.; Toth, Cs.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-06-01

    Plasma accelerators may be driven by the ponderomotive force of an intense laser or the space-charge force of a charged particle beam. The implications for accelerator design and the different physical mechanisms of laser-driven and beam-driven plasma acceleration are discussed. Driver propagation is examined, as well as the effects of the excited plasma wave phase velocity. The driver coupling to subsequent plasma accelerator stages for high-energy physics applications is addressed.

  19. Progress of Laser-Driven Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Kazuhisa

    2007-07-11

    There is a great interest worldwide in plasma accelerators driven by ultra-intense lasers which make it possible to generate ultra-high gradient acceleration and high quality particle beams in a much more compact size compared with conventional accelerators. A frontier research on laser and plasma accelerators is focused on high energy electron acceleration and ultra-short X-ray and Tera Hertz radiations as their applications. These achievements will provide not only a wide range of sciences with benefits of a table-top accelerator but also a basic science with a tool of ultrahigh energy accelerators probing an unknown extremely microscopic world.Harnessing the recent advance of ultra-intense ultra-short pulse lasers, the worldwide research has made a tremendous breakthrough in demonstrating high-energy high-quality particle beams in a compact scale, so called ''dream beams on a table top'', which represents monoenergetic electron beams from laser wakefield accelerators and GeV acceleration by capillary plasma-channel laser wakefield accelerators. This lecture reviews recent progress of results on laser-driven plasma based accelerator experiments to quest for particle acceleration physics in intense laser-plasma interactions and to present new outlook for the GeV-range high-energy laser plasma accelerators.

  20. Increasing energy coupling into plasma waves by tailoring the laser radial focal spot distribution in a laser wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Genoud, G.; Burza, M.; Persson, A.; Svensson, K.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Bloom, M. S.; Najmudin, Z.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.

    2013-06-15

    By controlling the focal spot quality with a deformable mirror, we are able to show that increasing the fraction of pulse energy contained within the central part of the focal spot, while keeping the total energy and central spot size constant, significantly increases the amount of energy transferred to the wakefield: Our measurements show that the laser loses significantly more laser energy and undergoes greater redshifting and that more charge is produced in the accelerated beam. Three dimensional particle in cell simulations performed with accurate representations of the measured focal spot intensity distribution confirm that energy in the wings of the focal spot is effectively wasted. Even though self-focusing occurs, energy in the wings of the focal spot distribution is not coupled into the wakefield, emphasising the vital importance of high quality focal spot profiles in experiments.

  1. Plasma waves near the magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Eastman, T. E.; Harvey, C. C.; Hoppe, M. M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Etcheto, J.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma waves associated with the magnetosphere from the magnetosheath to the outer magnetosphere are investigated to obtain a clear definition of the boundaries and regions, to characterize the waves observed in these regions, to determine which wave modes are present, and to determine their origin. Emphasis is on high time resolution data and a comparison between measurements by different antenna systems. It is shown that the magnetosheath flux transfer events, the magnetopause current layer, the outer magnetosphere, and the boundary layer can be identified by their magnetic field and plasma wave characteristics, as well as by their plasma and energetic particle signatures. The plasma wave characteristics in the current layer and in the boundary layer are very similar to the features in the flux transfer events, and upon entry into their outer magnetosphere, the plasma wave spectra are dominated by intense electromagnetic chorus bursts and electrostatic emissions.

  2. Electron acceleration in the ionosphere by obliquely propagating electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, William J.; Ginet, Gregory P.; Heinemann, Michael A.; Villalon, Elena

    The paper presents an analysis of the relativistic equations of motion for electrons in magnetized plasma and externally imposed electromagnetic fields that propagate at arbitrary angles to the background magnetic field. The relativistic Lorentz equation for a test electron moving under the influence of an electromagnetic wave in a cold magnetized plasma and wave propagation through the ionospheric 'radio window' are examined. It is found that at wave energy fluxes greater than 10 to the 8th mW/sq m, initially cold electrons can be accelerated to energies of several MeV in less than a millisecond. Plans to test the theoretical results with rocket flights are discussed.

  3. PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SUPERLUMINAL STRONG WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Teraki, Yuto; Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2015-06-01

    We calculate the electron acceleration in random superluminal strong waves (SLSWs) and radiation from them using numerical methods in the context of the termination shocks of pulsar wind nebulae. We pursue the orbit of electrons by solving the equation of motion in the analytically expressed electromagnetic turbulences. These consist of a primary SLS and isotropically distributed secondary electromagnetic waves. Under the dominance of the secondary waves, all electrons gain nearly equal energy. On the other hand, when the primary wave is dominant, selective acceleration occurs. The phase of the primary wave for electrons moving nearly along the wavevector changes very slowly compared with the oscillation of the wave, which is “phase-locked,” and such electrons are continuously accelerated. This acceleration by SLSWs may play a crucial role in pre-shock acceleration. In general, the radiation from the phase-locked population is different from the synchro-Compton radiation. However, when the amplitude of the secondary waves is not extremely weaker than that of the primary wave, the typical frequency can be estimated from synchro-Compton theory using the secondary waves. The primary wave does not contribute to the radiation because the SLSW accelerates electrons almost linearly. This radiation can be observed as a radio knot at the upstream of the termination shocks of the pulsar wind nebulae without counterparts in higher frequency ranges.

  4. A New Type of Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Driven By Magnetowaves

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pisin; Chang, Feng-Yin; Lin, Guey-Lin; Noble, Robert J.; Sydora, Richard; /Alberta U.

    2011-09-12

    We present a new concept for a plasma wakefield accelerator driven by magnetowaves (MPWA). This concept was originally proposed as a viable mechanism for the 'cosmic accelerator' that would accelerate cosmic particles to ultra-high energies in the astrophysical setting. Unlike the more familiar plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) and the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) where the drivers, the charged-particle beam and the laser, are independently existing entities, MPWA invokes the high-frequency and high-speed whistler mode as the driver, which is a medium wave that cannot exist outside of the plasma. Aside from the difference in drivers, the underlying mechanism that excites the plasma wakefield via the ponderomotive potential is common. Our computer simulations show that under appropriate conditions, the plasma wakefield maintains very high coherence and can sustain high-gradient acceleration over many plasma wavelengths. We suggest that in addition to its celestial application, the MPWA concept can also be of terrestrial utility. A proof-of-principle experiment on MPWA would benefit both terrestrial and celestial accelerator concepts.

  5. Localized lower hybrid acceleration of ionospheric plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kintner, P. M.; Vago, J.; Chesney, S.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Lynch, K. A.; Pollock, C. J.; Moore, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the transverse acceleration of ions in localized regions of intense lower hybrid waves at altitudes near 1000 km in the auroral ionosphere are reported. The acceleration regions are thin filaments with dimensions across geomagnetic field lines of about 50-100 m corresponding to 5-10 thermal ion gyroradii or one hot ion gyroradius. Within the acceleration region lower hybrid waves reach peak-to-peak amplitudes of 100-300 mV/m and ions are accelerated transversely with characteristic energies of the order of 10 eV. These observations are consistent with theories of lower hybrid wave collapse.

  6. Magnetized Plasma-filled Waveguide: A New High-Gradient Accelerating Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Avitzour, Yoav; Shvets, Gennady

    2009-01-22

    Electromagnetic waves confined between the metal plates of a plasma-filled waveguide are investigated. It is demonstrated that when the plasma is magnetized along the metallic plates, there exists a luminous accelerating wave propagating with a very slow group velocity. It is shown that the magnetized plasma 'isolates' the metal wall from the transverse electric field, thereby reducing potential breakdown problems. Applications of the metallic plasma-filled waveguide to particle accelerations and microwave pulse manipulation are described.

  7. Large amplitude relativistic plasma waves

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, Timothy

    2010-05-15

    Relativistic, longitudinal plasma oscillations are studied for the case of a simple water bag distribution of electrons having cylindrical symmetry in momentum space with the axis of the cylinder parallel to the velocity of wave propagation. The plasma is required to obey the relativistic Vlasov-Poisson equations, and solutions are sought in the wave frame. An exact solution for the plasma density as a function of the electrostatic field is derived. The maximum electric field is presented in terms of an integral over the known density. It is shown that when the perpendicular momentum is neglected, the maximum electric field approaches infinity as the wave phase velocity approaches the speed of light. It is also shown that for any nonzero perpendicular momentum, the maximum electric field will remain finite as the wave phase velocity approaches the speed of light. The relationship to previously published solutions is discussed as is some recent controversy regarding the proper modeling of large amplitude relativistic plasma waves.

  8. Stochastic Acceleration of Ions Driven by Pc1 Wave Packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.

    2015-01-01

    The stochastic motion of protons and He(sup +) ions driven by Pc1 wave packets is studied in the context of resonant particle heating. Resonant ion cyclotron heating typically occurs when wave powers exceed 10(exp -4) nT sq/Hz. Gyroresonance breaks the first adiabatic invariant and energizes keV ions. Cherenkov resonances with the electrostatic component of wave packets can also accelerate ions. The main effect of this interaction is to accelerate thermal protons to the local Alfven speed. The dependencies of observable quantities on the wave power and plasma parameters are determined, and estimates for the heating extent and rate of particle heating in these wave-particle interactions are shown to be in reasonable agreement with known empirical data.

  9. Stochastic acceleration of ions driven by Pc1 wave packets

    SciTech Connect

    Khazanov, G. V. Sibeck, D. G.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.

    2015-07-15

    The stochastic motion of protons and He{sup +} ions driven by Pc1 wave packets is studied in the context of resonant particle heating. Resonant ion cyclotron heating typically occurs when wave powers exceed 10{sup −4} nT{sup 2}/Hz. Gyroresonance breaks the first adiabatic invariant and energizes keV ions. Cherenkov resonances with the electrostatic component of wave packets can also accelerate ions. The main effect of this interaction is to accelerate thermal protons to the local Alfven speed. The dependencies of observable quantities on the wave power and plasma parameters are determined, and estimates for the heating extent and rate of particle heating in these wave-particle interactions are shown to be in reasonable agreement with known empirical data.

  10. Millimeter Wave Communication through Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2008-01-01

    Millimeter wave communication through plasma at frequencies of 35 GHz or higher shows promise in maintaining communications connectivity during rocket launch and re-entry, critical events which are typically plagued with communication dropouts. Extensive prior research into plasmas has characterized the plasma frequency at these events, and research at the Kennedy Space Center is investigating the feasibility of millimeter communication through these plasma frequencies.

  11. The Potential for Ambient Plasma Wave Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilland, James H.; Williams, George J.

    2016-01-01

    A truly robust space exploration program will need to make use of in-situ resources as much as possible to make the endeavor affordable. Most space propulsion concepts are saddled with one fundamental burden; the propellant needed to produce momentum. The most advanced propulsion systems currently in use utilize electric and/or magnetic fields to accelerate ionized propellant. However, significant planetary exploration missions in the coming decades, such as the now canceled Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter, are restricted by propellant mass and propulsion system lifetimes, using even the most optimistic projections of performance. These electric propulsion vehicles are inherently limited in flexibility at their final destination, due to propulsion system wear, propellant requirements, and the relatively low acceleration of the vehicle. A few concepts are able to utilize the environment around them to produce thrust: Solar or magnetic sails and, with certain restrictions, electrodynamic tethers. These concepts focus primarily on using the solar wind or ambient magnetic fields to generate thrust. Technically immature, quasi-propellantless alternatives lack either the sensitivity or the power to provide significant maneuvering. An additional resource to be considered is the ambient plasma and magnetic fields in solar and planetary magnetospheres. These environments, such as those around the Sun or Jupiter, have been shown to host a variety of plasma waves. Plasma wave propulsion takes advantage of an observed astrophysical and terrestrial phenomenon: Alfven waves. These are waves that propagate in the plasma and magnetic fields around and between planets and stars. The generation of Alfven waves in ambient magnetic and plasma fields to generate thrust is proposed as a truly propellantless propulsion system which may enable an entirely new matrix of exploration missions. Alfven waves are well known, transverse electromagnetic waves that propagate in magnetized plasmas at

  12. ACCELERATION OF THE SOLAR WIND BY ALFVEN WAVE PACKETS

    SciTech Connect

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2013-01-20

    A scale separation kinetic model of the solar wind acceleration is presented. The model assumes an isotropic Maxwellian distribution of protons and a constant influx of outward propagating Alfven waves with a single exponent Kolmogorov-type spectrum at the base of a coronal acceleration region ({approx}2 R {sub Sun }). Our results indicate that nonlinear cyclotron resonant interaction taking energy from Alfven waves and depositing it into mostly perpendicular heating of protons in initially weakly expanding plasma in a spherically non-uniform magnetic field is able to produce the typical fast solar wind velocities for the typical plasma and wave conditions after expansion to about 5-10 solar radii R {sub Sun }. The acceleration model takes into account the gravity force and the ambipolar electric field, as well as the mirror force, which plays the most important role in driving the solar wind acceleration. Contrary to the recent claims of Isenberg, the cold plasma dispersion only slightly slows down the acceleration and actually helps in obtaining the more realistic fast solar wind speeds.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF SHOCK WAVE DYNAMICS IN MAGNETIZED PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Nirmol K. Podder

    2009-03-17

    In this four-year project (including one-year extension), the project director and his research team built a shock-wave-plasma apparatus to study shock wave dynamics in glow discharge plasmas in nitrogen and argon at medium pressure (1–20 Torr), carried out various plasma and shock diagnostics and measurements that lead to increased understanding of the shock wave acceleration phenomena in plasmas. The measurements clearly show that in the steady-state dc glow discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave velocity increases, its amplitude decreases, and the shock wave disperses non-linearly as a function of the plasma current. In the pulsed discharge plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity increase as a function of the delay between the switch-on of the plasma and shock-launch. In the afterglow plasma, at fixed gas pressure the shock wave dispersion width and velocity decrease as a function of the delay between the plasma switch-off and shock-launch. These changes are found to be opposite and reversing towards the room temperature value which is the initial condition for plasma ignition case. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas.

  14. Waves and instabilities in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Plasma as a Dielectric Medium; Nyquist Technique; Absolute and Convective Instabilities; Landau Damping and Phase Mixing; Particle Trapping and Breakdown of Linear Theory; Solution of Viasov Equation via Guilding-Center Transformation; Kinetic Theory of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves; Geometric Optics; Wave-Kinetic Equation; Cutoff and Resonance; Resonant Absorption; Mode Conversion; Gyrokinetic Equation; Drift Waves; Quasi-Linear Theory; Ponderomotive Force; Parametric Instabilities; Problem Sets for Homework, Midterm and Final Examinations.

  15. Stochastic electron acceleration during turbulent reconnection in strong shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Yosuke

    2016-04-01

    Acceleration of charged particles is a fundamental topic in astrophysical, space and laboratory plasmas. Very high energy particles are commonly found in the astrophysical and planetary shocks, and in the energy releases of solar flares and terrestrial substorms. Evidence for relativistic particle production during such phenomena has attracted much attention concerning collisionless shock waves and magnetic reconnection, respectively, as ultimate plasma energization mechanisms. While the energy conversion proceeds macroscopically, and therefore the energy mostly flows to ions, plasma kinetic instabilities excited in a localized region have been considered to be the main electron heating and acceleration mechanisms. We present that efficient electron energization can occur in a much larger area during turbulent magnetic reconnection from the intrinsic nature of a strong collisionless shock wave. Supercomputer simulations have revealed a multiscale shock structure comprising current sheets created via an ion-scale Weibel instability and resulting energy dissipation through magnetic reconnection. A part of the upstream electrons undergoes first-order Fermi acceleration by colliding with reconnection jets and magnetic islands, giving rise to a nonthermal relativistic population downstream. The dynamics has shed new light on magnetic reconnection as an agent of energy dissipation and particle acceleration in strong shock waves.

  16. Shock-Wave Acceleration of Protons on OMEGA EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberberger, D.; Froula, D. H.; Pak, A.; Link, A.; Patel, P.; Fiuza, F.; Tochitsky, S.; Joshi, C.

    2016-10-01

    The creation of an electrostatic shock wave and ensuing ion acceleration is studied on the OMEGA EP Laser System at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Previous work using a 10- μm CO2 laser in a H2 gas jet shows promising results for obtaining narrow spectral features in the accelerated proton spectra. Scaling the shock-wave acceleration mechanism to the 1- μm-wavelength drive laser makes it possible to use petawatt-scale laser systems such as OMEGA-EP, but involves tailoring of the plasma profile. To accomplish the necessitated sharp rise to near-critical plasma density and a long exponential fall, an 1- μm-thick CH foil is illuminated on the back side by thermal x rays produced from an irradiated gold foil. The plasma density is measured using the fourth-harmonic probe system, the accelerating fields are probed using an orthogonal proton source, and the accelerated protons and ions are detected with a Thomson parabola. These results will be presented and compared with particle-in-cell simulations. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and LLNL's Laboratory Directed Research and Development program under project 15-LW-095.

  17. The plasma physics of shock acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Frank C.; Ellison, Donald C.

    1991-01-01

    The history and theory of shock acceleration is reviewed, paying particular attention to theories of parallel shocks which include the backreaction of accelerated particles on the shock structure. The work that computer simulations, both plasma and Monte Carlo, are playing in revealing how thermal ions interact with shocks and how particle acceleration appears to be an inevitable and necessary part of the basic plasma physics that governs collisionless shocks is discussed. Some of the outstanding problems that still confront theorists and observers in this field are described.

  18. High Frequency Plasma Waves Associated With Solar Wind Reconnection Exhausts: WIND/WAVES Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttunen, K. E.; Bale, S. D.; Phan, T. D.; Davis, M.; Gosling, J. T.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of strong plasma wave activity near reconnection X-line regions in THE laboratory and in the Earth's magnetosphere have suggested that plasma waves may play AN important role in the reconnection process by providing anomalous resistivity through wave-particle interactions and by accelerating electrons. Recent observations of quasi-steady magnetic reconnection in the solar wind introduces an important new environment to study the role of plasma waves in a collisionless plasma associated with the reconnection process. We have used observations by the WIND spacecraft to study high frequency plasma waves associated with 28 solar wind reconnection exhausts. The TNR (Thermal Noise Receiver) experiment included in the WAVES instrument on WIND measures electric spectral density from 4 to 256 kHz and the TDS (Time Domain Sampler) experiment also included in WAVES samples electric field waveforms at rates up to 120,000 samples/s. A large fraction (79%) of the investigated events showed significant enhancements in the wave power around ~ 4 kHz, while only about one third (39%) of the exhausts were associated with intensifications around THE local electron plasma frequency (few tens of kHz). TDS waveform samples revealed three different wave modes: electron solitary waves, ion acoustic waves and Langmuir waves. The intense plasma waves were most frequently observed close to the X-line and near the exhaust boundaries, although wave emissions were commonly observed elsewhere within the exhausts as well

  19. Particle Acceleration in Cosmic Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zank, G.P.; Gaisser, T.K. )

    1992-01-01

    This proceedings includes papers presented at the Bartol ResearchInstitute, on topics concerning particle acceleration in stellar, space andgalactic environments. Two of the papers from this proceedings have beenabstracted for the database. (AIP)

  20. Surface plasma source with anode layer plasma accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Dudnikov, Vadim

    2012-02-15

    Proposed plasma generation system can be used for high current negative ion beam production and for directed deposition by flux of sputtered neutrals and negative ions. The main mechanism of negative ion formation in surface plasma sources is the secondary emission from low work function surface bombarded by a flux of positive ion or neutrals. The emission of negative ions is enhanced significantly by introducing a small amount of cesium or other substance with low ionization potential. In the proposed source are used positive ions generated by Hall drift plasma accelerator (anode layer plasma accelerator or plasma accelerator with insulated channel, with cylindrical or race track configuration of emission slit). The target-emitter is bombarded by the ion beam accelerated in crossed ExB fields. Negative ions are extracted from the target surface with geometrical focusing and are accelerated by negative voltage applied between emitter and plasma, contacting with the plasma accelerator. Hall drift ion source has a special design with a space for passing of the emitted negative ions and sputtered particles through the positive ion source.

  1. Application of Plasma Waveguides to High Energy Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Milchberg, Howard M

    2013-03-30

    The eventual success of laser-plasma based acceleration schemes for high-energy particle physics will require the focusing and stable guiding of short intense laser pulses in reproducible plasma channels. For this goal to be realized, many scientific issues need to be addressed. These issues include an understanding of the basic physics of, and an exploration of various schemes for, plasma channel formation. In addition, the coupling of intense laser pulses to these channels and the stable propagation of pulses in the channels require study. Finally, new theoretical and computational tools need to be developed to aid in the design and analysis of experiments and future accelerators. Here we propose a 3-year renewal of our combined theoretical and experimental program on the applications of plasma waveguides to high-energy accelerators. During the past grant period we have made a number of significant advances in the science of laser-plasma based acceleration. We pioneered the development of clustered gases as a new highly efficient medium for plasma channel formation. Our contributions here include theoretical and experimental studies of the physics of cluster ionization, heating, explosion, and channel formation. We have demonstrated for the first time the generation of and guiding in a corrugated plasma waveguide. The fine structure demonstrated in these guides is only possible with cluster jet heating by lasers. The corrugated guide is a slow wave structure operable at arbitrarily high laser intensities, allowing direct laser acceleration, a process we have explored in detail with simulations. The development of these guides opens the possibility of direct laser acceleration, a true miniature analogue of the SLAC RF-based accelerator. Our theoretical studies during this period have also contributed to the further development of the simulation codes, Wake and QuickPIC, which can be used for both laser driven and beam driven plasma based acceleration schemes. We

  2. The Polar Plasma Wave Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Persoon, A. M.; Randall, R. F.; Odem, D. L.; Remington, S. L.; Averkamp, T. F.; Debower, M. M.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Huff, R. L.; Kirchner, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Wave Instrument on the Polar spacecraft is designed to provide measurements of plasma waves in the Earth's polar regions over the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 800 kHz. Three orthogonal electric dipole antennas are used to detect electric fields, two in the spin plane and one aligned along the spacecraft spin axis. A magnetic loop antenna and a triaxial magnetic search coil antenna are used to detect magnetic fields. Signals from these antennas are processed by five receiver systems: a wideband receiver, a high-frequency waveform receiver, a low-frequency waveform receiver, two multichannel analyzers; and a pair of sweep frequency receivers. Compared to previous plasma wave instruments, the Polar plasma wave instrument has several new capabilities. These include (1) an expanded frequency range to improve coverage of both low- and high-frequency wave phenomena, (2) the ability to simultaneously capture signals from six orthogonal electric and magnetic field sensors, and (3) a digital wideband receiver with up to 8-bit resolution and sample rates as high as 249k samples s(exp -1).

  3. Laser-driven Acceleration in Clustered Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, X.; Wang, X.; Shim, B.; Downer, M. C.

    2009-01-22

    We propose a new approach to avoid dephasing limitation of laser wakefield acceleration by manipulating the group velocity of the driving pulse using clustered plasmas. We demonstrated the control of phase velocity in clustered plasmas by third harmonic generation and frequency domain interferometry experiments. The results agree with a numerical model. Based on this model, the group velocity of the driving pulse in clustered plasmas was calculated and the result shows the group velocity can approach the speed of light c in clustered plasmas.

  4. Waves on accelerating dodecahedral universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelot-Motet, A.; Bachelot, A.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the wave propagation on a compact 3-manifold of constant positive curvature with a non trivial topology, the Poincaré dodecahedral space, if the scale factor is exponentially increasing. We prove the existence of a limit state as t\\to +∞ and we get its analytic expression. The deep sky is described by this asymptotic profile thanks to the Sachs–Wolfe formula. We transform the Cauchy problem into a mixed problem posed on a fundamental domain determined by the quaternionic calculus. We perform an accurate scheme of computation: we employ a variational method using a space of second order finite elements that is invariant under the action of the binary icosahedral group.

  5. Novel concepts for laser-plasma-based acceleration of electrons using ultrahigh power laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joon-Koo

    Analytical and numerical studies of plasma physics in ultra-intense plasma wave generation, electron injection, and wavebreaking are performed, which are relevant to the subject of plasma wake-field accelerators. A method for generating large-amplitude nonlinear plasma waves, which utilizes an optimized train of independently adjustable, intense laser pulses, is analyzed in one dimension both theoretically and numerically (using both Maxwell-fluid and particle-in-cell codes). Optimal pulse widths and interpulse spacings are computed for pulses with either square or finite-rise-time sine shapes. A resonant region of the plasma-wave phase space is found where the plasma wave is driven most efficiently by the laser pulses. Resonant excitation is found to be superior for electron acceleration to either beatwave or single- pulse excitation because comparable plasma wave amplitudes may be generated at lower plasma densities, reducing electron-phase detuning, or at lower laser intensities, reducing laser-plasma instabilities. The idea of all-optical acceleration of electrons in the wakefield is also discussed. It is shown that the injection of background plasma electrons can be accomplished using the large ponderomotive force of an injection laser pulse in either collinear or transverse geometry with respect to the direction of pump propagation, thus removing the necessity of an expensive first-stage linac system for injection of electrons. Detailed nonlinear analysis of the trapping and acceleration of electrons inside the separatrix of the wakefield is formulated and compared with PIC (Particle- In-Cell) and fluid simulations. The three-dimensional wave-breaking of relativistic plasma waves driven by a ultrashort high-power lasers, is described within a framework of cold 2-D fluid theory. It is shown that the transverse nonlinearity of the plasma wave results in temporally increasing transverse plasma oscillation in the wake of the laser pulse, inevitably inducing wave

  6. Pulsed Inductive Plasma Acceleration: Performance Optimization Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2014-01-01

    Optimization criteria for pulsed inductive plasma acceleration are developed using an acceleration model consisting of a set of coupled circuit equations describing the time-varying current in the thruster and a one-dimensional momentum equation. The model is nondimensionalized, resulting in the identification of several scaling parameters that are varied to optimize the performance of the thruster. The analysis reveals the benefits of underdamped current waveforms and leads to a performance optimization criterion that requires the matching of the natural period of the discharge and the acceleration timescale imposed by the inertia of the working gas. In addition, the performance increases when a greater fraction of the propellant is initially located nearer to the inductive acceleration coil. While the dimensionless model uses a constant temperature formulation in calculating performance, the scaling parameters that yield the optimum performance are shown to be relatively invariant if a self-consistent description of energy in the plasma is instead used.

  7. Plasma acceleration in the Martian magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban Hernandez, Rosa; Modolo, Ronan; Leblanc, François; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Curry, Shannon M.; Steckiewicz, Morgane; Connerney, John E. P.; McFadden, James P.; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Brain, David A.; DiBraccio, Gina A.; Romanelli, Norberto; Halekas, Jasper S.; Mitchell, David L.

    2016-04-01

    Since November 2014, the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft has been collecting data from Mars's upper atmosphere and induced magnetosphere (Jakosky et al., 2015). Evidences of escaping planetary ions have been reported from earlier missions as Mars-Express (Barabash et al., 2007) and more recently from MAVEN (e.g. Dong et al., 2015, Brain et al., 2015). Our goal is to determine the acceleration mechanism responsible for the energization of planetary ions in the Martian plasma sheet. MAVEN has a full plasma package with a magnetometer and plasma particles instruments, which allow to address the question of plasma particle acceleration. According to Dubinin et al. (2011), the j x B force due to magnetic shear stresses of the draped field lines is expected to play a major role in such energization process. On MAVEN data, we have first identified and characterized current sheet crossings taking place in Mars' magnetotail and then tested the Walén relation to infer the significance of the j x B force in the particle's energization. To characterize the plasma sheet crossing we have worked with MAVEN magnetometer (MAG, Connerney et al., SSR, 2015) and mass spectrometer (STATIC, McFadden et al., SSR, 2015) data, focusing on a particular event. We have performed a minimum variance analysis, on the magnetic field observations which allows to characterize the current sheet. We present results of the Walén test and our conclusions on planetary plasma acceleration in the plasma sheet region.

  8. Inductive and Electrostatic Acceleration in Relativistic Jet-Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Johnny S.T.; Noble, Robert J.; /SLAC

    2005-07-13

    We report on the observation of rapid particle acceleration in numerical simulations of relativistic jet-plasma interactions and discuss the underlying mechanisms. The dynamics of a charge-neutral, narrow, electron-positron jet propagating through an unmagnetized electron-ion plasma was investigated using a three-dimensional, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell computer code. The interaction excited magnetic filamentation as well as electrostatic (longitudinal) plasma instabilities. In some cases, the longitudinal electric fields generated inductively and electrostatically reached the cold plasma wave-breaking limit, and the longitudinal momentum of about half the positrons increased by 50% with a maximum gain exceeding a factor of two. The results are relevant to understanding the micro-physics at the interface region of an astrophysical jet with the interstellar plasma, for example, the edge of a wide jet or the jet-termination point.

  9. A simple electron plasma wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodin, G.; Stenflo, L.

    2017-03-01

    Considering a class of solutions where the density perturbations are functions of time, but not of space, we derive a new exact large amplitude wave solution for a cold uniform electron plasma. This result illustrates that most simple analytical solutions can appear even if the density perturbations are large.

  10. Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, Wynne

    1994-01-01

    Activities under this project have included participation in the Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program, a study of the data processing requirements for WISP, and theoretical studies of radio sounding, ducting, and magnetoionic theory. An analysis of radio sounding in the magnetosphere was prepared.

  11. On the breaking of a plasma wave in a thermal plasma. II. Electromagnetic wave interaction with the breaking plasma wave

    SciTech Connect

    Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K.; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Bulanov, Stepan S.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Esarey, Eric; Califano, Francesco; Pegoraro, Francesco

    2012-11-15

    In thermal plasma, the structure of the density singularity formed in a relativistically large amplitude plasma wave close to the wavebreaking limit leads to a refraction coefficient with discontinuous spatial derivatives. This results in a non-exponentially small above-barrier reflection of an electromagnetic wave interacting with the nonlinear plasma wave.

  12. Ion acceleration in electrodeless plasma thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafleur, Trevor; Cannat, Felix; Jarrige, Julien; Elias, Paul-Quentin; Packan, Denis

    2016-09-01

    Since electrodeless plasma thrusters do not use biased electrodes or grids to accelerate ions, it is unclear what determines the magnitude of the ``accelerating voltage'' and hence what the ion beam energy is. In this work a combined theoretical/experimental study of the relationship between the electron temperature and the ion energy was performed to provide such an answer. Experimental measurements show that the ion energy and electron temperature are strongly correlated, and demonstrate that the driving force for the plasma expansion in magnetic nozzles is the electron pressure: in complete analogy to chemical rockets with physical nozzles. Because there are no electrodes or applied voltages, the plasma that exits the thruster must be current-free, and we show that this establishes a strong criterion that determines the maximum accelerating potential that self-forms in the plasma. This maximum accelerating potential (which is between about 4-6 times the electron temperature) is similar to that which develops for a floating sheath, and depends on the electron velocity distribution function. Based on plasma loss considerations inside the thruster cavity, and the drop-off of the ionization cross section for large electron energies in most gases, we predict a theoretical maximum achievable ion beam energy of about 400 eV for argon and xenon propellants.

  13. Plasma-Pulse-Acceleration Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    W. Pucher, Testing a new Type of Circuit Breaker for HVDC , Direct Current, Feb. 1966, pp. 3 - 6 /10/ D. Kind, E. Marx, K. Mollenhoff, J. Salge... breakers /4, 5/, exploding wires /6/, plasma jet tubes /7/, and high pressure radiation sources /8/. In particular current limiting circuit breakers ...length, radius, shaping, material to be evaporated etc.). Here it is possible to transfer design criteria from current-limiting circuit breakers and

  14. Inverse mirror plasma experimental device (IMPED) - a magnetized linear plasma device for wave studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Sayak; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Sengupta, S.; Saxena, Y. C.; Pal, R.

    2015-04-01

    In a quasineutral plasma, electrons undergo collective oscillations, known as plasma oscillations, when perturbed locally. The oscillations propagate due to finite temperature effects. However, the wave can lose the phase coherence between constituting oscillators in an inhomogeneous plasma (phase mixing) because of the dependence of plasma oscillation frequency on plasma density. The longitudinal electric field associated with the wave may be used to accelerate electrons to high energies by exciting large amplitude wave. However when the maximum amplitude of the wave is reached that plasma can sustain, the wave breaks. The phenomena of wave breaking and phase mixing have applications in plasma heating and particle acceleration. For detailed experimental investigation of these phenomena a new device, inverse mirror plasma experimental device (IMPED), has been designed and fabricated. The detailed considerations taken before designing the device, so that different aspects of these phenomena can be studied in a controlled manner, are described. Specifications of different components of the IMPED machine and their flexibility aspects in upgrading, if necessary, are discussed. Initial results meeting the prerequisite condition of the plasma for such study, such as a quiescent, collisionless and uniform plasma, are presented. The machine produces δnnoise/n <= 1%, Luniform ~ 120 cm at argon filling pressure of ~10-4 mbar and axial magnetic field of B = 1090 G.

  15. The menagerie of geospace plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawhan, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    The sounding rocket and satellite observations of space plasma waves within geospace in the frequency range from millihertz to megahertz are studied. Characteristic frequencies and source mechanisms of the plasma waves are described. The use of the Dynamic Explorer-1 Plasma Wave Instrument spectrograms to represent the plasma wave antenna and receiver system of geospace is examined. The ray tracing technique calculates the path of energy flow; the equations required for the analysis are presented. Cross-correlation of the wave electric and magnetic components provide data used to calculate the wave polarization, the direction of propagation, and the wave distribution function.

  16. Compact Plasma Accelerator for Micropropulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.

    2001-01-01

    There is a need for a low power, light-weight (compact), high specific impulse electric propulsion device to satisfy mission requirements for microsatellite (1 to 20 kg) class missions. Satisfying these requirements entails addressing the general problem of generating a sufficiently dense plasma within a relatively small volume and then accelerating it. In the work presented here, the feasibility of utilizing a magnetic cusp to generate a dense plasma over small length scales of order 1 mm is investigated. This approach could potentially mitigate scaling issues associated with conventional ion thruster plasma containment schemes. Plume and discharge characteristics were documented using a Faraday probe and a retarding potential analyzer.

  17. The Galileo plasma wave investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Shaw, R. R.; Roux, A.; Gendrin, R.; Kennel, C. F.; Scarf, F. L.; Shawhan, S. D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the Galileo plasma wave investigation is to study plasma waves and radio emissions in the magnetosphere of Jupiter. The plasma wave instrument uses an electric dipole antenna to detect electric fields, and two search coil magnetic antennas to detect magnetic fields. The frequency range covered is 5 Hz to 5.6 MHz for electric fields and 5 Hz to 160 kHz for magnetic fields. Low time-resolution survey spectrums are provided by three on-board spectrum analyzers. In the normal mode of operation the frequency resolution is about 10 percent, and the time resolution for a complete set of electric and magnetic field measurements is 37.33 s. High time-resolution spectrums are provided by a wideband receiver. The wideband receiver provides waveform measurements over bandwidths of 1, 10, and 80 kHz. Compared to previous measurements at Jupiter this instrument has several new capabilities. These new capabilities include (1) both electric and magnetic field measurements to distinguish electrostatic and electromagnetic waves, (2) direction finding measurements to determine source locations, and (3) increased bandwidth for the wideband measurements.

  18. PARTS: (Plasma Accelerated Reusable Transport System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aherne, Michael; Davis, Phil; England, Matt; Gustavsson, Jake; Pankow, Steve; Sampaio, Chere; Savella, Phil

    2002-01-01

    The Plasma Accelerated Reusable Transport System (PARTS) is an unmanned cargo shuttle intended to ferry large payloads to and from Martian orbit using a highly efficient VAriable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). The design of PARTS focuses on balancing cost and minimizing transit time for a chosen payload consisting of vehicles, satellites, and other components provided by interested parties.

  19. PRECISE CHARGE MEASUREMENT FOR LASER PLASMA ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Donahue, Rich; Rodgers, David; Smith, Alan; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-19

    Cross-calibrations of charge diagnostics are conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). Employed diagnostics are a scintillating screen, activation based measurement, and integrating current transformer. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8 %, showing that they can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs provided they are used properly.

  20. High-Frequency Electrostatic Wave Generation and Transverse Ion Acceleration by Low Alfvenic Wave Components of BBELF Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George; Mukhter, Ali

    2006-01-01

    Satellite observations in the auroral plasma have revealed that extremely low frequency (ELF) waves play a dominant role in the acceleration of electrons and ions in the auroral plasma. The electromagnetic components of the ELF (EMELF) waves are the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves below the cyclotron frequency of the lightest ion species in a multi-ion plasma. Shear Alfv6n waves (SAWS) constitute the lowest frequency components of the ELF waves below the ion cyclotron frequency of the heaviest ion. The -2 mechanism for the transfer of energy from such EMELF waves to ions affecting transverse ion heating still remains a matter of debate. A very ubiquitous fe8ture of ELF waves now observed in several rocket and satellite experiments is that they occur in conjunction with high-frequency electrostatic waves. The frequency spectrum of the composite wave turbulence extends from the low frequency of the Alfvenic waves to the high frequency of proton plasma frequency and/or the lower hybrid frequency. The spectrum does not show any feature organized by the ion cyclotron frequencies and their harmonics. Such broadband waves consisting of both the EM and ES waves are now popularly referred as BBELF waves. We present results here from 2.5-D particle-in-cell simulations showing that the ES components are directly generated by cross- field plasma instabilities driven by the drifts of the ions and electrons in the EM component of the BBELF waves.

  1. Linear and Nonlinear MHD Wave Processes in Plasmas. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tataronis, J. A.

    2004-06-01

    This program treats theoretically low frequency linear and nonlinear wave processes in magnetized plasmas. A primary objective has been to evaluate the effectiveness of MHD waves to heat plasma and drive current in toroidal configurations. The research covers the following topics: (1) the existence and properties of the MHD continua in plasma equilibria without spatial symmetry; (2) low frequency nonresonant current drive and nonlinear Alfven wave effects; and (3) nonlinear electron acceleration by rf and random plasma waves. Results have contributed to the fundamental knowledge base of MHD activity in symmetric and asymmetric toroidal plasmas. Among the accomplishments of this research effort, the following are highlighted: Identification of the MHD continuum mode singularities in toroidal geometry. Derivation of a third order ordinary differential equation that governs nonlinear current drive in the singular layers of the Alfvkn continuum modes in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. Bounded solutions of this ODE implies a net average current parallel to the toroidal equilibrium magnetic field. Discovery of a new unstable continuum of the linearized MHD equation in axially periodic circular plasma cylinders with shear and incompressibility. This continuum, which we named “accumulation continuum” and which is related to ballooning modes, arises as discrete unstable eigenfrequency accumulate on the imaginary frequency axis in the limit of large mode numbers. Development of techniques to control nonlinear electron acceleration through the action of multiple coherent and random plasmas waves. Two important elements of this program aye student participation and student training in plasma theory.

  2. High-gradient plasma-wakefield acceleration with two subpicosecond electron bunches.

    PubMed

    Kallos, Efthymios; Katsouleas, Tom; Kimura, Wayne D; Kusche, Karl; Muggli, Patric; Pavlishin, Igor; Pogorelsky, Igor; Stolyarov, Daniil; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2008-02-22

    A plasma-wakefield experiment is presented where two 60 MeV subpicosecond electron bunches are sent into a plasma produced by a capillary discharge. Both bunches are shorter than the plasma wavelength, and the phase of the second bunch relative to the plasma wave is adjusted by tuning the plasma density. It is shown that the second bunch experiences a 150 MeV/m loaded accelerating gradient in the wakefield driven by the first bunch. This is the first experiment to directly demonstrate high-gradient, controlled acceleration of a short-pulse trailing electron bunch in a high-density plasma.

  3. Plasma Wakefield Acceleration and FACET - Facilities for Accelerator Science and Experimental Test Beams at SLAC

    ScienceCinema

    Andrei Seryi

    2016-07-12

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is one of the most promising approaches to advancing accelerator technology. This approach offers a potential 1,000-fold or more increase in acceleration over a given distance, compared to existing accelerators.  FACET, enabled by the Recovery Act funds, will study plasma acceleration, using short, intense pulses of electrons and positrons. In this lecture, the physics of plasma acceleration and features of FACET will be presented.  

  4. Relativistic ponderomotive effect on the propagation of rippled laser beam and the excitation of electron plasma wave in collisionless plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyanka; Chauhan, Prashant; Purohit, Gunjan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the propagation of rippled laser beam in a collisionless plasma and its effect on and the excitation of electron plasma wave and particle acceleration, when relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities are simultaneously operative. Electron plasma wave (EPW) coupling with rippled laser beam arises on account of the relativistic change in the electron mass and the modification of the background electron density due to ponderomotive nonlinearity. When the electron plasma wave gets coupled to the rippled laser beam, a large fraction of the pump energy gets transferred to EPW and this excited EPW can accelerate the electrons. Analytical expressions for the growth rate of the laser spike in plasma, beam width of the rippled laser beam and excited electron plasma wave have been obtained using paraxial ray approximation. These coupled equations are solved analytically and numerically to study the growth of laser spike in plasma and its effect on the self focusing of rippled laser beam in plasma, amplitude of the excited electron plasma wave and particle acceleration. The result shows that the effect of including ponderomotive nonlinearity significantly affects the growth of laser spike in plasma, excitation of electron plasma wave as well as the number of energetic electrons in particle acceleration process. The results are presented for typical laser plasma parameters.

  5. Optical Diagnostics for Plasma-based Particle Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muggli, Patric

    2009-05-01

    One of the challenges for plasma-based particle accelerators is to measure the spatio-temporal characteristics of the accelerated particle bunch. ``Optical'' diagnostics are particularly interesting and useful because of the large number of techniques that exits to determine the properties of photon pulses. The accelerated bunch can produce photons pulses that carry information about its characteristics for example through synchrotron radiation in a magnet, Cherenkov radiation in a gas, and transition radiation (TR) at the boundary between two media with different dielectric constants. Depending on the wavelength of the emission when compared to the particle bunch length, the radiation can be incoherent or coherent. Incoherent TR in the optical range (or OTR) is useful to measure the transverse spatial characteristics of the beam, such as charge distribution and size. Coherent TR (or CTR) carries information about the bunch length that can in principle be retrieved by standard auto-correlation or interferometric techniques, as well as by spectral measurements. A measurement of the total CTR energy emitted by bunches with constant charge can also be used as a shot-to-shot measurement for the relative bunch length as the CTR energy is proportional to the square of the bunch population and inversely proportional to its length (for a fixed distribution). Spectral interferometry can also yield the spacing between bunches in the case where multiple bunches are trapped in subsequent buckets of the plasma wave. Cherenkov radiation can be used as an energy threshold diagnostic for low energy particles. Cherenkov, synchrotron and transition radiation can be used in a dispersive section of the beam line to measure the bunch energy spectrum. The application of these diagnostics to plasma-based particle accelerators, with emphasis on the beam-driven, plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory will be discussed.

  6. Plasma acceleration above martian magnetic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Lundin, R; Winningham, D; Barabash, S; Frahm, R; Holmström, M; Sauvaud, J-A; Fedorov, A; Asamura, K; Coates, A J; Soobiah, Y; Hsieh, K C; Grande, M; Koskinen, H; Kallio, E; Kozyra, J; Woch, J; Fraenz, M; Brain, D; Luhmann, J; McKenna-Lawler, S; Orsini, R S; Brandt, P; Wurz, P

    2006-02-17

    Auroras are caused by accelerated charged particles precipitating along magnetic field lines into a planetary atmosphere, the auroral brightness being roughly proportional to the precipitating particle energy flux. The Analyzer of Space Plasma and Energetic Atoms experiment on the Mars Express spacecraft has made a detailed study of acceleration processes on the nightside of Mars. We observed accelerated electrons and ions in the deep nightside high-altitude region of Mars that map geographically to interface/cleft regions associated with martian crustal magnetization regions. By integrating electron and ion acceleration energy down to the upper atmosphere, we saw energy fluxes in the range of 1 to 50 milliwatts per square meter per second. These conditions are similar to those producing bright discrete auroras above Earth. Discrete auroras at Mars are therefore expected to be associated with plasma acceleration in diverging magnetic flux tubes above crustal magnetization regions, the auroras being distributed geographically in a complex pattern by the many multipole magnetic field lines extending into space.

  7. Principles of Space Plasma Wave Instrument Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Space plasma waves span the frequency range from somewhat below the ion cyclotron frequency to well above the electron cyclotron frequency and plasma frequency. Because of the large frequency range involved, the design of space plasma wave instrumentation presents many interesting challenges. This chapter discusses the principles of space plasma wave instrument design. The topics covered include: performance requirements, electric antennas, magnetic antennas, and signal processing. Where appropriate, comments are made on the likely direction of future developments.

  8. Staging of laser-plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, S.; van Tilborg, J.; Benedetti, C.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Daniels, J.; Swanson, K. K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Shaw, B. H.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2016-05-01

    We present results of an experiment where two laser-plasma-accelerator stages are coupled at a short distance by a plasma mirror. Stable electron beams from the first stage were used to longitudinally probe the dark-current-free, quasi-linear wakefield excited by the laser of the second stage. Changing the arrival time of the electron beam with respect to the second stage laser pulse allowed reconstruction of the temporal wakefield structure, determination of the plasma density, and inference of the length of the electron beam. The first stage electron beam could be focused by an active plasma lens to a spot size smaller than the transverse wake size at the entrance of the second stage. This permitted electron beam trapping, verified by a 100 MeV energy gain.

  9. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations. (LEW)

  10. Relativistic electron beam acceleration by Compton scattering of extraordinary waves

    SciTech Connect

    Sugaya, R.

    2006-05-15

    Relativistic transport equations, which demonstrate that relativistic and nonrelativistic particle acceleration along and across a magnetic field and the generation of an electric field transverse to the magnetic field, are induced by nonlinear wave-particle scattering (nonlinear Landau and cyclotron damping) of almost perpendicularly propagating electromagnetic waves in a relativistic magnetized plasma were derived from the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The relativistic transport equations show that electromagnetic waves can accelerate particles in the k{sup ''} direction (k{sup ''}=k-k{sup '}). Simultaneously, an intense cross-field electric field, E{sub 0}=B{sub 0}xv{sub d}/c, is generated via the dynamo effect owing to perpendicular particle drift to satisfy the generalized Ohm's law, which means that this cross-field particle drift is identical to the ExB drift. On the basis of these equations, acceleration and heating of a relativistic electron beam due to nonlinear wave-particle scattering of electromagnetic waves in a magnetized plasma were investigated theoretically and numerically. Two electromagnetic waves interact nonlinearly with the relativistic electron beam, satisfying the resonance condition of {omega}{sub k}-{omega}{sub k{sup '}}-(k{sub perpendicular}-k{sub perpendicula=} r{sup '})v{sub d}-(k{sub parallel}-k{sub parallel}{sup '})v{sub b}{approx_equal}m{omega}{sub ce}, where v{sub b} and v{sub d} are the parallel and perpendicular velocities of the relativistic electron beam, respectively, and {omega}{sub ce} is the relativistic electron cyclotron frequency. The relativistic transport equations using the relativistic drifted Maxwellian momentum distribution function of the relativistic electron beam were derived and analyzed. It was verified numerically that extraordinary waves can accelerate the highly relativistic electron beam efficiently with {beta}m{sub e}c{sup 2} < or approx. 1 GeV, where {beta}=(1-v{sub b}{sup 2}/c{sup 2}){sup -1/2}.

  11. Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasma: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Turchi, Peter J.; Markusic, Thomas E.; Cassibry, Jason T.; Sommer, James; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Much have been learned in the acceleration mechanisms involved in accelerating a plasma electromagnetically in the laboratory over the last 40 years since the early review by Winston Bostik of 1963, but the accumulated understanding is very much scattered throughout the literature. This literature extends back at least to the early sixties and includes Rosenbluth's snowplow model, discussions by Ralph Lovberg, Colgate's boundary-layer model of a current sheet, many papers from the activity at Columbia by Robert Gross and his colleagues, and the relevant, 1-D unsteady descriptions developed from the U. of Maryland theta-pinch studies. Recent progress on the understanding of the pulsed penetration of magnetic fields into collisionless or nearly collisionless plasmas are also be reviewed. Somewhat more recently, we have the two-dimensional, unsteady results in the collisional regime associated with so-called wall-instability in large radius pinch discharges and also in coaxial plasma guns (e.g., Plasma Flow Switch). Among other things, for example, we have the phenomenon of a high- density plasma discharge propagating in a cooaxial gun as an apparently straight sheet (vs paraboloid) because mass re-distribution (on a microsecond timescale) compensates for the 1/r- squared variation of magnetic pressure. We will attempt to collate some of this vast material and bring some coherence tc the development of the subject.

  12. Modulation instability and rogue wave structures of positron-acoustic waves in q-nonextensive plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bains, A. S.; Tribeche, Mouloud; Saini, N. S.; Gill, T. S.

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical investigation is made to study envelope excitations and rogue wave structures of the newly predicted positron-acoustic waves (PAWs) in a plasma with nonextensive electrons and nonextensive hot positrons. The reductive perturbation technique (RPT) is used to derive a nonlinear Schrödinger equation-like (NLSE) which governs the modulational instability (MI) of the PAWs. The NLSE admits localized envelope solitary wave solutions of bright and dark type. These envelope solutions depend upon the intrinsic plasma parameters. It is found that the MI of the PAWs is significantly affected by nonextensivity and other plasma parameters. Further, the analysis is extended for the rogue wave structures of the PAWs. The findings of the present investigation should be useful in understanding the acceleration mechanism of stable electrostatic wave packets in four components nonextensive plasmas.

  13. Demonstrations that the Solar Wind Is Not Accelerated by Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    The present work uses both observations and theoretical considerations to show that hydromagnetic waves cannot produce the acceleration of the fast solar wind and the related heating of the open solar corona. Waves do exist, and can play a role in the differential heating and acceleration of minor ions, but their amplitudes are not sufficient to power the wind, as demonstrated by extrapolation of magnetic spectra from Helios and Ulysses observations. Dissipation mechanisms invoked to circumvent this conclusion cannot be effective for a variety of reasons. In particular, turbulence does not play a strong role in the corona as shown by both observations of coronal striations and theoretical considerations of line-tying to a nonturbulent photosphere, nonlocality of interactions, and the nature of the kinetic dissipation. In the absence of wave heating and acceleration, the chromosphere and transition region become the natural source of open coronal energization. We suggest a variant of the 'velocity filtration' approach in which the emergence and complex churning of the magnetic flux in the chromosphere and transition region continuously and ubiquitously produces the nonthermal distributions required. These particles are then released by magnetic carpet reconnection at a wide range of scales and produce the wind as described in kinetic approaches. Since the carpet reconnection is not the main source of the energization of the plasma, there is no expectation of an observable release of energy in nanoflares.

  14. Excitation of Chirping Whistler Waves in a Laboratory Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Compernolle, B.; An, X.; Bortnik, J.; Thorne, R. M.; Gekelman, W. N.; Pribyl, P.

    2015-12-01

    Whistler mode chorus emissions with a characteristic frequency chirp are an important magnetospheric wave, responsible for the acceleration of outer radiation belt electrons to relativistic energies and also for the scattering loss of these electrons into the atmosphere. Here, we report on the first laboratory experiment where whistler waves exhibiting fast frequency chirping have been artificially produced using a beam of energetic electrons launched into a cold plasma. Frequency chirps are only observed for a narrow range of plasma and beam parameters, and show a strong dependence on beam density, plasma density and magnetic field gradient. Broadband whistler waves similar to magnetospheric hiss are also observed, and the parameter ranges for each emission are quantified. The research was funded by NSF/DOE Plasma Partnership program by grant DE-SC0010578. Work was done at the Basic Plasma Science Facility (BAPSF) also funded by NSF/DOE.

  15. Axionic suppression of plasma wakefield acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, D. A.; Noble, A.; Walton, T. J.

    2016-09-01

    Contemporary attempts to explain the existence of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using plasma-based wakefield acceleration deliberately avoid non-standard model particle physics. However, such proposals exploit some of the most extreme environments in the Universe and it is conceivable that hypothetical particles outside the standard model have significant implications for the effectiveness of the acceleration process. Axions solve the strong CP problem and provide one of the most important candidates for cold dark matter, and their potential significance in the present context should not be overlooked. Our analysis of the field equations describing a plasma augmented with axions uncovers a dramatic axion-induced suppression of the energy gained by a test particle in the wakefield driven by a particle bunch, or an intense pulse of electromagnetic radiation, propagating at ultra-relativistic speeds within the strongest magnetic fields in the Universe.

  16. Controlled high-energy ion acceleration with intense chirped standing waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackenroth, Felix; Gonoskov, Arkady; Marklund, Mattias

    2016-10-01

    We present the latest results of the recently proposed ion acceleration mechanism ``chirped standing wave acceleration''. This mechanism is based on locking the electrons of a thin plasma layer to the moving nodes of a standing wave formed by a chirped laser pulse reflected from a mirror behind the thin layer. The resulting longitudinal charge separation field between the displaced electrons and the residual ions then accelerates the latter. Since the plasma layer is stabilized by the standing wave, the formation of plasma instabilities is suppressed. Furthermore, the experimentally accessible laser chirp provides a versatile tool for manipulating the resulting ion beam in terms of maximum particle energy, particle number and spectral distribution. Through this scheme, proton beams, with energy spectra peaked around 100 MeV, were shown to be feasible for pulse energies at the level of 10 J. Wallenberg Foundation within the Grant ''Plasma based compact ion sources'' (PLIONA).

  17. Magnetically accelerated foils for shock wave experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, Stephan; Ford, Jessica; Martinez, David; Plechaty, Christopher; Wright, Sandra; Presura, Radu

    2008-04-01

    The interaction of shock waves with inhomogeneous media is important in many astrophysical problems, e.g. the role of shock compression in star formation. Using scaled experiments with inhomogeneous foam targets makes it possible to study relevant physics in the laboratory, to better understand the mechanisms of shock compression and to benchmark astrophysical simulation codes. Experiments with flyer-generated shock waves have been performed on the Z machine in Sandia. The Zebra accelerator at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) allows for complementary experiments with high repetition rate. First experiments on Zebra demonstrated flyer acceleration to sufficiently high velocities (around 2 km/s) and that laser shadowgraphy can image sound fronts in transparent targets. Based on this, we designed an optimized setup to improve the flyer parameters (higher speed and mass) to create shock waves in transparent media. Once x-ray backlighting with the Leopard laser at NTF is operational, we will switch to foam targets with parameters relevant for laboratory astrophysics.

  18. Laser-driven electron acceleration in an inhomogeneous plasma channel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Rong; Cheng, Li-Hong; Xue, Ju-Kui

    2015-12-15

    We study the laser-driven electron acceleration in a transversely inhomogeneous plasma channel. We find that, in inhomogeneous plasma channel, the developing of instability for electron acceleration and the electron energy gain can be controlled by adjusting the laser polarization angle and inhomogeneity of plasma channel. That is, we can short the accelerating length and enhance the energy gain in inhomogeneous plasma channel by adjusting the laser polarization angle and inhomogeneity of the plasma channel.

  19. On plasma rotation induced by waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaoyin; Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.; Qin, Hong; Liu, Jian

    2013-10-15

    The momentum conservation for resonant wave-particle interactions, now proven rigorously and for general settings, is applied to explain in simple terms how tokamak plasma is spun up by the wave momentum perpendicular to the dc magnetic field. The perpendicular momentum is passed through resonant particles to the dc field and, giving rise to the radial electric field, is accumulated as a Poynting flux; the bulk plasma is then accelerated up to the electric drift velocity proportional to that flux, independently of collisions. The presence of this collisionless acceleration mechanism permits varying the ratio of the average kinetic momentum absorbed by the resonant-particle and bulk distributions depending on the orientation of the wave vector. Both toroidal and poloidal forces are calculated, and a fluid model is presented that yields the plasma velocity at equilibrium.

  20. Simulations for Plasma and Laser Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vay, Jean-Luc; Lehe, Rémi

    Computer simulations have had a profound impact on the design and understanding of past and present plasma acceleration experiments, and will be a key component for turning plasma accelerators from a promising technology into a mainstream scientific tool. In this article, we present an overview of the numerical techniques used with the most popular approaches to model plasma-based accelerators: electromagnetic particle-in-cell, quasistatic and ponderomotive guiding center. The material that is presented is intended to serve as an introduction to the basics of those approaches, and to advances (some of them very recent) that have pushed the state of the art, such as the optimal Lorentz-boosted frame, advanced laser envelope solvers and the elimination of numerical Cherenkov instability. The particle-in-cell method, which has broader interest and is more standardized, is presented in more depth. Additional topics that are cross-cutting, such as azimuthal Fourier decomposition or filtering, are also discussed, as well as potential challenges and remedies in the initialization of simulations and output of data. Examples of simulations using the techniques that are presented have been left out of this article for conciseness, and because simulation results are best understood when presented together, and contrasted with theoretical and/or experimental results, as in other articles of this volume.

  1. Wavefront-sensor-based electron density measurements for laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Plateau, Guillaume; Matlis, Nicholas; Geddes, Cameron; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; van Mourik, Reinier; Leemans, Wim

    2010-02-20

    Characterization of the electron density in laser produced plasmas is presented using direct wavefront analysis of a probe laser beam. The performance of a laser-driven plasma-wakefield accelerator depends on the plasma wavelength, hence on the electron density. Density measurements using a conventional folded-wave interferometer and using a commercial wavefront sensor are compared for different regimes of the laser-plasma accelerator. It is shown that direct wavefront measurements agree with interferometric measurements and, because of the robustness of the compact commercial device, have greater phase sensitivity, straightforward analysis, improving shot-to-shot plasma-density diagnostics.

  2. Magnetically accelerated foils for shock wave experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, S.; Ford, J.; Wright, S.; Martinez, D.; Plechaty, C.; Presura, R.

    2009-08-01

    Many astrophysical phenomena involve the interaction of a shock wave with an inhomogeneous background medium. Using scaled experiments with inhomogeneous foam targets makes it possible to study relevant physics in the laboratory to better understand the mechanisms of shock compression and to benchmark astrophysical simulation codes. First experiments on Zebra at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) have demonstrated flyer acceleration to sufficiently high velocities (up to 5 km/s) and that laser shadowgraphy can image sound fronts in transparent targets. Based on this, we designed an optimized setup to improve the flyer parameters (higher speed and mass) to create shock waves in transparent media. Once x-ray backlighting with the Leopard laser at NTF is operational, we will switch to foam targets with parameters relevant for laboratory astrophysics.

  3. Geotail MCA Plasma Wave Investigation Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Roger R.

    1997-01-01

    The primary goals of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics/Global Geospace Science (ISTP/GGS) program are identifying, studying, and understanding the source, movement, and dissipation of plasma mass, momentum, and energy between the Sun and the Earth. The GEOTAIL spacecraft was built by the Japanese Institute of Space and Astronautical Science and has provided extensive measurements of entry, storage, acceleration, and transport in the geomagnetic tail and throughout the Earth's outer magnetosphere. GEOTAIL was launched on July 24, 1992, and began its scientific mission with eighteen extensions into the deep-tail region with apogees ranging from around 60 R(sub e) to more than 208 R(sub e) in the period up to late 1994. Due to the nature of the GEOTAIL trajectory which kept the spacecraft passing into the deep tail, GEOTAIL also made 'magnetopause skimming passes' which allowed measurements in the outer magnetosphere, magnetopause, magnetosheath, bow shock, and upstream solar wind regions as well as in the lobe, magnetosheath, boundary layers, and central plasma sheet regions of the tail. In late 1994, after spending nearly 30 months primarily traversing the deep tail region, GEOTAIL began its near-Earth phase. Perigee was reduced to 10 R(sub e) and apogee first to 50 R(sub e) and finally to 30 R(sub e) in early 1995. This orbit provides many more opportunities for GEOTAIL to explore the upstream solar wind, bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause, and outer magnetosphere as well as the near-Earth tail regions. The WIND spacecraft was launched on November 1, 1994 and the POLAR spacecraft was launched on February 24, 1996. These successful launches have dramatically increased the opportunities for GEOTAIL and the GGS spacecraft to be used to conduct the global research for which the ISTP program was designed. The measurement and study of plasma waves have made and will continue to make important contributions to reaching the ISTP/GGS goals and solving the

  4. Shock waves and particle acceleration in clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Kang, Hyesung; Ha, Ji-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    During the formation of the large-scale structure of the universe, intracluster media (ICMs), which fills the volume of galaxy clusters and is composed of hot, high-beta plasma, are continuously disturbed by major and minor mergers of clumps as well as infall along filaments of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). Such activities induce shock waves, which are observed in radio and X-ray mostly in cluster outskirts. These shocks are collisionless, as in other astrophysical environments, and are thought to accelerate cosmic rays (CRs) via diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. Here, we present the properties of shocks in ICMs and their roles in the generation of nonthermal particles, studied with high-resolution simulations. We also discuss the implications on the observations of diffuse radio emission from galaxy clusters, such as radio relics.

  5. Dichromatic Langmuir waves in degenerate quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Dubinov, A. E. Kitayev, I. N.

    2015-06-15

    Langmuir waves in fully degenerate quantum plasma are considered. It is shown that, in the linear approximation, Langmuir waves are always dichromatic. The low-frequency component of the waves corresponds to classical Langmuir waves, while the high-frequency component, to free-electron quantum oscillations. The nonlinear problem on the profile of dichromatic Langmuir waves is solved. Solutions in the form of a superposition of waves and in the form of beatings of its components are obtained.

  6. MHD plasma acceleration in plasma thrusters: a variational approach

    SciTech Connect

    Andreussi, T.; Pegoraro, F.

    2010-12-14

    A Hamiltonian formulation of the MHD plasma flow equations in terms of noncanonical variables is briefly discussed for the case of stationary axisymmetric configurations. This formulation makes it possible to cast these flow equations in a variational form with mixed (closed and/or open) boundary conditions. Within this framework the modelling of the acceleration channel of an applied-field Magneto-Plasma-Dynamic (MPD) thruster for space propulsion is discussed and shown to provide general relationships between the flow features and the thruster performance.

  7. Solitary surface waves on a plasma cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1983-03-01

    By considering electrostatic surface waves propagating along a plasma cylinder, it is demonstrated that solitary variations in the cylinder radius may appear. The properties of these slow perturbations are determined by the surface wave intensities.

  8. Proton acceleration from magnetized overdense plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuri, Deep Kumar; Das, Nilakshi; Patel, Kartik

    2017-01-01

    Proton acceleration by an ultraintense short pulse circularly polarized laser from an overdense three dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) 3D-PIC simulations. The axial magnetic field modifies the dielectric constant of the plasma, which causes a difference in the behaviour of ponderomotive force in case of left and right circularly polarized laser pulse. When the laser is right circularly polarized, the ponderomotive force gets enhanced due to cyclotron effects generating high energetic electrons, which, on reaching the target rear side accelerates the protons via target normal sheath acceleration process. On the other hand, in case of left circular polarization, the effects get reversed causing a suppression of the ponderomotive force at a short distance and lead towards a rise in the radiation pressure, which results in the effective formation of laser piston. Thus, the axial magnetic field enhances the effect of radiation pressure in case of left circularly polarized laser resulting in the generation of high energetic protons at the target front side. The transverse motion of protons get reduced as they gyrate around the axial magnetic field which increases the beam collimation to some extent. The optimum thickness of the overdense plasma target is found to be increased in the presence of an axial magnetic field.

  9. Accelerated simulation methods for plasma kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caflisch, Russel

    2016-11-01

    Collisional kinetics is a multiscale phenomenon due to the disparity between the continuum (fluid) and the collisional (particle) length scales. This paper describes a class of simulation methods for gases and plasmas, and acceleration techniques for improving their speed and accuracy. Starting from the Landau-Fokker-Planck equation for plasmas, the focus will be on a binary collision model that is solved using a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Acceleration of this method is achieved by coupling the particle method to a continuum fluid description. The velocity distribution function f is represented as a combination of a Maxwellian M (the thermal component) and a set of discrete particles fp (the kinetic component). For systems that are close to (local) equilibrium, this reduces the number N of simulated particles that are required to represent f for a given level of accuracy. We present two methods for exploiting this representation. In the first method, equilibration of particles in fp, as well as disequilibration of particles from M, due to the collision process, is represented by a thermalization/dethermalization step that employs an entropy criterion. Efficiency of the representation is greatly increased by inclusion of particles with negative weights. This significantly complicates the simulation, but the second method is a tractable approach for negatively weighted particles. The accelerated simulation method is compared with standard PIC-DSMC method for both spatially homogeneous problems such as a bump-on-tail and inhomogeneous problems such as nonlinear Landau damping.

  10. Plasma Waves in the Magnetosheath of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangeway, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Research supported by this grant is divided into three basic topics of investigation. These are: (1) Plasma waves in the Venus magnetosheath, (2) Plasma waves in the Venus foreshock and solar wind, (3) plasma waves in the Venus nightside ionosphere and ionotail. The main issues addressed in the first area - Plasma waves in the Venus magnetosheath - dealt with the wave modes observed in the magnetosheath and upper ionosphere, and whether these waves are a significant source of heating for the topside ionosphere. The source of the waves was also investigated. In the second area - Plasma waves in the Venus foreshock and solar wind, we carried out some research on waves observed upstream of the planetary bow shock known as the foreshock. The foreshock and bow shock modify the ambient magnetic field and plasma, and need to be understood if we are to understand the magnetosheath. Although most of the research was directed to wave observations on the dayside of the planet, in the last of the three basic areas studied, we also analyzed data from the nightside. The plasma waves observed by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter on the nightside continue to be of considerable interest since they have been cited as evidence for lightning on Venus.

  11. Editorial: Focus on Laser- and Beam-Driven Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Chan; Malka, Victor

    2010-04-01

    The ability of short but intense laser pulses to generate high-energy electrons and ions from gaseous and solid targets has been well known since the early days of the laser fusion program. However, during the past decade there has been an explosion of experimental and theoretical activity in this area of laser-matter interaction, driven by the prospect of realizing table-top plasma accelerators for research, medical and industrial uses, and also relatively small and inexpensive plasma accelerators for high-energy physics at the frontier of particle physics. In this focus issue on laser- and beam-driven plasma accelerators, the latest advances in this field are described. Focus on Laser- and Beam-Driven Plasma Accelerators Contents Slow wave plasma structures for direct electron acceleration B D Layer, J P Palastro, A G York, T M Antonsen and H M Milchberg Cold injection for electron wakefield acceleration X Davoine, A Beck, A Lifschitz, V Malka and E Lefebvre Enhanced proton flux in the MeV range by defocused laser irradiation J S Green, D C Carroll, C Brenner, B Dromey, P S Foster, S Kar, Y T Li, K Markey, P McKenna, D Neely, A P L Robinson, M J V Streeter, M Tolley, C-G Wahlström, M H Xu and M Zepf Dose-dependent biological damage of tumour cells by laser-accelerated proton beams S D Kraft, C Richter, K Zeil, M Baumann, E Beyreuther, S Bock, M Bussmann, T E Cowan, Y Dammene, W Enghardt, U Helbig, L Karsch, T Kluge, L Laschinsky, E Lessmann, J Metzkes, D Naumburger, R Sauerbrey, M. Scḧrer, M Sobiella, J Woithe, U Schramm and J Pawelke The optimum plasma density for plasma wakefield excitation in the blowout regime W Lu, W An, M Zhou, C Joshi, C Huang and W B Mori Plasma wakefield acceleration experiments at FACET M J Hogan, T O Raubenheimer, A Seryi, P Muggli, T Katsouleas, C Huang, W Lu, W An, K A Marsh, W B Mori, C E Clayton and C Joshi Electron trapping and acceleration on a downward density ramp: a two-stage approach R M G M Trines, R Bingham, Z Najmudin

  12. Low-Frequency Waves in Space Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiling, Andreas; Lee, Dong-Hun; Nakariakov, Valery

    2016-02-01

    Low-frequency waves in space plasmas have been studied for several decades, and our knowledge gain has been incremental with several paradigm-changing leaps forward. In our solar system, such waves occur in the ionospheres and magnetospheres of planets, and around our Moon. They occur in the solar wind, and more recently, they have been confirmed in the Sun's atmosphere as well. The goal of wave research is to understand their generation, their propagation, and their interaction with the surrounding plasma. Low-frequency Waves in Space Plasmas presents a concise and authoritative up-to-date look on where wave research stands: What have we learned in the last decade? What are unanswered questions? While in the past waves in different astrophysical plasmas have been largely treated in separate books, the unique feature of this monograph is that it covers waves in many plasma regions, including: Waves in geospace, including ionosphere and magnetosphere Waves in planetary magnetospheres Waves at the Moon Waves in the solar wind Waves in the solar atmosphere Because of the breadth of topics covered, this volume should appeal to a broad community of space scientists and students, and it should also be of interest to astronomers/astrophysicists who are studying space plasmas beyond our Solar System.

  13. High latitude electromagnetic plasma wave emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The principal types of electromagnetic plasma wave emission produced in the high latitude auroral regions are reviewed. Three types of radiation are described: auroral kilometric radiation, auroral hiss, and Z mode radiation. Auroral kilometric radiation is a very intense radio emission generated in the free space R-X mode by electrons associated with the formation of discrete auroral arcs in the local evening. Theories suggest that this radiation is an electron cyclotron resonance instability driven by an enhanced loss cone in the auroral acceleration region at altitudes of about 1 to 2 R sub E. Auroral hiss is a somewhat weaker whistler mode emission generated by low energy (100 eV to 10 keV) auroral electrons. The auroral hiss usually has a V shaped frequency time spectrum caused by a freqency dependent beaming of the whistler mode into a conical beam directed upward or downward along the magnetic field.

  14. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-06-01

    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1percent per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm2 and 0.4 pC/ps/mm2, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within +/-10 percent.

  15. Magnetoacoustic nonlinear periodic (cnoidal) waves in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ur-Rehman, Hafeez; Mahmood, S.; Hussain, S.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetoacoustic nonlinear periodic (cnoidal) waves and solitons are studied in magnetized electron-ion plasmas with inertial cold ions and warm electrons. Using the two fluid model, the dispersion relation of the magnetoacoustic waves is obtained in the linear limit and the wave dispersive effects appear through the electron inertial length. The well known reductive perturbation method is employed to derive the Korteweg-de Vries equation for magnetoacoustic waves in plasmas. The Sagdeev potential approach is used, and the cnoidal wave solution of magnetoacoustic waves is obtained under periodic boundary conditions. The analytical solution for magnetoacoustic solitons is also presented. The phase plane portraits are also plotted for magnetoacoustic solitons shown as a separatrix, and the cnoidal wave structure always lies within the separatrix. It is found that plasma beta, which depends on the plasma density, electron temperature, and magnetic field intensity, has a significant effect on the amplitude and phase of the cnoidal waves, while it also affects the width and amplitude of the magnetoacoustic soliton in plasmas. The numerical results are plotted within the plasma parameters for laboratory and space plasmas for illustration. It is found that only compressive magnetoacoustic nonlinear periodic wave and soliton structures are formed in magnetized plasmas.

  16. Electron acceleration in preformed plasma channels with terawatt CO{sub 2} laser

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1995-02-01

    Extended cylindrical plasma channels produced under gas breakdown by axicon-focused laser beams may be used as optical waveguides in laser-driven electron accelerators. Plasma channeling of the laser beams will help to maintain a high acceleration gradient over many Rayleigh lengths. In addition, the rarefied gas density channel produced after the optical gas breakdown, and followed by a plasma column expansion, reduces multiple scattering of the electron beam. A high-power picosecond C0{sub 2}laser operational at the ATF and being further upgraded to the 1 TW level is considered as the source for a plasma channel formation and as the laser accelerator driver. We show how various laser accelerator schemes including beat wave, wake field, and Inverse Cherenkov accelerator benefit from using a channeled short-pulse C0{sub 2}laser as a driver.

  17. Electromagnetic waves in a strong Schwarzschild plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.; Tajima, T.

    1996-11-01

    The physics of high frequency electromagnetic waves in a general relativistic plasma with the Schwarzschild metric is studied. Based on the 3 + 1 formalism, we conformalize Maxwell`s equations. The derived dispersion relations for waves in the plasma contain the lapse function in the plasma parameters such as in the plasma frequency and cyclotron frequency, but otherwise look {open_quotes}flat.{close_quotes} Because of this property this formulation is ideal for nonlinear self-consistent particle (PIC) simulation. Some of the physical consequences arising from the general relativistic lapse function as well as from the effects specific to the plasma background distribution (such as density and magnetic field) give rise to nonuniform wave equations and their associated phenomena, such as wave resonance, cutoff, and mode-conversion. These phenomena are expected to characterize the spectroscopy of radiation emitted by the plasma around the black hole. PIC simulation results of electron-positron plasma are also presented.

  18. Superconducting travelling wave ring with high gradient accelerating section

    SciTech Connect

    Avrakhov, P.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Use of a superconducting traveling wave accelerating (STWA) structure instead of a standing wave cavity has major advantages in increasing the accelerating gradient in the ILC. In contrast with standing wave cavity STWA requires feedback loop, which sends wave from the structure output to input, making a superconducting traveling wave ring (STWR). One or few input couplers need to excite STWR and compensate power dissipations due to beam loading. To control traveling wave regime in the structure two independent knobs can be used for tuning both resonant ring frequency and backward wave. We discuss two variants of the STWR with one and two feed couplers.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Waves Driven by Plasma Currents Generated by Low-Frequency Alfven Waves in a Multi-Ion Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George

    2003-01-01

    When multi-ion plasma consisting of heavy and light ions is permeated by a lowfrequency Alfien (LFA) wave, the EXB and the polarization drifts of the different ion species and the electrons could be quite different. The relative drifts between the charged-particle species drive waves, which energize the plasma. Using 2.5-D particle-in-cell simulations, we study this process of wave generation and its nonlinear consequences in terms of acceleration and heating plasma. Specifically we study the situation for LFA wave frequency being lower than the heavyion cyclotron frequency in a multi-ion plasma. We impose such a wave to the plasma assuming that its wavelength is much larger than that of the waves generated by the relative drifts. For better understanding, the LFA-wave driven simulations are augmented by those driven by initialized ion beams.

  20. Coupling between electron plasma waves in laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, M. J.; Lal, A.; Clayton, C. E.; Mori, W. B.; Joshi, C.; Johnston, T. W.

    1996-05-01

    A Lagrangian fluid model (cold plasma, fixed ions) is developed for analyzing the coupling between electron plasma waves. This model shows that a small wave number electron plasma wave (ω2,k2) will strongly affect a large wave number electron plasma wave (ω1,k1), transferring its energy into daughter waves or sidebands at (ω1+nω2,k1+nk2) in the lab frame. The accuracy of the model is checked via particle-in-cell simulations, which confirm that the energy in the mode at (ω1,k1) can be completely transferred to the sidebands at (ω1+nω2,k1+nk2) by the presence of the electron plasma mode at (ω2,k2). Conclusive experimental evidence for the generation of daughter waves via this coupling is then presented using time- and wave number-resolved spectra of the light from a probe laser coherently Thomson scattered by the electron plasma waves generated by the interaction of a two-frequency CO2 laser with a plasma.

  1. Particle Acceleration in SN1006 Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, John C.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This grant is for the analysis of FUSE observations of particle acceleration in supernova remnant SN1006 shock waves. We have performed quick look analysis of the data, but because the source is faint and because the O VI emission lines on SN1006 are extremely broad, extreme care is needed for background subtraction and profile fitting. Moreover, the bulk of the analysis in will consist of model calculations. The Ly beta and O VI lines are clearly detected at the position in the NW filament of SN1006, but not in the NE position where non-thermal X-rays are strong. The lack of O VI emission in the NE places an upper limit on the pre-shock density there.

  2. Fundamental plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for fundamental plasma emission by the three-wave processes L + or - S to T (where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and transverse waves, respectively) is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes are identified. In addition the rates, path-integrated wave temperatures, and limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation are derived.

  3. Computational analysis of a pulsed inductive plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corpening, Jeremy H.

    The pulsed inductive plasma accelerator allows for ionization of a cold gas propellant to plasma and acceleration of plasma with the same current pulse and without plasma contact with any part. This is beneficial since erosion is never a problem and lifetimes are limited only by the amount of carried propellant. To date, work involving the pulsed inductive plasma accelerator concept has been largely experimental with minimal computational analysis. The goal of the present research was to develop a computational tool using Maxwell's equations coupled with the Navier-Stokes fluid equations to fully analyze a pulsed inductive plasma accelerator. A plasma model was developed using the Saha equation and partition functions to calculate all required thermodynamic properties. The solution to Maxwell's equations was verified accurate and then coupled computations with propellant plasma were conducted. These coupled computations showed good order of magnitude accuracy with a simple onedimensional model however failed when the plasma began to accelerate due to the Lorentz force. The electric field, magnetic field, current density, and Lorentz force were all aligned in the proper vector directions. The computational failure occurred due to rapid, fictitious increases in the induced electric field in the vacuum created between the accelerating plasma and drive coil. Possible solutions to this problem are to decrease the time step and refine the grid density. Although complete acceleration of propellant plasma has yet to be computationally computed, this study has shown successful coupled computations with Maxwell and Navier-Stokes equations for a pulsed inductive plasma accelerator.

  4. Electrostatic Wave Generation and Transverse Ion Acceleration by Alfvenic Wave Components of BBELF Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George; Mukhter, Ali

    2007-01-01

    We present results here from 2.5-D particle-in-cell simulations showing that the electrostatic (ES) components of broadband extremely low frequency (BBELF) waves could possibly be generated by cross-field plasma instabilities driven by the relative drifts between the heavy and light ion species in the electromagnetic (EM) Alfvenic component of the BBELF waves in a multi-ion plasma. The ES components consist of ion cyclotron as well as lower hybrid modes. We also demonstrate that the ES wave generation is directly involved in the transverse acceleration of ions (TAI) as commonly measured with the BBELF wave events. The heating is affected by ion cyclotron resonance in the cyclotron modes and Landau resonance in the lower hybrid waves. In the simulation we drive the plasma by the transverse electric field, E(sub y), of the EM waves; the frequency of E(sub y), omega(sub d), is varied from a frequency below the heavy ion cyclotron frequency, OMEGA(sub h), to below the light ion cyclotron frequency, OMEGA(sub i). We have also performed simulations for E(sub y) having a continuous spectrum given by a power law, namely, |Ey| approx. omega(sub d) (exp -alpha), where the exponent alpha = _, 1, and 2 in three different simulations. The driving electric field generates polarization and ExB drifts of the ions and electrons. When the interspecies relative drifts are sufficiently large, they drive electrostatic waves, which cause perpendicular heating of both light and heavy ions. The transverse ion heating found here is discussed in relation to observations from Cluster, FAST and Freja.

  5. Parametric amplification of a superconducting plasma wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasekaran, S.; Casandruc, E.; Laplace, Y.; Nicoletti, D.; Gu, G. D.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.; Cavalleri, A.

    2016-11-01

    Many applications in photonics require all-optical manipulation of plasma waves, which can concentrate electromagnetic energy on sub-wavelength length scales. This is difficult in metallic plasmas because of their small optical nonlinearities. Some layered superconductors support Josephson plasma waves, involving oscillatory tunnelling of the superfluid between capacitively coupled planes. Josephson plasma waves are also highly nonlinear, and exhibit striking phenomena such as cooperative emission of coherent terahertz radiation, superconductor-metal oscillations and soliton formation. Here, we show that terahertz Josephson plasma waves can be parametrically amplified through the cubic tunnelling nonlinearity in a cuprate superconductor. Parametric amplification is sensitive to the relative phase between pump and seed waves, and may be optimized to achieve squeezing of the order-parameter phase fluctuations or terahertz single-photon devices.

  6. Parametric amplification of a superconducting plasma wave

    SciTech Connect

    Rajasekaran, S.; Casandruc, E.; Laplace, Y.; Nicoletti, D.; Gu, G. D.; Clark, S. R.; Jaksch, D.; Cavalleri, A.

    2016-07-11

    Many applications in photonics require all-optical manipulation of plasma waves, which can concentrate electromagnetic energy on sub-wavelength length scales. This is difficult in metallic plasmas because of their small optical nonlinearities. Some layered superconductors support Josephson plasma waves, involving oscillatory tunnelling of the superfluid between capacitively coupled planes. Josephson plasma waves are also highly nonlinear, and exhibit striking phenomena such as cooperative emission of coherent terahertz radiation, superconductor–metal oscillations and soliton formation. In this paper, we show that terahertz Josephson plasma waves can be parametrically amplified through the cubic tunnelling nonlinearity in a cuprate superconductor. Finally, parametric amplification is sensitive to the relative phase between pump and seed waves, and may be optimized to achieve squeezing of the order-parameter phase fluctuations or terahertz single-photon devices.

  7. Parametric amplification of a superconducting plasma wave

    DOE PAGES

    Rajasekaran, S.; Casandruc, E.; Laplace, Y.; ...

    2016-07-11

    Many applications in photonics require all-optical manipulation of plasma waves, which can concentrate electromagnetic energy on sub-wavelength length scales. This is difficult in metallic plasmas because of their small optical nonlinearities. Some layered superconductors support Josephson plasma waves, involving oscillatory tunnelling of the superfluid between capacitively coupled planes. Josephson plasma waves are also highly nonlinear, and exhibit striking phenomena such as cooperative emission of coherent terahertz radiation, superconductor–metal oscillations and soliton formation. In this paper, we show that terahertz Josephson plasma waves can be parametrically amplified through the cubic tunnelling nonlinearity in a cuprate superconductor. Finally, parametric amplification is sensitivemore » to the relative phase between pump and seed waves, and may be optimized to achieve squeezing of the order-parameter phase fluctuations or terahertz single-photon devices.« less

  8. Dependence of Initial Plasma Size on Laser-driven In-Tube Accelerator (LITA) Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sukyum; Jeung, In-Seuck; Ohtani, Toshiro; Sasoh, Akihiro; Choi, Jeong-Yeol

    2004-03-30

    At Tohoku University, experiments of Laser-driven In-Tube Accelerator (LITA) have been carried out. In order to observe the initial state of plasma and blast wave, the visualization experiment was carried out using the shadowgraph method. In this paper, dependency of initial plasma size on LITA performance is investigated numerically. The plasma size is estimated using shadowgraph images and the numerical results are compared with the experimental data of pressure measurement and results of previous modeling.

  9. Stimulated plasma waves in the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    The reported discussion is concerned with longitudinal waves associated with electron motions. These waves are easily stimulated in the ionosphere by rocket- and satellite-borne RF sounders. Most of the observations of stimulated plasma waves in the ionosphere are based on ionograms obtained from the sounders carried on board five satellites, including Explorer 20, Alouette 1 and 2, and ISIS 1 and 2. The majority of the observations can be explained by considering the propagation of the sounder-stimulated plasma waves. Attention is given to aspects of plasma wave dispersion, linear phenomena, plasma wave instabilities and nonlinear phenomena, unexplained phenomena, diagnostic applications, geophysical and astrophysical applications, and a number of experiments planned for the future.

  10. Movable RF probe eliminates need for calibration in plasma accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. B.

    1967-01-01

    Movable RF antenna probe in plasma accelerators continuously maps the RF field both within and beyond the accelerator. It eliminates the need for installing probes in the accelerator walls. The moving RF probe can be used to map the RF electrical field under various accelerator conditions.

  11. The detuning of relativistic Langmuir waves in the beat-wave accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinstrie, C. J.; Forslund, D. W.

    1987-03-01

    In the beat-wave accelerator, a large-amplitude Langmuir wave is produced by the beating of two laser beams whose frequencies differ by approximately the plasma frequency. The growth of this Langmuir wave saturates because of a nonlinear shift in its natural frequency. At present, there are three different formulas for the nonlinear frequency shift in the literature. By taking all relevant nonlinearities into account, the original result of Akhiezer and Polovin [Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 102, 919 (1955)] is shown to be correct. The maximum amplitude of the Langmuir wave depends on the incident laser intensity and the frequency mismatch, which is the difference between the beat frequency of the incident waves and the plasma frequency. Two different studies have produced contradictory conclusions on the ``optimum'' frequency mismatch. The reasons for this contradiction are discussed and the result of Tang, Sprangle, and Sudan [Phys. Fluids 28, 1974 (1985)] is shown to be essentially correct. However, the requirements for effective beam loading make practical use of the optimum configuration impossible.

  12. Excitation of Plasma Waves in Aurora by Electron Beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    daSilva, C. E.; Vinas, A. F.; deAssis, A. S.; deAzevedo, C. A.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we study numerically the excitation of plasma waves by electron beams, in the auroral region above 2000 km of altitude. We have solved the fully kinetic dispersion relation, using numerical method and found the real frequency and the growth rate of the plasma wave modes. We have examined the instability properties of low-frequency waves such as the Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron (EMIC) wave as well as Lower-Hybrid (LH) wave in the range of high-frequency. In all cases, the source of free energy are electron beams propagating parallel to the geomagnetic field. We present some features of the growth rate modes, when the cold plasma parameters are changed, such as background electrons and ions species (H(+) and O(+)) temperature, density or the electron beam density and/or drift velocity. These results can be used in a test-particle simulation code, to investigate the ion acceleration and their implication in the auroral acceleration processes, by wave-particle interaction.

  13. Method for generating extreme ultraviolet with mather-type plasma accelerators for use in Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

    DOEpatents

    Hassanein, Ahmed; Konkashbaev, Isak

    2006-10-03

    A device and method for generating extremely short-wave ultraviolet electromagnetic wave uses two intersecting plasma beams generated by two plasma accelerators. The intersection of the two plasma beams emits electromagnetic radiation and in particular radiation in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength. In the preferred orientation two axially aligned counter streaming plasmas collide to produce an intense source of electromagnetic radiation at the 13.5 nm wavelength. The Mather type plasma accelerators can utilize tin, or lithium covered electrodes. Tin, lithium or xenon can be used as the photon emitting gas source.

  14. Langmuir Wave Decay in Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasmas: Simulation Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A. S.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.

    2015-08-01

    Langmuir turbulence excited by electron flows in solar wind plasmas is studied on the basis of numerical simulations. In particular, nonlinear wave decay processes involving ion-sound (IS) waves are considered in order to understand their dependence on external long-wavelength plasma density fluctuations. In the presence of inhomogeneities, it is shown that the decay processes are localized in space and, due to the differences between the group velocities of Langmuir and IS waves, their duration is limited so that a full nonlinear saturation cannot be achieved. The reflection and the scattering of Langmuir wave packets on the ambient and randomly varying density fluctuations lead to crucial effects impacting the development of the IS wave spectrum. Notably, beatings between forward propagating Langmuir waves and reflected ones result in the parametric generation of waves of noticeable amplitudes and in the amplification of IS waves. These processes, repeated at different space locations, form a series of cascades of wave energy transfer, similar to those studied in the frame of weak turbulence theory. The dynamics of such a cascading mechanism and its influence on the acceleration of the most energetic part of the electron beam are studied. Finally, the role of the decay processes in the shaping of the profiles of the Langmuir wave packets is discussed, and the waveforms calculated are compared with those observed recently on board the spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory and WIND.

  15. LANGMUIR WAVE DECAY IN INHOMOGENEOUS SOLAR WIND PLASMAS: SIMULATION RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Krafft, C.; Volokitin, A. S.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.

    2015-08-20

    Langmuir turbulence excited by electron flows in solar wind plasmas is studied on the basis of numerical simulations. In particular, nonlinear wave decay processes involving ion-sound (IS) waves are considered in order to understand their dependence on external long-wavelength plasma density fluctuations. In the presence of inhomogeneities, it is shown that the decay processes are localized in space and, due to the differences between the group velocities of Langmuir and IS waves, their duration is limited so that a full nonlinear saturation cannot be achieved. The reflection and the scattering of Langmuir wave packets on the ambient and randomly varying density fluctuations lead to crucial effects impacting the development of the IS wave spectrum. Notably, beatings between forward propagating Langmuir waves and reflected ones result in the parametric generation of waves of noticeable amplitudes and in the amplification of IS waves. These processes, repeated at different space locations, form a series of cascades of wave energy transfer, similar to those studied in the frame of weak turbulence theory. The dynamics of such a cascading mechanism and its influence on the acceleration of the most energetic part of the electron beam are studied. Finally, the role of the decay processes in the shaping of the profiles of the Langmuir wave packets is discussed, and the waveforms calculated are compared with those observed recently on board the spacecraft Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory and WIND.

  16. Summary Report of Working Group 6: Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, Wim P.; Downer, Michael; Siders, Craig

    2006-07-01

    A summary is given of presentations and discussions in theLaser-Plasma Acceleration Working Group at the 2006 Advanced AcceleratorConcepts Workshop. Presentation highlights include: widespreadobservation of quasi-monoenergetic electrons; good agreement betweenmeasured and simulated beam properties; the first demonstration oflaser-plasma acceleration up to 1 GeV; single-shot visualization of laserwakefield structure; new methods for measuring<100 fs electronbunches; and new methods for "machining" laser-plasma acceleratorstructures. Discussion of future direction includes: developing a roadmapfor laser-plasma acceleration beyond 1 GeV; a debate over injection andguiding; benchmarking simulations with improved wake diagnostics;petawatt laser technology for future laser-plasmaaccelerators.

  17. Plasma Density Tapering for Laser Wakefield Acceleration of Electrons and Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, A.; Gordon, D.; Helle, M.; Kaganovich, D.; Sprangle, P.; Hafizi, B.

    2010-11-01

    Extended acceleration in a Laser Wakefield Accelerator can be achieved by tailoring the phase velocity of the accelerating plasma wave, either through profiling of the density of the plasma or direct manipulation of the phase velocity. Laser wakefield acceleration has also reached a maturity that proton acceleration by wakefield could be entertained provided we begin with protons that are substantially relativistic, ˜1 GeV. Several plasma density tapering schemes are discussed. The first scheme is called "bucket jumping" where the plasma density is abruptly returned to the original density after a conventional tapering to move the accelerating particles to a neighboring wakefield period (bucket). The second scheme is designed to specifically accelerate low energy protons by generating a nonlinear wakefield in a plasma region with close to critical density. The third scheme creates a periodic variation in the phase velocity by beating two intense laser beams with laser frequency difference equal to the plasma frequency. Discussions and case examples with simulations are presented where substantial acceleration of electrons or protons could be obtained.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Waves Driven by Plasma Currents Generated by Low-Frequency Alfven Waves in a Multi-Ion Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Nagendra; Khazanov, George

    2004-01-01

    When multi-ion plasma consisting of heavy and light ions is permeated by a low-frequency Alfven (LFA) wave, the crossed-electric-and-magnetic field (E x B), and the polarization drifts of the different ion species and the electrons could be quite different. The relative drifts between the charged-particle species drive waves, which energize the plasma. Using 2.5-dimensional (2.5-D) particle-in-cell simulations, we study this process of wave generation and its nonlinear consequences in terms of acceleration and heating plasma. Specifically, we study the situation for LFA wave frequency being lower than the heavy-ion cyclotron frequency in a multi-ion plasma. We impose such a wave to the plasma assuming that its wavelength is much larger than that of the waves generated by the relative drifts. For better understanding, the LFA-wave driven simulations are augmented by those driven by initialized ion beams. The driven high-frequency (HF) wave modes critically depend on the heavy ion density nh; for small values of nh, the lower hybrid (LH) waves dominate. On the other hand, for large nh a significantly enhanced level of waves occurs over a much broader frequency spectrum below the LH frequency and such waves are interpreted here as the ion Bernstein (IB) mode near the light ion cyclotron harmonics. Irrespective of the driven wave modes, both the light and heavy ions undergo significant transverse acceleration, but for the large heavy-ion densities, even the electrons are significantly accelerated in the parallel direction by the waves below the LH frequency. Even when the LFA wave drive is maintained, the ion heating leads to the cessation of HF wave excitation just after a few cycles of the former wave. On the basis of marginal stability seen in the simulations, an empirical relation for LFA wave amplitude, frequency and ion temperature is given.

  19. PREFACE: Acceleration and radiation generation in space and laboratory plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, R.; Katsouleas, T.; Dawson, J. M.; Stenflo, L.

    1994-01-01

    and radiation generation in plasmas. The next section includes state-of-the-art papers on laboratory accelerators driven by lasers (Nakajima et al., Shukla, Johnson et al.), microwaves (Nishida et al., Bogomolov et al.) and by particle beams (Ogata et al.). Also in this section are theoretical papers presenting new work on synchrotron like oscillations in plasma waves (Fedele) and two types of laboratory radiation sources, FEL's (Marshall et al.) and ionization fronts (Lai et al.), and Frantzeskakis et al. described the Hamiltonian analysis of a slow-wave autonomous cyclotron buncher. Section 3 contains papers on astrophysical plasmas, with the general presentations of Colgate and Krishnan. Kazanas and Krishnan address active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Thielheim discusses general acceleration mech anisms in rotating magnetized systems. Asseo discussed Langmuir solitons in pulsars and Blackman et al. treat magnetic reconnection relativistically. Su et al. analyze the possibility of plasma wave excitation and particle acceleration by neu trinos from supernovae. Dogiel et al. on cosmic ray scattering by MHD fluctuations. The papers in Section 4 treat fusion plasmas (Dendy et al. and Lashmore-Davies et al.). Section 5, space plasmas, includes papers on acceleration processes in the magnetosphere (Anagnostopoulos and Marshall et al.) and the sun (Barletta et al.). It is evident from the Workshop and the papers collected here that this is indeed a rich field of investigations and that both the natural and laboratory plasma communities can benefit from the cross-fertilization of ideas between them. We wish to thank the authors and attendees for their contributions to the success of this workshop, Dr Philip Debenham and Dr David Sutter of the U.S. D.o.E. and Dr Charles Roberson of the U.S. O.N.R. for their financial support (Grants DE-FGO3-93ER40776 and N00014-93-1-0814), and the ECC Twinning Grant SC1*-CT92-0773. We appreciate the considerable local support from Mr Glegles and

  20. Summary Report of Working Group 1: Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Clayton, C.; Lu, W.; Thomas, A.G.R.

    2010-06-01

    Advances in and physics of the acceleration of particles using underdense plasma structures driven by lasers were the topics of presentations and discussions in Working Group 1 of the 2010 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop. Such accelerators have demonstrated gradients several orders beyond conventional machines, with quasi-monoenergetic beams at MeV-GeV energies, making them attractive candidates for next generation accelerators. Workshop discussions included advances in control over injection and laser propagation to further improve beam quality and stability, detailed diagnostics and physics models of the acceleration process, radiation generation as a source and diagnostic, and technological tools and upcoming facilities to extend the reach of laser-plasma accelerators.

  1. Plasma wave aided two photon decay of an electromagnetic wave in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, K. K. Magesh; Singh, Rohtash; Krishan, Vinod

    2014-11-15

    The presence of a Langmuir wave in an unmagnetized plasma is shown to allow parametric decay of an electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic waves, which is otherwise not allowed due to wave number mismatch. The decay occurs at plasma densities below one ninth the critical density and the decay waves propagate at finite angles to the pump laser. Above the threshold, the growth rate scales linearly with the amplitude of the Langmuir wave and the amplitude of the pump electromagnetic wave. The frequency ω of the lower frequency decay wave increases with the angle its propagation vector makes with that of the pump. The growth rate, however, decreases with ω.

  2. Magnetic circuit for hall effect plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzella, David H. (Inventor); Jacobson, David T. (Inventor); Jankovsky, Robert S. (Inventor); Hofer, Richard (Inventor); Peterson, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A Hall effect plasma accelerator includes inner and outer electromagnets, circumferentially surrounding the inner electromagnet along a thruster centerline axis and separated therefrom, inner and outer magnetic conductors, in physical connection with their respective inner and outer electromagnets, with the inner magnetic conductor having a mostly circular shape and the outer magnetic conductor having a mostly annular shape, a discharge chamber, located between the inner and outer magnetic conductors, a magnetically conducting back plate, in magnetic contact with the inner and outer magnetic conductors, and a combined anode electrode/gaseous propellant distributor, located at a bottom portion of the discharge chamber. The inner and outer electromagnets, the inner and outer magnetic conductors and the magnetically conducting back plate form a magnetic circuit that produces a magnetic field that is largely axial and radially symmetric with respect to the thruster centerline.

  3. Plasma gun pellet acceleration modeling and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, R.W.; Bourham, M.A.; Gilligan, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    Modifications to the electrothermal plasma gun SIRENS have been completed to allow for acceleration experiments using plastic pellets. Modifications have been implemented to the 1-D, time dependent code ODIN to include pellet friction, momentum, and kinetic energy with options of variable barrel length. The code results in the new version, POSEIDON, compare favorably with experimental data and with code results from ODIN. Predicted values show an increased pellet velocity along the barrel length, achieving 2 km/s exit velocity. Measured velocity, at three locations along the barrel length, showed good correlation with predicted values. The code has also been used to investigate the effectiveness of longer pulse length on pellet velocity using simulated ramp up and down currents with flat top, and triangular current pulses with early and late peaking. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Laser Guiding for GeV Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, Wim; Esarey, Eric; Geddes, Cameron; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, Csaba

    2005-06-06

    Guiding of relativistically intense laser beams in preformed plasma channels is discussed for development of GeV-class laser accelerators. Experiments using a channel guided laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) at LBNL have demonstrated that near mono-energetic 100 MeV-class electron beams can be produced with a 10 TW laser system. Analysis, aided by particle-in-cell simulations, as well as experiments with various plasma lengths and densities, indicate that tailoring the length of the accelerator, together with loading of the accelerating structure with beam, is the key to production of mono-energetic electron beams. Increasing the energy towards a GeV and beyond will require reducing the plasma density and design criteria are discussed for an optimized accelerator module. The current progress and future directions are summarized through comparison with conventional accelerators, highlighting the unique short term prospects for intense radiation sources based on laser-driven plasma accelerators.

  5. Wave-driven Countercurrent Plasma Centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2009-03-20

    A method for driving rotation and a countercurrent flow in a fully ionized plasma centrifuge is described. The rotation is produced by radiofrequency waves near the cyclotron resonance. The wave energy is transferred into potential energy in a manner similar to the α channeling effect. The countercurrent flow may also be driven by radiofrequency waves. By driving both the rotation and the flow pattern using waves instead of electrodes, physical and engineering issues may be avoided.

  6. Helicon Plasma Injector and Ion Cyclotron Acceleration Development in the VASIMR Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Jared P.; Chang, Franklin R.; Jacobson, Verlin T.; McCaskill, Greg E.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Goulding, Richard H.

    2000-01-01

    In the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) radio frequency (rf) waves both produce the plasma and then accelerate the ions. The plasma production is done by action of helicon waves. These waves are circular polarized waves in the direction of the electron gyromotion. The ion acceleration is performed by ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) acceleration. The Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory (ASPL) is actively developing efficient helicon plasma production and ICRF acceleration. The VASIMR experimental device at the ASPL is called VX-10. It is configured to demonstrate the plasma production and acceleration at the 10kW level to support a space flight demonstration design. The VX-10 consists of three electromagnets integrated into a vacuum chamber that produce magnetic fields up to 0.5 Tesla. Magnetic field shaping is achieved by independent magnet current control and placement of the magnets. We have generated both helium and hydrogen high density (>10(exp 18) cu m) discharges with the helicon source. ICRF experiments are underway. This paper describes the VX-10 device, presents recent results and discusses future plans.

  7. Computational study of nonlinear plasma waves. [plasma simulation model applied to electrostatic waves in collisionless plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuda, Y.

    1974-01-01

    A low-noise plasma simulation model is developed and applied to a series of linear and nonlinear problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. It is demonstrated that use of the hybrid simulation model allows economical studies to be carried out in both the linear and nonlinear regimes with better quantitative results, for comparable computing time, than can be obtained by conventional particle simulation models, or direct solution of the Vlasov equation. The characteristics of the hybrid simulation model itself are first investigated, and it is shown to be capable of verifying the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as .000001 of the plasma thermal energy. Having established the validity of the hybrid simulation model, it is then used to study the nonlinear dynamics of monochromatic wave, sideband instability due to trapped particles, and satellite growth.

  8. Terahertz wave absorption via preformed air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ji; Zhang, LiangLiang; Wu, Tong; Zhang, CunLin; Zhao, YueJin

    2016-12-01

    Terahertz wave generation from laser-induced air plasma has continued to be an exciting field of research over the course of the past decade. In this paper, we report on an investigation concerning terahertz wave absorption with preformed plasma created by another laser pulse. We examine terahertz absorption behavior by varying the pump power and then analyze the polarization effect of the preplasma beam on terahertz wave absorption. The results of experiments conducted in which a type-I beta barium borate (BBO) crystal is placed before the preformed air plasma indicate that the fundamental (ω) and second harmonic (2ω) pulses can also influence terahertz absorption.

  9. Phase Velocity and Particle Injection in a Self-Modulated Proton-Driven Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Pukhov, A.; Kumar, N.; Tueckmantel, T.; Upadhyay, A.; Lotov, K.; Muggli, P.; Khudik, V.; Siemon, C.; Shvets, G.

    2011-09-30

    It is demonstrated that the performance of the self-modulated proton driver plasma wakefield accelerator is strongly affected by the reduced phase velocity of the plasma wave. Using analytical theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we show that the reduction is largest during the linear stage of self-modulation. As the instability nonlinearly saturates, the phase velocity approaches that of the driver. The deleterious effects of the wake's dynamics on the maximum energy gain of accelerated electrons can be avoided using side-injections of electrons, or by controlling the wake's phase velocity by smooth plasma density gradients.

  10. Phase velocity and particle injection in a self-modulated proton-driven plasma wakefield accelerator.

    PubMed

    Pukhov, A; Kumar, N; Tückmantel, T; Upadhyay, A; Lotov, K; Muggli, P; Khudik, V; Siemon, C; Shvets, G

    2011-09-30

    It is demonstrated that the performance of the self-modulated proton driver plasma wakefield accelerator is strongly affected by the reduced phase velocity of the plasma wave. Using analytical theory and particle-in-cell simulations, we show that the reduction is largest during the linear stage of self-modulation. As the instability nonlinearly saturates, the phase velocity approaches that of the driver. The deleterious effects of the wake's dynamics on the maximum energy gain of accelerated electrons can be avoided using side-injections of electrons, or by controlling the wake's phase velocity by smooth plasma density gradients.

  11. Control of laser-wakefield acceleration by the plasma-density profile.

    PubMed

    Pukhov, A; Kostyukov, I

    2008-02-01

    We show that both the maximum energy gain and the accelerated beam quality can be efficiently controlled by the plasma-density profile. Choosing a proper density gradient one can uplift the dephasing limitation and keep the phase synchronism between the bunch of relativistic particles and the plasma wave over extended distances. Putting electrons into the n th wake period behind the driving laser pulse, the maximum energy gain is increased by the factor, which is proportional to n, over that in the case of uniform plasma. Layered plasma is suggested to keep the resonant condition for laser-wakefield excitation. The acceleration is limited then by laser depletion rather than by dephasing. Further, we show that the natural energy spread of the particle bunch acquired at the acceleration stage can be effectively removed by a matched deceleration stage, where a larger plasma density is used.

  12. Electrical Coupling Efficiency of Inductive Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Adam K.; Eskridge, Richard H.

    2005-01-01

    A single-stage pulsed inductive plasma accelerator is modeled as an inductive mass-driver. The plasma is treated as a rigid slug, which acts as the armature. The system is a transformer, with the drive coil serving as the primary and the slug as the secondary. We derive a set of coupled dynamic-circuit equations, which depend on five dimensionless coefficients, and on the functional form of the mutual inductance profile, M (z). For a given coil geometry, M (z) was determined experimentally and compared to the results of calculations carried out with QuickField. The equations are solved with various coefficient values, in order to determine the conditions that yield high efficiencies. It was found that the coupling efficiency can be quite high and likely scales with power, although this does not preclude operation at lower power with acceptable efficiency. The effect of an imbedded magnetic bias flux, as for the case of a plasmoid thruster, was also included in the calculations.

  13. Cohesive acceleration and focusing of relativistic electrons in overdense plasma.

    PubMed

    Yakimenko, V; Pogorelsky, I V; Pavlishin, I V; Ben-Zvi, I; Kusche, K; Eidelman, Yu; Hirose, T; Kumita, T; Kamiya, Y; Urakawa, J; Greenberg, B; Zigler, A

    2003-07-04

    We describe our studies of the generation of plasma wake fields by a relativistic electron bunch and of phasing between the longitudinal and transverse fields in the wake. The leading edge of the electron bunch excites a high-amplitude plasma wake inside the overdense plasma column, and the acceleration and focusing wake fields are probed by the bunch tail. By monitoring the dependence of the acceleration upon the plasma's density, we approached the beam-matching condition and achieved an energy gain of 0.6 MeV over the 17 mm plasma length, corresponding to an average acceleration gradient of 35 MeV/m. Wake-induced modulation in energy and angular divergence of the electron bunch are mapped within a wide range of plasma density. We confirm a theoretical prediction about the phase offset between the accelerating and focusing components of plasma wake.

  14. Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    P.F. Schmit, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch

    2011-05-27

    Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.

  15. STOCHASTIC PARTICLE ACCELERATION AND THE PROBLEM OF BACKGROUND PLASMA OVERHEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.; Ko, C. M.

    2012-11-10

    The origin of hard X-ray (HXR) excess emission from clusters of galaxies is still an enigma, whose nature is debated. One of the possible mechanisms to produce this emission is the bremsstrahlung model. However, previous analytical and numerical calculations showed that in this case the intracluster plasma had to be overheated very fast because suprathermal electrons emitting the HXR excess lose their energy mainly by Coulomb losses, i.e., they heat the background plasma. It was concluded also from these investigations that it is problematic to produce emitting electrons from a background plasma by stochastic (Fermi) acceleration because the energy supplied by external sources in the form of Fermi acceleration is quickly absorbed by the background plasma. In other words, the Fermi acceleration is ineffective for particle acceleration. We revisited this problem and found that at some parameter of acceleration the rate of plasma heating is rather low and the acceleration tails of nonthermal particles can be generated and exist for a long time while the plasma temperature is almost constant. We showed also that for some regime of acceleration the plasma cools down instead of being heated up, even though external sources (in the form of external acceleration) supply energy to the system. The reason is that the acceleration withdraws effectively high-energy particles from the thermal pool (analog of Maxwell demon).

  16. Advanced accelerator and mm-wave structure research at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna

    2016-06-22

    This document outlines acceleration projects and mm-wave structure research performed at LANL. The motivation for PBG research is described first, with reference to couplers for superconducting accelerators and structures for room-temperature accelerators and W-band TWTs. These topics are then taken up in greater detail: PBG structures and the MIT PBG accelerator; SRF PBG cavities at LANL; X-band PBG cavities at LANL; and W-band PBG TWT at LANL. The presentation concludes by describing other advanced accelerator projects: beam shaping with an Emittance Exchanger, diamond field emitter array cathodes, and additive manufacturing of novel accelerator structures.

  17. Fast wave evanescence in filamentary boundary plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Myra, J. R.

    2014-02-15

    Radio frequency waves for heating and current drive of plasmas in tokamaks and other magnetic confinement devices must first traverse the scrape-off-layer (SOL) before they can be put to their intended use. The SOL plasma is strongly turbulent and intermittent in space and time. These turbulent properties of the SOL, which are not routinely taken into account in wave propagation codes, can have an important effect on the coupling of waves through an evanescent SOL or edge plasma region. The effective scale length for fast wave (FW) evanescence in the presence of short-scale field-aligned filamentary plasma turbulence is addressed in this paper. It is shown that although the FW wavelength or evanescent scale length is long compared with the dimensions of the turbulence, the FW does not simply average over the turbulent density; rather, the average is over the exponentiation rate. Implications for practical situations are discussed.

  18. Cluster II Constraints on Electron Acceleration and Langmuir Waves at Earth's Bow Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.; Lobzin, V. V.; Lucek, E.; Lefebvre, B.

    2005-12-01

    Electron acceleration, Langmuir waves and radio emissions at multiples of the plasma frequency are associated with numerous shocks in the heliosphere, including Earth's bow shock and the shocks producing coronal and interplanetary type II radio bursts. Here Cluster data from the Whisper, FGM, and PEACE instruments are used to study electron acceleration at Earth's bow shock and by SLAMS, as well as the production of electron beams and Langmuir waves in Earth's foreshock. The results found include: (1) The most intense Langmuir waves are found where Cluster is magnetically connected to almost perpendicular regions of the shock with |θbn| > 70°. (2) The wave characteristics and analytic theory strongly imply that the `standard'' foreshock model is relevant: these electrons are produced by the magnetic mirror reflection/shock-drift acceleration (SDA) at the shock, the beams are produced by time-of-flight effects, and the waves are driven by beams with speeds greater than the electron thermal speed. (3) Weak bursts of broadband waves are found where |θbn| <70° and cutoff effects are unimportant. This is consistent with another electron acceleration or beam formation process being active. (4) Isolated SLAMS, even in periods between two SLAMS, produce only very weak, irregular bursts of Langmuir waves, implying that they are ineffective in accelerating electrons and/or forming beam distributions. This argues against SLAMS playing a role in type II bursts.

  19. Electron acceleration by megahertz waves during OEDIPUS C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. Y.; Burke, W. J.; Hardy, D. A.; Gough, M. P.; James, H. G.; Villalón, E.; Gentile, L. C.

    2001-02-01

    Observations of Electric Field Distributions in the Ionospheric Plasma-A Unique Strategy (OEDIPUS C) was a tethered mother-son experiment that was launched northward from the Poker Flat rocket range at 0638 UT on November 7, 1995, across a sequence of auroral structures. During the flight's upleg the magnetically aligned tether was deployed to a separation of ~1.2 km and then cut at both ends. The forward payload contained a 50-kHz to 8-MHz stepped-frequency transmitter. Receivers were carried on both forward and aft payloads. The transmitter swept through the frequency range every 0.5 s. During each of the 3-ms steps the transmitter emitted only for the first 0.3 ms. The scientific complement also included multiangular electrostatic analyzers on both payloads that were sensitive to fluxes of electrons with energies from 20 eV to 20 keV. The durations of sampling and frequency steps were matched. During the flight the electron gyrofrequency was approximately twice the plasma frequency. When the transmitter swept through the local gyrofrequency, the particle detectors on both payloads detected sounder-accelerated electrons (SAEs) independent of the energy steps being sampled. In addition, SAEs were detected at the aft payload out to separations of several hundred meters for wave emissions at harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency as well as in the upper hybrid and whistler bands. As the vehicle separation increased, significant time differences developed between the wave-emission pulses and the onsets/durations of SAE detections. The data indicate that electrons were heated through strong wave-particle interactions. However, a simple resonant-interaction explanation appears inadequate. We outline requirements for any models purporting to explain OEDIPUS C measurements.

  20. Magnetoacoustic shock waves in dissipative degenerate plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.

    2011-11-15

    Quantum magnetoacoustic shock waves are studied in homogenous, magnetized, dissipative dense electron-ion plasma by using two fluid quantum magneto-hydrodynamic (QMHD) model. The weak dissipation effects in the system are taken into account through kinematic viscosity of the ions. The reductive perturbation method is employed to derive Korteweg-de Vries Burgers (KdVB) equation for magnetoacoustic wave propagating in the perpendicular direction to the external magnetic field in dense plasmas. The strength of magnetoacoustic shock is investigated with the variations in plasma density, magnetic field intensity, and ion kinematic viscosity of dense plasma system. The necessary condition for the existence of monotonic and oscillatory shock waves is also discussed. The numerical results are presented for illustration by using the data of astrophysical dense plasma situations such as neutron stars exist in the literature.

  1. Electromagnetic wave in a relativistic magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.

    2009-12-15

    Results are presented from a theoretical investigation of the dispersion properties of a relativistic plasma in which an electromagnetic wave propagates along an external magnetic field. The dielectric tensor in integral form is simplified by separating its imaginary and real parts. A dispersion relation for an electromagnetic wave is obtained that makes it possible to analyze the dispersion and collisionless damping of electromagnetic perturbations over a broad parameter range for both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic plasmas.

  2. Creating an anisotropic plasma resistivity with waves

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N.J.; Boozer, A.H.

    1980-05-01

    An anisotropic plasma resistivity may be created by preferential heating of electrons traveling in one direction. This can result in a steady-state toroidal current in a tokamak even in the absence of net wave momentum. In fact, at high wave phase velocities, the current associated with the change in resistivity is greater than that associated with net momentum input. An immediate implication is that other waves, such as electron cyclotron waves, may be competitive with lower-hybrid waves as a means for generating current. An analytical expression is derived for the current generated per power dissipated which agrees remarkably well with numerical calculations.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Kinetic theory of plasma waves, homogeneous plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porkolab, Miklos

    1998-11-01

    The linear theory of plasma waves in homogeneous plasma is arguably the most mature and best understood branch of plasma physics. Given the recently revised version of Stix's excellent Waves in Plasmas (1992), one might ask whether another book on this subject is necessary only a few years later. The answer lies in the scope of this volume; it is somewhat more detailed in certain topics than, and complementary in many fusion research relevant areas to, Stix's book. (I am restricting these comments to the homogeneous plasma theory only, since the author promises a second volume on wave propagation in inhomogeneous plasmas.) This book is also much more of a theorist's approach to waves in plasmas, with the aim of developing the subject within the logical framework of kinetic theory. This may indeed be pleasing to the expert and to the specialist, but may be too difficult to the graduate student as an `introduction' to the subject (which the author explicitly states in the Preface). On the other hand, it may be entirely appropriate for a second course on plasma waves, after the student has mastered fluid theory and an introductory kinetic treatment of waves in a hot magnetized `Vlasov' plasma. For teaching purposes, my personal preference is to review the cold plasma wave treatment using the unified Stix formalism and notation (which the author wisely adopts in the present book, but only in Chapter 5). Such an approach allows one to deal with CMA diagrams early on, as well as to provide a framework to discuss electromagnetic wave propagation and accessibility in inhomogeneous plasmas (for which the cold plasma wave treatment is perfectly adequate). Such an approach does lack some of the rigour, however, that the author achieves with the present approach. As the author correctly shows, the fluid theory treatment of waves follows logically from kinetic theory in the cold plasma limit. I only question the pedagogical value of this approach. Otherwise, I welcome this

  4. Magnetic Nozzles for Plasma Thrusters: Acceleration, Thrust, and Detachment Mechanisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    In the unmagnetized case the plasma is accelerated diffusively and some ion streamlines go backwards to the left dielectric wall , where ions are...processes related to the plasma wall interaction, virtual cathode considerations and anomalous diffusion. In this work, anomalous diffusion and virtual...demagnetized, which allows the development of the electric force and ion acceleration there, and increases the plasma flux to the wall . For β0 > 3 − 4

  5. Laser-seeded modulation instability in a proton driver plasma wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Siemon, Carl; Khudik, Vladimir; Austin Yi, S.; Shvets, Gennady; Pukhov, Alexander

    2013-10-15

    A new method for initiating the modulation instability (MI) of a proton beam in a proton driver plasma wakefield accelerator using a short laser pulse preceding the beam is presented. A diffracting laser pulse is used to produce a plasma wave that provides a seeding modulation of the proton bunch with the period equal to that of the plasma wave. Using the envelope description of the proton beam, this method of seeding the MI is analytically compared with the earlier suggested seeding technique that involves an abrupt truncation of the proton bunch. The full kinetic simulation of a realistic proton bunch is used to validate the analytic results. It is further used to demonstrate that a plasma density ramp placed in the early stages of the laser-seeded MI leads to its stabilization, resulting in sustained accelerating electric fields (of order several hundred MV/m) over long propagation distances (∼100–1000 m)

  6. Theories of radio emissions and plasma waves. [in Jupiter magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Goertz, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    The complex region of Jupiter's radio emissions at decameter wavelengths, the so-called DAM, is considered, taking into account the basic theoretical ideas which underly both the older and newer theories and models. Linear theories are examined, giving attention to direct emission mechanisms, parallel propagation, perpendicular propagation, and indirect emission mechanisms. An investigation of nonlinear theories is also conducted. Three-wave interactions are discussed along with decay instabilities, and three-wave up-conversio. Aspects of the Io and plasma torus interaction are studied, and a mechanism by which Io can accelerate electrons is reviewed.

  7. Solitary Surface Waves at a Plasma Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.; Stenflo, L.

    A new equation describing the behaviour of strongly nonlinear waves localized near the boundary of a semi-infinite plasma is deduced. This equation has solitary wave solutions that can be found numerically. Various limiting cases are treated analytically in the present paper.

  8. Plasma waves associated with the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.; Gurnett, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    Water molecules outgassed from the Space Shuttle suffer collisional charge-exchange with ionospheric oxygen ions, thereby forming unstable distributions of pick-up water ions and leading to high levels of plasma waves near the Shuttle. Liouville's equation with a charge-exchange source term is solved for the water ion distribution function as a function of position relative to the Shuttle. The observational characteristics of the near zone Shuttle waves are summarized. A linear theory in which beam like distributions of water ions drive Doppler shifted lower hybrid waves via the modified two stream instability is developed. This theory explains many characteristics of the near zone waves. Further work on the effects of wave nonlinearities and spatial inhomogeneity is required to explain the detailed frequency spectrum of the waves. The observed wave levels apparently satisfy the threshold condition for modulational instability of lower hybrid waves.

  9. Freja observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron ELF waves and transverse oxygen ion acceleration on auroral field lines

    SciTech Connect

    Erlandson, R.E.; Zanetti, L.J.; Acuna, M.H.; Eliasson, L.; Boehm, M.H.; Blomberg, L.G.

    1994-08-15

    Extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric field plasma wave emissions were recorded on 2 October 1993 on auroral field lines by the Magnetic Field Experiment during Freja orbit 4770. The ELF wave frequencies were below the local oxygen gyrofrequency (25 Hz) and between the helium and proton gyrofrequencies (100 to 400 Hz). The ELF waves, interpreted as electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, were observed in a region of inverted-V-type electron precipitation. The EMIC waves were correlated over time with auroral and lower energy ({approximately} 100 eV) electrons, which are both possible sources of free energy, and also with transversely accelerated oxygen ions. The waves above the helium gyrofrequency were more closely correlated with the transverse oxygen ion acceleration than the waves below the oxygen gyrofrequency. These observations are consistent with a scenario in which electron beams generate EMIC waves, which then produce transverse oxygen ion acceleration through a gyroresonant interaction. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Luminosity Limitations of Linear Colliders Based on Plasma Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Valeri; Burov, Alexey; Nagaitsev, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Particle acceleration in plasma creates a possibility of exceptionally high accelerating gradients and appears as a very attractive option for future linear electron-positron and/or photon-photon colliders. These high accelerating gradients were already demonstrated in a number of experiments. Furthermore, a linear collider requires exceptionally high beam brightness which still needs to be demonstrated. In this article we discuss major phenomena which limit the beam brightness of accelerated beam and, consequently, the collider luminosity.

  11. Gabor Wave Packet Method to Solve Plasma Wave Equations

    SciTech Connect

    A. Pletzer; C.K. Phillips; D.N. Smithe

    2003-06-18

    A numerical method for solving plasma wave equations arising in the context of mode conversion between the fast magnetosonic and the slow (e.g ion Bernstein) wave is presented. The numerical algorithm relies on the expansion of the solution in Gaussian wave packets known as Gabor functions, which have good resolution properties in both real and Fourier space. The wave packets are ideally suited to capture both the large and small wavelength features that characterize mode conversion problems. The accuracy of the scheme is compared with a standard finite element approach.

  12. Acceleration of the Fast Solar Wind by Solitary Waves in Coronal Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, Leon

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to develop a new model for the acceleration of the fast solar wind by nonlinear. time-dependent multidimensional MHD simulations of waves in solar coronal holes. Preliminary computational studies indicate that nonlinear waves are generated in coronal holes by torsional Alfv\\'{e}n waves. These waves in addition to thermal conduction may contribute considerably to the accelerate the solar wind. Specific goals of this proposal are to investigate the generation of nonlinear solitary-like waves and their effect on solar wind acceleration by numerical 2.5D MHD simulation of coronal holes with a broad range of plasma and wave parameters; to study the effect of random disturbances at the base of a solar coronal hole on the fast solar wind acceleration with a more advanced 2.5D MHD model and to compare the results with the available observations; to extend the study to a full 3D MHD simulation of fast solar wind acceleration with a more realistic model of a coronal hole and solar boundary conditions. The ultimate goal of the three year study is to model the, fast solar wind in a coronal hole, based on realistic boundary conditions in a coronal hole near the Sun, and the coronal hole structure (i.e., density, temperature. and magnetic field geometry,) that will become available from the recently launched SOHO spacecraft.

  13. Acceleration of the Fast Solar Wind by Solitary Waves in Coronal Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, Leon

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to develop a new model for the acceleration of the fast solar wind by nonlinear, time-dependent multidimensional MHD simulations of waves in solar coronal holes. Preliminary computational studies indicate that solitary-like waves are generated in coronal holes nonlinearly by torsional Alfven waves. These waves in addition to thermal conduction may contribute considerably to the accelerate the solar wind. Specific goals of this proposal are to investigate the generation of nonlinear solitary-like waves and their effect on solar wind acceleration by numerical 2.5D MHD simulation of coronal holes with a broad range of plasma and wave parameters; to study the effect of random disturbances at the base of a solar coronal hole on the fast solar wind acceleration with a more advanced 2.5D MHD model and to compare the results with the available observations; to extend the study to a full 3D MHD simulation of fast solar wind acceleration with a more realistic model of a coronal hole and solar boundary conditions. The ultimate goal of the three year study is to model the fast solar wind in a coronal hole, based on realistic boundary conditions in a coronal hole near the Sun, and the coronal hole structure (i.e., density, temperature, and magnetic field geometry) that will become available from the recently launched SOHO spacecraft.

  14. Remote sensing of plasma injection and acceleration phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    Dynamics Explorer-1 High Altitude Plasma Instrument data have been used to investigate the injection of magnetosheath plasma into the polar cusp, the injection of auroral ion beams into the magnetosphere, and the acceleration of electrons transverse to the magnetic field direction, and the results are discussed. In the case of polar cusp plasmas, it is found that injection occurs at the high-latitude magnetopause, at geocentric distances near eight earth radii. In the case of auroral ion beams it is determined that ion bands are not produced by equatorial injection from the plasma sheet, but by the upward acceleration of ions from auroral acceleration regions. Finally, conical electron distributions are found to be consistent with transverse acceleration at altitudes of a thousand or more km, within or below the magnetic-field-aligned potential drops of the auroral acceleration regions.

  15. Weak Wave Coupling Through Plasma Inhomogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swanson, D. G.

    1998-11-01

    Some effects of linear wave coupling due to effects of plasma inhomogeneity are well known through the process of mode conversion(D. G. Swanson, Theory of Mode Conversion and Tunneling in Inhomogenous Plasmas), (John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1998).. Another type of resonant coupling in a periodically inhomogeneous plasma has been recently found(V. A. Svidzinski and D. G. Swanson, Physics of Plasmas series 5), 486 (1998)., but any two waves will generally be coupled if the plasma is inhomogeneous, although the coupling may be weak. If the wavelengths are close, nearly all of the energy in one mode may be transferred to the other mode over a distance that depends on the coupling strength. The coupling strength depends on gradients of the plasma parameters. This means that the coupling may occur over an extended region in space, but that substantial amounts of wave energy may be transferred to a wave traditionally thought to be independent. Low-frequency Alfvén waves are shown to be a good example of this type of coupling.

  16. Nonlinear extraordinary wave in dense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Krasovitskiy, V. B.; Turikov, V. A.

    2013-10-15

    Conditions for the propagation of a slow extraordinary wave in dense magnetized plasma are found. A solution to the set of relativistic hydrodynamic equations and Maxwell’s equations under the plasma resonance conditions, when the phase velocity of the nonlinear wave is equal to the speed of light, is obtained. The deviation of the wave frequency from the resonance frequency is accompanied by nonlinear longitudinal-transverse oscillations. It is shown that, in this case, the solution to the set of self-consistent equations obtained by averaging the initial equations over the period of high-frequency oscillations has the form of an envelope soliton. The possibility of excitation of a nonlinear wave in plasma by an external electromagnetic pulse is confirmed by numerical simulations.

  17. Staging Laser Plasma Accelerators for Increased Beam Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Panasenko, D.; Shu, A. J.; Schroeder, C. B.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Matlis, N. H.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Plateau, G.; Lin, C.; Toth, C.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-01-22

    Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10 m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.

  18. Twisted electron-acoustic waves in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aman-ur-Rehman, Ali, S.; Khan, S. A.; Shahzad, K.

    2016-08-01

    In the paraxial limit, a twisted electron-acoustic (EA) wave is studied in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma, whose constituents are the dynamical cold electrons and Boltzmannian hot electrons in the background of static positive ions. The analytical and numerical solutions of the plasma kinetic equation suggest that EA waves with finite amount of orbital angular momentum exhibit a twist in its behavior. The twisted wave particle resonance is also taken into consideration that has been appeared through the effective wave number qeff accounting for Laguerre-Gaussian mode profiles attributed to helical phase structures. Consequently, the dispersion relation and the damping rate of the EA waves are significantly modified with the twisted parameter η, and for η → ∞, the results coincide with the straight propagating plane EA waves. Numerically, new features of twisted EA waves are identified by considering various regimes of wavelength and the results might be useful for transport and trapping of plasma particles in a two-electron component plasma.

  19. Operational plasma density and laser parameters for future colliders based on laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2012-12-21

    The operational plasma density and laser parameters for future colliders based on laser-plasma accelerators are discussed. Beamstrahlung limits the charge per bunch at low plasma densities. Reduced laser intensity is examined to improve accelerator efficiency in the beamstrahlung-limited regime.

  20. Postprandial lipids accelerate and redirect nitric oxide consumption in plasma.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, Kurt; Schroeder, Hobe J; Longo, Lawrence D; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2016-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and O2 are both three-to four-fold more soluble in biological lipids than in aqueous solutions. Their higher concentration within plasma lipids accelerates NO autoxidation to an extent that may be of importance to overall NO bioactivity. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that increased plasma lipids after a high-fat meal appreciably accelerate NO metabolism and alter the byproducts formed. We found that plasma collected from subjects after consumption of a single high-fat meal had a higher capacity for NO consumption and consumed NO more rapidly compared to fasting plasma. This increased NO consumption showed a direct correlation with plasma triglyceride concentrations (p = 0.006). The accelerated NO consumption in postprandial plasma was reversed by removal of the lipids from the plasma, was mimicked by the addition of hydrophobic micelles to aqueous buffer, and could not be explained by the presence of either free hemoglobin or ceruloplasmin. The products of NO consumption were shifted in postprandial plasma, with 55% more nitrite (n = 12, p = 0.002) but 50% less SNO (n = 12, p = 0.03) production compared to matched fasted plasma. Modeling calculations indicated that NO autoxidation was accelerated by about 48-fold in the presence of plasma lipids. We conclude that postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins exert a significant influence on NO metabolism in plasma.

  1. Ion acceleration by Alfvén waves on auroral field lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Robert; Eliasson, Bengt; Tito Mendonça, José; Stenflo, Lennart

    2013-05-01

    Observations of ion acceleration along auroral field lines at the boundary of the plasma sheet and tail lobe of the Earth show that the energy of the ions increases with decreasing density. The observations can be explained by ion acceleration through Landau resonance with kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) such that kA·vi = ωA, where kA is the wave vector, vi is the ion resonance velocity and ωA is the Alfvén wave frequency. The ion resonance velocities are proportional to the Alfvén velocity which increases with decreasing density. This is in agreement with the data if the process is occurring at the plasma sheet tail lobe boundary. A quasi-linear theory of ion acceleration by KAWs is presented. These ions propagate both down towards and away from the Earth. The paths of the Freja and Polar satellites indicate that the acceleration takes place between the two satellites, between 1Re and 5Re. The downward propagating ions develop a horseshoe-type of distribution which has a positive slope in the perpendicular direction. This type of distribution can produce intense lower hybrid wave activity, which is also observed. Finally, the filamentation of shear Alfvén waves is considered. It may be responsible for large-scale density striations. In memory of Padma Kant Shukla, a great scientist and a good friend.

  2. Sound wave propagation through glow discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepaniuk, Vadim P.

    This work investigates the use of glow discharge plasma for acoustic wave manipulation. The broader goal is the suppression of aerodynamic noise using atmospheric glow discharge plasma as a sound barrier. Part of the effort was devoted to the development of a system for the generation of a large volume stable DC glow discharge in air both at atmospheric and at reduced pressures. The single tone sound wave propagation through the plasma was systematically studied. Attenuation of the acoustic wave passing through the glow discharge was measured for a range of experimental conditions including different discharge currents, electrode configurations, air pressures and sound frequencies including audible sound and ultrasound. Sound attenuation by glow discharge plasma as high as -28 dB was recorded in the experiments. Two types of possible mechanisms were considered that can potentially cause the observed sound attenuation. One is a global mechanism and the other is a local mechanism. The global mechanism considered is based on the reflection and refraction of acoustic wave due to the gas temperature gradients that form around the plasma. The local mechanism, on the other hand, is essentially the interaction of the acoustic wave with the plasma as it propagates inside the discharge and it can be viewed as a feedback system. Detailed temperature measurements, using laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique, were carried out in the glow discharge plasma in order to evaluate the role of global mechanism in the observed attenuation. These measurements were made for a range of conditions in the atmospheric glow discharge. Theoretical analysis of the sound attenuation was carried out to identify the physical mechanism for the observed sound attenuation by plasma. It was demonstrated that the global mechanism is the dominant mechanism of sound attenuation. As a result of this study, the potentials and limitations of the plasma noise suppression technology were determined and

  3. Operational experience with room temperature continuous wave accelerator structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimov, A. S.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Piskarev, I. M.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Tiunov, A. V.

    1993-05-01

    The paper reports the results of the computer simulation of parameters of the on-axis coupled accelerator structure for the continuous wave racetrack microtron. The operational experience with the accelerating sections on the basis of the on-axis coupled structure is described.

  4. Wave propagation in turbulent media: use of convergence acceleration methods.

    PubMed

    Baram, A; Tsadka, S; Azar, Z; Tur, M

    1988-06-01

    We propose the use of convergence acceleration methods for the evaluation of integral expressions of an oscillatory nature, often encountered in the study of optical wave propagation in the turbulent atmosphere. These techniques offer substantial savings in computation time with appreciable gain in accuracy. As an example, we apply the Levin u acceleration scheme to the problem of remote sensing of transversal wind profiles.

  5. Laser-plasma booster for ion post acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, D.; Kawata, S.; Takahashi, K.; Izumiyama, T.; Barada, D.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Wang, W. M.; Li, Y. T.; Sheng, Z. M.; Klimo, O.; Limpouch, J.; Andreev, A. A.

    2013-11-01

    A remarkable ion energy increase is demonstrated for post acceleration by a laser-plasma booster. An intense short-pulse laser generates a strong current by high-energy electrons accelerated, when this intense short-pulse laser illuminates a plasma target. The strong electric current creates a strong magnetic field along the high-energy electron current in plasma. During the increase phase in the magnetic field, a longitudinal inductive electric field is induced for the forward ion acceleration by the Faraday law. Our 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate a remarkable increase in ion energy by several tens of MeV.

  6. The status and evolution of plasma Wakefield particle accelerators.

    PubMed

    Joshi, C; Mori, W B

    2006-03-15

    The status and evolution of the electron beam-driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration scheme is described. In particular, the effects of the radial electric field of the wake on the drive beam such as multiple envelope oscillations, hosing instability and emission of betatron radiation are described. Using ultra-short electron bunches, high-density plasmas can be produced by field ionization by the electric field of the bunch itself. Wakes excited in such plasmas have accelerated electrons in the back of the drive beam to greater that 4 G eV in just 10 cm in experiments carried out at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Centre.

  7. Nonlinear shock acceleration. III - Finite wave velocity, wave pressure, and entropy generation via wave damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichler, D.

    1985-01-01

    The nonlinear theory of shock acceleration developed in earlier papers, which treated the waves as being completely frozen into the fluid, is generalized to include wave dynamics. In the limit where damping keeps the wave amplitude small, it is found that a finite phase velocity (V sub ph) of the scattering waves through the background fluid, tempers the acceleration generated by high Mach number shocks. Asymptotic spectra proportional to 1/E sq are possible only when the ratio of wave velocity to shock velocity is less than 0.13. For a given asymptotic spectrum, the efficiency of relativistic particle production is found to be practically independent of the value of V sub ph, so that earlier results concerning its value remain valid for finite V sub ph. In the limit where there is no wave damping, it is shown that for modest Alfven Mach numbers, approximately greater than 4 and less than 6, the magnetic field is amplified by the energetic particles to the point of being in rough equipartition with them, as models of synchrotron emission frequently take the field to be. In this case, the disordering and amplification of field energy may play a major role in the shock transition.

  8. Cascade focusing in the beat-wave accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbon, P.; Bell, A.R.

    1988-10-03

    The 2D wave-envelope equationf for the beat-wave--cascade system are studied analytically and numerically. An expression for the mean square width of the cascade envelope is obtained, and is used to predict the long-term behavior of the waves. The amplitude or a resonantly driven plasma wave falls significantly over a stage length due to enhanced diffraction of the cascade envelope. Conversely, detuning the pumps from the plasma frequency can lead to focusing of the envelope and a corresponding increase in plasmon amplitude of up to 200% over the same distance.

  9. Quantum physics of classical waves in plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodin, I. Y.

    2012-10-01

    The Lagrangian approach to plasma wave physics is extended to a universal nonlinear theory which yields generic equations invariant with respect to the wave nature. The traditional understanding of waves as solutions of the Maxwell-Vlasov system is abandoned. Oscillations are rather treated as physical entities, namely, abstract vectors |ψ> in a specific Hilbert space. The invariant product <ψ|ψ> is the total action and has the sign of the oscillation energy. The action density is then an operator. Projections of the corresponding operator equation generate assorted wave kinetic equations; the nonlinear Wigner-Moyal equation is just one example and, in fact, may be more delicate than commonly assumed. The linear adiabatic limit of this classical theory leads to quantum mechanics in its general form. The action conservation theorem, together with its avatars such as Manley-Rowe relations, then becomes manifest and in partial equilibrium can modify statistical properties of plasma fluctuations. In the quasi-monochromatic limit geometrical optics (GO) is recovered and can as well be understood as a particular field theory in its own right. For linear waves, the energy-momentum equations, in both canonical and (often) kinetic form, then follow automatically, even without a reference to electromagnetism. Yet for waves in plasma the general GO Lagrangian is also derived explicitly, in terms of single-particle oscillation-center Hamiltonians. Applications to various plasma waves are then discussed with an emphasis on the advantages of an abstract theory. Specifically covered are nonlinear dispersion, dynamics, and stability of BGK modes, and also other wave transformations in laboratory and cosmological plasmas.

  10. Coherent Ion Acceleration Using Beating Electrostatic Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    out under contract from the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) under Grant number F49620-02-1-0009. Technical Contract Manager : Dr...and G.S. Cladwell. Fast-fourier-transform spectral-analysis tecniques as a plasma fluctuation diagnostic tool. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci., PS-1:261

  11. Nonlinear whistler wave scattering in space plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yukhimuk, V.; Roussel-Dupre, R.

    1997-04-01

    In this paper the evolution of nonlinear scattering of whistler mode waves by kinetic Alfven waves (KAW) in time and two spatial dimensions is studied analytically. The authors suggest this nonlinear process as a mechanism of kinetic Alfven wave generation in space plasmas. This mechanism can explain the dependence of Alfven wave generation on whistler waves observed in magnetospheric and ionospheric plasmas. The observational data show a dependence for the generation of long periodic pulsations Pc5 on whistler wave excitation in the auroral and subauroral zone of the magnetosphere. This dependence was first observed by Ondoh T.I. For 79 cases of VLF wave excitation registered by Ondoh at College Observatory (L=64.6 N), 52 of them were followed by Pc5 geomagnetic pulsation generation. Similar results were obtained at the Loparskaia Observatory (L=64 N) for auroral and subauroral zone of the magnetosphere. Thus, in 95% of the cases when VLF wave excitation occurred the generation of long periodic geomagnetic pulsations Pc5 were observed. The observations also show that geomagnetic pulsations Pc5 are excited simultaneously or insignificantly later than VLF waves. In fact these two phenomena are associated genetically: the excitation of VLF waves leads to the generation of geomagnetic pulsations Pc5. The observations show intensive generation of geomagnetic pulsations during thunderstorms. Using an electromagnetic noise monitoring system covering the ULF range (0.01-10 Hz) A.S. Fraser-Smith observed intensive ULF electromagnetic wave during a large thunderstorm near the San-Francisco Bay area on September 23, 1990. According to this data the most significant amplification in ULF wave activity was observed for waves with a frequency of 0.01 Hz and it is entirely possible that stronger enhancements would have been measured at lower frequencies.

  12. Electron acceleration in collisionless shocks and magnetic reconnection by laser-produced plasma ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehong; Spitkovksy, Anatoly; Fox, Will; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2016-10-01

    We perform particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless shocks and magnetic reconnection generated by ablated plasma expanding into a magnetized background plasma. We find: (1) The simulated proton radiography produces different morphology of the shock structure depending on the orientation of the magnetic field and can be used to identify a shock in the experiment. Electrons are accelerated by the whistler waves generated at oblique sites of the shock. (2) Forced collisionless magnetic reconnection is induced when the expanding plumes carry opposite magnetic polarities and interact with a background plasma. Electrons are accelerated at the reconnection X line and reveal a power-law distribution as the plasma beta is lowered, β = 0.08 . As the plasma beta is increased, β = 0.32 , the 1st order Fermi mechanism against the two plasma plumes contributes to the electron acceleration as well as the X line acceleration. Using 3-D simulations, we also explore the effect of 3-D instabilities (Weibel instability or drift-kink) on particle acceleration and magnetic field annihilation between the colliding magnetized plumes

  13. Electron acceleration by Landau resonance with whistler mode wave packets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Reinleitner, L. A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent observations of electrostatic waves associated with whistler mode chorus emissions provide evidence that electrons are being trapped by Landau resonance interactions with the chorus. In this paper, the trapping, acceleration and escape of electrons in Landau resonance with a whistler mode wave packet are discussed. It is shown that acceleration can occur by both inhomogeneous and dispersive effects. The maximum energy gained is controlled by the points where trapping and escape occur. Large energy changes are possible if the frequency of the wave packet or the magnetic field strength increase between the trapping and escape points. Various trapping and escape mechanisms are discussed.

  14. Constraints on Solar Wind Acceleration Mechanisms from Ulysses Plasma Observations: The First Polar Pass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Aaron; Gazis, Paul R.; Phillips, John L.

    1995-01-01

    The mass flux density and velocity of the solar wind at polar latitudes can provide strong constraints on solar wind acceleration mechanisms. We use plasma observations from the first polar passage of the Ulysses spacecraft to investigate this question. We find that the mass flux density and velocity are too high to reconcile with acceleration of the solar wind by classical thermal conduction alone. Therefore acceleration of the high-speed must involve extended deposition of energy by some other mechanism, either as heat or as a direct effective pressure, due possibly to waves and/or turbulence, or completely non-classical heat transport.

  15. High-gradient acceleration of electrons in a plasma loaded wiggler

    SciTech Connect

    Maroli, C.; Petrillo, V.

    1995-12-31

    The interaction of an electron beam with a transverse electromagnetic field and an electrostatic wave in a plasma loaded wiggler is described by means of system of self-consistent nonlinear equations. We demonstrate that the system is able to sustain resonantly high-amplitude electrostatic waves with phase velocity c, which gives rise to high gradient acceleration of the electron beam. Both gradient and saturation value of the average gamma factor of the beam increase considerably with increasing magnetic field of the wiggler and plasma density.

  16. Dust Accelerators And Their Applications In High-Temperature Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ticos, Catalin M.; Wang Zhehui

    2011-06-01

    The perennial presence of dust in high-temperature plasma and fusion devices has been firmly established. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular in the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and potentially interfere with fusion energy production. Although much effort has been devoted to getting rid of the dust nuisance, there are instances where a controlled use of dust can be beneficial. We have recognized a number of dust-accelerators applications in magnetic fusion, including in plasma diagnostics, in studying dust-plasma interactions, and more recently in edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. With the applications in mind, we will compare various acceleration methods, including electrostatic, gas-drag, and plasma-drag acceleration. We will also describe laboratory experiments and results on dust acceleration.

  17. Dust accelerators and their applications in high-temperature plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Ticos, Catakin M

    2010-01-01

    The perennial presence of dust in high-temperature plasma and fusion devices has been firmly established. Dust inventory must be controlled, in particular in the next-generation steady-state fusion machines like ITER, as it can pose significant safety hazards and potentially interfere with fusion energy production. Much effort has been devoted to gening rid of the dust nuisance. We have recognized a number of dust-accelerators applications in magnetic fusion, including in plasma diagnostics, in studying dust-plasma interactions, and more recently in edge localized mode (ELM)'s pacing. With the applications in mind, we will compare various acceleration methods, including electrostatic, gas-drag, and plasma-drag acceleration. We will also describe laboratory experiments and results on dust acceleration.

  18. Design of a Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A new plasma accelerator concept that employs electrodeless plasma preionization and pulsed inductive acceleration is presented. Preionization is achieved through an electron cyclotron resonance discharge that produces a weakly-ionized plasma at the face of a conical theta pinch-shaped inductive coil. The presence of the preionized plasma allows for current sheet formation at lower discharge voltages than those found in other pulsed inductive accelerators. The location of an electron cyclotron resonance discharge can be controlled through the design of the applied magnetic field in the thruster. A finite-element model of the magnetic field was used as a design tool, allowing for the implementation of an arrangement of permanent magnets that yields a small volume of preionized propellant at the coil face. This allows for current sheet formation at the face of the inductive coil, minimizing the initial inductance of the pulse circuit and maximizing the potential efficiency of the new accelerator.

  19. Plasma acceleration using a radio frequency self-bias effect

    SciTech Connect

    Rafalskyi, D.; Aanesland, A.

    2015-06-15

    In this work plasma acceleration using a RF self-bias effect is experimentally studied. The experiments are conducted using a novel plasma accelerator system, called Neptune, consisting of an inductively coupled plasma source and a RF-biased set of grids. The plasma accelerator can operate in a steady state mode, producing a plasma flow with separately controlled plasma flux and velocity without any magnetic configuration. The operating pressure at the source output is as low as 0.2 mTorr and can further be decreased. The ion and electron flows are investigated by measuring the ion and electron energy distribution functions both space resolved and with different orientations with respect to the flow direction. It is found that the flow of electrons from the source is highly anisotropic and directed along the ion flow and this global flow of accelerated plasma is well localized in the plasma transport chamber. The maximum flux is about 7.5·10{sup 15} ions s{sup −1} m{sup −2} (at standard conditions) on the axis and decreasing to almost zero at a radial distances of more than 15 cm from the flow axis. Varying the RF acceleration voltage in the range 20–350 V, the plasma flow velocity can be changed between 10 and 35 km/s. The system is prospective for different technology such as space propulsion and surface modification and also interesting for fundamental studies for space-related plasma simulations and investigation of the dynamo effect using accelerated rotating plasmas.

  20. Electron trapping and acceleration by the plasma wakefield of a self-modulating proton beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lotov, K. V.; Sosedkin, A. P.; Petrenko, A. V.; Amorim, L. D.; Vieira, J.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Gschwendtner, E.; Muggli, P.

    2014-12-15

    It is shown that co-linear injection of electrons or positrons into the wakefield of the self-modulating particle beam is possible and ensures high energy gain. The witness beam must co-propagate with the tail part of the driver, since the plasma wave phase velocity there can exceed the light velocity, which is necessary for efficient acceleration. If the witness beam is many wakefield periods long, then the trapped charge is limited by beam loading effects. The initial trapping is better for positrons, but at the acceleration stage a considerable fraction of positrons is lost from the wave. For efficient trapping of electrons, the plasma boundary must be sharp, with the density transition region shorter than several centimeters. Positrons are not susceptible to the initial plasma density gradient.

  1. Simulation and analysis of TE wave propagation for measurement of electron cloud densities in particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnad, Kiran G.; Hammond, Kenneth C.; Schwartz, Robert M.; Veitzer, Seth A.

    2014-08-01

    The use of transverse electric (TE) waves has proved to be a powerful, noninvasive method for estimating the densities of electron clouds formed in particle accelerators. Results from the plasma simulation program VSim have served as a useful guide for experimental studies related to this method, which have been performed at various accelerator facilities. This paper provides results of the simulation and modeling work done in conjunction with experimental efforts carried out at the Cornell electron storage ring “Test Accelerator” (CESRTA). This paper begins with a discussion of the phase shift induced by electron clouds in the transmission of RF waves, followed by the effect of reflections along the beam pipe, simulation of the resonant standing wave frequency shifts and finally the effects of external magnetic fields, namely dipoles and wigglers. A derivation of the dispersion relationship of wave propagation for arbitrary geometries in field free regions with a cold, uniform cloud density is also provided.

  2. Transverse ion acceleration by localized lower hybrid waves in the topside auroral ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vago, J. L.; Kintner, P. M.; Chesney, S. W.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Lynch, K. A.; Moore, T. E.; Pollock, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    Up to now, observations had been unable to show conclusively a one-to-one correspondence between perpendicular ion acceleration and a particular type of plasma wave within the O(+) source region below 2000 km. In this paper we demonstrate that intense (100-300 mV/m) lower hybrid waves are responsible for transversely accelerating H(+) and O(+) ions to characteristic energies of up to 6 eV. This wave-particle interaction takes place in thin filamentary density cavities oriented along geomagnetic field lines. The measurements we discuss were conducted in the nightside auroral zone at latitudes between 500 km and 1100 km. Our results are consistent with theories of lower hybrid wave condensation and collapse.

  3. Vlasov Simulations of Ladder Climbing and Autoresonant Acceleration of Langmuir Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Kentaro; Barth, Ido; Kaminski, Erez; Dodin, Ilya; Fisch, Nathaniel

    2016-10-01

    The energy of plasma waves can be moved up and down the spectrum using chirped modulations of plasma parameters, which can be driven by external fields. Depending on the discreteness of the wave spectrum, this phenomenon is called ladder climbing (LC) or autroresonant acceleration (AR) of plasmons, and was first proposed by Barth et al. based on a linear fluid model. Here, we report a demonstration of LC/AR from first principles using fully nonlinear Vlasov simulations of collisionless bounded plasma. We show that, in agreement to the basic theory, plasmons survive substantial transformations of the spectrum and are destroyed only when their wave numbers become large enough to trigger Landau damping. The work was supported by the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948 and the DTRA Grant No. HDTRA1-11-1-0037.

  4. Miniature plasma accelerating detonator and method of detonating insensitive materials

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, Jr., Robert W.; Kopczewski, Michael R.; Schwarz, Alfred C.

    1986-01-01

    The invention is a detonator for use with high explosives. The detonator comprises a pair of parallel rail electrodes connected to a power supply. By shorting the electrodes at one end, a plasma is generated and accelerated toward the other end to impact against explosives. A projectile can be arranged between the rails to be accelerated by the plasma. An alternative arrangement is to a coaxial electrode construction. The invention also relates to a method of detonating explosives.

  5. Miniature plasma accelerating detonator and method of detonating insensitive materials

    DOEpatents

    Bickes, R.W. Jr.; Kopczewski, M.R.; Schwarz, A.C.

    1985-01-04

    The invention is a detonator for use with high explosives. The detonator comprises a pair of parallel rail electrodes connected to a power supply. By shorting the electrodes at one end, a plasma is generated and accelerated toward the other end to impact against explosives. A projectile can be arranged between the rails to be accelerated by the plasma. An alternative arrangement is to a coaxial electrode construction. The invention also relates to a method of detonating explosives. 3 figs.

  6. CO2 Laser Beat-Wave Experiment in an Unmagnetized Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Hwang, David; Horton, Robert; Hong, Sean; Evans, Russell

    2012-10-01

    The ability to remotely generate plasma current in dense plasmas is a basic yet important investigation in experimental plasma physics and fusion energy research. It is even more advantageous if the wave penetration is independent of the electron acceleration process. Plasma current can be generated through beat-wave mixing process by launching two intense electromagnetic waves (φ>>φpe) into plasma. The beat wave formation process can be efficient if the difference frequency of the two pump waves is matched to a local resonant frequency of the medium, i.e. in this case the local plasma frequency. Beat wave can accelerate plasma electrons via quasi-linear Landau process, which has been demonstrated in a low-density plasma using microwaves.footnotetextRogers, J. H. and Hwang, D. Q., Phys. Rev. Lett. v68 p3877 (1992). The CO2 lasers provide the high tunability for the wave-particle interaction experiment at a variety of plasma densities with plasma frequency in THz range. Two sections of Lumonics TEA CO2 lasers have been modified to serve as the two pump wave sources with peak power over 100MW. The development of the tunable CO2 lasers, a high-density plasma target source and diagnostics system will be presented. The initial results of unbalanced beat-wave experiment using one high-power pulsed and one low-power CW CO2 lasers will be presented and discussed using the independent plasma source to control the φpe of the interaction region. This work is supported by U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-FG02-10ER55083.

  7. Possible parameters of proton acceleration using backward traveling wave harmonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramonov, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    Analysis shows that, when accelerating protons of intermediate energy range using the field of backward harmonic of the traveling wave, a range of practically accessible parameters of accelerating structure exists, where it is possible to provide simultaneously the stability of longitudinal and transverse particle motion and high rates of acceleration. The focusing effect is provided by the field of slow fundamental harmonic. The calculated characteristics of accelerating structure and the assessment of parameters of the proton linac are obtained in a range of 15-230 MeV.

  8. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  9. Nonplanar waves with electronegative dusty plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Zobaer, M. S.; Mukta, K. N.; Nahar, L.; Mamun, A. A.; Roy, N.

    2013-04-15

    A rigorous theoretical investigation has been made of basic characteristics of the nonplanar dust-ion-acoustic shock and solitary waves in electronegative dusty plasma containing Boltzmann electrons, Boltzmann negative ions, inertial positive ions, and charge fluctuating (negatively charged) stationary dust. The Burgers' and Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equations, which is derived by reductive perturbation technique, is numerically solved to examine the effects of nonplanar geometry on the basic features of the DIA shock and solitary waves formed in the electronegative dusty plasma. The implications of the results (obtained from this investigation) in space and laboratory experiments are briefly discussed.

  10. Modulation of whistler waves in nonthermal plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, L. A.; Galvao, R. M. O.

    2011-02-15

    The modulation of whistler waves in nonthermal plasmas is investigated. The dynamics of the magnetized plasma is described by the fluid equations and the electron velocity distribution function is modeled via a nonthermal {kappa} distribution. A multiscale perturbation analysis based on the Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolsky method is carried out and the nonlinear Schroedinger equation governing the modulation of the high-frequency whistler is obtained. The effect of the superthermal electrons on the stability of the wave envelope and soliton formation is discussed and a comparison with previous results is presented.

  11. Alfven wave absorption in dissipative plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrikov, M. B.; Taiurskii, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    We consider nonlinear absorption of Alfven waves due to dissipative effects in plasma and relaxation of temperatures of electrons and ions. This study is based on an exact solution of the equations of two-fluid electromagnetic hydrodynamics (EMHD) of plasma. It is shown that in order to study the decay of Alfven waves, it suffices to examine the behavior of their amplitudes whose evolution is described by a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) obtained in this paper. On finite time intervals, the system of equations on the amplitudes is studied numerically, while asymptotic integration (the Hartman-Grobman theorem) is used to examine its large-time behavior.

  12. The Unified Radio and Plasma wave investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Bougeret, J. L.; Caldwell, J.; Canu, P.; De Conchy, Y.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Desch, M. D.; Fainberg, J.; Goetz, K.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma wave (URAP) experiment are twofold: (1) the determination of the direction, angular size, and polarization of radio sources for remote sensing of the heliosphere and the Jovian magnetosphere and (2) the detailed study of local wave phenomena, which determine the transport coefficients of the ambient plasma. A brief discussion of the scientific goals of the experiment is followed by a comprehensive description of the instrument. The URAP sensors consist of a 72.5 m electric field antenna in the spin plane, a 7.5-m electric field monopole along the spin axis of a pair of orthogonal search coil magnetic antennas. The various receivers, designed to encompass specific needs of the investigation, cover the frequency range from dc to 1 MHz. A relaxation sounder provides very accurate electron density measurements. Radio and plasma wave observations are shown to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the URAP instruments: radio observations include solar bursts, auroral kilometric radiation, and Jovian bursts; plasma waves include Langmuir waves, ion acousticlike noise, and whistlers.

  13. Experimental study of a Hall current plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongmin

    Electromagnetic propulsion holds the promise of potential prime space propulsion by combining high exhaust velocities with high mass flow rates compared to other electric propulsion devices. The primary objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the plasma acceleration due to Hall effect in the presence of applied magnetic and electric fields. This is the first attempt to integrate a non-equilibrium microwave plasma with a Hall current plasma accelerator. A linear Hall current plasma accelerator segmented with 5 pairs of electrodes was developed and tested. A non-equilibrium microwave plasma generated by a 6 kW microwave generator was used to feed the accelerator. The discharge voltage, current, and the Hall current through each pair of the electrodes were measured. Velocity measurement techniques including the MHD open-circuit, the combined emissive probe and MHD open-circuit, and the time-of-flight electrostatic probe were developed and implemented. The near field plasma properties were also measured by multiple Langmuir probes. Theoretical analyses were conducted using both electromagnetic and electrostatic models. Both models predicted that large axial electric field and ionization fraction are critical to obtaining high specific impulse and efficient acceleration. The role of the magnetic field is to trap the electrons, and thus distribute the electric field across the whole plasma for acceleration of ions. The experimental results show that axial discharge voltages increased with increasing magnetic field. A strong plasma acceleration zone was noted at the region closest to the cathode. Within this zone, the Hall current and Hall parameter are much larger than elsewhere along the flow path. So is the axial electric field. This suggested a very strong Hall effect in the accelerator. The mean Hall parameters varied from less than one to the order of 10 in the high power tests. Significant acceleration of the plasma by the linear Hall current

  14. Anomalous resistivity due to low-frequency turbulence. [of collisionless plasma with limited acceleration of high velocity runaway electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, H. L.; Palmadesso, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    Large amplitude ion cyclotron waves have been observed on auroral field lines. In the presence of an electric field parallel to the ambient magnetic field these waves prevent the acceleration of the bulk of the plasma electrons leading to the formation of a runaway tail. It is shown that low-frequency turbulence can also limit the acceleration of high-velocity runaway electrons via pitch angle scattering at the anomalous Doppler resonance.

  15. Relationship between Alfvén Wave and Quasi-Static Acceleration in Earth's Auroral Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottez, Fabrice

    2016-02-01

    There are two main categories of acceleration processes in the Earth's auroral zone: those based on quasi-static structures, and those based on Alfvén wave (AW). AWs play a nonnegligible role in the global energy budget of the plasma surrounding the Earth because they participate in auroral acceleration, and because auroral acceleration conveys a large portion of the energy flux across the magnetosphere. Acceleration events by double layers (DLs) and by AW have mostly been investigated separately, but many studies cited in this chapter show that they are not independent: these processes can occur simultaneously, and one process can be the cause of the other. The quasi-simultaneous occurrences of acceleration by AW and by quasi-static structures have been observed predominantly at the polar cap boundary of auroral arc systems, where often new bright arcs develop or intensify.

  16. On the mechanism of acceleration behavior of plasma bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Lu, X.; Pan, Y.

    2014-07-01

    Two special experiments are designed to study the mechanism of the acceleration behavior of a plasma bullet when it exits a nozzle. First, a T-shape device is used to simulate the air diffusion when a plasma plume exits the nozzle. It is found that adding just 1% of N2, O2, or air to the main working gas He results in the acceleration of the plasma bullet. Second, materials of different permittivity are added to the left part of the outside of the tube. The experimental results show that the plasma bullet accelerates at the moment when it enters into the right part of the tube where there is no extra material on the outside of the tube. These two experiments confirm that the acceleration behavior of the plasma bullet when it exits the nozzle is due to the air diffusion, hence Penning ionization, and the permittivity change when the bullet exits the nozzle, for example, from a tube with high permittivity to air with low permittivity. Besides, electric field measurements show that the electric field in the bullet head increases when the plasma bullet accelerates. This confirms the electric field driven nature of the plasma bullet propagation.

  17. On the mechanism of acceleration behavior of plasma bullet

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, S.; Lu, X. Pan, Y.

    2014-07-15

    Two special experiments are designed to study the mechanism of the acceleration behavior of a plasma bullet when it exits a nozzle. First, a T-shape device is used to simulate the air diffusion when a plasma plume exits the nozzle. It is found that adding just 1% of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, or air to the main working gas He results in the acceleration of the plasma bullet. Second, materials of different permittivity are added to the left part of the outside of the tube. The experimental results show that the plasma bullet accelerates at the moment when it enters into the right part of the tube where there is no extra material on the outside of the tube. These two experiments confirm that the acceleration behavior of the plasma bullet when it exits the nozzle is due to the air diffusion, hence Penning ionization, and the permittivity change when the bullet exits the nozzle, for example, from a tube with high permittivity to air with low permittivity. Besides, electric field measurements show that the electric field in the bullet head increases when the plasma bullet accelerates. This confirms the electric field driven nature of the plasma bullet propagation.

  18. Influence of electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability on the evolution of laser-driven plasma beat-wave

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, D. N.; Singh, K. P.; Suk, H.

    2007-01-15

    The electrostatic oscillating two-stream instability of laser-driven plasma beat-wave was studied recently by Gupta et al. [Phys. Plasmas 11, 5250 (2004)], who applied their theory to limit the amplitude level of a plasma wave in the beat-wave accelerator. As a self-generated magnetic field is observed in laser-produced plasma, hence, the electromagnetic oscillating two-stream instability may be another possible mechanism for the saturation of laser-driven plasma beat-wave. The efficiency of this scheme is higher than the former.

  19. Current-driven plasma instabilities and auroral-type particle acceleration at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.; Brace, L. H.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Stewart, A. I. F.

    1985-01-01

    Above the ionosphere of Venus, several instruments on the Pioneer Orbiter detect correlated wave, field and particle phenomena suggestive of current-driven anomalous resistivity and auroral-type particle acceleration. In localized regions the plasma wave instrument measures intense mid-frequency turbulence levels together with strong field-aligned currents. Here the local parameters indicate that there is marginal stability for ion acoustic waves, and the electron temperature probe finds evidence that energetic primaries are present. This suggests an auroral-type energy deposition into the upper atmosphere of Venus. These results appear to be consistent with the direct measurements of auroral emissions from the Pioneer-Venus ultraviolet imaging spectrometer.

  20. Plasma jet acceleration of dust particles to hypervelocities

    SciTech Connect

    Ticos, C. M.; Wang, Zhehui; Wurden, G. A.; Kline, J. L.; Montgomery, D. S.

    2008-10-15

    A convenient method to accelerate simultaneously hundreds of micron-size dust particles to a few km/s over a distance of about 1 m is based on plasma drag. Plasma jets which can deliver sufficient momentum to the dust particles need to have speeds of at least several tens of km/s, densities of the order of 10{sup 22} m{sup -3} or higher, and low temperature {approx}1 eV, in order to prevent dust destruction. An experimental demonstration of dust particles acceleration to hypervelocities by plasma produced in a coaxial gun is presented here. The plasma flow speed is deduced from photodiode signals while the plasma density is measured by streaked spectroscopy. As a result of the interaction with the plasma jet, the dust grains are also heated to high temperatures and emit visible light. A hypervelocity dust shower is imaged in situ with a high speed video camera at some distance from the coaxial gun, where light emission from the plasma flow is less intense. The bright traces of the flying microparticles are used to infer their speed and acceleration by employing the time-of-flight technique. A simple model for plasma drag which accounts for ion collection on the grain surface gives predictions for dust accelerations which are in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  1. Plasma shock waves excited by THz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudin, S.; Rupper, G.; Shur, M.

    2016-10-01

    The shock plasma waves in Si MOS, InGaAs and GaN HEMTs are launched at a relatively small THz power that is nearly independent of the THz input frequency for short channel (22 nm) devices and increases with frequency for longer (100 nm to 1 mm devices). Increasing the gate-to-channel separation leads to a gradual transition of the nonlinear waves from the shock waves to solitons. The mathematics of this transition is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation that has the single propagating soliton solution.

  2. On the freak waves in mesospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Labany, S. K.; El-Shewy, E. K.; El-Bedwehy, N. A.; El-Razek, H. N. Abd; El-Rahman, A. A.

    2017-03-01

    The nonlinear properties of dusty ionic freak waves have been studied in homogeneous, unmagnetized dusty plasma system containing ions, isothermal electrons, negative and positive grains. By using the derivative expansion method and assuming strongly dispersive medium, the basic model equations are reduced to a nonlinear form of Schrodinger equation (NLSE). One of the solutions of the NLSE in the unstable region is the rational one which is responsible for the creation of the freak profiles. The reliance of freak waves profile on dusty grains charge and carrier wave number are discussed.

  3. Collisional Drift Waves in Stellarator Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    J.L.V. Lewandowski

    2003-10-07

    A computational study of resistive drift waves in the edge plasma of a stellarator with an helical magnetic axis is presented. Three coupled field equations, describing the collisional drift wave dynamics in the linear approximation, are solved as an initial-value problem along the magnetic field line. The magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is obtained from a three-dimensional local equilibrium model. The use of a local magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium model allows for a computationally efficient systematic study of the impact of the magnetic field structure on drift wave stability.

  4. Delicate scale multipeak and flat-top structures of solitary waves in multi-component plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, LU; Ziliang, LI; Haibo, SANG; Baisong, XIE

    2017-03-01

    Numerically the delicate scale multipeak structures of the electrostatic solitary waves are found for the three-component (electron-positron-ion, i.e., EPI) plasmas. The complicated homoclinic phase portraits for this two-degree-of-freedom system are presented, which indicate that the system exhibits more abundant nonlinear phenomena. This finding is very useful to unveil the coherent dynamical behavior in laser-plasma interaction. It has an implication of electron acceleration by a laser with soliton wave mechanism.

  5. Two-surface wave decay: Controlling power transfer in plasma-surface interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Akimov, Yu. A.; Ostrikov, K.; Azarenkov, N. A.

    2007-08-15

    Controlled interaction of high-power pulsed electromagnetic radiation with plasma-exposed solid surfaces is a major challenge in applications spanning from electron beam accelerators in microwave electronics to pulsed laser ablation-assisted synthesis of nanomaterials. It is shown that the efficiency of such interaction can be potentially improved via an additional channel of wave power dissipation due to nonlinear excitation of two counterpropagating surface waves, resonant excitations of the plasma-solid system.

  6. Angular-momentum evolution in laser-plasma accelerators.

    PubMed

    Thaury, C; Guillaume, E; Corde, S; Lehe, R; Le Bouteiller, M; Ta Phuoc, K; Davoine, X; Rax, J M; Rousse, A; Malka, V

    2013-09-27

    The transverse properties of an electron beam are characterized by two quantities, the emittance which indicates the electron beam extent in the phase space and the angular momentum which allows for nonplanar electron trajectories. Whereas the emittance of electron beams produced in a laser-plasma accelerator has been measured in several experiments, their angular momentum has been scarcely studied. It was demonstrated that electrons in a laser-plasma accelerator carry some angular momentum, but its origin was not established. Here we identify one source of angular-momentum growth and we present experimental results showing that the angular-momentum content evolves during the acceleration.

  7. Staging optics considerations for a plasma wakefield acceleration linear collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrøm, C. A.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; Delahaye, J. P.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Muggli, P.; Raubenheimer, T. O.; Yakimenko, V.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration offers acceleration gradients of several GeV/m, ideal for a next-generation linear collider. The beam optics requirements between plasma cells include injection and extraction of drive beams, matching the main beam beta functions into the next cell, canceling dispersion as well as constraining bunch lengthening and chromaticity. To maintain a high effective acceleration gradient, this must be accomplished in the shortest distance possible. A working example is presented, using novel methods to correct chromaticity, as well as scaling laws for a high energy regime.

  8. A HIGH REPETITION PLASMA MIRROR FOR STAGED ELECTRON ACCELERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Osterhoff, Jens; Evans, Eugene; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-22

    In order to build a compact, staged laser plasma accelerator the in-coupling of the laser beam to the different stages represents one of the key issues. To limit the spatial foot print and thus to realize a high overall acceleration gradient, a concept has to be found which realizes this in-coupling within a few centimeters. We present experiments on a tape-drive based plasma mirror which could be used to reflect the focused laser beam into the acceleration stage.

  9. High-field plasma acceleration in a high-ionization-potential gas

    SciTech Connect

    Corde, S.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; An, W.; Clarke, C. I.; Clausse, B.; Clayton, C. E.; Delahaye, J. P.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S.; Green, S. Z.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Litos, M.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Walz, D.; Yakimenko, V.

    2016-06-17

    Plasma accelerators driven by particle beams are a very promising future accelerator technology as they can sustain high accelerating fields over long distances with high energy efficiency. They rely on the excitation of a plasma wave in the wake of a drive beam. To generate the plasma, a neutral gas can be field-ionized by the head of the drive beam, in which case the distance of acceleration and energy gain can be strongly limited by head erosion. In our research, we overcome this limit and demonstrate that electrons in the tail of a drive beam can be accelerated by up to 27 GeV in a high-ionization-potential gas (argon), boosting their initial 20.35 GeV energy by 130%. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the argon plasma is sustaining very high electric fields, of ~150 GV m-1, over ~20 cm. Lastly, the results open new possibilities for the design of particle beam drivers and plasma sources.

  10. High-field plasma acceleration in a high-ionization-potential gas

    DOE PAGES

    Corde, S.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; ...

    2016-06-17

    Plasma accelerators driven by particle beams are a very promising future accelerator technology as they can sustain high accelerating fields over long distances with high energy efficiency. They rely on the excitation of a plasma wave in the wake of a drive beam. To generate the plasma, a neutral gas can be field-ionized by the head of the drive beam, in which case the distance of acceleration and energy gain can be strongly limited by head erosion. In our research, we overcome this limit and demonstrate that electrons in the tail of a drive beam can be accelerated by upmore » to 27 GeV in a high-ionization-potential gas (argon), boosting their initial 20.35 GeV energy by 130%. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the argon plasma is sustaining very high electric fields, of ~150 GV m-1, over ~20 cm. Lastly, the results open new possibilities for the design of particle beam drivers and plasma sources.« less

  11. High-field plasma acceleration in a high-ionization-potential gas

    PubMed Central

    Corde, S.; Adli, E.; Allen, J. M.; An, W.; Clarke, C. I.; Clausse, B.; Clayton, C. E.; Delahaye, J. P.; Frederico, J.; Gessner, S.; Green, S. Z.; Hogan, M. J.; Joshi, C.; Litos, M.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Walz, D.; Yakimenko, V.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma accelerators driven by particle beams are a very promising future accelerator technology as they can sustain high accelerating fields over long distances with high energy efficiency. They rely on the excitation of a plasma wave in the wake of a drive beam. To generate the plasma, a neutral gas can be field-ionized by the head of the drive beam, in which case the distance of acceleration and energy gain can be strongly limited by head erosion. Here we overcome this limit and demonstrate that electrons in the tail of a drive beam can be accelerated by up to 27 GeV in a high-ionization-potential gas (argon), boosting their initial 20.35 GeV energy by 130%. Particle-in-cell simulations show that the argon plasma is sustaining very high electric fields, of ∼150 GV m−1, over ∼20 cm. The results open new possibilities for the design of particle beam drivers and plasma sources. PMID:27312720

  12. Traveling wave linear accelerator with RF power flow outside of accelerating cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgashev, Valery A.

    2016-06-28

    A high power RF traveling wave accelerator structure includes a symmetric RF feed, an input matching cell coupled to the symmetric RF feed, a sequence of regular accelerating cavities coupled to the input matching cell at an input beam pipe end of the sequence, one or more waveguides parallel to and coupled to the sequence of regular accelerating cavities, an output matching cell coupled to the sequence of regular accelerating cavities at an output beam pipe end of the sequence, and output waveguide circuit or RF loads coupled to the output matching cell. Each of the regular accelerating cavities has a nose cone that cuts off field propagating into the beam pipe and therefore all power flows in a traveling wave along the structure in the waveguide.

  13. Beam-driven acceleration in ultra-dense plasma media

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Young-Min

    2014-09-15

    Accelerating parameters of beam-driven wakefield acceleration in an extremely dense plasma column has been analyzed with the dynamic framed particle-in-cell plasma simulator, and compared with analytic calculations. In the model, a witness beam undergoes a TeV/m scale alternating potential gradient excited by a micro-bunched drive beam in a 10{sup 25 }m{sup −3} and 1.6 × 10{sup 28 }m{sup −3} plasma column. The acceleration gradient, energy gain, and transformer ratio have been extensively studied in quasi-linear, linear-, and blowout-regimes. The simulation analysis indicated that in the beam-driven acceleration system a hollow plasma channel offers ∼20% higher acceleration gradient by enlarging the channel radius (r) from 0.2 λ{sub p} to 0.6 λ{sub p} in a blowout regime. This paper suggests a feasibility of TeV/m scale acceleration with a hollow crystalline structure (e.g., nanotubes) of high electron plasma density.

  14. Beam-driven acceleration in ultra-dense plasma media

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Young-Min

    2014-09-15

    Accelerating parameters of beam-driven wakefield acceleration in an extremely dense plasma column has been analyzed with the dynamic framed particle-in-cell plasma simulator, and compared with analytic calculations. In the model, a witness beam undergoes a TeV/m scale alternating potential gradient excited by a micro-bunched drive beam in a 1025 m-3 and 1.6 x 1028 m-3 plasma column. The acceleration gradient, energy gain, and transformer ratio have been extensively studied in quasi-linear, linear-, and blowout-regimes. The simulation analysis indicated that in the beam-driven acceleration system a hollow plasma channel offers 20 % higher acceleration gradient by enlarging the channel radius (r) from 0.2 Ap to 0.6 .Ap in a blowout regime. This paper suggests a feasibility of TeV/m scale acceleration with a hollow crystalline structure (e.g. nanotubes) of high electron plasma density.

  15. Beam-driven acceleration in ultra-dense plasma media

    DOE PAGES

    Shin, Young-Min

    2014-09-15

    Accelerating parameters of beam-driven wakefield acceleration in an extremely dense plasma column has been analyzed with the dynamic framed particle-in-cell plasma simulator, and compared with analytic calculations. In the model, a witness beam undergoes a TeV/m scale alternating potential gradient excited by a micro-bunched drive beam in a 1025 m-3 and 1.6 x 1028 m-3 plasma column. The acceleration gradient, energy gain, and transformer ratio have been extensively studied in quasi-linear, linear-, and blowout-regimes. The simulation analysis indicated that in the beam-driven acceleration system a hollow plasma channel offers 20 % higher acceleration gradient by enlarging the channel radius (r)more » from 0.2 Ap to 0.6 .Ap in a blowout regime. This paper suggests a feasibility of TeV/m scale acceleration with a hollow crystalline structure (e.g. nanotubes) of high electron plasma density.« less

  16. Energy Measurements of Trapped Electrons from a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Neil; Berry, Melissa; Blumenfeld, Ian; Decker, Franz-Josef; Hogan, Mark J.; Ischebeck, Rasmus; Iverson, Richard; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, Dieter; Auerbach, David; Clayton, Christopher E.; Huang, Chengkun; Johnson, Devon; Joshi, Chandrashekhar; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Mori, Warren B.; Zhou, Miaomiao; Katsouleas, Thomas; Muggli, Patric

    2006-11-27

    Recent electron beam driven plasma wakefield accelerator experiments carried out at SLAC indicate trapping of plasma electrons. More charge came out of than went into the plasma. Most of this extra charge had energies at or below the 10 MeV level. In addition, there were trapped electron streaks that extended from a few GeV to tens of GeV, and there were mono-energetic trapped electron bunches with tens of GeV in energy.

  17. Energy Measurements of Trapped Electrons from a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Neal; Auerbach, David; Berry, Melissa; Blumenfeld, Ian; Clayton, Christopher E.; Decer, Franz-Josef; Hogan, Mark J.; Huang, Chengkun; Ischebeck, Rasmus; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon; Joshi, Chadrashekhar; Katsouleas, Thomas; Lu, Wei; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Mori, Warren B.; Muggli, Patric; Oz, Erdem; Siemann, Robert H.; Walz, Dieter; Zhou, Miaomiao; /SLAC /UCLA /Southern California U.

    2007-01-03

    Recent electron beam driven plasma wakefield accelerator experiments carried out at SLAC indicate trapping of plasma electrons. More charge came out of than went into the plasma. Most of this extra charge had energies at or below the 10 MeV level. In addition, there were trapped electron streaks that extended from a few GeV to tens of GeV, and there were mono-energetic trapped electron bunches with tens of GeV in energy.

  18. Physics of beam self-modulation in plasma wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Lotov, K. V.

    2015-10-15

    The self-modulation instability is a key effect that makes possible the usage of nowadays proton beams as drivers for plasma wakefield acceleration. Development of the instability in uniform plasmas and in plasmas with a small density up-step is numerically studied with the focus at nonlinear stages of beam evolution. The step parameters providing the strongest established wakefield are found, and the mechanism of stable bunch train formation is identified.

  19. Modeling laser-plasma acceleration in the laboratory frame

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    A simulation of laser-plasma acceleration in the laboratory frame. Both the laser and the wakefield buckets must be resolved over the entire domain of the plasma, requiring many cells and many time steps. While researchers often use a simulation window that moves with the pulse, this reduces only the multitude of cells, not the multitude of time steps. For an artistic impression of how to solve the simulation by using the boosted-frame method, watch the video "Modeling laser-plasma acceleration in the wakefield frame."

  20. Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, W.

    1994-08-01

    Activities under this project have included participation in the Waves in Space Plasmas (WISP) program, a study of the data processing requirements for WISP, and theoretical studies of radio sounding, ducting, and magnetoionic theory. An analysis of radio sounding in the magnetosphere was prepared.

  1. Controlled Electron Injection into Plasma Accelerators and SpaceCharge Estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Fubiani, Gwenael G.J.

    2005-09-01

    Plasma based accelerators are capable of producing electron sources which are ultra-compact (a few microns) and high energies (up to hundreds of MeVs) in much shorter distances than conventional accelerators. This is due to the large longitudinal electric field that can be excited without the limitation of breakdown as in RF structures.The characteristic scale length of the accelerating field is the plasma wavelength and for typical densities ranging from 1018 - 1019 cm-3, the accelerating fields and scale length can hence be on the order of 10-100GV/m and 10-40 μm, respectively. The production of quasimonoenergetic beams was recently obtained in a regime relying on self-trapping of background plasma electrons, using a single laser pulse for wakefield generation. In this dissertation, we study the controlled injection via the beating of two lasers (the pump laser pulse creating the plasma wave and a second beam being propagated in opposite direction) which induce a localized injection of background plasma electrons. The aim of this dissertation is to describe in detail the physics of optical injection using two lasers, the characteristics of the electron beams produced (the micrometer scale plasma wavelength can result in femtosecond and even attosecond bunches) as well as a concise estimate of the effects of space charge on the dynamics of an ultra-dense electron bunch with a large energy spread.

  2. Accelerating Airy–Gauss–Kummer localized wave packets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Wei-Ping; Belić, Milivoj; Zhang, Yiqi; Huang, Tingwen

    2014-01-15

    A general approach to generating three-dimensional nondiffracting spatiotemporal solutions of the linear Schrödinger equation with an Airy-beam time-dependence is reported. A class of accelerating optical pulses with the structure of Airy–Gauss–Kummer vortex beams is obtained. Our results demonstrate that the optical field contributions to the Airy–Gauss–Kummer accelerating optical wave packets of the cylindrical symmetry can be characterized by the radial and angular mode numbers. -- Highlights: •A general solution of 3D linear Schrödinger equation with an Airy time-dependence is reported. •We find that the Airy–Kummer spatiotemporal wave packets can carry infinite energy. •A class of the accelerating spatiotemporal optical pulses with special structures was found. •The spatiotemporal wave packets retain their energy features over several Rayleigh lengths.

  3. Charged-particle acceleration in braking plasma jets.

    PubMed

    Artemyev, A V

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we describe the mechanism of the charged particle acceleration in space plasma systems. We consider the interaction of nonrelativistic particles with a sub-Alfvenic plasma jet originated from the magnetic reconnection. The sharp front with increased magnetic field amplitude forms in the jet leading edge. Propagation of the jet in the inhomogeneous background plasma results in front braking. We show that particles can interact with this front in a resonance manner. Synchronization of particle reflections from the front and the front braking provides the stable trapping of particles in the vicinity of the front. This trapping supports the effective particle acceleration along the front. The mechanism of acceleration is potentially important due to the prevalence of the magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysical plasmas.

  4. Ponderomotive Acceleration of Hot Electrons in Tenuous Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    V. I. Geyko; Fraiman, G. M.; Dodin, I. Y.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-02-01

    The oscillation-center Hamiltonian is derived for a relativistic electron injected with an arbitrary momentum in a linearly polarized laser pulse propagating in tenuous plasma, assuming that the pulse length is smaller than the plasma wavelength. For hot electrons generated at collisions with ions under intense laser drive, multiple regimes of ponderomotive acceleration are identified and the laser dispersion is shown to affect the process at plasma densities down to 1017 cm-3. Assuming a/Υg << 1, which prevents net acceleration of the cold plasma, it is also shown that the normalized energy Υ of hot electrons accelerated from the initial energy Υo < , Γ does not exceed Γ ~ aΥg, where a is the normalized laser field, and Υg is the group velocity Lorentz factor. Yet Υ ~ Γ is attained within a wide range of initial conditions; hence a cutoff in the hot electron distribution is predicted.

  5. Dense plasma focus (DPF) accelerated non radio isotopic radiological source

    DOEpatents

    Rusnak, Brian; Tang, Vincent

    2017-01-31

    A non-radio-isotopic radiological source using a dense plasma focus (DPF) to produce an intense z-pinch plasma from a gas, such as helium, and which accelerates charged particles, such as generated from the gas or injected from an external source, into a target positioned along an acceleration axis and of a type known to emit ionizing radiation when impinged by the type of accelerated charged particles. In a preferred embodiment, helium gas is used to produce a DPF-accelerated He2+ ion beam to a beryllium target, to produce neutron emission having a similar energy spectrum as a radio-isotopic AmBe neutron source. Furthermore, multiple DPFs may be stacked to provide staged acceleration of charged particles for enhancing energy, tunability, and control of the source.

  6. Direct Acceleration of Electrons in a Corrugated Plasma Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Palastro, J. P.; Antonsen, T. M.; Morshed, S.; York, A. G.; Layer, B.; Aubuchon, M.; Milchberg, H. M.; Froula, D. H.

    2009-01-22

    Direct laser acceleration of electrons provides a low power tabletop alternative to laser wakefield accelerators. Until recently, however, direct acceleration has been limited by diffraction, phase matching, and material damage thresholds. The development of the corrugated plasma channel [B. Layer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 035001 (2007)] has removed all of these limitations and promises to allow direct acceleration of electrons over many centimeters at high gradients using femtosecond lasers [A. G. York et al., Phys Rev. Lett 100, 195001 (2008), J. P. Palastro et al., Phys. Rev. E 77, 036405 (2008)]. We present a simple analytic model of laser propagation in a corrugated plasma channel and examine the laser-electron beam interaction. Simulations show accelerating gradients of several hundred MeV/cm for laser powers much lower than required by standard laser wakefield schemes. In addition, the laser provides a transverse force that confines the high energy electrons on axis, while expelling low energy electrons.

  7. Laser plasma simulations of the generation processes of Alfven and collisionless shock waves in space plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopov, P. A.; Zakharov, Yu P.; Tishchenko, V. N.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Melekhov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Posukh, V. G.; Terekhin, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Generation of Alfven waves propagating along external magnetic field B0 and Collisionless Shock Waves propagating across B0 are studied in experiments with laser- produced plasma and magnetized background plasma. The collisionless interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows takes place through a so-called Magnetic Laminar Mechanism (MLM) or Larmor Coupling. At the edge of diamagnetic cavity LP-ions produce induction electric field Eφ which accelerates BP-ions while LP-ions rotate in opposite direction. The ions movement generates sheared azimuthal magnetic field Bφ which could launches torsional Alfven wave. In previous experiments at KI-1 large scale facility a generation of strong perturbations propagating across B0 with magnetosonic speed has been studied at a moderate value of interaction parameter δ∼0.3. In the present work we report on experiments at conditions of 5∼R2 and large Alfven-Mach number MA∼10 in which strong transverse perturbations traveling at a scale of ∼1 m in background plasma at a density of ∼3*1013 cm-3 is observed. At the same conditions but smaller MA ∼ 2 a generation, the structure and dynamic of Alfven wave with wavelength ∼0.5 m propagating along fields B0∼100÷500 G for a distance of ∼2.5 m is studied.

  8. High-efficiency acceleration of an electron beam in a plasma wakefield accelerator.

    PubMed

    Litos, M; Adli, E; An, W; Clarke, C I; Clayton, C E; Corde, S; Delahaye, J P; England, R J; Fisher, A S; Frederico, J; Gessner, S; Green, S Z; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Lu, W; Marsh, K A; Mori, W B; Muggli, P; Vafaei-Najafabadi, N; Walz, D; White, G; Wu, Z; Yakimenko, V; Yocky, G

    2014-11-06

    High-efficiency acceleration of charged particle beams at high gradients of energy gain per unit length is necessary to achieve an affordable and compact high-energy collider. The plasma wakefield accelerator is one concept being developed for this purpose. In plasma wakefield acceleration, a charge-density wake with high accelerating fields is driven by the passage of an ultra-relativistic bunch of charged particles (the drive bunch) through a plasma. If a second bunch of relativistic electrons (the trailing bunch) with sufficient charge follows in the wake of the drive bunch at an appropriate distance, it can be efficiently accelerated to high energy. Previous experiments using just a single 42-gigaelectronvolt drive bunch have accelerated electrons with a continuous energy spectrum and a maximum energy of up to 85 gigaelectronvolts from the tail of the same bunch in less than a metre of plasma. However, the total charge of these accelerated electrons was insufficient to extract a substantial amount of energy from the wake. Here we report high-efficiency acceleration of a discrete trailing bunch of electrons that contains sufficient charge to extract a substantial amount of energy from the high-gradient, nonlinear plasma wakefield accelerator. Specifically, we show the acceleration of about 74 picocoulombs of charge contained in the core of the trailing bunch in an accelerating gradient of about 4.4 gigavolts per metre. These core particles gain about 1.6 gigaelectronvolts of energy per particle, with a final energy spread as low as 0.7 per cent (2.0 per cent on average), and an energy-transfer efficiency from the wake to the bunch that can exceed 30 per cent (17.7 per cent on average). This acceleration of a distinct bunch of electrons containing a substantial charge and having a small energy spread with both a high accelerating gradient and a high energy-transfer efficiency represents a milestone in the development of plasma wakefield acceleration into a

  9. Effects of the relative motion of different particles on the wave instability in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Dong-Ning; Hong, Xue-Ren; Lin, Mai-mai; Han, Juan-fang; Duan, Wen-shan; Yang, Lei

    2014-06-15

    Theoretical study is carried out for the dust acoustic waves in a dusty plasma. The dispersion relation is obtained from the fluid dynamical model. It is found that the wave frequency depends on the electron number density, wave number, and the speed of electrons or ions. The dependencies of the instability on the system parameters are also discussed. It is found that the long wavelength wave is usually unstable, which may be useful in the plasma physics, especially in the magnetic confined fusion system or the charged beam dynamics in the accelerated driven system.

  10. Landau damping of a driven plasma wave from laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bu Zhigang; Ji Peiyong

    2012-01-15

    The interaction between a laser pulse and a driven plasma wave with a phase velocity approaching the speed of light is studied, and our investigation is focused on the Gaussian laser pulse. It is demonstrated that when the resonance condition between the plasma wave and the laser pulse is satisfied, the Landau damping phenomenon of the plasma wave originated from the laser pulse will emerge. The dispersion relations for the plasma waves in resonance and non-resonance regions are obtained. It is proved that the Landau damping rate for a driven plasma wave is {gamma}>0 in the resonance region, so the laser pulse can produce an inverse damping effect, namely Landau growth effect, which leads an instability for the plasma wave. The Landau growth means that the energy is transmitted from the laser pulse to the plasma wave, which could be an effective process for enhancing the plasma wave.

  11. Neutron Source from Laser Plasma Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xuejing; Shaw, Joseph; McCary, Eddie; Downer, Mike; Hegelich, Bjorn

    2016-10-01

    Laser driven electron beams and ion beams were utilized to produce neutron sources via different mechanism. On the Texas Petawatt laser, deuterized plastic, gold and DLC foil targets of varying thickness were shot with 150 J , 150 fs laser pulses at a peak intensity of 2 ×1021W /cm2 . Ions were accelerated by either target normal sheath acceleration or Breakout Afterburner acceleration. Neutrons were produced via the 9Be(d,n) and 9Be(p,n) reactions when accelerated ions impinged on a Beryllium converter as well as by deuteron breakup reactions. We observed 2 ×1010 neutron per shot in average, corresponding to 5 ×1018n /s . The efficiencies for different targets are comparable. In another experiment, 38fs , 0.3 J UT3 laser pulse interacted with mixed gas target. Electrons with energy 40MeV were produced via laser wakefield acceleration. Neutron flux of 2 ×106 per shot was generated through bremsstrahlung and subsequent photoneutron reactions on a Copper converter.

  12. LOADED WAVE GUIDES FOR LINEAR ACCELERATORS

    DOEpatents

    Walkinshaw, W.; Mullett, L.B.

    1959-12-01

    A periodically loaded waveguide having substantially coaxially arranged elements which provide an axial field for the acceleration of electrons is described. Radiofrequency energy will flow in the space between the inner wall of an outer guide and the peripheries of equally spaced irises or washes arranged coaxially with each other and with the outer guide, where the loading due to the geometry of the irises is such as to reduce the phase velocity of the r-f energy flowing in the guide from a value greater than that of light to the velocity of light or less.

  13. Intense shock waves and shock-compressed gas flows in the channels of rail accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobashev, S. V.; Zhukov, B. G.; Kurakin, R. O.; Ponyaev, S. A.; Reznikov, B. I.; Tverdokhlebov, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    Shock wave generation and shock-compressed gas flows attendant on the acceleration of an striker-free plasma piston in the channels of electromagnetic rail accelerators (railguns) are studied. Experiments are carried out in channels filled with helium or argon to an initial pressure of 25-500 Torr. At a pressure of 25 Torr, Mach numbers equal 32 in argon and 16 in helium. It is found that with the initial currents and gas initial densities in the channels being the same, the shock wave velocities in both gases almost coincide. Unlike standard shock tubes, a high electric field (up to 300 V/cm) present in the channel governs the motion of a shock-compressed layer. Once the charged particle concentration behind the shock wave becomes sufficiently high, the field causes part of the discharge current to pass through the shock-compressed layer. As a result, the glow of the layer becomes much more intense.

  14. Preferential Heating and Acceleration of {alpha} Particles by Alfven-Cyclotron Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Araneda, J. A.; Maneva, Y.; Marsch, E.

    2009-05-01

    Preferential heating and acceleration of heavy ions in the solar wind and corona represent a long-standing theoretical problem in space physics, and are distinct experimental signatures of kinetic processes occurring in collisionless plasmas. We show that fast and slow ion-acoustic waves (IAW) and transverse waves, driven by Alfven-cyclotron wave parametric instabilities can selectively destroy the coherent fluid motion of different ion species and, in this way lead to their differential heating and acceleration. Trapping of the more abundant protons by the fast IAW generates a proton beam with drift speed of about the Alfven speed. Because of their larger mass, {alpha} particles do not become significantly trapped and start, by conservation of total ion momentum, drifting relative to the receding bulk protons. Thus the resulting core protons and the {alpha} particles are differentially heated via pitch-angle scattering.

  15. Electron acceleration by parametrically excited Langmuir waves. [in ionospheric modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejer, J. A.; Graham, K. N.

    1974-01-01

    Simple physical arguments are used to estimate the downward-going energetic electron flux due to parametrically excited Langmuir waves in ionospheric modification experiments. The acceleration mechanism is a single velocity reversal as seen in the frame of the Langmuir wave. The flux is sufficient to produce the observed ionospheric airglow if focusing-type instabilities are invoked to produce moderate local enhancements of the pump field.

  16. Measurement of acceleration in femtosecond laser-plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Haessner, R.; Theobald, W.; Niedermeier, S.; Michelmann, K.; Feurer, T.; Schillinger, H.; Sauerbrey, R.

    1998-02-20

    Accelerations up to 4x10{sup 19} m/s{sup 2} are measured in femtosecond laser-produced plasmas at intensities of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} using the Frequency Resolved Optical Gating (FROG) technique. A high density plasma is formed by focusing an ultrashort unchirped laser pulse on a plane carbon target and part of the reflected pulse is eventually detected by a FROG autocorrelator. Radiation pressure and thermal pressure accelerate the plasma which causes a chirp in the reflected laser pulse. The retrieved phase and amplitude information reveal that the plasma motion is dominated by the large light pressure which pushes the plasma into the target. This is supported by theoretical estimates and by the results of independently measured time integrated spectra of the reflected pulse.

  17. Creating and studying ion acoustic waves in ultracold neutral plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Killian, T. C.; Castro, J.; McQuillen, P.; O'Neil, T. M.

    2012-05-15

    We excite ion acoustic waves in ultracold neutral plasmas by imprinting density modulations during plasma creation. Laser-induced fluorescence is used to observe the density and velocity perturbations created by the waves. The effect of expansion of the plasma on the evolution of the wave amplitude is described by treating the wave action as an adiabatic invariant. After accounting for this effect, we determine that the waves are weakly damped, but the damping is significantly faster than expected for Landau damping.

  18. Multistage coupling of independent laser-plasma accelerators.

    PubMed

    Steinke, S; van Tilborg, J; Benedetti, C; Geddes, C G R; Schroeder, C B; Daniels, J; Swanson, K K; Gonsalves, A J; Nakamura, K; Matlis, N H; Shaw, B H; Esarey, E; Leemans, W P

    2016-02-11

    Laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) are capable of accelerating charged particles to very high energies in very compact structures. In theory, therefore, they offer advantages over conventional, large-scale particle accelerators. However, the energy gain in a single-stage LPA can be limited by laser diffraction, dephasing, electron-beam loading and laser-energy depletion. The problem of laser diffraction can be addressed by using laser-pulse guiding and preformed plasma waveguides to maintain the required laser intensity over distances of many Rayleigh lengths; dephasing can be mitigated by longitudinal tailoring of the plasma density; and beam loading can be controlled by proper shaping of the electron beam. To increase the beam energy further, it is necessary to tackle the problem of the depletion of laser energy, by sequencing the accelerator into stages, each powered by a separate laser pulse. Here, we present results from an experiment that demonstrates such staging. Two LPA stages were coupled over a short distance (as is needed to preserve the average acceleration gradient) by a plasma mirror. Stable electron beams from a first LPA were focused to a twenty-micrometre radius--by a discharge capillary-based active plasma lens--into a second LPA, such that the beams interacted with the wakefield excited by a separate laser. Staged acceleration by the wakefield of the second stage is detected via an energy gain of 100 megaelectronvolts for a subset of the electron beam. Changing the arrival time of the electron beam with respect to the second-stage laser pulse allowed us to reconstruct the temporal wakefield structure and to determine the plasma density. Our results indicate that the fundamental limitation to energy gain presented by laser depletion can be overcome by using staged acceleration, suggesting a way of reaching the electron energies required for collider applications.

  19. Plasma wave experiment for the ISEE-3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    Sensitive, high resolution plasma probes for analysis of the distribution functions and plasma wave instruments for measurements of electromagnetic and electrostatic wave modes are commonly flown together to provide information on plasma instabilities and wave particle interactions. Analysis of the data for the ISEE 3 mission is provided.

  20. A laser-plasma accelerator producing monoenergetic electron beams.

    PubMed

    Faure, J; Glinec, Y; Pukhov, A; Kiselev, S; Gordienko, S; Lefebvre, E; Rousseau, J-P; Burgy, F; Malka, V

    2004-09-30

    Particle accelerators are used in a wide variety of fields, ranging from medicine and biology to high-energy physics. The accelerating fields in conventional accelerators are limited to a few tens of MeV m(-1), owing to material breakdown at the walls of the structure. Thus, the production of energetic particle beams currently requires large-scale accelerators and expensive infrastructures. Laser-plasma accelerators have been proposed as a next generation of compact accelerators because of the huge electric fields they can sustain (>100 GeV m(-1)). However, it has been difficult to use them efficiently for applications because they have produced poor-quality particle beams with large energy spreads, owing to a randomization of electrons in phase space. Here we demonstrate that this randomization can be suppressed and that the quality of the electron beams can be dramatically enhanced. Within a length of 3 mm, the laser drives a plasma bubble that traps and accelerates plasma electrons. The resulting electron beam is extremely collimated and quasi-monoenergetic, with a high charge of 0.5 nC at 170 MeV.

  1. Dispersion relation of electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in multi-component magneto-plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khaira, Vibhooti Ahirwar, G.

    2015-07-31

    Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves in multi component plasma composed of electrons (denoted by e{sup −}), hydrogen ions (denoted by H{sup +}), helium ions (denoted by He{sup +}) and positively charged oxygen ions (denoted by O{sup +})in magnetized cold plasma. The wave is assumed to propagate perpendicular to the static magnetic field. It is found that the addition of heavy ions in the plasma dispersion modified the lower hybrid mode and also allowed an ion-ion mode. The frequencies of the lower hybrid and ion- ion hybrid modes are derived using cold plasma theory. It is observed that the effect of multi-ionfor different plasma densities on electrostatic ion cyclotron waves is to enhance the wave frequencies. The results are interpreted for the magnetosphere has been applied parameters by auroral acceleration region.

  2. TRW plasma wave experiment for the IMP-H mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Virobik, P. F.; Scarf, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    The IMP-H plasma wave experiment is designed to extend knowledge of wave-particle interactions in the disturbed cislunar region, the distant geomagnetic tail, the upstream solar wind, and the flanks of the magnetosheath-shock interface. It is expected to identify plasma instabilities, study particle acceleration and heating at collisionless shocks and other discontinuities, analyze turbulent conductivity and field line merging, and provide new information on dissipation processes for suprathermal particles. Instrumentation for the plasma wave experiment is designed to measure local electric and magnetic field oscillations over the frequency range 10 Hz to 100 kHz. A 24 inch electric dipole, a 7 inch diameter air core search coil, and the associated preamplifiers are mounted on a spacecraft counterweight boom. The frequency range of 10 Hz to 100 kHz for both E and B is processed using an eight-channel spectrum analyzer located in the instrument main-body package (a standard IMP trapezoidal module, 3 inches high). Electric fields as small as 10-100 microvolts/meter and magnetic signals as small as 1-3 milligamma will be detected.

  3. Experimental Study of an Advanced Plasma Thruster using ICRF Heating and Magnetic Nozzle Acceleration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Akira

    2005-10-01

    Electric propulsion (EP) systems utilize plasma technologies and have been developed for years as one of the most promising space propulsion approaches. It is urgently required to develop high-power plasma thrusters for human expeditions to Mars and future space exploration missions. The advanced thruster is demanded to control thrust and specific impulse by adjusting the exhaust plasma density and velocity. In the VASIMR project, a combined system of efficient ion cyclotron heating and optimized magnetic nozzle design is proposed to control the ratio of specific impulse to thrust at constant power[1]. In this system a flowing plasma is heated by ICRF (ion cyclotron range of frequency) waves and the plasma thermal energy is converted to flow energy in a diverging magnetic field nozzle. We have recently performed the first demonstration of ion cyclotron resonance heating and acceleration in a magnetic nozzle by using a fast-flowing plasma with Mach number of nearly unity. Highly ionized plasma is produced by Magneto-Plasma-Dynamic thruster (MPDT). When RF power is launched by a helically-wound antenna, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves are excited, and plasma thermal energy and ion temperature drastically increase (nearly ten-fold rise) during the RF pulse. The value of resonance magnetic field is affected by the Doppler shift due to the fast-flowing plasma. Dependences of heating efficiency on both plasma density and input RF power will be presented. Ion acceleration along the field line is also observed in a diverging magnetic field nozzle. Perpendicular component (to the magnetic field) of ion energy decreases, whereas parallel component increases along the diverging magnetic field.[1] F.R. Chang Diaz, ``The VASIMR Engine,'' AIAA 2004-0149. AIAA conf. (Reno,2004); Bulletin of APS (46th APS-DPP), NM2A-3, 2004.

  4. Stability of accelerated plasma: Effects of compressibility and viscosity

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, A.G.; Gratton, J.; Gratton, F.T. )

    1989-12-01

    The linear stability of accelerated plasmas is studied. It is considered an unperturbed state that allows stratification of density and magnetic field in the plasma, as well as a plasma-vacuum interface. We consider the effect of compressibility and show that it enlarges the spectrum of unstable modes, as well as increases the growth rate. Stability criteria and growth rates are given both for internal and surface modes. On the other hand, viscous effects on solenoidal modes are considered. The limiting cases of highly collisional and strongly magnetized plasmas are analyzed, showing different behavior. General properties of the spectrum are derived by means of normal mode and variational analysis.

  5. Sounder-accelerated electrons radiate slow-Z-mode waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, G.

    During the OEDIPUS-C (OC) double-payload rocket experiment, waves were transmitted from a 19-m dipole on one subpayload and received at a distance of 1200 m on a similar dipole. Bistatic propagation was obtained in the slow-Z mode of propagation, i.e., at frequencies f in max{fc, fp} < quad f quad < quad fuh, where fc is the electron gyrofrequency, fp the plasma frequency and fuh the upper-hybrid-resonance frequency. Auroral hiss is generated in the slow-Z mode. In OC, the separation vector between the transmitter and receiver lay along a direction at about 5 from the axis of the Earth's magnetic field B. The Z-mode pulses were strong and significantly dispersed. Propagation near the upper oblique resonance cone was investigated using solutions of the complete electromagnetic hot-plasma dispersion relation. No solutions were found at the operating frequencies with the observed group delays and ray directions. An explanation has been proposed involving incoherent radiation from sounder-accelerated electrons (SAE). Published observations of SAE on OC show that the OC transmitting dipole produces strong SAE at energies from 10 eV up to 10 keV when the transmitting frequency sweeps through Z-mode frequency range. The near field of the transmitting dipole pushes SAE helically downward in the general direction of the receiver. At every instant, each SAE particle creates radiation that obeys the resonance condition f - mfc = (nf/c)cosθ Vcosα , where m is a signed integer, n the Z-mode refractive index, θ the angle between the direction of propagation of the radiation and B, V the electron speed and α its pitch angle. Using the reported SAE energies, it is found that time delays like those observed can be explained with Z-mode n and θ values, for m = 0, 1 or 2. The resonance condition and dispersion relation together require θ values near the upper-oblique resonance cone. Test-particle theory combined with the hot-plasma dispersion solution is used to predict the

  6. Laboratory Measurements of Linear Electron Acceleration by Inertial Alfvén Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, J. W. R.

    2015-11-01

    Alfvén waves occur in conjunction with a significant fraction of auroral electron acceleration. Inertial mode Alfvén waves (vA >vte) in the auroral magnetosphere (2 - 4RE) with perpendicular scales on the order of the electron skin depth (c /ωpe) have a parallel electric field that, according to theory, is capable of nonlinearly accelerating suprathermal electrons to auroral energies. Unfortunately, due to space-time ambiguities of rocket and satellite measurements, it has not yet been possible to fully verify how Alfvén waves contribute to the production of accelerated electrons. To overcome the limitations of in situ spacecraft data, laboratory experiments have been carried out using the Large Plasma Device (LaPD), an NSF/DOE user facility at UCLA. An Electron Cyclotron Absorption (ECA) diagnostic has been developed to record the suprathermal parallel electron distribution function with 0.1% precision. The diagnostic records the electron distribution while inertial Alfvén waves simultaneously propagate through the plasma. Recent measurements have isolated oscillations of suprathermal electrons at the Alfvén wave frequency. Despite complications from boundary effects and the finite size of the experiment, a linear kinetic model has been produced that describes the experimental results. To our knowledge this is the first quantitative agreement between the measured and modeled linear response of suprathermal electrons to an inertial Alfvén wave. This verification of the linear physics is a necessary step before the nonlinear acceleration process can be isolated in future experiments. Presently, nonlinear effects cannot be detected because of limited Alfvén wave amplitudes. Ongoing work is focused on designing a higher-power antenna capable of efficiently launching larger-amplitude Alfvén waves with tunable perpendicular wavenumber and developing a theoretical understanding of the nonlinear acceleration process in LaPD plasma conditions. This material is

  7. Upper limit of electron fluxes generated by kinetic Alfvén waves in Maxwellian plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Rankin, R.; Vasko, I. Y.

    2016-09-01

    We consider electron acceleration by kinetic Alfvén waves in the equatorial inner magnetosphere and plasma sheet boundary layer. The competition between the accelerating effect of the wave parallel electric field and mirror force acting on particles in an inhomogeneous background magnetic field generates an effective potential well where electrons can be trapped and accelerated. We compare energy variations of trapped and transient resonant electrons and show that these variations almost compensate each other. Thus, energy provided to waves by transient particles is transferred to trapped particles. This effect allows waves accelerate trapped electrons without being significantly damped. Using energy balance equations, we estimate the maximum flux of electrons accelerated via trapping into Landau resonance with kinetic Alfvén waves. For a wide range of system parameters (i.e., ion to electron temperature ratio, magnetic field amplitude, and wave number and wave frequency), acceleration of trapped electrons can generate fluxes with amplitude about 5-25% of the background thermal fluxes. We determine parametric regions for the most efficient acceleration.

  8. Particle-in-cell simulations of laser beat-wave magnetization of dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D. R.; Genoni, T. C.; Thoma, C.; Rose, D. V.; Hsu, S. C.

    2014-03-15

    The interaction of two lasers with a difference frequency near that of the ambient plasma frequency produces beat waves that can resonantly accelerate thermal electrons. These beat waves can be used to drive electron current and thereby embed magnetic fields into the plasma [Welch et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 225002 (2012)]. In this paper, we present two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the beat-wave current-drive process over a wide range of angles between the injected lasers, laser intensities, and plasma densities. We discuss the application of this technique to the magnetization of dense plasmas, motivated in particular by the problem of forming high-β plasma targets in a standoff manner for magneto-inertial fusion. The feasibility of a near-term experiment embedding magnetic fields using lasers with micron-scale wavelengths into a ∼10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}-density plasma is assessed.

  9. Intense tera-hertz laser driven proton acceleration in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, A.; Tibai, Z.; Hebling, J.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the acceleration of a proton beam driven by intense tera-hertz (THz) laser field from a near critical density hydrogen plasma. Two-dimension-in-space and three-dimension-in-velocity particle-in-cell simulation results show that a relatively long wavelength and an intense THz laser can be employed for proton acceleration to high energies from near critical density plasmas. We adopt here the electromagnetic field in a long wavelength (0.33 THz) regime in contrast to the optical and/or near infrared wavelength regime, which offers distinct advantages due to their long wavelength ( λ = 350 μ m ), such as the λ 2 scaling of the electron ponderomotive energy. Simulation study delineates the evolution of THz laser field in a near critical plasma reflecting the enhancement in the electric field of laser, which can be of high relevance for staged or post ion acceleration.

  10. Mercury ion thruster research, 1977. [plasma acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, P. J.

    1977-01-01

    The measured ion beam divergence characteristics of two and three-grid, multiaperture accelerator systems are presented. The effects of perveance, geometry, net-to-total accelerating voltage, discharge voltage and propellant are examined. The applicability of a model describing doubly-charged ion densities in mercury thrusters is demonstrated for an 8-cm diameter thruster. The results of detailed Langmuir probing of the interior of an operating cathode are given and used to determine the ionization fraction as a function of position upstream of the cathode orifice. A mathematical model of discharge chamber electron diffusion and collection processes is presented along with scaling laws useful in estimating performance of large diameter and/or high specific impluse thrusters. A model describing the production of ionized molecular nitrogen in ion thrusters is included.

  11. Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts.

    PubMed

    Horne, Richard B; Thorne, Richard M; Shprits, Yuri Y; Meredith, Nigel P; Glauert, Sarah A; Smith, Andy J; Kanekal, Shrikanth G; Baker, Daniel N; Engebretson, Mark J; Posch, Jennifer L; Spasojevic, Maria; Inan, Umran S; Pickett, Jolene S; Decreau, Pierrette M E

    2005-09-08

    The Van Allen radiation belts are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer radiation belt was depleted and then re-formed closer to the Earth, that the long established theory of acceleration by radial diffusion is inadequate; the electrons are accelerated more effectively by electromagnetic waves at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Wave acceleration can increase the electron flux by more than three orders of magnitude over the observed timescale of one to two days, more than sufficient to explain the new radiation belt. Wave acceleration could also be important for Jupiter, Saturn and other astrophysical objects with magnetic fields.

  12. Waves in space plasma dipole antenna subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The Waves In Space Plasma (WISP) flight experiment requires a 50-meter-long deployable dipole antenna subsystem (DASS) to radiate radio frequencies from the STS Orbiter cargo bay. The transmissions are to excite outer ionospheric plasma between the dipole and a free-flying receiver (Spartan) for scientific purposes. This report describes the singular DASS design requirements and how the resulting design satisfies them. A jettison latch is described in some detail. The latch releases the antenna in case of any problems which might prevent the bay doors from closing for re-entry and landing of the Orbiter.

  13. Waves in plasmas: some historical highlights

    SciTech Connect

    Stix, T.H.

    1984-08-01

    To illustrate the development of some fundamental concepts in plasma waves, a number of experimental observations, going back over half a century, are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the phenomena of dispersion, collisionfree damping, finite-Larmor-radius and cyclotron and cyclotron-harmonic effects, nonlocal response, and stochasticity. One may note not only the constructive interplay between observation and theory and experiment but also that major advances have come from each of the many disciplines that invoke plasma physics as a tool, including radio communication, astrophysics, controlled fusion, space physics, and basic research.

  14. Studying astrophysical particle acceleration with laser-driven plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiuza, Frederico

    2016-10-01

    The acceleration of non-thermal particles in plasmas is critical for our understanding of explosive astrophysical phenomena, from solar flares to gamma ray bursts. Particle acceleration is thought to be mediated by collisionless shocks and magnetic reconnection. The microphysics underlying these processes and their ability to efficiently convert flow and magnetic energy into non-thermal particles, however, is not yet fully understood. By performing for the first time ab initio 3D particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction of both magnetized and unmagnetized laser-driven plasmas, it is now possible to identify the optimal parameters for the study of particle acceleration in the laboratory relevant to astrophysical scenarios. It is predicted for the Omega and NIF laser conditions that significant non-thermal acceleration can occur during magnetic reconnection of laser-driven magnetized plasmas. Electrons are accelerated by the electric field near the X-points and trapped in contracting magnetic islands. This leads to a power-law tail extending to nearly a hundred times the thermal energy of the plasma and that contains a large fraction of the magnetic energy. The study of unmagnetized interpenetrating plasmas also reveals the possibility of forming collisionless shocks mediated by the Weibel instability on NIF. Under such conditions, both electrons and ions can be energized by scattering out of the Weibel-mediated turbulence. This also leads to power-law spectra that can be detected experimentally. The resulting experimental requirements to probe the microphysics of plasma particle acceleration will be discussed, paving the way for the first experiments of these important processes in the laboratory. As a result of these simulations and theoretical analysis, there are new experiments being planned on the Omega, NIF, and LCLS laser facilities to test these theoretical predictions. This work was supported by the SLAC LDRD program and DOE Office of Science, Fusion

  15. Highly Efficient Proteolysis Accelerated by Electromagnetic Waves for Peptide Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiwen; Liu, Ting; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Proteomics will contribute greatly to the understanding of gene functions in the post-genomic era. In proteome research, protein digestion is a key procedure prior to mass spectrometry identification. During the past decade, a variety of electromagnetic waves have been employed to accelerate proteolysis. This review focuses on the recent advances and the key strategies of these novel proteolysis approaches for digesting and identifying proteins. The subjects covered include microwave-accelerated protein digestion, infrared-assisted proteolysis, ultraviolet-enhanced protein digestion, laser-assisted proteolysis, and future prospects. It is expected that these novel proteolysis strategies accelerated by various electromagnetic waves will become powerful tools in proteome research and will find wide applications in high throughput protein digestion and identification. PMID:22379392

  16. Summary report: working group 2 on 'Plasma Based AccelerationConcepts'

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, E.; Leemans, Wim

    1998-09-01

    A summary of the talks, papers and discussion sessions presented in the Working Group on Plasma Based Acceleration Concepts is given within the context of the progress towards a 1 GeV laser driven accelerator module. The topics covered within the Working Group were self-modulated laser wakefield acceleration, standard laser wakefield acceleration, plasma beatwave acceleration, laser guiding and wake excitation in plasma channels, plasma wakefield acceleration, plasma lenses and optical injection techniques for laser wakefield accelerators. An overview will be given of the present status of experimental and theoretical progress as well as an outlook towards the future physics and technological challenges for the development of an optimized accelerator module.

  17. Surfatron acceleration of protons by an electromagnetic wave at the heliosphere periphery

    SciTech Connect

    Loznikov, V. M. Erokhin, N. S.; Zol’nikova, N. N.; Mikhailovskaya, L. A.

    2013-10-15

    The trapping and subsequent efficient surfatron acceleration of weakly relativistic protons by an electromagnetic wave propagating across an external magnetic field in plasma at the heliosphere periphery is considered. The problem is reduced to analysis of a second-order time-dependent nonlinear equation for the wave phase on the particle trajectory. The conditions of proton trapping by the wave, the dynamics of the components of the particle momentum and velocity, the structure of the phase plane, the particle trajectories, and the dependence of the acceleration rate on initial parameters of the problem are analyzed. The asymptotic behavior of the characteristics of accelerated particles for the heliosphere parameters is investigated. The optimum conditions for surfatron acceleration of protons by an electromagnetic wave are discussed. It is demonstrated that the experimentally observed deviation of the spectra of cosmic-ray protons from standard power-law dependences can be caused by the surfatron mechanism. It is shown that protons with initial energies of several GeV can be additionally accelerated in the heliosphere (the region located between the shock front of the solar wind and the heliopause at distances of about 100 astronomical units (a.u.) from the Sun) up to energies on the order of several thousands of GeV. In order to explain the proton spectra in the energy range of ∼20–500 GeV, a two-component phenomenological model is proposed. The first component corresponds to the constant (in this energy range) galactic contribution, while the second (variable) component corresponds to the heliospheric contribution, which appears due to the additional acceleration of soft cosmic-ray protons at the heliosphere periphery. Variations in the proton spectra measured on different time scales between 1992 and 2008 in the energy range from several tens to several hundred GeV, as well as the dependence of these spectra on the heliospheric weather, can be explained

  18. Stochastic Acceleration of Galactic Cosmic Rays by Compressible Plasma Fluctuations in Supernova Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming

    2015-10-01

    A theory of 2-stage acceleration of Galactic cosmic rays in supernova remnants is proposed. The first stage is accomplished by the supernova shock front, where a power-law spectrum is established up to a certain cutoff energy. It is followed by stochastic acceleration with compressible waves/turbulence in the downstream medium. With a broad \\propto {k}-2 spectrum for the compressible plasma fluctuations, the rate of stochastic acceleration is constant over a wide range of particle momentum. In this case, the stochastic acceleration process extends the power-law spectrum cutoff energy of Galactic cosmic rays to the knee without changing the spectral slope. This situation happens as long as the rate of stochastic acceleration is faster than 1/5 of the adiabatic cooling rate. A steeper spectrum of compressible plasma fluctuations that concentrate their power in long wavelengths will accelerate cosmic rays to the knee with a small bump before its cutoff in the comic-ray energy spectrum. This theory does not require a strong amplification of the magnetic field in the upstream interstellar medium in order to accelerate cosmic rays to the knee energy.

  19. Enhanced efficiency of plasma acceleration in the laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badziak, J.; Rosiński, M.; Jabłoński, S.; Pisarczyk, T.; Chodukowski, T.; Parys, P.; Rączka, P.; Krousky, E.; Ullschmied, J.; Liska, R.; Kucharik, M.

    2015-01-01

    Among various methods for the acceleration of dense plasmas the mechanism called laser-induced cavity pressure acceleration (LICPA) is capable of achieving the highest energetic efficiency. In the LICPA scheme, a projectile placed in a cavity is accelerated along a guiding channel by the laser-induced thermal plasma pressure or by the radiation pressure of an intense laser radiation trapped in the cavity. This arrangement leads to a significant enhancement of the hydrodynamic or electromagnetic forces driving the projectile, relative to standard laser acceleration schemes. The aim of this paper is to review recent experimental and numerical works on LICPA with the emphasis on the acceleration of heavy plasma macroparticles and dense ion beams. The main experimental part concerns the research carried out at the kilojoule sub-nanosecond PALS laser facility in Prague. Our measurements performed at this facility, supported by advanced two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, have demonstrated that the LICPA accelerator working in the long-pulse hydrodynamic regime can be a highly efficient tool for the acceleration of heavy plasma macroparticles to hyper-velocities and the generation of ultra-high-pressure (>100 Mbar) shocks through the collision of the macroparticle with a solid target. The energetic efficiency of the macroparticle acceleration and the shock generation has been found to be significantly higher than that for other laser-based methods used so far. Using particle-in-cell simulations it is shown that the LICPA scheme is highly efficient also in the short-pulse high-intensity regime and, in particular, may be used for production of intense ion beams of multi-MeV to GeV ion energies with the energetic efficiency of tens of per cent, much higher than for conventional laser acceleration schemes.

  20. Magnetic control of particle injection in plasma based accelerators.

    PubMed

    Vieira, J; Martins, S F; Pathak, V B; Fonseca, R A; Mori, W B; Silva, L O

    2011-06-03

    The use of an external transverse magnetic field to trigger and to control electron self-injection in laser- and particle-beam driven wakefield accelerators is examined analytically and through full-scale particle-in-cell simulations. A magnetic field can relax the injection threshold and can be used to control main output beam features such as charge, energy, and transverse dynamics in the ion channel associated with the plasma blowout. It is shown that this mechanism could be studied using state-of-the-art magnetic fields in next generation plasma accelerator experiments.

  1. Dissipative solitary kinetic Alfven wave and energetic electron acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D. J.

    Some recent studies of observations in situ by space satellites show that low frequency electromagnetic fluctuations in the auroral ionosphere and magnetosphere can often be identified as soliatry kinetic Alfven waves (SKAWs), and further analyses of data reveal clearly that electron collisional dissipation can considerably affect the structure and evolution of SKAWs. Here, we report a model of nonlinear kinetic Alfven waves that takes dissipative effect into account, called a dissipative SKAW (DSKAW). The results show that DSKAW can produce a local shock-like structure with a net parallel electric potential drop, in which the associated parallel electric field is primarily caused by nonlinear electron inertia. In particular, it is argued that DSKAW can accelerate electrons efficiently to the order of the local Alfven velocity. We suggest that DSKAW can provide an efficient acceleration mechanism for energetic electrons of tens keV, which can frequently be encountered in solar micro-wave radio and hard X-ray bursts.

  2. Tunable Plasma-Wave Laser Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromage, J.; Haberberger, D.; Davies, A.; Bucht, S.; Zuegel, J. D.; Froula, D. H.; Trines, R.; Bingham, R.; Sadler, J.; Norreys, P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Raman amplification is a process by which a long energetic pump pulse transfers its energy to a counter-propagating short seed pulse through a resonant electron plasma wave. Since its conception, theory and simulations have shown exciting results with up to tens of percent of energy transfer from the pump to the seed pulse. However, experiments have yet to surpass transfer efficiencies of a few percent. A review of past literature shows that largely chirped pump pulses and finite temperature wave breaking could have been the two most detrimental effects. A Raman amplification platform is being developed at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics where a combination of a high-intensity tunable seed laser with sophisticated plasma diagnostics (dynamic Thomson scattering) will make it possible to find the optimal parameter space for high-energy transfer. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  3. Electrostatic acceleration of helicon plasma using a cusped magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, S.; Baba, T.; Uchigashima, A.; Iwakawa, A.; Sasoh, A.; Yokota, S.; Yamazaki, T.; Shimizu, H.

    2014-11-10

    The electrostatic acceleration of helicon plasma is investigated using an electrostatic potential exerted between the ring anode at the helicon source exit and an off-axis hollow cathode in the downstream region. In the downstream region, the magnetic field for the helicon source, which is generated by a solenoid coil, is modified using permanent magnets and a yoke, forming an almost magnetic field-free region surrounded by an annular cusp field. Using a retarding potential analyzer, two primary ion energy peaks, where the lower peak corresponds to the space potential and the higher one to the ion beam, are detected in the field-free region. Using argon as the working gas with a helicon power of 1.5 kW and a mass flow rate of 0.21 mg/s, the ion beam energy is on the order of the applied acceleration voltage. In particular, with an acceleration voltage lower than 150 V, the ion beam energy even exceeds the applied acceleration voltage by an amount on the order of the electron thermal energy at the exit of the helicon plasma source. The ion beam energy profile strongly depends on the helicon power and the applied acceleration voltage. Since by this method the whole working gas from the helicon plasma source can, in principle, be accelerated, this device can be applied as a noble electrostatic thruster for space propulsion.

  4. Beam acceleration by plasma-loaded free-electron devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, K. H.; Serbeto, A.; D'olival, J. B.

    1998-01-01

    The use of a plasma-filled wiggler free-electron laser device operating near the plasma cutoff to accelerate electron beams is examined. Near the cutoff, the group velocity of the microwave field in the plasma is much less than the beam velocity. This scheme, therefore, operates in the pulse mode to accelerate electron beam bunches much shorter than the wiggler length. Between one bunch and the other, the wiggler is reloaded with microwave field. During the loading period, the laser-wiggler-plasma (SWL) Raman interaction generates a Langmuir mode with the laser and the wiggler as the primary energy sources. When the wiggler plasma is fully loaded with microwave field, a short electron bunch is fired into the device. In this accelerating period, the Langmuir mode is coupled to the laser-wiggler-beam (SWB) free-electron-laser interaction. The condition that the Langmuir phase velocity matches the free-electron-laser resonant beam velocity assures the simultaneous interaction of the SWL and SWB parametric processes. Beam acceleration is accomplished fundamentally via the space charge field of the Langmuir mode and the electron phase in the ponderomotive potential. Linear energy gain regime is accomplished when the phase velocity of the Langmuir mode is exactly equal to the speed of light.

  5. Particle Acceleration in SN1006 Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Raymond, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The FUSE data have been reduced, and a paper on the results is in progress. The main results have been presented in a poster at the January 2004 AAS meeting and an ApJ paper in press. The primary result is that the widths of the 0 VI lines in the NW filament are a bit less than the width expected if the oxygen kinetic temperature is 16 times the proton temperature (mass proportional heating). This is at variance with measurements of shocks in the heliosphere, where preferential heating of oxygen and other heavy species is observed. The paper discusses the theoretical implications for collisionless shock wave physics. A secondary result is that no O VI emission was observed from the NE filament. While the very different particle distribution in that region can partially account for the weakness of the O VI lines, the simplest interpretation is that the pre-shock density in the NE is less than 0.22 times the density in the NW.

  6. Cyclotron maser and plasma wave growth in magnetic loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Russell J.; Petrosian, Vahe

    1990-01-01

    Cyclotron maser and plasma wave growth which results from electrons accelerated in magnetic loops are studied. The evolution of the accelerated electron distribution is determined by solving the kinetic equation including Coulomb collisions and magnetic convergence. It is found that for modest values of the column depth of the loop the growth rates of instabilities are significantly reduced and that the reduction is much larger for the cyclotron modes than for the plasma wave modes. The large decrease in the growth rate with column depth suggests that solar coronal densities must be much lower than commonly accepted in order for the cyclotron maser to operate. The density depletion has to be similar to that which occurs during auroral kilometric radiation events in the magnetosphere. The resulting distributions are much more complicated than the idealized distributions used in many theoretical studies, but the fastest growing mode can still simply be determined by the ratio of electron plasma to gyrofrequency, U=omega(sub p)/Omega(sub e). However, the dominant modes are different than for the idealized situations with growth of the z-mode largest for U approximately less than 0.5, and second harmonic x-mode (s=2) or fundamental o-mode (s=1) the dominant modes for 0.5 approximately less than U approximately less than 1. The electron distributions typically contain more than one inverted feature which could give rise to wave growth. It is shown that this can result in simultaneous amplification of more than one mode with each mode driven by a different feature and can be observed, for example, by differences in the rise times of the right and left circularly polarized components of the associated spike bursts.

  7. Laser acceleration of electrons in two-dimensionally inhomogeneous plasma at the boundary of a metal foil

    SciTech Connect

    Pugachev, L. P. Andreev, N. E. Levashov, P. R.; Malkov, Yu. A. Stepanov, A. N. Yashunin, D. A.

    2015-07-15

    The electron acceleration mechanism associated with the generation of a plasma wave due to self-modulation instability of laser radiation in a subcritical plasma produced by a laser prepulse coming 10 ns before the arrival of the main intense femtosecond pulse is considered. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction of laser radiation with two-dimensionally inhomogeneous subcritical plasma have shown that, for a sufficiently strong plasma inhomogeneity and a sharp front of the laser pulse, efficient plasma wave excitation, electron trapping, and generation of collimated electron beams with energies on the order of 0.2–0.5 MeV can occur. The simulation results agree with experiments on the generation of collimated beams of accelerated electrons from metal targets irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses.

  8. Particle physicist's dreams about PetaelectronVolt laser plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Vesztergombi, G.

    2012-07-09

    Present day accelerators are working well in the multi TeV energy scale and one is expecting exciting results in the coming years. Conventional technologies, however, can offer only incremental (factor 2 or 3) increase in beam energies which does not follow the usual speed of progress in the frontiers of high energy physics. Laser plasma accelerators theoretically provide unique possibilities to achieve orders of magnitude increases entering the PetaelectronVolt (PeV) energy range. It will be discussed what kind of new perspectives could be opened for the physics at this new energy scale. What type of accelerators would be required?.

  9. First plasma wave observations at uranus.

    PubMed

    Gurnett, D A; Kurth, W S; Scarf, F L; Poynter, R L

    1986-07-04

    Radio emissions from Uranus were detected by the Voyager 2 plasma wave instrument about 5 days before closest approach at frequencies of 31.1 and 56.2 kilohertz. About 10 hours before closest approach the bow shock was identified by an abrupt broadband burst of electrostatic turbulence at a radial distance of 23.5 Uranus radii. Once Voyager was inside the magnetosphere, strong whistler-mode hiss and chorus emissions were observed at radial distances less than about 8 Uranus radii, in the same region where the energetic particle instruments detected intense fluxes of energetic electrons. Various other plasma waves were also observed in this same region. At the ring plane crossing, the plasma wave instrument detected a large number of impulsive events that are interpreted as impacts of micrometer-sized dust particles on the spacecraft. The maximum impact rate was about 30 to 50 impacts per second, and the north-south thickness of the impact region was about 4000 kilometers.

  10. First plasma wave observations at uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Gurnett, D.A.; Kurth, W.S.; Scarf, F.L.; Poynter, R.L.

    1986-07-04

    Radio emissions from Uranus were detected by the Voyager 2 plasma wave instrument about 5 days before closest approach at frequencies of 31.1 and 56.2 kilohertz. About 10 hours before closest approach the bow shock was identified by an abrupt broadband burst of electrostatic turbulence at a radial distance of 23.5 Uranus radii. Once Voyager was inside the magnetosphere, strong whistler-mode hiss and chorus emissions were observed at radial distances less than about 8 Uranus radii, in the same region where the energetic-particle instruments detected intense fluxes of energetic electrons. Various other plasma waves were also observed in this same region. At the ring plane crossing, the plasma-wave instrument detected a large number of impulsive events that are interpreted as impacts of micrometer-sized dust particles on the spacecraft. The maximum impact rate was about 30 to 50 impacts per second, and the north south thickness of the impact region was about 4000 kilometers.

  11. Explosive reconnection and particle acceleration in relativistic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; Komissarov, Sergey; Porth, Oliver; Sironi, Lorenzo

    2016-10-01

    We develop a model of particle acceleration in explosive reconnection events in relativistic magnetically-dominated plasmas. We identify two stages of particle acceleration: (i) fast explosive prompt X-point collapse and (ii) ensuing island merger. The fastest acceleration occurs during the initial catastrophic X-point collapse, with the reconnection electric field of the order of the magnetic field. During the X-point collapse particles are accelerated by charge-starved electric fields, which can reach (and even exceed) values of the local magnetic field. The explosive stage of reconnection produces non-thermal power-law tails with slopes that depend on the average magnetization sigma. The model has all the ingredients needed for Crab flares: natural formation of highly magnetized regions, explosive dynamics on light travel time, development of high electric fields on macroscopic scales and acceleration of particles to energies well exceeding the average magnetic energy per particle.

  12. Startup performance of the traveling wave versus standing wave linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Buchgeister, M; Nüsslin, F

    1998-04-01

    The startup performance of medical linear accelerators is of increasing importance for modern radiotherapy techniques. The traveling wave-type linear accelerator of the SL series of Philips (now Elekta Oncology Systems) has been modified in its flight tube design to meet this goal of a fast rise time of the radiation field. The new slitless flight tube combined with a redesigned gun servo electronic now achieves start up times of the radiation comparable with those of a standing wave linear accelerator (Siemens Mevatron) according to our measurements.

  13. A Concept for Directly Coupled Pulsed Electromagnetic Acceleration of Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y.C. Francis; Cassibry, Jason T.; Eskridge, Richard; Smith, James; Wu, S. T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Plasma jets with high momentum flux density are required for a variety of applications in propulsion research. Methods of producing these plasma jets are being investigated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The experimental goal in the immediate future is to develop plasma accelerators which are capable of producing plasma jets with momentum flux density represented by velocities up to 200 km/s and ion density up to 10(exp 24) per cu m, with sufficient precision and reproducibility in their properties, and with sufficiently high efficiency. The jets must be sufficiently focused to allow them to be transported over several meters. A plasma accelerator concept is presented that might be able to meet these requirements. It is a self-switching, shaped coaxial pulsed plasma thruster, with focusing of the plasma flow by shaping muzzle current distribution as in plasma focus devices, and by mechanical tapering of the gun walls. Some 2-D MHD modeling in support of the conceptual design will be presented.

  14. Gravity Wave Seeding of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Sardul; Johnson, F. S.; Power, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    Some examples from the Atmosphere Explorer E data showing plasma bubble development from wavy ion density structures in the bottomside F layer are described. The wavy structures mostly had east-west wavelengths of 150-800 km, in one example it was about 3000 km. The ionization troughs in the wavy structures later broke up into either a multiple-bubble patch or a single bubble, depending upon whether, in the precursor wavy structure, shorter wavelengths were superimposed on the larger scale wavelengths. In the multiple bubble patches, intrabubble spacings vaned from 55 km to 140 km. In a fully developed equatorial spread F case, east-west wavelengths from 690 km down to about 0.5 km were present simultaneously. The spacings between bubble patches or between bubbles in a patch appear to be determined by the wavelengths present in the precursor wave structure. In some cases, deeper bubbles developed on the western edge of a bubble patch, suggesting an east-west asymmetry. Simultaneous horizontal neutral wind measurements showed wavelike perturbations that were closely associated with perturbations in the plasma horizontal drift velocity. We argue that the wave structures observed here that served as the initial seed ion density perturbations were caused by gravity waves, strengthening the view that gravity waves seed equatorial spread F irregularities.

  15. Collisional damping rates for plasma waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigik, S. F.; Ziebell, L. F.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-06-01

    The distinction between the plasma dynamics dominated by collisional transport versus collective processes has never been rigorously addressed until recently. A recent paper [P. H. Yoon et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 033203 (2016)] formulates for the first time, a unified kinetic theory in which collective processes and collisional dynamics are systematically incorporated from first principles. One of the outcomes of such a formalism is the rigorous derivation of collisional damping rates for Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves, which can be contrasted to the heuristic customary approach. However, the results are given only in formal mathematical expressions. The present brief communication numerically evaluates the rigorous collisional damping rates by considering the case of plasma particles with Maxwellian velocity distribution function so as to assess the consequence of the rigorous formalism in a quantitative manner. Comparison with the heuristic ("Spitzer") formula shows that the accurate damping rates are much lower in magnitude than the conventional expression, which implies that the traditional approach over-estimates the importance of attenuation of plasma waves by collisional relaxation process. Such a finding may have a wide applicability ranging from laboratory to space and astrophysical plasmas.

  16. Waves in relativistic electron beam in low-density plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinman, I.; Sheinman (Chernenco, J.

    2016-11-01

    Waves in electron beam in low-density plasma are analyzed. The analysis is based on complete electrodynamics consideration. Dependencies of dispersion laws from system parameters are investigated. It is shown that when relativistic electron beam is passed through low-density plasma surface waves of two types may exist. The first type is a high frequency wave on a boundary between the beam and neutralization area and the second type wave is on the boundary between neutralization area and stationary plasma.

  17. Ion Acceleration in a Solitary Wave by Laser Pulse with Ramping-up Amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Min-Qing; Tripathi, Vipin; Liu, Chuan-Sheng; Shao, Xi; Liu, Tung-Chang; Su, Jao-Jang; Sheng, Zheng-Ming

    2012-10-01

    Recent work by Jung et al. demonstrated experimentally the acceleration of mono-energetic ion beam by solitary waves generated and maintained by laser light with ramping-up amplitude.footnotetextD. Jung, L. Yin, B.J. Albright, D.C. Gautier, R. H"orlein, D. Kiefer, A. Henig, R. Johnson, S. Letzring, S. Palaniyappan, R. Shah, T. Shimada, X.Q. Yan, K.J. Bowers, T. Tajima, J.C. Fern'andez, D. Habs, and B.M. Hegelich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107,115002(2011). Theoretical model is developed in this work to study the formation of the solitary wave and effects of the radiation pressure force on a soliton in the accelerating plasma. 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations are performed to compare and validate the theory. Differences in generating and maintaining solitary wave for laser with and without ramping-up amplitude are also investigated. We will also investigate effects of radiation pressure acceleration of plasma with near critical density.

  18. Properties of Trapped Electron Bunches in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Neil; /SLAC

    2009-10-30

    Plasma-based accelerators use the propagation of a drive bunch through plasma to create large electric fields. Recent plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) experiments, carried out at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), successfully doubled the energy for some of the 42 GeV drive bunch electrons in less than a meter; this feat would have required 3 km in the SLAC linac. This dissertation covers one phenomenon associated with the PWFA, electron trapping. Recently it was shown that PWFAs, operated in the nonlinear bubble regime, can trap electrons that are released by ionization inside the plasma wake and accelerate them to high energies. These trapped electrons occupy and can degrade the accelerating portion of the plasma wake, so it is important to understand their origins and how to remove them. Here, the onset of electron trapping is connected to the drive bunch properties. Additionally, the trapped electron bunches are observed with normalized transverse emittance divided by peak current, {epsilon}{sub N,x}/I{sub t}, below the level of 0.2 {micro}m/kA. A theoretical model of the trapped electron emittance, developed here, indicates that the emittance scales inversely with the square root of the plasma density in the non-linear 'bubble' regime of the PWFA. This model and simulations indicate that the observed values of {epsilon}{sub N,x}/I{sub t} result from multi-GeV trapped electron bunches with emittances of a few {micro}m and multi-kA peak currents. These properties make the trapped electrons a possible particle source for next generation light sources. This dissertation is organized as follows. The first chapter is an overview of the PWFA, which includes a review of the accelerating and focusing fields and a survey of the remaining issues for a plasma-based particle collider. Then, the second chapter examines the physics of electron trapping in the PWFA. The third chapter uses theory and simulations to analyze the properties of the trapped electron

  19. rf breakdown tests of mm-wave metallic accelerating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Forno, Massimo; Dolgashev, Valery; Bowden, Gordon; Clarke, Christine; Hogan, Mark; McCormick, Doug; Novokhatski, Alexander; Spataro, Bruno; Weathersby, Stephen; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2016-01-01

    We are exploring the physics and frequency-scaling of vacuum rf breakdowns at sub-THz frequencies. We present the experimental results of rf tests performed in metallic mm-wave accelerating structures. These experiments were carried out at the facility for advanced accelerator experimental tests (FACET) at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The rf fields were excited by the FACET ultrarelativistic electron beam. We compared the performances of metal structures made with copper and stainless steel. The rf frequency of the fundamental accelerating mode, propagating in the structures at the speed of light, varies from 115 to 140 GHz. The traveling wave structures are 0.1 m long and composed of 125 coupled cavities each. We determined the peak electric field and pulse length where the structures were not damaged by rf breakdowns. We calculated the electric and magnetic field correlated with the rf breakdowns using the FACET bunch parameters. The wakefields were calculated by a frequency domain method using periodic eigensolutions. Such a method takes into account wall losses and is applicable to a large variety of geometries. The maximum achieved accelerating gradient is 0.3 GV /m with a peak surface electric field of 1.5 GV /m and a pulse length of about 2.4 ns.

  20. Characterising the acceleration phase of blast wave formation

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T. E. Pasley, J.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Schmitz, H.

    2014-10-15

    Intensely heated, localised regions in uniform fluids will rapidly expand and generate an outwardly propagating blast wave. The Sedov-Taylor self-similar solution for such blast waves has long been studied and applied to a variety of scenarios. A characteristic time for their formation has also long been identified using dimensional analysis, which by its very nature, can offer several interpretations. We propose that, rather than simply being a characteristic time, it may be interpreted as the definitive time taken for a blast wave resulting from an intense explosion in a uniform media to contain its maximum kinetic energy. A scaling relation for this measure of the acceleration phase, preceding the establishment of the blast wave, is presented and confirmed using a 1D planar hydrodynamic model.

  1. Challenges in plasma and laser wakefield accelerated beams diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianchi, A.; Anania, M. P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Ferrario, M.; Gatti, G.; Marchetti, B.; Mostacci, A.; Pompili, R.; Ronsivalle, C.; Rossi, A. R.; Serafini, L.

    2013-08-01

    The new frontier in the particle beam accelerator is the so called plasma acceleration. Using the strong electric field inside a plasma it is possible to achieve accelerating gradients in the order of magnitude larger with respect to the actual technologies. Different schemes have been proposed and several already tested, producing beams of energy of several GeV. Mainly two approaches are followed: either the beam is directly produced by the interaction of a TW/PW class laser with a gas jet or a preexisting particle beam is accelerated in a plasma channel. In both cases a precise determination of the emerging beam parameters is mandatory for the fine tuning of the devices. The measurement of these parameters, in particular the emittance, is not trivial, mainly due to the large energy spread and to the tight focusing of these beams or to the background noise produced in the plasma channel. We show the problems related to the diagnostic of this kind of beams and the proposed or already realized solutions.

  2. Trans-Relativistic Particle Acceleration in Astrophysical Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Peter A.; Subramanian, P.

    2014-01-01

    Trans-relativistic particle acceleration due to Fermi interactions between charged particles and MHD waves helps to power the observed high-energy emission in AGN transients and solar flares. The trans-relativistic acceleration process is challenging to treat analytically due to the complicated momentum dependence of the momentum diffusion coefficient. For this reason, most existing analytical treatments of particle acceleration assume that the injected seed particles are already relativistic, and therefore they are not suited to study trans-relativistic acceleration. The lack of an analytical model has forced workers to rely on numerical simulations to obtain particle spectra describing the trans-relativistic case. In this work we present the first analytical solution to the global, trans-relativistic problem describing the acceleration of seed particles due to hard-sphere collisions with MHD waves. The new results include the exact solution for the steady-state Green's function resulting from the continual injection of monoenergetic seed particles with an arbitrary energy. We also introduce an approximate treatment of the trans-relativistic acceleration process based on a hybrid form for the momentum diffusion coefficient, given by the sum of the two asymptotic forms. We refer to this process as "quasi hard-sphere scattering." The main advantage of the hybrid approximation is that it allows the extension of the physical model to include (i) the effects of synchrotron and inverse-Compton losses and (ii) time dependence. The new analytical results can be used to model the trans-relativistic acceleration of particles in AGN and solar environments, and can also be used to compute the spectra of the associated synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission. Applications of both types are discussed. We highlight (i) relativistic ion acceleration in black hole accretion coronae, and (ii) the production of gyrosynchrotron microwave emission due to relativistic electron

  3. Mid-infrared lasers for energy frontier plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelsky, I. V.; Polyanskiy, M. N.; Kimura, W. D.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wake field accelerators driven with solid-state near-IR lasers have been considered as an alternative to conventional rf accelerators for next-generation TeV-class lepton colliders. Here, we extend this study to the mid-IR spectral domain covered by CO2 lasers. We conclude that the increase in the laser driver wavelength favors the regime of laser wake field acceleration with a low plasma density and high electric charge. This regime is the most beneficial for gamma colliders to be converted from lepton colliders via inverse Compton scattering. Selecting a laser wavelength to drive a Compton gamma source is essential for the design of such a machine. The revealed benefits from spectral diversification of laser drivers for future colliders and off-spring applications validate ongoing efforts in advancing the ultrafast CO2 laser technology.

  4. An Experimental Study of a Pulsed Electromagnetic Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Mike; Smith, James; Martin, Adam; Markusic, Tom E.; Cassibry, Jason T.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Experiments are being performed on the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) pulsed electromagnetic plasma accelerator (PEPA-0). Data produced from the experiments provide an opportunity to further understand the plasma dynamics in these thrusters via detailed computational modeling. The detailed and accurate understanding of the plasma dynamics in these devices holds the key towards extending their capabilities in a number of applications, including their applications as high power (greater than 1 MW) thrusters, and their use for producing high-velocity, uniform plasma jets for experimental purposes. For this study, the 2-D MHD modeling code, MACH2, is used to provide detailed interpretation of the experimental data. At the same time, a 0-D physics model of the plasma initial phase is developed to guide our 2-D modeling studies.

  5. Kr II laser-induced fluorescence for measuring plasma acceleration.

    PubMed

    Hargus, W A; Azarnia, G M; Nakles, M R

    2012-10-01

    We present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator also known as a Hall effect thruster, which has heritage as spacecraft propulsion. The 728.98 nm Kr II transition from the metastable 5d(4)D(7/2) to the 5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) state was used for the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence within the plasma discharge. From these measurements, it is possible to measure velocity as krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions may also be extracted from the fluorescence data since available hyperfine splitting data allow for the Kr II 5d(4)D(7/2)-5p(4)P(5/2)(∘) transition lineshape to be modeled. From the analysis, the fluorescence lineshape appears to be a reasonable estimate for the relatively broad ion velocity distributions. However, due to an apparent overlap of the ion creation and acceleration regions within the discharge, the distributed velocity distributions increase ion temperature determination uncertainty significantly. Using the most probable ion velocity as a representative, or characteristic, measure of the ion acceleration, overall propellant energy deposition, and effective electric fields may be calculated. With this diagnostic technique, it is possible to nonintrusively characterize the ion acceleration both within the discharge and in the plume.

  6. Kr II laser-induced fluorescence for measuring plasma acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargus, W. A.; Azarnia, G. M.; Nakles, M. R.

    2012-10-01

    We present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator also known as a Hall effect thruster, which has heritage as spacecraft propulsion. The 728.98 nm Kr II transition from the metastable 5d4D7/2 to the 5p ^4P^circ _{5/2} state was used for the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence within the plasma discharge. From these measurements, it is possible to measure velocity as krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions may also be extracted from the fluorescence data since available hyperfine splitting data allow for the Kr II 5d4D7/2-5p ^4P^circ _{5/2} transition lineshape to be modeled. From the analysis, the fluorescence lineshape appears to be a reasonable estimate for the relatively broad ion velocity distributions. However, due to an apparent overlap of the ion creation and acceleration regions within the discharge, the distributed velocity distributions increase ion temperature determination uncertainty significantly. Using the most probable ion velocity as a representative, or characteristic, measure of the ion acceleration, overall propellant energy deposition, and effective electric fields may be calculated. With this diagnostic technique, it is possible to nonintrusively characterize the ion acceleration both within the discharge and in the plume.

  7. Theory of Slow Waves in Transversely Nonuniform Plasma Waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzelev, M.V.; Romanov, R.V.; Rukhadze, A.A.

    2005-02-15

    A general method is developed for a numerical analysis of the frequency spectra of internal, internal-surface, and surface slow waves in a waveguide with transverse plasma density variations. For waveguides with a piecewise constant plasma filling, the spectra of slow waves are thoroughly examined in the limits of an infinitely weak and an infinitely strong external magnetic field. For a smooth plasma density profile, the frequency spectrum of long-wavelength surface waves remains unchanged, but a slow damping rate appears that is caused by the conversion of the surface waves into internal plasma waves at the plasma resonance point. As for short-wavelength internal waves, they are strongly damped by this effect. It is pointed out that, for annular plasma geometry, which is of interest from the experimental point of view, the spectrum of the surface waves depends weakly on the magnetic field strength in the waveguide.

  8. Front acceleration by dynamic selection in Fisher population waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bénichou, O.; Calvez, V.; Meunier, N.; Voituriez, R.

    2012-10-01

    We introduce a minimal model of population range expansion in which the phenotypes of individuals present no selective advantage and differ only in their diffusion rate. We show that such neutral phenotypic variability (i.e., that does not modify the growth rate) alone can yield phenotype segregation at the front edge, even in absence of genetic noise, and significantly impact the dynamical properties of the expansion wave. We present an exact asymptotic traveling wave solution and show analytically that phenotype segregation accelerates the front propagation. The results are compatible with field observations such as invasions of cane toads in Australia or bush crickets in Britain.

  9. Acceleration of electrons in strong beam-plasma interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelm, K.; Bernstein, W.; Kellogg, P. J.; Whalen, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of strong beam-plasma interactions on the electron population of the upper atmosphere have been investigated in an electron acceleration experiment performed with a sounding rocket. The rocket carried the Several Complex Experiments (SCEX) payload which included an electron accelerator, three disposable 'throwaway' detectors (TADs), and a stepped electron energy analyzer. The payload was launched in an auroral arc over the rocket at altitudes of 157 and 178 km, respectively. The performance characteristics of the instruments are discussed in detail. The data are combined with the results of laboratory measurements and show that electrons with energies of at least two and probably four times the injection energy of 2 keV were observed during strong beam-plasma interaction events. The interaction events occurred at pitch angles of 54 and 126 degrees. On the basis of the data it is proposed that the superenergization of the electrons is correlated with the length of the beam-plasma interaction region.

  10. Rogue Waves Associated with Circularly Polarized Waves in Magnetized Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourakis, I.; Borhanian, J.; Saxena, V.; Veldes, G.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.

    2012-10-01

    Extreme events occur in abundance in the ocean: an ultra-high ``ghost wave" often appears unexpectedly, against an otherwise moderate-on-average sea surface elevation, propagating for a short while and then disappearing without leaving a trace. Rogue waves are now recognized as proper nonlinear structures on their own. Unlike solitary waves, these events are localized in space and in time. Various approaches exist to model their dynamics, including nonlinear Schrodinger models, Ginzburg-Landau models, kinetic-theoretical models, and probabilistic models. We have undertaken an investigation, from first principles, of rogue waves in plasmas in the form of localized events associated with electromagnetic pulses. A multiple scale technique is employed to solve the fluid-Maxwell equations for nonlinear circularly polarized electromagnetic pulses. A nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) type equation is shown to govern the amplitude of the vector potential. A set of non-stationary envelope solutions of the NLS equation is presented, and the variation of their structural properties with the magnetic field are investigated.

  11. Waves: The Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation on the Wind Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougeret, J.-L.; Kaiser, M. L.; Kellogg, P. J.; Manning, R.; Goetz, K.; Monson, S. J.; Monge, N.; Friel, L.; Meetre, C. A.; Perche, C.; Sitruk, L.; Hoang, S.

    1995-02-01

    The WAVES investigation on the WIND spacecraft will provide comprehensive measurements of the radio and plasma wave phenomena which occur in Geospace. Analyses of these measurements, in coordination with the other onboard plasma, energetic particles, and field measurements will help us understand the kinetic processes that are important in the solar wind and in key boundary regions of the Geospace. These processes are then to be interpreted in conjunction with results from the other ISTP spacecraft in order to discern the measurements and parameters for mass, momentum, and energy flow throughout geospace. This investigation will also contribute to observations of radio waves emitted in regions where the solar wind is accelerated. The WAVES investigation comprises several innovations in this kind of instrumentation: among which the first use, to our knowledge, of neural networks in real-time on board a scientific spacecraft to analyze data and command observation modes, and the first use of a wavelet transform-like analysis in real time to perform a spectral analysis of a broad band signal.

  12. Coherent kilo-electron-volt backscattering from plasma-wave boosted relativistic electron mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Li, F. Y.; Chen, M. Liu, Y.; Zhang, J.; Sheng, Z. M. E-mail: zmsheng@sjtu.edu.cn; Wu, H. C.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Mori, W. B.

    2014-10-20

    A different parameter regime of laser wakefield acceleration driven by sub-petawatt femtosecond lasers is proposed, which enables the generation of relativistic electron mirrors further accelerated by the plasma wave. Integrated particle-in-cell simulation, including both the mirror formation and Thomson scattering, demonstrates that efficient coherent backscattering up to keV photon energy can be obtained with moderate driving laser intensities and high density gas targets.

  13. Neutrino-driven wakefield plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, L. A.; Serbeto, A.

    2003-08-01

    Processos envolvendo neutrinos são importantes em uma grande variedade de fenômenos astrofísicos, como as explosões de supernovas. Estes objetos, assim como os pulsares e as galáxias starburst, têm sido propostos como aceleradores cósmicos de partículas de altas energias. Neste trabalho, um modelo clássico de fluidos é utilizado para estudar a interação não-linear entre um feixe de neutrinos e um plasma não-colisional relativístico de pósitrons e elétrons na presença de um campo magnético. Durante a interação, uma onda híbrida superior de grande amplitude é excitada. Para parâmetros típicos de supernovas, verificamos que partículas carregadas "capturadas" por essa onda podem ser aceleradas a altas energias. Este resultado pode ser importante no estudo de mecanismos aceleradores de partículas em ambientes astrofísicos.

  14. Generation of Quasi-monoenergetic High-energy Electron Beam by Plasma Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, K.; Saito, N.; Ogata, A.; Masuda, S.; Tanimoto, M.; Miura, E.; Kato, S.; Adachi, M

    2004-12-07

    We have demonstrated an acceleration of a quasi-monoenergetic electron beam by trapping electrons in a plasma wave. Experiments were performed by focusing 2-TW (50 fs) laser pulses on supersonic gas jet targets. An intensity was 5 x 1018W/cm2(a0 = 1.5). An electron density was estimated to be 1.3 x 1020cm-3. The quasi-monoenergetic electron beam at 7 MeV was observed with a peak to foot ratio of 10. An appearance of a Stokes Raman satellite in the forward scattering well correlated with the quasi-monoenergetic electron beam. A frequency shift of the satellite coincided with a plasma frequency at the measured plasma density. Appearance of the Raman satellite coincided with appearances of a fishbone structure in a side-scattering image. Supposing the fishbone structure originated from the plasma wave, an acceleration length was estimated to be 200 to 500 microns.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER JET PLASMA MIRROR FOR STAGING OF LASER PLASMA ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Gonsalves, Anthony J.; Leemans, Wim; Nakamura, Kei; Shu, Anthony; Toth, Csaba

    2009-05-04

    Staging Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPAs) is necessary in order to reach beam energies of 100 GeV and above. This requires incoupling of additional laser beams into accelerating stages. In order to maintain the high average accelerating gradient of a staged LPA, it is imperative to minimize the distance that is needed for laser incoupling. A plasma mirror is proposed as the final coupling optic reducing the coupling distance from tens of meters, using a conventional optic, to as small as a few cm. Both a planar water jet and a nitrocellulose foil are used as reflecting surfacesand characterized. A maximum reflectivity of 70percent was obtained using both surfaces.

  16. Progress In Plasma Accelerator Development for Dynamic Formation of Plasma Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Eskridge, Richard; Martin, Adam; Smith, James; Lee, Michael; Cassibry, Jason T.; Griffin, Steven; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental plasma accelerator for magnetic target fusion (MTF) applications under development at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is described. The accelerator is a coaxial pulsed plasma thruster (Figure 1). It has been tested experimentally and plasma jet velocities of approx.50 km/sec have been obtained. The plasma jet has been photographed with 10-ns exposure times to reveal a stable and repeatable plasma structure (Figure 2). Data for velocity profile information has been obtained using light pipes and magnetic probes embedded in the gun walls to record the plasma and current transit respectively at various barrel locations. Preliminary spatially resolved spectral data and magnetic field probe data are also presented. A high speed triggering system has been developed and tested as a means of reducing the gun "jitter". This jitter is being characterized and future work for second generation "ultra-low jitter" gun development is being identified.

  17. Plasma Accelerator Development for Dynamic Formation of Plasma Liners: A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Eskridge, Richard; Martin, Adam; Smith, James; Lee, Michael; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An experimental plasma accelerator for magnetic target fusion (MTF) applications under development at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is described. The accelerator is a pulsed plasma thruster and has been tested experimentally and plasma jet velocities of approximately 50 km/sec have been obtained. The plasma jet structure has been photographed with 10 ns exposure times to reveal a stable and repeatable plasma structure. Data for velocity profile information has been obtained using light pipes embedded in the gun walls to record the plasma transit at various barrel locations. Preliminary spatially resolved spectral data and magnetic field probe data are also presented. A high speed triggering system has been developed and tested as a means of reducing the gun "jitter". This jitter is being characterized and future work for second generation "ultra-low jitter" gun development is being identified.

  18. Nonplanar Shock Waves in Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-11-29

    Nonplanar (viz. cylindrical and spherical) electro-acoustic [dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) and dust-acoustic (DA)] shock waves have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The dust charge fluctuation (strong correlation among highly charged dust) is the source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of the DIA (DA) shock structures. The effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries on the time evolution of DIA and DA shock structures are examined and identified. The combined effects of vortex-like electron distribution and dust charge fluctuation (dust-correlation and effective dust-temperature) on the basic features of nonplanar DIA (DA) shock waves are pinpointed. The implications of our results in laboratory dusty plasma experiments are briefly discussed.

  19. Nonplanar Shock Waves in Dusty Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.

    2011-11-01

    Nonplanar (viz. cylindrical and spherical) electro-acoustic [dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) and dust-acoustic (DA)] shock waves have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. The dust charge fluctuation (strong correlation among highly charged dust) is the source of dissipation, and is responsible for the formation of the DIA (DA) shock structures. The effects of cylindrical and spherical geometries on the time evolution of DIA and DA shock structures are examined and identified. The combined effects of vortex-like electron distribution and dust charge fluctuation (dust-correlation and effective dust-temperature) on the basic features of nonplanar DIA (DA) shock waves are pinpointed. The implications of our results in laboratory dusty plasma experiments are briefly discussed.

  20. Plasma waves and jets from moving conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Zimmerman, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We consider force-free plasma waves launched by the motion of conducting material through a magnetic field. We develop a spacetime-covariant formalism for perturbations of a uniform magnetic field and show how the transverse motion of a conducting fluid acts as a source. We show that fast-mode waves are sourced by the compressibility of the fluid, with incompressible fluids launching a pure-Alfvén outflow. Remarkably, this outflow can be written down in closed form for an arbitrary time-dependent, nonaxisymmetric incompressible flow. The instantaneous flow velocity is imprinted on the magnetic field and transmitted away at the speed of light, carrying detailed information about the conducting source at the time of emission. These results can be applied to transients in pulsar outflows and to jets from neutron stars orbiting in the magnetosphere of another compact object. We discuss jets from moving conductors in some detail.

  1. Vacuum Plasma Spray Forming of Tungsten Lorentz Force Accelerator Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank R.

    2001-01-01

    The Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center has developed and demonstrated a fabrication technique using the VPS process to form anode sections for a Lorentz force accelerator from tungsten. Lorentz force accelerators are an attractive form of electric propulsion that provides continuous, high-efficiency propulsion at useful power levels for such applications as orbit transfers or deep space missions. The VPS process is used to deposit refractory metals such as tungsten onto a graphite mandrel of the desired shape. Because tungsten is reactive at high temperatures, it is thermally sprayed in an inert environment where the plasma gun melts and accelerates the metal powder onto the mandrel. A three-axis robot inside the chamber controls the motion of the plasma spray torch. A graphite mandrel acts as a male mold, forming the required contour and dimensions of the inside surface of the anode. This paper describes the processing techniques, design considerations, and process development associated with the VPS forming of the Lorentz force accelerator.

  2. Vacuum Plasma Spray Forming of Tungsten Lorentz Force Accelerator Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Frank R.

    2004-01-01

    The Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, working with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed and demonstrated a fabrication technique using the VPS process to form anode and cathode sections for a Lorentz force accelerator made from tungsten. Lorentz force accelerators are an attractive form of electric propulsion that provides continuous, high-efficiency propulsion at useful power levels for such applications as orbit transfers or deep space missions. The VPS process is used to deposit refractory metals such as tungsten onto a graphite mandrel of the desired shape. Because tungsten is reactive at high temperatures, it is thermally sprayed in an inert environment where the plasma gun melts and deposits the molten metal powder onto a mandrel. A three-axis robot inside the chamber controls the motion of the plasma spray torch. A graphite mandrel acts as a male mold, forming the required contour and dimensions for the inside surface of the anode or cathode of the accelerator. This paper describes the processing techniques, design considerations, and process development associated with the VPS forming of Lorentz force accelerator components.

  3. Shock-wave proton acceleration from a hydrogen gas jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Nathan; Pogorelsky, Igor; Polyanskiy, Mikhail; Babzien, Marcus; Tresca, Olivier; Maharjan, Chakra; Shkolnikov, Peter; Yakimenko, Vitaly

    2013-04-01

    Typical laser acceleration experiments probe the interaction of intense linearly-polarized solid state laser pulses with dense metal targets. This interaction generates strong electric fields via Transverse Normal Sheath Acceleration and can accelerate protons to high peak energies but with a large thermal spectrum. Recently, the advancement of high pressure amplified CO2 laser technology has allowed for the creation of intense (10^16 Wcm^2) pulses at λ˜10 μm. These pulses may interact with reproducible, high rep. rate gas jet targets and still produce plasmas of critical density (nc˜10^19 cm-3), leading to the transference of laser energy via radiation pressure. This acceleration mode has the advantage of producing narrow energy spectra while scaling well with pulse intensity. We observe the interaction of an intense CO2 laser pulse with an overdense hydrogen gas jet. Using two pulse optical probing in conjunction with interferometry, we are able to obtain density profiles of the plasma. Proton energy spectra are obtained using a magnetic spectrometer and scintillating screen.

  4. Magnetically Controlled Plasma Waveguide For Laser Wakefield Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D H; Divol, L; Davis, P; Palastro, J; Michel, P; Leurent, V; Glenzer, S H; Pollock, B; Tynan, G

    2008-05-14

    An external magnetic field applied to a laser plasma is shown produce a plasma channel at densities relevant to creating GeV monoenergetic electrons through laser wakefield acceleration. Furthermore, the magnetic field also provides a pressure to help shape the channel to match the guiding conditions of an incident laser beam. Measured density channels suitable for guiding relativistic short-pulse laser beams are presented with a minimum density of 5 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} which corresponds to a linear dephasing length of several centimeters suitable for multi-GeV electron acceleration. The experimental setup at the Jupiter Laser Facility, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, where a 1-ns, 150 J 1054 nm laser will produce a magnetically controlled channel to guide a < 75 fs, 10 J short-pulse laser beam through 5-cm of 5 x 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} plasma is presented. Calculations presented show that electrons can be accelerated to 3 GeV with this system. Three-dimensional resistive magneto-hydrodynamic simulations are used to design the laser and plasma parameters and quasi-static kinetic simulations indicate that the channel will guide a 200 TW laser beam over 5-cm.

  5. Secondary electron emission from plasma processed accelerating cavity grade niobium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basovic, Milos

    Advances in the particle accelerator technology have enabled numerous fundamental discoveries in 20th century physics. Extensive interdisciplinary research has always supported further development of accelerator technology in efforts of reaching each new energy frontier. Accelerating cavities, which are used to transfer energy to accelerated charged particles, have been one of the main focuses of research and development in the particle accelerator field. Over the last fifty years, in the race to break energy barriers, there has been constant improvement of the maximum stable accelerating field achieved in accelerating cavities. Every increase in the maximum attainable accelerating fields allowed for higher energy upgrades of existing accelerators and more compact designs of new accelerators. Each new and improved technology was faced with ever emerging limiting factors. With the standard high accelerating gradients of more than 25 MV/m, free electrons inside the cavities get accelerated by the field, gaining enough energy to produce more electrons in their interactions with the walls of the cavity. The electron production is exponential and the electron energy transfer to the walls of a cavity can trigger detrimental processes, limiting the performance of the cavity. The root cause of the free electron number gain is a phenomenon called Secondary Electron Emission (SEE). Even though the phenomenon has been known and studied over a century, there are still no effective means of controlling it. The ratio between the electrons emitted from the surface and the impacting electrons is defined as the Secondary Electron Yield (SEY). A SEY ratio larger than 1 designates an increase in the total number of electrons. In the design of accelerator cavities, the goal is to reduce the SEY to be as low as possible using any form of surface manipulation. In this dissertation, an experimental setup was developed and used to study the SEY of various sample surfaces that were treated

  6. Simulation of the nonlinear evolution of electron plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Cairns, I. H.

    1991-01-01

    Electrostatic waves driven by an electron beam in an ambient magnetized plasma were studied using a quasi-1D PIC simulation of electron plasma waves (i.e., Langmuir waves). The results disclose the presence of a process for moving wave energy from frequencies and wavenumbers predicted by linear theory to the Langmuir-like frequencies during saturation of the instability. A decay process for producing backward propagating Langmuir-like waves, along with low-frequency waves, is observed. The simulation results, however, indicate that the backscattering process is not the conventional Langmuir wave decay. Electrostatic waves near multiples of the electron plasma frequency are generated by wave-wave coupling during the nonlinear stage of the simulations, confirming the suggestion of Klimas (1983).

  7. Formation and Acceleration Physics on Plasma Injector 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with conical accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, with power input of the same topology as the RACE device. The goal of PI-1 research is to produce a self-confined compact toroid with high-flux (200 mWb), high-density (3x10^16 cm-3) and moderate initial temperature (100 eV) to be used as the target plasma in a MTF reactor. PI-1 is 5 meters long and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration stage is 4 m long and tapers to an outer diameter of 40 cm. The capacitor banks store 0.5 MJ for formation and 1.13 MJ for acceleration. Power is delivered via 62 independently controlled switch modules. Several geometries for formation bias field, inner electrodes and target chamber have been tested, and trends in accelerator efficiency and target lifetime have been observed. Thomson scattering and ion Doppler spectroscopy show significant heating (>100 eV) as the CT is compressed in the conical accelerator. B-dot probes show magnetic field structure consistent with Grad-Shafranov models and MHD simulations, and CT axial length depends strongly on the lambda profile.

  8. Particle acceleration in cosmic plasmas – paradigm change?

    SciTech Connect

    Lytikov, Maxim; Guo, Fan

    2015-07-21

    The presentation begins by considering the requirements on the acceleration mechanism. It is found that at least some particles in high-energy sources are accelerated by magnetic reconnection (and not by shocks). The two paradigms can be distinguished by the hardness of the spectra. Shocks typically produce spectra with p > 2 (relativistic shocks have p ~ 2.2); non-linear shocks & drift acceleration may give p < 2, e.g. p=1.5; B-field dissipation can give p = 1. Then collapse of stressed magnetic X-point in force-free plasma and collapse of a system of magnetic islands are taken up, including Island merger: forced reconnection. Spectra as functions of sigma are shown, and gamma ~ 109 is addressed. It is concluded that reconnection in magnetically-dominated plasma can proceed explosively, is an efficient means of particle acceleration, and is an important (perhaps dominant for some phenomena) mechanism of particle acceleration in high energy sources.

  9. On the ions acceleration via collisionless magnetic reconnection in laboratory plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazzola, E.; Curreli, D.; Markidis, S.; Lapenta, G.

    2016-11-01

    This work presents an analysis of the ion outflow from magnetic reconnection throughout fully kinetic simulations with typical laboratory plasma values. A symmetric initial configuration for the density and magnetic field is considered across the current sheet. After analyzing the behavior of a set of nine simulations with a reduced mass ratio and with a permuted value of three initial electron temperatures and magnetic field intensity, the best ion acceleration scenario is further studied with a realistic mass ratio in terms of the ion dynamics and energy budget. Interestingly, a series of shock wave structures are observed in the outflow, resembling the shock discontinuities found in recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations. An analysis of the ion outflow at several distances from the reconnection point is presented, in light of possible laboratory applications. The analysis suggests that magnetic reconnection could be used as a tool for plasma acceleration, with applications ranging from electric propulsion to production of ion thermal beams.

  10. Gas density structure of supersonic flows impinged on by thin blades for laser-plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, H.-S.; Swanson, K. K.; Tsai, H.-E.; Barber, S. K.; Steinke, S.; van Tilborg, J.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2017-03-01

    Density transition injection is an effective technique for controllably loading electrons into a trapped phase for laser-plasma accelerators. One common technique to achieve this fluid phenomenon is to impinge a thin blade on the plume of a supersonic nozzle. 2-D simulations show that the density transition accessible to a transverse laser is produced by a rapid re-expansion of the high pressure region behind the initial bow shock, and not by the bow shock produced by the blade, as is commonly thought. This pressure mismatched re-expansion generates compression waves that could coalesce into shock-fronts as they interact with the surrounding ambient gas. This has consequences when interpreting the electron injection mechanism. In the simulations presented here, the fluid dynamics of a supersonic nozzle impinged on by a thin, flat object is explored, along with the implications for electron beam injectors in laser-plasma accelerators.

  11. Current status of IMS plasma wave research. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a review of the status of magnetospheric plasma wave science as a result of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS). The presence of an international effort has supported the development and completion of the numerous magnetospheric science spacecraft launched during the IMS, including GEOS, ISEE, and EXOS B. Ground-based VLF observations are considered along with coordinated ground-based and satellite observations. During the IMS, plasma wave research using satellite data has covered a wide range of subjects. Attention is given to magnetospheric electrostatic emissions, magnetospheric electromagnetic plasma waves, continuum radiation, auroral kilometric radiation, auroral zone plasma waves, plasma waves in the magnetosheath and near the mangetopause, and plasma waves at the bow shock.

  12. Relativistically strong CO{sub 2} laser driver for plasma-channeled particle acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, I.V.

    1995-12-31

    Long-wavelength, short-duration laser pulses are desirable for plasma wakefield particle acceleration and plasma waveguiding. The first picosecond terawatt CO{sub 2} laser is under development to test laser-driven electron acceleration schemes.

  13. Kinetic Alfven Waves Carrying Intense Field Aligned Currents: Particle Trapping and Electron Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, R.; Artemyev, A.

    2015-12-01

    It is now common knowledge that dispersive scale Alfvén waves can drive parallel electron acceleration [Lotko et al., JGR, 1998; Samson et al., Ann. Geophys., 2003; Wygant et al., JGR, 2002] and transverse ion energization in the auroral zone and inner magnetosphere [Johnson and Cheng, JGR, 2001; Chaston et al., 2004]. In this paper we show that relatively low energy electrons (plasma sheet electrons with energies ranging up to ˜100 eV) can be accelerated very efficiently as they interact nonlinearly with kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) that carry intense field aligned currents from the equatorial plane toward the ionosphere in the inner magnetosphere. We propose a theoretical model describing electron trapping into an effective wave potential generated by parallel wave electric fields (with perpendicular wavelengths on the order of the ion gyro-radius) and the mirror force acting on electrons as they propagate along geomagnetic field lines. We demonstrate that waves with an electric potential amplitude between ~100 - 400 V can trap and accelerate electrons to energies approaching several keVs. Trapping acceleration corresponds to conservation of the electron magnetic moment and, thus, results in a significant decrease of the electron equatorial pitch-angle with time. Analytical and numerical estimates of the maximum energy and probability of trapping are presented. We discuss the application of the proposed model in light of recent observations of electromagnetic fluctuations in the inner magnetosphere that are present during periods of strong geomagnetic activity [Chaston et al., GRL, 2014; Califf et al., JGR, 2015].

  14. Giga-electronvolt electrons due to a transition from laser wakefield acceleration to plasma wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Masson-Laborde, P. E. Teychenné, D.; Mo, M. Z.; Ali, A.; Fedosejevs, R.; Fourmaux, S.; Lassonde, P.; Kieffer, J. C.; Rozmus, W.

    2014-12-15

    We show through experiments that a transition from laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) regime to a plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) regime can drive electrons up to energies close to the GeV level. Initially, the acceleration mechanism is dominated by the bubble created by the laser in the nonlinear regime of LWFA, leading to an injection of a large number of electrons. After propagation beyond the depletion length, leading to a depletion of the laser pulse, whose transverse ponderomotive force is not able to sustain the bubble anymore, the high energy dense bunch of electrons propagating inside bubble will drive its own wakefield by a PWFA regime. This wakefield will be able to trap and accelerate a population of electrons up to the GeV level during this second stage. Three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations support this analysis and confirm the scenario.

  15. Accumulative coupling between magnetized tenuous plasma and gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan

    2017-01-01

    This talk presents solutions to the plasma waves induced by a plane gravitational wave (GW) train travelling through a region of strongly magnetized plasma. The computations constitute a very preliminary feasibility study for a possible ultra-high frequency gravitational wave detector, meant to take advantage of the observation that the plasma current is proportional to the GW amplitude, and not its square. This work is supported in part by NSFC Grant Number 11503003.

  16. Antenna excitation of drift wave in a toroidal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, A.; Ricci, P.; Fasoli, A.; Furno, I.; Labit, B.; Mueller, S. H.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F. M.; Skiff, F.

    2007-10-15

    In a magnetized toroidal plasma, an antenna tunable in vertical wave number is used to excite density perturbations. Coherent detection is performed by means of Langmuir probes to directly determine both the wave vector and the plasma response induced by the antenna. Comparison between the theoretical density response predicted by the generalized Hasegawa-Wakatani model, and the experimentally determined density response enables us the identification of one peak of the plasma response as a drift wave.

  17. Shock-wave ion acceleration by an ultra-relativistic short laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhidkov, A.; Batishchev, O.; Uesaka, M.

    2002-11-01

    Research on ion acceleration by intense short laser pulses grows in the last few years [1-9] because of various applications. However, the study is mainly focused on the forward ion acceleration. We study ion inward acceleration, which in contrast to other mechanisms has density of ions per unit energy not decreased with the laser intensity [8]. Magnetic field generated due to a finite size of laser spot can affect electron distribution. In the present work we study the effect of magnetic field on the shock wave formation and ion acceleration in a solid target via 2D PIC and Vlasov simulation. Though the PIC simulation can provide detailed information, in relativistic plasmas it may not calculate B correctly: (i) too many particles are needed to make B disappeared in thermal plasmas, (ii) local scheme [10] does not satisfy curl(Epl)=0. Therefore, two approaches are used in the present study. [1] S. P. Hatchett et al., Phys. Plas. 7, 2076 (2000); [2] A. Maksimchuk et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4108 (2000); [3] E.L. Clark et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1654 (2000); [4] A. Zhidkov et al., Phys. Rev. E60, 3273 (1999); E61, R2224 (2000); [5] Y. Murakami et al, Phys. Plasmas 8,4138 (2001); [6] T.Zh. Esirkepov et al, JETP Lett. 70, 82 (1999); [7] A. Pukhov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3562(2001); [8] A.A. Andreev et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion (2002); [9] O.V. Batishchev et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 20, 587 (1994); [10] J. Villasenor et al., Comp. Phys. Comm. 69, 306 (1992).

  18. Energy balance of a plasma with a wave, taking the wave nonpotentiality into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelberg, M. G.; Volosevich, A. V.

    It is shown that the potential electric field of low-frequency plasma waves in the ionosphere is phase-shifted by approximately -pi/2 with respect to current fluctuations, while the vortex field is nearly cophase with the current. Thus, the work of energy transfer between the plasma and the wave occurs primarily with the participation of the vortex field. The wave nonpotentiality is shown to have a substantial effect on the energy balance of the wave-plasma system.

  19. Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Observations at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Persoon, A. M.; Averkamp, T. F.; Ceccni, B.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Canu, P.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2005-01-01

    Results are presented from the Cassini radio and plasma wave instrument during the approach and first few orbits around Saturn. During the approach the intensity modulation of Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) showed that the radio rotation period of Saturn has increased to 10 hr 45 min plus or minus 36 sec, about 6 min longer than measured by Voyager in 1980-81. Also, many intense impulsive radio signals called Saturn Electrostatic Discharges (SEDs) were detected from saturnian lightning, starting as far as 1.08 AU from Saturn, much farther than terrestrial lightning can be detected from Earth. Some of the SED episodes have been linked to cloud systems observed in Saturn s atmosphere by the Cassini imaging system. Within the magnetosphere plasma wave emissions have been used to construct an electron density profile through the inner region of the magnetosphere. With decreasing radial distance the electron density increases gradually to a peak of about 100 per cubic centimeter near the outer edge of the A ring, and then drops precipitously to values as low as .03 per cubic centimeter over the rings. Numerous nearly monochromatic whistler-mode emissions were observed as the spacecraft passed over the rings that are believed to be produced by meteoroid impacts on the rings. Whistlermode emissions, similar to terrestrial auroral hiss were also observed over the rings, indicating that an electrodynamic interaction, similar to auroral particle acceleration, may be occurring in or near the rings. During the Titan flybys Langmuir probe and plasma wave measurements provided observations of the density and temperature in Titan's ionosphere.

  20. Solitary and shock waves in magnetized electron-positron plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ding; Li, Zi-Liang; Abdukerim, Nuriman; Xie, Bai-Song

    2014-02-15

    An Ohm's law for electron-positron (EP) plasma is obtained. In the framework of EP magnetohydrodynamics, we investigate nonrelativistic nonlinear waves' solutions in a magnetized EP plasma. In the collisionless limit, quasistationary propagating solitary wave structures for the magnetic field and the plasma density are obtained. It is found that the wave amplitude increases with the Mach number and the Alfvén speed. However, the dependence on the plasma temperature is just the opposite. Moreover, for a cold EP plasma, the existence range of the solitary waves depends only on the Alfvén speed. For a hot EP plasma, the existence range depends on the Alfvén speed as well as the plasma temperature. In the presence of collision, the electromagnetic fields and the plasma density can appear as oscillatory shock structures because of the dissipation caused by the collisions. As the collision frequency increases, the oscillatory shock structure becomes more and more monotonic.

  1. Nonlinear Cylindrical Waves on a Plane Plasma Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gradov, O. M.

    2004-01-01

    By means of the cold electron plasma equations, it is shown that surface soliton solutions can exist in the azimuthally symmetric case at the boundary of semi-infinite plasmas for both standing and running waves.

  2. Enhancement of terahertz wave generation from laser induced plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Xu; Xu Jingzhou; Dai Jianming; Zhang, X.-C.

    2007-04-02

    It is well known that air plasma induced by ultrashort laser pulses emits broadband terahertz waves. The authors report the study of terahertz wave generation from the laser induced plasma where there is a preexisting plasma background. When a laser beam from a Ti:sapphire amplifier is used to generate a terahertz wave, enhancement of the generation is observed if there is another laser beam creating a plasma background. The enhancement of the terahertz wave amplitude lasts hundreds of picoseconds after the preionized background is created, with a maximum enhancement up to 250% observed.

  3. Magnetospheric radio and plasma wave research - 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kurth, W.S. )

    1991-01-01

    This review covers research performed in the area of magnetospheric plasma waves and wave-particle interactions as well as magnetospheric radio emissions. The report focuses on the near-completion of the discovery phase of radio and plasma wave phenomena in the planetary magnetospheres with the successful completion of the Voyager 2 encounters of Neptune and Uranus. Consideration is given to the advances made in detailed studies and theoretical investigations of radio and plasma wave phenomena in the terrestrial magnetosphere or in magnetospheric plasmas in general.

  4. Plasma Acceleration from RF Discharge in Dielectric Capillary

    SciTech Connect

    A. Dunaevsky; Y. Raitses; N. J. Fisch

    2005-08-09

    Plasma acceleration from rf discharge in dielectric capillary was demonstrated. Observed plasma flow had ion energies of approximately 100 eV and electron energies of approximately 20 eV. The discharge was powered by a MHz-range rf generator and fed by Ar. Experimental results indicate possible validity of assumptions about formation of a potential difference at the open end of the capillary and presence of hot electron fraction in the capillary discharge. Simplicity and small dimensions of the source are attractive for micro-propulsion applications.

  5. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube wave energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  6. Linear and Nonlinear Electrostatic Waves in Unmagnetized Dusty Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.

    2010-12-14

    A rigorous and systematic theoretical study has been made of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves propagating in unmagnetized dusty plasmas. The basic features of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves (particularly, dust-ion-acoustic and dust-acoustic waves) for different space and laboratory dusty plasma conditions are described. The experimental observations of such linear and nonlinear features of dust-ion-acoustic and dust-acoustic waves are briefly discussed.

  7. Whistler wave-induced ionospheric plasma turbulence: Source mechanisms and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradipta, R.; Rooker, L. A.; Whitehurst, L. N.; Lee, M. C.; Ross, L. M.; Sulzer, M. P.; Gonzalez, S.; Tepley, C.; Aponte, N.; See, B. Z.; Hu, K. P.

    2013-10-01

    We report a series of experiments conducted at Arecibo Observatory in the past, aimed at the investigation of 40.75 kHz whistler wave interactions with ionospheric plasmas and the inner radiation belts at L=1.35. The whistler waves are launched from a Naval transmitter (code-named NAU) operating in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico at the frequency and power of 40.75 kHz and 100 kW, respectively. Arecibo radar, CADI, and optical instruments were used to monitor the background ionospheric conditions and detect the induced ionospheric plasma effects. Four-wave interaction processes produced by whistler waves in the ionosphere can excite lower hybrid waves, which can accelerate ionospheric electrons. Furthermore, whistler waves propagating into the magnetosphere can trigger precipitation of energetic electrons from the radiation belts. Radar and optical measurements can distinguish wave-wave and wave-particle interaction processes occurring at different altitudes. Electron acceleration by different mechanisms can be verified from the radar measurements of plasma lines. To facilitate the coupling of NAU-launched 40.75 kHz whistler waves into the ionosphere, we can rely on naturally occurring spread F irregularities to serve as ionospheric ducts. We can also use HF wave-created ducts/artificial waveguides, as demonstrated in our earlier Arecibo experiments and recent Gakona experiments at HAARP. The newly constructed Arecibo HF heater will be employed in our future experiments, which can extend the study of whistler wave interactions with the ionosphere and the magnetosphere/radiation belts as well as the whistler wave conjugate propagation between Arecibo and Puerto Madryn, Argentina.

  8. Eddy, drift wave and zonal flow dynamics in a linear magnetized plasma

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, H.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasuya, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Yamada, T.; Lesur, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-01-01

    Turbulence and its structure formation are universal in neutral fluids and in plasmas. Turbulence annihilates global structures but can organize flows and eddies. The mutual-interactions between flow and the eddy give basic insights into the understanding of non-equilibrium and nonlinear interaction by turbulence. In fusion plasma, clarifying structure formation by Drift-wave turbulence, driven by density gradients in magnetized plasma, is an important issue. Here, a new mutual-interaction among eddy, drift wave and flow in magnetized plasma is discovered. A two-dimensional solitary eddy, which is a perturbation with circumnavigating motion localized radially and azimuthally, is transiently organized in a drift wave – zonal flow (azimuthally symmetric band-like shear flows) system. The excitation of the eddy is synchronized with zonal perturbation. The organization of the eddy has substantial impact on the acceleration of zonal flow. PMID:27628894

  9. Eddy, drift wave and zonal flow dynamics in a linear magnetized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, H.; Inagaki, S.; Sasaki, M.; Kosuga, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Kasuya, N.; Nagashima, Y.; Yamada, T.; Lesur, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-09-01

    Turbulence and its structure formation are universal in neutral fluids and in plasmas. Turbulence annihilates global structures but can organize flows and eddies. The mutual-interactions between flow and the eddy give basic insights into the understanding of non-equilibrium and nonlinear interaction by turbulence. In fusion plasma, clarifying structure formation by Drift-wave turbulence, driven by density gradients in magnetized plasma, is an important issue. Here, a new mutual-interaction among eddy, drift wave and flow in magnetized plasma is discovered. A two-dimensional solitary eddy, which is a perturbation with circumnavigating motion localized radially and azimuthally, is transiently organized in a drift wave – zonal flow (azimuthally symmetric band-like shear flows) system. The excitation of the eddy is synchronized with zonal perturbation. The organization of the eddy has substantial impact on the acceleration of zonal flow.

  10. Relativistic nonlinear plasma waves in a magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, C. F.; Pellat, R.

    1975-01-01

    Five relativistic plane nonlinear waves were investigated: circularly polarized waves and electrostatic plasma oscillations propagating parallel to the magnetic field, relativistic Alfven waves, linearly polarized transverse waves propagating in zero magnetic field, and the relativistic analog of the extraordinary mode propagating at an arbitrary angle to the magnetic field. When the ions are driven relativistic, they behave like electrons, and the assumption of an 'electron-positron' plasma leads to equations which have the form of a one-dimensional potential well. The solutions indicate that a large-amplitude superluminous wave determines the average plasma properties.

  11. Particle acceleration in ultra-relativistic oblique shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meli, A.; Quenby, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations of diffusive shock acceleration at highly relativistic oblique shock waves. High upstream flow Lorentz gamma factors ( Γ) are used, which are relevant to models of ultra-relativistic particle shock acceleration in active galactic nuclei (AGN) central engines and relativistic jets and gamma ray burst (GRB) fireballs. We investigate numerically the acceleration properties in the relativistic and ultra-relativistic flow regime ( Γ˜10-10 3), such as angular distribution, acceleration time constant, particle energy gain versus number of crossings and spectral shapes. We perform calculations for sub-luminal and super-luminal shocks. For the first case, the dependence on whether or not the scattering is pitch angle diffusion or large angle scattering is studied. The large angle model exhibits a distinctive structure in the basic power-law spectrum which is not nearly so obvious for small angle scattering. However, both models yield significant 'speed-up' or faster acceleration rates when compared with the conventional, non-relativistic expression for the time constant, or alternatively with the time scale rg/ c where rg is Larmor radius. The Γ2 energization for the first crossing cycle and the significantly large energy gain for subsequent crossings as well as the high 'speed-up' factors found, are important in supporting the Vietri and Waxman work on GRB ultra-high energy cosmic ray, neutrino and gamma-ray output. Secondly, for super-luminal shocks, we calculate the energy gain for a number of different inclinations and the spectral shapes of the accelerated particles are given. In this investigation we consider only large angle scattering, partly because of computational time limitations and partly because this model provides the most favourable situation for acceleration. We use high gamma flows with Lorentz factors in the range 10-40, which are relevant to AGN accretion disks and jet ultra-relativistic shock configurations. We

  12. Measurement of the Decelerating Wake in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenfeld, I.; Decker, F. J.; Hogan, M. J.; Ischebeck, R.; Iverson, R. H.; Kirby, N.; Siemann, R. H.; Walz, D. R.; Clayton, C. E.; Huang, C.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K. A.; Mori, W. B.; Zhou, M.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; Oz, E.

    2009-01-22

    Recent experiments at SLAC have shown that high gradient acceleration of electrons is achievable in meter scale plasmas. Results from these experiments show that the wakefield is sensitive to parameters in the electron beam which drives it. In the experiment the bunch lengths were varied systematically at constant charge. The effort to extract a measurement of the decelerating wake from the maximum energy loss of the electron beam is discussed.

  13. Observational and Theoretical Challenges to Wave or Turbulence Accelerations of the Fast Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. Aaron

    2008-01-01

    We use both observations and theoretical considerations to show that hydromagnetic waves or turbulence cannot produce the acceleration of the fast solar wind and the related heating of the open solar corona. Waves do exist as shown by Hinode and other observations, and can play a role in the differential heating and acceleration of minor ions but their amplitudes are not sufficient to power the wind, as demonstrated by extrapolation of magnetic spectra from Helios and Ulysses observations. Dissipation mechanisms invoked to circumvent this conclusion cannot be effective for a variety of reasons. In particular, turbulence does not play a strong role in the corona as shown by both eclipse observations of coronal striations and theoretical considerations of line-tying to a nonturbulent photosphere, nonlocality of interactions, and the nature of kinetic dissipation. In the absence of wave heating and acceleration, the chromosphere and transition region become the natural source of open coronal energization. We suggest a variant of the velocity filtration approach in which the emergence and complex churning of the magnetic flux in the chromosphere and transition region continuously and ubiquitously produces the nonthermal distributions required. These particles are then released by magnetic carpet reconnection at a wide range of scales and produce the wind as described in kinetic approaches. Since the carpet reconnection is not the main source of the energization of the plasma, there is no expectation of an observable release of energy in nanoflares.

  14. Plasma waves downstream of weak collisionless shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1993-01-01

    In September 1983 the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE 3) International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft made a long traversal of the distant dawnside flank region of the Earth's magnetosphere and had many encounters with the low Mach number bow shock. These weak shocks excite plasma wave electric field turbulence with amplitudes comparable to those detected in the much stronger bow shock near the nose region. Downstream of quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shocks, the E field spectra exhibit a strong peak (plateau) at midfrequencies (1 - 3 kHz); the plateau shape is produced by a low-frequency (100 - 300 Hz) emission which is more intense behind downstream of two quasi-perpendicular shocks show that the low frequency signals are polarized parallel to the magnetic field, whereas the midfrequency emissions are unpolarized or only weakly polarized. A new high frequency (10 - 30 kHz) emission which is above the maximum Doppler shift exhibit a distinct peak at high frequencies; this peak is often blurred by the large amplitude fluctuations of the midfrequency waves. The high-frequency component is strongly polarized along the magnetic field and varies independently of the lower-frequency waves.

  15. Transformer ratio improvement for beam based plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shea, Brendan; Rosenzweig, James; Barber, Samuel; Fukasawa, Atsushi; Williams, Oliver; Muggli, Patric; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl

    2012-12-21

    Increasing the transformer ratio of wakefield accelerating systems improves the viability of present novel accelerating schemes. The use of asymmetric bunches to improve the transformer ratio of beam based plasma systems has been proposed for some time[1, 2] but suffered from lack appropriate beam creation systems. Recently these impediments have been overcome [3, 4] and the ability now exists to create bunches with current profiles shaped to overcome the symmetric beam limit of R {<=} 2. We present here work towards experiments designed to measure the transformer ratio of such beams, including theoretical models and simulations using VORPAL (a 3D capable PIC code) [5]. Specifically we discuss projects to be carried out in the quasi-nonlinear regime [6] at the UCLA Neptune Laboratory and the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Lab.

  16. Stable laser–plasma accelerators at low densities

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Song; Hafz, Nasr A. M. Mirzaie, Mohammad; Ge, Xulei; Sokollik, Thomas; Chen, Min; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2014-07-28

    We report stable laser wakefield acceleration using 17–50 TW laser pulses interacting with 4 mm-long helium gas jet. The initial laser spot size was relatively large (28 μm) and the plasma densities were 0.48–2.0 × 10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3}. High-quality 100–MeV electron beams were generated at the plasma density of 7.5 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}, at which the beam parameters (pointing angle, energy spectrum, charge, and divergence angle) were measured and stabilized. At higher densities, filamentation instability of the laser-plasma interaction was observed and it has led to multiple wakefield accelerated electron beams. The experimental results are supported by 2D particle-in-cell simulations. The achievement presented here is an important step toward the use of laser-driven accelerators in real applications.

  17. Design of a Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    The design and construction of a thruster that employs electrodeless plasma preionization and pulsed inductive acceleration is described. Preionization is achieved through an electron cyclotron resonance discharge that produces a weakly-ionized plasma at the face of a conical theta pinch-shaped inductive coil. The presence of the preionized plasma allows for current sheet formation at lower discharge voltages than those employed in other pulsed inductive accelerators that do not employ preionization. The location of the electron cyclotron resonance discharge is controlled through the design of the applied magnetic field in the thruster. Finite element analysis shows that there is an arrangement of permanent magnets that yields a small volume of resonant magnetic field at the coil face. Preionization in the resonant zone leads to current sheet formation at the coil face, which minimizes the initial inductance of the pulse circuit and maximizes the potential electrical efficiency of the accelerator. A magnet assembly was constructed around an inductive coil to provide structural support to the selected arrangement of neodymium magnets. Measured values of the resulting magnetic field compare favorably with the finite element model.

  18. Relativistic electromagnetic waves in an electron-ion plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Kennel, Charles F.

    1987-01-01

    High power laser beams can drive plasma particles to relativistic energies. An accurate description of strong waves requires the inclusion of ion dynamics in the analysis. The equations governing the propagation of relativistic electromagnetic waves in a cold electron-ion plasma can be reduced to two equations expressing conservation of energy-momentum of the system. The two conservation constants are functions of the plasma stream velocity, the wave velocity, the wave amplitude, and the electron-ion mass ratio. The dynamic parameter, expressing electron-ion momentum conversation in the laboratory frame, can be regarded as an adjustable quantity, a suitable choice of which will yield self-consistent solutions when other plasma parameters were specified. Circularly polarized electromagnetic waves and electrostatic plasma waves are used as illustrations.

  19. Kr II laser-induced fluorescence for measuring plasma acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Hargus, W. A. Jr.

    2012-10-15

    We present the application of laser-induced fluorescence of singly ionized krypton as a diagnostic technique for quantifying the electrostatic acceleration within the discharge of a laboratory cross-field plasma accelerator also known as a Hall effect thruster, which has heritage as spacecraft propulsion. The 728.98 nm Kr II transition from the metastable 5d{sup 4}D{sub 7/2} to the 5p{sup 4}P{sub 5/2}{sup Ring-Operator} state was used for the measurement of laser-induced fluorescence within the plasma discharge. From these measurements, it is possible to measure velocity as krypton ions are accelerated from near rest to approximately 21 km/s (190 eV). Ion temperature and the ion velocity distributions may also be extracted from the fluorescence data since available hyperfine splitting data allow for the Kr II 5d{sup 4}D{sub 7/2}-5p{sup 4}P{sub 5/2}{sup Ring-Operator} transition lineshape to be modeled. From the analysis, the fluorescence lineshape appears to be a reasonable estimate for the relatively broad ion velocity distributions. However, due to an apparent overlap of the ion creation and acceleration regions within the discharge, the distributed velocity distributions increase ion temperature determination uncertainty significantly. Using the most probable ion velocity as a representative, or characteristic, measure of the ion acceleration, overall propellant energy deposition, and effective electric fields may be calculated. With this diagnostic technique, it is possible to nonintrusively characterize the ion acceleration both within the discharge and in the plume.

  20. Acceleration of Dense Flowing Plasmas using ICRF Power in the VASIMR Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, Jared P.

    2005-09-01

    ICRF power in the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) concept energizes ions (> 100 eV) in a diverging magnetic field to accelerate a dense (˜ 1019 m-3) flowing plasma to velocities useful for space propulsion (˜100 km/s). Theory predicts that an ICRF slow wave launched from the high field side of the resonance will propagate in the magnetic beach to absorb nearly all of the power at the resonance, thus efficiently converting the RF power to ion kinetic energy. The plasma flows through the resonance only once, so the ions are accelerated in a single pass. This process has proven efficient (˜ 70%) with an ICRF power level of 1.5 kW at about 3.6 MHz in the VASIMR experiment, VX-30, using deuterium plasma created by a helicon operating in flowing mode. We have measured ICRF plasma loading up to 2 ohms, consistent with computational predictions made using Oak Ridge National Laboratory's EMIR code. Recent helicon power upgrades (20 kW at 13.56 MHz) have enabled a 5 cm diameter target plasma for ICRF with an ion flux of over 3×10 20 s-1 and a high degree of ionization. This paper summarizes our ICRF results and presents the latest helicon developments in VX-30.

  1. Acceleration of Dense Flowing Plasmas using ICRF Power in the VASIMR Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, Jared P.

    2005-09-26

    ICRF power in the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) concept energizes ions (> 100 eV) in a diverging magnetic field to accelerate a dense ({approx} 1019 m-3) flowing plasma to velocities useful for space propulsion ({approx}100 km/s). Theory predicts that an ICRF slow wave launched from the high field side of the resonance will propagate in the magnetic beach to absorb nearly all of the power at the resonance, thus efficiently converting the RF power to ion kinetic energy. The plasma flows through the resonance only once, so the ions are accelerated in a single pass. This process has proven efficient ({approx} 70%) with an ICRF power level of 1.5 kW at about 3.6 MHz in the VASIMR experiment, VX-30, using deuterium plasma created by a helicon operating in flowing mode. We have measured ICRF plasma loading up to 2 ohms, consistent with computational predictions made using Oak Ridge National Laboratory's EMIR code. Recent helicon power upgrades (20 kW at 13.56 MHz) have enabled a 5 cm diameter target plasma for ICRF with an ion flux of over 3x10 20 s-1 and a high degree of ionization. This paper summarizes our ICRF results and presents the latest helicon developments in VX-30.

  2. On the physics of waves in the solar atmosphere: Wave heating and wind acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents work performed on the generation and physics of acoustic waves in the solar atmosphere. The investigators have incorporated spatial and temporal turbulent energy spectra in a newly corrected version of the Lighthill-Stein theory of acoustic wave generation in order to calculate the acoustic wave energy fluxes generated in the solar convective zone. The investigators have also revised and improved the treatment of the generation of magnetic flux tube waves, which can carry energy along the tubes far away from the region of their origin, and have calculated the tube energy fluxes for the sun. They also examine the transfer of the wave energy originated in the solar convective zone to the outer atmospheric layers through computation of wave propagation and dissipation in highly nonhomogeneous solar atmosphere. These waves may efficiently heat the solar atmosphere and the heating will be especially significant in the chromospheric network. It is also shown that the role played by Alfven waves in solar wind acceleration and coronal hole heating is dominant. The second part of the project concerned investigation of wave propagation in highly inhomogeneous stellar atmospheres using an approach based on an analytic tool developed by Musielak, Fontenla, and Moore. In addition, a new technique based on Dirac equations has been developed to investigate coupling between different MHD waves propagating in stratified stellar atmospheres.

  3. Lower Hybrid Oscillations in Multicomponent Space Plasmas Subjected to Ion Cyclotron Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Krivorutsky, E. N.; Moore, T. E.; Liemohn, M. W.; Horwitz, J. L.

    1997-01-01

    It is found that in multicomponent plasmas subjected to Alfven or fast magnetosonic waves, such as are observed in regions of the outer plasmasphere and ring current-plasmapause overlap, lower hybrid oscillations are generated. The addition of a minor heavy ion component to a proton-electron plasma significantly lowers the low-frequency electric wave amplitude needed for lower hybrid wave excitation. It is found that the lower hybrid wave energy density level is determined by the nonlinear process of induced scattering by ions and electrons; hydrogen ions in the region of resonant velocities are accelerated; and nonresonant particles are weakly heated due to the induced scattering. For a given example, the light resonant ions have an energy gain factor of 20, leading to the development of a high-energy tail in the H(+) distribution function due to low-frequency waves.

  4. Particle Acceleration at Relativistic and Ultra-Relativistic Shock Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meli, A.

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations using diffusive shock acceleration at relativistic and ultra-relativistic shock waves. High upstream flow gamma factors are used, Γ=(1-uup2/c2)-0.5, which are relevant to models of ultra-relativistic particle shock acceleration in the central engines and relativistic jets of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and in Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) fireballs. Numerical investigations are carried out on acceleration properties in the relativistic and ultra-relativistic flow regime (Γ ˜ 10-1000) concerning angular distributions, acceleration time scales, particle energy gain versus number of crossings and spectral shapes. We perform calculations for both parallel and oblique sub-luminal and super-luminal shocks. For parallel and oblique sub-luminal shocks, the spectra depend on whether or not the scattering is represented by pitch angle diffusion or by large angle scattering. The large angle case exhibits a distinctive structure in the basic power-law spectrum not nearly so obvious for small angle scattering. However, both cases yield a significant 'speed-up' of acceleration rate when compared with the conventional, non-relativistic expression, tacc=[c/(uup-udown)] (λup/uup+λdown/udown). An energization by a factor Γ2 for the first crossing cycle and a large energy gains for subsequent crossings as well as the high 'speed-up' factors found, are important in supporting past works, especially the models developed by Vietri and Waxman on ultra-high energy cosmic ray, neutrino and gamma-ray production in GRB. For oblique super-luminal shocks, we calculate the energy gain and spectral shape for a number of different inclinations. For this case the acceleration of particles is 'pictured' by a shock drift mechanism. We use high gamma flows with Lorentz factors in the range 10-40 which are relevant to ultra-relativistic shocks in AGN accretion disks and jets. In all investigations we closely follow the particle's trajectory along the magnetic field

  5. Dispersive ducting of MHD waves in the plasma sheet - A source of Pi2 wave bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwin, P. M.; Roberts, B.; Hughes, W. J.

    1986-01-01

    Fast magnetoacoustic waves can be ducted by plasma inhomogeneities such as the plasma sheet. As this ducting is dispersive an impulsive source will give rise to a well-defined, quasi-periodic wave packet with time-scales determined by the width of the inhomogeneity and characteristic speeds in the wave duct and surrounding medium. The duration of the wave packet depends upon the distance from the source. It is argued that an impulsive source in the plasma sheet at substorm onset will produce a wave packet near earth with characteristics similar to pi2 wave bursts and put this idea forward as a mechanism for the generation of pi2 pulsations.

  6. Magnetosonic wave in pair-ion electron collisional plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, S.; Hasnain, H.

    2017-03-01

    Low frequency magnetosonic waves in positive and negative ions of equal mass and opposite charges in the presence of electrons in collisional plasmas are studied. The collisions of ions and electrons with neutrals are taken into account. The nonlinearities in the plasma system arise due to ion and electrons flux, Lorentz forces, and plasma current densities. The reductive perturbation method is applied to derive the Damped Korteweg de Vries (DKdV) equation. The time dependent solution of DKdV is presented. The effects of variations of different plasma parameters on propagation characteristics of magnetosonic waves in pair-ion electron plasma in the context of laboratory plasmas are discussed.

  7. Control of focusing forces and emittances in plasma-based accelerators using near-hollow plasma channels

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Benedetti, Carlo; Leemans, Wim

    2013-08-06

    A near-hollow plasma channel, where the plasma density in the channel is much less than the plasma density in the walls, is proposed to provide independent control over the focusing and accelerating forces in a plasma accelerator. In this geometry the low density in the channel contributes to the focusing forces, while the accelerating fields are determined by the high density in the channel walls. The channel also provides guiding for intense laser pulses used for wakefield excitation. Both electron and positron beams can be accelerated in a nearly symmetric fashion. Near-hollow plasma channels can effectively mitigate emittance growth due to Coulomb scattering for high energy physics applications.

  8. Ion acceleration by a double stage accelerating device for laser-induced plasma ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorusso, A.; Siciliano, M. V.; Velardi, L.; Nassisi, V.

    2010-10-01

    A new laser ion source configuration was studied and realized in order to generate and accelerate ions of different elements. This ion source consisted of a laser-induced plasma from solid targets where the plume was made to expand before the action of the accelerating field. The accelerating field was reached by the application of two high voltage power supplies of different polarity. Therefore, the ions were made to undergo double acceleration that can imprint a maximum ion energy up to 160 keV per charge state. We analyzed the extracted charge from a Cu target as a function of the accelerating voltage at the laser fluences of 1.7 and 2.3 J/cm2. At 60 kV of total accelerating voltage and higher laser fluence, the maximum ion dose was 1012 ions/cm2. Under this last condition, the maximum output current was 5 mA and the emittance measured by the pepper pot method resulted in 0.22π mm mrad. With this machine, biomedical materials such as polyethylene were implanted with carbon and titanium ions. At doses of 6×1015 ions/cm2, the polyethylene surface increased its micro-hardness by about 3-fold, as measured by the scratch test.

  9. Magnetically Controlled Optical Plasma Waveguide for Electron Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Pollock, B. B.; Davis, P.; Divol, L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Palastro, J. P.; Price, D.; Froula, D. H.; Tynan, G. R.

    2009-01-22

    In order to produce multi-Gev electrons from Laser Wakefield Accelerators, we present a technique to guide high power laser beams through underdense plasma. Experimental results from the Jupiter Laser Facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that show density channels with minimum plasma densities below 5x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} are presented. These results are obtained using an external magnetic field (<5 T) to limit the radial heat flux from a pre-forming laser beam. The resulting increased plasma pressure gradient produces a parabolic density gradient which is tunable by changing the external magnetic field strength. These results are compared with 1-D hydrodynamic simulations, while quasi-static kinetic simulations show that for these channel conditions 90% of the energy in a 150 TW short pulse beam is guided over 5 cm and predict electron energy gains of 3 GeV.

  10. Fast Acceleration of 2D Wave Propagation Simulations Using Modern Computational Accelerators

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Xu, Lifan; Cavazos, John; Huang, Howie H.; Kay, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in modern computational accelerators like Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and coprocessors provide great opportunities for making scientific applications run faster than ever before. However, efficient parallelization of scientific code using new programming tools like CUDA requires a high level of expertise that is not available to many scientists. This, plus the fact that parallelized code is usually not portable to different architectures, creates major challenges for exploiting the full capabilities of modern computational accelerators. In this work, we sought to overcome these challenges by studying how to achieve both automated parallelization using OpenACC and enhanced portability using OpenCL. We applied our parallelization schemes using GPUs as well as Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) coprocessor to reduce the run time of wave propagation simulations. We used a well-established 2D cardiac action potential model as a specific case-study. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to study auto-parallelization of 2D cardiac wave propagation simulations using OpenACC. Our results identify several approaches that provide substantial speedups. The OpenACC-generated GPU code achieved more than speedup above the sequential implementation and required the addition of only a few OpenACC pragmas to the code. An OpenCL implementation provided speedups on GPUs of at least faster than the sequential implementation and faster than a parallelized OpenMP implementation. An implementation of OpenMP on Intel MIC coprocessor provided speedups of with only a few code changes to the sequential implementation. We highlight that OpenACC provides an automatic, efficient, and portable approach to achieve parallelization of 2D cardiac wave simulations on GPUs. Our approach of using OpenACC, OpenCL, and OpenMP to parallelize this particular model on modern computational accelerators should be applicable to other computational models of wave propagation in

  11. Kilohertz laser wakefield accelerator using near critical density plasmas and millijoule-level drive pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goers, Andy

    2016-10-01

    Laser wakefield accelerators operating in the so-called bubble or blowout regime are typically driven by Joule-class femtosecond laser systems driving plasma waves in highly underdense plasmas (1017 -1019cm-3). While these accelerators are very promising for accelerating GeV scale, low emittance electron beams, the large energy requirements of the laser systems have so far limited them to repetition rates below 10 Hz. However, there are a variety of applications, such as ultrafast electron diffraction or high repetition rate gamma ray sources for materials characterization or medical radiography, which would benefit from lower energy (1-10 MeV) but higher repetition rate ( 1 kHz) sources of relativistic electrons. This talk will describe relativistic wakefield acceleration of electron bunches in the range 1-10 MeV, driven by a 1 kHz, 30 fs, 1-12 mJ laser system. Our results are made possible by the use of very high density cryogenic H2 and He gas jet targets yielding electron densities >1021cm-3 in thin 100 μm gas flows. At these high densities the critical power for relativistic self-focusing and the plasma wave phase velocity are greatly reduced, leading to pulse collapse and self-injection even with 1 mJ drive laser pulses. Applications of this source to ultrafast electron diffraction and gamma ray radiography will be discussed. This research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, and Air Force Office of Scientific Research.

  12. Geotail MCA Plasma Wave Investigation Data Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Roger R.

    1996-01-01

    The goals of this program include identifying, studying, and understanding the source, movement, and dissipation of plasma mass, momentum, and energy between the Sun and Earth. The GEOTAIL spacecraft was built by the Japanese Institute of Space and Aeronautical Science and has provided extensive measurements of entry, storage, acceleration, and transport in the geomagnetic tail. Due to the GEOTAIL trajectory, which kept the spacecraft passing into the deep tail, GEOTAIL also made 'magnetopause skimming passes' which allowed measurements in the outer magnetosphere, magnetopause, bow shock, and upstream solar wind regions as well as in the lobe, magnetosheath, boundary layers, and central plasma sheet regions of the tail. In late 1994, after spending nearly 30 months primarily traversing the deep tail region, GEOTAIL began its near Earth phase where apogee was reduced first to about 50 Re and later to 30 Re and perigee was decreased to about 10 Re. The WIND spacecraft was launched on November 1, 1994, and the POLAR spacecraft was launched on February 24, 1996. These successful launches have dramatically increased the opportunities for GEOTAIL and the GGS spacecraft to conduct global research.

  13. Plasma waves in the distant geomagnetic tail - ISEE 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Smith, E. J.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The plasma wave measurements obtained during ISEE 3's deep passes through the geomagnetic tail found that moderate to intense electric field turbulence occurred in association with the major plasma and magnetic field regions and flow phenomena. In the magnetopause boundary layer the electric field spectral amplitudes are typically sharply peaked at 316 Hz to 562 Hz. The tail lobe region which is upstream of slow shocks and is magnetically connected to the plasma sheet is characterized by wave spectras that peak in the 100- to 316-Hz range and at the electron plasma frequency. Within the plasma sheet, broadband electrostatic noise occurs in regions where the magnetic field strength exceeds 2 nT; this noise can also be found in the plasma sheet boundary layer in association with strong field-aligned plasma flows. As ISEE 3 moved between the different distant tail regions, distinct but often subtle changes occurred in the plasma wave spectra.

  14. Wakefield-induced ionization injection in beam-driven plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez de la Ossa, A.; Mehrling, T. J.; Schaper, L.; Streeter, M. J. V.; Osterhoff, J.

    2015-09-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the features and capabilities of Wakefield-Induced Ionization (WII) injection in the blowout regime of beam driven plasma accelerators. This mechanism exploits the electric wakefields to ionize electrons from a dopant gas and trap them in a well-defined region of the accelerating and focusing wake phase, leading to the formation of high-quality witness-bunches [Martinez de la Ossa et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 245003 (2013)]. The electron-beam drivers must feature high-peak currents ( Ib 0 ≳ 8.5 kA ) and a duration comparable to the plasma wavelength to excite plasma waves in the blowout regime and enable WII injection. In this regime, the disparity of the magnitude of the electric field in the driver region and the electric field in the rear of the ion cavity allows for the selective ionization and subsequent trapping from a narrow phase interval. The witness bunches generated in this manner feature a short duration and small values of the normalized transverse emittance ( k p σ z ˜ k p ɛ n ˜ 0.1 ). In addition, we show that the amount of injected charge can be adjusted by tuning the concentration of the dopant gas species, which allows for controlled beam loading and leads to a reduction of the total energy spread of the witness beams. Electron bunches, produced in this way, fulfil the requirements to drive blowout regime plasma wakes at a higher density and to trigger WII injection in a second stage. This suggests a promising new concept of self-similar staging of WII injection in steps with increasing plasma density, giving rise to the potential of producing electron beams with unprecedented energy and brilliance from plasma-wakefield accelerators.

  15. Analysis of waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, T.J.; Kou, C.S.

    2005-10-01

    In this study, the dispersion relation has been derived to characterize the propagation of the waves in the plasma guided by a periodical vane-type slow wave structure. The plasma is confined by a quartz plate. Results indicate that there are two different waves in this structure. One is the plasma mode that originates from the plasma surface wave propagating along the interface between the plasma and the quartz plate, and the other is the guide mode that originally travels along the vane-type slow wave structure. In contrast to its original slow wave characteristics, the guide mode becomes a fast wave in the low-frequency portion of the passband, and there exists a cut-off frequency for the guide mode. The vane-type guiding structure has been shown to limit the upper frequency of the passband of the plasma mode, compared with that of the plasma surface wave. In addition, the passband of the plasma mode increases with the plasma density while it becomes narrower for the guide mode. The influences of the parameters of the guiding structure and plasma density on the propagation of waves are also presented.

  16. Nonplanar electrostatic shock waves in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Masood, W.; Rizvi, H.

    2010-02-15

    Two-dimensional quantum ion acoustic shock waves (QIASWs) are studied in an unmagnetized plasma consisting of electrons and ions. In this regard, a nonplanar quantum Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (QKPB) equation is derived using the small amplitude perturbation expansion method. Using the tangent hyperbolic method, an analytical solution of the planar QKPB equation is obtained and subsequently used as the initial profile to numerically solve the nonplanar QKPB equation. It is observed that the increasing number density (and correspondingly the quantum Bohm potential) and kinematic viscosity affect the propagation characteristics of the QIASW. The temporal evolution of the nonplanar QIASW is investigated both in Cartesian and polar planes and the results are discussed from the numerical stand point. The results of the present study may be applicable in the study of propagation of small amplitude localized electrostatic shock structures in dense astrophysical environments.

  17. Accelerated Searches of Gravitational Waves Using Graphics Processing Units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Shin Kee; Wen, Linqing; Blair, David; Cannon, Kipp

    2010-06-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was predicted by Albert Einstein. Black hole and neutron star binary systems will product strong gravitational waves through their inspiral and eventual merger. The analysis of the gravitational wave data is computationally intensive, requiring matched filtering of terabytes of data with a bank of at least 3000 numerical templates that represent predicted waveforms. We need to complete the analysis in real-time (within the duration of the signal) in order to enable follow-up observations with some conventional optical or radio telescopes. We report a novel application of a graphics processing units (GPUs) for the purpose of accelerating the search pipelines for gravitational waves from coalescing binary systems of compact objects. A speed-up of 16 fold in total has been achieved with an NVIDIA GeForce 8800 Ultra GPU card compared with a standard central processing unit (CPU). We show that further improvements are possible and discuss the reduction in CPU number required for the detection of inspiral sources afforded by the use of GPUs.

  18. Ionospheric Plasma Disturbances and Effects on Radio Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    power HF waves. This study will be based on to propose future heating experiments in Alaska, using the newly constructed HAARP facility. 2. Summary...unlimited 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Ionospheric plasma heating experiments were conducted at Arecibo to investigate generation of ionospheric plasma...Plasma Research Group at MIT’s Plasma Science and Fusion Center has been conducting ionospheric plasma heating experiments at Arecibo, using the

  19. Relationship between directions of wave and energy propagation for cold plasma waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Zdzislaw E.

    1986-01-01

    The dispersion relation for plasma waves is considered in the 'cold' plasma approximation. General formulas for the dependence of the phase and group velocities on the direction of wave propagation with respect to the local magnetic field are obtained for a cold magnetized plasma. The principal cold plasma resonances and cut-off frequencies are defined for an arbitrary angle and are used to establish basic regimes of frequency where the cold plasma waves can propagate or can be evanescent. The relationship between direction of wave and energy propagation, for cold plasma waves in hydrogen atmosphere, is presented in the form of angle diagrams (angle between group velocity and magnetic field versus angle between phase velocity and magnetic field) and polar diagrams (also referred to as 'Friedrich's diagrams') for different directions of wave propagation. Morphological features of the diagrams as well as some critical angles of propagation are discussed.

  20. Nonlinear absorption of Alfven wave in dissipative plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Taiurskii, A. A. Gavrikov, M. B.

    2015-10-28

    We propose a method for studying absorption of Alfven wave propagation in a homogeneous non-isothermal plasma along a constant magnetic field, and relaxation of electron and ion temperatures in the A-wave. The absorption of a A-wave by the plasma arises due to dissipative effects - magnetic and hydrodynamic viscosities of electrons and ions and their elastic interaction. The method is based on the exact solution of two-fluid electromagnetic hydrodynamics of the plasma, which for A-wave, as shown in the work, are reduced to a nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations.

  1. Alfven wave dispersion behavior in single- and multicomponent plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Rahbarnia, K.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Ullrich, S.; Sauer, K.

    2010-03-15

    Dispersion relations of driven Alfven waves (AWs) are measured in single- and multicomponent plasmas consisting of mixtures of argon, helium, and oxygen in a magnetized linear cylindrical plasma device VINETA [C. Franck, O. Grulke, and T. Klinger, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3254 (2002)]. The decomposition of the measured three-dimensional magnetic field fluctuations and the corresponding parallel current pattern reveals that the wave field is a superposition of L- and R-wave components. The dispersion relation measurements agree well with calculations based on a multifluid Hall-magnetohydrodynamic model if the plasma resistivity is correctly taken into account.

  2. Surface electromagnetic wave equations in a warm magnetized quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chunhua; Yang, Weihong; Wu, Zhengwei; Chu, Paul K.

    2014-07-15

    Based on the single-fluid plasma model, a theoretical investigation of surface electromagnetic waves in a warm quantum magnetized inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The surface electromagnetic waves are assumed to propagate on the plane between a vacuum and a warm quantum magnetized plasma. The quantum magnetohydrodynamic model includes quantum diffraction effect (Bohm potential), and quantum statistical pressure is used to derive the new dispersion relation of surface electromagnetic waves. And the general dispersion relation is analyzed in some special cases of interest. It is shown that surface plasma oscillations can be propagated due to quantum effects, and the propagation velocity is enhanced. Furthermore, the external magnetic field has a significant effect on surface wave's dispersion equation. Our work should be of a useful tool for investigating the physical characteristic of surface waves and physical properties of the bounded quantum plasmas.

  3. ICE/ISEE plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    This report is one of the final processing of ICE plasma wave (pw) data and analysis of late ISEE 3, ICE cometary, and ICE cruise trajectory data, where coronal mass ejections (CME's) were the first locus of attention. Interest in CME's inspired an effort to represent our pw data in a condensed spectrogram format that facilitated rapid digestion of interplanetary phenomena on long (greater than 1 day) time scales. The format serendipitously allowed us to also examine earth-orbiting data from a new perspective, invigorating older areas of investigation in Earth's immediate environment. We, therefore, continued to examine with great interest the last year of ISEE 3's precomet phase, when it spent considerable time far downwind from Earth, recording for days on end conditions upstream, downstream, and across the very weak, distant flank bow shock. Among other motivations has been the apparent similarity of some shock and post shock structures to the signatures of the bow wave surrounding comet Giacobini-Zinner, whose ICE-phase data we revisited.

  4. Wave rectification in plasma sheaths surrounding electric field antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm, M. H.; Carlson, C. W.; Mcfadden, J. P.; Clemmons, J. H.; Ergun, R. E.; Mozer, F. S.

    1994-01-01

    Combined measurements of Langmuir or broadband whistler wave intensity and lower-frequency electric field waveforms, all at 10-microsecond time resolution, were made on several recent sounding rockets in the auroral ionosphere. It is found that Langmuir and whistler waves are partically rectified in the plasma sheaths surrounding the payload and the spheres used as antennas. This sheath rectification occurs whenever the high frequency (HF) potential across the sheath becomes of the same order as the electron temperature or higher, for wave frequencies near or above the ion plasma frequency. This rectification can introduce false low-frequency waves into measurements of electric field spectra when strong high-frequency waves are present. Second harmonic signals are also generated, although at much lower levels. The effect occurs in many different plasma conditions, primarily producing false waves at frequencies that are low enough for the antenna coupling to the plasma to be resistive.

  5. LIGA-fabricated compact mm-wave linear accelerator cavities.

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.J.; Bajikar, S.S.; DeCarlo, F.; Kang, Y.W.; Kustom, R.L.; Mancini, D.C.; Nassiri, A.; Lai, B.; Feinerman, A.D.; White, V.

    1998-03-23

    Millimeter-wave rf cavities for use in linear accelerators, free-electron lasers, and mm-wave undulatory are under development at Argonne National Laboratory. Typical cavity dimensions are in the 1000 mm range, and the overall length of the accelerator structure, which consists of 30-100 cavities, is about 50-100 mm. An accuracy of 0.2% in the cavity dimensions is necessary in order to achieve a high Q-factor of the cavity. To achieve this these structures are being fabricated using deep X-ray lithography, electroforming, and assembly (LIGA). The first prototype cavity structures are designed for 108 GHz and 2p/3-mode operation. Input and output couplers are integrated with the cavity structures. The cavities are fabricated on copper substrates by electroforming copper into 1-mm-thick PMMA resists patterned by deep x-ray lithography and polishing the copper down to the desired thickness. These are fabricated separately and subsequently assembled with precision spacing and alignment using microspheres, optical fibers, or microfabricated spacers/alignment pieces. Details of the fabrication process, alignment, and assembly work are presented in here.

  6. Simulation of laser-driven plasma beat-wave propagation in collisional weakly relativistic plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Maninder; Nandan Gupta, Devki

    2016-11-01

    The process of interaction of lasers beating in a plasma has been explored by virtue of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations in the presence of electron-ion collisions. A plasma beat wave is resonantly excited by ponderomotive force by two relatively long laser pulses of different frequencies. The amplitude of the plasma wave become maximum, when the difference in the frequencies is equal to the plasma frequency. We propose to demonstrate the energy transfer between the laser beat wave and the plasma wave in the presence of electron-ion collision in nearly relativistic regime with 2D-PIC simulations. The relativistic effect and electron-ion collision both affect the energy transfer between the interacting waves. The finding of simulation results shows that there is a considerable decay in the plasma wave and the field energy over time in the presence of electron-ion collisions.

  7. Laser-PlasmaWakefield Acceleration with Higher Order Laser Modes

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Cormier-Michel, E.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Mullowney, P.; Paul, K.; Cary, J.R.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-06-01

    Laser-plasma collider designs point to staging of multiple accelerator stages at the 10 GeV level, which are to be developed on the upcoming BELLA laser, while Thomson Gamma source designs use GeV stages, both requiring efficiency and low emittance. Design and scaling of stages operating in the quasi-linear regime to address these needs are presented using simulations in the VORPAL framework. In addition to allowing symmetric acceleration of electrons and positrons, which is important for colliders, this regime has the property that the plasma wakefield is proportional to the transverse gradient of the laser intensity profile. We demonstrate use of higher order laser modes to tailor the laser pulse and hence the transverse focusing forces in the plasma. In particular, we show that by using higher order laser modes, we can reduce the focusing fields and hence increase the matched electron beam radius, which is important to increased charge and efficiency, while keeping the low bunch emittance required for applications.

  8. Terahertz electromagnetic wave generation and amplification by an electron beam in the elliptical plasma waveguides with dielectric rod

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmani, Z. Jazi, B.; Heidari-Semiromi, E.

    2014-09-15

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves in an elliptical plasma waveguide including strongly magnetized plasma column and a dielectric rod is investigated. The dispersion relation of guided hybrid electromagnetic waves is obtained. Excitation of the waves by a thin annular relativistic elliptical electron beam will be studied. The time growth rate of electromagnetic waves is obtained. The effects of relative permittivity constant of dielectric rod, radius of dielectric rod, accelerating voltage, and current density of the annular elliptical beam on the growth rate and the frequency spectra are numerically presented.

  9. Surface wave and linear operating mode of a plasma antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Bogachev, N. N. Bogdankevich, I. L.; Gusein-zade, N. G.; Rukhadze, A. A.

    2015-10-15

    The relation between the propagation conditions of a surface electromagnetic wave along a finiteradius plasma cylinder and the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna is investigated. The solution to the dispersion relation for a surface wave propagating along a finite-radius plasma cylinder is analyzed for weakly and strongly collisional plasmas. Computer simulations of an asymmetrical plasma dipole antenna are performed using the KARAT code, wherein the dielectric properties of plasma are described in terms of the Drude model. The plasma parameters corresponding to the linear operating mode of a plasma antenna are determined. It is demonstrated that the characteristics of the plasma antenna in this mode are close to those of an analogous metal antenna.

  10. Ion-wave stabilization of an inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Camparo, J.C.; Mackay, R.

    2006-04-24

    Stabilization of the rf power driving an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) has implications for fields ranging from atomic clocks to analytical chemistry to illumination technology. Here, we demonstrate a technique in which the plasma itself acts as a probe of radio wave power, and provides a correction signal for active rf-power control. Our technique takes advantage of the resonant nature of forced ion waves in the plasma, and their observation in the ICP's optical emission.

  11. Oblique Shock Wave Effects on Impulsively Accelerated Heavy Gas Column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmstead, Dell T.

    An experimental study was performed to elucidate the fundamental physics of shock-induced mixing for a simple three-dimensional interface. The interface studied consists of a gravity stabilized SF6-based heavy gas jet that produced a circular column with a diffuse interface into the surrounding air. The effects of density gradient (Atwood number, A), shock strength (Mach number, M), and column inclination angle (theta) were examined. Concentration was measured using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) of an acetone vapor tracer mixed with the heavy gas jet and illuminated by a pulsed Nd-YAG laser. Shocks with Mach numbers of 1.13, 1.5, 1.7, and 2.0 were used for inclinations of 0° (planar normal shock wave), 20° and 30°. Columns with Atwood numbers of 0.25, 0.4, and 0.60 were tested at Mach 1.7 for inclinations of 0° and 20°. The oblique shock-accelerated cylindrical interface produced a typical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) consisting of a primary counter-rotating vortices. The streamwise extent of the vortex pair in the centerline plane (cross-section) images of the column is proportional to √A/√ M, regardless of oblique shock angle for theta < 20. A heretofore unseen manifestation of Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) waves on the upstream edge of the column appear for oblique shock acceleration. The upstream edge K-H waves were observed in images from a vertical plane through the center of the column. The wavelength of the upstream edge K-H waves is proportional to theta/M ˙ √A. This upstream edge K-H instability (KHI) caused earlier onset of secondary instabilities in the primary RMI vortices seen in the centerline plane images. The combination of more rapid onset of secondary instabilities in the RMI and upstream edge KHI accelerated transition to turbulence and thus reduced the time to achieve well-mixed flow. Time to reach well-mixed flow was inversely related to Atwood number, and had a weak correlation with Mach number for M>1.13. Transition to

  12. Collisionless electrostatic shock formation and ion acceleration in intense laser interactions with near critical density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Weng, S. M.; Li, Y. T.; Yuan, D. W.; Chen, M.; Mulser, P.; Sheng, Z. M.; Murakami, M.; Yu, L. L.; Zheng, X. L.; Zhang, J.

    2016-11-01

    Laser-driven collisionless electrostatic shock formation and the subsequent ion acceleration have been studied in near critical density plasmas. Particle-in-cell simulations show that both the speed of laser-driven collisionless electrostatic shock and the energies of shock-accelerated ions can be greatly enhanced due to fast laser propagation in near critical density plasmas. However, a response time longer than tens of laser wave cycles is required before the shock formation in a near critical density plasma, in contrast to the quick shock formation in a highly overdense target. More important, we find that some ions can be reflected by the collisionless shock even if the electrostatic potential jump across the shock is smaller than the ion kinetic energy in the shock frame, which seems against the conventional ion-reflection condition. These anomalous ion reflections are attributed to the strong time-oscillating electric field accompanying the laser-driven collisionless shock in a near critical density plasma.

  13. Ion Acceleration by Laser Plasma Interaction from Cryogenic Microjets

    SciTech Connect

    Propp, Adrienne

    2015-08-16

    Processes that occur in extreme conditions, such as in the center of stars and large planets, can be simulated in the laboratory using facilities such as SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These facilities allow scientists to investigate the properties of matter by observing their interactions with high power lasers. Ion acceleration from laser plasma interaction is gaining greater attention today due to its widespread potential applications, including proton beam cancer therapy and fast ignition for energy production. Typically, ion acceleration is achieved by focusing a high power laser on thin foil targets through a mechanism called Target Normal Sheath Acceleration. However, this mechanism is not ideal for creating the high-energy proton beams needed for future applications. Based on research and recent experiments, we hypothesized that a pure liquid cryogenic jet would be an ideal target for exploring new regimes of ion acceleration. Furthermore, it would provide a continuous, pure target, unlike metal foils which are consumed in the interaction and easily contaminated. In an e ort to test this hypothesis, we used the 527 nm split beam, frequency-doubled TITAN laser at JLF. Data from the cryogenic jets was limited due to the ow of current up the jet into the nozzle during the interaction, heating the jet and damaging the ori ce. However, we achieved a pure proton beam with evidence of a monoenergetic feature. Furthermore, data from gold and carbon wires showed surprising and interesting results. Preliminary analysis of data from two ion emission diagnostics, Thomson parabola spectrometers (TPs) and radio chromic lms (RCFs), suggests that shockwave acceleration occurred rather than target normal sheath acceleration, the standard mechanism of ion acceleration. Upon completion of the experiment at TITAN, I researched the possibility of transforming our liquid cryogenic jets

  14. The transmission of Alfven waves through the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, A. N.; Schwartz, S. J.

    1989-04-01

    The nature of Alfven wave propagation through the Io plasma torus was investigated using a one-dimensional model with uniform magnetic field and an exponential density decrease to a constant value. The solution was interpreted in terms of a wave that is incident upon the torus, a reflected wave, and a wave that is transmitted through the torus. The results obtained indicate that Io's Alfven waves may not propagate completely through the plasma torus, and, thus, the WKB theory and ray tracing may not provide meaningful estimates of the energy transport.

  15. Second harmonic plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for second harmonic plasma emission by the weak turbulence (or random phase) processes L + L + or - S to T, proceeding in two three-wave steps, L + or - S to L prime and L + L prime to T, where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and electromagnetic waves, respectively, is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes, and constraints on the characteristics of the source plasma, are derived. Limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation and the levels of the L prime and S waves are determined. Expressions for the growth rates and path-integrated wave temperatures are derived for simple models of the wave spectra and source plasma.

  16. Cyclotron waves in a non-neutral plasma column

    SciTech Connect

    Dubin, Daniel H. E.

    2013-04-15

    A kinetic theory of linear electrostatic plasma waves with frequencies near the cyclotron frequency {Omega}{sub c{sub s}} of a given plasma species s is developed for a multispecies non-neutral plasma column with general radial density and electric field profiles. Terms in the perturbed distribution function up to O(1/{Omega}{sub c{sub s}{sup 2}}) are kept, as are the effects of finite cyclotron radius r{sub c} up to O(r{sub c}{sup 2}). At this order, the equilibrium distribution is not Maxwellian if the plasma temperature or rotation frequency is not uniform. For r{sub c}{yields}0, the theory reproduces cold-fluid theory and predicts surface cyclotron waves propagating azimuthally. For finite r{sub c}, the wave equation predicts that the surface wave couples to radially and azimuthally propagating Bernstein waves, at locations where the wave frequency equals the local upper hybrid frequency. The equation also predicts a second set of Bernstein waves that do not couple to the surface wave, and therefore have no effect on the external potential. The wave equation is solved both numerically and analytically in the WKB approximation, and analytic dispersion relations for the waves are obtained. The theory predicts that both types of Bernstein wave are damped at resonances, which are locations where the Doppler-shifted wave frequency matches the local cyclotron frequency as seen in the rotating frame.

  17. Whistler-mode Waves in a Hot Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazhin, Sergei

    2005-10-01

    The book provides an extensive theoretical treatment of whistler-mode propagation, instabilities and damping in a collisionless plasma. This book fills a gap between oversimplified analytical studies of these waves, based on the cold plasma approximation, and studies based on numerical methods. Although the book is primarily addressed to space plasma physicists and radio physicists, it will also prove useful to laboratory plasma physicists. Mathematical methods described in the book can be applied in a straightforward way to the analysis of other types of plasma waves. Problems included in this book, along with their solutions, allow it to be used as a textbook for postgraduate students.

  18. ALFVEN WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Terradas, J.; Carbonell, M. E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es E-mail: marc.carbonell@uib.es

    2013-04-20

    Alfven waves are a particular class of magnetohydrodynamic waves relevant in many astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of Alfven waves is affected by the interaction between ionized and neutral species. Here we study Alfven waves in a partially ionized plasma from the theoretical point of view using the two-fluid description. We consider that the plasma is composed of an ion-electron fluid and a neutral fluid, which interact by means of particle collisions. To keep our investigation as general as possible, we take the neutral-ion collision frequency and the ionization degree as free parameters. First, we perform a normal mode analysis. We find the modification due to neutral-ion collisions of the wave frequencies and study the temporal and spatial attenuation of the waves. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoff values of the wavelength that constrain the existence of oscillatory standing waves in weakly ionized plasmas. Later, we go beyond the normal mode approach and solve the initial-value problem in order to study the time-dependent evolution of the wave perturbations in the two fluids. An application to Alfven waves in the low solar atmospheric plasma is performed and the implication of partial ionization for the energy flux is discussed.

  19. Experimental characterization of a coaxial plasma accelerator for a colliding plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wiechula, J.; Hock, C.; Iberler, M.; Manegold, T.; Schönlein, A.; Jacoby, J.

    2015-04-15

    We report experimental results of a single coaxial plasma accelerator in preparation for a colliding plasma experiment. The utilized device consisted of a coaxial pair of electrodes, accelerating the plasma due to J×B forces. A pulse forming network, composed of three capacitors connected in parallel, with a total capacitance of 27 μF was set up. A thyratron allowed to switch the maximum applied voltage of 9 kV. Under these conditions, the pulsed currents reached peak values of about 103 kA. The measurements were performed in a small vacuum chamber with a neutral-gas prefill at gas pressures between 10 Pa and 14 000 Pa. A gas mixture of ArH{sub 2} with 2.8% H{sub 2} served as the discharge medium. H{sub 2} was chosen in order to observe the broadening of the H{sub β} emission line and thus estimate the electron density. The electron density for a single plasma accelerator reached peak values on the order of 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}. Electrical parameters, inter alia inductance and resistance, were determined for the LCR circuit during the plasma acceleration as well as in a short circuit case. Depending on the applied voltage, the inductance and resistance reached values ranging from 194 nH to 216 nH and 13 mΩ to 23 mΩ, respectively. Furthermore, the plasma velocity was measured using a fast CCD camera. Plasma velocities of 2 km/s up to 17 km/s were observed, the magnitude being highly correlated with gas pressure and applied voltage.

  20. [Changes of plasma endocrine hormone in pilots under Coriolis acceleration].

    PubMed

    Dai, Y; Ji, G; Huang, Y; Sun, X; Dai, F

    1998-04-01

    Plasma endocrine hormones were studied in both 24 motion sickness (orthostatic intolerance) and healthy pilots. Coriolis acceleration of 3.75, 5.00 and 6.25 pi 2 cm/s2 were given with intervals of 3-4 min AT-II, insulin, cortisol, Aldosterone and gastrin were determined by radioimmunoassay. It was found that aldosterone, AT-II, gastrin increased with increase of coriolis acceleration in all pilots. (P < 0.05), but cortisol and insulin only increased in healthy pilots (P < 0.05). It suggests excitation of the autonomic nervous system might be insufficient in orthostatic intolerant pilots and that determination of endocrine hormones may be useful in the evaluation of autonomic nervous activities.

  1. Excitation of electrostatic waves in the electron cyclotron frequency range during magnetic reconnection in laboratory overdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwahata, A.; Igami, H.; Kawamori, E.; Kogi, Y.; Inomoto, M.; Ono, Y.

    2014-10-15

    We report the observation of electromagnetic radiation at high harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency that was considered to be converted from electrostatic waves called electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) during magnetic reconnection in laboratory overdense plasmas. The excitation of EBWs was attributed to the thermalization of electrons accelerated by the reconnection electric field around the X-point. The radiative process discussed here is an acceptable explanation for observed radio waves pulsation associated with major flares.

  2. REVIEWS OF TOPICAL PROBLEMS: Instabilities of a multicomponent plasma with accelerated particles and magnetic field generation in astrophysical objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, Andrei M.; Toptygin, Igor'N.

    2007-02-01

    A system of MHD equations for the description of a magnetized nonequilibrium astrophysical plasma with neutral atoms and suprathermal (in particular, relativistic) particles is formulated. The instabilities of such a plasma, which arise from the presence of neutral and relativistic components, are considered. It is shown that the presence of nonthermal particles interacting with the thermal plasma component via regular and fluctuating electromagnetic fields is responsible for the emergence of specific mechanisms of MHD wave generation. The main generation mechanisms of static and turbulent magnetic fields near shock wave fronts in the Galaxy and interplanetary space are analyzed. We discuss the application of the generation effects of long-wave magnetic fluctuations to the problems of magnetic field origin and relativistic particle acceleration in astrophysical objects of various natures.

  3. Variable dual-frequency electrostatic wave launcher for plasma applications.

    PubMed

    Jorns, Benjamin; Sorenson, Robert; Choueiri, Edgar

    2011-12-01

    A variable tuning system is presented for launching two electrostatic waves concurrently in a magnetized plasma. The purpose of this system is to satisfy the wave launching requirements for plasma applications where maximal power must be coupled into two carefully tuned electrostatic waves while minimizing erosion to the launching antenna. Two parallel LC traps with fixed inductors and variable capacitors are used to provide an impedance match between a two-wave source and a loop antenna placed outside the plasma. Equivalent circuit analysis is then employed to derive an analytical expression for the normalized, average magnetic flux density produced by the antenna in this system as a function of capacitance and frequency. It is found with this metric that the wave launcher can couple to electrostatic modes at two variable frequencies concurrently while attenuating noise from the source signal at undesired frequencies. An example based on an experiment for plasma heating with two electrostatic waves is used to demonstrate a procedure for tailoring the wave launcher to accommodate the frequency range and flux densities of a specific two-wave application. This example is also used to illustrate a method based on averaging over wave frequencies for evaluating the overall efficacy of the system. The wave launcher is shown to be particularly effective for the illustrative example--generating magnetic flux densities in excess of 50% of the ideal case at two variable frequencies concurrently--with a high adaptability to a number of plasma dynamics and heating applications.

  4. Variable dual-frequency electrostatic wave launcher for plasma applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorns, Benjamin; Sorenson, Robert; Choueiri, Edgar

    2011-12-01

    A variable tuning system is presented for launching two electrostatic waves concurrently in a magnetized plasma. The purpose of this system is to satisfy the wave launching requirements for plasma applications where maximal power must be coupled into two carefully tuned electrostatic waves while minimizing erosion to the launching antenna. Two parallel LC traps with fixed inductors and variable capacitors are used to provide an impedance match between a two-wave source and a loop antenna placed outside the plasma. Equivalent circuit analysis is then employed to derive an analytical expression for the normalized, average magnetic flux density produced by the antenna in this system as a function of capacitance and frequency. It is found with this metric that the wave launcher can couple to electrostatic modes at two variable frequencies concurrently while attenuating noise from the source signal at undesired frequencies. An example based on an experiment for plasma heating with two electrostatic waves is used to demonstrate a procedure for tailoring the wave launcher to accommodate the frequency range and flux densities of a specific two-wave application. This example is also used to illustrate a method based on averaging over wave frequencies for evaluating the overall efficacy of the system. The wave launcher is shown to be particularly effective for the illustrative example—generating magnetic flux densities in excess of 50% of the ideal case at two variable frequencies concurrently—with a high adaptability to a number of plasma dynamics and heating applications.

  5. Radial equilibrium of relativistic particle bunches in plasma wakefield accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotov, K. V.

    2017-02-01

    Drive particle beams in linear or weakly nonlinear regimes of the plasma wakefield accelerator quickly reach a radial equilibrium with the wakefield, which is described in detail for the first time. The equilibrium beam state and self-consistent wakefields are obtained by combining analytical relationships, numerical integration, and first-principles simulations. In the equilibrium state, the beam density is strongly peaked near the axis, the beam radius is constant along most of the beam, and longitudinal variation of the focusing strength is balanced by varying beam emittance. The transverse momentum distribution of beam particles depends on the observation radius and is neither separable nor Gaussian.

  6. METHODS AND MEANS FOR OBTAINING HYDROMAGNETICALLY ACCELERATED PLASMA JET

    DOEpatents

    Marshall, J. Jr.

    1960-11-22

    A hydromagnetic plasma accelerator is described comprising in combination a center electrode, an outer electrode coaxial with the center electrode and defining an annular vacuum chamber therebetween, insulating closure means between the electrodes at one end, means for iniroducing an ionizable gas into the annular vacuum chamber near one end thereof, and means including a power supply for applying a voltage between the electrodes at the end having the closure means, the open ends of the electrodes being adapted for connection to a vacuumed atilization chamber.

  7. Recirculation and Acceleration of Ionospheric Plasma in the Martian Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Wing-Huen

    2012-07-01

    The presence of strong crustal remnant magnetic fields on Mars has important influence on the dynamical behavior of the ionospheric plasma. A model based on computational simulation of the time-varying configuration of the mini-magnetosphere is described to examine the possible process of acceleration and heating of photo electrons and ions embedded in the magnetic flux tubes as Mars rotates from dawn to dusk. The main idea is that ionospheric H+ and O+ ions pumped into the mini-magnetospheres on the dawn side could be subject to adiabatic heating during "depolarization" of the magnetic field as the local time approaches noon.

  8. Interchange instability in finite conductivity accelerated plasma arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourouis, M.; Huerta, M. A.; Rodriguez-Trelles, F.

    1993-01-01

    A first order perturbation expansion of the MHD equations is used to study the growth of the Rayleigh-Taylor or interchange instability in accelerated plasma arcs. The mode equation is fourth-order, due to the inclusion of finite conductivity. It is solved numerically to yield results that are an improvement over previous work. The growth rates are less than in the infinite conductivity model. As in previous work the growth rates in typical rail launcher situations are large enough to permit full development of the instability.

  9. Ultrafast Diagnostics for Electron Beams from Laser Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Matlis, N. H.; Bakeman, M.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Gonsalves, T.; Lin, C.; Nakamura, K.; Osterhoff, J.; Plateau, G. R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Shiraishi, S.; Sokollik, T.; van Tilborg, J.; Toth, Cs.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-06-01

    We present an overview of diagnostic techniques for measuring key parameters of electron bunches from Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPAs). The diagnostics presented here were chosen because they highlight the unique advantages (e.g., diverse forms of electromagnetic emission) and difficulties (e.g., shot-to-shot variability) associated with LPAs. Non destructiveness and high resolution (in space and time and energy) are key attributes that enable the formation of a comprehensive suite of simultaneous diagnostics which are necessary for the full characterization of the ultrashort, but highly-variable electron bunches from LPAs.

  10. Stability study for matching in laser driven plasma acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A. R.; Anania, M. P.; Bacci, A.; Belleveglia, M.; Bisesto, F. G.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Curcio, A.; Gallo, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Marocchino, A.; Massimo, F.; Mostacci, A.; Petrarca, M.; Pompili, R.; Serafini, L.; Tomassini, P.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.

    2016-09-01

    In a recent paper [14], a scheme for inserting and extracting high brightness electron beams to/from a plasma based acceleration stage was presented and proved to be effective with an ideal bi-Gaussian beam, as could be delivered by a conventional photo-injector. In this paper, we extend that study, assessing the method stability against some jitters in the properties of the injected beam. We find that the effects of jitters in Twiss parameters are not symmetric in results; we find a promising configuration that yields better performances than the setting proposed in [14]. Moreover we show and interpret what happens when the beam charge profiles are modified.

  11. The BErkeley Lab Laser Accelerator (BELLA): A 10 GeV Laser Plasma Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, W.P.; Duarte, R.; Esarey, E.; Fournier, S.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Lockhart, D.; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth, C.; Vay, J.-L.; Zimmermann, S.

    2010-06-01

    An overview is presented of the design of a 10 GeV laser plasma accelerator (LPA) that will be driven by a PW-class laser system and of the BELLA Project, which has as its primary goal to build and install the required Ti:sapphire laser system for the acceleration experiments. The basic design of the 10 GeV stage aims at operation in the quasi-linear regime, where the laser excited wakes are largely sinusoidal and offer the possibility of accelerating both electrons and positrons. Simulations show that a 10 GeV electron beam can be generated in a meter scale plasma channel guided LPA operating at a density of about 1017 cm-3 and powered by laser pulses containing 30-40 J of energy in a 50- 200 fs duration pulse, focused to a spotsize of 50-100 micron. The lay-out of the facility and laser system will be presented as well as the progress on building the facility.

  12. Precession dynamics of the relativistic electron spin in laser-plasma acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Pugacheva, D V; Andreev, N E

    2016-01-31

    A model is developed to study the precession dynamics of the relativistic electron spin in a laser-plasma accelerator versus the initial energy of the electron and its injection phase. Optimal parameters providing minimum depolarisation of the electron in the acceleration process are determined. (laser -plasma acceleration of electrons)

  13. Exchange interaction effects on waves in magnetized quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Trukhanova, Mariya Iv. Andreev, Pavel A.

    2015-02-15

    We have applied the many-particle quantum hydrodynamics that includes the Coulomb exchange interaction to magnetized quantum plasmas. We considered a number of wave phenomena that are affected by the Coulomb exchange interaction. Since the Coulomb exchange interaction affects the longitudinal and transverse-longitudinal waves, we focused our attention on the Langmuir waves, the Trivelpiece-Gould waves, the ion-acoustic waves in non-isothermal magnetized plasmas, the dispersion of the longitudinal low-frequency ion-acoustic waves, and low-frequency electromagnetic waves at T{sub e} ≫ T{sub i}. We have studied the dispersion of these waves and present the numeric simulation of their dispersion properties.

  14. Laser-plasma mirrors: from electron acceleration to harmonics generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thévenet, Maxence; Bocoum, Maïmouna; Faure, Jérôme; Leblanc, Adrien; Vincenti, Henri; Quéré, Fabien

    2016-10-01

    Accelerating electrons in the > 10 TV/m fields inside an ultrashort ultraintense laser pulse has been a long-standing goal in experimental physics, motivated by promising theoretical predictions. The biggest hurdle was to have electrons injected in the center of the laser pulse. Recent experimental and numerical results showed that this problem could be solved using a plasma mirror, i.e. an overdense plasma with a sharp (plasma mirrors, giving new insights into the motion of the plasma mirror surface. funded by the European Research Council, Contract No. 306708, ERC Starting Grant FEMTOELEC.

  15. Electromagnetic rogue waves in beam-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veldes, G. P.; Borhanian, J.; McKerr, M.; Saxena, V.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Kourakis, I.

    2013-06-01

    The occurrence of rogue waves (freak waves) associated with electromagnetic pulse propagation interacting with a plasma is investigated, from first principles. A multiscale technique is employed to solve the fluid Maxwell equations describing weakly nonlinear circularly polarized electromagnetic pulses in magnetized plasmas. A nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) type equation is shown to govern the amplitude of the vector potential. A set of non-stationary envelope solutions of the NLS equation are considered as potential candidates for the modeling of rogue waves (freak waves) in beam-plasma interactions, namely in the form of the Peregrine soliton, the Akhmediev breather and the Kuznetsov-Ma breather. The variation of the structural properties of the latter structures with relevant plasma parameters is investigated, in particular focusing on the ratio between the (magnetic field dependent) cyclotron (gyro-)frequency and the plasma frequency.

  16. Cross-Frequency Coupling of Plasma Waves in the Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazanov, G. V.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-particle and wave-wave interactions are crucial elements of magnetosphere and ionosphere plasma dynamics. Such interactions provide a channel of energy redistribution between different plasma populations, and lead to connections between physical processes developing on different spatial and temporal scales. The lower hybrid waves (LHWs) are particularly interesting for plasma dynamics, because they couple well with both electrons and ions. The excitation of LHWs is a widely discussed mechanism of interaction between plasma species in space and is one of the unresolved questions of magnetospheric multi-ion plasmas. It is demonstrated that large-amplitude Alfven and/or EMIC waves, in particular those associated with lower frequency (LF) turbulence, may generate LHWs in the auroral zone and ring current region and in some cases this serves as the Alfven and/or EMIC waves saturation mechanism. We believe that this described scenario, as well as some other cross-frequency coupling of plasma waves processes that will be discussed in this presentation, can play a vital role in various parts of the magnetospheric plasma, especially in the places under investigation by the NASA THEMIS and Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)) missions.

  17. Nonlocal theory of electromagnetic wave decay into two electromagnetic waves in a rippled density plasma channel

    SciTech Connect

    Sati, Priti; Tripathi, V. K.

    2012-12-15

    Parametric decay of a large amplitude electromagnetic wave into two electromagnetic modes in a rippled density plasma channel is investigated. The channel is taken to possess step density profile besides a density ripple of axial wave vector. The density ripple accounts for the momentum mismatch between the interacting waves and facilitates nonlinear coupling. For a given pump wave frequency, the requisite ripple wave number varies only a little w.r.t. the frequency of the low frequency decay wave. The radial localization of electromagnetic wave reduces the growth rate of the parametric instability. The growth rate decreases with the frequency of low frequency electromagnetic wave.

  18. Wave enhancement of electron runaway rate in a collisional plasma

    SciTech Connect

    An, Z.; Liu, C.; Lee, Y.; Boyd, D.

    1982-06-01

    The effects of plasma waves on the electron runaway production rate is studied. For a wave packet with a one-dimensional spectrum directed along the electric field and with a phase velocity range containing the critical velocity v/sub c/ for runaway, the runaway production rate is found to be enhanced by many orders of magnitude. For an isotropic wave spectrum, however, the runaway production rate is reduced because of the wave-enhanced pitch angle scattering.

  19. Nanoscale Electron Bunching in Laser-Triggered Ionization Injection in Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. L.; Pai, C.-H.; Zhang, C. J.; Li, F.; Wan, Y.; Wu, Y. P.; Hua, J. F.; Lu, W.; An, W.; Yu, P.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W. B.

    2016-07-01

    Ionization injection is attractive as a controllable injection scheme for generating high quality electron beams using plasma-based wakefield acceleration. Because of the phase-dependent tunneling ionization rate and the trapping dynamics within a nonlinear wake, the discrete injection of electrons within the wake is nonlinearly mapped to a discrete final phase space structure of the beam at the location where the electrons are trapped. This phenomenon is theoretically analyzed and examined by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations which show that three-dimensional effects limit the wave number of the modulation to between >2 k0 and about 5 k0, where k0 is the wave number of the injection laser. Such a nanoscale bunched beam can be diagnosed by and used to generate coherent transition radiation and may find use in generating high-power ultraviolet radiation upon passage through a resonant undulator.

  20. Nanoscale Electron Bunching in Laser-Triggered Ionization Injection in Plasma Accelerators.

    PubMed

    Xu, X L; Pai, C-H; Zhang, C J; Li, F; Wan, Y; Wu, Y P; Hua, J F; Lu, W; An, W; Yu, P; Joshi, C; Mori, W B

    2016-07-15

    Ionization injection is attractive as a controllable injection scheme for generating high quality electron beams using plasma-based wakefield acceleration. Because of the phase-dependent tunneling ionization rate and the trapping dynamics within a nonlinear wake, the discrete injection of electrons within the wake is nonlinearly mapped to a discrete final phase space structure of the beam at the location where the electrons are trapped. This phenomenon is theoretically analyzed and examined by three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations which show that three-dimensional effects limit the wave number of the modulation to between >2k_{0} and about 5k_{0}, where k_{0} is the wave number of the injection laser. Such a nanoscale bunched beam can be diagnosed by and used to generate coherent transition radiation and may find use in generating high-power ultraviolet radiation upon passage through a resonant undulator.

  1. Transition of electromagnetic wave by suddenly created magneto plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2017-02-01

    The theory of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with a suddenly created magneto plasma is presented. It is shown that a linearly polarized wave propagating along the magnetic field is converted into a frequency upshifted two forward and two backward propagating waves; in each propagation direction, one is right hand circular polarization and the other one is left hand circular polarization. A static wiggler magnetic field is also produced. The combined forward and backward waves are amplitude modulated with rotating polarizations. The extent of the frequency upshift increases with the increases of the plasma density and the background magnetic field intensity. By increasing the background magnetic field, the required plasma density for the frequency upshift is reduced; consequently, the drop rate of the conversion efficiency with the increase in the frequency upshift of the combined forward wave can be reduced considerably; the conversion efficiency of the combined backward wave also increases.

  2. Trajectories of electrons with large longitudinal momenta in the phase plane during surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtichyan, G. S.

    2015-07-15

    The trajectories of electrons with large longitudinal momenta in the phase plane in the course of their surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave propagating in space plasma across the external magnetic field are analyzed. Electrons with large longitudinal momenta are trapped immediately if the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory is positive. For negative values of Ψ(0), no electrons trapping by the wave is observed over the available computational times. According to numerical calculations, the trajectories of trapped particles in the phase plane have a singular point of the stable focus type and the behavior of the trajectory corresponds to the motion in a complex nonstationary effective potential well. For some initial phases, electrons are confined in the region of the accelerating electric field for relatively short time, the energy gain being about 50–130% and more.

  3. Effect of the laser wavefront in a laser-plasma accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernier, Aline; Beaurepaire, B.; Bocoum, M.; Böhle, F.; Jullien, A.; Rousseau, J.-P.; Lefrou, T.; Iaquaniello, G.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Lifschitz, A.; Faure, J.

    2015-11-01

    Laser-plasma accelerators are a promising alternative as they can currently provide short (down to a few fs), relativistic (from a few MeV up to a few GeV) electron beams over millimeter distances. In such devices, an intense laser pulse drives a plasma wave in which self-injected electrons can be accelerated. The quality, in terms of emittance, of such electron beams is known to strongly depend on the laser focal spot, but very little attention is generally given to the laser transverse distribution on either side of the focal plane. Our recent experimental results and PIC simulations quantify the role of the wavefront at the focus on the acceleration of eletrons: distortions of the laser wavefront cause spatial inhomogeneity of the out-of-focus laser intensity distribution and consequently, the laser pulse drives a transversely inhomogenous wakefield whose focusing/defocusing properties affect the electron distribution. We acknowledge support from the ERC (Contract No. 306708), and the ANR (ANR-11-EQPX-005-ATTOLAB).

  4. Solitary kinetic Alfven waves in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li Yangfang; Wu, D. J.; Morfill, G. E.

    2008-08-15

    Solitary kinetic Alfven waves in dusty plasmas are studied by considering the dust charge variation. The effect of the dust charge-to-mass ratio on the soliton solution is discussed. The Sagdeev potential is derived analytically with constant dust charge and then calculated numerically by taking the dust charge variation into account. We show that the dust charge-to-mass ratio plays an important role in the soliton properties. The soliton solutions are comprised of two branches. One branch is sub-Alfvenic and the soliton velocity is obviously smaller than the Alfven speed. The other branch is super-Alfvenic and the soliton velocity is very close to or greater than the Alfven speed. Both compressive and rarefactive solitons can exist. For the sub-Alfvenic branch, the rarefactive soliton is bell-shaped and it is much narrower than the compressive one. However, for the super-Alfvenic branch, the compressive soliton is bell-shaped and narrower, and the rarefactive one is broadened. When the charge-to-mass ratio of the dust grains is sufficiently high, the width of the rarefactive soliton, in the super-Alfvenic branch, will broaden extremely and a electron depletion will be observed. It is also shown that the bell-shaped soliton can transition to a cusped structure when the velocity is sufficiently high.

  5. Geotail MCA plasma wave data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Roger R.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG 5-2346 supports the data analysis effort at The University of Iowa for the GEOTAIL Multi-Channel Analyzer (MCA) which is a part of the GEOTAIL Plasma Wave Instrument (PWI). At the beginning of this reporting period we had just begun to receive our GEOTAIL Sirius data on CD-ROMs. Much programming effort went into adapting and refining the data analysis programs to include the CD-ROM inputs. Programs were also developed to display the high-frequency-resolution PWI Sweep Frequency Analyzer (SFA) data and to include in all the various plot products the electron cyclotron frequency derived from the magnitude of the magnetic field extracted from the GEOTAIL Magnetic Field (MGF) data included in the GEOTAIL Sirius data. We also developed programs to use the MGF data residing in the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) GEOTAIL Scientific Data Base (SDB). Our programmers also developed programs and provided technical support for the GEOTAIL data analysis efforts of Co-lnvestigator William W. L. Taylor at Nichols Research Corporation (NRC). At the end of this report we have included brief summaries of the NRC effort and the progress being made.

  6. Effects of Coulomb collisions on cyclotron maser and plasma wave growth in magnetic loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Russell J.; Petrosian, Vahe

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of nonthermal electrons accelerated in magnetic loops is determined by solving the kinetic equation, including magnetic field convergence and Coulomb collisions in order to determine the effects of these interactions on the induced cyclotron maser and plasma wave growth. It is found that the growth rates are larger and the possibility of cyclotron maser action is stronger for smaller loop column density, for larger magnetic field convergence, for a more isotropic injected electron pitch angle distribution, and for more impulsive acceleration. For modest values of the column density in the coronal portion of a flaring loop, the growth rates of instabilities are significantly reduced, and the reduction is much larger for the cyclotron modes than for the plasma wave modes. The rapid decrease in the growth rates with increasing loop column density suggests that, in flare loops when such phenomena occur, the densities are lower than commonly accepted.

  7. A novel laser ablation plasma thruster with electromagnetic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Daixian; Wu, Jianjun; He, Zhen; Zhang, Hua

    2016-10-01

    A novel laser ablation plasma thruster accelerated by electromagnetic means was proposed and investigated. The discharge characteristics and thrust performance were tested with different charged energy, structural parameters and propellants. The thrust performance was proven to be improved by electromagnetic acceleration. In contrast with the pure laser propulsion mode, the thrust performance in electromagnetic acceleration modes was much better. The effects of electrodes distance and the off-axis distance between ceramic tube and cathode were tested, and it's found that there were optimal structural parameters for achieving optimal thrust performance. It's indicated that the impulse bit and specific impulse increased with increasing charged energy. In our experiments, the thrust performance of the thruster was optimal in large charged energy modes. With the charged energy 25 J and the use of metal aluminum, a maximal impulse bit of 600 μNs, a specific impulse of approximate 8000 s and thrust efficiency of about 90% were obtained. For the PTFE propellant, a maximal impulse bit of about 350 μNs, a specific impulse of about 2400 s, and thrust efficiency of about 16% were obtained. Besides, the metal aluminum was proven to be the better propellant than PTFE for the thruster.

  8. Acceleration of plasma electrons by intense nonrelativistic ion and electron beams propagating in background plasma due to two-stream instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we study the effects of the two-stream instability on the propagation of intense nonrelativistic ion and electron beams in background plasma. Development of the two-stream instability between the beam ions and plasma electrons leads to beam breakup, a slowing down of the beam particles, acceleration of the plasma particles, and transfer of the beam energy to the plasma particles and wave excitations. Making use of the particle-in-cell codes EDIPIC and LSP, and analytic theory we have simulated the effects of the two-stream instability on beam propagation over a wide range of beam and plasma parameters. Because of the two-stream instability the plasma electrons can be accelerated to velocities as high as twice the beam velocity. The resulting return current of the accelerated electrons may completely change the structure of the beam self - magnetic field, thereby changing its effect on the beam from focusing to defocusing. Therefore, previous theories of beam self-electromagnetic fields that did not take into account the effects of the two-stream instability must be significantly modified. This effect can be observed on the National Drift Compression Experiment-II (NDCX-II) facility by measuring the spot size of the extracted beamlet propagating through several meters of plasma. Particle-in-cell, fluid simulations, and analytical theory also reveal the rich complexity of beam- plasma interaction phenomena: intermittency and multiple regimes of the two-stream instability in dc discharges; band structure of the growth rate of the two-stream instability of an electron beam propagating in a bounded plasma and repeated acceleration of electrons in a finite system. In collaboration with E. Tokluoglu, D. Sydorenko, E. A. Startsev, J. Carlsson, and R. C. Davidson. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Nonlinear effects associated with dispersive Alfvén waves in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.; Bingham, R.; Eliasson, B.

    2004-12-01

    Large amplitude Alfvén waves are frequently found in magnetized space and laboratory plasmas. Our objective here is to discuss the linear and nonlinear properties of dispersive Alfvén waves (DAWs) in a uniform magnetoplasma. We first consider finite frequency (ω/ωci) and ion gyroradius effects on inertial and kinetic Alfvén waves, where ωci is the ion gyrofrequency. Next, we focus on nonlinear effects caused by DAWs. Such effects include plasma density enhancement and depression by the Alfvén wave ponderomotive force, electron Joule heating by the thermal Alfvén wave force, the generation of zonal flows due to the shear Alfvén wave mode couplings as well as the formation of localized Alfvénic structures and Alfvénic vortices. The relevance of our investigation to the appearance of nonlinear Alfvén waves in the Earth's auroral acceleration region, in the solar corona and in the large plasma device at UCLA is discussed.

  10. Analytical and experimental investigation of the coaxial plasma gun for use as a particle accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shriver, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The coaxial plasma accelerator for use as a projectile accelerator is discussed. The accelerator is described physically and analytically by solution of circuit equations, and by solving for the magnetic pressures which are formed by the j cross B vector forces on the plasma. It is shown that the plasma density must be increased if the accelerator is to be used as a projectile accelerator. Three different approaches to increasing plasma density are discussed. When a magnetic field containment scheme was used to increase the plasma density, glass beads of 0.66 millimeter diameter were accelerated to 7 to 8 kilometers per second velocities. Glass beads of smaller diameter were accelerated to more than twice this velocity.

  11. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Through the ZR Z-Pinch Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.; Madrid, E. A.; Miller, C. L.; Clark, R. E.; Stygar, W. A.; Struve, K.; Corcoran, P. A.; Whitney, B.

    2009-01-21

    A fully three-dimensional electromagnetic model of the major pulsed power components of the 26-MA ZR accelerator is presented. This large-scale simulation model tracks the evolution of electromagnetic waves through the intermediate storage capacitors, laser-triggered gas switches, pulse-forming lines, water switches, tri-plate transmission lines, and water convolute to the vacuum insulator stack. The plates at the insulator stack are coupled to a transmission line circuit model of the four-level magnetically-insulated transmission line section and post-hole convolutes. The vacuum section circuit model is terminated by either a short-circuit load or dynamic models of imploding z-pinch loads. The simulations results are compared with electrical measurements made throughout the ZR accelerator and good agreement is found, especially for times before and up to peak load power. This modeling effort represents new opportunities for modeling existing and future large-scale pulsed power systems used in a variety of high energy density physics and radiographic applications.

  12. The ISPM unified radio and plasma wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. G.; Caldwell, J.; Deconchy, Y.; Deschanciaux, C.; Ebbett, R.; Epstein, G.; Groetz, K.; Harvey, C. C.; Hoang, S.; Howard, R.

    1983-01-01

    Hardware for the International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) Unified Radio and Plasma (URAP) wave experiment is presented. The URAP determines direction and polarization of distant radio sources for remote sensing of the heliosphere, and studies local wave phenomena which determine the transport coefficients of the ambient plasma. Electric and magnetic field antennas and preamplifiers; the electromagnetic compatibility plan and grounding; radio astronomy and plasma frequency receivers; a fast Fourier transformation data processing unit waveform analyzer; dc voltage measurements; a fast envelope sampler for the solar wind, and plasmas near Jupiter; a sounder; and a power converter are described.

  13. Visualization of Shock Wave Driven by Millimeter Wave Plasma in a Parabolic Thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Toshikazu; Shimada, Yutaka; Shiraishi, Yuya; Shibata, Teppei; Komurasaki, Kimiya; Oda, Yasuhisa; Kajiwara, Ken; Takahashi, Koji; Kasugai, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Keishi; Arakawa, Yoshihiro

    2010-05-06

    By focusing a high-power millimeter wave beam generated by a 170 GHz gyrotron, a breakdown occurred and a shock wave was driven by plasma heated by following microwave energy. The shock wave and the plasma around a focal point of a parabolic thruster were visualized by a shadowgraph method, and a transition of structures between the shock wave and the plasma was observed. There was a threshold local power density to make the transition, and the propagation velocity at the transition was around 800 m/s.

  14. Hybrid Model of Inhomogeneous Solar Wind Plasma Heating by Alfven Wave Spectrum: Parametric Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, L.

    2010-01-01

    Observations of the solar wind plasma at 0.3 AU and beyond show that a turbulent spectrum of magnetic fluctuations is present. Remote sensing observations of the corona indicate that heavy ions are hotter than protons and their temperature is anisotropic (T(sub perpindicular / T(sub parallel) >> 1). We study the heating and the acceleration of multi-ion plasma in the solar wind by a turbulent spectrum of Alfvenic fluctuations using a 2-D hybrid numerical model. In the hybrid model the protons and heavy ions are treated kinetically as particles, while the electrons are included as neutralizing background fluid. This is the first two-dimensional hybrid parametric study of the solar wind plasma that includes an input turbulent wave spectrum guided by observation with inhomogeneous background density. We also investigate the effects of He++ ion beams in the inhomogeneous background plasma density on the heating of the solar wind plasma. The 2-D hybrid model treats parallel and oblique waves, together with cross-field inhomogeneity, self-consistently. We investigate the parametric dependence of the perpendicular heating, and the temperature anisotropy in the H+-He++ solar wind plasma. It was found that the scaling of the magnetic fluctuations power spectrum steepens in the higher-density regions, and the heating is channeled to these regions from the surrounding lower-density plasma due to wave refraction. The model parameters are applicable to the expected solar wind conditions at about 10 solar radii.

  15. Freak waves in negative-ion plasmas: an experiment revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourakis, Ioannis; Elkamash, Ibrahem; Reville, Brian

    2016-10-01

    Extreme events in the form of rogue waves (freak waves) occur widely in the open sea. These are space- and time-localised excitations, which appear unexpectedly and are characterised by a significant amplitude. Beyond ocean dynamics, the mechanisms underlying rogue wave formation are now being investigated in various physical contexts, including materials science, nonlinear optics and plasma physics, to mention but a few. We have undertaken an investigation, from first principles, of the occurrence of rogue waves associated with the propagation of electrostatic wavepackets in plasmas. Motivated by recent experimental considerations involving freak waves in negative-ion plasmas (NIP), we have addresed the occurrence of freak waves in NIP from first principles. An extended range of plasma parameter values was identified, where freak wave formation is possible, in terms of relevant plasma parameters. Our results extend -and partly contradict- the underlying assumptions in the interpretation of the aforementioned experiment, where a critical plasma configuration was considered and a Gardner equation approach was adopted. This work was supported from CPP/QUB funding. One of us (I. Elkamash) acknowledges financial support by an Egyptian Government fellowship.

  16. Synergy Between Experiments and Simulations in Laser and Beam-Driven Plasma Acceleration and Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Warren B.

    2015-11-01

    Computer simulations have been an integral part of plasma physics research since the early 1960s. Initially, they provided the ability to confirm and test linear and nonlinear theories in one-dimension. As simulation capabilities and computational power improved, then simulations were also used to test new ideas and applications of plasmas in multi-dimensions. As progress continued, simulations were also used to model experiments. Today computer simulations of plasmas are ubiquitously used to test new theories, understand complicated nonlinear phenomenon, model the full temporal and spatial scale of experiments, simulate parameters beyond the reach of current experiments, and test the performance of new devices before large capital expenditures are made to build them. In this talk I review the progress in simulations in a particular area of plasma physics: plasma based acceleration (PBA). In PBA a short laser pulse or particle beam propagates through long regions of plasma creating plasma wave wakefields on which electrons or positrons surf to high energies. In some cases the wakefields are highly nonlinear, involve three-dimensional effects, and the trajectories of plasma particles cross making it essential that fully kinetic and three-dimensional models are used. I will show how particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations were initially used to propose the basic idea of PBA in one dimension. I will review some of the dramatic progress in the experimental demonstration of PBA and show how this progress was dramatically helped by a synergy between experiments and full-scale multi-dimensional PIC simulations. This will include a review of how the capability of PIC simulation tools has improved. I will also touch on some recent progress on improvements to PIC simulations of PBA and discuss how these improvements may push the synergy further towards real time steering of experiments and start to end modeling of key components of a future linear collider or XFEL based on PBA

  17. On the generation of plasma waves in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, D. D.; Kurth, W. S.

    1993-06-01

    Voyager 1 plasma wave measurements of Saturn's inner magnetosphere are reviewed with regard to interpretative aspects of the wave spectrum. A comparison of the wave emission profile with the electron plasma frequency obtained from in situ measurements of the thermal ion density shows good agreement with various features in the wave data identified as electrostatic modes and electromagnetic radio waves. Theoretical calculations of the critical flux of superthermal electrons able to generate whistler-mode waves and electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves through a loss-cone instability are presented. The comparison of model results with electron measurements shows excellent agreement, thereby lending support to the conclusion that a moderate perpendicular anisotropy in the hot electron distribution is present in the equatorial region of L = 5-8.

  18. MAGNETOACOUSTIC WAVES IN A PARTIALLY IONIZED TWO-FLUID PLASMA

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis; Carbonell, Marc E-mail: joseluis.ballester@uib.es

    2013-11-01

    Compressible disturbances propagate in a plasma in the form of magnetoacoustic waves driven by both gas pressure and magnetic forces. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of ionized and neutral species are coupled due to ion-neutral collisions. As a consequence, magnetoacoustic waves propagating through a partially ionized medium are affected by ion-neutral coupling. The degree to which the behavior of the classic waves is modified depends on the physical properties of the various species and on the relative value of the wave frequency compared to the ion-neutral collision frequency. Here, we perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma using the two-fluid formalism. We consider an extensive range of values for the collision frequency, ionization ratio, and plasma β, so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. We determine the modification of the wave frequencies and study the frictional damping due to ion-neutral collisions. Approximate analytic expressions for the frequencies are given in the limit case of strongly coupled ions and neutrals, while numerically obtained dispersion diagrams are provided for arbitrary collision frequencies. In addition, we discuss the presence of cutoffs in the dispersion diagrams that constrain wave propagation for certain combinations of parameters. A specific application to propagation of compressible waves in the solar chromosphere is given.

  19. Surface Waves and Landau Resonant Heating in Unmagnetized Bounded Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, Kevin

    2001-10-01

    Owing to the large areas and high plasma densities found in some recently developed devices [1], electrostatic theories of plasma resonances and surface wave [2-3] propagation in such devices are suspect as the size of the device is much larger than the free space wavelength associated with the peak plasma frequency. Accordingly, an electromagnetic model of surface wave propagation has been developed appropriate for large area plasmas. The predicted wave dispersion of the two models differs for extremely long wavelengths but is degenerate in devices small compared with wavelength. First principles particle-in-cell simulations using new techniques developed for the demanding simulation regime have been conducted which support these results. Given the slow wave character and boundary localized fields of surface waves, a periodic electrode may be used to resonantly excite a strong wave-particle interaction between surface waves and electrons. At saturation, the electron velocity distribution is enhanced above the phase velocity of the applied wave and suppressed below. The use of this technique (``Landau resonant heating'') to selectively heat the electron high energy tail to enhance electron-impact ionization is demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulation. [1] Matsumoto (Sumitomo Metal Industries). Private Communication. July 1999. [2] Nickel, Parker, Gould. Phys. Fluids. 7:1489. 1964. [3] Cooperberg. Phys. Plasmas. Vol. 5, No. 4, April 1998.

  20. An introduction to acceleration mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    This paper discusses the acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic fields, i.e., by fields that are produced by the motion of other charged particles driven by some power source. The mechanisms that are discussed include: Ponderamotive Forces, Acceleration, Plasma Beat Wave Acceleration, Inverse Free Electron Laser Acceleration, Inverse Cerenkov Acceleration, Gravity Acceleration, 2D Linac Acceleration and Conventional Iris Loaded Linac Structure Acceleration. (LSP)